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Sample records for cambrian sandstones burial

  1. Ferroan dolomite cement in Cambrian sandstones: burial history and hydrocarbon generation of the Baltic sedimentary basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliaupa, S.; Cyziene, J.; Molenaar, Nicolaas

    2008-01-01

    The conditions and timing of carbonate cementation in Cambrian sandstones of the Baltic sedimentary basin were determined by oxygen and carbon stable isotope and chemical data in combination with optical and cathodoluminescence petrographic studies. Studied samples represent a range in present...... burial depth from 340 to 2150 m. The carbonate cement is dominantly ferroan dolomite that occurs as dispersed patches of poikilotopic crystals. Temperatures of dolomite precipitation, based on delta O-18 values, range from 27 degrees C in the shallow buried to 95 degrees C in the deep buried sandstones...

  2. Lack of inhibiting effect of oil emplacement on quartz cementation: Evidence from Cambrian reservoir sandstones, Paleozoic Baltic Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molenaar, Nicolaas; Cyziene, Jolanta; Sliaupa, Saulius

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the question of whether or not the presence of oil in sandstone inhibits quartz cementation and preserves porosity is still debated. Data from a number of Cambrian sandstone oil fields and dry fields have been studied to determine the effects of oil emplacement on quartz cementation. T...

  3. Estimation of porosity of Khewra sandstone of cambrian age by using helium porosimeter and its application in reservoir evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Bhatti, A.A.; Gillani, S.T.A.; Raza, A.

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of petrophysical properties of the rock formations played decisive role in all the processes of petroleum exploration. The Cambrian sequence is well established as reservoir rocks in the various parts of the world from where petroleum is being tapped. The Cambrian sequence has been encountered in the Potwar area and limited petroleum is being produced from the Adhi Oil Field. The Khewra Sandstone of the Cambrian sequence is outcropped in the Khewra Gorge, Salt Range Pakistan below an unconformity qf the Tobra Formation. For the assessment of porosity and reservoir characterization Helium Porosimeter has been used, six samples Qf the upper horizon were collected from various locations of the Khewra Gorge and the Khewra Choha Sadden Shah road side section; cores were prepared from these samples according to the instrument standard. The results of this study revealed that the upper horizon Qf the Khewra Sandstone Formation has good porosity ranging from 18.76% to 21.07%, porosity varied in different parts of the formation. These results are in good agreement with the internationally reported values for petroleum reservoir of the Cambrian sandstone. (author)

  4. Geochemical interpretation of the Precambrian basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone on Bornholm, Denmark: Implications for the weathering history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Yang, Tian; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj

    2017-08-01

    A geochemical study of the Precambrian basement granites from the Borggård borehole on Bornholm, Denmark, suggests that the granites were moderately weathered (Chemical Index of Alteration-CIA = 66-71) during subaerial exposure in a humid climate. The microcline is well preserved, whereas plagioclase was thoroughly altered to clay minerals (Plagioclase Index of Alteration-PIA = 93-99) which is likely due to its original Ca-rich composition. The primary Fe-Ti accessory minerals were oxidized to hematite and anatase. Evidence from REE distribution patterns and immobile element ratios, e.g. Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta, between the weathered basement granite from the Borggård borehole and regional granitoids on Bornholm, constrains the Svaneke Granite as the original basement lithology. A tau (τ) mass transport model (assuming immobile Ti) was applied to quantify the mass transfer during weathering of the basement granite. The results show a depletion of major elements in the following order: Na > Ca > Mg > Si; Al and Ti are immobile and stay constant; K shows sample dependent enrichment or depletion; Fe is slightly enriched. The Cambrian sandstone overlying the basement in the Borggård borehole, assigned to the Gadeby Member of the Nexø Formation, is feldspathic litharenite-litharenite in composition. Provenance indicators including (Gd/Yb)N, Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios and petrological features indicate that source material was derived from both weathered and fresh basement granite of intermediate composition. The Gadeby Member equivalents in Germany, the basal lower Cambrian Adlergrund Konglomerat Member (AKM) in the offshore G-14 well north of Rügen, and the approximately coeval Lubmin Sandstein Formation (LSF) from the Loissin-1 borehole, mainland Germany, must have been sourced from a basement with compositions comparable to the intermediate group of the regional granitoids on Bornholm. The source materials for the AKM (CIA = 71-72, PIA = 94-96), the Gadeby Member in the

