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Sample records for cambridge anatomical teaching

  1. Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 3. The Cambridge Structural Database System: Information Content and Access Software in Educational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    Parts 1 and 2 of this series described the educational value of experimental three-dimensional (3D) chemical structures determined by X-ray crystallography and retrieved from the crystallographic databases. In part 1, we described the information content of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and discussed a representative teaching subset of…

  2. Applicability of the Calgary-Cambridge Guide to Dog and Cat Owners for Teaching Veterinary Clinical Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englar, Ryane E; Williams, Melanie; Weingand, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication in health care benefits patients. Medical and veterinary schools not only have a responsibility to teach communication skills, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Council on Education (COE) requires that communication be taught in all accredited colleges of veterinary medicine. However, the best strategy for designing a communications curriculum is unclear. The Calgary-Cambridge Guide (CCG) is one of many models developed in human medicine as an evidence-based approach to structuring the clinical consultation through 71 communication skills. The model has been revised by Radford et al. (2006) for use in veterinary curricula; however, the best approach for veterinary educators to teach communication remains to be determined. This qualitative study investigated if one adaptation of the CCG currently taught at Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) fulfills client expectations of what constitutes clinically effective communication. Two focus groups (cat owners and dog owners) were conducted with a total of 13 participants to identify common themes in veterinary communication. Participants compared communication skills they valued to those taught by MWU CVM. The results indicated that while the CCG skills that MWU CVM adopted are applicable to cat and dog owners, they are not comprehensive. Participants expressed the need to expand the skillset to include compassionate transparency and unconditional positive regard. Participants also expressed different communication needs that were attributed to the species of companion animal owned.

  3. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  4. Cambridge IGCSE English first language

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2013-01-01

    Revised edition for the 2015 syllabus to help your students prepare for their examination and enhance their enjoyment of English. This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE First Language English (0500 and 0522) syllabuses, for first teaching from 2013. ? Develops the skills necessary to become a better reader and writer. ? Offers detailed advice and preparation for the examination. ? Teaches skills for successful writing of essays and coursework assignment. We are working with Cambridge International Examinations to gain endorsement for this title.

  5. Adaptation of Museum Specimens for Use in Anatomical Teaching Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Color transparencies are prepared of a re-colored anatomical specimen after placing labels temporarily in position to indicate specific structures. The specimen is also radiographed to show skeletal and soft tissue structures. Cross-reference among the specimen, photographs, and radiographs is supplemented by examination and self-assessment…

  6. Simultaneous anatomical sketching as learning by doing method of teaching human anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Noorafshan, Ali; Hoseini, Leila; AMINI, MITRA; Dehghani, Mohammad-Reza; Kojuri, Javad; Bazrafkan, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Learning by lecture is a passive experience. Many innovative techniques have been presented to stimulate students to assume a more active attitude toward learning. In this study, simultaneous sketch drawing, as an interactive learning technique was applied to teach anatomy to the medical students. Materials and Methods: We reconstructed a fun interactive model of teaching anatomy as simultaneous anatomic sketching. To test the model's instruction effectiveness, we conducted a quasi...

  7. A "Second Life" for Gross Anatomy: Applications for Multiuser Virtual Environments in Teaching the Anatomical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Challman, Sandra D.; Morgenstein, Aaron M.; Brueckner, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the emerging role of educational multiuser virtual environments, specifically Second Life[TM], in anatomical sciences education. Virtual worlds promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, potentially making them applicable for teaching and learning gross anatomy. A short introduction to Second Life as an…

  8. The Calgary-Cambridge Referenced Observation Guides: an aid to defining the curriculum and organizing the teaching in communication training programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, S M; Silverman, J D

    1996-03-01

    Effective communication between doctor and patient is a core clinical skill. It is increasingly recognized that it should and can be taught with the same rigour as other basic medical sciences. To validate this teaching, it is important to define the content of communication training programmes by stating clearly what is to be learnt. We therefore describe a practical teaching tool, the Calgary-Cambridge Referenced Observation Guides, that delineates and structures the skills which aid doctor-patient communication. We provide detailed references to substantiate the research and theoretical basis of these individual skills. The guides form the foundation of a sound communication curriculum and are offered as a starting point for programme directors, facilitators and learners at all levels. We describe how these guides can also be used on an everyday basis to help facilitators teach and students learn within the experiential methodology that has been shown to be central to communication training. The learner-centred and opportunistic approach used in communication teaching makes it difficult for learners to piece together their evolving understanding of communication. The guides give practical help in countering this problem by providing: an easily accessible aide-mémoire; a recording instrument that makes feedback more systematic; and an overall conceptual framework within which to organize the numerous skills that are discovered one by one as the communication curriculum unfolds. PMID:8736242

  9. Philosophy at Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    Lecky-Thompson, Jenni

    2012-01-01

    Newsletter of the Philosophy Faculty. Articles by: Simon Blackburn, 'From the Chair' ; Nick Treanor, 'Inaugural lecture: What is distinctive about human thought?' ; Clare Chambers, 'Political Philosophy at Cambridge' ; Alexis Papazoglou,'Aspects of philosophy at Cambridge' ; Peter Smith, 'Principia at 100' ; Nigel Crisp, 'Turning the World Upside Down' ; Cain Todd, 'Fiction, Emotion, Imagination'; Fraser MacBride, 'Philosophy, St John's, Cambridge, 1986.'

  10. Fabrication and Assessment of 3D Printed Anatomical Models of the Lower Limb for Anatomical Teaching and Femoral Vessel Access Training in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michael K.; Reese, Sven; Herlihy, Therese; Geoghegan, Tony; Cantwell, Colin P.; Feeney, Robin N. M.; Jones, James F. X.

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, cadaveric dissection has been the touchstone of anatomy education. It offers a medical student intimate access to his or her first patient. In contrast to idealized artisan anatomical models, it presents the natural variation of anatomy in fine detail. However, a new teaching construct has appeared recently in which artificial…

  11. Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Meteorological and Environmental Research has been included by Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA) since 2011. CSA is a retrieval system published by Cambridge Information Group. CSA was founded in the late 1950's,and became part of the CIG family in 1971. CSA's original mission was publishing secondary source materials relating to the physical sciences. Completely

  12. Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Meteorological and Environmental Research has been included by Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA) since 2011. CSA is a retrieval system published by Cambridge Information Group. CSA was founded in the late 1950’s,and became part of the CIG family in 1971. CSA’s original mission was publishing secondary source materials relating to the physical sciences. Completely

  13. The University of Cambridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭大任

    2007-01-01

    The University of Cambridge was founded in 1209,just a few decades after Oxford University,making it the second oldest university in the English-speaking world.Like“the other place”, the university is made up of 31 colleges and more than 100 departments,catering for around 15,500 students.Cambridge has a worldwide reputation for outstanding

  14. Cambridge IGCSE mathematics core and extended

    CERN Document Server

    Pimentel, Ric

    2013-01-01

    The most cost effective and straightforward way to teach the revised syllabus, with all the core and extended content covered by a single book and accompanying free digital resources.  . This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE Mathematics (0580) syllabus, for first teaching from 2013.  . ·         Gives students the practice they require to deepen their understanding through plenty of questions. ·         Consolidates learning with unique digital resources on the CD, included free with every Student's Book.  . We are working with Cambridge International Examinations to gain

  15. Students perception about the clinico-anatomical conferences as a teaching methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anatomy has always been considered as an essential basis for clinical sciences. In recent decades there has been an increased trend towards incorporation of clinical problems in the teaching of anatomy. To promote clinical knowledge clinico-anatomical conferences have been conducted in our department for the last five years. This study has been undertaken to determine perception of medical students regarding these conferences and to formulate recommendations for their improvement based on feedback obtained from students. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2013 to January 2014 at the Lahore Medical and Dental College (LMDC), Lahore. A sample of 200 students of first and second year MBBS classes was selected for the study through convenience sampling technique. A 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree) was used to determine students perception about clinic-anatomical conferences, using a self-administered questionnaire. Data was analysed using SPSS-19.0. Results: Out of total 144 (72%) students were of the opinion that clinico-anatomical conferences were a good source of clinical knowledge, 126 (63%) opined that these conferences promoted understanding rather than memorization, 122 (61%) found them interesting, and 15 (30%) found improvement in their grades in the subject of anatomy after attending the conferences. Conclusion: The clinico-anatomical conferences were found interesting and reported to be a good source of clinical knowledge. It is recommended that these conferences should be conducted frequently, made interactive and patients should be presented as case studies during the conferences. (author)

  16. OCR Cambridge nationals in ICT student book

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, Sonia; Cushing, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Written by experts and in partnership with OCR, the brand-new OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Student's Book provides invaluable guidance for your teaching of the OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Level 1/2 . This textbook covers the mandatory Units 1 and 2 in detail, offering your students the knowledge and practice they require. Unit 1 - Understanding Computer Systems.; Coverage of use of applications and systems.; Case studies of how they are used for different purposes.; Exam style questions and guidance. Unit 2 - Using ICT to Create Business Solutions.; Coverage of the principles of use of re

  17. Get Beyond Cambridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛竹晨

    2003-01-01

    In the past month I have been buried in my coursework- preparation of dis(学位论文) and studying for the exams. Spring is the most beautiful season at Cambridge. Yet it is also the quietest season for most of the undergraduate and master students. The imminent(即将到来的)exams and deadline for the submission (提交,呈递) of dissertation have dragged us back into the rooms and

  18. Cambridge IGCSE computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Dave; Konrad, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Endorsed by Cambridge International Examinations. Develop your students computational thinking and programming skills with complete coverage of the latest syllabus (0478) from experienced examiners and teachers. - Includes a Student CD-ROM with interactive tests, based on the short answer questions from both papers - Follows the order of the syllabus exactly, ensuring complete coverage - Introduces students to self-learning exercises, helping them learn how to use their knowledge in new scenarios This syllabus is for first examination from 2015.

  19. Cambridge IGCSE english as a second language

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2014-01-01

    Revised edition for the 2015 syllabus offering the easiest and most cost effective way to teach both the speaking and listening components with one set of books covering two years and free digital material. This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE English as a Second Language (0510 and 0511) syllabuses, for first teaching from 2013. ? Prepares students for their exams with a focus on assessed language features, such as inference, opinion and attitude. ? Develops language abilities at an appropriate pace with extra interactive tests on a free CD-ROM. We are working with Cambr

  20. International Commercial Contracts, by Giuditta Cordero Moss. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713......Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713...

  1. The Study on Oral Teaching Mode of Cambridge Business English Based on the Theory of Constructivism%建构主义理论下剑桥商务英语口语教学模式探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵协

    2015-01-01

    基于大部分高职学生“哑巴英语”的现状,本文以建构主义理论为理论依据,以商务英语专业学生为考察对象,根据《剑桥商务英语》教材内容创设情境,采用协作式学习进行英语口语教学方法的尝试,通过调查问卷、访谈等方式了解学生口语表达的困惑,分析并解决口语教学的问题。%Based on the majority of college students"dumb English"status, using the constructivism theory as the theoretical basis, taking business English major students as the research object, the paper creates teaching situations according to the Cambridge Business English textbooks, using cooperative learning to English teaching methods. The aim is to understand students' oral expression confusion and ana-lyze and solve the teaching problems through questionnaires, interviews.

  2. Reflections on Cambridge: Coffee shops and great ideas in Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan.

    2012-01-01

    Alan Macfarlane reflects on the role of coffee shops in the development of scientific and computing theories in Cambridge - particularly string theory and probabalistic information retrieval systems. Filmed by Xu Bei in 2009.

  3. The Cambridge Structural Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Colin R; Bruno, Ian J; Lightfoot, Matthew P; Ward, Suzanna C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal-organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface.

  4. The Cambridge Structural Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Colin R; Bruno, Ian J; Lightfoot, Matthew P; Ward, Suzanna C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal-organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface. PMID:27048719

  5. The Cambridge Experimentation Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Reproduced is the report made by a citizens' group in Cambridge, Massachusetts and presented to the city council that outlines safety regulations for the conduct of recombinant DNA research at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (CS)

  6. An appraisal of innovation in practical teaching in anatomic pathology - A students’ and teachers’ perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wader, Jyotsna V.; Kumbhar, Sujata S.; Deepti V. Mankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Traditional pathology teaching is teacher-centred with an emphasis on acquiring theoretical knowledge. We, at the Department of Pathology, KIMSU introduced a new practical teaching methodology-“active learning” with emphasis on clinico-pathological correlation-for II year M.B.B.S. students to make pathology learning easy, interactive and clinically relevant. Objective: To evaluate student and tutor perception of the new practical teaching approach introduced in the Department of P...

  7. The Production of Anatomical Teaching Resources Using Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Paul G.; Quayle, Michelle R.; McHenry, Colin R.; Adams, Justin W.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of anatomy has consistently been the subject of societal controversy, especially in the context of employing cadaveric materials in professional medical and allied health professional training. The reduction in dissection-based teaching in medical and allied health professional training programs has been in part due to the financial…

  8. Data sharing at the University of Cambridge - open presentation for Cambridge academics, students and research staff

    OpenAIRE

    Teperek, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Presentation about research data sharing at the University of Cambridge given by Dr Marta Teperek on 20 January at central Cambridge, University of Cambridge. Presenation was open to all academics, research students and staff members.

  9. Cambridge IGCSE physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennett, Heather; Konrad, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The bestselling title, developed by International experts - now updated to offer comprehensive coverage of the core and extended topics in the latest syllabus. - Includes a student's CD-ROM featuring interactive tests and practice for all examination papers- Covers the core and supplement sections of the updated syllabus- Supported by the most comprehensive range of additional material, including Teacher Resources, Laboratory Books, Practice Books and Revision Guides- Written by renowned, expert authors with vast experience of teaching and examining international qualifications We are working

  10. [BOOSTING CITIZENS'AWARENESS: THE ANATOMICAL COLLECTIONS FOR TEACHING PAST AND PRESENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannozzi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of eight museums of the University Museum System of the University of Siena for years has been that of annually offering to Siena schools a course of learning on the themes of science. The learning workshop is articulated in a frontal lesson, followed by a visit of the class in the proponent museum to better expound the chosen theme by the teacher. The fundamental role for such a didactic proposal is sustained by the conserved collections in the museum, used in the past to facilitate the university professor in their lessons, and that continue to show a strong didactic value helping the young student to "enter" in a captivating and easy manner into the world of science. In particular, the Anatomical Museum "L. Comparini" has now organized for some years a course of learning using historical instruments, models in terracotta and wax, plastinates, and tables that consent the operator to confront, with young children, the theme of the history of anatomy and the ways and means for research, formation, and the distribution of the anatomical sciences.

  11. Cambridge checkpoint English workbook 1

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2013-01-01

    This Workbook supports our bestselling Checkpoint English series, with exercises specifically matched to the Cambridge Progression tests and the Checkpoint English tests. - Offers plenty of additional questions for use in class or as homework. - Includes clearly identified questions on grammar and punctuation, comprehension, use of language and essay planning. - Follows the structure of the relevant textbook to ensure a thorough understanding of all aspects of the course. - Provides a space for Students to write their answers. This Workbook is matched to the Cambridge Secondary 1 Curriculum Fr

  12. An appraisal of innovation in practical teaching in anatomic pathology - A students’ and teachers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna V. Wader

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional pathology teaching is teacher-centred with an emphasis on acquiring theoretical knowledge. We, at the Department of Pathology, KIMSU introduced a new practical teaching methodology-“active learning” with emphasis on clinico-pathological correlation-for II year M.B.B.S. students to make pathology learning easy, interactive and clinically relevant. Objective: To evaluate student and tutor perception of the new practical teaching approach introduced in the Department of Pathology, KIMSU for II year M.B.B.S. students by analyzing responses to Likert-scale based standardized questionnaires. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was undertaken in the Department of Pathology, KIMSU in January 2013 among a sample population of 120 students of II M.B.B.S. (2011 batch and 08 tutors (Pathology post-graduate residents who anonymously graded their approval/disapproval for 17 parameters on a structured Likert scale. Data collected was analysed and results recorded.Conclusion:The survey indicated that there were both encouraging aspects- namely, use of audio-visual aids and A4-sized photomicrographs of practical slides, pre-practical briefings, formation of smaller groups for practicals-which were appreciated; and others-namely, the materials/equipment used in teaching and time management during practicals - that need more efforts from both teachers and students to achieve the objective of learning pathology.

  13. 33 CFR 117.549 - Cambridge Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cambridge Harbor. 117.549 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.549 Cambridge Harbor. The draw of the S342 bridge, mile 0.1 at Cambridge, shall open on signal from 6 a.m. to 8 p.m.; except that, from...

  14. The Cambridge Infectious Diseases Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, James

    2010-01-01

    The Cambridge Infectious Diseases Consortium (CIDC) was established to provide a multi-institutional, world class quality environment for infectious disease research addressing important questions and for the recruitment and training of high quality veterinarians into careers in infectious disease research. The programme has been a demonstrable success in achieving these overall aims. The institutions that have played a key role in the consortium include the Department of Veterinary Medic...

  15. Cambridge checkpoint English workbook 2

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2014-01-01

    Build confidence and understanding throughout the year with hundreds of additional practice questions. This Workbook supports our bestselling Checkpoint series, with exercises specifically matched to the Cambridge Progression tests and the Checkpoint tests. - Develops understanding and builds confidence ahead of assessment with exercises matched to the tests - Ensures a thorough understanding of all aspects of the course by following the structure of the relevant textbook - Saves planning time with exercises that are suitable for use in class or as homework This Workbook is

  16. Cambridge checkpoint English workbook 3

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2014-01-01

    Build confidence and understanding throughout the year with hundreds of additional practice questions. This Workbook supports our bestselling Checkpoint series, with exercises specifically matched to the Cambridge Progression tests and the Checkpoint tests. - Develops understanding and builds confidence ahead of assessment with exercises matched to the tests - Ensures a thorough understanding of all aspects of the course by following the structure of the relevant textbook - Saves planning time with exercises that are suitable for use in class or as homework This Workbook is

  17. The Cambridge MRI database for animal models of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawiak, Stephen J; Morton, A Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    We describe the Cambridge animal brain magnetic resonance imaging repository comprising 400 datasets to date from mouse models of Huntington disease. The data include raw images as well as segmented grey and white matter images with maps of cortical thickness. All images and phenotypic data for each subject are freely-available without restriction from (http://www.dspace.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/243361/). Software and anatomical population templates optimised for animal brain analysis with MRI are also available from this site.

  18. Honorary Degree Congregation in Cambridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One day in mid-June 2006 when I was on a visit to the Countryside Restoration Trust at Barton near Cambridge, Mr. Christopher Stevenson, the director of Program of Events for Newcomers & Academic Visitors, gave me a letter enclosing a notice and a ticket I booked nearly two months earlier. He told me that I was very lucky because a strictly limited number of tickets had been allocated to academic visitors. It was a ticket to admit me to the Honorary Degree Congregation and to the reception afterwards on Tuesday 27 June.

  19. Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in chemical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M; Ferrence, Gregory M; Allen, Frank H

    2010-10-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is a vast and ever growing compendium of accurate three-dimensional structures that has massive chemical diversity across organic and metal-organic compounds. For these reasons, the CSD is finding significant uses in chemical education, and these applications are reviewed. As part of the teaching initiative of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a teaching subset of more than 500 CSD structures has been created that illustrate key chemical concepts, and a number of teaching modules have been devised that make use of this subset in a teaching environment. All of this material is freely available from the CCDC website, and the subset can be freely viewed and interrogated using WebCSD, an internet application for searching and displaying CSD information content. In some cases, however, the complete CSD System is required for specific educational applications, and some examples of these more extensive teaching modules are also discussed. The educational value of visualizing real three-dimensional structures, and of handling real experimental results, is stressed throughout.

  20. Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in chemical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M; Ferrence, Gregory M; Allen, Frank H

    2010-10-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is a vast and ever growing compendium of accurate three-dimensional structures that has massive chemical diversity across organic and metal-organic compounds. For these reasons, the CSD is finding significant uses in chemical education, and these applications are reviewed. As part of the teaching initiative of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a teaching subset of more than 500 CSD structures has been created that illustrate key chemical concepts, and a number of teaching modules have been devised that make use of this subset in a teaching environment. All of this material is freely available from the CCDC website, and the subset can be freely viewed and interrogated using WebCSD, an internet application for searching and displaying CSD information content. In some cases, however, the complete CSD System is required for specific educational applications, and some examples of these more extensive teaching modules are also discussed. The educational value of visualizing real three-dimensional structures, and of handling real experimental results, is stressed throughout. PMID:20877495

  1. The Comparison of Learning Radiographic Extraoral Anatomic Landmarks through Lecture and blended method(Computer-Assisted teaching and Lecture:An interventional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T ahmine Razi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the main problems in learning extraoral radiographic anatomic indexes is the long interval between presentation of radiology and human anatomy courses, resulting in forgetting anatomic regions. Therefore, radiographic indexes are formed as complete abstract and transient images in students’ minds; as a result, their learning and retention decrease. The aim of this study was to compare lecture with combination of computer-assisted learning and lecture of extra-oral radiographic landmarks among dental students. Methods: This interventional study was carried out in 2009 on 51 dental students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Students were randomly allocated into two groups. The first group was taught through a teaching method which involved lectures in the classroom. In the second group, a CD was given to the students. The teaching was accomplished through presentation using skull. Six months after finishing the teaching, both groups took a similar test for evaluation of long term learning. The data was analyzed by SPSS 16 using U Mann-Whitney test. Results: There was no significant differences in the mean scores between the two groups in the first exam after teaching (P=0.13, yet it was significant in the second exam (regarding retention (P=0.006, and average of non-traditional teaching method group (20.89±10.23 was higher than that of lecture group (13.48±6.39. Conclusion: Based on the results, non-traditional technique of teaching was not more effective than the lecture in short-term learning but in longterm learning, non-traditional technique was more effective than the lecture.

  2. Michael Byers, International Law and the Arctic (Cambridge: Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative law, Cambridge University Press, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael L. Johnstone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of: Michael Byers, International Law and the Arctic, Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative law, Cambridge University Press, 2013. pp. 314 + xviii, 65.00 GBP (hardcover; 16.56GBP (kindle edition ISBN: 9781107042759 ISBN: 9781107042759

  3. A Brief Discussion on How to Infiltrate Task-based Teac-hing Approach in "BEC Cambridge Business English"%浅谈如何在“BEC剑桥商务英语”中渗透任务型教学法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琴

    2014-01-01

    The task-based teaching approach, as a currently common teaching means for BEC Cambridge Business English, is of significant value of application and operation. Besides, the task-based teaching approach is also a means of communicative language teaching, based on abundant theoretical knowledge, so it is also a topic actively studied by many authorities. In this pa-per, the writer elaborated from the characteristics of BEC Cam-bridge Business English, and analyzed the functionality and pos-sibility of the task-based teaching approach, thus constructing the main model for the application of the approach, hoping to provide a reliable reference for all colleagues.%任务型教学法是目前BEC剑桥商务英语的常用教学手法,具有良好的应用价值和操作价值。此外,任务型教学法还是交际式语言教学的手段之一,不仅具有丰富的理论基础,同时还是目前众多权威人士所积极钻研的课题之一。本次论文撰述,笔者主要围绕BEC剑桥商务英语的特点,分析了任务型教学法的诸多功能,从而构建出任务型教学法的主要应用模式,以此为领域同行提供可靠参考。

  4. Trial access to Cambridge University Press ebooks

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2011-01-01

    From 1 August till 31 October, CERN users are invited to enjoy a trial access to all Cambridge University Press electronic books: http://ebooks.cambridge.org/. Please don't hesitate to send feedback to library.desk@cern.ch.

  5. NewsMars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Mars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

  6. 牙体解剖学实习教学改革初探%The preliminary implementation of the teaching reforms in the dental anatomic practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建彰; 王磊; 朱明太; 张丽君

    2010-01-01

    本文初步探讨了牙体解剖学实习教学的方法及其效果.通过引导思考、"强调目的"的教学方式,使学生由浅入深地积极思考各种操作目的、各种牙体解剖结构的作用,以及这些结构是如何与生理功能相互作用而实现其功能的,使学生养成"知其然更知其所以然"的习惯.这样,既有助于学生更加深入地理解牙体解剖结构的特点和作用,又能够将学生所掌握的解剖学理论知识引向口腔生理学等学科,初步建立口腔医学的学习思路.结果表明,上述教学方法的改革提高了教学质量,其效果得到了学生的肯定.%This article discussed the teaching methods and its effects of the dental anatomic practice. Through questions, stressing objective, students acquired the main points of the dental anatomic practice, and got deeply knowledge of physiological functions of the dental anatomy. The students mastered this subject quite fast and easy. The most important, they could get natural transition to the study of the oral physiology et al. Based upon above teaching reform, teaching effects were appraised by the students,and teaching quality was improved.

  7. 医学人文教育融入人体解剖学教学的思考%Thought on anatomical teaching combining with medical humanities education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟震亚; 田国忠; 李艳君; 扈清云; 赵振富; 杨宇

    2009-01-01

    本文分析了当前人体解剖学教学过程中的"医学人文缺乏症";指出人体解剖学与医学人文学源远流长、互促共荣,人体形态就是解剖学与艺术的高度统一,人体解剖学不仅是医学生的入门课程,也是医学人文精神教育的课堂,人体解剖学教学有机地融入医学人文教育势在必行;并就融入式医学人文教育的内容进行了探讨.%In this paper the poverty of medical humanities in current anatomical teaching was analyzed.There wag a long history for anatomy and medical humanities to promote mutually and develop in common.The configuration of human body is the hish unity of anatomy and art.Anatomy was not only the first academic course but also the basis of medical humanities education for medical students,thus it was imperative to combine the anatomical teaching course with the medical humanities education organically and the contents of the education were also discussed.

  8. Cambridge checkpoint English revision guide for the Cambridge secondary 1 test

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2013-01-01

    With Checkpoint English Revision Guide for the Cambridge Secondary 1 test you can aim for the best grade with the help of relevant and accessible notes, examiner advice plus questions and answers on each key topic. - Clear explanations of every topic covered in the Cambridge Secondary 1 Checkpoint English syllabus. - Builds revision skills you need for success in the test. - Exam tips wirtten by test setters and examiners giving you their expert advice. This text has not been through the Cambridge endorsement process.

  9. Cambridge checkpoint maths revision guide for the Cambridge secondary 1 test

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Alan

    2013-01-01

    With Checkpoint Maths Revision Guide for the Cambridge Secondary 1 test you can aim for the best grade with the help of relevant and accessible notes, examiner advice plus questions and answers on each key topic. - Clear explanations of every topic covered in the Cambridge Secondary 1 Checkpoint Maths syllabus. - Builds revision skills you need for success in the test. - Exam tips wirtten by test setters and examiners giving you their expert advice. This text has not been through the Cambridge endorsement process.

  10. Ideology, Class and Rationality: A Critique of Cambridge International Examinations' "Thinking Skills" Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Leonel

    2012-01-01

    This article undertakes a critique of the aims and objectives of "Thinking Skills", one of the most widely and internationally used curricula in the teaching of thinking, offered by the University of Cambridge International Examinations. By engaging in a critical discourse analysis of how political and class biases are (re-)produced in the forms…

  11. What To Look for in ESL Admission Tests: Cambridge Certificate Exams, IELTS, and TOEFL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Turner, Carolyn E.

    2000-01-01

    Familiarizes test users with issues to consider when employing assessments for screening and admission purposes. Examines the purpose, content, and scoring methods of three English-as-a-Second-Language admissions tests--the Cambridge certificate exams, International English Language Teaching System, and Test of English as a Foreign…

  12. 77 FR 3118 - Security Zone; Choptank River and Cambridge Channel, Cambridge, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... 3118-3121] [FR Doc No: 2012-1172] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-1164] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Choptank River and Cambridge Channel, Cambridge, MD..., U.S. Coast Guard, Captain of the Port Baltimore. [FR Doc. 2012-1172 Filed 1-20-12; 8:45 am]...

  13. RFID solution benefits Cambridge hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Keeping track of thousands of pieces of equipment in a busy hospital environment is a considerable challenge, but, according to RFID tagging and asset tracking specialist, Harland Simon, RFID technology can make the task considerably simpler. Here Andrew James, the company's RFID sales manager, describes the positive benefits the technology has brought the Medical Equipment Library (MEL) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, one of the world's most famous teaching hospitals. PMID:24341115

  14. RFID solution benefits Cambridge hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Keeping track of thousands of pieces of equipment in a busy hospital environment is a considerable challenge, but, according to RFID tagging and asset tracking specialist, Harland Simon, RFID technology can make the task considerably simpler. Here Andrew James, the company's RFID sales manager, describes the positive benefits the technology has brought the Medical Equipment Library (MEL) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, one of the world's most famous teaching hospitals.

  15. The Cambridge Jet Algorithm features and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria

    1998-01-01

    Jet clustering algorithms are widely used to analyse hadronic events in high energy collisions. Recently a new clustering method, known as `Cambridge', has been introduced. In this article we present an algorithm to determine the transition values of ycut for this clustering scheme, which allows to resolve any event to a definite number of jets in the final state. We discuss some particularities of the Cambridge clustering method and compare its performance to the Durham clustering scheme for Monte Carlo generated e+e- annihilation events.

  16. Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball L

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lauren Ball,1 Jennifer Crowley,2 Celia Laur,3 Minha Rajput-Ray,3 Stephen Gillam,4 Sumantra Ray3 1Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Allied Health Sciences, Centre for Health Practice Innovation, Griffith University, Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; 2Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK; 4Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Landmark reports have confirmed that it is within the core responsibilities of doctors to address nutrition in patient care. There are ongoing concerns that doctors receive insufficient nutrition education during medical training. This paper provides an overview of a medical nutrition education initiative at the University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, including 1 the approach to medical nutrition education, 2 evaluation of the medical nutrition education initiative, and 3 areas identified for future improvement. The initiative utilizes a vertical, spiral approach during the clinically focused years of the Cambridge undergraduate and graduate medical degrees. It is facilitated by the Nutrition Education Review Group, a group associated with the UK Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, and informed by the experiences of their previous nutrition education interventions. Three factors were identified as contributing to the success of the nutrition education initiative including the leadership and advocacy skills of the nutrition academic team, the variety of teaching modes, and the multidisciplinary approach to teaching. Opportunities for continuing improvement to the medical nutrition education initiative included a review of evaluation tools, inclusion of nutrition in assessment items, and further alignment of the Cambridge curriculum with the

  17. Weizmann ties with Cambridge in physics contest

    CERN Multimedia

    Siegel, J

    2004-01-01

    "Scientists and students from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot and Cambridge University in England have tied for first place in a physics competition aimed at simulating the future functioning of the particle accelerator being built at the European center CERN and due to open in 2007" (1/2 page)

  18. University of Cambridge and MIT: Exploring Strategies for Digital Preservation for DSpace@Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    Downing, Jim; Carpenter, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Cambridge University Library and MIT Libraries submit this proposal to share the outcomes of the digital preservation research work conducted through the DSpace@Cambridge project, concentrating on two main areas: Process Automation and Preservation Planning. Automation Digital preservation activity in its current form commonly involves a high level of human effort. In mediated archiving the archivist's efforts do not scale well. In self-archiving situations this effort can be a barri...

  19. 76 FR 12729 - Cambridge Environmental Inc; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... AGENCY Cambridge Environmental Inc; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... claimed as Confidential Business Information (CBI) by the submitter, will be transferred to Cambridge Environmental Inc. in accordance with 40 CFR 2.307(h)(3) and 2.308(i)(2). Cambridge Environmental Inc. has...

  20. Influences on anatomical knowledge: The complete arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, E.M.; Verheijen, I.W.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Bruin, A.B. De

    2014-01-01

    Eight factors are claimed to have a negative influence on anatomical knowledge of medical students: (1) teaching by nonmedically qualified teachers, (2) the absence of a core anatomy curriculum, (3) decreased use of dissection as a teaching tool, (4) lack of teaching anatomy in context, (5) integrat

  1. The art and science of consultations in bovine medicine: Use of modified Calgary - Cambridge guides

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovski, Kiro R.; Michelle Mc Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This article describes few steps of the application of the modified Calgary-Cambridge Guides (CCG) to consultations in bovine medicine. A review of pertinent clinical communication skills literature in human medicine was integrated with the burgeoning research within veterinary medicine. In particular, there are more recent studies examining companion animal veterinarian’s communication skills and outcomes which can be extrapolated to practitioners. This was integrated into a teaching example...

  2. Alchemy in Cambridge. An Annotated Catalogue of Alchemical Texts and Illustrations in Cambridge Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Alchemy in Cambridge captures the alchemical content of 56 manuscripts in Cambridge, in particular the libraries of Trinity College, Corpus Christi College and St John's College, the University Library and the Fitzwilliam Museum. As such, this catalogue makes visible a large number of previously unknown or obscured alchemica. While extant bibliographies, including those by M.R. James a century ago, were compiled by polymathic bibliographers for a wide audience of researchers, Alchemy in Cambridge benefits from the substantial developments in the history of alchemy, bibliography, and related scholarship in recent decades. Many texts are here identified for the first time. Another vital feature is the incorporation of information on alchemical illustrations in the manuscripts, intended to facilitate research on the visual culture of alchemy. The catalogue is aimed at historians of alchemy and science, and of high interest to manuscript scholars, historians of art and historians of college and university libraries. PMID:26245008

  3. Alchemy in Cambridge. An Annotated Catalogue of Alchemical Texts and Illustrations in Cambridge Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Alchemy in Cambridge captures the alchemical content of 56 manuscripts in Cambridge, in particular the libraries of Trinity College, Corpus Christi College and St John's College, the University Library and the Fitzwilliam Museum. As such, this catalogue makes visible a large number of previously unknown or obscured alchemica. While extant bibliographies, including those by M.R. James a century ago, were compiled by polymathic bibliographers for a wide audience of researchers, Alchemy in Cambridge benefits from the substantial developments in the history of alchemy, bibliography, and related scholarship in recent decades. Many texts are here identified for the first time. Another vital feature is the incorporation of information on alchemical illustrations in the manuscripts, intended to facilitate research on the visual culture of alchemy. The catalogue is aimed at historians of alchemy and science, and of high interest to manuscript scholars, historians of art and historians of college and university libraries.

  4. The new Cambridge English course student 1

    CERN Document Server

    Swan, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The New Cambridge English Course is a course teachers and students can rely on to cover the complete range and depth of language and skills needed from beginner to upper-intermediate level. Each level is designed to provide at least 72 hours of class work using the Student's Book, with additional self-study material provided in the Practice Book. The course has a proven multi-syllabus approach which integrates work on all the vital aspects of language study: grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, skills, notions and functions.

  5. Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lauren; Crowley, Jennifer; Laur, Celia; Rajput-Ray, Minha; Gillam, Stephen; Ray, Sumantra

    2014-01-01

    Landmark reports have confirmed that it is within the core responsibilities of doctors to address nutrition in patient care. There are ongoing concerns that doctors receive insufficient nutrition education during medical training. This paper provides an overview of a medical nutrition education initiative at the University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, including 1) the approach to medical nutrition education, 2) evaluation of the medical nutrition education initiative, and 3) areas identified for future improvement. The initiative utilizes a vertical, spiral approach during the clinically focused years of the Cambridge undergraduate and graduate medical degrees. It is facilitated by the Nutrition Education Review Group, a group associated with the UK Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, and informed by the experiences of their previous nutrition education interventions. Three factors were identified as contributing to the success of the nutrition education initiative including the leadership and advocacy skills of the nutrition academic team, the variety of teaching modes, and the multidisciplinary approach to teaching. Opportunities for continuing improvement to the medical nutrition education initiative included a review of evaluation tools, inclusion of nutrition in assessment items, and further alignment of the Cambridge curriculum with the recommended UK medical nutrition education curriculum. This paper is intended to inform other institutions in ongoing efforts in medical nutrition education.

  6. The Whipple Museum and Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippard, Brian

    The Whipple Museum is part of the History and Philosophy of Science Department in the University of Cambridge. It is on your right as soon as you enter Free School Lane from Pembroke Street, and is normally open between 1:30 and 4:30 P.M. on weekdays. The main room, a hall with hammer-beam roof, is a relic of Stephen Perse’s school (1624) now flourishing elsewhere in the city. It houses a large collection of mathematical, physical and astronomical instruments — abaci, Napier’s bones, slide rules; sextants and other surveying instruments; telescopes, compasses and pocket sundials (especially of ivory from Nuremberg 1500-1700); and a Grand Orrery by George Adams (1750). The gallery of a second room is used for special exhibitions, often of items from the well-stocked store. Some specialist catalogues have been compiled and are on sale.

  7. Teachers Learning: Professional Development and Education. Cambridge Education Research Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Colleen, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Teachers Learning: Professional Development and Education" is part of The Cambridge Education Research series, edited by senior colleagues at the University of Cambridge Faculty of Education, which has a longstanding tradition of involvement in high quality, innovative teacher education and continuing professional development.…

  8. Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology, edited by Paul G. Bahn, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas R. Givens

    1997-01-01

    The Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology is another in a series of volumes devoted to the history of archaeology that have appeared in recent time. Paul Bahn, the editor of the volume, has broken down his coverage of the history of worldwide archaeology into the following arrangement 'The Archaeology of Archaeology", "Old Worlds and New, 1500-1760", "Antiquarians and Explorers, 1760-1820", "Science and Romantic...

  9. 76 FR 13665 - Cambridge Tool & Die, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Action Total Staffing, Cambridge, OH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Register on January 26, 2011 (76 FR 4731). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Cambridge Tool & Die, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Action Total Staffing, Cambridge, OH; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for...

  10. Plastination in Anatomy Learning: An Experience at Cambridge University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Rafael; Bainbridge, David; Tavernor, Angie; López Albors, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    Due to lack of objective data, the benefits of using plastination in combination with wet dissection in teaching gross anatomy are unknown. The aim of this study was to obtain objective evidence from students regarding the effectiveness of combining plastinated specimens (PS) with an established gross anatomy education program at Cambridge University that uses wet cadaver dissection and small-group tutorials. For a complete academic year, a total of 135 PS were used alongside wet cadaver dissections. The PS were also available for small-group tutorials. An anonymous closed questionnaire, using a 5-point numerical-estimation Likert scale, was used to gather information relating to the effectiveness of the PS. The level of student satisfaction with the combined use of wet dissections and PS was high, although higher (p<.05) for second-year students (98.4%) than for first-year students (95.5%). Students felt the specimens allowed them to see details that were often more difficult to identify in their dissections, for instance nerves. Voluntary use of PS was higher (p<.01) for second-year students (96.9%), who had previously experienced anatomy teaching with cadaver dissection alone, than for first-year students (77.7%). Overall, 97.7% of all students thought that the PS helped them understand and learn anatomy. All students surveyed (100%) recommended the use of PS in the future. Students considered the use of PS in the dissection room combined with wet cadaver dissection to be beneficial when learning anatomy, particularly when combined with their use during small-group tutorials.

  11. The CAMbridge Emission Line Surveyor (CAMELS)

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, C N; Maiolino, R; Goldie, D J; Acedo, E de Lera; Wagg, J; Blundell, R; Paine, S; Zeng, L

    2014-01-01

    The CAMbridge Emission Line Surveyor (CAMELS) is a pathfinder program to demonstrate on-chip spectrometry at millimetre wavelengths. CAMELS will observe at frequencies from 103-114.7 GHz, providing 512 channels with a spectral resolution of R = 3000. In this paper we describe the science goals of CAMELS, the current system level design for the instrument and the work we are doing on the detailed designs of the individual components. In addition, we will discuss our efforts to understand the impact that the design and calibration of the filter bank on astronomical performance. The shape of the filter channels, the degree of overlap and the nature of the noise all effect how well the parameters of a spectral line can be recovered. We have developed a new and rigorous method for analysing performance, based on the concept of Fisher information. This can in be turn coupled to a detailed model of the science case, allowing design trade-offs to be properly investigated.

  12. Artificial Pancreas Project at Cambridge 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovorka, R

    2015-08-01

    The development and clinical testing of closed-loop systems (the artificial pancreas) is underpinned by advances in continuous glucose monitoring and benefits from concerted academic and industry collaborative efforts. This review describes the progress of the Artificial Pancreas Project at the University of Cambridge from 2006 to 2014. Initial studies under controlled laboratory conditions, designed to collect representative safety and performance data, were followed by short to medium free-living unsupervised outpatient studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery using a model predictive control algorithm. Accompanying investigations included assessment of the psychosocial impact and key factors affecting glucose control such as insulin kinetics and glucose absorption. Translation to other disease conditions such as critical illness and Type 2 diabetes took place. It is concluded that innovation of iteratively enhanced closed-loop systems will provide tangible means to improve outcomes and quality of life in people with Type 1 diabetes and their families in the next decade.

  13. Sir Joseph Barcroft, Cambridge placental and fetal research (1933-1966) and inter-generational Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert; Boyd, C A Richard

    2010-01-01

    The nature of Cambridge (UK) placental and fetal research in the middle third of the twentieth century is reviewed on the basis of published literature and personal recollection. Joseph Barcroft is a central figure who came to fetal research late in an extremely productive career which is briefly sketched. Contemporaneous Cambridge academics in the field included J.D. Boyd (the authors father), J. Hammond, F.H.A. Marshall, R.A. McCance, J. Needham, A.S. Parkes and Elsie Widdowson. The then current Cambridge academic geography is explained and features of its scientific life such as funding, institutional structure and ethos, teaching and clinical duties, domestic and gender roles, and political context, including war and empire, are briefly considered. The testing of research findings against general principles and use of quantitative thinking are identified as important features. Intergenerational connections, often within individual families, are identified as a striking feature. The long-term impact of Cambridge work of this period; locally, in current trophoblast and feto-placental genetic research, in Oxford in probably influencing G.S. Dawes research leadership, and internationally, especially through D.H. Barron, and through him to the Denver School, is considered. That human placental and embryological specimens collected by J.D. Boyd have received a new lease of life as the "Boyd Collection", including use by Allen Enders is noted. Mechanisms for the maintenance of scientific quality and productivity during the period, mainly through the scientist himself relying on an internalised sense of "obligation", are contrasted with those current in the UK and more widely; formal peer-review at frequent intervals, with subsequent allocation of short-term funding. The strengths and weaknesses of each are considered.

  14. Cohort profile: the Cambridge Baby Growth Study (CBGS)

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, P.; Acerini, C. L.; Eleftheriou, A.; Hughes, I A; Ong, K K; Dunger, D B

    2015-01-01

    The Cambridge Baby Growth Study has been supported by the European Union Framework V, the World Cancer Research Foundation International, the Medical Research Council, the NIHR Cambridge Comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre, the Newlife Foundation for disabled children, the Mothercare Group Foundation, Mead Johnson Nutrition, the Evelyn Trust, the Wellbeing of Women, Diabetes UK and a collaborative research grant from the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology.

  15. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available GLOBAL AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: ... you'll be able to watch a live global AP anatomic total shoulder surgery from Methodist Hospital ...

  16. Michele Renee Salzman, Marvina A. Sweeney & William Adler (eds., The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World (2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baruchello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Michele Renee Salzman, Marvina A. Sweeney & William Adler (eds., The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World (2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013

  17. 8th Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lazar, Jonathan; Heylighen, Ann; Dong, Hua

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the 8th Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT '14), incorporating the 11th Cambridge Workshop on Rehabilitation Robotics, held in Cambridge, England in March 2016. It presents novel and state-of-the-art research from an international group of leaders in the fields of universal access and assistive technology. It explores various issues including the reconciliation of usability, accessibility and inclusive design, the design of inclusive assistive and rehabilitation systems, measuring product demand and human capabilities, data mining and visualizing inclusion, legislation in inclusive design, and situational inclusive interfaces (automotive and aerospace). This book provides an invaluable resource to researchers, postgraduates, design practitioners, therapists and clinical practitioners, as well as design teachers.

  18. Cambridge international AS and A level mathematics statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Porkess, Roger; Konrad, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This brand new series has been written for the University of Cambridge International Examinations course for AS and A Level Mathematics (9709). This title covers the requirements of S1 and S2. The authors are experienced examiners and teachers who have written extensively at this level, so have ensured all mathematical concepts are explained using language and terminology that is appropriate for students across the world. Students are provded with clear and detailed worked examples and questions from Cambridge International past papers, so they have the opportunity for plenty of essenti

  19. Cambridge international AS and A level mathematics mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Porkess, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This brand new series has been written for the University of Cambridge International Examinations course for AS and A Level Mathematics (9709). This title covers the requirements of M1 and M2. The authors are experienced examiners and teachers who have written extensively at this level, so have ensured all mathematical concepts are explained using language and terminology that is appropriate for students across the world. Students are provded with clear and detailed worked examples and questions from Cambridge International past papers, so they have the opportunity for plenty of essential exam

  20. Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology, edited by Paul G. Bahn, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Givens

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology is another in a series of volumes devoted to the history of archaeology that have appeared in recent time. Paul Bahn, the editor of the volume, has broken down his coverage of the history of worldwide archaeology into the following arrangement 'The Archaeology of Archaeology", "Old Worlds and New, 1500-1760", "Antiquarians and Explorers, 1760-1820", "Science and Romanticism, 1820-1860", "The Search for Human Origins, 1860-1920", "Archaeology Comes of Age, 1920-1960", "New Techniques and Competing Philosophies, 1960-1990",and "Current Controversies and Future Trends". Bahn's volume explores many of the major developments in archaeological practice from both in the classical world and was as from the practice of archaeology in the Americas. The volume even gives the reader a glimpse into the origins and growth of archaeology in New Zealand. Of particular interest is coverage of the history of early archaeological efforts having to do with early studies of human origins.

  1. Performance modelling of the Cambridge Fast Ring protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafirovic-Vukotic, M.; Niemegeers, I.G.

    1988-01-01

    The Cambridge Fast Ring is high-speed slotted ring. The features that make it suitable for use at very large transmission rates are the synchronous transmission, the simplicity of the medium-access-control protocol, and the possibility of immediate retransmission of erroneous packets. A novel analyt

  2. The Cambridge Primary Review: A Reply to R. J. Campbell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The author was disappointed by R. J. Campbell's sour critique of the Cambridge Primary Review in "FORUM" Volume 52 Number 1 2010. His description of the Review's proposals on curriculum and pedagogy as "backward-looking, cumbersome and partial" is such a bizarre misjudgement that it calls for some response. The author comments in turn on R. J.…

  3. 78 FR 52802 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cambridge Isotope Lab... 01, 2013, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application...

  4. 77 FR 38086 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Cambridge Isotope Lab... 7, 2012, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application...

  5. 40 CFR 81.205 - Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.205 Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio) consists of the territorial...

  6. 75 FR 38128 - Sensata Technologies MA, Inc., Power Controls Division, Formerly Known As Airpax Corp., Cambridge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... As Airpax Corp., Cambridge, Maryland, Including Employees of Sensata Technologies MA, Inc., Power Controls Division Formerly Known As Airpax Corp., Cambridge, Maryland Working Off-Site in Falmouth... known as Airpax Corporation, Cambridge, Maryland. The notice will soon be published in the...

  7. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available GLOBAL AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: DePuy Orthopedics is continually advancing the standard of orthopedic patient care. In a few ...

  8. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to a patient's unique anatomical makeup. Dr. Gerald R. Williams, Jr., a shoulder specialist from the Rothman ... That might help. Could you raise the O.R. table, please? 00:28:35 WOMAN: Can you ...

  9. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available GLOBAL AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: DePuy Orthopedics is continually advancing the standard of orthopedic patient ...