  5. Depositional and diagenetic variability within the Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone: Implications for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.B.; Ochoa, R.I.; Wilkens, N.D.; Brophy, J.; Lovell, T.R.; Fischietto, N.; Medina, C.R.; Rupp, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone is the major target reservoir for ongoing geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations throughout the midwest United States. The potential CO2 reservoir capacity, reactivity, and ultimate fate of injected CO2 depend on textural and compositional properties determined by depositional and diagenetic histories that vary vertically and laterally across the formation. Effective and efficient prediction and use of the available pore space requires detailed knowledge of the depositional and diagenetic textures and mineralogy, how these variables control the petrophysical character of the reservoir, and how they vary spatially. Here, we summarize the reservoir characteristics of the Mount Simon Sandstone based on examination of geophysical logs, cores, cuttings, and analysis of more than 150 thin sections. These samples represent different parts of the formation and depth ranges of more than 9000 ft (>2743 m) across the Illinois Basin and surrounding areas. This work demonstrates that overall reservoir quality and, specifically, porosity do not exhibit a simple relationship with depth, but vary both laterally and with depth because of changes in the primary depositional facies, framework composition (i.e., feldspar concentration), and diverse diagenetic modifications. Diagenetic processes that have been significant in modifying the reservoir include formation of iron oxide grain coatings, chemical compaction, feldspar precipitation and dissolution, multiple generations of quartz overgrowth cementation, clay mineral precipitation, and iron oxide cementation. These variables provide important inputs for calculating CO2 capacity potential, modeling reactivity, and are also an important baseline for comparisons after CO2 injection. Copyright ??2011. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  6. Geochemical interpretation of the Precambrian basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone on Bornholm, Denmark: Implications for the weathering history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Yang, Tian

    2017-01-01

    show a depletion of major elements in the following order: Na N Ca N Mg N Si; Al and Ti are immobile and stay constant; K shows sample dependent enrichment or depletion; Fe is slightly enriched. The Cambrian sandstone overlying the basement in the Borggård borehole, assigned to the Gadeby Member...... but lost most of the plagioclase. The LSF has a comparable weathering history (CIA = 63–73), but the plagioclase is better preserved (PIA = 65–78). The significant variation of weathering rates of plagioclase and K-feldspar in the basement granite and the provenance of sandstone from the Borggård borehole...... are likely due to the different permeability developed within the internal crystal structures, a Ca- rich plagioclase original composition of the plagioclase, and the occurrence of weathering in a very humid climate. K metasomatism occurred in the basement granite and sandstone in both the Borggård and the G...

  7. Characterization of the Lower Cambrian sandstone aquifer in the Swedish Baltic Sea area - assessment regarding its potential suitability for storage of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlström, M.; Sivhed, U.