  10. Metaphor Analysis of Chinese Premier Wen’s Cambridge Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Luo

    2014-01-01

    Metaphor is more than an ostensible decoration of language. It is an integral part of human thought of ideologized world. This article analyzes the metaphor use of Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao’s speech at Cambridge in February 2009, in an at-tempt to display how the preferred metaphors serve the purpose of this speech and reflect Premier Wen ’s construction of Chi-na’s situation.

  11. University of Cambridge deploys Procket Networks' PRO/8801

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Procket Networks, a provider of high performance Internet Protocol (IP) technology and products has announced that the University of Cambridge has deployed the PRO/8801(TM) router into its research network to develop industry-leading deep packet inspection applications. The major application for this deployment is to identify and understand new traffic patterns created by large scale scientific computations and downloads such as the GRID (1 page).

  12. The competition for the Woodwardian Chair of Geology, Cambridge 1873.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, A

    2005-01-01

    In 1873 the chair of geology at the University of Cambridge fell vacant following the death of Adam Sedgwick. Nine candidates stepped forward, hoping to fill the post. The correspondence generated in the ensuing battle illuminates two areas of particular interest. First, the strategies hidden behind bland lists of successive professors: candidates, peers and patrons manoeuvred to influence the outcome of the competition and competitors tried to reinforce their geological respectability by col...

  13. Philosophy at Cambridge, Newsletter of the Faculty of Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Philosophy Newsletter. Articles by: Edward Craig - From the Chairman. Onora O'Neill - "It's the newspapers I can't stand. Serena Olsaretti - The 2004 Annual Royal Institute of Philosophy Conference. Mary Leng - Mathematical Knowledge Conference. Postgraduate Conference. Jane Heal - Facts, Fables and Funds. Hugh Mellor - Uses and Abuses of Probability. Amanda Boyle - Nobody Knows Anything: Philosophy, Film and Me. Jaime Whyte - Seven Years at Cambridge Alex Oliver...

  14. The investigate of ultrasonography integration into anatomical curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wenyuan; Wang Ying; Liu Xing; Liu Yaoguang; Teng Chenyi; Ma Yanwen; Wang Yu

    2015-01-01

    As a complementary teaching way, ultrasonography is considered an important teaching tools and methods to improving medical students’ skills and understanding the real time human anatomy . We success-fully integrated ultrasound into anatomy teaching by using portable ultrasound and interactive panel discussion ses-sions. The integrated curriculum not only allows medical students to see the complexity real-time three-dimension-al human anatomy, but also can improve medical students’ interest in anatomy teaching. Integrated ultrasound into anatomy teaching established close ties between basic medical science and its clinical application, and overcome the phase difficulties of anatomical knowledge application from preclinical to clinical.

  15. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... advancing the standard of orthopedic patient care. In a few moments, you'll be able to watch a live global AP anatomic total shoulder surgery from Methodist Hospital in Philadelphia. A revolution in shoulder orthopedics, the Global AP gives ...

  16. WORKING WITH ARCHIVES: CAMBRIDGE ECONOMICS THROUGH THE MAGNIFYING GLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Marcuzzo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research in economics using documentary archives provides clearer interpretations about the ideas and their development throughout time, in the context of the writing process in relation to the interlocutors and antagonists, and the nature of the problems addressed. This document presents examples of works with tough drafts, correspondence, tables of contents, notes, and related material of four economists of the "Cambridge Group": Piero Sraffa, Richard Kahn, Joan Robinson, and John Maynard Keynes. In each case the findings and importance of the research done in the files are described.

  17. Cambridge IGCSE and international certificate French foreign language

    CERN Document Server

    Grime, Yvette; Thacker, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This brand-new Student Book provides a grammar-led approach with extensive exam preparation that will help you develop independent, culturally aware students of French ready for the exam. The book is written to the latest Cambridge International Examinations syllabus by experienced teachers. Extensive use of French reflects the style of the exams and, with specific advice and practice, it helps students use the acquired skills to their best ability. Topics on Francophone cultures are integrated throughout to ensure students gain the cultural awareness that is at the heart of this qualification

  18. Skin Regeneration Symposium Cambridge, 12-13 April 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Rosalind

    2016-07-01

    The Annual Skin Regeneration Symposium, held in Cambridge, UK, 12-13 April 2016, explored the latest advancements in skin repair, regeneration and restoration, and the impact this has on patients. With over 140 delegates from the disciplines of burn and trauma care, chronic wounds and esthetic medicine, the symposium sparked lively debate and the sharing of results from interesting case studies, clinical trials and basic research to support the use of a Regenerative Epithelial Suspension produced using the ReCell(®) technology. Furthermore, it enabled delegates and speakers alike to share ideas and discuss how to improve the quality of care for patients. PMID:27357476

  19. Skin Regeneration Symposium Cambridge, 12-13 April 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Rosalind

    2016-07-01

    The Annual Skin Regeneration Symposium, held in Cambridge, UK, 12-13 April 2016, explored the latest advancements in skin repair, regeneration and restoration, and the impact this has on patients. With over 140 delegates from the disciplines of burn and trauma care, chronic wounds and esthetic medicine, the symposium sparked lively debate and the sharing of results from interesting case studies, clinical trials and basic research to support the use of a Regenerative Epithelial Suspension produced using the ReCell(®) technology. Furthermore, it enabled delegates and speakers alike to share ideas and discuss how to improve the quality of care for patients.

  20. The Cambridge Structural Database in retrospect and prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Colin R; Allen, Frank H

    2014-01-13

    The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) was established in 1965 to record numerical, chemical and bibliographic data relating to published organic and metal-organic crystal structures. The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) now stores data for nearly 700,000 structures and is a comprehensive and fully retrospective historical archive of small-molecule crystallography. Nearly 40,000 new structures are added each year. As X-ray crystallography celebrates its centenary as a subject, and the CCDC approaches its own 50th year, this article traces the origins of the CCDC as a publicly funded organization and its onward development into a self-financing charitable institution. Principally, however, we describe the growth of the CSD and its extensive associated software system, and summarize its impact and value as a basis for research in structural chemistry, materials science and the life sciences, including drug discovery and drug development. Finally, the article considers the CCDC's funding model in relation to open access and open data paradigms.

  1. Sediment remediation of the Hespeler Mill Pond, Cambridge, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeloni, D.; Eby, M.; Jarvis, S.; Martin, P. [Univ. of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: danielle.angeloni@earthtech.ca

    2002-06-15

    'Full text:' Low dissolved oxygen levels and large accumulated sediment remediation alternatives were examined to assemble the Hespeler Mill Pond, Cambridge (HMP) into a healthier and more desirable recreational area in the City of Cambridge. The theory that a large amount of sediment has been deposited into the HMP from the Speed River upstream over a number of years predicts the depressed oxygen levels, high nutrient-loading rates and the odour problems in the summer months. The initial phase in the remediation plan for this project involved extensive background research and investigation. The focus was on determining the characteristics of the sediment and the history of the pond, to ultimately decide if the sediment was the source of the issues. Dissolved oxygen field tests and sediment sampling were conducted to get information on the magnitude of the problem and the environmental hazards potentially present in the pond. The pond was modelled utilising the Streeter-Phelps oxygen-sag model to predict the oxygen deficit. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD{sub 5}) testing was completed to determine the oxygen demand in the pond. These tests were conducted by using water samples obtained from various sample points at the pond. The proposed solution is a combined dredging and aeration approach. Mechanical dredging using a clamshell bucket and the installation of aerators is expected to solve the dissolved oxygen and water quality issues. (author)

  2. The Cambridge Structural Database in retrospect and prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Colin R; Allen, Frank H

    2014-01-13

    The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) was established in 1965 to record numerical, chemical and bibliographic data relating to published organic and metal-organic crystal structures. The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) now stores data for nearly 700,000 structures and is a comprehensive and fully retrospective historical archive of small-molecule crystallography. Nearly 40,000 new structures are added each year. As X-ray crystallography celebrates its centenary as a subject, and the CCDC approaches its own 50th year, this article traces the origins of the CCDC as a publicly funded organization and its onward development into a self-financing charitable institution. Principally, however, we describe the growth of the CSD and its extensive associated software system, and summarize its impact and value as a basis for research in structural chemistry, materials science and the life sciences, including drug discovery and drug development. Finally, the article considers the CCDC's funding model in relation to open access and open data paradigms. PMID:24382699

  3. Early fetal anatomical sonography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Jennifer C

    2012-10-01

    Over the past decade, prenatal screening and diagnosis has moved from the second into the first trimester, with aneuploidy screening becoming both feasible and effective. With vast improvements in ultrasound technology, sonologists can now image the fetus in greater detail at all gestational ages. In the hands of experienced sonographers, anatomic surveys between 11 and 14 weeks can be carried out with good visualisation rates of many structures. It is important to be familiar with the normal development of the embryo and fetus, and to be aware of the major anatomical landmarks whose absence or presence may be deemed normal or abnormal depending on the gestational age. Some structural abnormalities will nearly always be detected, some will never be and some are potentially detectable depending on a number of factors.

  4. Review of the Historical Evolution of Anatomical Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algieri, Rubén D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medical terms of Greek origin are traditionally attributed to Hippocrates (460-370 BC. Claudius Galen of Pergamum (130-200 BC developed a classification of bones and joints and described different brain areas. His teachings have remained unchanged for over a thousand years. Andreas Vesalius of Brussels (1514-1564, through the systematic study of human body structure, changed many concepts. He published his work in his production "De humani corporis fabrica libri septem", where a special attention is evident to the discovery and description of new anatomical facts. From here there is a revolution in the morphological sciences, where the same anatomical structure passed to receive different names. In the nineteenth century, the different anatomists in the world decide to meet in order to unify criteria regarding the anatomical structures and determine a only one universal language in the anatomical sciences. In 1895, in Basel (Switzerland it’s approved a list of 5.573 terms, called Basle Nomina Anatomica (BNA and was written in Latin. Eponyms were deleted. In 1903, he founded the International Federation of Associations of anatomists (IFAA. In 1935, in Jena (Germany, approving the Jena Nomina Anatomica (JNA. In 1950, in Oxford, formed the Committee of the International Anatomical Nomenclature (IANC. In 1955, in Paris (France it is agreed to adopt a Latin nomenclature based on the BNA, the Paris Nomina Anatomica (PNA. In 1980, for the first time in Latin America, takes place on the 11th International Congress of Anatomists, Mexico. In 1989, the International Committee of Anatomical Nomenclature, published the sixth edition of the Nomina Anatomica, without review by the IFAA. The same year, the latter established a Federative International Committee of Anatomical Terminology (FICAT. In 1998, he published a new list FICAT: International Anatomical Terminology (TAI, with the structures named in Latin language and their equivalence in

  5. Fiftieth Anniversary of the Cambridge Structural Database and Thirty Years of Its Use in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić-Prodić B.

    2015-07-01

    more options to the users developing sophisticated software such as GOLD, IsoStar and SuperStar, DASH, and extensive knowledge electronic libraries such as Mogul and Relibase. The CCDC released the new facility – Mercury’s Solid Form module. Such demanding projects require a highly competent team of experts with a scientific approach based on the long tradition in crystallography, modelling and informatics. The Cambridge Structural Database and diversified software and searching engines are useful tools in research and teaching. The use of electronic media and computer graphics makes “data mining” very efficient and useful, but also aesthetically appealing due to the molecular architecture. One can expect even more advanced approaches using cloud computing and ‘Big Data’ management; merging data from related databases will enable to recognize hidden molecular and crystal properties and information that could bring new important knowledge. Since 1985, the CSD has been available to users in Croatia. The use of the CSD in Croatia is illustrated by a few examples performed and published by the presenting authors and colleagues.

  6. Reference Man anatomical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  7. The Cambridge Equation with government activity revisited A Equação de Cambridge com atividade governamental revisitada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Silva Azevedo Araujo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the steady-state distributional features found in a Kaldor-Pasinetti process, in which the government sector is allowed to run persistent deficits that may be financed through different instruments. Productive capital and bonds generate single rates of return, while workers' saving propensity remains uniform. This paper seeks to establish a generalization of Cambridge Eauqtion, considering the specific contributions of Steedman (1972, Pasinetti (1989, Dalziel (1991, and Faria (2000.Neste artigo faz-se uma análise das características distributivas do processo Kaldor-Pasinetti, assumindo-se que o setor governamental incorre em persistentes déficits que podem ser financiados através de diferentes instrumentos, como a emissão de títulos e de moeda. Através dessa abordagem é possível estudar como a atividade governamental afeta a distribuição de renda entre capitalistas e trabalhadores e assim obter generalizações do Teorema de Cambridge em que versões anteriores como as de Steedman (1972, Pasinetti (1989, Dalziel (1991 e Faria (2000 surgem como casos particulares.

  8. Pengaruh Kualitas Pelayanan terhadap Kepuasan Konsumen pada Cosa Nostra Bistro Cambridge Medan ( Study Pada Cosa Nostra Bistro Cambridge City Square, Medan)

    OpenAIRE

    Sihombing, Boy Martua

    2015-01-01

    This study entitled "The Effect of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction in the Cosa Nostra Bistro Cambridge Field". This study aims to determine the effect of service quality indicators consisting of physical evidence, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy towards customer satisfaction on Cosa Nostra Bistro Cambridge Field. The theory used in this study is the theory related to service quality and customer satisfaction. The sample in this study as many as 90 people were t...

  9. Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Philip M [Joint Physics Department, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: phil.evans@icr.ac.uk

    2008-06-21

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  10. 7th Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lazar, J; Heylighen, A; Dong, H; Inclusive Designing : Joining Usability, Accessibility, and Inclusion

    2014-01-01

    ‘Inclusive Designing’ presents the proceedings of the seventh Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT '14). It represents a unique multi-disciplinary workshop for the Inclusive Design Research community where designers, computer scientists, engineers, architects, ergonomists, policymakers and user communities can exchange ideas. The research presented at CWUAAT '14 develops methods, technologies, tools and guidance that support product designers and architects to design for the widest possible population for a given range of capabilities, within a contemporary social and economic context. In the context of developing demographic changes leading to greater numbers of older people and people with disabilities, the general field of Inclusive Design Research strives to relate the capabilities of the population to the design of products. Inclusive populations of older people contain a greater variation in sensory, cognitive and physical user capabilities. These variations may be...

  11. Traffic Sign Recognition System based on Cambridge Correlator Image Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents basic information about application of Optical Correlator (OC, specifically Cambridge Correlator, in system to recognize of traffic sign. Traffic Sign Recognition System consists of three main blocks, Preprocessing, Optical Correlator and Traffic Sign Identification. The Region of Interest (ROI is defined and chosen in preprocessing block and then goes to Optical Correlator, where is compared with database of Traffic Sign. Output of Optical Correlation is correlation plane, which consist of highly localized intensities, know as correlation peaks. The intensity of spots provides a measure of similarity and position of spots, how images (traffic signs are relatively aligned in the input scene. Several experiments have been done with proposed system and results and conclusion are discussed.

  12. Anneli Randla kaitses doktorikraadi Cambridge'is / Anneli Randla ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randla, Anneli

    1999-01-01

    5. mail kaitses Cambridge'is esimese eesti kunstiteadlasena doktorikraadi Anneli Randla. Töö teema: kerjusmungaordukloostrite arhitektuur Põhja-Euroopas. Juhendaja dr. Deborah Howard. Doktorikraadile esitatavatest nõudmistest, doktoritöö kaitsmisest, magistrikraadi kaitsnu õppimisvõimalustest Cambridge's.

  13. A snuff, Sir? Et ego in Arcadia - op sabbatical in Cambridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Een maand lang heb ik in Cambridge onderzoek mogen doen. In deze column wil ik daar verslag van uitbrengen. Niet van mijn onderzoek — ik heb vooral rondgekeken in de bibliotheek en gesproken met collega's om te zien wat momenteel in de common law te koop is - maar van Cambridge zelf.

  14. Reflections on Cambridge: University examinations - how did they begin and how do they work?

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Standing in one of the old examination halls in Cambridge, Alan Macfarlane talks about the invention of competitive university examinations (in mathematics in the earlier C19) and the central role of Cambridge as one of the biggest exam setting boards in the world. Also what Camrbdige examinations are thought to be testing.

  15. Success in the US: Are Cambridge International Assessments Good Preparation for University Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stuart; Bailey, Clare

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the research being conducted by University of Cambridge International Examinations (Cambridge) to ensure that its international assessments prepare students as well as Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate for continued studies in colleges and universities. The primary purpose of the research is to highlight…

  16. Investigating the Impact of Cambridge International Assessments on U.S. Stakeholders: Student and Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    As part of the continuing program to study the impact of its international assessments, the University of Cambridge International Examinations ("Cambridge") has undertaken a series of studies investigating the impact on a range of US stakeholders. This paper reports on research designed to respond to a series of washback and impact questions…

  17. 77 FR 64143 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambridge Isotope Lab By Notice dated June 18, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on June 26, 2012, 77 FR 38086, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application by renewal to...

  18. Assessing the Impact of Arts and Humanities Research at the University of Cambridge. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ruth; Celia, Claire; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Chonaill, Siobhan Ni; Rabinovich, Lila; Tiessen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This project for the University of Cambridge and the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) assesses the impacts of arts and humanities research at the University of Cambridge. Evidence from interviews, a survey of research staff and detailed case studies indicates that these disciplines already have a broad range of impacts. Many of these…

  19. Cultures of Teaching in Childhood: Formal Schooling and Maya Sibling Teaching at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Ashley E.

    2004-01-01

    Culture can be thought of a set of shared practices, beliefs, and values that are transmitted across generations through language [Bruner, J. (1990). "Acts of meaning". Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. Teaching is one way that culture is transmitted, but forms of teaching vary across cultures and across activity settings within cultures.…

  20. Investigations of Anatomical Variations of the Thorax and Heart, and Anatomical Knowledge for First Year Medical Dental and Podiatry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verenna, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The universal presence of anatomy in healthcare professions is undeniable. It is a cornerstone to each of the clinical and basic sciences. Therefore, further expansion of current anatomical knowledge and effective methods to teach anatomy is essential. In this work, the relationship of the dorsal scapular artery with the trunks of the brachial…

  1. 1919: psychology and psychoanalysis, Cambridge and London - Myers, Jones and MacCurdy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, John

    2008-01-01

    Viewing the reception of psychoanalysis in Britain from Cambridge, the paper examines the intertwining histories of the post-War British Psychological Society and the founding of the British Psycho-Analytical Society, following the initiatives of the two principal psychological entrepreneurs of the era, Charles Myers and Ernest Jones, Reforms in Cambridge in which psychoanalysis played a significant part are analysed, including the foundation of a Clinic for Nervous Diseases and the establishment of a separate Department of Experimental Psychology. The career of J. T. MacCurdy, Jones's student and Lecturer in Psychopathology at Cambridge, is discussed.

  2. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Forough; Akaberi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women's daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women. PMID:27293974

  3. The hermeneutics of mental symptoms in the Cambridge School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Aragona

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Current Psychiatry is in crisis. Decades of neuroscientific research have not yet delivered adequate explanations or treatments. One reason for this failure may be the wrongness of its central assumption, namely that mental symptoms and disorders are natural kinds. The Cambridge School has proposed that a new Epistemology must be constructed for Psychiatry, and that this should start with the development of a new model of mental symptom-formation. ‘Mental symptoms’ should be considered as hermeneutic co-constructions occurring in a intersubjective space created by the dialogue between sufferer and healer. Subjective experiences (caused either by neurobiological or psychosocial upheaval penetrate the awareness of sufferers causing perplexity and/or distress. To understand, handle and communicate these experiences, sufferers proceed to configure them by means of templates borrowed from their own culture. Importantly, however, the same neurobiological information can be configured into different symptoms; and different neurobiological information into the same symptom. Therefore, ‘mental symptoms’ are dissimilar hybrid combinations of neurobiological and cultural information. To be ethical, therapeutic interventions must take into account such dissimilarities. Blind manipulation of the brain in all cases should be considered as counterproductive.

  4. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Forough; Akaberi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women's daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women.

  5. Who Needs a Revision? 20 Years of Cambridge Shunt Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czosnyka, Zofia; Czosnyka, Marek; Pickard, John D; Chari, Aswin

    2016-01-01

    Shunt testing independent of manufacturers provides knowledge that can significantly improve the management of patients with hydrocephalus. The Cambridge Shunt Evaluation Laboratory was created 20 years ago. Thanks to financial support from the Department of Health (1993-1998), all shunts in use in the UK were systematically evaluated, with "blue reports" being published. Later new devices were tested as they appeared in public domain.Twenty-six models have been evaluated. The majority of the valves had a non-physiologically low hydrodynamic resistance that may result in over-drainage, both related to posture and during nocturnal cerebral vasogenic waves. A long distal catheter increases the resistance of these valves by 100-200 %. Drainage through valves without a siphon-preventing mechanism is very sensitive to body posture. Shunts with siphon-preventing accessories offer a reasonable resistance to negative outlet pressure. Bench parameters were used to test shunt performance in vivo using infusion tests. A criterion for correctly performing a shunt procedure was established. Pressure measured in the shunt prechamber during the plateau phase of infusion should not remain more than 5 mmHg above the le shunt's operating pressure plus hydrodynamic resistance of the valve multiplied by the infusion rate. "Critical levels" for every shunt and every performance level have been used in the shunt testing wizard of ICM+ software.

  6. Development and current status of the "Cambridge" loudness models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-13

    This article reviews the evolution of a series of models of loudness developed in Cambridge, UK. The first model, applicable to stationary sounds, was based on modifications of the model developed by Zwicker, including the introduction of a filter to allow for the effects of transfer of sound through the outer and middle ear prior to the calculation of an excitation pattern, and changes in the way that the excitation pattern was calculated. Later, modifications were introduced to the assumed middle-ear transfer function and to the way that specific loudness was calculated from excitation level. These modifications led to a finite calculated loudness at absolute threshold, which made it possible to predict accurately the absolute thresholds of broadband and narrowband sounds, based on the assumption that the absolute threshold corresponds to a fixed small loudness. The model was also modified to give predictions of partial loudness-the loudness of one sound in the presence of another. This allowed predictions of masked thresholds based on the assumption that the masked threshold corresponds to a fixed small partial loudness. Versions of the model for time-varying sounds were developed, which allowed prediction of the masked threshold of any sound in a background of any other sound. More recent extensions incorporate binaural processing to account for the summation of loudness across ears. In parallel, versions of the model for predicting loudness for hearing-impaired ears have been developed and have been applied to the development of methods for fitting multichannel compression hearing aids.

  7. WebCSD: the online portal to the Cambridge Structural Database

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Ian R.; Bruno, Ian J.; Cole, Jason C; Macrae, Clare F.; Pidcock, Elna; Wood, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    WebCSD, a new web-based application developed by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre, offers fast searching of the Cambridge Structural Database using only a standard internet browser. Search facilities include two-dimensional substructure, molecular similarity, text/numeric and reduced cell searching. Text, chemical diagrams and three-dimensional structural information can all be studied in the results browser using the efficient entry summaries and embedded three-dimensional viewer.

  8. The art and science of consultations in bovine medicine: Use of modified Calgary - Cambridge guides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiro R. Petrovski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes few steps of the application of the modified Calgary-Cambridge Guides (CCG to consultations in bovine medicine. A review of pertinent clinical communication skills literature in human medicine was integrated with the burgeoning research within veterinary medicine. In particular, there are more recent studies examining companion animal veterinarian’s communication skills and outcomes which can be extrapolated to practitioners. This was integrated into a teaching example of a reproductive case consultation. The first article deals with the 1 Preparation, 2 Initiating the Session and 3 Gathering Information sections. The aim of the modified CCG is to provide a set of skills to facilitate a relationship-centred approach to consultations in bovine medicine, both at the individual animal and population level. They were initially developed for human medicine and expanded recently for use in veterinary medicine. The CCG enable the practitioner to facilitate interacting with that particular client at the time of the consultation. It is likely that the majority of practitioners do use many of the skills recommended by the modified CCG. These skills are often gained through experience. However, they may not use the skills intentionally and with purpose for a specific communication goal or outcome. Practitioners can improve their communication skills using the set of skills as recommended by the modified CCG. They allow the practitioner to gain insight into the client’s understanding of the problem, including underlying aetiology, epidemiology and pathophysiology. The guides also provide opportunity to understand client’s expectations regarding the outcome, motivation and willingness to change and adherence.

  9. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES OF PLANTAGO ARENARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta IANOVICI; SINITEAN, Adrian; Aurel FAUR

    2011-01-01

    Psammophytes are marked by a number of adaptations that enable them to exist in the hard environmental conditions of the sand habitats. In this study, the anatomical characteristics of Plantago arenaria were examined. Studies were conducted to assess the diversity of anatomical adaptations of vegetative organs in this taxa. Results are presented with original photographs. The analysis of leaf anatomy in P. arenaria showed that the leaves contained a contained xeromorphic traits. Arbuscular my...

  10. The Patchwork Text in Teaching Greek Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the rewards and challenges of using the Patchwork Text to teach Greek Tragedy to Cambridge University English final-year students. The article uses close reading of the students' texts, analysis and reflection to discuss both the products and the process of Patchwork writing. (Author/AEF)

  11. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES OF PLANTAGO ARENARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Psammophytes are marked by a number of adaptations that enable them to exist in the hard environmental conditions of the sand habitats. In this study, the anatomical characteristics of Plantago arenaria were examined. Studies were conducted to assess the diversity of anatomical adaptations of vegetative organs in this taxa. Results are presented with original photographs. The analysis of leaf anatomy in P. arenaria showed that the leaves contained a contained xeromorphic traits. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis seems to be critical for their survival.

  12. Taxonomic review of the New World spider genus Elaver O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 (Araneae, Clubionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Regiane; Bonaldo, Alexandre Bragio

    2015-11-23

    Elaver O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 is characterized and redescribed, including 49 species occurring from the United States to Argentina. Thirty seven previously known species are redescribed: Elaver achuca (Roddy, 1966) revalidated, E. balboae (Chickering, 1937), E. barroana (Chickering, 1937), E. calcarata (Kraus, 1955), E. carlota (Bryant, 1940), E. chisosa (Roddy, 1966), E. crinophora (Franganillo, 1934), E. crocota (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896), E. albicans (Franganillo, 1930) name restored, E. depuncta O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. elaver (Bryant, 1940), E. excepta (L. Koch, 1866), E. grandivulva (Mello-Leitão, 1930), E. hortoni (Chickering, 1937), E. implicata (Gertsch, 1941), E. juana (Bryant, 1940), E. kohlsi (Gertsch & Jellison, 1939), E. linguata (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900), E. madera (Roddy, 1966), E. mirabilis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) new. comb., E. mulaiki (Gertsch, 1935), E. multinotata (Chickering, 1937), E. orvillei (Chickering, 1937), E. placida O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. portoricensis (Petrunkevitch, 1930), E. quadrata (Kraus, 1955), E. richardi (Gertsch, 1941), E. sericea O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. sigillata (Petrunkevitch, 1925), E. simplex (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896), E. texana (Gertsch, 1933), E. tigrina O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 name restored, E. tricuspis (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900), E. tristani (Banks, 1909), E. tumivulva (Banks, 1909), E. valvula (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900) and E. wheeleri (Roewer, 1933). Ten new species are described: E. candelaria n. sp. and E. helenae n. sp. from Mexico; E. arawakan n. sp. from Haiti; E. lizae n. sp. from Costa Rica; E. darwichi n. sp. from Ecuador; E. juruti n. sp., E. tourinhoae n. sp. and E. vieirae n. sp. from Brazil; E. shinguito n. sp. from Peru and E. beni n. sp. from Bolivia. The female of E. hortoni is described for the first time. Lectotypes are designated for E. sigillata and its actual female is described for the first time. Four new synonyms are proposed: E. languida

  13. Analysis and Assessment of Cambridge English Skills Real Reading 2 within the Scope of Communicative Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张润霞

    2015-01-01

    this essay analyzes and assesses Cambridge English Skills Real Reading 2 from the perspective of communicative approach.The first part analyzes the theoretical basis of the textbook,including the organizational,pragmatic competence.The second part analyzes the syllabus contents.The last part analyzes the material and tasks of it.In summary,Cambridge English Skills Real Reading 2 is mainly communicative textbook from several aspects based on the detailed assessment and explanation.It can be helpful to the designing of reading textbooks.

  14. Water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, 2005-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    2015-01-01

    During 2005-8, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, measured concentrations of sodium and chloride, plant nutrients, commonly used pesticides, and caffeine in base-flow and stormwater samples collected from 11 tributaries in the Cambridge drinking-water source area. These data were used to characterize current water-quality conditions, to establish a baseline for future comparisons, and to describe trends in surface-water quality. The data also were used to assess the effects of watershed characteristics on surface-water quality and to inform future watershed management.

  15. Using the Cambridge Structural Database to Teach Molecular Geometry Concepts in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackerly, Jay Wm.; Janowicz, Philip A.; Ritchey, Joshua A.; Caruso, Mary M.; Elliott, Erin L.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a set of two homework assignments that can be used in a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry class. These assignments were designed to help reinforce concepts of molecular geometry and to give students the opportunity to use a technological database and data mining to analyze experimentally determined chemical…

  16. Psychiatry in the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship: An Innovative, Year-Long Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Todd; Bullock, Christopher; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Albanese, Mark; Bonilla, Pedro; Dvorak, Ramona; Epelbaum, Claudia; Givon, Lior; Kueppenbender, Karsten; Joseph, Robert; Boyd, J. Wesley; Shtasel, Derri

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors present what is to their knowledge the first description of a model for longitudinal third-year medical student psychiatry education. Method: A longitudinal, integrated psychiatric curriculum was developed, implemented, and sustained within the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship. Curriculum elements…

  17. Final Report of Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics, January 1962 - August 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics, Newton, MA.

    The Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) was an association of prominent mathematicians who had a concern for mathematics education at school level, from kindergarten through grade twelve. These mathematicians organized three main conferences in three areas of mathematics education, and have carried on activities related to the…

  18. Measuring impairments in memory and executive function in older people using the Revised Cambridge Cognitive Examination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Mimpen, G.; Melis, R.J.F.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Revised Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG-R) is a cognitive screen that has been used to discriminate individuals with dementia from cognitively intact older people. It consists of items assessing various cognitive domains, but the construct validity of the cognitive subscores

  19. Measuring Impairments in Memory and Executive Function in Older People Using the Revised Cambridge Cognitive Examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Mimpen, G.; Melis, R.J.F.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The Revised Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG-R) is a cognitive screen that has been used to discriminate individuals with dementia from cognitively intact older people. It consists of items assessing various cognitive domains, but the construct validity of the cognitive subscores

  20. Legacies, Policies and Prospects: One Year on from the Cambridge Primary Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Robin

    2011-01-01

    This article features the "Cambridge Primary Review." The "Review" has been supported from the beginning by Esmee Fairbairn Foundation, and this has given it the independence which is essential to its credibility. Its remit was to investigate, report and make recommendations on the condition and future of primary education in England. Its scope…

  1. The Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level General Paper Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nurul Huda; Shih, Chih-Min

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and reviews the Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced Level General Paper (GP) examination. As a written test that is administered to preuniversity students, the GP examination is internationally recognised and accepted by universities and employers as proof of English competence. In this article, the…

  2. Linguistic Turn and Gendering Language in the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimbi, Diah A.; Kwary, Deny A.

    2016-01-01

    Language constructs how humans perceive things. Since language is a human construction, it tends to be biased as it is mainly men's construction. Using gender perspectives, this paper attempts to discuss the imbalance in gender representations found in the examples given in an English learner's dictionary, that is, the "Cambridge Advanced…

  3. Up the Garden Path: A Chemical Trail through the Cambridge University Botanic Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M.; Kyd, Gwenda O.; Groom, Colin R.; Allen, Frank H.; Day, Juliet; Upson, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The living world is a rich source of chemicals with many medicines, dyes, flavorings, and foodstuffs having their origins in compounds produced by plants. We describe a chemical trail through the plant holdings of the Cambridge University Botanic Gardens. Visitors to the gardens are provided with a laminated trail guide with 22 stopping points…

  4. The Target of the Question: A Taxonomy of Textual Features for Cambridge University "O" Levels English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Shanti Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the typical textual features that are most frequently targeted in short-answer reading comprehension questions of the Cambridge University "O" Level English Paper 2. Test writers' awareness of how textual features impact on understanding of meanings in text decisions will determine to great extent their decisions…

  5. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Cambridge Primary Review: A Response to R. J. Campbell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to R.J. Campbell's critique of the "Cambridge Primary Review," which was published in the autumn of 2009. The author argues that Campbell's description of the "Review's" central proposals on curriculum and pedagogy as "backward-looking and inadequately theorised" is so misjudged as to call for a…

  6. Una metodología alternativa para la enseñanza de la anatomía en los de estudios enfermería de la Universidad de Carabobo An alternative methodology for the teaching of anatomy in Nursing at the University of Carabobo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Maria Arenas

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio es ofrecer una alternativa metodológica para la enseñanza de la Anatomía humana que contribuya a mejorar el rendimiento académico de los Enfermería de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad de Carabobo en dicha asignatura. Participaron en el experimento cincuenta estudiantes del ler. Año de Enfermería, cursantes de Anatomía humana, subdivididos en dos grupos identificados como grupo control y experimental. El diseño de la investigación es de tipo casi-experimental y metodología de trabajo es evaluativa-experimental. Para la recolección de la información se utilizaron tres instrumentos: una encuesta tipo escala de Lickert consistente de cuarenta proposiciones relacionadas con la los estudiantes hacia el estudio de la asignatura y la metodología de la enseñanza (EAEAM, acompañada de la escala de Intereses de Thrustone y del Test Psicométrico de Raven, a fin de determinar sus relaciones de acuerdo a los objetivos de la investigación. En función de los resultados empíricos del experimento y de la revisión y recopilación de la literatura del tema en estudio, se presenta una propuesta metodológica para enseñanza de la Anatomía humana, cuya naturaleza teórico-práctica exige: el estudio previo, la observación, la discusión y, fundamentalmente, la disección como alternativa para mejorar el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes de Enfermería.An alternative methodology for teaching of Human Anatomy which contributes to improve academic yield by Nursing students at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Carabobo is presented. A total of 50 first-year Nursing students who participated in the experiment were divided into 2 groups, control and experimental. This research project was of the almost-experimental type and the work methodology was experimental-evaluation. Three instruments were used to obtain data: an investigation of the Lickert school type consisting of 40

  7. Maximizing Modern Distribution of Complex Anatomical Spatial Information: 3D Reconstruction and Rapid Prototype Production of Anatomical Corrosion Casts of Human Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianyi; Nie, Lanying; Li, Zeyu; Lin, Lijun; Tang, Lei; Ouyang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical corrosion casts of human specimens are useful teaching aids. However, their use is limited due to ethical dilemmas associated with their production, their lack of perfect reproducibility, and their consumption of original specimens in the process of casting. In this study, new approaches with modern distribution of complex anatomical…

  8. Anatomical structure of Polystichum Roth ferns rachises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana V. Tyshchenko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The morpho-anatomical characteristics of rachis cross sections of five Polystichum species is presented. The main and auxiliary anatomical features which help to distinguish investigated species are revealed.

  9. Anatomic study of infrapopliteal vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, D; Stavropoulos, N A; Noussios, G; Sakellariou, V; Skandalakis, P

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to study and analyse the anatomical variations of the infrapopliteal vessels concerning their branching pattern. A reliable sample of one hundred formalin-fixed adult cadavers was dissected by the Anatomical Laboratory of Athens University. The variations can be classified in the following way: the normal branching of the popliteal artery was present in 90%. The remainder revealed variant branching patterns: hypoplastic or aplastic posterior tibial artery and the pedis arteries arising from the peroneal (3%); hypoplastic or aplastic anterior tibial artery (1.5%); and the dorsalis pedis formed by two equal branches, arising from the peroneal and the anterior tibial artery (2%). The variations were more frequent in females and in short-height individuals. Knowledge of these variations is rather important for any invasive technic concerning lower extremities.

  10. Understanding the current anatomical competence landscape: Comparing perceptions of program directors, residents, and fourth-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Erin P; Brokaw, James J; Kochhar, Komal; Nalin, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    A mixed methods survey of fourth-year medical students, resident physicians, and residency program directors at the Indiana University School of Medicine gathered perceptions of anatomical competence-defined as the anatomical education necessary for effective clinical practice. The survey items explored numerous aspects of anatomical competence, including the most effective modes of instruction, perceptions of readiness for clinical practice, and specific suggestions for improving anatomical education during medical school and residency. The response rate was 46% for fourth-year medical students, 47% for residents (as graduates from 137 medical schools), and 71% for program directors. A majority of students and residents reported that their course in Gross Anatomy prepared them well for clinical practice; that cadaveric dissection was important in the early development of their anatomical competence; and that placing a greater emphasis on clinical relevance in medical school would have improved their anatomical competence even further. However, in terms of anatomical preparedness upon entering residency, the program directors rated their residents less prepared than the residents rated themselves. All three groups agreed that there is need for additional opportunities for anatomical educational during medical school and residency. Suggestions for improving anatomical education included the following: providing more opportunities for cadaveric dissection during medical school and residency; more consistent teaching of anatomy for clinical practice; more workshops that review anatomy; and better integration of anatomy with the teaching of other subjects during medical school. Anat Sci Educ 9: 307-318. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26632977

  11. Understanding the current anatomical competence landscape: Comparing perceptions of program directors, residents, and fourth-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Erin P; Brokaw, James J; Kochhar, Komal; Nalin, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    A mixed methods survey of fourth-year medical students, resident physicians, and residency program directors at the Indiana University School of Medicine gathered perceptions of anatomical competence-defined as the anatomical education necessary for effective clinical practice. The survey items explored numerous aspects of anatomical competence, including the most effective modes of instruction, perceptions of readiness for clinical practice, and specific suggestions for improving anatomical education during medical school and residency. The response rate was 46% for fourth-year medical students, 47% for residents (as graduates from 137 medical schools), and 71% for program directors. A majority of students and residents reported that their course in Gross Anatomy prepared them well for clinical practice; that cadaveric dissection was important in the early development of their anatomical competence; and that placing a greater emphasis on clinical relevance in medical school would have improved their anatomical competence even further. However, in terms of anatomical preparedness upon entering residency, the program directors rated their residents less prepared than the residents rated themselves. All three groups agreed that there is need for additional opportunities for anatomical educational during medical school and residency. Suggestions for improving anatomical education included the following: providing more opportunities for cadaveric dissection during medical school and residency; more consistent teaching of anatomy for clinical practice; more workshops that review anatomy; and better integration of anatomy with the teaching of other subjects during medical school. Anat Sci Educ 9: 307-318. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Mime, Music and Drama on the Eighteenth-Century Stage. The Ballet d'Action. Edward Nye, Cambridge-New York, Cambridge University Press, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Onesti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mime, Music and Drama on the Eighteenth-Century Stage by Edward Nye (Cambridge University Press, 2011 has the merit of inspiring a strong reflection on ballet d'action, connected with cultural, literaturary and philosophic environment of Eighteenth century. The author, with brilliant insight and careful historical research, explores the most debated issues of the new genre, providing an unusual interpretation. The review traces the focal points and the structure of the book, developing further consideration of some of the most challenging aspects offered by the text.

  13. 浅谈社区教育学院剑桥少儿英语项目发展%Brief Talk on Development of Cambridge Young Learners English at Guanhaiwei Community Col ege

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗琼

    2013-01-01

      观海卫社区教育学院剑桥少儿英语培训项目自引入始,在短短的三年间已发展成为社区青少年培训的口碑品牌。本文全面探析剑桥少儿英语项目在该镇开展的初衷、现状及发展要求。重点介绍了具有社区教育特色的创新剑桥少儿英语学习系统的发展情况,以及为确保其健康推进所采取的各项教学管理措施。%  It has been three years since the item of Cambridge Young Learners English which has evolved into an excel ent brand of community primary scholars training was introduced into Guanhaiwei Community Col ege. The writer makes an explorative analysis of original intention, present status and development tendency of introducing Cambridge Young Learners English in Guanhaiwei Town. Development of Innovative Cambridge Young Learners English learning system with Characteristic of community education is discussed in detail as well as different kinds of teaching administration measures to ensure it is carried out smoothly.

  14. The Cambridge Car Memory Test: a task matched in format to the Cambridge Face Memory Test, with norms, reliability, sex differences, dissociations from face memory, and expertise effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Hugh W; McKone, Elinor; Tavashmi, Raka; Hall, Ashleigh; Pidcock, Madeleine; Edwards, Mark; Duchaine, Bradley

    2012-06-01

    Many research questions require a within-class object recognition task matched for general cognitive requirements with a face recognition task. If the object task also has high internal reliability, it can improve accuracy and power in group analyses (e.g., mean inversion effects for faces vs. objects), individual-difference studies (e.g., correlations between certain perceptual abilities and face/object recognition), and case studies in neuropsychology (e.g., whether a prosopagnosic shows a face-specific or object-general deficit). Here, we present such a task. Our Cambridge Car Memory Test (CCMT) was matched in format to the established Cambridge Face Memory Test, requiring recognition of exemplars across view and lighting change. We tested 153 young adults (93 female). Results showed high reliability (Cronbach's alpha = .84) and a range of scores suitable both for normal-range individual-difference studies and, potentially, for diagnosis of impairment. The mean for males was much higher than the mean for females. We demonstrate independence between face memory and car memory (dissociation based on sex, plus a modest correlation between the two), including where participants have high relative expertise with cars. We also show that expertise with real car makes and models of the era used in the test significantly predicts CCMT performance. Surprisingly, however, regression analyses imply that there is an effect of sex per se on the CCMT that is not attributable to a stereotypical male advantage in car expertise.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Fourth Cambridge Survey (4C) (Pilkington+ 1965; Gower+ 1967)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, J. D. H.; Scott, P. F.

    1996-04-01

    The Fourth Cambridge Radio Survey (4C) Catalogue contains all survey data from the papers of Pilkington and Scott (1965MmRAS..69..183P) and Gower, Scott and Wills (1967MmRAS..71...49G). These data result from a survey of radio sources between declinations -07 and +80 degrees using the large Cambridge interferometer at 178 MHz. The computerized catalog contains for each source the 4C number, 1950 position, measured flux density, accuracy class, galactic coordinates, and remarks. For some sources miscellaneous brief comments such as cross identifications to the 3C catalog or remarks on contamination from nearby sources are given at the ends of the data records. A flag (*) is included if there are additional remarks in the published catalog. (1 data file).

  16. Digital imaging in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, M J; Sotnikov, A V

    1996-10-01

    Advances in computer technology continue to bring new innovations to departments of anatomic pathology. This article briefly reviews the present status of digital optical imaging, and explores the directions that this technology may lead over the next several years. Technical requirements for digital microscopic and gross imaging, and the available options for image archival and retrieval are summarized. The advantages of digital images over conventional photography in the conference room, and the usefulness of digital imaging in the frozen section suite and gross room, as an adjunct to surgical signout and as a resource for training and education, are discussed. An approach to the future construction of digital histologic sections and the computer as microscope is described. The digital technologic applications that are now available as components of the surgical pathologist's workstation are enumerated. These include laboratory information systems, computerized voice recognition, and on-line or CD-based literature searching, texts and atlases and, in some departments, on-line image databases. The authors suggest that, in addition to these resources that are already available, tomorrow's surgical pathology workstation will include network-linked digital histologic databases, on-line software for image analysis and 3-D image enhancement, expert systems, and ultimately, advanced pattern recognition capabilities. In conclusion, the authors submit that digital optical imaging is likely to have a significant and positive impact on the future development of anatomic pathology. PMID:8853053

  17. Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    Ball L; Crowley J; Laur C; Rajput-Ray M; Gillam S; Ray S

    2014-01-01

    Lauren Ball,1 Jennifer Crowley,2 Celia Laur,3 Minha Rajput-Ray,3 Stephen Gillam,4 Sumantra Ray3 1Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Allied Health Sciences, Centre for Health Practice Innovation, Griffith University, Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; 2Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK; 4Department of Public Health and Primary C...

  18. Item Response Theory Analyses of the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT)

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Wilmer, Jeremy; Herzmann, Grit; McGugin, Rankin; Fiset, Daniel; Van Gulick, Ana E.; Ryan, Katie; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Cambridge face memory test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). First, we assessed the dimensionality of the test with a bi-factor exploratory factor analysis (EFA). This EFA analysis revealed a general factor and three specific factors clustered by targets of CFMT. However, the three specific factors appeared to be minor factors that can be ignored. Second, we fit a unidimensional item response model. This item response model showed that the CFMT...

  19. Hindi translation and validation of Cambridge-Hopkins Diagnostic Questionnaire for RLS (CHRLSq)

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Gupta; Richard P Allan; Ashwini Pundeer; Sourav Das; Mohan Dhyani; Deepak Goel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Restless legs syndrome also known as Willis-Ekbom′s Disease (RLS/WED) is a common illness. Cambridge-Hopkins diagnostic questionnaire for RLS (CHRLSq) is a good diagnostic tool and can be used in the epidemiological studies. However, its Hindi version is not available. Thus, this study was conducted to translate and validate it in the Hindi speaking population. Materials and Methods: After obtaining the permission from the author of the CHRLSq, it was translated into Hindi languag...

  20. PET/MRI in the infarcted mouse heart with the Cambridge split magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonincontri, Guido, E-mail: gb396@cam.ac.uk [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Box 65, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Sawiak, Stephen J. [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Box 65, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Methner, Carmen; Krieg, Thomas [Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hawkes, Robert C.; Adrian Carpenter, T. [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Box 65, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-21

    Chronic heart failure, as a result of acute myocardial infarction, is a leading cause of death worldwide. Combining diagnostic imaging modalities may aid the direct assessment of experimental treatments targeting heart failure in vivo. Here we present preliminary data using the Cambridge combined PET/MRI imaging system in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction. The split-magnet design can deliver uncompromised MRI and PET performance, for better assessment of disease and treatment in a preclinical environment.

  1. Adaptation of the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR into French-Canadian and English-Canadian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Coffin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR is the first disease-specific instrument for assessing patient-reported symptoms, functioning and quality of life (QoL in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH.

  2. Test pit excavation within currently occupied rural settlements: results of the University of Cambridge CORS project in 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Carenza

    2012-01-01

    2011 saw the seventh year of test pit excavation within currently occupied rural settlements (CORS) in East Anglia carried out under the supervision of Access Cambridge Archaeology (ACA) directed by Dr Carenza Lewis at the University of Cambridge. As in previous years, this archaeological activity combines education and university outreach (particularly within the secondary school sector) with the archaeological investigation of currently occupied rural settlements (CO...

  3. The Essential Anatomical Subunit Approximation Unilateral Cleft Lip Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, David K; Swanson, Jordan W

    2016-07-01

    The anatomical subunit approximation cleft lip repair advantageously achieves a balanced lip contour, with the line of repair hidden along seams of aesthetic subunits. Dr. David Fisher's original description of the repair reflects the considerable thought that went into the evolution of his design. As his technique has gained acceptance in the intervening 10 years, the authors note several key principles embodied in it that represent a shift in the cleft lip repair paradigm. The authors believe understanding these principles is important to mastery of the anatomical subunit technique, and facilitate its teaching. First, design a plan that adheres to anatomical subunits and perform measurements precisely. Second, identify and adequately release each cleft tissue layer from the lip and nose to enable restoration of balance. Third, drive surgical approximation through inset of the lateral muscle into the superiorly backcut medial orbicularis muscle, followed by skin closure with inferior triangle interposition above the white roll. In this article, the authors present essential components of the technique, and identify several principles that enable its successful execution. PMID:27348690

  4. Workshop on Teaching Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    1985-01-01

    It seemed appropriate to arrange a meeting of teachers of thermodynamics in the United Kingdom, a meeting held in the pleasant surroundings of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in Sept~mber, 1984. This volume records the ideas put forward by authors, the discussion generated and an account of the action that discussion has initiated. Emphasis was placed on the Teaching of Thermodynamics to degree-level students in their first and second years. The meeting, a workshop for practitioners in which all were expected to take part, was remarkably well supported. This was notable in the representation of essentially every UK university and polytechnic engaged in teaching engineering thermodynamics and has led to a stimulating spread of ideas. By intention, the emphasis for attendance was put on teachers of engineering concerned with thermodynamics, both mechanical and chemical engineering disciplines. Attendance from others was encouraged but limited as follows: non-engineering acad­ emics, 10%, industrialists, 10%. The ...

  5. 40-Godišnjica institucije Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre posvećene pohranjivanju podataka o molekularnim i kristalnim strukturama -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molčanov, K.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to 40th anniversary of The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC, the world-known centre (http://www.ccdc.cam.ac.uk responsible for deposition and control of crystallographic data, including atomic coordinates that define the three-dimensional structures of organic molecules and metal complexes containing organic ligands. Cambride Structural Database (CSD, one among the first established electronic databases, nowadays is the most significant crystallographic database in the world. CSD has about 400,000 deposited structures. The use of the extensive database, which is growing rapidly, needs support of efficient and sophisticated software for searching, analysing and visualising structural data. The seminal role of CSD in the research related to crystallography, chemistry, material sciences, solid state physics and chemistry, life sciences, pharmacology, and in particular in drug design, has been documented in more than 1300 scientific papers. The important issues of CCDC are the accuracy of deposited data and development of software that enables a wide variety of applications. Such demanding project requires higly competent team of experts; thus the article brings into focus the scientific approach of the team based on the long tradition in crystallography, modelling and informatics. The article is not dedicated to 40th anniversary of the centre only, but it also reveals how Cambridge Structural Database can be used in the research and teaching. The use of electronic media and computer graphics makes “data mining" very efficient and useful but also esthetically appealing due to the molecular architecture. At the Rudjer Bošković Institute, Zagreb, Croatia there is The National Affiliated Centre of Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre responsible for communication and dissemination of CSD in Croatia, Slovenia and Macedonia. The use of CSD is illustrated by two examples performed and published by the presenting

  6. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  7. Are the Genitalia of Anatomical Dolls Distorted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Jan

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether the genitalia of anatomical dolls are disproportionately large and may suggest sexual activity to children who have not been abused, the genitalia and breasts of 17 sets of anatomical dolls were measured. When the measurements were extrapolated to adult human proportions, the sizes were not found to be exaggerated. (Author/JDD)

  8. Brief history of the Cambridge STEM aberration correction project and its progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L Michael; Batson, Philip E; Dellby, Niklas; Krivanek, Ondrej L

    2015-10-01

    We provide a brief history of the project to correct the spherical aberration of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) that started in Cambridge (UK) and continued in Kirkland (WA, USA), Yorktown Heights (NY, USA), and other places. We describe the project in the full context of other aberration correction research and related work, partly in response to the incomplete context presented in the paper "In quest of perfection in electron optics: A biographical sketch of Harald Rose on the occasion of his 80th birthday", recently published in Ultramicroscopy.

  9. Anatomic Eponyms in Neuroradiology: Head and Neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    In medicine, an eponym is a word-typically referring to an anatomic structure, disease, or syndrome-that is derived from a person's name. Medical eponyms are ubiquitous and numerous. They are also at times controversial. Eponyms reflect medicine's rich and colorful history and can be useful for concisely conveying complex concepts. Familiarity with eponyms facilitates correct usage and accurate communication. In this article, 22 eponyms used to describe anatomic structures of the head and neck are discussed. For each structure, the author first provides a biographical account of the individual for whom the structure is named. An anatomic description and brief discussion of the structure's clinical relevance follow. PMID:27283070

  10. Technology Solutions Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency, which faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68°F) than day (73° F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  11. Heliospheric tomography using interplanetary scintillation observations 1. Combined Nagoya and Cambridge data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B. V.; Hick, P. L.; Kojima, M.; Yokobe, A.

    1998-06-01

    We have produced a computer assisted tomography program that optimizes a three-dimensional model to fit observational data. We have used this program with interplanetary scintillation data from Nagoya, Japan, and Cambridge, England. The program iterates to a least squares solution fit of observed data using solar rotation and solar wind motion to provide perspective views of each point in space accessible to the observations. We plot the optimized model as Carrington maps in velocity V and density Ne for the two data sets with resolutions of 10° in heliographic longitude and latitude. We map the model to 1 AU and compare this to in situ observations from the IMP spacecraft. From this comparison we find ΔNe~Ne0.3. We plot Carrington maps extrapolated to the solar surface to compare with Yohkoh Soft X ray Telescope (SXT), Sacramento Peak green line, and Mark III K-coronameter observations. High velocities modeled at the solar surface for individual rotations trace coronal holes (including polar ones) observed in SXT data. Regions of high density modeled from the Cambridge scintillation level data generally show a high correlation with regions of high solar activity observed as bright in Yohkoh SXT and green line observations. There is also a general correspondence of the regions of high density and the areas which are bright in K-coronameter observations.

  12. The factors influencing car use in a cycle-friendly city: the case of Cambridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carse, Andrew; Goodman, Anna; Mackett, Roger L; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2013-04-01

    Encouraging people out of their cars and into other modes of transport, which has major advantages for health, the environment and urban development, has proved difficult. Greater understanding of the influences that lead people to use the car, particularly for shorter journeys, may help to achieve this. This paper examines the predictors of car use compared with the bicycle to explore how it may be possible to persuade more people to use the bicycle instead of the car. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the socio-demographic, transport and health-related correlates of mode choice for work, shopping and leisure trips in Cambridge, a city with high levels of cycling by UK standards. The key findings are that commuting distance and free workplace parking were strongly associated with use of the car for work trips, and car availability and lower levels of education were associated with car use for leisure, shopping and short-distanced commuting trips. The case of Cambridge shows that more policies could be adopted, particularly a reduction in free car parking, to increase cycling and reduce the use of the car, especially over short distances.

  13. Complex anatomic variation in the brachial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupis, Th; Michalinos, A; Protogerou, V; Mazarakis, A; Skandalakis, P

    2015-01-01

    Authors describe a case of a complex anatomic variation discovered during dissection of the humeral region. On the right side, brachial artery followed a superficial course. Musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce coracobrachialis muscle but instead passed below the muscle before continuing in the forearm. On the left side, a communication between musculocutaneous and median nerve was dissected. Those variations are analytically presented with a brief review on their anatomic and clinical implications. Considerations on their embryological origin are attempted.

  14. The Application of an Anatomical Database for Fetal Congenital Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yang; Qiu-Yan Pei; Yun-Tao Li; Zhen-Juan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Fetal congenital heart anomalies are the most common congenital anomalies in live births.Fetal echocardiography (FECG) is the only prenatal diagnostic approach used to detect fetal congenital heart disease (CHD).FECG is not widely used,and the antenatal diagnosis rate of CHD varies considerably.Thus,mastering the anatomical characteristics of different kinds of CHD is critical for ultrasound physicians to improve FECG technology.The aim of this study is to investigate the applications of a fetal CHD anatomic database in FECG teaching and training program.Methods:We evaluated 60 transverse section databases including 27 types of fetal CHD built in the Prenatal Diagnosis Center in Peking University People's Hospital.Each original database contained 400-700 cross-sectional digital images with a resolution of 3744 pixels × 5616 pixels.We imported the database into Amira 5.3.1 (Australia Visage Imaging Company,Australia) three-dimensional (3D) software.The database functions use a series of 3D software visual operations.The features of the fetal CHD anatomical database were analyzed to determine its applications in FECG continuing education and training.Results:The database was rebuilt using the 3D software.The original and rebuilt databases can be displayed dynamically,continuously,and synchronically and can be rotated at arbitrary angles.The sections from the dynamic displays and rotating angles are consistent with the sections in FECG.The database successfully reproduced the anatomic structures and spatial relationship features of different fetal CHDs.We established a fetal CHD anatomy training database and a standardized training database for FECG.Ultrasound physicians and students can learn the anatomical features of fetal CHD and FECG through either centralized training or distance education.Conclusions:The database of fetal CHD successfully reproduced the anatomic structures and spatial relationship of different kinds of fetal CHD.This database can be

  15. Bericht uber den 2. Internationalen Kongress fur Angewandte Linguistik. Cambridge 8.-12. IX. 1969. [Report on the Second International Congress for Applied Linguistics, Cambridge, Dec. 8-12, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Peter

    This paper is a summary report on the Second International Congress of Applied Linguistics held in Cambridge, England in September 1969. Because of the large number of papers delivered, only a selection of the papers delivered in any one section of the Congress are considered, and the author attempts to identify current interests and trends in…

  16. Teaching for expertise: problem-based methods in medicine and other professional domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, Els

    2010-01-01

    Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2009). Teaching for expertise: problem-based methods in medicine and other professional domains. In K. A. Ericsson (Ed.), The development of professional performance: Approaches to objective measurement and designed learning environments (pp. 379-404). UK: Cambridge University P

  17. Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in organic chemistry and crystal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Frank H; Motherwell, W D Samuel

    2002-06-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and its associated software systems have formed the basis for more than 800 research applications in structural chemistry, crystallography and the life sciences. Relevant references, dating from the mid-1970s, and brief synopses of these papers are collected in a database, DBUse, which is freely available via the CCDC website. This database has been used to review research applications of the CSD in organic chemistry, including supramolecular applications, and in organic crystal chemistry. The review concentrates on applications that have been published since 1990 and covers a wide range of topics, including structure correlation, conformational analysis, hydrogen bonding and other intermolecular interactions, studies of crystal packing, extended structural motifs, crystal engineering and polymorphism, and crystal structure prediction. Applications of CSD information in studies of crystal structure precision, the determination of crystal structures from powder diffraction data, together with applications in chemical informatics, are also discussed.

  18. The Cambridge Structural Database: a quarter of a million crystal structures and rising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Frank H

    2002-06-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) now contains data for more than a quarter of a million small-molecule crystal structures. The information content of the CSD, together with methods for data acquisition, processing and validation, are summarized, with particular emphasis on the chemical information added by CSD editors. Nearly 80% of new structural data arrives electronically, mostly in CIF format, and the CCDC acts as the official crystal structure data depository for 51 major journals. The CCDC now maintains both a CIF archive (more than 73,000 CIFs dating from 1996), as well as the distributed binary CSD archive; the availability of data in both archives is discussed. A statistical survey of the CSD is also presented and projections concerning future accession rates indicate that the CSD will contain at least 500,000 crystal structures by the year 2010.

  19. Debate on Bruce Bimber´s Book Information and American Democracy. Cambridge University Press, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpf, David

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availablePresentation José Manuel Robles Abstract of Information and American Democracy. Cambridge University Press, 2003 Bruce Bimber From Regimes to Ecologies: Globalizing Bruce Bimber’s Model of Information and Politics Steven Livingston Internet, new forms of power and democracy José Luís Garcia Internet: A Technological Tool and Changes in Political Power Liu Gang Information and American Democracy in the era of web 2.0 Lorenzo Mosca What Comes Next?: Bimber’s Information Revolutions and Institutional Disruptions David Karpf Online Political Information and Online Political Participation José Manuel Robles Digital Media and Political Change: A Response to Garcia, Karpf, Livingston, Liu, Mosca, and Robles Bruce Bimber

  20. Does the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) Distinguish Between Cognitive Domains in Healthy Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenehan, Megan E; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Summers, Jeffery J; Vickers, James C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a semiautomated computer interface for assessing cognitive function. We examined whether CANTAB tests measured specific cognitive functions, using established neuropsychological tests as a reference point. A sample of 500 healthy older (M = 60.28 years, SD = 6.75) participants in the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project completed battery of CANTAB subtests and standard paper-based neuropsychological tests. Confirmatory factor analysis identified four factors: processing speed, verbal ability, episodic memory, and working memory. However, CANTAB tests did not consistently load onto the cognitive domain factors derived from traditional measures of the same function. These results indicate that five of the six CANTAB subtests examined did not load onto single cognitive functions. These CANTAB tests may lack the sensitivity to measure discrete cognitive functions in healthy populations or may measure other cognitive domains not included in the traditional neuropsychological battery.

  1. Experience from two decades of the Cambridge Rapid Access Neurology Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinte, Laura T; Fiddes, Barnaby D; Donaghy, Alastair; Whyte, Adam; Allen, Chris; Sawcer, Stephen J; Adam, Robert J; Stacpoole, Sybil R L

    2015-10-01

    We report on the evolution of the rapid access neurology clinic (established in 1995) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge. Annualised attendance data demonstrate an ever increasing demand, with primary headache disorders now accounting for more than 40% of referrals. Secondary causes of headache (including intracranial tumours, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, carotid or vertebral artery dissection and subdural haematomas) remain infrequent. In all such cases, there were additional diagnostic clues. The number of patients referred with problems related to chronic neurological diseases has fallen considerably, reflecting the roles of specialist nurses and clinics. Imaging investigation of choice shifted from computerised tomography scan (45 to 16%) towards magnetic resonance imaging (17 to 47%). Management is increasingly on an outpatient basis, often without the need for a follow-up appointment. The experience presented here should inform further development of rapid access neurology clinics across the UK and suggests the need for acute headache services, in line with those for transient ischaemic attack and first seizure.

  2. The long-term impact of urbanisation on aquatic plants: Cambridge and the River Cam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, C D; Sheail, J; Armitage, P; Davy-Bowker, J

    2003-10-01

    Historical and contemporary records have been used to assess the impact of urbanisation on the aquatic plants of the River Cam and its narrow floodplain in Cambridge. Of the 62 native aquatic plant species which have been recorded in the study area since 1660, 40 (65%) were still present in the period 1985-1999 whereas 22 (35%) are apparently extinct. There is a striking relationship between the fate of species and their trophic requirements, with species of less eutrophic habitats having suffered disproportionately. Historical records demonstrate that the River Cam became grossly polluted by sewage from Cambridge in the 19th century, but the chemical and biological quality of the river improved from 1897 onwards. However, the majority of the species recorded from the river and nearby ditches persisted until after maximum incidence of sewage pollution, which may even have stimulated the growth of 'weed' in the river. Losses of aquatic plant species from two riparian commons, Coe Fen (35%) and Sheep's Green (50%), have been particularly great. The level of these and other areas of low-lying common land by the river has been systematically raised by the controlled tipping of waste in hollows, followed by levelling and resowing. The main effects of urbanisation on the flora therefore arose from the transformation of riparian pastures into suburban open spaces. Commons which are used purely for amenity purposes have lost almost all their aquatic plant species. Those which are still grazed retain more, and continuance of grazing is probably essential if a varied aquatic flora is to be maintained. The interpretation of botanical records in terms of recorded management history is likely to throw further light on the processes of urbanisation, although the number of sites with a sufficiently detailed botanical record may be limited. PMID:14499527

  3. Assessing the Impact of the Cambridge International Acceleration Program on U.S. University Determinants of Success: A Multi-Level Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stuart; Warren, Jayne; Gill, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the research being conducted by Cambridge International Examinations (Cambridge) to ensure that its international assessments prepare students as well as other acceleration programs for continued study in U.S. colleges and universities. The study, which builds on previous freshman GPA data modeling work using data supplied…

  4. Reduction of Mental Distress in the Dissection Course by Introducing the Body Donor Experience through Anatomical Demonstrations of Organ Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Baader, Christoph; Fassnacht, Ulrich Kai; Ochsner, Wolfgang; Bockers, Tobias Maria

    2012-01-01

    The practice of dissection teaches students not only the foundations of anatomical knowledge but also encourages the development of professional competencies. Yet, the dissection of cadavers in the gross anatomy course can be a stress factor for medical students. There are a minor proportion of students who demonstrate strong emotional reactions…

  5. Tartu Ülikooli teadur kaitses Cambridgeì Ülikoolis doktorikraadi / Krõõt Nõges

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõges, Krõõt

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli filosoofia osakonna teadur ja eetikakeskuse stipendiaat Eva Piirimäe kaitses Cambridgeì Ülikoolis doktorikraadi ideede ajaloo erialal doktoritööga "Thomas Abbt (1738-1766) and the Philosophical Genesis of German Nationalism"

  6. Two new spider species of the genus Chrysso O. P.-Cambridge, 1882 (Araneae, Theridiidae) in Hainan Island, China

    OpenAIRE

    Bao-Shi Zhang; Feng Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two new spider species of the genus Chrysso O. P.-Cambridge, 1882 are reported from Hainan Island, China, Chrysso bifurca sp. n. (male, female) and Chrysso bicuspidata sp. n. (male, female). Chrysso bimaculata Yoshida, 1998is recorded from China for the first time.

  7. M-DCPS Student Performance in International Baccalaureate and Cambridge Advanced International Certificate of Education Programs. Research Brief. Volume 1102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2011-01-01

    This Research Brief summarizes the performance of M-DCPS students participating in the International Baccalaureate (IB) and Cambridge Advanced International Certificate of Education (AICE) programs. Outcome data are provided for the eight M-DCPS schools offering the two programs and corresponding examinations. Participation in international…

  8. Degrees of Influence: The Politics of Honorary Degrees in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, 1900-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Michael; Jons, Heike

    2007-01-01

    The universities of Oxford and Cambridge had developed different attitudes towards the award of honorary degrees through the early and middle decades of the twentieth century. Recently, both have adopted a similar cautious and apolitical stance. This essay describes the role of honorary degrees in the production and reproduction of their cultural…

  9. Jonathan Schlefer, The Assumptions Economists Make (Cambridge, Mass., and London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Winchester

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the book by Jonathan Schlefer: The Assumptions Economists Make (Cambridge, Mass., and London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2012, €26,10 / £21.95 / US$28.95, 356pp HBK (English, ISBN: 9780674052260.

  10. Lateral laryngopharyngeal diverticulum: anatomical and videofluoroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Milton Melciades Barbosa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro ICB/CCS/UFRJ, Laboratorio de Motilidade Digestiva e Imagem, S. F1-008, Departamento de Anatomia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Koch, Hilton Augusto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro ICB/CCS/UFRJ, Departamento de Radiologia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The aims were to characterize the anatomical region where the lateral laryngopharyngeal protrusion occurs and to define if this protrusion is a normal or a pathological entity. This protrusion was observed on frontal contrasted radiographs as an addition image on the upper portion of the laryngopharynx. We carried out a plane-by-plane qualitative anatomical study through macroscopic and mesoscopic surgical dissection on 12 pieces and analyzed through a videofluoroscopic method on frontal incidence the pharyngeal phase of the swallowing process of 33 patients who had a lateral laryngopharyngeal protrusion. The anatomical study allowed us to identify the morphological characteristics that configure the high portion of the piriform recess as a weak anatomical point. The videofluoroscopic study allowed us to observe the laryngopharyngeal protrusion and its relation to pharyngeal repletion of the contrast medium. All kinds of the observed protrusions could be classified as ''lateral laryngopharyngeal diverticula.'' The lateral diverticula were more frequent in older people. These lateral protrusions can be found on one or both sides, usually with a small volume, without sex or side prevalence. This formation is probably a sign of a pharyngeal transference difficulty associated with a deficient tissue resistance in the weak anatomical point of the high portion of the piriform recess. (orig.)

  11. An investigation into the impact of question structure on the performance of first year physics undergraduate students at the University of Cambridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Valerie; Jardine-Wright, Lisa; Bateman, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    We describe a study of the impact of exam question structure on the performance of first year Natural Sciences physics undergraduates from the University of Cambridge. The results show conclusively that a student’s performance improves when questions are scaffolded compared with university style questions. In a group of 77 female students we observe that the average exam mark increases by 13.4% for scaffolded questions, which corresponds to a 4.9 standard deviation effect. The equivalent observation for 236 male students is 9% (5.5 standard deviations). We also observe a correlation between exam performance and A2-level marks for UK students, and that students who receive their school education overseas, in a mixed gender environment, or at an independent school are more likely to receive a first class mark in the exam. These results suggest a mis-match between the problem-solving skills and assessment procedures between school and first year university and will provide key input into the future teaching and assessment of first year undergraduate physics students.

  12. Anatomic Breast Coordinate System for Mammogram Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Brandt, S; Karssemeijer, N;

    2011-01-01

    inside the breast. Most of the risk assessment and CAD modules use a breast region in a image centered Cartesian x,y coordinate system. Nevertheless, anatomical structure follows curve-linear trajectories. We examined an anatomical breast coordinate system that preserves the anatomical correspondence...... between the mammograms and allows extracting not only the aligned position but also the orientation aligned with the anatomy of the breast tissue structure. Materials and Methods The coordinate system used the nipple location as the point A and the border of the pectoral muscle as a line BC. The skin air...... was represented by geodesic distance (s) from nipple and parametric angle (¿) as shown in figure 1. The scoring technique called MTR (mammographic texture resemblance marker) used this breast coordinate system to extract Gaussian derivative features. The features extracted using the (x,y) and the curve...

  13. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  14. Congenital neck masses: embryological and anatomical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahida Rasool

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neck masses are a common problem in paediatric age group. They tend to occur frequently and pose a diagnostic dilemma to the ENT surgeons. Although the midline and lateral neck masses differ considerably in their texture and presentation but the embryological perspective of these masses is not mostly understood along with the fundamental anatomical knowledge. The article tries to correlate the embryological, anatomical and clinical perspectives for the same. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 329-332

  15. Anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trobs R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumor surgery requires meticulous planning and sophisticated surgical technique. Detailed anatomical knowledge can facilitate the uneventful performance of tumor nephrectomy and cannot be replaced by advanced and sophisticated imaging techniques. We can define two main goals for surgery: (1 exact staging as well as (2 safe and complete resection of tumor without spillage. This review aims to review the anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery. It focuses on the surgical anatomy of retroperitoneal space, aorta, vena cava and their large branches with lymphatics. Types and management of vascular injuries are discussed.

  16. [BIRTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ANATOMICAL MUSEUMS OF MODENA BETWEEN XVIII AND XIX CENTURY. THE OBSTETRIC MUSEUM, THE ANATOMICAL MUSEUM, THE ETHNOGRAPHIC ANTHROPOLOGIC MUSEUM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The interest for the study of Anatomy in Modena was particularly developed since the second half of eighteenth century, when the Duke Francesco III of Este promoted the reformation of the University and Antonio Scarpa was called from Padua to teach Anatomy. Scarpa promoted the building of the Anatomical Theatre, near the Grande Spedale, that was inaugurated in 1776. On the same year, the School of Obstetrics opened and determined the constitution of a first Cabinet or Obstetric Museum in a room next to the Theatre. After the Restoration, between 1817 and 1818, the Archduke Francesco IV of Austria Este promoted the realization of an Anatomical Museum: a big organized room in a new floor built on the Theatre. Two more rooms were added in, 1839 and a fourth one in 1853, under the direction of Paolo Gaddi. Furthermore Gaddi's interest for ethnographic studies determined the opening of the Ethnographic Anthropological Museum in 1866.

  17. Handbook of anatomical models for radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-01-01

    Covering the history of human model development, this title presents the major anatomical and physical models that have been developed for human body radiation protection, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear medicine therapy. It explores how these models have evolved and the role that modern technologies have played in this development.

  18. Anatomically Plausible Surface Alignment and Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus R.; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing clinical use of 3D surface scanners, there is a need for accurate and reliable algorithms that can produce anatomically plausible surfaces. In this paper, a combined method for surface alignment and reconstruction is proposed. It is based on an implicit surface representation...

  19. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  20. Report of a rare anatomic variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Brucker, Y; Ilsen, B; Muylaert, C;

    2015-01-01

    We report the CT findings in a case of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) from the left upper lobe in an adult. PAPVR is an anatomic variant in which one to three pulmonary veins drain into the right atrium or its tributaries, rather than into the left atrium. This results in a lef...

  1. Characteristic Conformation of Mosher’s Amide Elucidated Using the Cambridge Structural Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Ichikawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Conformations of the crystalline 3,3,3-trifluoro-2-methoxy-2-phenylpropanamide derivatives (MTPA amides deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD were examined statistically as Racid-enantiomers. The majority of dihedral angles (48/58, ca. 83% of the amide carbonyl groups and the trifluoromethyl groups ranged from –30° to 0° with an average angle θ1 of −13°. The other conformational properties were also clarified: (1 one of the fluorine atoms was antiperiplanar (ap to the amide carbonyl group, forming a staggered conformation; (2 the MTPA amides prepared from primary amines showed a Z form in amide moieties; (3 in the case of the MTPA amide prepared from a primary amine possessing secondary alkyl groups (i.e., Mosher-type MTPA amide, the dihedral angles between the methine groups and the carbonyl groups were syn and indicative of a moderate conformational flexibility; (4 the phenyl plane was inclined from the O–Cchiral bond of the methoxy moiety with an average dihedral angle θ2 of +21°; (5 the methyl group of the methoxy moiety was ap to the ipso-carbon atom of the phenyl group.

  2. Item response theory analyses of the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Wilmer, Jeremy; Herzmann, Grit; McGugin, Rankin Williams; Fiset, Daniel; Van Gulick, Ana E; Ryan, Kaitlin F; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). First, we assessed the dimensionality of the test with a bifactor exploratory factor analysis (EFA). This EFA analysis revealed a general factor and 3 specific factors clustered by targets of CFMT. However, the 3 specific factors appeared to be minor factors that can be ignored. Second, we fit a unidimensional item response model. This item response model showed that the CFMT items could discriminate individuals at different ability levels and covered a wide range of the ability continuum. We found the CFMT to be particularly precise for a wide range of ability levels. Third, we implemented item response theory (IRT) differential item functioning (DIF) analyses for each gender group and 2 age groups (age ≤ 20 vs. age > 21). This DIF analysis suggested little evidence of consequential differential functioning on the CFMT for these groups, supporting the use of the test to compare older to younger, or male to female, individuals. Fourth, we tested for a gender difference on the latent facial recognition ability with an explanatory item response model. We found a significant but small gender difference on the latent ability for face recognition, which was higher for women than men by 0.184, at age mean 23.2, controlling for linear and quadratic age effects. Finally, we discuss the practical considerations of the use of total scores versus IRT scale scores in applications of the CFMT.

  3. Minimal exposure technique in the Cambridge University 600kV high resolution electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation damage due to the incident electron beam imposes a fundamental limitation on the information obtainable by electron microscopy about organic materials; it is desirable therefore that exposure of the specimen to the electron beam should be restricted to the actual period during which the image is being recorded. A description is given of methods employed in the observation of the organic aromatic hydrocarbons quaterrylene, ovalene and coronene with the Cambridge University 600kV high resolution electron microscope (HREM). In particular, the condenser-objective mode of operation of this microscope lends itself to the use of an area-defining aperture below the second condenser lens conjugate with the specimen. Furthermore, operation at the higher accelerating voltage of this instrument could be anticipated to reduce the rate of damage, depending on the dominant beam-specimen interaction, whilst the increased width of the first broad band of the contrast transfer function of this microscope at the optimum defocus may overcome the reported resolution limitation of current 100kV microscopes for the observation of related materials. (author)

  4. Characteristic conformation of Mosher's amide elucidated using the cambridge structural database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Akio; Ono, Hiroshi; Mikata, Yuji

    2015-07-16

    Conformations of the crystalline 3,3,3-trifluoro-2-methoxy-2-phenylpropanamide derivatives (MTPA amides) deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) were examined statistically as Racid-enantiomers. The majority of dihedral angles (48/58, ca. 83%) of the amide carbonyl groups and the trifluoromethyl groups ranged from -30° to 0° with an average angle θ1 of -13°. The other conformational properties were also clarified: (1) one of the fluorine atoms was antiperiplanar (ap) to the amide carbonyl group, forming a staggered conformation; (2) the MTPA amides prepared from primary amines showed a Z form in amide moieties; (3) in the case of the MTPA amide prepared from a primary amine possessing secondary alkyl groups (i.e., Mosher-type MTPA amide), the dihedral angles between the methine groups and the carbonyl groups were syn and indicative of a moderate conformational flexibility; (4) the phenyl plane was inclined from the O-Cchiral bond of the methoxy moiety with an average dihedral angle θ2 of +21°; (5) the methyl group of the methoxy moiety was ap to the ipso-carbon atom of the phenyl group.

  5. Swift observations of unidentified radio sources in the revised Third Cambridge Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, A.; Massaro, F.; Cusumano, G.; La Parola, V.; Harris, D. E.; Paggi, A.; Liuzzo, E.; Tremblay, G. R.; Baum, S. A.; O'Dea, C. P.

    2016-08-01

    We have investigated a group of unassociated radio sources included in the Third Cambridge Catalogue (3CR) to increase the multifrequency information on them and possibly obtain an identification. We have carried out an observational campaign with the Swift satellite to observe with the Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) the field of view of 21 bright NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) sources within the positional uncertainty region of the 3CR sources. Furthermore, we have searched in the recent AllWISE Source Catalogue for infrared sources matching the position of these NVSS sources. We have detected significant emission in the soft X-ray band for nine of the investigated NVSS sources. To all of them, and in four cases with no soft X-ray association, we have associated a Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared counterpart. Eight of these infrared candidates have not been proposed earlier in the literature. In the five remaining cases our candidate matches one among a few optical candidates suggested for the same 3CR source in previous studies. No source has been detected in the UVOT filters at the position of the NVSS objects, confirming the scenario that all of them are heavily obscured. With this in mind, a spectroscopic campaign, preferably in the infrared band, will be necessary to establish the nature of the sources that we have finally identified.

  6. The Cambridge Face Tracker: Accurate, Low Cost Measurement of Head Posture Using Computer Vision and Face Recognition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Peter B. M.; Baltrušaitis, Tadas; Robinson, Peter; Vivian, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We validate a video-based method of head posture measurement. Methods The Cambridge Face Tracker uses neural networks (constrained local neural fields) to recognize facial features in video. The relative position of these facial features is used to calculate head posture. First, we assess the accuracy of this approach against videos in three research databases where each frame is tagged with a precisely measured head posture. Second, we compare our method to a commercially available mechanical device, the Cervical Range of Motion device: four subjects each adopted 43 distinct head postures that were measured using both methods. Results The Cambridge Face Tracker achieved confident facial recognition in 92% of the approximately 38,000 frames of video from the three databases. The respective mean error in absolute head posture was 3.34°, 3.86°, and 2.81°, with a median error of 1.97°, 2.16°, and 1.96°. The accuracy decreased with more extreme head posture. Comparing The Cambridge Face Tracker to the Cervical Range of Motion Device gave correlation coefficients of 0.99 (P < 0.0001), 0.96 (P < 0.0001), and 0.99 (P < 0.0001) for yaw, pitch, and roll, respectively. Conclusions The Cambridge Face Tracker performs well under real-world conditions and within the range of normally-encountered head posture. It allows useful quantification of head posture in real time or from precaptured video. Its performance is similar to that of a clinically validated mechanical device. It has significant advantages over other approaches in that subjects do not need to wear any apparatus, and it requires only low cost, easy-to-setup consumer electronics. Translational Relevance Noncontact assessment of head posture allows more complete clinical assessment of patients, and could benefit surgical planning in future. PMID:27730008

  7. [On the artful, yet pernicious body. A cultural-historical interpretation of Bidloo's anatomical atlas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoeff, Rina

    2003-01-01

    Among historians of science and medicine it is well known that early modern anatomical representations, in addition to illustrating ideas on the body, also teach a moral lesson. The anatomical cabinets of Frederik Ruysch (1638-1731) are exemplary. His exhibits show 1) the divine design of the body and 2) the fragility of life and man's dependence on God for his existence. Govard Bidloo (1649-1713), in his anatomical atlas, the Anatomia humani corporis (1685), does not seem to answer this standard view on the 'moral teaching' of anatomy. It has been argued that his depictions of dead and mutilated (parts of) bodies indicate a more realistic way of representation, devoid of metaphor and morality. Yet, taking the fierce controversy between Bidloo and Ruysch as my starting point, I show that in fact there is a moral lesson in Bidloo's anatomy. It reflects two important aspects of Bidloo's Mennonite faith, i.e. the aversion against beautiful decoration and the fascination with suffering and death found in martyr stories.

  8. A robust method of measuring other-race and other-ethnicity effects: the Cambridge Face Memory Test format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, Elinor; Stokes, Sacha; Liu, Jia; Cohan, Sarah; Fiorentini, Chiara; Pidcock, Madeleine; Yovel, Galit; Broughton, Mary; Pelleg, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Other-race and other-ethnicity effects on face memory have remained a topic of consistent research interest over several decades, across fields including face perception, social psychology, and forensic psychology (eyewitness testimony). Here we demonstrate that the Cambridge Face Memory Test format provides a robust method for measuring these effects. Testing the Cambridge Face Memory Test original version (CFMT-original; European-ancestry faces from Boston USA) and a new Cambridge Face Memory Test Chinese (CFMT-Chinese), with European and Asian observers, we report a race-of-face by race-of-observer interaction that was highly significant despite modest sample size and despite observers who had quite high exposure to the other race. We attribute this to high statistical power arising from the very high internal reliability of the tasks. This power also allows us to demonstrate a much smaller within-race other ethnicity effect, based on differences in European physiognomy between Boston faces/observers and Australian faces/observers (using the CFMT-Australian).

  9. ANATOMIC RESEARCH OF SUPERIOR CLUNIAL NERVE TRAUMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In order to find the mechanism of superior clunial nerve (SCN) trauma, we dissected and revealed SCN from 12 corpses (24 sides). Combining 100 sides of SCN trauma, we inspected the course of SCN, the relation between SCN and it's neighbour tissues with the situation of SCN when being subjected to force. We found that the following special anatomic characteristics and mechanical elements such as the course of SCN, it's turning angles, the bony fibrous tube at the iliac crest, the posterior layer of the lumbodorsal fascia and SCN neighbour adipose tissue, are the causes of external force inducing SCN trauma. The anatomic revealment is the guidance of SCN trauma treatment with edged needle.

  10. Integrating anatomical pathology to the healthcare enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel-Le Bozec, Christel; Henin, Dominique; Fabiani, Bettina; Bourquard, Karima; Ouagne, David; Degoulet, Patrice; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    For medical decisions, healthcare professionals need that all required information is both correct and easily available. We address the issue of integrating anatomical pathology department to the healthcare enterprise. The pathology workflow from order to report, including specimen process and image acquisition was modeled. Corresponding integration profiles were addressed by expansion of the IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) initiative. Implementation using respectively DICOM Structured Report (SR) and DICOM Slide-Coordinate Microscopy (SM) was tested. The two main integration profiles--pathology general workflow and pathology image workflow--rely on 13 transactions based on HL7 or DICOM standard. We propose a model of the case in anatomical pathology and of other information entities (orders, image folders and reports) and real-world objects (specimen, tissue samples, slides, etc). Cases representation in XML schemas, based on DICOM specification, allows producing DICOM image files and reports to be stored into a PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System. PMID:17108550

  11. ACCESSORY SPLEEN: A CLINICALLY RELEVANT ANATOMIC ANOMALY

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Saffar; Amit Kumar; Ankur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to emphasize on the clinical relevance of the presence of accessory spleen. It is not only a well-documented anatomic anomaly, it holds special significance in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumours and lymphadenopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty male cadavers from North Indian population above the age of 60 yrs. were dissected in the Anatomy Department of FMHS, SGT University, Gurgaon, over a period of 5 yrs. (Sep 2010-Aug 2015) and presence...

  12. Microstructure and Anatomical Characteristics of Daemonorops margaritae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Daemonorops margaritae is among the most important commercial rattan in South China. Its microstructure and basic anatomical characteristics as well as variation were investigated. Results show that: 1)The variation along the height is small, while the variation along the radial direction is significant; 2) The fibre length, fibre ratio and distribution density of the vascular bundles in the cross section decrease from cortex to core, while the fibre width, vessel element length and width, parenchyma ratio,...

  13. Pure endoscopic endonasal odontoidectomy: anatomical study

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Andrea; Bruno, Maria Carmela; Decq, Philippe; Coste, Andre; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; de Divittis, Enrico; Cappabianca, Paolo; Tschabitscher, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Different disorders may produce irreducible atlanto-axial dislocation with compression of the ventral spinal cord. Among the surgical approaches available for a such condition, the transoral resection of the odontoid process is the most often used. The aim of this anatomical study is to demonstrate the possibility of an anterior cervico-medullary decompression through an endoscopic endonasal approach. Three fresh cadaver heads were used. A modified endonasal endoscopic approach was made in al...

  14. Quantifying anatomical shape variations in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikhil; Fletcher, P Thomas; Preston, J Samuel; King, Richard D; Marron, J S; Weiner, Michael W; Joshi, Sarang

    2014-04-01

    We develop a multivariate analysis of brain anatomy to identify the relevant shape deformation patterns and quantify the shape changes that explain corresponding variations in clinical neuropsychological measures. We use kernel Partial Least Squares (PLS) and formulate a regression model in the tangent space of the manifold of diffeomorphisms characterized by deformation momenta. The scalar deformation momenta completely encode the diffeomorphic changes in anatomical shape. In this model, the clinical measures are the response variables, while the anatomical variability is treated as the independent variable. To better understand the "shape-clinical response" relationship, we also control for demographic confounders, such as age, gender, and years of education in our regression model. We evaluate the proposed methodology on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database using baseline structural MR imaging data and neuropsychological evaluation test scores. We demonstrate the ability of our model to quantify the anatomical deformations in units of clinical response. Our results also demonstrate that the proposed method is generic and generates reliable shape deformations both in terms of the extracted patterns and the amount of shape changes. We found that while the hippocampus and amygdala emerge as mainly responsible for changes in test scores for global measures of dementia and memory function, they are not a determinant factor for executive function. Another critical finding was the appearance of thalamus and putamen as most important regions that relate to executive function. These resulting anatomical regions were consistent with very high confidence irrespective of the size of the population used in the study. This data-driven global analysis of brain anatomy was able to reach similar conclusions as other studies in Alzheimer's disease based on predefined ROIs, together with the identification of other new patterns of deformation. The

  15. Arvustus. Katri Lõhmus. Caring Autonomy. European Human Rights Law and the Challenge of Individualism. Cambridge University Press 2015, 246 lk / Lauri Mälksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mälksoo, Lauri, 1975-

    2016-01-01

    Arvustus: Katri Lõhmus. Caring Autonomy. European Human Rights Law and the Challenge of Individualism. Cambridge University Press 2015, 246 lk. Euroopa inimõiguste ja põhivabaduste kaitse konventsiooni artikli 8 sisustamisest

  16. Exploring brain function from anatomical connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka eZamora-López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic relationship between the architecture of the brain and the range of sensory and behavioral phenomena it produces is a relevant question in neuroscience. Here, we review recent knowledge gained on the architecture of the anatomical connectivity by means of complex network analysis. It has been found that corticocortical networks display a few prominent characteristics: (i modular organization, (ii abundant alternative processing paths and (iii the presence of highly connected hubs. Additionally, we present a novel classification of cortical areas of the cat according to the role they play in multisensory connectivity. All these properties represent an ideal anatomical substrate supporting rich dynamical behaviors, as-well-as facilitating the capacity of the brain to process sensory information of different modalities segregated and to integrate them towards a comprehensive perception of the real world. The result here exposed are mainly based in anatomical data of cats’ brain, but we show how further observations suggest that, from worms to humans, the nervous system of all animals might share fundamental principles of organization.

  17. Shape analysis of simulated breast anatomical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contijoch, Francisco; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2012-03-01

    Recent advances in high-resolution 3D breast imaging, namely, digital breast tomosynthesis and dedicated breast CT, have enabled detailed analysis of the shape and distribution of anatomical structures in the breast. Such analysis is critically important, since the projections of breast anatomical structures make up the parenchymal pattern in clinical images which can mask the existing abnormalities or introduce false alarms; the parenchymal pattern is also correlated with the risk of cancer. As a first step towards the shape analysis of anatomical structures in the breast, we have analyzed an anthropomorphic software breast phantom. The phantom generation is based upon the recursive splitting of the phantom volume using octrees, which produces irregularly shaped tissue compartments, qualitatively mimicking the breast anatomy. The shape analysis was performed by fitting ellipsoids to the simulated tissue compartments. The ellipsoidal semi-axes were calculated by matching the moments of inertia of each individual compartment and of an ellipsoid. The distribution of Dice coefficients, measuring volumetric overlap between the compartment and the corresponding ellipsoid, as well as the distribution of aspect ratios, measuring relative orientations of the ellipsoids, were used to characterize various classes of phantoms with qualitatively distinctive appearance. A comparison between input parameters for phantom generation and the properties of fitted ellipsoids indicated the high level of user control in the design of software breast phantoms. The proposed shape analysis could be extended to clinical breast images, and used to inform the selection of simulation parameters for improved realism.

  18. Anatomical MRI with an atomic magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Savukov, I

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-low field (ULF) MRI is a promising method for inexpensive medical imaging with various additional advantages over conventional instruments such as low weight, low power, portability, absence of artifacts from metals, and high contrast. Anatomical ULF MRI has been successfully implemented with SQUIDs, but SQUIDs have the drawback of cryogen requirement. Atomic magnetometers have sensitivity comparable to SQUIDs and can be in principle used for ULF MRI to replace SQUIDs. Unfortunately some problems exist due to the sensitivity of atomic magnetometers to magnetic field and gradients. At low frequency, noise is also substantial and a shielded room is needed for improving sensitivity. In this paper, we show that at 85 kHz, the atomic magnetometer can be used to obtain anatomical images. This is the first demonstration of any use of atomic magnetometers for anatomical MRI. The demonstrated resolution is 1.1x1.4 mm2 in about six minutes of acquisition with SNR of 10. Some applications of the method are discuss...

  19. Cambridge-Cranfield High Performance Computing Facility (HPCF) purchases ten Sun Fire(TM) 15K servers to dramatically increase power of eScience research

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "The Cambridge-Cranfield High Performance Computing Facility (HPCF), a collaborative environment for data and numerical intensive computing privately run by the University of Cambridge and Cranfield University, has purchased 10 Sun Fire(TM) 15K servers from Sun Microsystems, Inc.. The total investment, which includes more than $40 million in Sun technology, will dramatically increase the computing power, reliability, availability and scalability of the HPCF" (1 page).

  20. Correlates of time spent walking and cycling to and from work: baseline results from the commuting and health in Cambridge study

    OpenAIRE

    Panter Jenna; Griffin Simon; Jones Andrew; Mackett Roger; Ogilvie David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Environmental perceptions and psychological measures appear to be associated with walking and cycling behaviour; however, their influence is still unclear. We assessed these associations using baseline data from a quasi-experimental cohort study of the effects of major transport infrastructural developments in Cambridge, UK. Methods Postal surveys were sent to adults who travel to work in Cambridge (n = 1582). Questions asked about travel modes and time spent travelling to an...

  1. Hindi translation and validation of Cambridge-Hopkins Diagnostic Questionnaire for RLS (CHRLSq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restless legs syndrome also known as Willis-Ekbom′s Disease (RLS/WED is a common illness. Cambridge-Hopkins diagnostic questionnaire for RLS (CHRLSq is a good diagnostic tool and can be used in the epidemiological studies. However, its Hindi version is not available. Thus, this study was conducted to translate and validate it in the Hindi speaking population. Materials and Methods: After obtaining the permission from the author of the CHRLSq, it was translated into Hindi language by two independent translators. After a series of forward and back translations, the finalized Hindi version was administered to two groups by one of the authors, who were blinded to the clinical diagnosis. First group consisted of RLS/WED patients, where diagnosis was made upon face to face interview and the other group - the control group included subjects with somatic symptoms disorders or exertional myalgia or chronic insomnia. Each group had 30 subjects. Diagnosis made on CHRLSq was compared with the clinical diagnosis. Statistical Analysis: Analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v 21.0. Descriptive statistics was calculated. Proportions were compared using chi-square test; whereas, categorical variables were compared using independent sample t-test. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of the translated version of questionnaire were calculated. Results: Average age was comparable between the cases and control group (RLS/WED = 39.1 ± 10.1 years vs 36.2 ± 11.4 years in controls; P = 0.29. Women outnumbered men in the RLS/WED group (87% in RLS/WED group vs 57% among controls; χ2 = 6.64; P = 0.01. Both the sensitivity and specificity of the translated version was 83.3%. It had the positive predictive value of 86.6%. Conclusion: Hindi version of CHRLSq has positive predictive value of 87% and it can be used to diagnose RLS in Hindi speaking population.

  2. Evaluation of a brief anti-stigma campaign in Cambridge: do short-term campaigns work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderson Claire

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the high costs of mass-media campaigns, it is important to understand whether it is possible for a media campaign to have significant population effects over a short period of time. This paper explores this question specifically in reference to stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems using the Time to Change Cambridge anti-stigma campaign as an example. Methods 410 face-to-face interviews were performed pre, during and post campaign activity to assess campaign awareness and mental health-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Results Although campaign awareness was not sustained following campaign activity, significant and sustained shifts occurred for mental health-related knowledge items. Specifically, there was a 24% (p If a friend had a mental health problem, I know what advice to give them to get professional help, following the campaign. Additionally, for the statement: Medication can be an effective treatment for people with mental health problems, there was a 10% rise (p = 0.05 in the proportion of interviewees responding 'agree' or 'strongly agree' following the campaign. These changes, however, were not evident for attitudinal or behaviour related questions. Conclusions Although these results only reflect the impact of one small scale campaign, these preliminary findings suggest several considerations for mass-media campaign development and evaluation strategies such as: (1 Aiming to influence outcomes pertaining to knowledge in the short term; (2 Planning realistic and targeted outcomes over the short, medium and long term during sustained campaigns; and (3 Monitoring indirect campaign effects such as social discourse or other social networking/contact in the evaluation.

  3. Validation of the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (Hong Kong Chinese version) for people with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, David W K; Chan, M K L; Yip, C C K

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate a Hong Kong Chinese version of the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT-HKCV). Thirty-three subjects at least one year post-stroke participated in the study. They were simultaneously rated on version A of the CAMPROMPT-HKCV by two testers to establish its internal consistency and inter-rater reliability. Raters used the parallel versions of the test (A and B), in rating 10 patients within 2 weeks to establish the parallel form reliability. Another 10 were also assessed on the same day using both version A of the CAMPROMPT-HKCV and the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test-Chinese version (RBMT-CV) to establish concurrent validity. A new group of 40 stroke patients and 44 healthy controls was recruited to establish its sensitivity and specificity. Results indicated that test-retest reliability on time-based, event-based and total scores, and inter-rater reliability for versions A and B of the test were high. Cronbach's alpha of the event-based score was higher than that of the time-based score. The reliability and concurrent validity of the parallel forms were established. There was a significant difference in performance on CAMPROMPT-HKCV (version A) between the stroke group and the healthy control group. ROC analysis showed that the ability of the cut-off CAMPROMPT-HKCV (total score) to differentiate PM problems was 20.5 (out of 36) with sensitivity at 95.5% and specificity at 55.9%. Further study in developing stratified norms across different age groups in Chinese-speaking stroke patients is recommended.