    2012-04-01

    In the Baltic region the Cambrian sandstone is considered to have great economic value concerning its aquifer and reservoir properties. Its potential as petroleum reservoir is well known, especially from the Polish, Lithuanian and Russian sectors of the Baltic Sea where oil and gas has been found in anticline traps in the sandstone sequence. Offshore exploration in the Swedish sector has so far not encountered any significant findings of oil and gas. However, the extensive exploration has generated data, which is now being used for assessing the overall properties regarding suitability for storage of CO2. The Swedish primary industry has a great interest in finding potential sites for storage of CO2. A suitable site in the Baltic Sea would be a most favourable alternative in comparison to more remote alternatives such as deep saline aquifers in the North Sea. The Lower Cambrian is in the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea composed of three main sandstone units varying in thickness between 5 and 50 m occurring within an up to 250 m thick Cambrian sequence dominated by fine-grained terriclastic sediments. The limit of Lower Palaeozoic sequence in the Baltic area is today defined by erosional truncation because of the gently dipping Lower Palaeozoic sequence. To the north and northwest, the limit is found in the Pre-Quaternary, whereas the erosional limit is deeply buried beneath Permian and Mesozoic sediments to the south. Here the Lower Palaeozoic limit is buried to depths reaching more than 2 km. The Cambrian sequence in the distal parts of the Swedish sector occurs at depths of c. 1300 m while it constitutes the bedrock surface in a narrow zone trending from Öland to the north of of Gotland. Sandstone beds constitute 40-60% of the total Cambrian sequence. The main sandstone units have a regional distribution of several thousands of square kilometres. The up to 50 m thick Faludden sandstone member exhibits the best reservoir properties including porosities in the

  8. The influence of climate on early and burial diagenesis of Triassic and Jurassic sandstones from the Norwegian – Danish Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weibel, Rikke; Olivarius, Mette; Kjøller, Claus

    2017-01-01

    Climate changes preserved in sandstones are documented by comparing the sediment composition and early diagenetic changes in sandstones deposited during arid to semi-arid conditions, the Skagerrak Formation, with sandstones of the Gassum Formation deposited in a humid well-vegetated environment...

  9. Formation and dissolution of zeolite during burial diagenesis - Examples from glauconitic sandstones in the Palaeogene Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Friis, Henrik; Svendsen, Johan B

    or diagenetic alteration of volcanic glass. Authigenic zeolites are uncommon constituents in most sandstones. However, authigenic zeolites are common in some of the glauconitic sandstones from the Siri Canyon, where it is generally associated with thick coatings of opal/microquartz on the detrital framework...... reflecting dissolution of an early phase with different chemical composition. In many samples, zeolites have been totally dissolved, leaving impression marks in the opal/microquartz coating. The textural relation demonstrates that zeolite was dissolved after microquartz precipitation. In most case...

  10. Diagenetic effect on permeabilities of geothermal sandstone reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weibel, Rikke; Olivarius, Mette; Kristensen, Lars

    The Danish subsurface contains abundant sedimentary deposits, which can be utilized for geothermal heating. The Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic continental-marine sandstones of the Gassum Formation has been utilised as a geothermal reservoir for the Thisted Geothermal Plant since 1984 extracting...... and permeability is caused by increased diagenetic changes of the sandstones due to increased burial depth and temperatures. Therefore, the highest water temperatures typically correspond with the lowest porosities and permeabilities. Especially the permeability is crucial for the performance of the geothermal......-line fractures. Continuous thin chlorite coatings results in less porosity- and permeability-reduction with burial than the general reduction with burial, unless carbonate cemented. Therefore, localities of sandstones characterized by these continuous chlorite coatings may represent fine geothermal reservoirs...

  11. Depositional Architecture of Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician Siliciclastic Barik Formation; Al Huqf Area, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Iftikhar Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    Early Paleozoic siliciclastics sediments of the Haima Supergroup are subdivided into a number of formations and members based on lithological characteristics of various rock sequences. One of the distinct sandstone sequence, the Barik Formation (Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician) of the Andam Group is a major deep gas reservoir in central Oman. The sandstone bodies are prospective reservoir rocks while thick shale and clay interbeds act as effective seal. Part of the Barik Formation (lower and middle part) is exposed in isolated outcrops in Al Huqf area as interbedded multistoried sandstone, and green and red shale. The sandstone bodies are up to 2 meters thick and can be traced laterally for 300 m to over 1 km. Most of sandstone bodies show both lateral and vertical stacking. Two types of sandstone lithofacies are identified on the basis of field characteristics; a plane-bedded sandstone lithofacies capping thick red and green color shale beds, and a cross-bedded sandstone lithofacies overlying the plane-bedded sandstone defining coarsening upward sequences. The plane-bedded sandstone at places contains Cruziana ichnofacies and bivalve fragments indicating deposition by shoreface processes. Thick cross-bedded sandstone is interpreted to be deposited by the fluvial dominated deltaic processes. Load-casts, climbing ripples and flaser-bedding in siltstone and red shale indicate influence of tidal processes at times during the deposition of the formation. This paper summarizes results of a study carried out in Al Huqf area outcrops to analyze the characteristics of the sandstone-body geometry, internal architecture, provenance and diagenetic changes in the lower and middle part of the formation. The study shows build-up of a delta complex and its progradation over a broad, low-angle shelf where fluvial processes operate beside shoreface processes in a vegetation free setting. Keywords: Andam Group, Barik Formation, Ordovician sandstone, Al Huqf, Central Oman,