  4. Introducing International Journal of Anatomical Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunali S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to International Journal of Anatomical Variations (IJAV - an annual journal of anatomical variations and clinical anatomy case reports. After having a notable experience for eight years in NEUROANATOMY, we are pleased to introduce you IJAV. We are eventually announcing our new journal after three years of feasibility and background study period. We hope that IJAV will fill in the gap in anatomy journals’ bunch. IJAV is an annual, open access journal having electronic version only. Despite of unavailability of a budget for publishing IJAV, the evaluation of submissions and access to the full text articles is totally free of charge.Our vision for IJAV is to constitute an online compendium for anatomical variations in gross, radiological and surgical anatomy, neuroanatomy and case reports in clinical anatomy. We believe that cases have an important role in clinical anatomy education. In this aspect, we aim to serve as an open source of case reports. We hope that IJAV will be cited in most of the case reports related to clinical anatomy and anatomical variations in near future.In NEUROANATOMY, we encouraged the submission of case reports in the area of neuroanatomy. Whereas in IJAV, besides neuroanatomy, we will consider case reports in any area related to human anatomy. The scope of IJAV will encompass any anatomical variations in gross, radiological and surgical anatomy. Case reports in clinical anatomy are also welcome.All submitted articles will be peer-reviewed. No processing fee will be charged from authors. One of the most important features of IJAV will be speedy review and rapid publication. We strive to publish an accepted manuscript within three weeks of initial submission. Our young and dynamic Scientific Advisory Board will achieve this objective.A few remarks about our logo and page design: Prof. Dr. M. Mustafa ALDUR designed our logo, being inspired by a quadricuspid aortic valve case, reported by Francesco FORMICA et al

  5. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  6. Human anatomy: let the students tell us how to teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R; Bates, Anthony S; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and contemporary teaching methods and tools are largely unknown. This study quantified medical student and anatomy faculty opinion on various aspects of anatomical teaching at the Department of Anatomy, University of Bristol, UK. A questionnaire was used to explore the perceived effectiveness of different anatomical teaching methods and tools among anatomy faculty (AF) and medical students in year one (Y1) and year two (Y2). A total of 370 preclinical medical students entered the study (76% response rate). Responses were quantified and intergroup comparisons were made. All students and AF were strongly in favor of access to cadaveric specimens and supported traditional methods of small-group teaching with medically qualified demonstrators. Other teaching methods, including e-learning, anatomical models and surgical videos, were considered useful educational tools. In several areas there was disharmony between the opinions of AF and medical students. This study emphasizes the importance of collecting student preferences to optimize teaching methods used in the undergraduate anatomy curriculum. PMID:24249485

  7. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  8. Probabilistic anatomical labeling of brain structures using statistical probabilistic anatomical maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Byung Il; Lee, Jae Sung; Shin, Hee Won; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    The use of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) program has increased for the analysis of brain PET and SPECT images. Montreal neurological institute (MNI) coordinate is used in SPM program as a standard anatomical framework. While the most researchers look up Talairach atlas to report the localization of the activations detected in SPM program, there is significant disparity between MNI templates and Talairach atlas. That disparity between Talairach and MNI coordinates makes the interpretation of SPM result time consuming, subjective and inaccurate. The purpose of this study was to develop a program to provide objective anatomical information of each x-y-z position in ICBM coordinate. Program was designed to provide the anatomical information for the given x-y-z position in MNI coordinate based on the statistical probabilistic anatomical map (SPAM) images of ICBM. When x-y-z position was given to the program, names of the anatomical structures with non-zero probability and the probabilities that the given position belongs to the structures were tabulated. The program was coded using IDL and JAVA language for the easy transplantation to any operating system or platform. Utility of this program was shown by comparing the results of this program to those of SPM program. Preliminary validation study was performed by applying this program to the analysis of PET brain activation study of human memory in which the anatomical information on the activated areas are previously known. Real time retrieval of probabilistic information with 1 mm spatial resolution was archived using the programs. Validation study showed the relevance of this program: probability that the activated area for memory belonged to hippocampal formation was more than 80%. These programs will be useful for the result interpretation of the image analysis performed on MNI coordinate, as done in SPM program.

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip M.

    2008-06-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  10. [Sigismund Laskowski and his anatomical preparations technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewski, Ryszard W

    2015-01-01

    Fixation of the entire bodies or individual organs, and later as well tissues and cellular structures, was and still is often a challenge for anatomists and histologists. Technique that combines extensive knowledge of natural sciences, as well as technical skills, was by those best researchers as Frederik Ruysch, brought to perfection. Preparations, if done with care and talent, are really propelling progress in anatomical studies and determining the quality of education for medical students and young physicians. And as it is true for many of today's medical disciplines and natural sciences, the nineteenth century was in many ways a breaking point for preparatory techniques in the realm of anatomy and histology. Among those who have achieved success, earning notoriety during their lifetime and often going into the annals of European most distinguished scholars were some Polish names: Louis Maurice Hirschfeld, whose preparations of the nervous system earned him well-deserved, international fame, Louis Charles Teichmann, who was the very first so precisely describing the lymphatic system and a creator of unique injection mass, Henry Kadyi, known for his outstanding preparations, especially of vascular system. Henry Frederick Hoyer sen., who was one of the first to use formalin regularly for accurate microscopic preparations, is seen by many as the founder of the Polish histology. In this group of innovators and precursors of modern preparation techniques place should be reserved for Zygmunt (Sigismund) Laskowski, Polish patriot, fighting in January Uprising, later an immigrant, a professor at the university sequentially Paris and Geneva. Acclaimed author of anatomical tables and certainly creator of one of the groundbreaking techniques in anatomical preparations. Based after many years of research on the simple glycerine-phenol mixture achieved excellent results both in fixation of entire bodies and organs or tissues. Quality of those preparations was as high and

  11. Tennis elbow. Anatomical, epidemiological and therapeutic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaar, J A

    1994-10-01

    Five studies of tennis elbow are presented. Epidemiological studies showed an incidence of tennis elbow between 1 and 2%. The prevalence of tennis elbow in women between 40 and 50 years of age was 10%. Half of the patients with tennis elbow seek medical attention. Local corticosteroid injections were superior to the physiotherapy regime of Cyriax. Release of the common forearm extensor origin resulted in 70% excellent or good results one year after operation and 89% at five years. Anatomical investigations and nerve conduction studies of the Radial Tunnel Syndrome supported the hypothesis that the Lateral Cubital Force Transmission System is involved in the pathogenesis of tennis elbow.

  12. Constitutional and Anatomical Characteristics of Mature Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir NNikolenko; DmitryBNikityuk; SvetlanaVKlochkova; AnastasiaABahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the constitutional and anatomical peculiarities of constitution of women of mature age.Methods There was completed comprehensive anthropometric and bio-electrical survey of 651 mature women ( relative norm) living in the Moscow region .Results The quantitative distribution of women by somatotypological affiliation was revealed;anthropometric and body component composition in representatives of different somatotypes were defined .Conclusion Thus, the performed study revealed and quantiely character-ised the distribution of women according to their constitutional types in the studied population of mature age women living in Moscow region under the relative norm conditions .

  13. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2008-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2006 (October 2005 through September 2006). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir contents for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent of capacity during water year 2006, while monthly reservoir contents for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir was maintained at greater than 83 and 94 percent of capacity, respectively. If water demand is assumed to be 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2006 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 127 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area was about 16 percent greater for the 2006 water year than for the previous water year and was between 12 and 73 percent greater than for any recorded amount since water year 2002. The monthly mean specific-conductance values for all continuously monitored stations within the drinking-water source area were generally within the range of historical data collected since water year 1997, and in many cases were less than the historical medians. The annual mean specific conductance of 738 uS/cm (microsiemens per centimeter) for water discharged from the Cambridge Reservoir was nearly identical to the annual

  14. Pterion: An anatomical variation and surgical landmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant E Natekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The frontal and the parietal bones superiorly and the greater wing of the sphenoid and the squamous temporal inferiorly of one side meet at an H-shaped sutural junction termed the pterion. This is an important anatomical and anthropological landmark as it overlies both the anterior branch of middle meningeal artery and the lateral fissure of the cerebral hemisphere. The knowledge of sutural joints between frontal, parietal, sphenoid and temporal bones at pterion is clinically, radiologically and surgically important during surgical interventions involving burr hole surgeries. Materials and Methods : Study performed on 150 dry temporal bones. The pterion, and its sutural articulations with frontal, parietal, sphenoid and temporal bones and also anatomical variations, if any, were studied. Results : Four types of pterion, i.e. sphenoparietal, frontotemporal, stellate and epipteric, were observed. Conclusions : The knowledge of the variations of pterion and its surgical anatomy, in Indian population are important for surgeons operating in the fieldThe present study will also contribute additional information of skull bone fractures in infancy and early childhood, which may be associated with large intersutural bones giving false appearance of fracture radiologically and also during surgical interventions involving burr hole surgeries, as their extensions may lead to continuation of fracture lines.

  15. Cyrtarachne keralensis Jose, 2011 is a junior synonym of Anepsion maritatum (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1877) (Araneae, Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamel, Jobi J; Sankaran, Pradeep M; Joseph, Mathew M; Sebastian, Pothalil A

    2015-11-05

    The Indo-pacific araneid genus Anepsion, with A. rhomboides (L. Koch, 1867) as the type species, was erected by Strand in 1929. He proposed the name Anepsion as a replacement name for Anepsia L. Koch, 1871, preoccupied by Anepsia Gistl, 1848, a dipteran genus (OBIS Australia, 2015). The genus was revised by Chrysanthus (1961, 1969) and currently has 16 described species and 1 subspecies (World Spider Catalog 2015). In the present paper, we are reporting the genus from India for the first time and synonymising Cyrtarachne keralensis Jose, 2011 with Anepsion maritatum O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1877. A redescription and illustrations of both male and female of A. maritatum are provided.

  16. Nano Si preparation by constant cell voltage electrolysis of FFC-Cambridge Process in molten CaCl2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji; Zhao; Shengmei; Lu; Linyan; Hu; Can; Li

    2013-01-01

    Using FFC-Cambridge Process to prepare Si from SiO2 is a promising method to prepare nanostructured and highly pure silicon for solar cells.However,the method still has many problems unsolved and the controlling effect of the cell voltage on silicon product is not clear.Here we report in this article that nano cluster-like silicon product with purity of 99.95%has been prepared by complete conversion of raw material SiO2,quartz glass plate,using constant cell voltage electrolysis FFC-Cambridge Process.By analysis of XRD,EDS,TEM,HRTEM and ICP-AES as well as the discussion from the thermodynamics calculation,the morphology and components of the product based on the change of cell voltage are clarified.It is clear that pure silicon could be prepared at the cell voltage of 1.7 2.1 V in this reaction system.The silicon material have cluster-like structure which are made of silicon nanoparticles in 20 100 nm size.Interestingly,the cluster-like nano structure of the silicon can be tuned by the used cell voltage.The purity,yield and the energy cost of silicon product prepared at the optimized cell voltage are discussed.The purity of the silicon product could be further improved,hence this method is promising for the preparation of solar grade silicon in future.

  17. Diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis (Cambridge classification): Comparative study using secretin injection-magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of secretin injection MRCP for the diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis. METHODS: Sixteen patients having mild chronic pancreatitis according to the Cambridge classification and 12 control subjects with no abnormal findings on the pancreatogram were examined for the diagnostic accuracy of secretin injection-MRCP regarding abnormal branch pancreatic ducts associated with mild chronic pancreatitis (Cambridge Classification), using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for comparison. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity for abnormal branch pancreatic ducts determined by two reviewers were respectively 55%-63% and 75%-83% in the head, 57%-64% and 82%-83% in the body, and 44%-44%and 72%-76% in the tail of the pancreas. The sensitivity and specificity for mild chronic pancreatitis were 56%-63% and 92%-92%, respectively. Interobserver abnormal branch pancreatic duct and of mild chronic pancreatitis was good to excellent. CONCLUSION: Secretin injection-MRCP might be useful for the diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis.

  18. Intensive cisplatin/oral etoposide for epithelial ovarian cancer: the Cambridge Gynae-Oncology Centre experience: too toxic for relapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounaris, Ioannis; Iddawela, Mahesh; Parkinson, Christine; Pratt, Jennie; Hatcher, Helen; Basu, Bristi; Tan, Li Tee; Brenton, James D; Earl, Helena M

    2016-03-01

    Intensive cisplatin and oral etoposide for relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), commonly known as the van der Burg (VDB) protocol, has been reported to improve response rates and progression-free survival. We report on all patients with relapsed EOC treated on the VDB protocol at the Cambridge Gynae-Oncology Centre. From the institutional databases, we identified all patients treated since 2001. We extracted demographic, clinical, treatment, and toxicity data and outcomes. We used Cox regression to identify predictors of survival. A total of 35 patients were treated on the VDB protocol. Toxicity was significant, with grade 3/4 fatigue, nausea and vomiting affecting 46, 46 and 29% of patients, respectively. Six patients had grade 3/4 infection and four (11%) deaths occurred on treatment. Efficacy was encouraging, with a radiological response rate of 43%, a median progression-free survival of 5.8 months and a median overall survival of 14.1 months. No significant difference in efficacy was seen between platinum-resistant and sensitive patients. We report significant activity of the VDB protocol in a routine clinical setting. However, the high rates of serious toxicity and treatment-related deaths among patients treated with palliative intent proved unacceptable. The Cambridge Gynae-Oncology Centre no longer uses this regimen in women with relapsed EOC.

  19. The Cambridge Face Memory Test for Children (CFMT-C): a new tool for measuring face recognition skills in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croydon, Abigail; Pimperton, Hannah; Ewing, Louise; Duchaine, Brad C; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Face recognition ability follows a lengthy developmental course, not reaching maturity until well into adulthood. Valid and reliable assessments of face recognition memory ability are necessary to examine patterns of ability and disability in face processing, yet there is a dearth of such assessments for children. We modified a well-known test of face memory in adults, the Cambridge Face Memory Test (Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006, Neuropsychologia, 44, 576-585), to make it developmentally appropriate for children. To establish its utility, we administered either the upright or inverted versions of the computerised Cambridge Face Memory Test - Children (CFMT-C) to 401 children aged between 5 and 12 years. Our results show that the CFMT-C is sufficiently sensitive to demonstrate age-related gains in the recognition of unfamiliar upright and inverted faces, does not suffer from ceiling or floor effects, generates robust inversion effects, and is capable of detecting difficulties in face memory in children diagnosed with autism. Together, these findings indicate that the CFMT-C constitutes a new valid assessment tool for children's face recognition skills.

  20. Anatomic correlations in radiogallium imaging of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiogallium (67Ga) imaging of the abdomen and pelvis has been useful not only in detecting inflammations in these regions, but in pointing out their precise anatomic localization. Once the anatomic site is determined, it is often possible to infer the source of origin of the problem (such as ruptured viscus or pancreatitis). Interpretation of the images depends on recognition of patterns that define known anatomic boundaries such as the transverse mesocolon, root of the small mesentery, perirenal space, and pararenal space, or else show diffuse peritoneal uptake. The anatomic patterns may have continued usefulness in future studies, such as when radiolabeled leukocytes are employed to localize inflammations

  1. Do retractile testes have anatomical anomalies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kleber M.; Costa, Suelen F.; Sampaio, Francisco J.B.; Favorito, Luciano A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the incidence of anatomical anomalies in patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods: We studied prospectively 20 patients (28 testes) with truly retractile testis and compared them with 25 human fetuses (50 testes) with testis in scrotal position. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV). To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis, we used a previous classification according to epididymis attachment to the testis and the presence of epididymis atresia. To analyze the structure of the PV, we considered two situations: obliteration of the PV and patency of the PV. We used the Chi-square test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (p patent processus vaginalis and epididymal anomalies. PMID:27564294

  2. [Antique anatomical collections for contemporary museums].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Gabriella; Santi, Raffaella

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy and Pathology Museum collections display a great biological value and offer unique samples for research purposes. Pathological specimens may be investigated by means of modern radiological and molecular biology techniques in order to provide the etiological background of disease, with relevance to present-day knowledge. Meanwhile, historical resources provide epidemiologic data regarding the socio-economic conditions of the resident populations, the more frequently encountered illnesses and dietary habits. These multidisciplinary approaches lead to more accurate diagnoses also allowing new strategies in cataloguing and musealization of anatomical specimens. Further, once these data are gathered, they may constitute the basis of riedited Museum catalogues feasible to be digitalized and displayed via the Web.

  3. Normal anatomical measurements in cervical computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaunbauer, W.; Daepp, S.; Haertel, M.

    1985-11-01

    Radiodiagnostically relevant normal values and variations for measurements of the cervical region, the arithmetical average and the standard deviation were determined from adequate computer tomograms on 60 healthy women and men, aged 20 to 83 years. The sagittal diameter of the prevertebral soft tissue and the lumina of the upper respiratory tract were evaluated at exactly defined levels between the hyoid bone and the incisura jugularis sterni. - The thickness of the aryepiglottic folds, the maximal sagittal and transverse diameters of the thyroid gland and the calibre of the great cervical vessels were defined. - To assess information about laryngeal function in computerized tomography, measurements of distances between the cervical spine and anatomical fixed points of the larynx and hypopharynx were made as well as of the degree of vocal cord movement during normal respiration and phonation.

  4. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2007-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for selected elements, organic constituents, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir capacities for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent during water year 2005, while monthly reservoir capacities for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir were maintained at capacities greater than 84 and 96 percent, respectively. Assuming a water demand of 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2005 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 119 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area for the 2005 water year was within 2 inches of the total annual precipitation for the previous 2 water years. The monthly mean specific conductances for the outflow of the Cambridge Reservoir were similar to historical monthly mean values. However, monthly mean specific conductances for Stony Brook near Route 20, in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104460), which is the principal tributary feeding the Stony Brook Reservoir, were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. Similarly, monthly mean specific conductances for a small tributary to Stony Brook (U.S. Geological Survey

  5. E.J.Holmyard and the historical approach to science teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, EW

    2014-01-01

    E. J. Holmyard was a distinguished scholar and schoolmaster in England in the first half of the twentieth century. After graduating from Cambridge in both natural science and history, he quickly established a reputation for his research into the early history of chemistry, especially Islamic alchemy, and for his advocacy of a historical approach to the teaching of science. Both these interests found expression in his large number of school chemistry textbooks, many of which were highly succes...

  6. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: A method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin ePyka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM, to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: i the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, ii the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort.

  7. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: a method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyka, Martin; Klatt, Sebastian; Cheng, Sen

    2014-01-01

    Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM), to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: (i) the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, (ii) the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort.

  8. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  9. PC Assisted Anatomical Measurements in 3D Using CT Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Mogens; Pedersen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    To assess facilities and applications of a programme for a PC based CT measurements in 3D of anatomical angelse in the skeleton.......To assess facilities and applications of a programme for a PC based CT measurements in 3D of anatomical angelse in the skeleton....

  10. An Investigation of Anatomical Competence in Junior Medical Doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Because of a decrease of the time available for anatomy education, decisions need to be made to reduce the relevant content of the anatomy curriculum. Several expert consensus initiatives resulted in lists of structures, lacking analysis of anatomical competence. This study aims to explore the use of anatomical knowledge by medical doctors in an…

  11. Healthy travel and the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK: a mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Guell, Cornelia; Panter, Jenna; Jones, Natalia R; Ogilvie, David

    2012-06-01

    Car use is associated with substantial health and environmental costs but research in deprived populations indicates that car access may also promote psychosocial well-being within car-oriented environments. This mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) study examined this issue in a more affluent setting, investigating the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK. Our analyses involved integrating self-reported questionnaire data from 1142 participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (collected in 2009) and in-depth interviews with 50 participants (collected 2009-2010). Even in Britain's leading 'cycling city', cars were a key resource in bridging the gap between individuals' desires and their circumstances. This applied both to long-term life goals such as home ownership and to shorter-term challenges such as illness. Yet car commuting was also subject to constraints, with rush hour traffic pushing drivers to start work earlier and with restrictions on, or charges for, workplace parking pushing drivers towards multimodal journeys (e.g. driving to a 'park-and-ride' site then walking). These patterns of car commuting were socio-economically structured in several ways. First, the gradient of housing costs made living near Cambridge more expensive, affecting who could 'afford' to cycle and perhaps making cycling the more salient local marker of Bourdieu's class distinction. Nevertheless, cars were generally affordable in this relatively affluent, highly-educated population, reducing the barrier which distance posed to labour-force participation. Finally, having the option of starting work early required flexible hours, a form of job control which in Britain is more common among higher occupational classes. Following a social model of disability, we conclude that socio-economic advantage can make car-oriented environments less disabling via both greater affluence and greater job control, and in ways manifested across the full socio

  12. An Evaluation on Coursebook (Cambridge English for the Media):A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖燕容

    2013-01-01

      Coursebook is an essential part in English language teaching. Evaluating a coursebook is very helpful task for teachers’ development. This paper reviews three methods of evaluating coursebook, which are the impressionistic method, the checklist meth⁃od, and the in-depth method. Then the author adopts the hybrid of these three methods mentioned to evaluate a coursebook-Cam⁃bridge English for the Media-used by some Chinese students in a one-year exchange programme in UK. Questionnaire and semi-structured interviews are carried out with the students to get their views about the coursebook. At the end, this paper compares teacher’s view with the learners’based on the data from the questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. The results of this study show that there are conflicts between the teacher’s views and the students’on the coursebook.

  13. Anatomical imbalance between cortical networks in autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Influential psychological models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have proposed that this prevalent developmental disorder results from impairment of global (integrative) information processing and overload of local (sensory) information. However, little neuroanatomical evidence consistent with this account has been reported. Here, we examined relative grey matter volumes (rGMVs) between three cortical networks, how they changed with age, and their relationship with core symptomatology. Using public neuroimaging data of high-functioning ASD males and age-/sex-/IQ-matched controls, we first identified age-associated atypical increases in rGMVs of the regions of two sensory systems (auditory and visual networks), and an age-related aberrant decrease in rGMV of a task-control system (fronto-parietal network, FPN) in ASD children. While the enlarged rGMV of the auditory network in ASD adults was associated with the severity of autistic socio-communicational core symptom, that of the visual network was instead correlated with the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviours in ASD. Notably, the atypically decreased rGMV of FPN predicted both of the two core symptoms. These findings suggest that disproportionate undergrowth of a task-control system (FPN) may be a common anatomical basis for the two ASD core symptoms, and relative overgrowth of the two different sensory systems selectively compounds the distinct symptoms. PMID:27484308

  14. Employing anatomical knowledge in vertebral column labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    The spinal column constitutes the central axis of human torso and is often used by radiologists to reference the location of organs in the chest and abdomen. However, visually identifying and labeling vertebrae is not trivial and can be timeconsuming. This paper presents an approach to automatically label vertebrae based on two pieces of anatomical knowledge: one vertebra has at most two attached ribs, and ribs are attached only to thoracic vertebrae. The spinal column is first extracted by a hybrid method using the watershed algorithm, directed acyclic graph search and a four-part vertebra model. Then curved reformations in sagittal and coronal directions are computed and aggregated intensity profiles along the spinal cord are analyzed to partition the spinal column into vertebrae. After that, candidates for rib bones are detected using features such as location, orientation, shape, size and density. Then a correspondence matrix is established to match ribs and vertebrae. The last vertebra (from thoracic to lumbar) with attached ribs is identified and labeled as T12. The rest of vertebrae are labeled accordingly. The method was tested on 50 CT scans and successfully labeled 48 of them. The two failed cases were mainly due to rudimentary ribs.

  15. Anatomical imbalance between cortical networks in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Influential psychological models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have proposed that this prevalent developmental disorder results from impairment of global (integrative) information processing and overload of local (sensory) information. However, little neuroanatomical evidence consistent with this account has been reported. Here, we examined relative grey matter volumes (rGMVs) between three cortical networks, how they changed with age, and their relationship with core symptomatology. Using public neuroimaging data of high-functioning ASD males and age-/sex-/IQ-matched controls, we first identified age-associated atypical increases in rGMVs of the regions of two sensory systems (auditory and visual networks), and an age-related aberrant decrease in rGMV of a task-control system (fronto-parietal network, FPN) in ASD children. While the enlarged rGMV of the auditory network in ASD adults was associated with the severity of autistic socio-communicational core symptom, that of the visual network was instead correlated with the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviours in ASD. Notably, the atypically decreased rGMV of FPN predicted both of the two core symptoms. These findings suggest that disproportionate undergrowth of a task-control system (FPN) may be a common anatomical basis for the two ASD core symptoms, and relative overgrowth of the two different sensory systems selectively compounds the distinct symptoms. PMID:27484308

  16. Hamstring tendons insertion - an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Antonio Grassi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomy of the hamstring tendons insertion and anatomical rela-tionships. METHODS: Ten cadaver knees with medial and anterior intact structures were selected. The dissection was performed from anteromedial access to exposure of the insertion of the flexor tendons (FT, tibial plateau (TP and tibial tuberosity (TT. A needle of 40 × 12 and a caliper were used to measure the distance of the tibial plateau of the knee flexor tendons insertion at 15 mm from the medial border of the patellar tendon and tibial tuberosity to the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee. The angle between tibial plateau and the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee (A-TP-FT was calculated using Image Pro Plus software. RESULTS: The mean distance TP-FT was 41 ± 4.6 mm. The distance between the TT-FT was 6.88 ± 1 mm. The (A-TP-FT was 20.3 ± 4.9°. CONCLUSION: In the anterior tibial flexor tendons are about 40 mm from the plateau with an average of 20°.

  17. Anatomic Reconstruction of the Proximal Tibiofibular Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brent T; Moulton, Samuel G; Cram, Tyler R; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    Proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) instability can be easily missed or confused for other, more common lateral knee pathologies such as meniscal tears, fibular collateral ligament injury, biceps femoris pathology, or iliotibial band syndrome. Because of this confusion, some authors believe that PTFJ instability is more common than initially appreciated. Patients with PTFJ subluxation may have no history of inciting trauma or injury, and it is not uncommon for these patients to have bilateral symptoms and generalized ligamentous laxity. Currently, the optimal surgical treatment for patients with chronic PTFJ instability is unknown. Historically, a variety of surgical treatments have been reported. Initially, joint arthrodesis and fibular head resection were recommended. More recently, temporary screw fixation, nonanatomic reconstruction with strips of the biceps femoris tendon or iliotibial band, and reconstruction with free hamstring autograft have been described. The purpose of this report is to present our surgical technique for treatment of chronic PTFJ instability using an anatomic reconstruction of the posterior ligamentous structures of the PTFJ with a semitendinosus autograft. PMID:27274455

  18. Is the cervical fascia an anatomical proteus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Gianfranco; Condino, Sara; Stecco, Antonio; Soldani, Paola; Belmonte, Monica Mattioli; Gesi, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The cervical fasciae have always represented a matter of debate. Indeed, in the literature, it is quite impossible to find two authors reporting the same description of the neck fascia. In the present review, a historical background was outlined, confirming that the Malgaigne's definition of the cervical fascia as an anatomical Proteus is widely justified. In an attempt to provide an essential and a more comprehensive classification, a fixed pattern of description of cervical fasciae is proposed. Based on the morphogenetic criteria, two fascial groups have been recognized: (1) fasciae which derive from primitive fibro-muscular laminae (muscular fasciae or myofasciae); (2) fasciae which derive from connective thickening (visceral fasciae). Topographic and comparative approaches allowed to distinguish three different types of fasciae in the neck: the superficial, the deep and the visceral fasciae. The first is most connected to the skin, the second to the muscles and the third to the viscera. The muscular fascia could be further divided into three layers according to the relationship with the different muscles.

  19. Lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia: an anatomical insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Filho, L C; Valença, M M; Guimarães Filho, F A V; Medeiros, R C; Silva, R A M; Morais, M G V; Valente, F P; França, S M L

    2003-07-01

    A detailed anatomic study was carried out on the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve to better understand the etiology and treatment of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. As it passed from the pelvis into the thigh, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve ran through an "aponeuroticofascial tunnel," beginning at the iliopubic tract and ending at the inguinal ligament; as it passed through the tunnel, an enlargement in its side-to-side diameter was observed, suggesting that the fascial structures proximal to the inguinal ligament may be implicated in the genesis of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. The finding of pseudoneuromas at this location, distant from the inguinal ligament, supports this hypothesis. The anterior superior iliac spine is located approximately 0.7 cm from the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and serves as the bony landmark for nerve localization. Within the first 3 cm of leaving the pelvis, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was observed deep to the fascia lata; therefore, surgical dissection within the subcutaneous fascia may be conducted with relative impunity near the anterior superior iliac spine just inferior to the inguinal ligament. In 36% of cases there was no posterior branch of the nerve, which is correlated to lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia symptoms often being limited to the anterior branch region. An accessory nerve was found in 30% of cases. PMID:12794914

  20. Hydrogen-bond landscapes, geometry and energetics of squaric acid and its mono- and dianions: a Cambridge Structural Database, IsoStar and computational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H. Allen; A.J. Cruz-Cabeza; P.A. Wood; D.A. Bardwell

    2013-01-01

    As part of a programme of work to extend central-group coverage in the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre's (CCDC) IsoStar knowledge base of intermolecular interactions, we have studied the hydrogen-bonding abilities of squaric acid (H(2)SQ) and its mono-and dianions (HSQ(-) and SQ(2-)) using th

  1. Trajectories of Offending and Their Relation to Life Failure in Late Middle Age: Findings from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Alex R.; Farrington, David P.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have hypothesized that over the life course, criminal offending varies with problems in other domains, including life failure and physical and mental health. To examine this issue, the authors use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males first studied at age 8…

  2. Update on the Status of the On-Going Range Dependent Low Frequency Active Sonar Model Benchmarking Effort : From Cambridge to Kos [abstract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zampolli, M.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010, a symposium in Memory of David Weston was held at Clare College in Cambridge (UK). International researchers from academia and research laboratories met to discuss two sets of test problems for sonar performance models, one aimed at understanding mammal echolocation sonar („Problem AI

  3. Comparative Coh-Metrix Analysis of Reading Comprehension Texts: Unified (Russian) State Exam in English vs. Cambridge First Certificate in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnyshkina, Marina I.; Harkova, Elena V.; Kiselnikov, Aleksander S.

    2014-01-01

    The article summarizes the results of the comparative study of Reading comprehension texts used in B2 level tests: Unified (Russia) State Exam in English (EGE) and Cambridge First Certificate in English (FCE). The research conducted was mainly focused on six parameters measured with the Coh-Metrix, a computational tool producing indices of the…

  4. Embryologic and anatomic basis of duodenal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis, J; Colborn, G L; Skandalakis, P N; Skandalakis, L J; Skandalakis, J E

    2000-02-01

    The following points should be remembered by surgeons (Table 1). In writing about the head of the pancreas, the common bile duct, and the duodenum in 1979, the authors stated that Embryologically, anatomically and surgically these three entities form an inseparable unit. Their relations and blood supply make it impossible for the surgeon to remove completely the head of the pancreas without removing the duodenum and the distal part of the common bile duct. Here embryology and anatomy conspire to produce some of the most difficult surgery of the abdominal cavity. The only alternative procedure, the so-called 95% pancreatectomy, leaves a rim of pancreas along the medial border of the duodenum to preserve the duodenal blood supply. The authors had several conversations with Child, one of the pioneers of this procedure, whose constant message was to always be careful with the blood supply of the duodenum (personal communication, 1970). Beger et al popularized duodenum-preserving resection of the pancreatic head, emphasizing preservation of endocrine pancreatic function. They reported that ampullectomy (removal of the papilla and ampulla of Vater) carries a mortality rate of less than 0.4% and a morbidity rate of less than 10.0%. Surgeons should not ligate the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries because such ligation may cause necrosis of the head of the pancreas and of much of the duodenum. The accessory pancreatic duct of Santorini passes under the gastrointestinal artery. For safety, surgeons should ligate the artery away from the anterior medial duodenal wall, where the papilla is located, thereby avoiding injury to or ligation of the duct. "Water under the bridge" applies not only to the relationship of the uterine artery and ureter but also to the gastroduodenal artery and the accessory pancreatic duct. In 10% of cases, the duct of Santorini is the only duct draining the pancreas, so ligation of the gastroduodenal artery with accidental inclusion of

  5. 从剑桥商务英语口试实况看大学生商务口语问题及对策%Problems and Countermeasures of College Student Oral Business English through Cambridge BEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利梅

    2015-01-01

    随着全球经济一体化日益加深,商务沟通能力越来越重要。许多高校都为学生开设了商务英语课程,而学生也积极参加商务能力测试,为就业做准备。但笔者在实际商务英语教学及剑桥商务英语培训及测试中发现,考生的商务口语沟通存在不少问题,本文分析了这些问题出现的原因并提出相应对策。%As the global economic integration deepens, business communication proficiency is a vital tool in economic ac-tivities. To build the students' employability on the future job market, many colleges are now offering business courses to the students who highly value the results in professional test. The author, in this article, shares her insights into the problems and solutions out of her teaching and training practice as well as her observation and analysis of the examinees' performance in the Cambridge BEC Oral Test.

  6. Collaborative regression-based anatomical landmark detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-12-01

    Anatomical landmark detection plays an important role in medical image analysis, e.g. for registration, segmentation and quantitative analysis. Among the various existing methods for landmark detection, regression-based methods have recently attracted much attention due to their robustness and efficiency. In these methods, landmarks are localised through voting from all image voxels, which is completely different from the classification-based methods that use voxel-wise classification to detect landmarks. Despite their robustness, the accuracy of regression-based landmark detection methods is often limited due to (1) the inclusion of uninformative image voxels in the voting procedure, and (2) the lack of effective ways to incorporate inter-landmark spatial dependency into the detection step. In this paper, we propose a collaborative landmark detection framework to address these limitations. The concept of collaboration is reflected in two aspects. (1) Multi-resolution collaboration. A multi-resolution strategy is proposed to hierarchically localise landmarks by gradually excluding uninformative votes from faraway voxels. Moreover, for informative voxels near the landmark, a spherical sampling strategy is also designed at the training stage to improve their prediction accuracy. (2) Inter-landmark collaboration. A confidence-based landmark detection strategy is proposed to improve the detection accuracy of ‘difficult-to-detect’ landmarks by using spatial guidance from ‘easy-to-detect’ landmarks. To evaluate our method, we conducted experiments extensively on three datasets for detecting prostate landmarks and head & neck landmarks in computed tomography images, and also dental landmarks in cone beam computed tomography images. The results show the effectiveness of our collaborative landmark detection framework in improving landmark detection accuracy, compared to other state-of-the-art methods.

  7. ACCESSORY SPLEEN: A CLINICALLY RELEVANT ANATOMIC ANOMALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Saffar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study is to emphasize on the clinical relevance of the presence of accessory spleen. It is not only a well-documented anatomic anomaly, it holds special significance in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumours and lymphadenopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty male cadavers from North Indian population above the age of 60 yrs. were dissected in the Anatomy Department of FMHS, SGT University, Gurgaon, over a period of 5 yrs. (Sep 2010-Aug 2015 and presence of accessory spleen recorded. Tissue from the accessory spleen was also subjected to routine histological processing and slide prepared by haematoxylin and eosin staining. RESULTS Accessory spleen was present in two cadavers near the splenic hilum. One was 3.9 cm in the long axis and weighed about 48.4 grams, while the other was 1.2 cm in long axis and weighed about 12.5 grams. One had a separate arterial branch from the main splenic artery; that it was splenic tissue was confirmed histologically. DISCUSSION The presence of accessory spleen is considered to be due to embryonic non-fusion of the splenic aggregate with the main mass. CONCLUSION Though accessory spleen in itself pose no clinical problems, its significance cannot be undermined. Surgeons and radiologists are advised to look for and rule out the presence of accessory spleen, especially while evaluating a case of abdominal and perineal pathology, else it may be wrongly diagnosed as malignant tumour or enlarged lymph node leading to grave consequences.

  8. An anatomically oriented breast model for MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutra, Dominik; Bergtholdt, Martin; Sabczynski, Jörg; Dössel, Olaf; Buelow, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the western world. In the breast cancer care-cycle, MRIis e.g. employed in lesion characterization and therapy assessment. Reading of a single three dimensional image or comparing a multitude of such images in a time series is a time consuming task. Radiological reporting is done manually by translating the spatial position of a finding in an image to a generic representation in the form of a breast diagram, outlining quadrants or clock positions. Currently, registration algorithms are employed to aid with the reading and interpretation of longitudinal studies by providing positional correspondence. To aid with the reporting of findings, knowledge about the breast anatomy has to be introduced to translate from patient specific positions to a generic representation. In our approach we fit a geometric primitive, the semi-super-ellipsoid to patient data. Anatomical knowledge is incorporated by fixing the tip of the super-ellipsoid to the mammilla position and constraining its center-point to a reference plane defined by landmarks on the sternum. A coordinate system is then constructed by linearly scaling the fitted super-ellipsoid, defining a unique set of parameters to each point in the image volume. By fitting such a coordinate system to a different image of the same patient, positional correspondence can be generated. We have validated our method on eight pairs of baseline and follow-up scans (16 breasts) that were acquired for the assessment of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. On average, the location predicted and the actual location of manually set landmarks are within a distance of 5.6 mm. Our proposed method allows for automatic reporting simply by uniformly dividing the super-ellipsoid around its main axis.

  9. ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS FOR ROBOTIC NERVE SPARING RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Moiseenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed anatomical study of the prostate and pelvic organs has been recently relevant. Their anatomical knowledge is directly associated with the improved procedure of nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, which contributes to the preservation of the anatomical structures responsible for postsurgical erection and urinary continence. The main tasks of radical prostatectomy are effective cancer control, early recovery of urinary continence, and recovery of erectile function.The literature on the anatomy of the prostate and its adjacent structures is analyzed in the context of nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

  10. A reusable anatomically segmented digital mannequin for public health communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Kaori; Okubo, Kosaku

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing development of world wide web technologies has facilitated a change in health communication, which has now become bi-directional and encompasses people with diverse backgrounds. To enable an even greater role for medical illustrations, a data set, BodyParts3D, has been generated and its data set can be used by anyone to create and exchange customised three-dimensional (3D) anatomical images. BP3D comprises more than 3000 3D object files created by segmenting a digital mannequin in accordance with anatomical naming conventions. This paper describes the methodologies and features used to generate an anatomically correct male mannequin.

  11. Anatomic changes due to interspecific grafting in cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, N; Ribeiro, D G; Nassar, N M A

    2011-05-31

    Cassava rootstocks of varieties UnB 201 and UnB 122 grafted with scions of Manihot fortalezensis were prepared for anatomic study. The roots were cut, stained with safranin and alcian blue, and examined microscopically, comparing them with sections taken from ungrafted roots. There was a significant decrease in number of pericyclic fibers, vascular vessels and tyloses in rootstocks. They exhibited significant larger vessels. These changes in anatomic structure are a consequence of genetic effects caused by transference of genetic material from scion to rootstock. The same ungrafted species was compared. This is the first report on anatomic changes due to grafting in cassava.

  12. Anatomic Double-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Nitri, Marco; Civitarese, David; Dean, Chase S; Moulton, Samuel G; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is known to be the main posterior stabilizer of the knee. Anatomic single-bundle PCL reconstruction, focusing on reconstruction of the larger anterolateral bundle, is the most commonly performed procedure. Because of the residual posterior and rotational tibial instability after the single-bundle procedure and the inability to restore the normal knee kinematics, an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction has been proposed in an effort to re-create the native PCL footprint more closely and to restore normal knee kinematics. We detail our technique for an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction using Achilles and anterior tibialis tendon allografts. PMID:27284530

  13. Understanding complex systems: lessons from Auzoux's and von Hagens's anatomical models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antonio G Valdecasas; Ana M Correas; Carmen R Guerrero; Jesús Juez

    2009-12-01

    Animal and human anatomy is among the most complex systems known, and suitable teaching methods have been of great importance in the progress of knowledge. Examining the human body is part of the process by which medical students come to understand living forms. However, the need to preserve cadavers has led to the development of various techniques to manufacture models for teaching purposes. A variety of materials, such as wax, wood, papier-mâché, or glass, have long been used to construct animal and plant models. In the case of the human body, the most innovative, yet controversial, method of preservation has been plastination, invented by the German physician Gunther von Hagens, by which actual human bodies are preserved as odourless and aesthetic models for teaching and exhibitions. We point out in our study that the ‘hands-on’ approach that some anatomical models allow, namely, the (clastic) disassembly and reassembly of the parts of complex systems and their models, is not only a crucial tool for learning, but is far superior to the simple passive observation that rigid, single-piece models allow. And what is valid for the learning of anatomy can be generalized to the acquisition of knowledge of other complex physical systems.

  14. Understanding complex systems: lessons from Auzoux's and von Hagens's anatomical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdecasas, Antonio G; Correas, Ana M; Guerrero, Carmen R; Juez, Jesús

    2009-12-01

    Animal and human anatomy is among the most complex systems known, and suitable teaching methods have been of great importance in the progress of knowledge. Examining the human body is part of the process by which medical students come to understand living forms. However, the need to preserve cadavers has led to the development of various techniques to manufacture models for teaching purposes. A variety of materials, such as wax, wood, papier-mache, or glass, have long been used to construct animal and plant models. In the case of the human body, the most innovative, yet controversial, method of preservation has been plastination, invented by the German physician Gunther von Hagens, by which actual human bodies are preserved as odourless and aesthetic models for teaching and exhibitions. We point out in our study that the 'hands-on' approach that some anatomical models allow, namely, the (clastic) disassembly and reassembly of the parts of complex systems and their models, is not only a crucial tool for learning, but is far superior to the simple passive observation that rigid, single-piece models allow. And what is valid for the learning of anatomy can be generalized to the acquisition of knowledge of other complex physical systems. PMID:20093736

  15. Anatomically-aided PET reconstruction using the kernel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchcroft, Will; Wang, Guobao; Chen, Kevin T.; Catana, Ciprian; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-09-01

    This paper extends the kernel method that was proposed previously for dynamic PET reconstruction, to incorporate anatomical side information into the PET reconstruction model. In contrast to existing methods that incorporate anatomical information using a penalized likelihood framework, the proposed method incorporates this information in the simpler maximum likelihood (ML) formulation and is amenable to ordered subsets. The new method also does not require any segmentation of the anatomical image to obtain edge information. We compare the kernel method with the Bowsher method for anatomically-aided PET image reconstruction through a simulated data set. Computer simulations demonstrate that the kernel method offers advantages over the Bowsher method in region of interest quantification. Additionally the kernel method is applied to a 3D patient data set. The kernel method results in reduced noise at a matched contrast level compared with the conventional ML expectation maximization algorithm.

  16. Anatomical features and clinical relevance of a persistent trigeminal artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Tubbs, R S; Niño-Hernández, Lucía M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is uncommonly identified, knowledge of this structure is essential for clinicians who interpret cranial imaging, perform invasive studies of the cerebral vasculature, and operate this region. Methods: A review of the medical literature using standard search engines was performed to locate articles regarding the PTA, with special attention with anatomical descriptions. Results: Although anatomical reports of PTA anatomy are very scarce, those were analyzed to describe in detail the current knowledge about its anatomical relationships and variants. Additionally, the embryology, classification, clinical implications, and imaging modalities of this vessel are extensively discussed. Conclusions: Through a comprehensive review of isolated reports of the PTA, the clinician can better understand and treat patients with such an anatomical derailment. PMID:23087827

  17. Making anatomical dynamic film using the principle of linear motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Guosheng

    2015-01-01

    :Making anatomical dynamic film using the principle of linear motion is an innovative technology and provides the dynamic aid for anat omy teaching.

  18. Anatomic Dead Space Cannot Be Predicted by Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, Lara M.; Orr, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    Anatomic, airway, or tracheal, dead space is the part of the tidal volume that does not participate in gas exchange. Knowledge of the size of the dead space is important for proper mechanical ventilation, especially if small tidal volumes are used. Respiratory and medical textbooks state that anatomic dead space can be estimated from the patient’s body weight. Specifically, these references suggest dead space can be predicted using a relationship of one milliliter per pound of body weight. Us...

  19. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using an individualized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola F. van Eck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures. Recently, there has been a shift in interest towards reconstruction techniques that more closely restore the native anatomy of the ACL. This review paper discusses our approach to individualized anatomic ACL reconstruction, including the anatomy of the ACL, the physical exam, imaging modalities, the surgical technique for anatomic reconstruction including pre- and intraoperative considerations and our postoperative rehabilitation protocol.

  20. Detection and Analysis of Statistical Differences in Anatomical Shape

    OpenAIRE

    Golland, Polina; Grimson, W. Eric L.; Martha E. Shenton; Kikinis, Ron

    2005-01-01

    We present a computational framework for image-based analysis and interpretation of statistical differences in anatomical shape between populations. Applications of such analysis include understanding developmental and anatomical aspects of disorders when comparing patients vs. normal controls, studying morphological changes caused by aging, or even differences in normal anatomy, for example, differences between genders. Once a quantitative description of organ shape is extracted from input i...

  1. Anatomic Double-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Chahla, Jorge; Nitri, Marco; Civitarese, David; Dean, Chase S.; Moulton, Samuel G.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is known to be the main posterior stabilizer of the knee. Anatomic single-bundle PCL reconstruction, focusing on reconstruction of the larger anterolateral bundle, is the most commonly performed procedure. Because of the residual posterior and rotational tibial instability after the single-bundle procedure and the inability to restore the normal knee kinematics, an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction has been proposed in an effort to re-create the n...

  2. Toledo School of Translators and their influence on anatomical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Bueno-López, José-L; Raio, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Translation facilitates transmission of knowledge between cultures. The fundamental transfer of anatomic terminology from the Ancient Greek and Islamic Golden Age cultures, to medieval Latin Christendom took place in the so-called Toledo School of Translators in the 12th-13th centuries. Translations made in Toledo circulated widely across Europe. They were the foundation of scientific thinking that was born in the boards of first universities. In Toledo, Gerard of Cremona translated Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, the key work of Islamic Golden Age of medicine. Albertus Magnus, Mondino de Luzzi and Guy de Chauliac, the leading authors of anatomical Latin words in the Middle Ages, founded their books on Gerard's translations. The anatomical terms of the Canon retain auctoritas up to the Renaissance. Thus, terms coined by Gerard such as diaphragm, orbit, pupil or sagittal remain relevant in the current official anatomical terminology. The aim of the present paper is to bring new attention to the highly significant influence that the Toledo School of Translators had in anatomical terminology. For this, we shall review here the onomastic origins of a number of anatomical terms (additamentum; coracoid process; coxal; false ribs; femur; panniculus; spondylus; squamous sutures; thorax; xiphoid process, etc.) which are still used today. PMID:25667112

  3. Anatomical Findings in Patients with Infective Endocarditis Diagnosed at Autopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Serra Valdés

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infective endocarditis continues to challenge modern medicine despite its rare occurrence in the general population. Its incidence depends on risk groups. Correlation of anatomical and pathological findings with clinical and epidemiological elements may explain the current features of this condition. Objective: to describe the anatomical features of patients with infective endocarditis diagnosed at autopsy. Methods: A descriptive study including cases of infective endocarditis diagnosed at autopsy between 1986 and 2008 was conducted in the Provincial Clinical-Surgical Hospital Celia Sanchez, Granma. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, previous anatomical lesions, location of vegetations, multi-organ embolic infarcts and embolic abscesses, complications, culture of lesions and direct causes of death. Results: frequency of infective endocarditis diagnosed at necropsy ranged annually from 0.4 to 1.5%. Native valve endocarditis without previous damage was the most frequent. The anatomical findings were more common in the left side of the heart. Right-sided nosocomial endocarditis accounted for almost a third of the deceased patients and risk factors were identified. Embolic lesions affecting various organs, systemic complications and direct causes of death showed acute infectious endocarditis. The most common pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: knowing the anatomical findings may contribute to the understanding of the clinical and epidemiological aspects of this condition. Correlation between anatomical and clinical findings was low; therefore difficulties in establishing the diagnosis during life are inferred.

  4. [The anatomical revolution and the transition of anatomical conception in late imperial china].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihn, Kyu Hwan

    2012-04-30

    This paper aimed to examine the anatomical revolution from Yilingaicuo (Correcting the Errors of Medicine) and Quantixinlun(Outline of Anatomy and Physiology) in late imperial China. As the cephalocentrism which the brain superintend human operation of the mind was diffused in China since 16th century, the cephalocentrism and the cardiocentrism had competed for the hegemony of anatomical conception. Because of the advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun, the cephalocentrism became the main stream in the anatomical conception. The supporters of the Wang Yangming's Xinxue(the Learning of Heart and Mind) argued that the heart was the central organ of perception, sensitivity, and morality of the human body in medicine since 16th century. Even reformist and revolutionary intellectuals like Tan sitong and Mao zedong who had supported the Wang Yangming's Xinxue embraced the cephalocentrism in the late 19th century and the early 20th century. May Fourth intellectuals had not obsessed metaphysical interpretation of human body any more in the New Culture Movement in 1910s. They regarded human body as the object of research and writing. The anatomy was transformed into the instrumental knowledge for mutilation of the body. Yilingaicuo challenged the traditional conception of body, and Chinese intellectuals drew interest in the anatomy knowledge based on real mutilation. Quantixinlun based on Western medicine fueled a controversy about anatomy. Though new knowledge of anatomy was criticized by traditional Chinese medical doctors from the usefulness and morality of anatomy, nobody disavowed new knowledge of anatomy from the institutionalization of Western medicine in medical school. The internal development of cephalocentrism and positivism had influence on anatomy in China since 16th century. The advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun provided the milestone of new anatomy, though both sides represented traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine respectively. They

  5. Biologic considerations in anatomic imaging with radionuclides. Final progress report, July 1974--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important task relating to anatomic imaging with radionuclides is the determination of factors which effect the use of imaging procedures. This is important to reduce radiation exposure in the population, to improve the efficacy of diagnostic imaging procedures and finally to provide a basis for evaluating the potential effects of proposed regulation of use rates. In this report we describe a methodology for obtaining clinical data relating to the use of the brain scan in an inner city teaching hospital. The development of a questionnaire suitable for use in a clinical setting and providing both prospective and retrospective data is presented. The results of the use of the questionnaire at the Johns Hopkins Hospital during a three month period in 1974 are shown and discussed. Some preliminary results from these data are given and a method for further analysis is indicated

  6. José María Vargas (1786-1854): Reformer of anatomical studies in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverón, Rafael Romero

    2014-03-01

    José María Vargas (1786-1854): Venezuelan medical doctor, surgeon, optician, anatomist, chemist, botanist, professor, geologist, mineralogist, and mathematician. Second President of Venezuela (1835-1836), First republican dean, he reformed medicine studies in 1827 establishing human anatomical dissection in the Universidad Central de Venezuela where he taught human anatomy between 1827 and 1853 along with surgery and chemistry. In 1838, he wrote Curso de Lecciones y demostraciones Anatómicas, the first book on the subject printed in Venezuela for the teaching of human anatomy. PMID:23650143

  7. Optimization of mammography with respect to anatomical noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenberg, E.; Svensson, B.; Danielsson, M.; Lazzari, B.; Cederström, B.

    2011-03-01

    Beam quality optimization in mammography traditionally considers detection of a target obscured by quantum noise on a homogenous background. It can be argued that this scheme does not correspond well to the clinical imaging task because real mammographic images contain a complex superposition of anatomical structures, resulting in anatomical noise that may dominate over quantum noise. Using a newly developed spectral mammography system, we measured the correlation and magnitude of the anatomical noise in a set of mammograms. The results from these measurements were used as input to an observer-model optimization that included quantum noise as well as anatomical noise. We found that, within this framework, the detectability of tumors and microcalcifications behaved very differently with respect to beam quality and dose. The results for small microcalcifications were similar to what traditional optimization methods would yield, which is to be expected since quantum noise dominates over anatomical noise at high spatial frequencies. For larger tumors, however, low-frequency anatomical noise was the limiting factor. Because anatomical structure has similar energy dependence as tumor contrast, optimal x-ray energy was significantly higher and the useful energy region wider than traditional methods suggest. Measurements on a tissue phantom confirmed these theoretical results. Furthermore, since quantum noise constitutes only a small fraction of the noise, the dose could be reduced substantially without sacrificing tumor detectability. Exposure settings used clinically are therefore not necessarily optimal for this imaging task. The impact of these findings on the mammographic imaging task as a whole is, however, at this stage unclear.

  8. Color vision impairment in type 2 diabetes assessed by the D-15d test and the Cambridge Colour Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa-Santana, Claudia; Paramei, Galina V; Nishi, Mauro; Gualtieri, Mirella; Costa, Marcelo F; Ventura, Dora F

    2010-09-01

    Color vision impairment emerges at early stages of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and may precede diabetic retinopathy or the appearance of vascular alterations in the retina. The aim of the present study was to compare the evaluation of the color vision with two different tests - the Lanthony desaturated D-15d test (a traditional color arrangement test), and the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT) (a computerized color discrimination test) - in patients diagnosed with DM2 without clinical signs of diabetic retinopathy (DR), and in sex- and age-matched control groups. Both color tests revealed statistically significant differences between the controls and the worst eyes of the DM2 patients. In addition, the degree of color vision impairment diagnosed by both tests correlated with the disease duration. The D-15d outcomes indicated solely tritan losses. In comparison, CCT outcomes revealed diffuse losses in color discrimination: 13.3% for best eyes and 29% for worst eyes. In addition, elevation of tritan thresholds in the DM2 patients, as detected by the Trivector subtest of the CCT, was found to correlate with the level of glycated hemoglobin. Outcomes of both tests confirm that subclinical losses of color vision are present in DM2 patients at an early stage of the disease, prior to signs of retinopathy. Considering the advantages of the CCT test compared to the D-15d test, further studies should attempt to verify and/or improve the efficiency of the CCT test.

  9. Plastinación, una técnica moderna al servicio de la anatomía Plastination: a modern anatomical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Isaza Castro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La preservación y el mantenimiento de los cadáveres y especímenes anatómicos han llevado a la búsqueda de técnicas diferentes y a la utilización de sustancias distintas al formaldehído con el fin de minimizar los riesgos de exposición a vapores químicos y a agentes biológicos y de disponer de preparados anatómicos con mayor durabilidad, conservando las características anatómicas y facilitando la docencia y la investigación en la disciplina. Una de estas técnicas es la plastinación. Presentamos los resultados obtenidos con ella en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Antioquia. The preservation and maintenance of anatomical specimens and corpses have created the need for new techniques and for the use of substances different from formaldehyde, in order to lessen the risks of exposure to this substance and to biological agents, and to increase the availability and durability of anatomical pieces preserving their characteristics in order to facilitate teaching and research. In the eighth decade of the XX century the German anatomist von Hagens patented the plastination technique that consists of replacing the water of tissues by silicones, polymers or resins. The plastination process includes four steps: fixation, dehydration, impregnating and curing. There are some difficulties in Colombia regarding the availability of acetone, polymers and silicones as well as a lack of adequate infrastructure for the plastination process; because of this we have modified the technique using other substances at different pressure and temperature conditions; we report the modifications with which we have obtained very good results.

  10. TEACHING ANATOMY TO UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharadkumar Pralhad Sawant,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anatomy is the base of medical science in India and is taught practically to all disciplines of undergraduate health sciences in the first year. It is an acknowledged fact that a basic knowledge of Anatomy is a prerequisite to learn any other branch of medicine. All medical professionals must have a basic knowledge of Anatomy so as to ensure safe medical practice. Traditionally Anatomy teaching consists of didactic lectures as well as dissections or prosections as per the requirement of the course. Lecture is defined as an oral discourse on a given subject before an audience for purpose of instruction and leaning. In the traditional method lectures were taken via chalk & board, but nowadays power point presentations are increasingly being used. To make Anatomy learning both pleasant and motivating, new methods of teaching gross anatomy are being assessed as medical colleges endeavour to find time in their curricula for new content without fore-going fundamental anatomical knowledge. This paper examines the other teaching methodologies for teaching gross anatomy. Conclusion: Proper utilization of newer technologies along with the traditional teaching methods will certainly lead to enhanced understanding of gross anatomy and will ultimately improve students’ performance.

  11. Definition and Research of the Rejection Rate of Cambridge Filter%剑桥滤片截留率的定义与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马营

    2016-01-01

    The sealing performance of the seal gasket and labyrinth ring of cigarette catching device of smoking machine is not easy to find. Through studying the definition and calculation method of the rejection rate of Cambridge filter, the seal of cigarette filter is judged by the interception rate of Cambridge filter to ensure the accurate detection data of the mainstream smoke.%吸烟机卷烟捕集器密封垫片和迷宫环密封性能好坏不易直观发现,通过研究剑桥滤片截留率的定义与计算方法,依据剑桥滤片截留率数据判断卷烟捕集器密封性,保证主流烟气的检测数据准确。

  12. Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and five subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water years 2007-08 (October 2006 through September 2008). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. Composite samples of stormwater also were analyzed for concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and suspended sediment in one subbasin in the Stony Brook Reservoir drainage basin. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply.

  13. Anatomical Disregard as a Risk Factor in Thoracic Surgery.

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    Arribalzaga, Eduardo B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy plays a significant role in medical education, allowing a progressive appropriate professional development. Because of different factors adverse events (AE occur, where patient’s safety is achieved by surgical knowledge, prevention and elimination of risk factors. Absence or incorrect knowledge of the anatomical basis at the beginning of the graduate studies specialization are factors that alter the surgical patient’s safety, risking his life. The safety checklist in surgery is used to reduce avoidable risks for the patient in the operating room.Objectives: 1. Analyze the anatomic disregard as a risk factor in surgical anatomical processes of the thorax. 2. Evaluate actions to provide greater safety for the patient with thoracic surgical pathology. 3. Evaluate the importance of implementing register systems to improve the quality of care and patient’s safety with thoracic surgical pathology.Retrospective statistical analysis of anatomic disregard as a risk factor contributing to adverse events (AEs in anatomical and surgical procedures of the thorax was performed in the General Surgery Service of the Hospital Aeronáutico Central of Buenos Aires Air (HAC, from October 2009 to April 2011; and a case of anatomical disregard and its clinical-surgical implications was reported, in General Surgery Service of Hospital de Clínicas of Buenos Aires.In the General Surgery Service of HAC, 21 patients (17.64% had AE all (100% preventable. 100% were due to human factors, corresponding to 12 (57.14%, because of ignorance of anatomical region and the rest by other factors: absence of checklist in 7 (58.33% of which 5 (71.43% correspond to the first 9 months of the studied period and 2 (28.57% in the next 9 months. A case of anatomical disregard was reported in the surgical practice of General Surgery Service of Hospital de Clínicas, Buenos Aires where it was because of complications that endangered the patient’s life.The registration

  14. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Martin E. [University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Hospital, 3-920, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Alharbi, Fawaz [University of Toronto, Toronto General Hospital, NCSB 1C572, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Qassim University, Department of Medical Imaging, Buraydah, Qassim (Saudi Arabia); Chawla, Tanya P. [University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Room 567, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Moshonov, Hadas [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  15. [ANATOMICAL PREPARATIONS IN MUSEUMS A SPECIAL CATEGORY OF CULTURAL HERITAGE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monza, Francesca; Licata, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The international debate on the issue of human remains in museums and on the ethical issues related to their exhibition stimulates reflection on the Italian anatomical collections and on their preparations. A definition of human remains or of anatomical preparation does not exist in the Italian legislation. The anatomical specimens in museums are protected by the laws of Cultural Heritage as part of public collections, but their status is not well defined. By their nature of human material they would in fact be considered as a special category of Cultural Heritage. Because they are part of a cadaver they can be regarded as res nullius, but since treated with special techniques they could also change their meaning and being considered a species nova. Finally, it reflects on the possibility of creating a museum in Italy composed by new anatomical preparations. The article outline the contours of a museological issue that deserves to be investigated in order to better identify the anatomical preparations and their management in museums.

  16. Development and validation of a preference based measure derived from the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) for use in cost utility analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Meads David M; Ratcliffe Julie; McKenna Stephen P; Brazier John E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Pulmonary Hypertension is a severe and incurable disease with poor prognosis. A suite of new disease-specific measures – the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) – was recently developed for use in this condition. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preference based measure from the CAMPHOR that could be used in cost-utility analyses. Methods Items were selected that covered major issues covered by the CAMPHOR QoL scale (activities,...

  17. The ADDITION-Cambridge trial protocol: a cluster – randomised controlled trial of screening for type 2 diabetes and intensive treatment for screen-detected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kinmonth Ann; Prevost A Toby; Barling Roslyn S; Williams Kate M; Simmons Rebecca K; Echouffo-Tcheugui Justin B; Wareham Nicholas J; Griffin Simon J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses a major public health challenge. Population-based screening and early treatment for type 2 diabetes could reduce this growing burden. However, the benefits of such a strategy remain uncertain. Methods and design The ADDITION-Cambridge study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of (i) a stepwise screening strategy for type 2 diabetes; and (ii) intensive multifactorial treatment for people with screen-de...

  18. Teaching Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Z.; Kostka, I.; Mott-Smith, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors of "Teaching Writing" draw on their years of teaching and their knowledge of theory and research to present major concepts in teaching L2 writing. These concepts encompass how cultural differences affect the writing class, planning instruction, text-based writing, writing strategies, modeling, and responding to student…

  19. Teaching Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtchinova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Ekaterina Nemtchinova's book "Teaching Listening" explores different approaches to teaching listening in second language classrooms. Presenting up-to-date research and theoretical issues associated with second language listening, Nemtchinova explains how these new findings inform everyday teaching and offers practical suggestions…

  20. Teaching Artistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The profession of teaching artist is an increasingly accepted career path. Teaching artists have generated plentiful testimonials to support what was once only backed up by anecdote and is now increasingly supported by objective data. They are finding that very definite and specific benefits await the artist who teaches. While the impacts are not…

  1. Factor V Leiden, factor V Cambridge, factor II GA20210, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saadatnia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Factor V G1691A (FV Leiden, FII GA20210, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T mutations are the most common genetic risk factors for thromboembolism in the Western countries. However, there is rare data in Iran about cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of common genetic thrombophilic factors in CVST patients. Materials and Methods: Forty consequently CVST patients from two University Hospital in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences aged more than 15 years from January 2009 to January 2011 were recruited. In parallel, 51 healthy subjects with the same age and race from similar population selected as controls. FV Leiden, FII GA20210, MTHFR C677T, and FV Cambridge gene mutations by polymerase chain reaction technique were evaluated in case and control groups. Results: FV Leiden, FII GA20210, and FV Cambridge gene mutations had very low prevalence in both case (5%, 2%, 0% and control (2.5%, 0%, 0% and were not found any significant difference between groups. MTHFR C677T mutations was in 22 (55% of patients in case group and 18 (35.5% of control group (P = 0.09. Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of FV Leiden, FII GA20210, and FV Cambridge were low. Laboratory investigations of these mutations as a routine test for all patients with CVST may not be cost benefit.

  2. Factor V Leiden, factor V Cambridge, factor II GA20210, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis: A case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatnia, Mohammad; Salehi, Mansour; Movahedian, Ahmad; Shariat, Seyed Ziaeddin Samsam; Salari, Mehri; Tajmirriahi, Marzieh; Asadimobarakeh, Elham; Salehi, Rasoul; Amini, Gilda; Ebrahimi, Homa; Kheradmand, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Factor V G1691A (FV Leiden), FII GA20210, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutations are the most common genetic risk factors for thromboembolism in the Western countries. However, there is rare data in Iran about cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of common genetic thrombophilic factors in CVST patients. Materials and Methods: Forty consequently CVST patients from two University Hospital in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences aged more than 15 years from January 2009 to January 2011 were recruited. In parallel, 51 healthy subjects with the same age and race from similar population selected as controls. FV Leiden, FII GA20210, MTHFR C677T, and FV Cambridge gene mutations by polymerase chain reaction technique were evaluated in case and control groups. Results: FV Leiden, FII GA20210, and FV Cambridge gene mutations had very low prevalence in both case (5%, 2%, 0%) and control (2.5%, 0%, 0%) and were not found any significant difference between groups. MTHFR C677T mutations was in 22 (55%) of patients in case group and 18 (35.5%) of control group (P = 0.09). Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of FV Leiden, FII GA20210, and FV Cambridge were low. Laboratory investigations of these mutations as a routine test for all patients with CVST may not be cost benefit. PMID:26600830

  3. Orbitofrontal sulcal and gyrus pattern in human: an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Pereira Rodrigues

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex in human is limited in literature instead of many functional and clinical studies involving it. Objective Anatomically define the orbitofrontal region aiming to possible neurosurgical treatments and unify the scientific nomenclature as well. Method We analyze eighty four human hemispheres using a surgical microscope. Then we chose four hemispheres and dissect them according to Klinger’ technique. Results We found five main sulcus: olfatory sulcus, orbital medial sulcus, orbital lateral sulcus, orbital transverse sulcus and orbital intermediate sulcus. These sulcus, excluding the intermediate sulcus, delimit five gyrus: rectus gurys, orbital medial gyrus, orbital anterior gyrus, orbital lateral gyrus and orbital posterior gyrus. The main sulcal configuration can be divided on four more frequently patterns. Conclusion Orbitofrontal cortex is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Better anatomical and functional characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex and its connections will improve our knowledge about these diseases.

  4. Photosynthesis rate in moss leaves of various anatomical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of measurements of the rate of gas exchange in the leaves of mosses the value of the compensation and of the light saturation of photosynthesis points was determined. These points differentiate mosses into photo- and sciophilous ones.Moss species such as: Mnium punctatum, Catherinea undulata, Polytrichum juniperinum, Funaria hygrometrica, Polytrichum piliferum, Aloina rigida were also classified according to differences in the anatomical structure of their leaves. The morphological characters of the anatomical structure of leaves and their chlorophyll content are connected with photosynthetic activity. There is a correlation between the leaf surface and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure. This results in an enlargement of the contact surface of the cells assimilating from the air, and this in turn is associated with an increase in the photosynthetic activity per leaf surface area unit.

  5. Identification of Salicornia population: Anatomical characterization and RAPD fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dubravka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis of two typical populations of Salicornia europaea from Montenegro and Greece (Lesvos, one typical population of S. ramosissima from Spain and one population that belongs to the Salicornia genus from Serbia, was undertaken to develop a new strategy for identifying Salicornia plants. Anatomical variability and differentiation were examined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Multivariate Discriminant Function Analysis (MDA. On the basis of the anatomical measurements, the four populations were classified into three groups: one joining the plants from Serbia and Spain, one comprising the Montenegrin group and one comprising the Lesvos group. RAPD analysis indicated that populations from Spain and Serbia were closely related to each other and the Lesvos group was quite different from all the other investigated populations. These results opened up the possibility that the specimens from Serbia belonged to S. ramosissima and not to S. europaea, as reported previously.

  6. Gastric Anatomic Type Is Associated with Obesity and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jen Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To enhance our understanding of the associations among gastric anatomy, obesity, and gender. Methods: 777 randomly selected participants received health checkups, including a series of radiographs of the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI; the findings were linked with each corresponding subject's gender and BMI. We measured the length, angle, and different portions of the stomach with the subjects in the standing position using radiographs to classify all individuals into anatomic types 1 through 6 based on gastric morphology. The gastric morphology was identified based on the initial UGI examination: 166 follow-up UGI radiographs at 12 ± 1.5 months to evaluate whether the stability of gastric anatomy persisted over time. Results: There was a significant difference in anatomic types between females and males (p Conclusion: Gastric anatomic types were associated with obesity and gender.

  7. Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction Technique: An Anatomic-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Menge, Travis J; Mitchell, Justin J; Dean, Chase S; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Restoration of anteroposterior laxity after an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has been predictable with traditional open and endoscopic techniques. However, anterolateral rotational stability has been difficult to achieve in a subset of patients, even with appropriate anatomic techniques. Therefore, differing techniques have attempted to address this rotational laxity by augmenting or reconstructing lateral-sided structures about the knee. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the anterolateral ligament as a potential contributor to residual anterolateral rotatory instability in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient patients. Numerous anatomic and biomechanical studies have been performed to further define the functional importance of the anterolateral ligament, highlighting the need for surgical techniques to address these injuries in the unstable knee. This article details our technique for an anatomic anterolateral ligament reconstruction using a semitendinosus tendon allograft. PMID:27656361

  8. Benign anatomical mistakes: the correct anatomical term for the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirilas, Petros; Skandalakis, John E

    2002-01-01

    The term recurrent laryngeal nerve has been adopted by Nomina Anatomica (1989) and Terminologia Anatomica (1998) to describe this vagus branch from its origin, its turn dorsally around the subclavian artery and the aortic arch, and its cranial pathway until it reaches its terminal organs in the neck. However, there is still much confusion, and either the terms inferior and recurrent laryngeal nerve are used interchangeably or inferior laryngeal nerve is considered the terminal branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. We hereby feel that it is necessary to reassess the term and we propose the term inferior laryngeal nerve for the entire nerve under consideration, from its origin from the vagus nerve to its destinations, including tracheal, esophageal, and pharyngeal branches. If the term superior laryngeal nerve is a given, standard and accepted term in the anatomical terminology, then logically the term inferior laryngeal nerve should also be accepted, as opposed to it. Of course the upward travel of the inferior laryngeal nerve is "recurrent". When nonrecurrence is encountered together with an arteria lusoria, a retroesophageal right subclavian artery or a right aortic arch, we consider that the term nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve should be used to describe the deviation from the normal.

  9. Teaching Morally and Teaching Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, Gary D.; Osguthorpe, Richard D.; Sanger, Matthew N.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce what they believe is an important distinction between teaching morality and teaching morally. In P-12 schools, the moral education debate often focuses on character education programs or other moral curricula. Such programs and curricula are championed as a means of teaching morality and transmitting moral…

  10. Teaching Chemical Engineers about Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Daniel E.; Hoy, Mary; Rathman, James F.; Rohdieck, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department at The Ohio State University in collaboration with the University Center for the Advancement of Teaching developed the Chemical Engineering Mentored Teaching Experience. The Mentored Teaching Experience is an elective for Ph.D. students interested in pursuing faculty careers. Participants are…

  11. Bilateral lingual-facial trunk: anatomic and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupis, T; Michalinos, A; Kakisis, J; Natsis, K; Sofidis, G; Skandalakis, P

    2015-01-01

    Common origin of lingual and facial artery is a relatively frequent anatomic varia-tion. Instead, bilateral lingual-facial trunk has been described only sparsely in the literature. In this report authors describe and analyse a case of bilateral common lingual-facial trunk in the context of its anatomical, clinical and embryological implications. We also describe possible consequences in performance of elective and emergent surgical operations and modification in surgical techniques that should be considered. We believe that surgeons should be suspicious for this variation's existence and keep alternative solutions in their armentarium.

  12. Reply to “Introducing International Journal of Anatomical Variations”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potu BK

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available To the Editor, International Journal of Anatomical Variations:Please accept my heartiest congratulations on your recent opening of International Journal of Anatomical Variations Journal. I have already gone through the articles of first volume. It was surprised to read some of the unique variations published in it. Reading of these variations by vascular surgeons and angiologist will certainly boost their knowledge for better diagnosis and I hope you will continue publishing these types of rare variations. It would be great, if you encourage authors to submit research related articles. It is obvious that you have a wide-open future ahead of you.

  13. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW 12), Cambridge, MA, USA, 13 16 December 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.; Katsavounidis, E.

    2008-09-01

    It was a great pleasure and an honor for us to host the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW) at MIT and the LIGO Laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the place where this workshop series started in 1996. This time the conference was held at the conference facilities of the Royal Sonesta Hotel in Cambridge from 13 16 December, 2007. This 12th GWDAW found us with the ground interferometers having just completed their most sensitive search for gravitational waves and as they were starting their preparation to bring online and/or propose more sensitive instruments. Resonant mass detectors continued to observe the gravitational wave sky with instruments that have been operating now for many years. LISA, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, was recently reviewed by NASA's Beyond Einstein Program Assessment Committee (BEPAC) convened by the National Research Council (NRC) and found that 'on purely scientific grounds LISA is the mission that is the most promising and least scientifically risky…thus, the committee gave LISA its highest scientific ranking'. Even so, JDEM, the Joint Dark Energy Mission, was identified to go first, with LISA following a few years after. New methods, analysis ideas, results from the analysis of data collected by the instruments, as well as Mock Data Challenges for LISA were reported in this conference. While data from the most recent runs of the instruments are still being analyzed, the first upper limit results show how even non-detection statements can be interesting astrophysics. Beyond these traditional aspects of GWDAW though, for the first time in this workshop we tried to bring the non-gravitational wave physics and astronomy community on board in order to present, discuss and propose ways to work together as we pursue the first detection of gravitational waves and as we hope to transition to gravitational wave astronomy in the near future. Overview talks by colleagues leading observations in the electromagnetic

  14. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration.

  15. Anatomical, neurophysiological and perceptual issues of tactile perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, B.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Cholewiak, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, we are concerned with what our touch receptors and the associated central nervous structures do. Our description begins with the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the touch receptors followed by a comprehensive psychophysical overview of touch sensation and perception.

  16. ANATOMICAL PRINCIPLES BEHIND PRESERVATION OF LARYNGEAL NERVES DURING THYROIDECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Fabian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the anatomical principles behind preservation of inferior laryngeal nerve and of the external branch of superior laryngeal nerve during thyroidectomy. The embryological development of thyroid and recurrent laryngeal nerves explains the constant relationship between Zuckerkandl’s tuberculum and the recurrent laryngeal nerve, while anomalies in development of the aortic arches explain the presence of rare anatomical variants, with a high risk of nerve injury, of non-recurrent course of the inferior laryngeal nerve. Good knowledge of the relationship between the external branch of superior laryngeal nerve and the superior thyroid artery makes possible to avoid transection of this branch during ligature around superior thyroid artery and vein. Anatomical landmarks used to identify the recurrent laryngeal nerve (tracheo-oesophageal sulcus, the cross-over with the inferior thyroid artery, Berry’s ligament, Zuckerkandl’s tuberculum and variations in the extra-laryngeal branching of the nerve are discussed based on data from the literature. The anatomical variants when the inferior laryngeal nerve doesn’t have a recurrent course are also discussed

  17. Anatomical Modifications in two Juncus Species under Salt Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Al HASSAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomic structure of roots and culms of two Juncus species with different degrees of salt tolerance was analysed in plants grown for two months under salt stress (NaCl treatments and in control, non-treated plants. The aim of the study was not only to compare the anatomical structures of a halophyte (J. acutus and a related glycophyte (J. articulatus, but mostly to assess whether salt stress induced anatomical modifications, by identifying differences between control and treated plants. Several slight differences have been indeed detected, in terms of endodermis type, development of aerenchyma and extent of sclerenchyma in perivascular sheaths. The role of Casparian endodermis was here discussed in relation to its complex implications in controlling salt influx at the root level that is an efficient mechanism involved in halophytes. Aerenchyma is a common feature found in marshy halophytes, allowing them to survive naturally under flooding conditions; however, when occurring in non-waterlogged plants, as is the case of this study, it should be regarded as a genetically, constitutive adaptation rather than an inducible one. Nevertheless, such anatomic modifications should be regarded as mere alterations due to stress – that is, as stress responses – and not as truly adaptations to salinity. In this context, the nature of these modifications – either considered as adaptations or damage indicators of salt stress – should be further reconsidered.

  18. The Main Technical Points of Thoracoscopic Anatomical Lung Segment Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang CHEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thoracoscopic segmentectomy is technically much more meticulous than lobectomy, due to the complicated anotomical variations of segmental bronchi and vessels. Preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography bronchography and angiography, 3D-CTBA could reveal the anatomical structures and variations of the segmental bronchi/vessels and locate the pulmonary nodules, which is helpful for surgery planning. Preoperative nodule localization is of vital importance for thoracoscopic segmentectomy. Techniques involved in this procedure include dissection of the targeted arteries, bronchus and intra-segmental veins, retention of the inter-segmental veins, identification of the inter-segmental boarder with the inflation-deflation method and seperation of intra-segmental pulmonary tissues by electrotome and/or endoscopic staplers. The incision margin for malignant nodules should be at least 2 cm or the diameter of the tumor. Meanwhile, sampling of N1 and N2 station lymph nodes and intraoperative frozen section is also necessary. The complication rate of thoracoscopic segmentectomy is comparatively low. The anatomic relationship between pulmonary segments and lobes is that a lobe consists of several irregular cone-shaped segments with the inter-segmental veins lies between the segments. Our center has explored a method to separate pulmonary segments from the lobe on the basis of cone-shaped principle, and we named it “Cone-shaped Segmentectomy”. This technique could precisely decide and dissect the targeted bronchi and vessels, and anatomically separate the inter-segmental boarder, which ultimately achieve a completely anatomical segmentectomy.

  19. Segmentation of anatomical structures in chest CT scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rikxoort, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, methods are described for the automatic segmentation of anatomical structures from chest CT scans. First, a method to segment the lungs from chest CT scans is presented. Standard lung segmentation algorithms rely on large attenuation differences between the lungs and the surrounding

  20. Ankle Joint Fusion With an Anatomically Preshaped Anterior Locking Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewiorski, Martin; Barg, Alexej; Schlemmer, Thomas; Valderrabano, Victor

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel fixation plate for primary ankle joint fusion. A single anatomically preshaped angular stable plate was used with an anterior approach. An excellent result with good bone consolidation was present at the 1-year follow-up examination. PMID:25998475

  1. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan;

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast and robust supervised algorithm for label- ing anatomical airway trees, based on geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for a given unlabeled air- way tree are evaluated based on the distances to a training set of labeled airway trees....

  2. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger;

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for classification of abnormality in anatomical tree structures is presented. A tree is classified based on direct comparisons with other trees in a dissimilarity-based classification scheme. The pair-wise dissimilarity measure between two trees is based on a linear assignment betw...

  3. Optimizing conditions for computer-assisted anatomical learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Kommers, Piet A.M.; Geelkerken, Robert H.; Vos, Hans J.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment evaluated the impact of two typical features of virtual learning environments on anatomical learning for users of differing visuo-spatial ability. The two features studied are computer-implemented stereopsis (the spatial information that is based on differences in visual patterns proje

  4. The role of stereopsis in virtual anatomical learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Kommers, Piet A.M.; Annema, Jan-Henk

    2008-01-01

    The use of virtual learning environments in the medical field is on the rise. An earlier experiment [Luursema, J.-M., Verwey, W.B., Kommers, P.A.M., Geelkerken, R.H., Vos, H.J., 2006. Optimizing conditions for computer-assisted anatomical learning. Interacting with Computers, 18, 1123–1138.] found t

  5. The Contribution of Dynamic Exploration to Virtual Anatomical Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Maarten Luursema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Learning Environments are increasingly becoming part of the medical curriculum. In a previous study we (luursema et al., 2006 found that a combination of computer-implemented stereopsis (visual depth through seeing with both eyes and dynamic exploration (being able to continuously change one's viewpoint relative to the studied objects in real time is beneficial to anatomical learning, especially for subjects of low visuo spatial ability (the ability to form, retrieve, and manipulate mental representations of a visuo-spatial nature. A follow-up study (luursema et al., 2008 found the contribution of computer-implemented stereopsis to this effect to be small but significant. The present experiment investigated the contribution of dynamic exploration to anatomical learning by means of a virtual learning environment. Seventy participants were tested for visuo-spatial ability and were grouped in pairs matched for this ability. One individual of the pair actively manipulated a 3D reconstruction of the human abdomen; the other individual passively watched the interactions of the first individual on a separate screen. Learning was assessed by two anatomical learning tests. Dynamic exploration provided a small but significant benefit to anatomical learning.

  6. Additive Manufacturing of Anatomical Models from Computed Tomography Scan Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Y

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to investigate the manufacturability of human anatomical models from Computed Tomography (CT) scan data via a 3D desktop printer which uses fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. First, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) CT scan data were converted to 3D Standard Triangle Language (STL) format by using In Vaselius digital imaging program. Once this STL file is obtained, a 3D physical version of the anatomical model can be fabricated by a desktop 3D FDM printer. As a case study, a patient's skull CT scan data was considered, and a tangible version of the skull was manufactured by a 3D FDM desktop printer. During the 3D printing process, the skull was built using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) co-polymer plastic. The printed model showed that the 3D FDM printing technology is able to fabricate anatomical models with high accuracy. As a result, the skull model can be used for preoperative surgical planning, medical training activities, implant design and simulation to show the potential of the FDM technology in medical field. It will also improve communication between medical stuff and patients. Current result indicates that a 3D desktop printer which uses FDM technology can be used to obtain accurate anatomical models.

  7. Anatomical Variations of Cerebral MR Venography: Is Gender Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rambir; Bansal, Nikhil; Paliwal, Vimal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Knowledge of variations in the cerebral dural venous sinus anatomy seen on magnetic resonance (MR) venography is essential to avoid over-diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). Very limited data is available on gender difference of the cerebral dural venous sinus anatomy variations. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was conducted to study the normal anatomy of the intracranial venous system and its normal variation, as depicted by 3D MR venography, in normal adults and any gender-related differences. Results A total of 1654 patients (582 men, 1072 women, age range 19 to 86 years, mean age: 37.98±13.83 years) were included in the study. Most common indication for MR venography was headache (75.4%). Hypoplastic left transverse sinus was the most common anatomical variation in 352 (21.3%) patients. Left transverse sinus was hypoplastic in more commonly in male in comparison to female (24.9% versus 19.3%, p = 0.009). Most common variation of superior sagittal sinus (SSS) was atresia of anterior one third SSS (15, 0.9%). Except hypoplastic left transverse sinus, rest of anatomical variations of the transverse and other sinuses were not significantly differ among both genders. Conclusion Hypoplastic left transverse sinus is the most common anatomical variation and more common in male compared to female in the present study. Other anatomical variations of dural venous sinuses are not significantly differ among both genders. PMID:27621945

  8. An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eMoerel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla. Importantly, we illustrate that - whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis - the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e. myelination as well as of functional properties (e.g. broadness of frequency tuning is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions.

  9. EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Bart Van Vooren and Ramses A. Wessel, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2014-01-01

    by the Treaties, and it is suitably placed to become the core text for teaching this expanding EU policy field. In their book, EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Van Vooren and Wessel seek to fill the gap in up-to-date literature from a legal standpoint in the field of external relations...

  10. Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Material accumulating and washing off urban street surfaces and ultimately into stormwater drainage systems represents a substantial nonpoint source of solids, phosphorus, and other constituent loading to waterways in urban areas. Cost and lack of usable space limit the type and number of structural stormwater source controls available to municipalities and other public managers. Non-structural source controls such as street cleaning are commonly used by cities and towns for construction, maintenance and aesthetics, and may reduce contaminant loading to waterways. Effectiveness of street cleaning is highly variable and potential improvements to water quality are not fully understood. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and initiated a study to better understand the physical and chemical nature of the organic and inorganic solid material on street surfaces, evaluate the performance of a street cleaner at removing street solids, and make use of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM) to estimate potential reductions in solid and phosphorus loading to the lower Charles River from various street-cleaning technologies and frequencies. Average yield of material on streets collected between May and December 2010, was determined to be about 740 pounds per curb-mile on streets in multifamily land use and about 522 pounds per curb-mile on commercial land-use streets. At the end-of-winter in March 2011, about 2,609 and 4,788 pounds per curb-mile on average were collected from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively. About 86 percent of the total street-solid yield from multifamily and commercial land-use streets was greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter (or very fine sand). Observations of street-solid distribution across the entire street width indicated that as

  11. Crystal structures of four δ-keto esters and a Cambridge Structural Database analysis of cyano-halogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Kulsoom; Maurya, Hardesh K; Gupta, Atul; Vasudev, Prema G

    2015-10-01

    The revived interest in halogen bonding as a tool in pharmaceutical cocrystals and drug design has indicated that cyano-halogen interactions could play an important role. The crystal structures of four closely related δ-keto esters, which differ only in the substitution at a single C atom (by H, OMe, Cl and Br), are compared, namely ethyl 2-cyano-5-oxo-5-phenyl-3-(piperidin-1-yl)pent-2-enoate, C19H22N2O3, (1), ethyl 2-cyano-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-oxo-3-(piperidin-1-yl)pent-2-enoate, C20H24N2O4, (2), ethyl 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-cyano-5-oxo-3-(piperidin-1-yl)pent-2-enoate, C19H21ClN2O3, (3), and the previously published ethyl 5-(4-bromophenyl)-2-cyano-5-oxo-3-(piperidin-1-yl)pent-2-enoate, C19H21BrN2O3, (4) [Maurya, Vasudev & Gupta (2013). RSC Adv. 3, 12955-12962]. The molecular conformations are very similar, while there are differences in the molecular assemblies. Intermolecular C-H...O hydrogen bonds are found to be the primary interactions in the crystal packing and are present in all four structures. The halogenated derivatives have additional aromatic-aromatic interactions and cyano-halogen interactions, further stabilizing the molecular packing. A database analysis of cyano-halogen interactions using the Cambridge Structural Database [CSD; Groom & Allen (2014). Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53, 662-671] revealed that about 13% of the organic molecular crystals containing both cyano and halogen groups have cyano-halogen interactions in their packing. Three geometric parameters for the C-X...N[triple-bond]C interaction (X = F, Cl, Br or I), viz. the N...X distance and the C-X...N and C-N...X angles, were analysed. The results indicate that all the short cyano-halogen contacts in the CSD can be classified as halogen bonds, which are directional noncovalent interactions.

  12. The pornographic anatomy book? The curious tale of the Anatomical Basis of Medical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Edward C

    2009-02-01

    Studying the history of medical education helps teach us that medicine is a social activity that occurs in the context of social mores and customs. In 1971, a major new anatomy textbook aimed at first-year medical students was published. The Anatomical Basis of Medical Practice, written by Professors R. Frederick Becker, James S. W. Wilson, and John A. Gehweiler, emphasized surface anatomy, embryology, and radiographic anatomy. At multiple places in the text, the authors used sexually suggestive and "cheeky" comments about women. A small fraction of the illustrations were stylized, posed female nude photographs purchased from California photographer Peter Gowland. These photographs, of a type typically seen in Playboy centerfolds or "pin-up girl" calendars, produced a firestorm of controversy. The book was criticized in the press and in reviews in scholarly journals, and a boycott was organized by the Association of Women in Science. The publisher received negative feedback from consumers, and the book was withdrawn from the market. The book is now a minor collector's item. Professors Becker and Wilson vigorously responded. They laid blame for the debacle on the publisher and also claimed they were the victims of a witch hunt by feminists. The Anatomical Basis of Medical Practice appeared as the women's movement became part of the American popular consciousness. It was also an era in which the public began to grapple with how to define pornography. Professor Becker and his coauthors thought that they were writing a witty, engaging, and funny book. Their detractors thought the book denigrated women. PMID:19174685

  13. A porcine model for teaching surgical cricothyridootomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Campelo Spencer Netto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the acceptability of an educational project using A porcine model of airway for teaching surgical cricothyroidotomy to medical students and medical residents at a university hospital in southern Brazil.METHODS: we developed a teaching project using a porcine model for training in surgical cricothyroidotomy. Medical students and residents received lectures about this surgical technique and then held practical training with the model. After the procedure, all participants filled out a form about the importance of training in airway handling and the model used.RESULTS: There were 63 participants. The overall quality of the porcine model was estimated at 8.8, while the anatomical correlation between the model and the human anatomy received a mean score of 8.5. The model was unanimously approved and considered useful in teaching the procedure.CONCLUSION: the training of surgical cricothyroidotomy with a porcine model showed good acceptance among medical students and residents of this institution.

  14. Teaching Portfolio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Fischer

    The present teaching portfolio has been submitted for evaluation in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the teacher training programme for Assistant Professors at Department of Engineering, Aarhus University, Denmark.......The present teaching portfolio has been submitted for evaluation in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the teacher training programme for Assistant Professors at Department of Engineering, Aarhus University, Denmark....

  15. Teaching Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Swan

    2008-01-01

    @@ The trouble with teaching grammar is that we are never quite sure whether it works or not:its effects are uncertain and hard to assess.Michael Swan looks at grammar teaching and the carry-over to spontaneous production by students.

  16. Teaching Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Mary

    1980-01-01

    Described are five approaches to teaching reading: Language Experience, Modified Alphabet, Linguistic, Programmed, and Basal. It is suggested that a good teacher, well trained, certified in his or her profession, an active participant in professional organizations, can teach reading successfully using almost any approach. (KC)

  17. Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  18. Teaching Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Grammar is a component in all language skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Teachers need to know rules of grammar (teacher knowledge) as well as techniques that help students use grammar effectively and effortlessly (teaching knowledge). Using reflective practice to help teachers become comfortable with teaching grammar, this…

  19. Teaching collocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revier, Robert Lee; Henriksen, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    Very little pedadagoy has been made available to teachers interested in teaching collocations in foreign and/or second language classroom. This paper aims to contribute to and promote efforts in developing L2-based pedagogy for the teaching of phraseology. To this end, it presents pedagogical...

  20. Computational investigation of nonlinear microwave tomography on anatomically realistic breast phantoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P. D.; Rubæk, Tonny; Mohr, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a nonlinear microwave tomography algorithm is tested using simulated data from anatomically realistic breast phantoms. These tests include several different anatomically correct breast models from the University of Wisconsin-Madison repository with and without tumors inserted....

  1. An anatomical evaluation of the serratus anterior plane block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, J; Davison, E; Panahi, P; Patten, D; Eljelani, F; Womack, J; Varma, M

    2016-09-01

    The serratus anterior plane block has been described for analgesia of the hemithorax. This study was conducted to determine the spread of injectate and investigate the anatomical basis of the block. Ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane block was performed on six soft-fix embalmed cadavers. All cadavers received bilateral injections, on one side performed with 20 ml latex and on the other with 20 ml methylene blue. Subsequent dissection explored the extent of spread and nerve involvement. Photographs were taken throughout dissection. The intercostal nerves were involved on three occasions with dye, but not with latex. The lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerve contained dye and latex on all occasions. The serratus plane block appears to be mediated through blockade of the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves. Anatomically, serratus plane block does not appear to be equivalent to paravertebral block for rib fracture analgesia. PMID:27440171

  2. First discovery of anatomically preserved Cordaitean leaves in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.; Tian, B. [China University of Mining & Technology (China). Analysis and Test Centre

    1995-06-01

    The first species of the anatomically-preserved Cordaitean leaves is described and is named Cordaites taiyuanensis sp. nov. The morphological feature of the new species is similar to that of Cordaites principals (Germ.) Gein, widely distributed in the Carboniferous and Permian strata in China, but its antomatical structure is different from that of the same species of Euroamerican Flora. The main characteristics of the anatomical structure are: the primary xylem of the bundles is of mesarch; the upper and lower epidermises both have 3-5 thin and short hydrodermal sclerenchyma strands (interstitial strips); the mesophyle does not differentiate into palisade tissue and spongy tissue; the walls of the mesophyll cells are conspicuously infolded; and the margin of the leaf is thickened into a drumstick shape in the transverse section. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. [Anatomical rationale for lingual nerve injury prevention during mandibular block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkin, V A; Dydikin, S S; Kuzin, A V; Sogacheva, V V

    2015-01-01

    The topographic and anatomical study of lingual nerve structural features was done. It was revealed that during mandibular anesthesia possible lingual nerve injury can occur if puncture needle is lower than 1 cm. of molars occlusal surface level. The position of the lingual nerve varies withmandible movements. At the maximum open mouth lingual nerve is not mobile and is pressed against the inner surface of the mandibular ramus by the medial pterygoid muscle and the temporal muscle tendon. When closing the mouth to 1.25±0.2 cmfrom the physiological maximum, lingual nerve is displaced posteriorly from the internal oblique line of the mandible and gets mobile. On the basis of topographic and anatomic features of the lingual nervestructure the authors recommend the re-do of inferior alveolar nerve block, a semi-closed mouth position or the use the "high block techniques" (Torus anesthesia, Gow-Gates, Vazirani-Akinozi). PMID:26271698

  4. Analysis of anatomic variability in children with low mathematical skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaoying; Fuchs, Lynn; Davis, Nikki; Cannistraci, Christopher J.; Anderson, Adam W.; Gore, John C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2008-03-01

    Mathematical difficulty affects approximately 5-9% of the population. Studies on individuals with dyscalculia, a neurologically based math disorder, provide important insight into the neural correlates of mathematical ability. For example, cognitive theories, neuropsychological studies, and functional neuroimaging studies in individuals with dyscalculia suggest that the bilateral parietal lobes and intraparietal sulcus are central to mathematical performance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate morphological differences in a group of third grade children with poor math skills. We compare population averages of children with low math skill (MD) to gender and age matched controls with average math ability. Anatomical data were gathered with high resolution MRI and four different population averaging methods were used to study the effect of the normalization technique on the results. Statistical results based on the deformation fields between the two groups show anatomical differences in the bilateral parietal lobes, right frontal lobe, and left occipital/parietal lobe.

  5. Anatomical structure of moss leaves and their photosynthetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic activity of the leaf area unit increases depending on the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure of the leaves of six chosen moss species. There is a correlation between the leaf area and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure resulting in enlargement of the area of contact of the assimilating cells with air. The leaves of Catharinea undulata having a one-layer blade and provided with several lamellae show a higher photosynthesis per 1 cm2 of their surface than the one-layer leaves of Mniurnm or Funaria. Aloina leaves are the smallest in area among those of the moss species discussed, however, their photosynthetic rate is almost 4.5 times higher than in Funaria leaves. By analogy to the structure of leaves and their function in vascular, plants, these changes and correlations may be considered as attempts of primeval adaptation of mosses to terrestrial conditions of living.

  6. A time dependent anatomically detailed model of cardiac conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxberg, B. E.; Grumbach, M. P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to understand the determinants of transitions in cardiac electrical activity from normal patterns to dysrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation, we are constructing an anatomically and physiologically detailed finite element simulation of myocardial electrical propagation. A healthy human heart embedded in paraffin was sectioned to provide a detailed anatomical substrate for model calculations. The simulation of propagation includes anisotropy in conduction velocity due to fiber orientation as well as gradients in conduction velocities, absolute and relative refractory periods, action potential duration and electrotonic influence of nearest neighbors. The model also includes changes in the behaviour of myocardial tissue as a function of the past local activity. With this model, we can examine the significance of fiber orientation and time dependence of local propagation parameters on dysrhythmogenesis.

  7. Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses: what to inform the otolaryngologist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses are common findings in daily practice. For a radiologist, to know these variations is necessary because of the pathological conditions related to them, and also because they are import for planning a functional endoscopic endonasal surgery, the procedure of choice for diagnosis, biopsy and treatment of various sinonasal diseases. To assure that this surgery is done safely, preventing iatrogenic injuries, it is essential that the surgeon has the mapping of these structures. Thus, a CT is indispensable for preoperative evaluation of paranasal sinuses. Since a general radiologist is expected to know these changes and their relationship to pathological conditions, a literature review and a iconographic essay were conducted with the aim of discussing the importance of major anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses. (author)

  8. Simultaneous Segmentation and Anatomical Labeling of the Cerebral Vasculature

    OpenAIRE

    Robben, David; Türetken, Engin; Sunaert, Stefan; Thijs, Vincent; Wilms, Guy; Fua, Pascal; Maes, Frederik; Suetens, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the simultaneous segmentation and anatomical labeling of the cerebral vasculature. The method first constructs an over-complete graph capturing the vasculature. It then selects and labels the subset of edges that most likely represents the true vasculature. Unlike existing approaches that first attempt to obtain a good segmentation and then perform labeling, we jointly optimize for both by simultaneously taking into account the image evidence and the prior kno...

  9. The anatomical, surgical and orthopedic importance of gastrocnemius

    OpenAIRE

    Ashfaq U. Hassan; Zahida Rasool; Nasir Muzzaffar

    2013-01-01

    Gastrocnemius is one of the most important muscles of lower limb. It belongs to the superficial compartment of calf muscles. They belong to group of superficial flexors. Gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus form the bulk of the calf. Gastrocnemius forms the belly of the calf. It arises by two distinct heads, connected to the condyles of the femur by strong, flat tendons. It has an immense anatomic, medical, orthopedic and physiological importance and is attributed in a variety of medical and s...

  10. Plastinated nasal model: a new concept of anatomically realistic cast.

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Marc; Pourchez, Jérémie; Louis, Bruno; Pouget, Jean-François; Isabey, Daniel; Coste, André; Prades, Jean-Michel; Rusch, Philippe; Cottier, Michèle

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many years, researchers have been interested in investigating airflow and aerosol deposition in the nasal cavities. The nasal airways appear to be a complex geometrical system. Thus, in vitro experimental studies are frequently conducted with a more or less biomimetic nasal replica. AIM: This study is devoted to the development of an anatomically realistic nose model with bilateral nasal cavities, i.e. nasal anatomy, airway geometry and aerodynamic properties as close as possi...

  11. Anatomical Atlas-Guided Diffuse Optical Tomography of Brain Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Custo, Anna; Boas, David A.; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Dan, Ippeita; Mesquita, Rickson; Fischl, Bruce; Grimson, W. Eric L.; Wells, Williams

    2009-01-01

    We describe a neuro imaging protocol that utilizes an anatomical atlas of the human head to guide Diffuse optical tomography of human brain activation. The protocol is demonstrated by imaging the hemodynamic response to median nerve stimulation in three healthy subjects, and comparing the images obtained using a head atlas with the images obtained using the subject-specific head anatomy. The results indicate that using the head atlas anatomy it is possible to reconstruct the location of the b...

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Kaysheva; M. N. Arkhipova; A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus) and red (Ahnfeltia plicata) algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results ...

  13. Anatomical and psychometric relationships of behavioral neglect in daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Marc; Allart, Etienne; Bernati, Thérèse; Saj, Arnaud

    2015-04-01

    Spatial neglect has been related to both cortical (predominantly at the temporal-parietal junction) and subcortical (predominantly of the superior longitudinal fasciculus) lesions. The objectives of this observational study were to specify the anatomical relationships of behavioral neglect in activities of daily living (N-ADLs), and the anatomical and psychometric relationships of N-ADLs on one hand and components of neglect (peripersonal neglect and personal neglect) and anosognosia on the other. Forty five patients were analyzed for behavioral difficulties in daily living (on the Catherine Bergego scale) and the main components of neglect (using conventional clinical assessments) during the first months post right hemisphere stroke. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify brain areas within which lesions explained the severity of bias in each assessment (non-parametric permutation test; p<0.01, one tailed). N-ADLs was associated with lesions centered on the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus and extending to the temporo-parietal junction, temporo-occipital junction and subcortical white matter (including the superior longitudinal fasciculus). Peripersonal neglect resulted from extended cortical lesions centered on the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior parietal gyrus, with subcortical extension. Personal neglect resulted predominantly from lesions centered on the somatosensory cortex and at a lesser degree on the superior temporal sulcus. Anosognosia resulted from lesions of the posterior inferior temporal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus. In anatomic terms, N-ADLs was strongly related to peripersonal neglect, and those relationships were also shown by the psychometric analysis. In conclusions, superior temporal gyrus and superior longitudinal fasciculus lesions have a pivotal role in N-ADLs. N-ADLs is principally related (anatomically and psychometrically) to peripersonal neglect, and at a lesser degree to anosognosia and

  14. Anatomical and functional assemblies of brain BOLD oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Baria, Alexis T.; Baliki, Marwan N; Parrish, Todd; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2011-01-01

    Brain oscillatory activity has long been thought to have spatial properties, the details of which are unresolved. Here we examine spatial organizational rules for the human brain oscillatory activity as measured by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD). Resting state BOLD signal was transformed into frequency space (Welch’s method), averaged across subjects, and its spatial distribution studied as a function of four frequency bands, spanning the full bandwidth of BOLD. The brain showed anatomic...

  15. An anatomic gene expression atlas of the adult mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Lydia; Bernard, Amy; Lau, Chris; Overly, Caroline C.; Dong, Hong-Wei; Kuan, Chihchau; Pathak, Sayan; Sunkin, Susan M.; Dang, Chinh; Bohland, Jason W.; Bokil, Hemant; Mitra, Partha P.; Puelles, Luis; Hohmann, John; Anderson, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Studying gene expression provides a powerful means of understanding structure-function relationships in the nervous system. The availability of genome-scale in situ hybridization datasets enables new possibilities for understanding brain organization based on gene expression patterns. The Anatomic Gene Expression Atlas (AGEA) is a new relational atlas revealing the genetic architecture of the adult C57Bl/6J mouse brain based on spatial correlations across expression data for thousands of gene...

  16. Variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić Nataša P.; Merkulov Ljiljana S.; Krstić Borivoj Đ.; Pajević Slobodanka P.; Borišev Milan K.; Orlović Saša S.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in seventeen Quercus robur L. genotypes. Acorns were collected in clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, Vojvodina, Serbia). Microscopic measurements were done for pericarp (total thickness, thickness of exocarp and mesocarp), seed coat (total thickness, thickness of outer epidermis, parenchyma, and inner epidermis), and embryo axis (diameter, thickness of cortical region, and diameter of stellar zone). Obtain...

  17. Testing anatomically specified hypotheses in functional imaging using cytoarchitectonic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, Simon B; Heim, Stefan; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin

    2006-08-15

    The statistical inference on functional imaging data is severely complicated by the embedded multiple testing problem. Defining a region of interest (ROI) where the activation is hypothesized a priori helps to circumvent this problem, since in this case the inference is restricted to fewer simultaneous tests, rendering it more sensitive. Cytoarchitectonic maps obtained from postmortem brains provide objective, a priori ROIs that can be used to test anatomically specified hypotheses about the localization of functional activations. We here analyzed three methods for the definition of ROIs based on probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. (1) ROIs defined by the volume assigned to a cytoarchitectonic area in the summary map of all areas (maximum probability map, MPM), (2) ROIs based on thresholding the individual probabilistic maps and (3) spherical ROIs build around the cytoarchitectonic center of gravity. The quality with which the thus defined ROIs represented the respective cytoarchitectonic areas as well as their sensitivity for detecting functional activations was subsequently statistically evaluated. Our data showed that the MPM method yields ROIs, which reflect most adequately the underlying anatomical hypotheses. These maps also show a high degree of sensitivity in the statistical analysis. We thus propose the use of MPMs for the definition of ROIs. In combination with thresholding based on the Gaussian random field theory, these ROIs can then be applied to test anatomically specified hypotheses in functional neuroimaging studies. PMID:16781166

  18. Biofabrication of multi-material anatomically shaped tissue constructs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additive manufacturing in the field of regenerative medicine aims to fabricate organized tissue-equivalents. However, the control over shape and composition of biofabricated constructs is still a challenge and needs to be improved. The current research aims to improve shape, by converging a number of biocompatible, quality construction materials into a single three-dimensional fiber deposition process. To demonstrate this, several models of complex anatomically shaped constructs were fabricated by combined deposition of poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(ε-caprolactone), gelatin methacrylamide/gellan gum and alginate hydrogel. Sacrificial components were co-deposited as temporary support for overhang geometries and were removed after fabrication by immersion in aqueous solutions. Embedding of chondrocytes in the gelatin methacrylamide/gellan component demonstrated that the fabrication and the sacrificing procedure did not affect cell viability. Further, it was shown that anatomically shaped constructs can be successfully fabricated, yielding advanced porous thermoplastic polymer scaffolds, layered porous hydrogel constructs, as well as reinforced cell-laden hydrogel structures. In conclusion, anatomically shaped tissue constructs of clinically relevant sizes can be generated when employing multiple building and sacrificial materials in a single biofabrication session. The current techniques offer improved control over both internal and external construct architecture underscoring its potential to generate customized implants for human tissue regeneration. (paper)

  19. Anatomic variations of anterior cerebral artery cortical branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, M A; Schneider, F L; Marrone, A C; Severino, A G; Jackowski, A P; Wallace, M C

    2000-01-01

    The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is a major vessel responsible for the blood supply to the interhemispheric region. The ACA segment after the anterior communicating artery (AComA) origin is called the distal ACA and has central and cortical branches. The cortical branches are distributed in the different regions of the orbital and medial part of the brain. The objects of this study are the anatomical variations found in the distal ACA. In 76 hemispheres the ACA distal branches were injected with latex and dissected under microscope magnification. Vessel diameters and distances between vessel origins and anterior communicating artery were recorded and analyzed. Microsurgical dissection was carried out to demonstrate anatomic variations of these vessels. Average diameter of ACA at origin was 2.61 +/- 0.34 mm and average diameter of cortical branches diameter ranged from 0.79 +/- 0.27 mm to 1.84 +/- 0.3 mm. Distances between vessel origin and AComA ranged from 7.68 +/- 3.91 mm (orbitofrontal) to 112.6 +/- 11.63 mm (inferior internal parietal). This study found anatomical variations: a single (azygos) ACA was present in one case and three in three cases. Crossing branches of the distal ACA to the contralateral hemisphere were present in 26% of the cases. In some cases a single ACA may supply the posterior hemispheric region through crossing branches. This calls attention to potential bilateral brain infarcts due to a single unilateral ACA occlusion. PMID:10873213

  20. Detection and analysis of statistical differences in anatomical shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golland, Polina; Grimson, W Eric L; Shenton, Martha E; Kikinis, Ron

    2005-02-01

    We present a computational framework for image-based analysis and interpretation of statistical differences in anatomical shape between populations. Applications of such analysis include understanding developmental and anatomical aspects of disorders when comparing patients versus normal controls, studying morphological changes caused by aging, or even differences in normal anatomy, for example, differences between genders. Once a quantitative description of organ shape is extracted from input images, the problem of identifying differences between the two groups can be reduced to one of the classical questions in machine learning of constructing a classifier function for assigning new examples to one of the two groups while making as few misclassifications as possible. The resulting classifier must be interpreted in terms of shape differences between the two groups back in the image domain. We demonstrate a novel approach to such interpretation that allows us to argue about the identified shape differences in anatomically meaningful terms of organ deformation. Given a classifier function in the feature space, we derive a deformation that corresponds to the differences between the two classes while ignoring shape variability within each class. Based on this approach, we present a system for statistical shape analysis using distance transforms for shape representation and the support vector machines learning algorithm for the optimal classifier estimation and demonstrate it on artificially generated data sets, as well as real medical studies. PMID:15581813

  1. Anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Xue-song

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the early results of anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and compare with the results of native ACL of the contralateral knee.Methods: The results of a consecutive series of 118 patients receiving arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were evaluated.Eight patients were lost to the latest follow-up,leaving a total of 110 patients available for study within at least 3 years' clinical follow-up.Among them,63 patients underwent postoperative MRI and CT scan,as well as clinical evaluation.Results: After reconstruction,the knees were stable and pain-free.Mean postoperative Lysholm score was 95.54 in 110 patients after 3 years.CT and MRI assessment showed that the reconstruction centered in the femoral footprint of ACL (n=63).The sagittal ACL angle in the reconstructed ACL (52.16°±2.45°) was much close to that in the contralateral intact ACL (51.31 °±2.18°,P>0.05).By ACL-Blumensaat line angle analysis,there was no difference between doublebundle reconstructed knees and their contralateral normal knees (4.67°±0.43° vs.4.62°±0.60°,P>0.05).Conclusion:Anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction can place grafts more precisely in the anatomic footprint of the ACL and better restore knee kinematics.

  2. Assessing the Integration of Audience Response System Technology in Teaching of Anatomical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Cara J.; Crescini, Weronika M.; Juskewitch, Justin E.; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    The goals of our study were to determine the predictive value and usability of an audience response system (ARS) as a knowledge assessment tool in an undergraduate medical curriculum. Over a three year period (2006-2008), data were collected from first year didactic blocks in Genetics/Histology and Anatomy/Radiology (n = 42-50 per class). During…

  3. The Intermingled History of Occupational Therapy and Anatomical Education: A Retrospective Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Melissa A.; Lawson, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Few research articles have addressed the anatomical needs of entry-level occupational therapy students. Given this paucity of empirical evidence, there is a lack of knowledge regarding anatomical education in occupational therapy. This article will primarily serve as a retrospective look at the inclusion of anatomical education in the occupational…

  4. Hydrogen-bond landscapes, geometry and energetics of squaric acid and its mono- and dianions: a Cambridge Structural Database, IsoStar and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Frank H; Cruz-Cabeza, Aurora J; Wood, Peter A; Bardwell, David A

    2013-10-01

    As part of a programme of work to extend central-group coverage in the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre's (CCDC) IsoStar knowledge base of intermolecular interactions, we have studied the hydrogen-bonding abilities of squaric acid (H2SQ) and its mono- and dianions (HSQ(-) and SQ(2-)) using the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) along with dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations for a range of hydrogen-bonded dimers. The -OH and -C=O groups of H2SQ, HSQ(-) and SQ(2-) are potent donors and acceptors, as indicated by their hydrogen-bond geometries in available crystal structures in the CSD, and by the attractive energies calculated for their dimers with acetone and methanol, which were used as model acceptors and donors. The two anions have sufficient examples in the CSD for their addition as new central groups in IsoStar. It is also shown that charge- and resonance-assisted hydrogen bonds involving H2SQ and HSQ(-) are similar in strength to those made by carboxylate COO(-) acceptors, while hydrogen bonds made by the dianion SQ(2-) are somewhat stronger. The study reinforces the value of squaric acid and its anions as cocrystal formers and their actual and potential importance as isosteric replacements for carboxylic acid and carboxylate functions.

  5. Hydrogen-bond landscapes, geometry and energetics of squaric acid and its mono- and dianions: a Cambridge Structural Database, IsoStar and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Frank H; Cruz-Cabeza, Aurora J; Wood, Peter A; Bardwell, David A

    2013-10-01

    As part of a programme of work to extend central-group coverage in the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre's (CCDC) IsoStar knowledge base of intermolecular interactions, we have studied the hydrogen-bonding abilities of squaric acid (H2SQ) and its mono- and dianions (HSQ(-) and SQ(2-)) using the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) along with dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations for a range of hydrogen-bonded dimers. The -OH and -C=O groups of H2SQ, HSQ(-) and SQ(2-) are potent donors and acceptors, as indicated by their hydrogen-bond geometries in available crystal structures in the CSD, and by the attractive energies calculated for their dimers with acetone and methanol, which were used as model acceptors and donors. The two anions have sufficient examples in the CSD for their addition as new central groups in IsoStar. It is also shown that charge- and resonance-assisted hydrogen bonds involving H2SQ and HSQ(-) are similar in strength to those made by carboxylate COO(-) acceptors, while hydrogen bonds made by the dianion SQ(2-) are somewhat stronger. The study reinforces the value of squaric acid and its anions as cocrystal formers and their actual and potential importance as isosteric replacements for carboxylic acid and carboxylate functions. PMID:24056361

  6. The Cambridge Bachelor of Medicine (MB)/Doctor of Philosophy (PhD): graduate outcomes of the first MB/PhD programme in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Timothy M; Brimicombe, James; Wood, Diana F; Peters, D Keith

    2012-12-01

    We reviewed outcomes of the Cambridge Bachelor of Medicine (MB)/Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) programme for the period 1989-2010. Of the 90 alumni contacted, 80 (89%; 24 women) completed an anonymous questionnaire. Thirty were academic staff and 35 were in general professional (core) or higher medical training. Of the latter, 11 were specialty registrars, six were academic clinical fellows and three held academic foundation year posts. Eight alumni were overseas, including five in North America. Most (95%) respondents considered that their academic career goals were facilitated by the programme. Sixty-eight of the 80 alumni had conducted further research, 63 (79%) were active in research, and 90% had explicit plans for further full-time research. Twelve graduates had further substantive research support (six clinician scientist awards and three senior fellowships) and two were Wellcome Trust postdoctoral MB/PhD fellows. Alumni included two full university professors, one reader, six senior lecturers, two assistant professors and nine university clinical lecturers. MB/PhD programmes offer an alternative training pathway for clinician-scientists in UK medical schools: the Cambridge programme promotes scientific discovery and sustained academic development within the context of contemporary medicine and clinical practice.

  7. Style and non-style in anatomical illustration: From Renaissance Humanism to Henry Gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Style is a familiar category for the analysis of art. It is less so in the history of anatomical illustration. The great Renaissance and Baroque picture books of anatomy illustrated with stylish woodcuts and engravings, such as those by Charles Estienne, Andreas Vesalius and Govard Bidloo, showed figures in dramatic action in keeping with philosophical and theological ideas about human nature. Parallels can be found in paintings of the period, such as those by Titian, Michelangelo and Hans Baldung Grien. The anatomists also claimed to portray the body in an objective manner, and showed themselves as heroes of the discovery of human knowledge. Rembrandt's painting of Dr Nicholas Tulp is the best-known image of the anatomist as hero. The British empirical tradition in the 18th century saw William Cheselden and William Hunter working with techniques of representation that were intended to guarantee detailed realism. The ambition to portray forms life-size led to massive volumes, such as those by Antonio Mascagni. John Bell, the Scottish anatomist, criticized the size and pretensions of the earlier books and argued for a plain style adapted to the needs of teaching and surgery. Henry Gray's famous Anatomy of 1858, illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter, aspired to a simple descriptive mode of functional representation that avoided stylishness, resulting in a style of its own. Successive editions of Gray progressively saw the replacement of Gray's method and of all his illustrations. The 150th anniversary edition, edited by Susan Standring, radically re-thinks the role of Gray's book within the teaching of medicine. PMID:20447244

  8. Teaching Criminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Joseph W.

    1986-01-01

    This article surveys information resources, contemporary issues and trends, and selected instructional strategies useful in teaching undergraduate criminology. Instructional resources reviewed include textbooks, professional journals, and reference works. Twelve issues and trends are identified and three exemplary learning activities are…

  9. Teaching Propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosterman, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines ideas for teaching an introductory course in propaganda, including an historical perspective and review of the etymology of the word and an examination of those characteristics that separate propaganda from other communication arts. (JMF)

  10. Building a functional neurocognitive theory of the multiple intelligences anatomical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo eCerruti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A key goal of educational neuroscience is to conduct constrained experimental research that is theory-driven and yet also clearly related to educators’ complex set of questions and concerns. However, the fields of education, cognitive psychology and neuroscience use different levels of description to characterize human ability. An important advance in research in educational neuroscience would be the identification of a cognitive and neurocognitive framework at a level of description relatively intuitive to educators. I argue that the theory of multiple intelligences (Gardner, 1983, a conception of the mind that motivated a past generation of teachers, may provide such an opportunity. I criticize MI for doing little to clarify for teachers a core misunderstanding, specifically that MI was only an anatomical map of the mind but not a functional theory that detailed how the mind actually processes information. In an attempt to build a functional MI theory, I integrate into MI basic principles of cognitive and neural functioning, namely interregional neural facilitation and inhibition. In so doing I hope to forge a path towards constrained experimental research that bears upon teachers’ concerns about teaching and learning.

  11. Anatomical Studies on Several Species of Heliotropium L. in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam ABBASI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium spp. is distributed worldwide mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, with dry and warm temperate to semi-arid regions so that Southwest and center of Asia have considered as the main centre of origin and diversity of Heliotropium genus. Iran, with 32 species and 14 (sub endemic species, has the highest diversity in the world followed by Pakistan and Turkey with 15 species and only one endemic species and the Arabian Peninsula with 15 species and three endemic species are in the next ranks. In order to anatomical studies on Heliotropium, twelve species of this genus were selected from different regions of Iran. The selected species included: H. bacciferum Forssk., H. ramossisimum BGE., H. brevilimb Boiss., H. transoxanum BGE., H. dasycarpum Ledeb, H. dyginum Forssk., H. aucheri Dc., H. carmanicum BGE. As perennial group and H. ellipticum Ledeb., H. lasiocarpum Fisch., H. suaveolens M.B. as annual group. In order to add more data to leaf anatomy characters, evaluating of systematic relevance and/or adaptive value of the morphological and anatomical diversity we have studied 24 anatomical characters in theses 12 species. For example shape and vascular bundles of main midrib, type of parenchyma cells located under lower epidermis of midrib, distance between vascular bundles and lower or upper epidermis, angle of between two parts of blade, number of cellular layers in lower or upper mesophylla, length of upper and lower mesophylla, type of cell wall in lower and upper mesophylla and thickness of lamina were investigated in this study. In order to this present obtained H. aucheri can be separated from H. carmanicum in H. aucheri subsp. carmanicum. It can be conclude that two species H. aucheri and H. carmanicum are independent species and can accept H. transoxanum as a sub group of H. dasycarpum.

  12. THE AZYGOS VENOUS SYSTEM AND ITS ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiki Sudhakara Rao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Azygos veins are important cavocaval and portacaval junctions, which form a collateral circulation in caval vein occlusion and in portal hypertension, cirrhosis of liver. The unpaired azygos venous system consists of azygos vein, hemiazygos vein and accessory azygos vein. This system of veins, along with its mediastinal, bronchial and oesophageal tributaries drains most of the body wall of trunk, namely posterior abdominal and thoracic wall. Anatomical variations of this unpaired azygos venous system are clinically important. AIMS To study and report the occurrence of anatomical variations of the unpaired azygos venous system in the region of East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh (India. METHODS The present study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy, KIMS & RF, Amalapuram and G.S.L. Medical College, Rajahmundry over a period of 2 years. The present study was conducted on 60 cadavers (irrespective of age and sex. The entire course of the azygos venous system in these 60 cadavers was carefully observed and documented. RESULTS Anatomical variations were present in 16.66% of cases, out of which three distinct types were identified. 6.6% exhibited two separate azygos venous systems with no communications, 5% with communication between the left brachiocephalic vein and the azygos vein and 5% presence of post-aortic venous channels. CONCLUSION Variations of azygos venous system may be wrongly dubbed as aneurysm, lymphadenopathy or other abnormalities while reporting a CT scan of mediastinum. Venous anomalies are also detected only during surgery. The most troublesome intraoperative hazard is haemorrhage, which is mainly of venous origin. To avoid such situations is to have an awareness and knowledge of the expected venous anomalies.

  13. Rotational flaps in oncologic breast surgery. Anatomical and technical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acea Nebril, Benigno; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; García Novoa, Alejandra; Varela Lamas, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Local flaps are a group of surgical procedures that can solve the thoracic closure of large defects after breast cancer surgery with low morbidity. Its use in skin necrosis complications after conservative surgery or skin sparing mastectomies facilitates the initiation of adjuvant treatments and reduces delays in this patient group. This article describes the anatomical basis for the planning of thoracic and abdominal local flaps. Also, the application of these local flaps for closing large defects in the chest and selective flaps for skin coverage by necrosis in breast conserving surgery.

  14. Pneumomediastinum: Elucidation of the anatomic pathway by liquid ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamadar, D.A.; Kazerooni, E.A.; Hirschl, R.B. [Univ. of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Partial liquid ventilation is a new technique to improve oxygenation in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. In a patient with status asthmaticus and tension pneumothorax treated with subsequent liquid ventilation, radiopaque perfluorocarbon was identified along bronchovascular structures, in the mediastinum, and in the retroperitoneum. Perfluorocarbon outlined on CT and chest radiography the anatomic pathway by which spontaneous pneumomediastinum develops following alveolar rupture, as described earlier by histopathologic study in animals. This represents the radiopaque equivalent of radiolucent pneumomediastinum. Perfluorocarbon remained in the pulmonary interstitium on radiography 30 days after beginning liquid ventilation, without sequelae. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Sparse decomposition and modeling of anatomical shape variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Rostrup, Egill; Ryberg, Charlotte;

    2007-01-01

    counterparts if constructed carefully. In most medical applications, models are required to have both good statistical performance and a relevant clinical interpretation to be of value. Morphometry of the corpus callosum is one illustrative example. This paper presents a method for relating spatial features to...... anatomical variation related to clinical outcome. In the present application, landmark-based shape data of the corpus callosum is analyzed in relation to age, gender, and clinical tests of walking speed and verbal fluency. To put the data-driven sparse principal component method into perspective, we consider...

  16. Sparse Decomposition and Modeling of Anatomical Shape Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Rostrup, Egill; Ryberg, Charlotte;

    2007-01-01

    counterparts if constructed carefully. In most medical applications, models are required to have both good statistical performance and a relevant clinical interpretation to be of value. Morphometry of the corpus callosum is one illustrative example. This paper presents a method for relating spatial features to...... anatomical variation related to clinical outcome. In the present application, landmark-based shape data of the corpus callosum is analyzed in relation to age, gender, and clinical tests of walking speed and verbal fluency. To put the data-driven sparse principal component method into perspective, we consider...

  17. Anatomical and Histological Factors Affecting Intranasal Drug and Vaccine Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Gizurarson, Sveinbjörn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an understanding of the anatomical and histological structure of the nasal cavity, which is important for nasal drug and vaccine delivery as well as the development of new devices. The surface area of the nasal cavity is about 160 cm2, or 96 m2 if the microvilli are included. The olfactory region, however, is only about 5 cm2 (0.3 m2 including the microvilli). There are 6 arterial branches that serve the nasal cavity, making this region a very attractive r...

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL RESEARCH OF LEAVES OF FEIJOA SELLOWIANA BERG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Vdovenko-Martynova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feijoa leaves gathered from Feijoa sellowiana Berg. of Myrtaceae family on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus were the object of this research. Establishment of morphological and anatomical features for diagnosis of feijoa leaves was the purpose of this work. Using macro- and microscopic analysis methods we have determined external and microdiagnostic features which can be used for development of authenticity of the feijoa leaves active parts.

  19. A karyotypic and anatomical study of an unidentified liliaceous plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Spies

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified sterile liliaceous plant and three possible relatives were studied karyotypically and anatomically. All these plants have a somatic chromosome number of 2n = 14. The possibility of the sterile plant having arisen as a result of a mutation appears unlikely, when compared with the possibility of hybrid origin. Chromosome morphology rules out  Bulbine latifolia (L.f. R. & S. and Aloe arborescens Mill, as possible parents. The sterile plant and Aloe marlothii Berger have similar karyotypes and. therefore. A. marlothii may be one of the parents. A close relationship between the sterile plant and the genus Aloe is further confirmed by their similar epidermal structure.

  20. Etymology of homeric anatomical terms for the head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni KONSOLAKI, Panagiotis AGGOURIDAKIS, Georgia FRAGAKI, Georgios ROMANOS,

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: The search for the origin of medical terms used in every day practice has started since the distant past. Words that refer to the head and the neck can be found as early as in the Homeric epics; many of these have survived in some form in modern languages. Both doctors and philosophers have been concerned with the etymology of medical terminology in studies and dictionaries. This paper presents etymological suggestions for the anatomical terminology of the head and the neck as a useful aid to the oral and maxillofacial surgeon.

  1. Nervous Plexopathies in oncologic patients: Anatomical, clinical and radiological Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumbosacral or brachial plexopathies are lesions of two or more roots of the same plexus. They are very frequent in cancer patients and are usually due to extra spinal involvement of these roots, by a primary or secondary neoplasm. The CT scan is very useful in the evaluation of patients with this disease. In the article anatomic al aspects, the main clinical symptoms and signs, and the performance of CT scan are reviewed with all these elements it is possible to make a diagnosis

  2. Tracheal Atresia with Segmental Esophageal Duplication: An Unusual Anatomic Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaerty, Kirsten; Thomas, Joseph T; Petersen, Scott; Tan, Edwin; Kumar, Sailesh; Gardener, Glenn; Armes, Jane

    2016-01-01

    An unusual anatomic configuration of segmental tracheal agenesis/atresia with esophageal duplication on autopsy in a fetus that demised in utero at 29 weeks is reported. The mother was scanned initially for a cardiac anomaly at 20 weeks and on follow-up scan at 27 weeks had polyhydramnios and underwent amnioreduction. The final autopsy diagnosis was vertebral, ano-rectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, and limb malformations (VACTERL). We discuss the autopsy findings along with the embryological mechanisms and compare the configuration with Floyd's classification for tracheal agenesis. The difficulties in prenatal diagnosis are discussed. PMID:26367770

  3. Anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: a logical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Gali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe the surgical approach that we have used over the last years for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction, highlighting the importance of arthroscopic viewing through the anteromedial portal (AMP and femoral tunnel drilling through an accessory anteromedial portal (AMP. The AMP allows direct view of the ACL femoral insertion site on the medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle, does not require guides for anatomic femoral tunnel reaming, prevents an additional lateral incision in the distal third of the thigh (as would be unavoidable when the outside-intechnique is used and also can be used for double-bundle ACL reconstruction.

  4. The ADDITION-Cambridge trial protocol: a cluster – randomised controlled trial of screening for type 2 diabetes and intensive treatment for screen-detected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinmonth Ann

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses a major public health challenge. Population-based screening and early treatment for type 2 diabetes could reduce this growing burden. However, the benefits of such a strategy remain uncertain. Methods and design The ADDITION-Cambridge study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of (i a stepwise screening strategy for type 2 diabetes; and (ii intensive multifactorial treatment for people with screen-detected diabetes in primary care. 63 practices in the East Anglia region participated. Three undertook the pilot study, 33 were allocated to three groups: no screening (control, screening followed by intensive treatment (IT and screening plus routine care (RC in an unbalanced (1:3:3 randomisation. The remaining 27 practices were randomly allocated to IT and RC. A risk score incorporating routine practice data was used to identify people aged 40–69 years at high-risk of undiagnosed diabetes. In the screening practices, high-risk individuals were invited to take part in a stepwise screening programme. In the IT group, diabetes treatment is optimised through guidelines, target-led multifactorial treatment, audit, feedback, and academic detailing for practice teams, alongside provision of educational materials for newly diagnosed participants. Primary endpoints are modelled cardiovascular risk at one year, and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity at five years after diagnosis of diabetes. Secondary endpoints include all-cause mortality, development of renal and visual impairment, peripheral neuropathy, health service costs, self-reported quality of life, functional status and health utility. Impact of the screening programme at the population level is also assessed through measures of mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, health status and health service use among high-risk individuals. Discussion ADDITION-Cambridge is conducted in a defined high-risk group

  5. Anatomically shaped tooth and periodontal regeneration by cell homing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K; Lee, C H; Kim, B K; Mao, J J

    2010-08-01

    Tooth regeneration by cell delivery encounters translational hurdles. We hypothesized that anatomically correct teeth can regenerate in scaffolds without cell transplantation. Novel, anatomically shaped human molar scaffolds and rat incisor scaffolds were fabricated by 3D bioprinting from a hybrid of poly-epsilon-caprolactone and hydroxyapatite with 200-microm-diameter interconnecting microchannels. In each of 22 rats, an incisor scaffold was implanted orthotopically following mandibular incisor extraction, whereas a human molar scaffold was implanted ectopically into the dorsum. Stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF1) and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) were delivered in scaffold microchannels. After 9 weeks, a putative periodontal ligament and new bone regenerated at the interface of rat incisor scaffold with native alveolar bone. SDF1 and BMP7 delivery not only recruited significantly more endogenous cells, but also elaborated greater angiogenesis than growth-factor-free control scaffolds. Regeneration of tooth-like structures and periodontal integration by cell homing provide an alternative to cell delivery, and may accelerate clinical applications.

  6. Isolated Male Epispadias: Anatomic Functional Restoration Is the Primary Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneel, Elke; Ploumidis, Achilles; Van Laecke, Erik; Hoebeke, Piet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Isolated male epispadias (IME) is a rare congenital penile malformation, as often part of bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC). In its isolated presentation, it consists in a defect of the dorsal aspect of the penis, leaving the urethral plate open. Occurrence of urinary incontinence is related to the degree of dorsal displacement of the meatus and the underlying underdevelopment of the urethral sphincter. The technique for primary IME reconstruction, based on anatomic restoration of the urethra and bladder neck, is here illustrated. Patients and Methods. A retrospective database was created with patients who underwent primary IME repair between June 1998 and February 2014. Intraoperative variables, postoperative complications, and outcomes were assessed. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results and Limitations. Eight patients underwent primary repair, with penopubic epispadias (PPE) in 3, penile epispadias (PE) in 2, and glandular epispadias (GE) in 3. Median age at surgery was 13.0 months [7–47]; median follow-up was 52 months [9–120]. Complications requiring further surgery were reported in two patients, while further esthetic surgeries were required in 4 patients. Conclusion. Anatomical restoration in primary IME is safe and effective, with acceptable results given the initial pathology. PMID:27722172

  7. Anatomical, Clinical and Electrical Observations in Piriformis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoum Hani A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We provided clinical and electrical descriptions of the piriformis syndrome, contributing to better understanding of the pathogenesis and further diagnostic criteria. Methods Between 3550 patients complaining of sciatica, we concluded 26 cases of piriformis syndrome, 15 females, 11 males, mean age 35.37 year-old. We operated 9 patients, 2 to 19 years after the onset of symptoms, 5 had piriformis steroids injection. A dorsolumbar MRI were performed in all cases and a pelvic MRI in 7 patients. The electro-diagnostic test was performed in 13 cases, between them the H reflex of the peroneal nerve was tested 7 times. Results After a followup 1 to 11 years, for the 17 non operated patients, 3 patients responded to conservative treatment. 6 of the operated had an excellent result, 2 residual minor pain and one failed. 3 new anatomical observations were described with atypical compression of the sciatic nerve by the piriformis muscle. Conclusion While the H reflex test of the tibial nerve did not give common satisfaction in the literature for diagnosis, the H reflex of the peroneal nerve should be given more importance, because it demonstrated in our study more specific sign, with six clinical criteria it contributed to improve the method of diagnosis. The cause of this particular syndrome does not only depend on the relation sciatic nerve-piriformis muscle, but the environmental conditions should be considered with the series of the anatomical anomalies to explain the real cause of this pain.

  8. An anatomical and functional model of the human tracheobronchial tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florens, M; Sapoval, B; Filoche, M

    2011-03-01

    The human tracheobronchial tree is a complex branched distribution system in charge of renewing the air inside the acini, which are the gas exchange units. We present here a systematic geometrical model of this system described as a self-similar assembly of rigid pipes. It includes the specific geometry of the upper bronchial tree and a self-similar intermediary tree with a systematic branching asymmetry. It ends by the terminal bronchioles whose generations range from 8 to 22. Unlike classical models, it does not rely on a simple scaling law. With a limited number of parameters, this model reproduces the morphometric data from various sources (Horsfield K, Dart G, Olson DE, Filley GF, Cumming G. J Appl Physiol 31: 207-217, 1971; Weibel ER. Morphometry of the Human Lung. New York: Academic Press, 1963) and the main characteristics of the ventilation. Studying various types of random variations of the airway sizes, we show that strong correlations are needed to reproduce the measured distributions. Moreover, the ventilation performances are observed to be robust against anatomical variability. The same methodology applied to the rat also permits building a geometrical model that reproduces the anatomical and ventilation characteristics of this animal. This simple model can be directly used as a common description of the entire tree in analytical or numerical studies such as the computation of air flow distribution or aerosol transport. PMID:21183626

  9. Variations in meniscofemoral ligaments at anatomical study and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J.M.; Suh, J.S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, J.B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyungsang National University, College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, J.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Ajou University College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.; Yoo, W.K. [Department of Rehabilitation, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.Y.; Chung, I.H. [Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    Purpose To demonstrate variations in the meniscofemoral ligaments (ligaments of Wrisberg and Humphrey) at anatomical study and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Design Twenty-eight cadaveric knees were partially dissected for the examination of the meniscofemoral ligaments. One hundred knee MR examinations were reviewed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Proximal variations in the meniscofemoral ligaments at MR imaging were classified into three types according to the attachment site: type I, medial femoral condyle; type II, proximal half of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL); type III, distal half of the PCL. Distal variations were classified into vertical or oblique types according to the orientation of the intermediate signal at the interface of the ligament and lateral meniscus. Results At anatomical study, six cases showed variations in the proximal insertion site of the meniscofemoral ligaments. At MR imaging 93 cases had one or more meniscofemoral ligaments, giving a total of 107 ligaments: 90 ligaments of Wrisberg and 17 ligaments of Humphrey. Forty-one ligaments of Wrisberg were type I, 28 type II, 19 type III, and with two indeterminate type, while 6 ligaments of Humphrey were type I and the remaining 11 were indeterminate. Seven cases showed no meniscofemoral ligament. Of the 107 meniscofemoral ligaments, the distal insertion orientation was of vertical type in 10 ligaments, oblique type in 70 and unidentified in 27. Conclusion An understanding of the high incidence of meniscofemoral ligament variations may help in the interpretation of knee MR studies. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs.

  10. DESIGN OF 3D MODEL OF CUSTOMIZED ANATOMICALLY ADJUSTED IMPLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Manić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Design and manufacturing of customized implants is a field that has been rapidly developing in recent years. This paper presents an originally developed method for designing a 3D model of customized anatomically adjusted implants. The method is based upon a CT scan of a bone fracture. A CT scan is used to generate a 3D bone model and a fracture model. Using these scans, an indicated location for placing the implant is recognized and the design of a 3D model of customized implants is made. With this method it is possible to design volumetric implants used for replacing a part of the bone or a plate type for fixation of a bone part. The sides of the implants, this one lying on the bone, are fully aligned with the anatomical shape of the bone surface which neighbors the fracture. The given model is designed for implants production utilizing any method, and it is ideal for 3D printing of implants.

  11. A procedure to average 3D anatomical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, K; Dean, D

    2000-12-01

    Creating a feature-preserving average of three dimensional anatomical surfaces extracted from volume image data is a complex task. Unlike individual images, averages present right-left symmetry and smooth surfaces which give insight into typical proportions. Averaging multiple biological surface images requires careful superimposition and sampling of homologous regions. Our approach to biological surface image averaging grows out of a wireframe surface tessellation approach by Cutting et al. (1993). The surface delineating wires represent high curvature crestlines. By adding tile boundaries in flatter areas the 3D image surface is parametrized into anatomically labeled (homology mapped) grids. We extend the Cutting et al. wireframe approach by encoding the entire surface as a series of B-spline space curves. The crestline averaging algorithm developed by Cutting et al. may then be used for the entire surface. Shape preserving averaging of multiple surfaces requires careful positioning of homologous surface regions such as these B-spline space curves. We test the precision of this new procedure and its ability to appropriately position groups of surfaces in order to produce a shape-preserving average. Our result provides an average that well represents the source images and may be useful clinically as a deformable model or for animation.

  12. [Osteochondrodysplasias. Prenatal diagnosis and pathological-anatomic findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennstedt, C; Bartho, S; Bollmann, R; Schwenke, A; Nitz, I; Rothe, K

    1993-03-01

    Prenatal sonographic investigations were applied for malformations to 7,194 foetuses, between October 1985 and April 1992, with 28 cases of osteochondrodysplasia (OCD) and one case of dysostosis being dissected. Included were 20 cases of lethal osteochondrodysplasia, among them two cases of lethal hypophosphatasia, five cases of thanatophoric dysplasia, one case each of Type II shortrib (polydactyly) syndrome (VERMA-NAUMOFF) and metatropic dysplasia, three cases of campomelic dysplasia and eight cases of Type II A imperfect osteogenesis. Also observed were eight cases of nonlethal OCD, among them three cases of diastrophic dysplasia and five of achondroplasia. Dysostosis was recorded from one case and was diagnosed as Type V acrocephalosyndactyly (Pfeiffer). Identification of a specific OCD proved to be difficult in the second or third trimenon. Hence, the form of OCD was prenatally diagnosed only in ten of all cases investigated. Tentative diagnosis was first established from the postmortem radiograph. Additional malformations and other abnormalities then were detected by complementary pathologico-anatomic processing of findings. The final diagnosis was derived from radiological, pathologico-anatomic and histological findings. Diagnosis of this constitutional osteopathy is quite difficult and calls for interdisciplinary cooperation between gynaecologists, neonatologists, paediatric surgeons, radiologists, geneticists and pathologists. More effective counselling of affected families is the major purpose of all the efforts involved. PMID:8499423

  13. Rare anatomical variation of the musculocutaneous nerve - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ricardo Rios Nascimento

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The clinical and surgical importance of anatomical knowledge of the musculocutaneous nerve and its variations is due to the fact that one of the complications in many upper-limb surgical procedures involves injury to this nerve. During routine dissection of the right upper limb of a male cadaver, we observed an anatomical variation of this nerve. The musculocutaneous nerve originated in the lateral cord and continued laterally, passing under the coracobrachialis muscle and then continuing until its first branch to the biceps brachialis muscle. Just after this, it supplied another two branches, i.e. the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm and a branch to the brachialis muscle, and then it joined the median nerve. The median nerve followed the arm medially to the region of the cubital fossa and then gave rise to the anterior intermediate nerve of the forearm. The union between the musculocutaneous nerve and the median nerve occurred approximately at the midpoint of the arm and the median nerve. Given that either our example is not covered by the classifications found in the literature or that it fits into more than one variation proposed, without us finding something truly similar, we consider this variation to be rare.

  14. Variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in seventeen Quercus robur L. genotypes. Acorns were collected in clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, Vojvodina, Serbia. Microscopic measurements were done for pericarp (total thickness, thickness of exocarp and mesocarp, seed coat (total thickness, thickness of outer epidermis, parenchyma, and inner epidermis, and embryo axis (diameter, thickness of cortical region, and diameter of stellar zone. Obtained results revealed certain divergence between genotypes. The thickness of pericarp varied from 418 to 559 mm (genotypes 20 and 22, respectively. On average, the participation of exocarp in the total thickness of pericarp was 36.3%, of mesocarp 61.0%, while of endocarp 2.6%. The thickness of seed coat for individual genotypes ranged from 71 mm (genotype 28 to 157 mm (genotype 38. In addition, anatomic parameters of embryo axis varied among studied genotypes. The lowest cortical zone thickness and stellar zone diameter were measured in genotype 40, while the highest values in genotype 33.

  15. The anatomical study of transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate internal fixation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Fu-zhi; YIN Qing-shui; WANG Zhi-yun; XIA Hong; CHANG Yun-bing; WU Zeng-hui; LIU Jing-fa

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To study relevant anatomical features of the structures involved in transoral atlanto-axial reduction plate (TARP) internal fixation through transoral approach for treating irreducible atlanto-axial dislocation and providing anatomical basis for the clinical application of TARP.Methods: Ten fresh craniocervical specimens were microsurgically dissected layer by layer through transoral approach. The stratification of the posterior pharyngeal wall, the course of the vertebral artery, anatomical relationships of the adjacent structures of the atlas and axis, and the closely relevant anatomical parameters for TARP internal fixation were measured.Results: The posterior pharyngeal wall consisted of two layers and two interspaces: the mucosa, prevertebral fascia, retropharyngeal space, and prevertebral space. The range from the anterior edge of the foramen magnum to C3could be exposed by this approach. The thickness of the posterior pharyngeal wall was (3.6 ± 0.3) mm (ranging2.9-4.3 mm) at the anterior tubercle of C1,(6.1 ± 0.4) mm ( ranging 5.2-7.1 mm) at the lateral mass of C1 and (5.5±0.4) mm (ranging4.3-6.5 mm) at the central part of C2, respectively. The distance from the incisor tooth to the anterior tubercle of C1, C1 screw entry point, and C2 screw entry point was ( 82. 5 ± 7. 8 ) mm ( ranging 71.4-96. 2 mm), ( 90. 1 ± 3. 8 ) mm ( ranging82.2-96. 3 mm), and ( 89.0 ± 4.1 ) mm ( ranging 81.3-95.3 mm), respectively. The distance between the vertebral artery at the atlas and the midline was (25.2 ±2.3) mm (ranging 20.4-29.7 mm) and that between the vertebral artery at the axis and the midline was ( 18.4 ±2.6) mm ( ranging 13. 1-23.0 mm). The allowed width of the atlas and axis for exposure was (39. 4 ± 2. 2 ) mm( ranging 36.2-42.7 mm) and ( 39.0 ± 2. 1 ) mm ( ranging35.8-42. 3 mm), respectively. The distance (a) between the two atlas screw insertion points (center of anterior aspect of C1 lateral mass) was (31.4 ± 3.3 ) mm ( ranging25.4-36.6 mm

  16. More on the spider genus Xeropigo O.P.-Cambridge (Araneae, Corinnidae, Corinninae): seven new species and new records from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Leonardo S; Shimano, Yulie; Candiani, David F; Bonaldo, Alexandre B

    2016-01-01

    Seven new species of the spider genus Xeropigo O. P.-Cambridge are described from Brazil, increasing the genus member list up to 16 species. X. piripiri n. sp., X. aitatu n. sp., and X. cajuina n. sp. are described from the state of Piauí. X. crispim n. sp. is described from the states of Ceará, Piauí, and Maranhão. X. oxente n. sp. is described from the state of Rio Grande do Norte. X. canga n. sp. is described from the state of Minas Gerais. X. ufo n. sp. is described from the state of Mato Grosso. The geographical distribution of X. tridentiger, X. camilae, X. pachitea, and X. perene is updated. A key to all species of Xeropigo is presented and possible relationships among all species of the genus are discussed. PMID:27395095

  17. More on the spider genus Xeropigo O.P.-Cambridge (Araneae, Corinnidae, Corinninae): seven new species and new records from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Leonardo S; Shimano, Yulie; Candiani, David F; Bonaldo, Alexandre B

    2016-05-17

    Seven new species of the spider genus Xeropigo O. P.-Cambridge are described from Brazil, increasing the genus member list up to 16 species. X. piripiri n. sp., X. aitatu n. sp., and X. cajuina n. sp. are described from the state of Piauí. X. crispim n. sp. is described from the states of Ceará, Piauí, and Maranhão. X. oxente n. sp. is described from the state of Rio Grande do Norte. X. canga n. sp. is described from the state of Minas Gerais. X. ufo n. sp. is described from the state of Mato Grosso. The geographical distribution of X. tridentiger, X. camilae, X. pachitea, and X. perene is updated. A key to all species of Xeropigo is presented and possible relationships among all species of the genus are discussed.

  18. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Fourth Cambridge Radio Survey Catalogue (4C) (Pilkington, Gower, Scott and Wills 1965, 1967)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1983-09-01

    The machine readable catalogue contains survey data from the papers of Pilkington and Scott and Gower, Scott and Wills. These data result from a survey of radio sources between declinations -07 deg and +80 deg using the large Cambridge interferometer at 178 MHz. The computerized catalog contains for each source the 4C number, 1950 position, measured flux density, and accuracy class. For some sources miscellaneous brief comments such as cross identifications to the 3C catalog or remarks on contamination from nearby sources are given at the ends of the data records. A detailed description of the machine readable catalog as it is currently being distributed by the Astronomical Data Center is given to enable users to read and process the data.

  19. Comparability: manufacturing, characterization and controls, report of a UK Regenerative Medicine Platform Pluripotent Stem Cell Platform Workshop, Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 14-15 September 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David J; Archer, Richard; Archibald, Peter; Bantounas, Ioannis; Baptista, Ricardo; Barker, Roger; Barry, Jacqueline; Bietrix, Florence; Blair, Nicholas; Braybrook, Julian; Campbell, Jonathan; Canham, Maurice; Chandra, Amit; Foldes, Gabor; Gilmanshin, Rudy; Girard, Mathilde; Gorjup, Erwin; Hewitt, Zöe; Hourd, Paul; Hyllner, Johan; Jesson, Helen; Kee, Jasmin; Kerby, Julie; Kotsopoulou, Nina; Kowalski, Stanley; Leidel, Chris; Marshall, Damian; Masi, Louis; McCall, Mark; McCann, Conor; Medcalf, Nicholas; Moore, Harry; Ozawa, Hiroki; Pan, David; Parmar, Malin; Plant, Anne L; Reinwald, Yvonne; Sebastian, Sujith; Stacey, Glyn; Thomas, Robert J; Thomas, Dave; Thurman-Newell, Jamie; Turner, Marc; Vitillio, Loriana; Wall, Ivan; Wilson, Alison; Wolfrum, Jacqueline; Yang, Ying; Zimmerman, Heiko

    2016-07-01

    This paper summarizes the proceedings of a workshop held at Trinity Hall, Cambridge to discuss comparability and includes additional information and references to related information added subsequently to the workshop. Comparability is the need to demonstrate equivalence of product after a process change; a recent publication states that this 'may be difficult for cell-based medicinal products'. Therefore a well-managed change process is required which needs access to good science and regulatory advice and developers are encouraged to seek help early. The workshop shared current thinking and best practice and allowed the definition of key research questions. The intent of this report is to summarize the key issues and the consensus reached on each of these by the expert delegates.

  20. The jumping spider genus Thiodina Simon, 1900 reinterpreted, and revalidation of Colonus F.O.P-Cambridge, 1901 and Nilakantha Peckham & Peckham, 1901 (Araneae: Salticidae: Amycoida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Abel A; Maddison, Wayne P; Ruiz, Gustavo R S

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we call attention to the identity of the type species of Thiodina Simon, 1900, T. nicoleti Roewer, 1951. When Simon proposed the genus, he characterized it based on morphological features found in species he described, but not found in the type species he designated, and whose type specimens, apparently, he had not examined. Nicolet's original description makes it clear that the type species is not closely related to the more familiar species placed in the genus. This misinterpretation was followed by contemporary researchers and survives until today. Here we designate and describe a neotype for T. nicoleti. We revalidate Colonus F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901 and Nilakantha Peckham & Peckham, 1901 to transfer most species formerly placed in Thiodina. The combinations Colonus puerperus (Hentz, 1846), Nilakantha cockerelli Peckham & Peckham, 1901 and N. peckhami Bryant, 1940 are restored. The following new combinations are established: Colonus branicki (Taczanowski, 1871) new comb., C. candidus (Mello-Leitão, 1922) new comb., C. germaini (Simon, 1900) new comb., C. hesperus (Richman & Vetter, 2004) new comb., C. melanogaster (Mello-Leitão, 1917) new comb., C. pallidus (C.L. Koch, 1846) new comb., C. pseustes (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936) new comb., C. punctulatus (Mello-Leitão, 1917) new comb., C. rishwani (Makhan, 2006) new comb., C. robustus (Mello-Leitão, 1945) new comb., C. sylvanus (Hentz, 1846) new comb., C. vaccula (Simon, 1900) new comb., C. vellardi (Soares & Camargo, 1948) new comb., Nilakantha beugelorum (Wolff, 1990) new comb., N. crucifera (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) new comb., and N. inerma (Bryant, 1940) new comb. Thiodina setosa Mello-Leitão, 1947 is tentatively transferred to Cotinusa Simon, 1900.

  1. Experience of University of Cambridge and Its Implications to Jiangsu%英国剑桥大学技术转移经验及江苏借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈瑾秋; 陈艳

    2016-01-01

    技术转移是实施国家创新驱动战略和提升创新核心能力的重要途径,而高校是推动技术转移、科技创新的重要力量,加快发展高校技术转移尤为重要。剑桥大学是世界级的研究型大学,其以独特的产学研模式,不断创造新产业,是欧洲高端要素最集中的地区之一。文章深入总结分析英国剑桥大学在技术转移方面的主要做法,并具体阐述对于江苏省技术转移的主要启示与建议。%Technology transfer is an important way to implement the national innovation-driven strategy and enhance the core innovation competence, and colleges and universities are the important force to promote technology transfer and scientific and technical innovation. Therefore, accelerating the development of technology transfer in colleges and universities is particularly important. Cambridge, a world-grade research university, which continuously creates new industries with its unique research model. This paper deeply analyzes the main practices of Cambridge University in technology transfer, and specifically addresses its main inspiration and advice for technology transfer of Jiangsu Province.

  2. Teaching artfully

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution I address the challenges and rewards that are brought by teaching creatively in higher education. By looking auto-ethnographically at my own practice as educator at undergraduate and graduate programs in Denmark, I describe a number of creative educational tools: metaphor......-building by means of artefacts, integrated use of visuals in lectures, and dramaturgical structure in educational design. My objective in teaching creatively is to inspire my students, who are educators-to-be or facilitators of educational processes and are used to problem-based-learning approaches (PBL), to (more...

  3. Data-driven high-throughput prediction of the 3-D structure of small molecules: review and progress. A response to the letter by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre

    2011-12-27

    A response is presented to sentiments expressed in "Data-Driven High-Throughput Prediction of the 3-D Structure of Small Molecules: Review and Progress. A Response from The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre", recently published in the Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, (1) which may give readers a misleading impression regarding significant impediments to scientific research posed by the CCDC.

  4. Data-driven high-throughput prediction of the 3-D structure of small molecules: review and progress. A response to the letter by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre

    2011-12-27

    A response is presented to sentiments expressed in "Data-Driven High-Throughput Prediction of the 3-D Structure of Small Molecules: Review and Progress. A Response from The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre", recently published in the Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, (1) which may give readers a misleading impression regarding significant impediments to scientific research posed by the CCDC. PMID:22107601

  5. Anatomically based lower limb nerve model for electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soboleva Tanya K

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES is a technique that aims to rehabilitate or restore functionality of skeletal muscles using external electrical stimulation. Despite the success achieved within the field of FES, there are still a number of questions that remain unanswered. One way of providing input to the answers is through the use of computational models. Methods This paper describes the development of an anatomically based computer model of the motor neurons in the lower limb of the human leg and shows how it can be used to simulate electrical signal propagation from the beginning of the sciatic nerve to a skeletal muscle. One-dimensional cubic Hermite finite elements were used to represent the major portions of the lower limb nerves. These elements were fit to data that had been digitised using images from the Visible Man project. Nerves smaller than approximately 1 mm could not be seen in the images, and thus a tree-branching algorithm was used to connect the ends of the fitted nerve model to the respective skeletal muscle. To simulate electrical propagation, a previously published mammalian nerve model was implemented and solved on the anatomically based nerve mesh using a finite difference method. The grid points for the finite difference method were derived from the fitted finite element mesh. By adjusting the tree-branching algorithm, it is possible to represent different levels of motor-unit recruitment. Results To illustrate the process of a propagating nerve stimulus to a muscle in detail, the above method was applied to the nerve tree that connects to the human semitendinosus muscle. A conduction velocity of 89.8 m/s was obtained for a 15 μm diameter nerve fibre. This signal was successfully propagated down the motor neurons to a selected group of motor units in the muscle. Conclusion An anatomically and physiologically based model of the posterior motor neurons in the human lower limb was developed. This

  6. Anatomical decomposition in dual energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Ye-seul; Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Haenghwa; Choi, Seungyeon; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2016-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and the early diagnosis of lung cancer has recently become more important. For early screening lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as a gold standard for early diagnosis of lung cancer [1]. The major advantage of CT is that it is not susceptible to the problem of misdiagnosis caused by anatomical overlapping while CT has extremely high radiation dose and cost compared to chest radiography. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced new modality for lung cancer screening with relatively low radiation dose compared to CT [2] and also showing high sensitivity and specificity to prevent anatomical overlapping occurred in chest radiography. Dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules as means of reducing the anatomical noise [3]. In this study, possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by simulation study and actual experiment using prototype CDT. Furthermore organ absorbed dose and effective dose were compared with single energy CDT. The Gate v6 (Geant4 application for tomographic emission), and TASMIP (Tungsten anode spectral model using the interpolating polynomial) code were used for simulation study and simulated cylinder shape phantom consisted of 4 inner beads which were filled with spine, rib, muscle and lung equivalent materials. The patient dose was estimated by PCXMC 1.5 Monte Carlo simulation tool [4]. The tomosynthesis scan was performed with a linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over 30 degree of angular range with 1.5° degree of angular interval. The proto type CDT system has same geometry with simulation study and composed of E7869X (Toshiba, Japan) x-ray tube and FDX3543RPW (Toshiba, Japan) detector. The result images showed that reconstructed with dual energy clearly visualize lung filed by removing unnecessary bony structure. Furthermore, dual energy CDT could enhance

  7. Applied Endoscopic Anatomical Evaluation of the Lacrimal Sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mostafa Hashemi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR, a popular surgical procedure, has been performed using an endoscopic approach over recent years. Excellent anatomical knowledge is required for this endoscopic surgical approach. This study was performed in order to better evaluate the anatomical features of the lacrimal apparatus from cadavers in the Isfahan forensic center as a sample of the Iranian population.   Materials and Methods: DCR was performed using a standard method on 26 cadaver eyes from the forensic center of Isfahan. The lacrimal sac was exposed completely, then the anatomical features of the lacrimal sac and canaliculus were measured using a specified ruler.   Results: A total of 26 male cadaveric eyes were used, of which four (16.7% were probably non-Caucasian. Two (8% of the eyes needed septoplasty, one (4% needed uncinectomy, and none needed turbinoplasty. Four (16% lacrimal sacs were anterior to axilla, one (4% was posterior and 20 (80% were at the level of the axilla of the middle turbinate. The distance  from the nasal sill to the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height was 39.04 (±4.92 mm. The distance from the nasal sill to the posterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height was 45.50 (±4.47 mm. The width and length of the lacrimal sac was 7.54 (±1.44 mm and 13.16 (±5.37 mm, respectively. The distance from the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac to the posterior edge of the uncinate process was 14.06 (±3.00 mm, while the distance from the anterior nasal spine to the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height was 37.20 (±5.37 mm.The height of the fundus was 3.26 (±1.09 mm. The distance from the superior punctum to the fundus was 12.70 (±1.45 mm, and the distance from the inferior punctum to the fundus was 11.10 (±2.02 mm.   Conclusion:  Given the differences between the various studies conducted in order to evaluate the position of the lacrimal sac, studies such as this can help to

  8. Identification keys on rattans (Calamus spp.) from Central Sulawesi based on anatomical structure of stems

    OpenAIRE

    ANDI TANRA TELLU

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain information the anatomical characteristics of 20 rattan species from Central Sulawesi and to use it for anatomical identification of rattan species. The rattan comprised 16 Calamus species, three Daemonorops species and one Korthalsia species. For anatomical observation 10-15 mm pieces of the mature stem from shares of tip do not have frond were processed with polyethilene glycol 2000, cut at 18-32 µm and stained with a combination of acridin-cryzoidin red a...

  9. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY ON ENDEMIC CROCUS OLIVIERI GAY SUBSP. ISTANBULENSIS MATHEW SUBSPECIES (IRIDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yetişen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, morphological and anatomical properties of Crocus olivieri Gay subsp. istanbulensis Mathew were investigated. Cross-sections of root, scape and leaf parts of the plant were examined anddemonstrated by photographs. Most of the anatomical properties are similar to the other member of Iridaceae family. Sclerenchyma groups were observed around to leaf vascular bundle. Morphological and anatomical findings compared with other two subspecies of Crocus olivieri.

  10. APPLICABILITY ANALYSIS OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES IN THE FABRICATION OF ANATOMICALLY SHAPED LATTICE SCAFFOLDS

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Milovanović; Miloš Stojković; Miroslav Trajanović

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing of anatomically shaped scaffolds for bonе tissue recovery as well as other similar anatomically shaped implants represents a major challenge for modern manufacturing technologies. The complexity of anatomically shaped lattice scaffolds for bone tissue recovery requires involvement of so-called additive manufacturing processes.This paper brings out the criterial matrix for the assessment of additive manufacturing processes applicability in the case of bone tissue scaffold manufac...

  11. Tacit Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbules, Nicholas C.

    2008-01-01

    This essay reflects upon certain aspects of Wittgenstein's own practices as a teacher. "Doing" philosophy always took priority for Wittgenstein, whether this was in oral or written form: it was important to show the deep puzzles in our language (and our culture and thinking) as a step toward dissolving them. In this respect, one can teach only as…

  12. Teaching Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punske, Lori, Comp.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews teaching materials for use in multicultural education. Materials described include posters, novels, picture books, toys, games, and curriculum packages. Topics include religious diversity, values, children's stories, bilingual literature, human rights, Native Americans, women's studies, multicultural art, immigrant students, gender equity,…

  13. Teaching Tennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breag, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an approach to teaching the basic skills of tennis to students in grades 4 and 5. It relates a five-lesson unit suitable to a near-weekly class schedule. The author found it effective when seeing his students as infrequently as once every four days for fifty minutes.

  14. Reflective Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Farrell's "Reflective Teaching" outlines four principles that take teachers from just doing reflection to making it a way of being. Using the four principles, Reflective Practice Is Evidence Based, Reflective Practice Involves Dialogue, Reflective Practice Links Beliefs and Practices, and Reflective Practice Is a Way of Life,…

  15. Teaching Strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    Intended primarily for use by instrumental music teachers who do not have a major concentration in strings, this guide provides pertinent basic resources, materials, teaching--learning expectation, and a general overall guide to achievement levels at various stages of development. Discussions are presented of Choosing the Proper Method Book,…

  16. Radiology Teaching Files on the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing attention about radiology teaching files on the Internet in the field of diagnostic radiology. The purpose of this study was to aid in the creation of new radiology teaching file by analysing the present radiology teaching file sites on the Internet with many aspects and evaluating images on those sites, using Macintosh II ci compute r, 28.8kbps TelePort Fax/Modem, Netscape Navigator 2.0 software. The results were as follow : 1. Analysis of radiology teaching file sites (1) Country distribution was the highest in USA (57.5%). (2) Average number of cases was 186 cases and radiology teaching file sites with search engine were 9 sites (22.5%). (3) At the method of case arrangement, anatomic area type and diagnosis type were found at the 10 sites (25%) each, question and answer type was found at the 9 sites (22.5%). (4) Radiology teaching file sites with oro-maxillofacial disorder were 9 sites (22.5%). (5) At the image format, GIF format was found at the 14 sites (35%), and JPEG format found at the 14 sites (35%). (6) Created year was the highest in 1995 (43.7%). (7) Continuing case upload was found at the 35 sites (87.5%). 2. Evaluation of images on the radiology teaching files (1) Average file size of GIF format (71 Kbyte) was greater than that of JPEG format (24 Kbyte). (P<0.001) (2) Image quality of GIF format was better than that of JPEG format. (P<0.001)

  17. Effect of anatomical backgrounds on detectability in volumetric cone beam CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Minah; Park, Subok; Baek, Jongduk

    2016-03-01

    As anatomical noise is often a dominating factor affecting signal detection in medical imaging, we investigate the effects of anatomical backgrounds on signal detection in volumetric cone beam CT images. Signal detection performances are compared between transverse and longitudinal planes with either uniform or anatomical backgrounds. Sphere objects with diameters of 1mm, 5mm, 8mm, and 11mm are used as the signals. Three-dimensional (3D) anatomical backgrounds are generated using an anatomical noise power spectrum, 1/fβ, with β=3, equivalent to mammographic background [1]. The mean voxel value of the 3D anatomical backgrounds is used as an attenuation coefficient of the uniform background. Noisy projection data are acquired by the forward projection of the uniform and anatomical 3D backgrounds with/without sphere lesions and by the addition of quantum noise. Then, images are reconstructed by an FDK algorithm [2]. For each signal size, signal detection performances in transverse and longitudinal planes are measured by calculating the task SNR of a channelized Hotelling observer with Laguerre-Gauss channels. In the uniform background case, transverse planes yield higher task SNR values for all sphere diameters but 1mm. In the anatomical background case, longitudinal planes yield higher task SNR values for all signal diameters. The results indicate that it is beneficial to use longitudinal planes to detect spherical signals in anatomical backgrounds.

  18. Deformable meshes for medical image segmentation accurate automatic segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kainmueller, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    ? Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical image data is an essential task in clinical practice. Dagmar Kainmueller introduces methods for accurate fully automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in 3D medical image data. The author's core methodological contribution is a novel deformation model that overcomes limitations of state-of-the-art Deformable Surface approaches, hence allowing for accurate segmentation of tip- and ridge-shaped features of anatomical structures. As for practical contributions, she proposes application-specific segmentation pipelines for a range of anatom

  19. Foundations of Intonational Meaning: Anatomical and Physiological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussenhoven, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Like non-verbal communication, paralinguistic communication is rooted in anatomical and physiological factors. Paralinguistic form-meaning relations arise from the way these affect speech production, with some fine-tuning by the cultural and linguistic context. The effects have been classified as "biological codes," following the terminological lead of John Ohala's Frequency Code. Intonational morphemes, though arguably non-arbitrary in principle, are in fact heavily biased toward these paralinguistic meanings. Paralinguistic and linguistic meanings for four biological codes are illustrated. In addition to the Frequency Code, the Effort Code, and the Respiratory Code, the Sirenic Code is introduced here, which is based on the use of whispery phonation, widely seen as being responsible for the signaling and perception of feminine attractiveness and sometimes used to express interrogativity in language. In the context of the evolution of language, the relations between physiological conditions and the resulting paralinguistic and linguistic meanings will need to be clarified. PMID:27016315

  20. An ``Anatomic approach" to study the Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intravaia, Francesco; Haakh, Harald; Henkel, Carsten

    2010-03-01

    The Casimir effect, in its simplest definition, is a quantum mechanical force between two objects placed in vacuum. In recent years the Casimir force has been the object of an exponentially growing attention both from theorists and experimentalists. A new generation of experiments paved the way for new challenges and spotted some shadows in the comparison to theory. Here we are going to isolate different contributions to the Casimir interaction and perform a detailed study to shine new light on this phenomenon. As an example, the contributions of Foucault (eddy current) modes will be discussed in different configurations. This ``anatomic approach'' allows to clearly put into evidence special features and to explain unusual behaviors. This brings new physical understanding on the undergoing physical mechanisms and suggests new ways to engineer the Casimir effect.

  1. Simultaneous segmentation and anatomical labeling of the cerebral vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robben, David; Türetken, Engin; Sunaert, Stefan; Thijs, Vincent; Wilms, Guy; Fua, Pascal; Maes, Frederik; Suetens, Paul

    2016-08-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the simultaneous segmentation and anatomical labeling of the cerebral vasculature. Unlike existing approaches that first attempt to obtain a good segmentation and then perform labeling, we optimize for both by simultaneously taking into account the image evidence and the prior knowledge about the geometry and connectivity of the vasculature. This is achieved by first constructing an overcomplete graph capturing the vasculature, and then selecting and labeling the subset of edges that most likely represents the true vasculature. We formulate the latter problem as an Integer Program (IP), which can be solved efficiently to provable optimality. We evaluate our approach on a publicly available dataset of 50 cerebral MRA images, and demonstrate that it compares favorably against state-of-the-art methods. PMID:27131026

  2. Evaluation of an anatomical compensation filter for chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, H.; Rytkoenen, H.; Soimakallio, S.; Terho, E.O.; Hentunen, J.

    1986-11-01

    An anatomical compensation filter for improving the radiographic demonstration of the mediastinal and retrocardiac areas of a chest radiograph has been evaluated. The filter, made of a transparent, light-weight lead-plastic material was attached to the X-ray collimator housing. The device reliably improved the visibility of normally underpenetrated areas without producing detectable artefacts, provided the patient was correctly positioned. Hilar structures were also slightly better visualised. At the same time there was no statistically significant deterioration in visualisation of peripheral pulmonary vessels or parenchymal structures. Rib details and pleural calcifications were less well seen, however, a result that was to be expected because of the X-ray beam hardening.

  3. Tridimensional Regression for Comparing and Mapping 3D Anatomical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra K. Schmid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape analysis is useful for a wide variety of disciplines and has many applications. There are many approaches to shape analysis, one of which focuses on the analysis of shapes that are represented by the coordinates of predefined landmarks on the object. This paper discusses Tridimensional Regression, a technique that can be used for mapping images and shapes that are represented by sets of three-dimensional landmark coordinates, for comparing and mapping 3D anatomical structures. The degree of similarity between shapes can be quantified using the tridimensional coefficient of determination (2. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique to correctly match the image of a face with another image of the same face. These results were compared to the 2 values obtained when only two dimensions are used and show that using three dimensions increases the ability to correctly match and discriminate between faces.

  4. The anatomical, surgical and orthopedic importance of gastrocnemius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq U. Hassan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gastrocnemius is one of the most important muscles of lower limb. It belongs to the superficial compartment of calf muscles. They belong to group of superficial flexors. Gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus form the bulk of the calf. Gastrocnemius forms the belly of the calf. It arises by two distinct heads, connected to the condyles of the femur by strong, flat tendons. It has an immense anatomic, medical, orthopedic and physiological importance and is attributed in a variety of medical and surgical problems. A profound knowledge of this muscle is of great importance to any surgeon or orthopedicians or any clinician. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 326-328

  5. ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON SCOPOLIA CARNIOLICA JACQ. VEGETATIVE ORGANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina STEFANESCU

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Scopolia carniolica Jacq. is a medicinal species of Solanaceae, harvested from the Romanian spontaneous flora for its atropine and scopolamine content. We have analyzed the anatomical structure of the vegetative organs (rhizome, root, stem and leaf and the biometrical parameters of the leaf blade (vascular islet, stomatal index and palisade ratio, in order to establish the main specific characters and differential elements useful for the correct identification and for avoiding the impurification of medicinal products. The characteristic structures for the rhizome and root are the secondary ones, mainly with parenchyma elements and lacking in mechanical fibres; the stem has a primary becoming secondary structure, bicolateral vascular bundles with cambium in the interior and between them and endoderma as starch layer. The sand cells are characteristic for rhizome, root and stem structures. On the leaf surface were identified protector multicellular trichomes and specific secretory and glandular ones.

  6. Benign anatomical mistakes: "ampulla of Vater" and "papilla of Vater".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirilas, Petros; Colborn, Gene L; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panajiotis N; Zoras, Odysseas; Skandalakis, John E

    2005-03-01

    The anatomy of the ampullary termination of the bile and pancreatic ducts is complex; appropriate terminology for this area is confusing and inaccurate. We examine the terms "ampulla of Vater" and "papilla of Vater" for anatomical and historical correctness. The term "ampulla" refers to a dilated part of a duct or other channel. Thus, this word is topographically correct to describe the dilatation at the confluence of the bile and main pancreatic ducts; historically, however, there is considerable reason to believe that its first description was by Santorini rather than Vater. The eponymous term "papilla of Vater" is also incorrect historically. The use of eponyms is firmly entrenched in the medical literature, but some are so problematic that they should be discarded. The eponymous terms for both the ampulla and the papilla should be replaced with the terms "hepatopancreatic ampulla" (or "biliaropancreatic ampulla") and "major [or "greater"] duodenal papilla," respectively.

  7. The anatomic coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction: surgical technique and indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carofino, Brad C; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2010-03-01

    The anatomic coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction (ACCR) is a surgical procedure to address acriomioclavicular joint instability. The coracoclavicular ligaments are reconstructed using a semitendinosus allograft passed beneath the coracoid and through bone tunnels in the clavicle. The graft is secured with interference screw fixation, and the acromioclavicular joint is retained. Here we describe the authors' surgical technique, indications, and rehabilitation protocol. Also, a preliminary case series of seventeen patients is presented. Patients demonstrated significant improvement in pain levels and function. The mean ASES score increased from 52 preoperatively to 92. The Constant Murley rose from 66.6 to 94.7. There were three failures in this series, and two required revision surgery. PMID:20188267

  8. Automatic detection of anatomical landmarks in uterine cervix images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Hayit; Gordon, Shiri; Zimmerman, Gali; Lotenberg, Shelly; Jeronimo, Jose; Antani, Sameer; Long, Rodney

    2009-03-01

    The work focuses on a unique medical repository of digital cervicographic images ("Cervigrams") collected by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in longitudinal multiyear studies. NCI, together with the National Library of Medicine (NLM), is developing a unique web-accessible database of the digitized cervix images to study the evolution of lesions related to cervical cancer. Tools are needed for automated analysis of the cervigram content to support cancer research. We present a multistage scheme for segmenting and labeling regions of anatomical interest within the cervigrams. In particular, we focus on the extraction of the cervix region and fine detection of the cervix boundary; specular reflection is eliminated as an important preprocessing step; in addition, the entrance to the endocervical canal (the "os"), is detected. Segmentation results are evaluated on three image sets of cervigrams that were manually labeled by NCI experts.

  9. Algorithms to automatically quantify the geometric similarity of anatomical surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, D; Clair, E St; Puente, J; Funkhouser, T; Patel, B; Jernvall, J; Daubechies, I

    2011-01-01

    We describe new approaches for distances between pairs of 2-dimensional surfaces (embedded in 3-dimensional space) that use local structures and global information contained in inter-structure geometric relationships. We present algorithms to automatically determine these distances as well as geometric correspondences. This is motivated by the aspiration of students of natural science to understand the continuity of form that unites the diversity of life. At present, scientists using physical traits to study evolutionary relationships among living and extinct animals analyze data extracted from carefully defined anatomical correspondence points (landmarks). Identifying and recording these landmarks is time consuming and can be done accurately only by trained morphologists. This renders these studies inaccessible to non-morphologists, and causes phenomics to lag behind genomics in elucidating evolutionary patterns. Unlike other algorithms presented for morphological correspondences our approach does not requir...

  10. Anatomic Study of Female Sterility of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Pengjun; Li Fenglan; Zheng Caixia

    2003-01-01

    The anatomic research on the mutant clone of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. in the seed orchard in Xingcheng, LiaoningProvince was carried out. The female cone of the mutant clone looked like normal, but its ovules degenerated in the early stage. Thispaper tries to find out the reason and time of ovule abortion. It seems that the ovule abortion is probably caused by female sterilitybecause the microspores of this mutant clone were normal. Through the serial observations on the one-year-old macrosporangiatesand the ovules of two-year-old female cones of mutant and normal clone, it is found that the reason of ovule abortion in mutant cloneis the failure of the mitosis of free nuclei in the female gametophyte, and the time is about in the early April.

  11. 4D measurement system for automatic location of anatomical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Sitnik, Robert; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Rapp, Walter; Kowalski, Marcin; Haex, Bart; Mooshake, Sven

    2006-04-01

    Orthopedics and neurosciences are fields of medicine where the analysis of objective movement parameters is extremely important for clinical diagnosis. Moreover, as there are significant differences between static and dynamic parameters, there is a strong need of analyzing the anatomical structures under functional conditions. In clinical gait analysis the benefits of kinematical methods are undoubted. In this paper we present a 4D (3D + time) measurement system capable of automatic location of selected anatomical structures by locating and tracing the structures' position and orientation in time. The presented system is designed to help a general practitioner in diagnosing selected lower limbs' dysfunctions (e.g. knee injuries) and also determine if a patient should be directed for further examination (e.g. x-ray or MRI). The measurement system components are hardware and software. For the hardware part we adapt the laser triangulation method. In this way we can evaluate functional and dynamic movements in a contact-free, non-invasive way, without the use of potentially harmful radiation. Furthermore, opposite to marker-based video-tracking systems, no preparation time is required. The software part consists of a data acquisition module, an image processing and point clouds (point cloud, set of points described by coordinates (x, y, z)) calculation module, a preliminary processing module, a feature-searching module and an external biomechanical module. The paper briefly presents the modules mentioned above with the focus on the feature-searching module. Also we present some measurement and analysis results. These include: parameters maps, landmarks trajectories in time sequence and animation of a simplified model of lower limbs.

  12. Design and use of numerical anatomical atlases for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide radio-oncology specialists with automatic tools for delineating organs at risk of a patient undergoing a radiotherapy treatment of cerebral or head and neck tumors. To achieve this goal, we use an anatomical atlas, i.e. a representative anatomy associated to a clinical image representing it. The registration of this atlas allows us to segment automatically the patient structures and to accelerate this process. Contributions in this method are presented on three axes. First, we want to obtain a registration method which is as independent as possible from the setting of its parameters. This setting, done by the clinician, indeed needs to be minimal while guaranteeing a robust result. We therefore propose registration methods allowing a better control of the obtained transformation, using rejection techniques of inadequate matching or locally affine transformations. The second axis is dedicated to the consideration of structures associated with the presence of the tumor. These structures, not present in the atlas, indeed lead to local errors in the atlas-based segmentation. We therefore propose methods to delineate these structures and take them into account in the registration. Finally, we present the construction of an anatomical atlas of the head and neck region and its evaluation on a database of patients. We show in this part the feasibility of the use of an atlas for this region, as well as a simple method to evaluate the registration methods used to build an atlas. All this research work has been implemented in a commercial software (Imago from DOSIsoft), allowing us to validate our results in clinical conditions. (author)

  13. Anatomical and Radiological Aspects of the Supratrochlear Foramen in Brazilians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfiten-Schlesinger, Gabriel; Leite, Túlio FO; Pires, Lucas AS; Silva, Julio G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The supratrochlear foramen is an anatomic variation of great clinical and anthropologic interest. Although many studies addressed this subject in different ethnic groups, there are no studies regarding Brazilians. Aim To verify the incidence and morphometric measures of the supratrochlear foramen in Brazilian humeri. Materials and Methods A total of 330 dry humeri were analysed and divided in three groups: bones presenting the supratrochlear foramen (Group 1), bones displaying a translucent foramen (Group 2) and humeri without the foramen (Group 3). The aperture was measured with a digital vernier caliper. Radiographic pictures with different incidences were taken. Results Our analysis showed that 22.5% of humeri belonged in Group 1, 41.2% in Group 2, and 36.3% in Group 3. The mean vertical diameter and the mean horizontal diameter of the supratrochlear foramen on the left side were 2.779±2.050 mm and 2.332±1.23 mm, respectively. The mean vertical diameter and the mean horizontal diameter of the foramen on the right side were 2.778±2.197 mm, and 2.365±1.396 mm, respectively. The student’s t-test showed that there was no significant difference regarding the size of the foramen between both sides. The best X-ray machine setup was 50 kilo voltage and 0.08 milliamperage per second, associated with a slight increase in the distance of the x-ray tube. Conclusion The aperture seems to be the key point during the pre-operative planning of intramedullary fixation, since it has direct relation to the size of the intramedullary canal, thus, being an entity of clinical, anatomical, anthropological, radiological, and surgical interest. PMID:27790415

  14. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chang, Wen-Neng; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ting; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Che-Wei; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD), 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD), 14 with semantic dementia (SD) were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds are mediated by distinct neural circuits.

  15. Clinical repercussions of Martin-Gruber anastomosis: anatomical study☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Cristina Schmitt; Filho, Mauro Razuk; Pedro, Gabriel; Caetano, Maurício Ferreira; Vieira, Luiz Angelo; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2016-01-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to describe Martin-Gruber anastomosis anatomically and to recognize its clinical repercussions. Method 100 forearms of 50 adult cadavers were dissected in an anatomy laboratory. The dissection was performed by means of a midline incision along the entire forearm and the lower third of the upper arm. Two flaps including skin and subcutaneous tissue were folded back on the radial and ulnar sides, respectively. Results Nerve communication between the median and ulnar nerves in the forearm (Martin-Gruber anastomosis) was found in 27 forearms. The anastomosis was classified into six types: type I: anastomosis between the anterior interosseous nerve and the ulnar nerve (n = 9); type II: anastomosis between the anterior interosseous nerve and the ulnar nerve at two points (double anastomosis) (n = 2); type III: anastomosis between the median nerve and the ulnar nerve (n = 4); type IV: anastomosis between branches of the median nerve and ulnar nerve heading toward the flexor digitorum profundus muscle of the fingers; these fascicles form a loop with distal convexity (n = 5); type V: intramuscular anastomosis (n = 5); and type VI: anastomosis between a branch of the median nerve to the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle and the ulnar nerve (n = 2). Conclusion Knowledge of the anatomical variations relating to the innervation of the hand has great importance, especially with regard to physical examination, diagnosis, prognosis and surgical treatment. If these variations are not given due regard, errors and other consequences will be inevitable. PMID:27069892

  16. Auxiliary anatomical labels for joint segmentation and atlas registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Tobias; Szekely, Gabor; Goksel, Orcun

    2014-03-01

    This paper studies improving joint segmentation and registration by introducing auxiliary labels for anatomy that has similar appearance to the target anatomy while not being part of that target. Such auxiliary labels help avoid false positive labelling of non-target anatomy by resolving ambiguity. A known registration of a segmented atlas can help identify where a target segmentation should lie. Conversely, segmentations of anatomy in two images can help them be better registered. Joint segmentation and registration is then a method that can leverage information from both registration and segmentation to help one another. It has received increasing attention recently in the literature. Often, merely a single organ of interest is labelled in the atlas. In the presense of other anatomical structures with similar appearance, this leads to ambiguity in intensity based segmentation; for example, when segmenting individual bones in CT images where other bones share the same intensity profile. To alleviate this problem, we introduce automatic generation of additional labels in atlas segmentations, by marking similar-appearance non-target anatomy with an auxiliary label. Information from the auxiliary-labeled atlas segmentation is then incorporated by using a novel coherence potential, which penalizes differences between the deformed atlas segmentation and the target segmentation estimate. We validated this on a joint segmentation-registration approach that iteratively alternates between registering an atlas and segmenting the target image to find a final anatomical segmentation. The results show that automatic auxiliary labelling outperforms the same approach using a single label atlasses, for both mandibular bone segmentation in 3D-CT and corpus callosum segmentation in 2D-MRI.

  17. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chang, Wen-Neng; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ting; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Che-Wei; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD), 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD), 14 with semantic dementia (SD) were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds are mediated by distinct neural circuits. PMID:27630558

  18. TissueCypher™: A systems biology approach to anatomic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Prichard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current histologic methods for diagnosis are limited by intra- and inter-observer variability. Immunohistochemistry (IHC methods are frequently used to assess biomarkers to aid diagnoses, however, IHC staining is variable and nonlinear and the manual interpretation is subjective. Furthermore, the biomarkers assessed clinically are typically biomarkers of epithelial cell processes. Tumors and premalignant tissues are not composed only of epithelial cells but are interacting systems of multiple cell types, including various stromal cell types that are involved in cancer development. The complex network of the tissue system highlights the need for a systems biology approach to anatomic pathology, in which quantification of system processes is combined with informatics tools to produce actionable scores to aid clinical decision-making. Aims: Here, we describe a quantitative, multiplexed biomarker imaging approach termed TissueCypher™ that applies systems biology to anatomic pathology. Applications of TissueCypher™ in understanding the tissue system of Barrett's esophagus (BE and the potential use as an adjunctive tool in the diagnosis of BE are described. Patients and Methods: The TissueCypher™ Image Analysis Platform was used to assess 14 epithelial and stromal biomarkers with known diagnostic significance in BE in a set of BE biopsies with nondysplastic BE with reactive atypia (RA, n = 22 and Barrett's with high-grade dysplasia (HGD, n = 17. Biomarker and morphology features were extracted and evaluated in the confirmed BE HGD cases versus the nondysplastic BE cases with RA. Results: Multiple image analysis features derived from epithelial and stromal biomarkers, including immune biomarkers and morphology, showed significant differences between HGD and RA. Conclusions: The assessment of epithelial cell abnormalities combined with an assessment of cellular changes in the lamina propria may serve as an adjunct to conventional

  19. Kinematic and dynamic analysis of an anatomically based knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kok-Meng; Guo, Jiajie

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a knee-joint model to provide a better understanding on the interaction between natural joints and artificial mechanisms for design and control of rehabilitation exoskeletons. The anatomically based knee model relaxes several commonly made assumptions that approximate a human knee as engineering pin-joint in exoskeleton design. Based on published MRI data, we formulate the kinematics of a knee-joint and compare three mathematical approximations; one model bases on two sequential circles rolling a flat plane; and the other two are mathematically differentiable ellipses-based models with and without sliding at the contact. The ellipses-based model taking sliding contact into accounts shows that the rolling-sliding ratio of a knee-joint is not a constant but has an average value consistent with published measurements. This knee-joint kinematics leads to a physically more accurate contact-point trajectory than methods based on multiple circles or lines, and provides a basis to derive a knee-joint kinetic model upon which the effects of a planar exoskeleton mechanism on the internal joint forces and torque during flexion can be numerically investigated. Two different knee-joint kinetic models (pin-joint approximation and anatomically based model) are compared against a condition with no exoskeleton. The leg and exoskeleton form a closed kinematic chain that has a significant effect on the joint forces in the knee. Human knee is more tolerant than pin-joint in negotiating around a singularity but its internal forces increase with the exoskeleton mass-to-length ratio. An oversimplifying pin-joint approximation cannot capture the finite change in the knee forces due to the singularity effect.

  20. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Hsuan Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD, 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD, 14 with semantic dementia (SD were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds is mediated by distinct neural circuits.

  1. Patellar calcar: MRI appearance of a previously undescribed anatomical entity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Mark S.; Tiegs-Heiden, Christin A. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stuart, Michael J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The femoral calcar is a constant anatomical structure within the proximal femur representing a condensation of bone trabeculae. It is our impression that a similar structure is present within the patella. The purpose of this retrospective study was to define the prevalence, appearance, location, and configuration of the patellar calcar on MRI examinations. One hundred consecutive unenhanced knee MRIs were retrospectively reviewed by two readers who were blinded to the clinical indication. The patellar calcar was defined as a dark signaling, linear or curvilinear structure subjacent to the patellar articular surface. If present, the patellar calcar was assigned to a ''well seen,'' ''moderately well seen,'' or ''faintly seen'' category. Location of the calcar within the patella, orientation, configuration, and thickness were recorded. Confounding variables, such as marrow edema, patellar chondromalacia, bipartite patella, or postoperative changes were also recorded. The patellar calcar was visualized in 81 out of 100 (81 %) MRIs. When detected, the calcar was well seen in 20 out of 81 (25 %), moderately well seen in 35 out of 81 (43 %), and faintly seen in 26 out of 81 (32 %). The anteroposterior width of the calcar measured at its thickest segment was: < 1 mm in 43 out of 81 (53 %), 1 mm in 28 out of 81 (35 %), and >1 mm in 10 out of 81 (12 %). The patellar calcar was seen in the majority of knee MRIs and had a consistent imaging appearance. The calcar may be obscured by degenerative arthrosis of the patella and rarely may mimic patellar stress fracture or osteochondritis dissecans. Radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this normal anatomical structure. (orig.)

  2. Teaching Mathematical Modelling for Earth Sciences via Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-05-01

    Mathematical modelling is becoming crucially important for earth sciences because the modelling of complex systems such as geological, geophysical and environmental processes requires mathematical analysis, numerical methods and computer programming. However, a substantial fraction of earth science undergraduates and graduates may not have sufficient skills in mathematical modelling, which is due to either limited mathematical training or lack of appropriate mathematical textbooks for self-study. In this paper, we described a detailed case-study-based approach for teaching mathematical modelling. We illustrate how essential mathematical skills can be developed for students with limited training in secondary mathematics so that they are confident in dealing with real-world mathematical modelling at university level. We have chosen various topics such as Airy isostasy, greenhouse effect, sedimentation and Stokes' flow,free-air and Bouguer gravity, Brownian motion, rain-drop dynamics, impact cratering, heat conduction and cooling of the lithosphere as case studies; and we use these step-by-step case studies to teach exponentials, logarithms, spherical geometry, basic calculus, complex numbers, Fourier transforms, ordinary differential equations, vectors and matrix algebra, partial differential equations, geostatistics and basic numeric methods. Implications for teaching university mathematics for earth scientists for tomorrow's classroom will also be discussed. Refereces 1) D. L. Turcotte and G. Schubert, Geodynamics, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, (2002). 2) X. S. Yang, Introductory Mathematics for Earth Scientists, Dunedin Academic Press, (2009).

  3. Relationships between teaching faculty and teaching librarians

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Every librarian who teaches in an academic library setting understands the complexities involved in partnering with teaching faculty. Relationships Between Teaching Faculty and Teaching Librarians recounts the efforts of librarians and faculty working together in disciplines across the board to create and sustain connections crucial to the success of library instruction. This unique collection of essays examines various types of partnerships between librarians and faculty (networking, coordination, and collaboration) and addresses the big issues involved, including teaching within an academic

  4. Digital 3D anatomical modeling of the mandible with full teeth%数字化全牙列下颌骨三维解剖建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱赴东; 石珏; 宋恩; 葛巍立; 廖胜辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study and establish a high quality digital 3D anatomical modeling of the mandible with full teeth.Methods A set of accurate digital models of standard anatomical specimens of mandibular teeth were obtained by laser scanning, and the 3D mandible model was reconstructed by CT scan data;then, a registration deformation method based on the geometry and image anatomical landmark was employed to do the registration of each tooth to the mandible model, and finally the tooth enamel , dentin, periodontal ligament were generated .Results A high quality digital 3D anatomical modeling of the mandible with full teeth was built , each tooth had detail crown and whole root , the distinction between the enamel , dentin, periodontal ligament , and any anatomical regions can be zoomed and rotately displayed . Conclusion The digital 3D anatomical modeling of the mandible with full teeth has realistic 3D imaging view and convenient teaching-learning function , and has tremendous apllication futures in the stomatology , maxillofacial and other medical departments .%目的:探讨建立具有高质量牙列的下颌骨三维数字化解剖模型。方法用激光扫描获取1套标准下颌牙列解剖标本的精确三维模型,用CT扫描数据重建下颌骨三维模型,使用基于几何和图像解剖标志的配准变形方法将每颗牙齿模型对齐融合到下颌骨模型,进一步生成牙齿的牙釉质、牙本质、牙周膜。结果成功建立了具有高质量牙列的下颌骨三维数字化解剖模型,每颗牙齿具有牙冠细节和完整的牙根,区分牙釉质、牙本质、牙周膜,可以对任意解剖区域放大和旋转观察,显示解剖标志。结论高质量牙列的下颌骨三维数字化解剖模型具有逼真的三维显象和方便的教学学习功能,可用于口腔、颌面、解剖等多个学科。

  5. Plastination technology for anatomical studies in Nigeria: Opinion of teachers at medical institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyemaechi O. Azu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Gunther von Hagens developed plastination as a technique of tissue preservation in 1977. He used a delicate method of forced impregnation with curable polymers like silicone, epoxy or polyester resins for preservation of anatomical specimens. With plastination, every part of a biological tissue is treated, preserving it for educational purposes. Hence, there are vast applications in the medical field. We set out to survey the knowledge and opinion of lecturers of anatomy about plastinated specimen use in medical schools through the administration of questionnaires to respondents who participated at the Society of Experimental and Clinical Anatomists of Nigeria (SECAN conference in 2011. It was found that 50.0%and 23.75%of respondents respectively, had their masters and doctorate degrees in Anatomy. Less than 8.0% utilised plastination as a tool for teaching as against 40%(plastic models, 36.25%(cadavers and 15.0%(pathology pots. Conventional methods such as fixation by immersion (15.0% and embalming (52.5% with formaldehyde were commonly used for long term preservation of tissues in their various institutions. These methods were found to be less costly (25.0%, easy to use (56.25% and the only method (12.25% available, even though they posed some health hazards (96.0%. Whilst only 6.25%of the respondents did not know anything about plastination, 93.75%were aware of it. The advocacy for preservation of tissues by plastination has been gradual in developed countries. We recommend the use of plastinates in medical schools in Nigeria.

  6. Anatomical description and clinical significance of unilateral triheaded sternocleidomastoid muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Goswami; Yogesh Yadav; Chakradhar V

    2014-01-01

    Objective of this report is to observe and report unusual pattern of origin of sternal and clavicular heads of Sternocleidomastoid (SCM). An embryological insight into the possible causes for present anomaly is elucidated. The neck region of an adult male cadaver during gross anatomy teaching program. An abnormal Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) was observed while dissecting the neck region of an adult. Additional clavicular head of SCM muscle were found on the right side. The accessory clavicular h...

  7. Teaching Culture Through Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐婷

    2016-01-01

    Cultural teaching is an issue which is associated with complexity and paradox and also it is a big challenge for faculty. Teaching culture through films has become an important way of cross-cultural teaching This paper focuses on the reasons for teaching culture through films, the value and how it works. And finally it leads out the prospects of cultural teaching through films.

  8. Teaching innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Vicki D; Glasgow, Mary Ellen Smith; Donnelly, Gloria F

    2009-01-01

    Innovation in healthcare is essential to solve the "wicked problems" currently facing healthcare. This article focuses on nature of innovation and how it operates, how innovators think and view problems, how the theory and practice of innovation can be taught in novel ways, and how organizational cultures foster or suppress innovation. Examples of teaching strategies and nurse-driven innovation illustrate the theory and practice of innovation.

  9. Anatomical entity recognition with a hierarchical framework augmented by external resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available References to anatomical entities in medical records consist not only of explicit references to anatomical locations, but also other diverse types of expressions, such as specific diseases, clinical tests, clinical treatments, which constitute implicit references to anatomical entities. In order to identify these implicit anatomical entities, we propose a hierarchical framework, in which two layers of named entity recognizers (NERs work in a cooperative manner. Each of the NERs is implemented using the Conditional Random Fields (CRF model, which use a range of external resources to generate features. We constructed a dictionary of anatomical entity expressions by exploiting four existing resources, i.e., UMLS, MeSH, RadLex and BodyPart3D, and supplemented information from two external knowledge bases, i.e., Wikipedia and WordNet, to improve inference of anatomical entities from implicit expressions. Experiments conducted on 300 discharge summaries showed a micro-averaged performance of 0.8509 Precision, 0.7796 Recall and 0.8137 F1 for explicit anatomical entity recognition, and 0.8695 Precision, 0.6893 Recall and 0.7690 F1 for implicit anatomical entity recognition. The use of the hierarchical framework, which combines the recognition of named entities of various types (diseases, clinical tests, treatments with information embedded in external knowledge bases, resulted in a 5.08% increment in F1. The resources constructed for this research will be made publicly available.

  10. Peculiarities of leaves morpho-anatomical parameters of Salvia L. species under the conditions of introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana V. Tyshchenko; Tatyana V. Multjan; Galyna O. Rudik

    2012-01-01

    The comparison of morpho-anatomical parameters of the leaves of three Salvia L. species of different biomorphes, which are grown under the introduction in O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden, is considered. The morpho-anatomical features, which allow to discover structural adaptation possibilities of Salvia species ex situ , are established.

  11. Medium-Term Anatomic and Functional Results of Laparoscopic Sacrocolpopexy Beyond the Learning Curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Claerhout; D. de Ridder; J.P. Roovers; H. Rommens; F. Spelzini; V. Vandenbroucke; G. Coremans; J. Deprest

    2009-01-01

    Background: Limited prospective data on the anatomic and functional outcome after laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy (LSC) are available in the literature. Objective: To describe the medium-term anatomic and functional outcome of LSC. Design, setting, and participants: Prospective consecutive series of 132

  12. Characterizing brain anatomical connections using diffusion weighted MRI and graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturria-Medina, Y; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Melie-García, L; Valdés-Hernández, P A; Martínez-Montes, E; Alemán-Gómez, Y; Sánchez-Bornot, J M

    2007-07-01

    A new methodology based on Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI) and Graph Theory is presented for characterizing the anatomical connections between brain gray matter areas. In a first step, brain voxels are modeled as nodes of a non-directed graph in which the weight of an arc linking two neighbor nodes is assumed to be proportional to the probability of being connected by nervous fibers. This probability is estimated by means of probabilistic tissue segmentation and intravoxel white matter orientational distribution function, obtained from anatomical MRI and DW-MRI, respectively. A new tractography algorithm for finding white matter routes is also introduced. This algorithm solves the most probable path problem between any two nodes, leading to the assessment of probabilistic brain anatomical connection maps. In a second step, for assessing anatomical connectivity between K gray matter structures, the previous graph is redefined as a K+1 partite graph by partitioning the initial nodes set in K non-overlapped gray matter subsets and one subset clustering the remaining nodes. Three different measures are proposed for quantifying anatomical connections between any pair of gray matter subsets: Anatomical Connection Strength (ACS), Anatomical Connection Density (ACD) and Anatomical Connection Probability (ACP). This methodology was applied to both artificial and actual human data. Results show that nervous fiber pathways between some regions of interest were reconstructed correctly. Additionally, mean connectivity maps of ACS, ACD and ACP between 71 gray matter structures for five healthy subjects are presented.

  13. Unifying the analyses of anatomical and diffusion tensor images using volume-preserved warping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Dongrong; Hao, Xuejun; Bansal, Ravi;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To introduce a framework that automatically identifies regions of anatomical abnormality within anatomical MR images and uses those regions in hypothesis-driven selection of seed points for fiber tracking with diffusion tensor (DT) imaging (DTI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Regions of interes...

  14. "Anatomizing" Reversed: Use of Examination Questions that Foster Use of Higher Order Learning Skills by Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, E. Robert

    2010-01-01

    "Anatomizing" is a new verb some use to describe the breaking apart of a complex entity such as the human body, into isolated tidbits of information for study, which can never equal the complex, integrated whole. Although popular with first-year medical students, this practice of "tidbitting" anatomical information into easy to memorize facts or…

  15. TECHNIQUE AND SURGICAL OUTCOMES OF ANATOMICAL LIVER RESECTIONS FOR COLORECTAL CANCER LIVER METASTASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Sidorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technique and surgical outcomes of anatomical liver resections using ERBEJET2® water-jet dissector were described. Overall 98 patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases were included in this study. In 43 patients resections were performed using water-jet dissection technique. Water-jet dissection seems to be safe and effective technique for anatomical liver resections.

  16. Unifying the analyses of anatomical and diffusion tensor images using volume-preserved warping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Dongrong; Hao, Xuejun; Bansal, Ravi;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To introduce a framework that automatically identifies regions of anatomical abnormality within anatomical MR images and uses those regions in hypothesis-driven selection of seed points for fiber tracking with diffusion tensor (DT) imaging (DTI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Regions of interest...

  17. Femoral rotation unpredictably affects radiographic anatomical lateral distal femoral angle measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effects of internal and external femoral rotation on radiographic measurements of the anatomical lateral distal femoral angle (a-LDFA) using two methods for defining the anatomical proximal femoral axis (a-PFA). Methods: Digital radiographs were obtained of 14 right...

  18. Anatomist on the dissecting table? Dutch anatomical professionals' views on body donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Sophie; Venbrux, Eric; Eisinga, Rob; Gerrits, Peter O.

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical professionals know better than anyone else that donated bodies are a valuable asset to anatomical science and medical education. They highly value voluntary donations, since a dearth of bodies negatively affects their profession. With this in mind, we conducted a survey (n = 54) at the 17

  19. Anatomist on the dissecting table? Dutch anatomical professionals' views on body donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, S.H.; Venbrux, H.J.M.; Eisinga, R.N.; Gerrits, P.O.

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical professionals know better than anyone else that donated bodies are a valuable asset to anatomical science and medical education. They highly value voluntary donations, since a dearth of bodies negatively affects their profession. With this in mind, we conducted a survey (n ¼ 54) at the 17

  20. Anatomical Dolls: Their Use in Assessment of Children Who May Have Been Sexually Abused

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2005-01-01

    This article examines anatomical dolls in interviews of children who may have been sexually abused from three perspectives. The article summarizes research findings on anatomical dolls, discusses advantages and disadvantages of using them, and describes endorsed doll uses. Although additional, ecologically-valid research is needed on anatomical…

  1. Altered anatomical network in early blindness revealed by diffusion tensor tractography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Shu

    Full Text Available The topological architecture of the cerebral anatomical network reflects the structural organization of the human brain. Recently, topological measures based on graph theory have provided new approaches for quantifying large-scale anatomical networks. Diffusion MRI studies have revealed the efficient small-world properties and modular structure of the anatomical network in normal subjects. However, no previous study has used diffusion MRI to reveal changes in the brain anatomical network in early blindness. Here, we utilized diffusion tensor imaging to construct binary anatomical networks for 17 early blind subjects and 17 age- and gender-matched sighted controls. We established the existence of structural connections between any pair of the 90 cortical and sub-cortical regions using deterministic tractography. Compared with controls, early blind subjects showed a decreased degree of connectivity, a reduced global efficiency, and an increased characteristic path length in their brain anatomical network, especially in the visual cortex. Moreover, we revealed some regions with motor or somatosensory function have increased connections with other brain regions in the early blind, which suggested experience-dependent compensatory plasticity. This study is the first to show alterations in the topological properties of the anatomical network in early blindness. From the results, we suggest that analyzing the brain's anatomical network obtained using diffusion MRI data provides new insights into the understanding of the brain's re-organization in the specific population with early visual deprivation.

  2. Correlates of time spent walking and cycling to and from work: baseline results from the commuting and health in Cambridge study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panter Jenna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Environmental perceptions and psychological measures appear to be associated with walking and cycling behaviour; however, their influence is still unclear. We assessed these associations using baseline data from a quasi-experimental cohort study of the effects of major transport infrastructural developments in Cambridge, UK. Methods Postal surveys were sent to adults who travel to work in Cambridge (n = 1582. Questions asked about travel modes and time spent travelling to and from work in the last week, perceptions of the route, psychological measures regarding car use and socio-demographic characteristics. Participants were classified into one of two categories according to time spent walking for commuting ('no walking' or 'some walking' and one of three categories for cycling ('no cycling', '1-149 min/wk' and ' ≥ 150 min/wk'. Results Of the 1164 respondents (68% female, mean (SD age: 42.3 (11.4 years 30% reported any walking and 53% reported any cycling to or from work. In multiple regression models, short distance to work and not having access to a car showed strong positive associations with both walking and cycling. Furthermore, those who reported that it was pleasant to walk were more likely to walk to or from work (OR = 4.18, 95% CI 3.02 to 5.78 and those who reported that it was convenient to cycle on the route between home and work were more likely to do so (1-149 min/wk: OR = 4.60, 95% CI 2.88 to 7.34; ≥ 150 min/wk: OR = 3.14, 95% CI 2.11 to 4.66. Positive attitudes in favour of car use were positively associated with time spent walking to or from work but negatively associated with cycling to or from work. Strong perceived behavioural control for car use was negatively associated with walking. Conclusions In this relatively affluent sample of commuters, a range of individual and household characteristics, perceptions of the route environment and psychological measures relating to car use were associated with

  3. Microscopic and endoscopic anatomical study of the extended transsphenoidal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Xin-tao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Traditional transsphenoidal approach has less treatment effect in invasive pituitary adenoma. To remove tumors growing outside the sella become one of the challenges in neurosurgery. This study aims to study anatomical characteristics of the extended transsphenoidal approach for clinical operation. Methods A mimetic surgery was performed on 10 adult cadaver heads through extended transsphenoidal approach by endoscopy. The study data of related anatomic structures were measured. Results The distance from sphenoidal ostium to anterior nasal spine is (59.68 ± 4.28 mm (52.62-63.16 mm, to posterior nasal aperture is (12.88 ± 1.46 mm (10.47-15.61 mm. The incidence of optic nerve and internal carotid artery protuberance in the lateral wall of sphenoidal sinus is 11/20 and 17/20, respectivly. The medial wall of the cavernous sinus is comprised of one dural layer. The incidence of anterior intercavernous sinus, posterior intercavernous sinus, inferior intercavernous sinus and basilar sinus is 17/20, 12/20, 11/20 and 20/20, respectively. The distance between the bilateral hidden segment of internal carotid artery is (15.30 ± 1.25 mm (12.42-21.76 mm, between the bilateral inferior horizontal segment midpoint is (14.03 ± 1.19 mm (10.42-18.43 mm, between the bilateral anterior vertical segment is (18.87 ± 1.44 mm (16.75-24.88 mm, and between the bilateral inner edge of tuberculum sellae is (12.73 ± 0.94 mm (9.97-16.18 mm. In 7 cases (7/20, the intracavernous carotid is in direct contact with the sellar part of the medial wall; in all cases (20/20, the venous plexus extends into the space between the intracavernous carotid and the sphenoidal part of the medial wall. The incidence of the intracavernous carotid coursing along the inferior one third of the pituitary gland is 9/20, along the inferior two thirds of the pituitary gland is 7/20, along the all the thirds of the pituitary gland is 3/20, while below the level of the sellar floor is

  4. Literature Teaching in ELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To show the importance of literature teaching in English language teaching (ELT),this paper explores the relations between language, culture and literature,examines the present problems in literature teaching and possible solutions are suggested as well.

  5. From Classroom Teaching to Remote Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten

    2000-01-01

    Abundant research has taken place in the area of remote learning. When it comes to remote teaching, it really hurts the developing teacher - who is used to perform classroom teaching - in terms of time consumption and way of thinking. This article describes how courses and project work can be build...... for teaching purpose on the Internet. It is also described how courses in the two different teaching environments can be maintained in one place. More professional teaching tools are available on the market, but the methods described in this paper are based on Luvit[1], an open low-cost web-based teaching tool...

  6. The Language Teaching Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Child, Gregory S.

    2012-01-01

    This portfolio is a compilation of beliefs about effective foreign language (FL) teaching. The core of this portfolio is a teaching philosophy, in which theories, such as comprehensible input, teacher and student roles, and activities are explained. The teaching philosophy is accompanied by a reflection of the authors teaching observed from a video. Following the teaching philosophy and personal teaching reflection are three artifacts centered on language, culture, and literacy. The language ...

  7. “In my end is my beginning”. Una discussione sul caso trascurato dei Cambridge Ritualists fra antropologia comparativa, filosofia e pensiero scientifico - “In my end is my beginning”. An argument on the Cambridge Ritualists’ neglected case, on the wave of comparative anthropology, philosophy and scientific thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Cinellu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Somehow rounding off an intellectual season in which humanities strongly lament the loss of Darwinian incitements, while exploiting both Wilson’s biophilia hypothesis and Rappaport’s engaged anthropology as springboards, this article wants to cast light on how two anthropologically undervalued manifestos of the Cambridge School – Harrison’s Themis (1912 and Cornford’s From Religion to Philosophy (1912 – laid the foundation of post-modern science. It highlights, in other words, how within evolutionary anthropology, to which we owe the birth of the comparative study of religions, were surreptitiously raised significant issues against eco-systemic disfunctionalities due to the scientific pattern rooted in Atomism and modern Cartesianism itself. In order to counteract the conventional belief that evolutionary anthropology was entirely shaped by the kind of Positivism of Illuministic inspiration, the association between the “mystic” and the “savage” will be once more taken into consideration. In this regard, a quite unreleased focus on Lévi-Strauss’ paradigm “le totémism du dedans” is deemed also essential. As a consequence, the unfairly forgotten Cambridge Ritualists, Harrison and Cornford, will be especially rehearsed in the light of their adoption of the philosophical Bergsonian concept of durée as a means of probing into the monist vision enshrined in the mysteric religion of Ancient Greece. It is basically the special attention allotted to the mystic’s incorporation of a limitless cyclic time which helps us to detect the extent to which both Harrison and Cornford aimed at propounding an ethical anthropology eager to denounce the forward end because of the obdurate human projection outside the sphere of Life itself. What this essay thus propounds is not a rehearsal of the Cambridge School for the sake of it. While advocating cumulative knowledge around the very same foundation of the “scientific study of

  8. Mandibular Ramus Fracture: An Overview of Rare Anatomical Subsite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anendd Jadhav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The present study aims at exemplifying the incidence, and aetiology and analyses the outcomes of open reduction internal fixation (ORIF over closed treatment of mandibular ramus fractures. Patients and Method. In the present retrospective analysis of mandibular fracture patients, variables analysed were age, sex, cause of injury, pretreatment occlusion, treatment given, period of maxillo-mandibular fixation (MMF, and posttreatment occlusion. Results. Out of 388 mandibular fractures treated, ramus fractures were 12 (3.09%. In the present study, predominant cause of mandibular ramus fracture was road traffic accident (RTA n = 07 (58.33% followed by fall n = 04 (33.33% and assault n = 1 (8.33%. The average age was 35.9 years with a male predilection. Of these, 9 patients were treated with ORIF while remaining 3 with closed treatment. The average MMF after closed treatment was 21 days and 3 to 5 days after ORIF. There was improvement in occlusion in all 12 patients posttreatment with no major complication except for reduced mouth opening in cases treated with ORIF which recovered with physiotherapy and muscle relaxants. Conclusion. Mandibular ramus fractures accounted for 3.09% with RTA as a common aetiology. ORIF of ramus fractures facilitated adequate functional and anatomic reduction with early return of function.

  9. Cerebral functional connectivity periodically (de)synchronizes with anatomical constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Raphaël; Ziegler, Erik; Phillips, Christophe; Geurts, Pierre; Gómez, Francisco; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Yeo, B T Thomas; Soddu, Andrea; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Laureys, Steven; Sepulchre, Rodolphe

    2016-07-01

    This paper studies the link between resting-state functional connectivity (FC), measured by the correlations of fMRI BOLD time courses, and structural connectivity (SC), estimated through fiber tractography. Instead of a static analysis based on the correlation between SC and FC averaged over the entire fMRI time series, we propose a dynamic analysis, based on the time evolution of the correlation between SC and a suitably windowed FC. Assessing the statistical significance of the time series against random phase permutations, our data show a pronounced peak of significance for time window widths around 20-30 TR (40-60 s). Using the appropriate window width, we show that FC patterns oscillate between phases of high modularity, primarily shaped by anatomy, and phases of low modularity, primarily shaped by inter-network connectivity. Building upon recent results in dynamic FC, this emphasizes the potential role of SC as a transitory architecture between different highly connected resting-state FC patterns. Finally, we show that the regions contributing the most to these whole-brain level fluctuations of FC on the supporting anatomical architecture belong to the default mode and the executive control networks suggesting that they could be capturing consciousness-related processes such as mind wandering. PMID:26197763

  10. Distally Based Iliotibial Band Flap: Anatomic Study with Surgical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Victor W; Higgins, James P

    2016-09-01

    Background Reconstruction of high-risk fascia, tendon, or ligament defects may benefit from vascularized tissue. The iliotibial band (ITB), a thick fibrous tract of connective tissue, serves as a potential donor site for free tissue transfer but its blood supply has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this anatomical study was to investigate the vascular supply to the distal ITB and its role as a free fascial flap. Methods We dissected 16 fresh-frozen cadaveric legs and injected latex into the superolateral geniculate artery (SLGA). A distal ITB fascial flap was designed and measurements were taken for flap dimensions, pedicle length and size, and SLGA perfusion territory. Results The SLGA perfused 11.5 ± 2.3 cm of distal ITB (proximal to the lateral femoral epicondyle) and provided 6.4 ± 0.7cm of pedicle length to the ITB flap. Conclusions Chimeric options to include bone (from the lateral femoral condyle), cartilage (from the lateral femoral trochlea), muscle (from vastus lateralis or biceps femoris), and skin are possible. Surgical harvest techniques are proposed, including preservation of ITB insertions to minimize lateral knee instability. Clinical validation is needed to determine the role of the distal ITB free fascial flap in reconstructive microsurgery.

  11. Anatomical distribution of estrogen target neurons in turtle brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiographic studies with [3H]estradiol-17β in red-eared turtle (Pseudemys scripta elegans) show concentration and retention of radioactivity in nuclei of neurons in certain regions. Accumulations of estrogen target neurons exist in the periventricular brain with relationships to ventral extensions of the forebrain ventricles, including parolfactory, amygdaloid, septal, preoptic, hypothalamic and thalamic areas, as well as the dorsal ventricular ridge, the piriform cortex, and midbrain-pontine periaqueductal structures. The general anatomical pattern of distribution of estrogen target neurons corresponds to those observed not only in another reptile (Anolis carolinensis), but also in birds and mammals, as well as in teleosts and cyclostomes. In Pseudemys, which appears to display an intermediate degree of phylogenetic differentiation, the amygdaloid-septal-preoptic groups of estrogen target neurons constitute a continuum. In phylogenetic ascendency, e.g. in mammals, these cell populations are increasingly separated and distinct, while in phylogenetic descendency, e.g. in teleosts and cyclostomes, an amygdaloid group appears to be absent or contained within the septal-preoptic target cell population. (Auth.)

  12. Anatomical structure of lingual foramen in cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ki, Min Woo; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-15

    To evaluate whether cone beam computed tomography can depict the distribution, position, frequency, relative vertical dimension, and the diameter of the lingual foramen and direction of lingual bone canal. Cone beam computed tomography of mandible was performed on 25 males and 25 females with no history of any orthodontic treatments or any other dental surgeries. A statistical comparison was done on the mean values of males and females. In the location and distribution of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was found in all subjects and lateral lingual foramen in 58%. In the lateral lingual foramen, bilateral type was found in 28% and unilateral type in 30%. In the number of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen had two foramina and lateral lingual foramen had one foramen, mostly. In the relative mean vertical dimension of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.03 {+-} 0.08, and both lateral lingual foramina was 0.20 {+-} 0.04. The mean diameter of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.9 mm {+-} 0.28, right lateral lingual foramen was 0.92 mm {+-} 0.23, and left lateral lingual foramen was 0.88 mm {+-} 0.27. The most frequent direction of the lingual bone canals, median lingual bone canal proceeded in anteroinferior direction and lateral lingual bone canal in anterosuperolateral direction. Cone beam computed tomography can be helpful for surgery and implantation on the mandibular area. Radiologist should be aware of this anatomical feature and its possible implications.

  13. Distally Based Iliotibial Band Flap: Anatomic Study with Surgical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Victor W; Higgins, James P

    2016-09-01

    Background Reconstruction of high-risk fascia, tendon, or ligament defects may benefit from vascularized tissue. The iliotibial band (ITB), a thick fibrous tract of connective tissue, serves as a potential donor site for free tissue transfer but its blood supply has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this anatomical study was to investigate the vascular supply to the distal ITB and its role as a free fascial flap. Methods We dissected 16 fresh-frozen cadaveric legs and injected latex into the superolateral geniculate artery (SLGA). A distal ITB fascial flap was designed and measurements were taken for flap dimensions, pedicle length and size, and SLGA perfusion territory. Results The SLGA perfused 11.5 ± 2.3 cm of distal ITB (proximal to the lateral femoral epicondyle) and provided 6.4 ± 0.7cm of pedicle length to the ITB flap. Conclusions Chimeric options to include bone (from the lateral femoral condyle), cartilage (from the lateral femoral trochlea), muscle (from vastus lateralis or biceps femoris), and skin are possible. Surgical harvest techniques are proposed, including preservation of ITB insertions to minimize lateral knee instability. Clinical validation is needed to determine the role of the distal ITB free fascial flap in reconstructive microsurgery. PMID:27135145

  14. Retromolar foramen: an anatomical study with clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamieldien, M Y; Van Schoor, A

    2016-09-01

    The retromolar canal and foramen, an anatomical variation in the mandibular retromolar area, houses and transmits neurovascular elements that may innervate the mandibular third molar and associated tissues. These structures have been implicated in local anaesthetic failure, loss of sensation in the normal distribution of the buccal nerve, and local haemorrhage during surgery. Examination of 885 dry mandibles showed that 70 had a retromolar foramen (8%). There were no significant differences between groups according to age, sex, or ancestry. The mean (SD) distance from molar to retromolar foramen was 16.8 (5.6) mm for the mandibular second molar and 10.5 (3.8) mm for the mandibular third molar. The link between these structures and failure of local anaesthesia seems tenuous at best. Bleeding may not represent a serious complication. Although there may be a possibility of perineural spread of infective and invasive pathology, we know of no reported cases. The only clear evidence of complications associated with a confirmed retromolar foramen seems to be loss of sensation in the normal distribution of the buccal nerve. Even though the retromolar foramen does not seem to be of great clinical importance, it could be a source of anxiety for the inexperienced practitioner. PMID:27354332

  15. Anatomic Reconstruction Technique for a Plantar Calcaneonavicular (Spring) Ligament Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Shabat, Shay; Brin, Yaron S; Feldman, Viktor; Kish, Benny; Nyska, Meir

    2015-01-01

    Acquired flatfoot deformity in adults is usually due to partial or complete tearing of the posterior tibial tendon, with secondary failure of other structures such as the plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament (SL), which maintain the medial longitudinal arch. In flexible cases, the tibialis posterior can be replaced with the flexor digitorum longus. It is common practice to suture the SL directly in the case of a tear; however, if the tear is complete, suturing directly to the ligament alone will not be possible. Reconstruction of the ligament is needed; however, no validated methods are available to reconstruct this ligament. The operative technique of SL reconstruction described in this report as a part of acquired flatfoot deformity reconstruction consists of augmenting remnants of the spring from the navicularis to the sustentaculum tali and suspending it to the medial malleolus using 2-mm-wide, long-chain polyethylene suture tape. This technique results in the firm anatomic reconstruction of the SL, in addition to "classic" medial arch reconstruction. We recommend SL reconstruction for medial arch reconstruction when the SL is torn. PMID:26253476

  16. Scalenus minimus muscle: overestimated or not? An anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Didagelos, Matthaios; Tsakotos, George; Vlassis, Konstantinos; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2013-04-01

    The wide range of scalenus minimus muscle incidence reported in the literature along with the plethora of fibromuscular structures that may appear in the interscalene triangle, having various terminologies, were the reasons to conduct the present study questioning the reported high incidence of this supernumerary scalene muscle. Seventy-three Greek cadavers were dissected and examined for the presence of a scalenus minimus muscle. It was found unilaterally in three of 73 (4.11%) cadavers studied. The literature review, concerning its incidence, revealed a wide range between 7.8 and 71.7 per cent, which cannot be attributed only to racial variation. Thus, there is a matter whether other variations of the scalene muscles are considered as a true scalenus minimus muscle. Recognition of this muscle is important not only for anatomists, but also has clinical significance for the diagnosis of the thoracic outlet syndrome. Surgeons performing scalenectomy and anesthesiologists during interscalene brachial plexus block should keep in mind the anatomical variations of this region.

  17. Anatomic Localization of Thrombi in Our Cases of Pulmonary Thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantürk Taþçý

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE, known to be diagnosed with the disease requiring immediate treatment. Pulmonary angiography as the gold standard among the methods being used in the diagnosis of pulmonary CT angiography, ventilation perfusion scan, is located within the lower extremity venous Doppler ultrasound diagnostic algorithms. Scintigraphy and CT angiography in the diagnosis of PTE according to the conditions of the hospital may gain priority. In recent years, close to the accuracy of CT angiography results were obtained with the invasive angiography. Radiologists subsegment branches of pulmonary artery thrombus, a fact that they are looking forced. CT angiographic images of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism with thrombus in our study by examining the distribution profile were revealed. Radiologists and clinicians aimed to give information on this issue. Material and Method: Within one year period at our outpatient clinic of Chest Diseases and pulmonary CT angiography images of 37 patients diagnosed with PTE were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Determined the distribution and frequency of thrombi. Thrombus in the pulmonaryarteries are most commonly seen in all the branches to the lower lobes. The thrombus inthe left upper lobe was the least anatomical localisation. Discussion: Today, close to the results seen that BTPA invasive pulmonary angiography. Thrombioften seen as places for Clinicians and radiologists believe that information about the donor.

  18. [Linburg-Comstock syndrome. Epidemiologic and anatomic study, clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamitouche, K; Roux, J L; Baeten, Y; Allieu, Y

    2000-05-01

    The Linburg-Comstock (LC) syndrome is distinguished by the inability to actively flex the interphalangeal (IP) joint of the thumb without simultaneously flexing the distal IP joint of the index finger. Any resistance to this 'parasitic' reaction causes pain on the palmar side of the wrist or in the distal part of the forearm; this is due to an anomalous tendinous connection between the flexor pollicus longus (FPL) and the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). An epidemiological study was carried out on 264 individuals (a total of 528 hands were examined), and the LC syndrome was found in 98 subjects (37%); women were more frequently affected than men, and bilaterally rather than unilaterally. In addition, we dissected 26 fresh cadaver upper limbs, and in seven cases found an anomalous connection between FPL and FDP. We also examined the case of a young violinist with bilateral LC syndrome, who complained of pain in the distal part of the left forearm after prolonged musical exercises. Surgical investigation determined a complete fusion between FPL and FDP of the index with a common tendon. Treatment consisted of splitting this common tendon to form two separate tendons, thereby permitting a certain degree of independence between the thumb and index finger, and which considerably improved the violinist's musical performance. A review of the literature showed that there was a large quantity of anatomical descriptions available on these types of connection. Certain publications also provide an extremely precise report on the anthropological significance of these anomalies.

  19. Anatomical Study of Sacral Hiatus for Caudal Epidural Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay S Patil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anatomy of the sacral hiatus is having clinical importance during caudal epidural block. Present study is aimed at determining anatomy of sacrum specially sacral hiatus for caudal epidural block, with the help of morphometric measurements of the sacrum in relation to sacral hiatus in dry sacral bones. Material & method: Total 103 complete and undamaged adult, dry sacral bones were measured with Vernier caliper (accuracy 0.1 mm and anatomical measurements were obtained. Results: Three bones were excluded because of total posterior closure defect. Agenesis of the sacral hiatus was detected in three sacral bones. Right and left superolateral sacral crests of the sacrum were taken as two points on dorsal surface of sacrum (forming the base of a triangle because posterior superior iliac spines impose on the superolateral sacral crests. The distance between the two superolateral sacral crests (base of a triangle, the distances between the right and left superolateral sacral crest and the sacral apex were on average 60.61(SD 6.71, 61.95 (11.71 and 61.4 (11.98 mm respectively.. Summary: An equilateral triangle formed between the apex of the sacral hiatus and right and left superolateral sacral crests. This equilateral triangle will help in determining the location of the sacral hiatus during caudal epidural block. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 272-275

  20. Image-anatomic research of the alar ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To detect position and morphous as well as coursing of the alar ligament, and to further investigate the sectional anatomy and CT and MRI imaging of the alar ligament. Methods: Twelve formalin fixed specimens including head and neck utilized, three of the twelve were observed in gross anatomy, nine of them were dissectioned. Fifty- one healthy volunteers from each group were selected to perform CT and MRI examination respectively. By combining gross and sectional anatomy. CT and MRI manifestations of the alar ligament were analyzed, the alar ligament width was measured. Results: Location and shape, as well as coursing of the alar ligament could be demonstrated clearly in gross and sectional anatomy. The transverse plane across the upper dens and the coronal plane by the middle dens were the optimal planes for demonstrating the alar ligament. The display ratio of the alar ligament was even 100% (51/51) in both images of CT and MRI. MRI had better advantages than CT in respect of demonstrating the alar ligament, PDWI (proton density weighted imaging, PDWI) is the most optimal sequence for the alar ligament. There were no significant differences of the alar ligament width between male and female and between the right and the left side (P>0.05). Conclusion: In combination with gross and sectional anatomy. CT and MRI could both provide an imageo-anatomic basis for diagnosis of the alar ligament trauma and malformation as well as infection. (authors)

  1. Anatomical correlates of cognitive functions in early Parkinson's disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Biundo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits may occur early in Parkinson's disease (PD but the extent of cortical involvement associated with cognitive dysfunction needs additional investigations. The aim of our study is to identify the anatomical pattern of cortical thickness alterations in patients with early stage PD and its relationship with cognitive disability. METHODS: We recruited 29 PD patients and 21 healthy controls. All PD patients performed an extensive neuropsychological examination and 14 were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI. Surface-based cortical thickness analysis was applied to investigate the topographical distribution of cortical and subcortical alterations in early PD compared with controls and to assess the relationship between cognition and regional cortical changes in PD-MCI. RESULTS: Overall PD patients showed focal cortical (occipital-parietal areas, orbito-frontal and olfactory areas and subcortical thinning when compared with controls. PD-MCI showed a wide spectrum of cognitive deficits and related significant regional thickening in the right parietal-frontal as well as in the left temporal-occipital areas. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the presence of changes in grey matter thickness at relatively early PD stage and support previous studies showing thinning and atrophy in the neocortex and subcortical regions. Relative cortical thickening in PD-MCI may instead express compensatory neuroplasticity. Brain reserve mechanisms might first modulate cognitive decline during the initial stages of PD.

  2. Generation of anatomically realistic numerical phantoms for optoacoustic breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Mitsuhashi, Kenji; Appleton, Catherine M.; Oraevsky, Alexander; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    Because optoacoustic tomography (OAT) can provide functional information based on hemoglobin contrast, it is a promising imaging modality for breast cancer diagnosis. Developing an effective OAT breast imaging system requires balancing multiple design constraints, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, computer- simulation studies are often conducted to facilitate this task. However, most existing computer-simulation studies of OAT breast imaging employ simple phantoms such as spheres or cylinders that over-simplify the complex anatomical structures in breasts, thus limiting the value of these studies in guiding real-world system design. In this work, we propose a method to generate realistic numerical breast phantoms for OAT research based on clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The phantoms include a skin layer that defines breast-air boundary, major vessel branches that affect light absorption in the breast, and fatty tissue and fibroglandular tissue whose acoustical heterogeneity perturbs acoustic wave propagation. By assigning realistic optical and acoustic parameters to different tissue types, we establish both optic and acoustic breast phantoms, which will be exported into standard data formats for cross-platform usage.

  3. Anatomic and functional imaging of tagged molecules in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Majewski, Stanislaw; Paulus, Michael J.; Gleason, Shaun S.

    2007-04-24

    A novel functional imaging system for use in the imaging of unrestrained and non-anesthetized small animals or other subjects and a method for acquiring such images and further registering them with anatomical X-ray images previously or subsequently acquired. The apparatus comprises a combination of an IR laser profilometry system and gamma, PET and/or SPECT, imaging system, all mounted on a rotating gantry, that permits simultaneous acquisition of positional and orientational information and functional images of an unrestrained subject that are registered, i.e. integrated, using image processing software to produce a functional image of the subject without the use of restraints or anesthesia. The functional image thus obtained can be registered with a previously or subsequently obtained X-ray CT image of the subject. The use of the system described herein permits functional imaging of a subject in an unrestrained/non-anesthetized condition thereby reducing the stress on the subject and eliminating any potential interference with the functional testing that such stress might induce.

  4. The knee in full flexion: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinskerova, V; Samuelson, K M; Stammers, J; Maruthainar, K; Sosna, A; Freeman, M A R

    2009-06-01

    There has been only one limited report dating from 1941 using dissection which has described the tibiofemoral joint between 120 degrees and 160 degrees of flexion despite the relevance of this arc to total knee replacement. We now provide a full description having examined one living and eight cadaver knees using MRI, dissection and previously published cryosections in one knee. In the range of flexion from 120 degrees to 160 degrees the flexion facet centre of the medial femoral condyle moves back 5 mm and rises up on to the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. At 160 degrees the posterior horn is compressed in a synovial recess between the femoral cortex and the tibia. This limits flexion. The lateral femoral condyle also rolls back with the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus moving with the condyle. Both move down over the posterior tibia at 160 degrees of flexion. Neither the events between 120 degrees and 160 degrees nor the anatomy at 160 degrees could result from a continuation of the kinematics up to 120 degrees . Therefore hyperflexion is a separate arc. The anatomical and functional features of this arc suggest that it would be difficult to design an implant for total knee replacement giving physiological movement from 0 degrees to 160 degrees .

  5. Automatic anatomical structures location based on dynamic shape measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Rapp, Walter; Sitnik, Robert; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Vander Sloten, Jos; Haex, Bart; Bogaert, Nico; Heitmann, Kjell

    2005-09-01

    New image processing methods and active photonics apparatus have made possible the development of relatively inexpensive optical systems for complex shape and object measurements. We present dynamic 360° scanning method for analysis of human lower body biomechanics, with an emphasis on the analysis of the knee joint. The anatomical structure (of high medical interest) that is possible to scan and analyze, is patella. Tracking of patella position and orientation under dynamic conditions may lead to detect pathological patella movements and help in knee joint disease diagnosis. The processed data is obtained from a dynamic laser triangulation surface measurement system, able to capture slow to normal movements with a scan frequency between 15 and 30 Hz. These frequency rates are enough to capture controlled movements used e.g. for medical examination purposes. The purpose of the work presented is to develop surface analysis methods that may be used as support of diagnosis of motoric abilities of lower limbs. The paper presents algorithms used to process acquired lower limbs surface data in order to find the position and orientation of patella. The algorithms implemented include input data preparation, curvature description methods, knee region discrimination and patella assumed position/orientation calculation. Additionally, a method of 4D (3D + time) medical data visualization is proposed. Also some exemplary results are presented.

  6. Anatomical Study an the Development of Strawberry Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The development of strawberry fruit, two cultivars-Gelila and Xiaoshi, was systematically studied by anatomical and embryological methods. The growth dynamics of fruit showed that the two cultivars performed similar changes with their fresh weight volume and structure, it included the first slow growth stage, the rapid growth stage and the second solw growth stage. The fruit was a typical polyachene with a ovule which belonged to a Poligonum type, the growth process of pollen tube from stigma to embryo sac was clearly observed by flourescence microscopy. Embryo development was similar to that of most dicotyls, and the mature embryo was orthotropous; Endosperm development was a nuclear type, and gradually disappeared with development:Seed coat consisted of 3~4 layer cells, and pericarp was composed of 6~8 layer cells which differentiated from ovary wall cell; The structure of receptacle was a typical stem which consisted of epidermis ,cortex and vascular cylinder. With development, the cortex and pith of fruit contained plentiful parenchyma tissue, and they were mainly edible sections.

  7. Determinants of alveolar ridge preservation differ by anatomic location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebicioglu, Binnaz; Salas, Mabel; Ort, Yirae; Johnson, Ashley; Yildiz, Vedat O.; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Agarwal, Sudha; Tatakis, Dimitris N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate and compare outcomes following alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) in posterior maxilla and mandible. Methods Twenty-four patients (54 ± 3 years) with single posterior tooth extraction were included. ARP was performed with freeze-dried bone allograft and collagen membrane. Clinical parameters were recorded at extraction and re-entry. Harvested bone cores were analysed by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. Results In both jaws, ARP prevented ridge height loss, but ridge width was significantly reduced by approximately 2.5 mm. Healing time, initial clinical attachment loss and amount of keratinized tissue at extraction site were identified as determinants of ridge height outcome. Buccal plate thickness and tooth root length were identified as determinants of ridge width outcome. In addition, initial ridge width was positively correlated with ridge width loss. Micro-CT revealed greater mineralization per unit volume in new bone compared with existing bone in mandible (p < 0.001). Distributions of residual graft, new cellular bone and immature tissue were similar in both jaws. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, the results indicate that in different anatomic locations different factors may determine ARP outcomes. Further studies are needed to better understand determinants of ARP outcomes. PMID:23432761

  8. 3D harmonic phase tracking with anatomical regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yitian; Bernard, Olivier; Saloux, Eric; Manrique, Alain; Allain, Pascal; Makram-Ebeid, Sherif; De Craene, Mathieu

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm that extends HARP to handle 3D tagged MRI images. HARP results were regularized by an original regularization framework defined in an anatomical space of coordinates. In the meantime, myocardium incompressibility was integrated in order to correct the radial strain which is reported to be more challenging to recover. Both the tracking and regularization of LV displacements were done on a volumetric mesh to be computationally efficient. Also, a window-weighted regression method was extended to cardiac motion tracking which helps maintain a low complexity even at finer scales. On healthy volunteers, the tracking accuracy was found to be as accurate as the best candidates of a recent benchmark. Strain accuracy was evaluated on synthetic data, showing low bias and strain errors under 5% (excluding outliers) for longitudinal and circumferential strains, while the second and third quartiles of the radial strain errors are in the (-5%,5%) range. In clinical data, strain dispersion was shown to correlate with the extent of transmural fibrosis. Also, reduced deformation values were found inside infarcted segments. PMID:26363844

  9. An anatomic gene expression atlas of the adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lydia; Bernard, Amy; Lau, Chris; Overly, Caroline C; Dong, Hong-Wei; Kuan, Chihchau; Pathak, Sayan; Sunkin, Susan M; Dang, Chinh; Bohland, Jason W; Bokil, Hemant; Mitra, Partha P; Puelles, Luis; Hohmann, John; Anderson, David J; Lein, Ed S; Jones, Allan R; Hawrylycz, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Studying gene expression provides a powerful means of understanding structure-function relationships in the nervous system. The availability of genome-scale in situ hybridization datasets enables new possibilities for understanding brain organization based on gene expression patterns. The Anatomic Gene Expression Atlas (AGEA) is a new relational atlas revealing the genetic architecture of the adult C57Bl/6J mouse brain based on spatial correlations across expression data for thousands of genes in the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA). The AGEA includes three discovery tools for examining neuroanatomical relationships and boundaries: (1) three-dimensional expression-based correlation maps, (2) a hierarchical transcriptome-based parcellation of the brain and (3) a facility to retrieve from the ABA specific genes showing enriched expression in local correlated domains. The utility of this atlas is illustrated by analysis of genetic organization in the thalamus, striatum and cerebral cortex. The AGEA is a publicly accessible online computational tool integrated with the ABA (http://mouse.brain-map.org/agea). PMID:19219037

  10. The conquest of vitalism or the eclipse of organicism? The 1930s Cambridge organizer project and the social network of mid-twentieth-century biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erik

    2014-06-01

    In the 1930s, two concepts excited the European biological community: the organizer phenomenon and organicism. This essay examines the history of and connection between these two phenomena in order to address the conventional 'rise-and-fall' narrative that historians have assigned to each. Scholars promoted the 'rise-and-fall' narrative in connection with a broader account of the devitalizing of biology through the twentieth century. I argue that while limited evidence exists for the 'fall of the organizer concept' by the 1950s, the organicism that often motivated the organizer work had no concomitant fall--even during the mid-century heyday of molecular biology. My argument is based on an examination of shifting social networks of life scientists from the 1920s to the 1970s, many of whom attended or corresponded with members of the Cambridge Theoretical Biology Club (1932-1938). I conclude that the status and cohesion of these social networks at the micro scale was at least as important as macro-scale conceptual factors in determining the relative persuasiveness of organicist philosophy.

  11. Test-retest reliability analysis of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Tests for the assessment of dementia in older people living in retirement homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Marta Matos; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Simões, Mário R

    2016-01-01

    The validity of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Tests has been widely studied, but their reliability has not. This study aimed to estimate the test-retest reliability of these tests in a sample of 34 older adults, aged 69 to 90 years old, without neuropsychiatric diagnoses and living in retirement homes in the district of Lisbon, Portugal. The battery was administered twice, with a 4-week interval between sessions. The Paired Associates Learning (PAL), Spatial Working Memory (SWM), Rapid Visual Information Processing, and Reaction Time tests revealed measures with high-to-adequate test-retest correlations (.71-.89), although several PAL and SWM measures showed susceptibility to practice effects. Two estimated standardized regression-based methods were found to be more efficient at correcting for practice effects than a method of fixed correction. We also found weak test-retest correlations (.56-.68) for several measures. These results suggest that some, but not all, measures are suitable for cognitive assessment and monitoring in this population.

  12. The Imperial College Cambridge Manchester (ICCAM) platform study: An experimental medicine platform for evaluating new drugs for relapse prevention in addiction. Part A: Study description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Louise M; Flechais, Remy S A; Murphy, Anna; Reed, Laurence J; Abbott, Sanja; Boyapati, Venkataramana; Elliott, Rebecca; Erritzoe, David; Ersche, Karen D; Faluyi, Yetunde; Faravelli, Luca; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Kalk, Nicola J; Kuchibatla, Shankar S; McGonigle, John; Metastasio, Antonio; Mick, Inge; Nestor, Liam; Orban, Csaba; Passetti, Filippo; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Smith, Dana G; Suckling, John; Tait, Roger; Taylor, Eleanor M; Waldman, Adam D; Robbins, Trevor W; Deakin, J F William; Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R

    2015-09-01

    Drug and alcohol dependence are global problems with substantial societal costs. There are few treatments for relapse prevention and therefore a pressing need for further study of brain mechanisms underpinning relapse circuitry. The Imperial College Cambridge Manchester (ICCAM) platform study is an experimental medicine approach to this problem: using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques and selective pharmacological tools, it aims to explore the neuropharmacology of putative relapse pathways in cocaine, alcohol, opiate dependent, and healthy individuals to inform future drug development. Addiction studies typically involve small samples because of recruitment difficulties and attrition. We established the platform in three centres to assess the feasibility of a multisite approach to address these issues. Pharmacological modulation of reward, impulsivity and emotional reactivity were investigated in a monetary incentive delay task, an inhibitory control task, and an evocative images task, using selective antagonists for µ-opioid, dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) and neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors (naltrexone, GSK598809, vofopitant/aprepitant), in a placebo-controlled, randomised, crossover design. In two years, 609 scans were performed, with 155 individuals scanned at baseline. Attrition was low and the majority of individuals were sufficiently motivated to complete all five sessions (n=87). We describe herein the study design, main aims, recruitment numbers, sample characteristics, and explain the test hypotheses and anticipated study outputs.

  13. Teaching Creatively and Teaching for Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a brief review of generally accepted ideas about creativity, followed by examples of music teachers teaching creatively and teaching their students to be more creative. Implications for teacher education and policy recommendations for music education are discussed.

  14. A Three-Year Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study of Medical Students' Attitudes toward Anatomy Teaching and Their Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangu, Aneel; Boutefnouchet, Tarek; Yong, Xu; Abrahams, Peter; Joplin, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Today's medical students are faced with numerous learning needs. Continuously developing curricula have reduced time for basic science subjects such as anatomy. This study aimed to determine the students' views on the relevance of anatomy teaching, anatomical knowledge, and the effect these have on their career choices. A Likert scale…

  15. Mobile Technology: Creation and Use of an iBook to Teach the Anatomy of the Brachial Plexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Stuart; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2015-01-01

    In an era of digitally connected students, there is a demand for academic material to be delivered through electronic mobile devices and not just through traditional methods such as lectures and tutorials. A digital interactive book--iBook (for use on the Apple iPad)--was created to teach undergraduate anatomical science students (n?=?26) four key…

  16. An Interactive Method for Teaching Anatomy of the Human Eye for Medical Students in Ophthalmology Clinical Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Doyle, Sara K.; Madden, Richard H.; Mitchell, Terry L.; Sims, Ershela L.

    2009-01-01

    Much research has shown the benefits of additional anatomical learning and dissection beyond the first year of medical school human gross anatomy, all the way through postgraduate medical training. We have developed an interactive method for teaching eye and orbit anatomy to medical students in their ophthalmology rotation at Duke University…

  17. Anatomical Mercury: Changing Understandings of Quicksilver, Blood, and the Lymphatic System, 1650-1800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Marieke M A

    2015-10-01

    The use of mercury as an injection mass in anatomical experiments and preparations was common throughout Europe in the long eighteenth century, and refined mercury-injected preparations as well as plates of anatomical mercury remain today. The use and meaning of mercury in related disciplines such as medicine and chemistry in the same period have been studied, but our knowledge of anatomical mercury is sparse and tends to focus on technicalities. This article argues that mercury had a distinct meaning in anatomy, which was initially influenced by alchemical and classical understandings of mercury. Moreover, it demonstrates that the choice of mercury as an anatomical injection mass was deliberate and informed by an intricate cultural understanding of its materiality, and that its use in anatomical preparations and its perception as an anatomical material evolved with the understanding of the circulatory and lymphatic systems. By using the material culture of anatomical mercury as a starting point, I seek to provide a new, object-driven interpretation of complex and strongly interrelated historiographical categories such as mechanism, vitalism, chemistry, anatomy, and physiology, which are difficult to understand through a historiography that focuses exclusively on ideas. PMID:25324429

  18. Sensitivity of predicted muscle forces during gait to anatomical variability in musculotendon geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Lode; Valente, Giordano; Wesseling, Mariska; Van Campen, Anke; De Groote, Friedl; De Schutter, Joris; Jonkers, Ilse

    2015-07-16

    Scaled generic musculoskeletal models are commonly used to drive dynamic simulations of motions. It is however, acknowledged that not accounting for variability in musculoskeletal geometry and musculotendon parameters may confound the simulation results, even when analysing control subjects. This study documents the three-dimensional anatomical variability of musculotendon origins and insertions of 33 lower limb muscles determined based on magnetic resonance imaging in six subjects. This anatomical variability was compared to the musculotendon point location in a generic musculoskeletal model. Furthermore, the sensitivity of muscle forces during gait, calculated using static optimization, to perturbations of the musculotendon point location was analyzed with a generic model. More specific, a probabilistic approach was used: for each analyzed musculotendon point, the three-dimensional location was re-sampled with a uniform Latin hypercube method within the anatomical variability and the static optimization problem was then re-solved for all perturbations. We found that musculotendon point locations in the generic model showed only variable correspondences with the anatomical variability. The anatomical variability of musculotendon point location did affect the calculated muscle forces: muscles most sensitive to perturbations within the anatomical variability are iliacus and psoas. Perturbation of the gluteus medius anterior, iliacus and psoas induces the largest concomitant changes in muscle forces of the unperturbed muscles. Therefore, when creating subject-specific musculoskeletal models, these attachment points should be defined accurately. In addition, the size of the anatomical variability of the musculotendon point location was not related to the sensitivity of the calculated muscle forces. PMID:25979383

  19. Plasma free fatty acids do not provide the link between obesity and insulin resistance or β-cell dysfunction: results of the Reading, Imperial, Surrey, Cambridge, Kings (RISCK) study

    OpenAIRE

    Johns, I.; Goff, L; Bluck, L. J.; Griffin, B. A.; Jebb, S. A.; Lovegrove, J. A. (Julie A.); Sanders, T A B; G. Frost; Dornhorst, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship between adiposity and plasma free fatty acid levels and the influence of total plasma free fatty acid level on insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. Methods An insulin sensitivity index, acute insulin response to glucose and a disposition index, derived from i.v. glucose tolerance minimal model analysis and total fasting plasma free fatty acid levels were available for 533 participants in the Reading, Imperial, Surrey, Cambridge, Kings study. ...

  20. The 'Robbins Circle' of the London School of Economics and Political Science : the Liberalism group' s counterattack of Laissez-faire against Cambridge<人文・社会科学>

    OpenAIRE

    木村, 雄一

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the 'Robbins Circle' of the early 1930s at LSE-a miraculous group comprising Lionel Robbins, F. Hayek, N. Kaldor, J. Hicks, A. Lerner, and others-contrasting it with Cambridge economists and elucidating Robbins's perspective. Few reports have explored their theory and policy through Robbins's view. The 'Robbins Circle' supported LSE as the 'international stronghold of the continental economists such as Austrian economics and Lausanne economics as a riv...