  12. Origin of brackish groundwater in a sandstone aquifer on Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niels Oluf; Heinemeier, Jan

    2008-01-01

    A multi-isotope approach in combination with hydrochemical data and borehole logging is applied to identify the source of brackish groundwater in a borehole in the well field of Neksø Municipal Waterworks in Bornholm, Denmark. The aquifer lithology consists of fractured Lower Cambrian sandstones...

  13. Fe-oxide grain coatings support bacterial Fe-reducing metabolisms in 1.7-2.0 km-deep subsurface quartz arenite sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran eDong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cambrian-age Mt. Simon Sandstone, deeply buried within the Illinois Basin of the midcontinent of North America, contains quartz sand grains ubiquitously encrusted with iron-oxide cements and dissolved ferrous iron in pore-water. Although microbial iron reduction has previously been documented in the deep terrestrial subsurface, the potential for diagenetic mineral cementation to drive microbial activity has not been well studied. In this study, two subsurface formation water samples were collected at 1.72 and 2.02 km, respectively, from the Mt. Simon Sandstone in Decatur, Illinois. Low-diversity microbial communities were detected from both horizons and were dominated by Halanaerobiales of Phylum Firmicutes. Iron-reducing enrichment cultures fed with ferric citrate were successfully established using the formation water. Phylogenetic classification identified the enriched species to be related to Vulcanibacillus from the 1.72 km depth sample, while Orenia dominated the communities at 2.02 km of burial depth. Species-specific quantitative analyses of the enriched organisms in the microbial communities suggest that they are indigenous to the Mt. Simon Sandstone. Optimal iron reduction by the 1.72 km enrichment culture occurred at a temperature of 40oC (range 20 to 60oC and a salinity of 25 parts per thousand (range 25-75 ppt. This culture also mediated fermentation and nitrate reduction. In contrast, the 2.02 km enrichment culture exclusively utilized hydrogen and pyruvate as the electron donors for iron reduction, tolerated a wider range of salinities (25-200 ppt, and exhibited only minimal nitrate- and sulfate-reduction. In addition, the 2.02 km depth community actively reduces the more crystalline ferric iron minerals goethite and hematite. The results suggest evolutionary adaptation of the autochthonous microbial communities to the Mt. Simon Sandstone and carries potentially important implications for future utilization of this reservoir

  14. Arthropod pattern theory and Cambrian trilobites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundberg, Frederick A.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of duplomere (= segment) distribution within the cephalon, thorax, and pygidium of Cambrian trilobites was undertaken to determine if the Arthropod Pattern Theory (APT) proposed by Schram & Emerson (1991) applies to Cambrian trilobites. The boundary of the cephalon/thorax occurs within

  15. The Ecology of the Cambrian Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek E. G.

    The Cambrian radiation is one of the most exciting and controversial events in the fossil record. It was marked by a sudden abundance of shells, the first steep rise in plots of diversity through time, and the appearance of the fabulous soft-bodied fossils of the Burgess Shale in British Columbia and elsewhere in the world. The Cambrian radiation was also the subject of Steve Gould's Wonderful Life and Simon Conway Morris's Crucible of Creation.. The Ecology of the Cambrian Radiation is a long-awaited compilation that tackles one of the more impenetrable parts of the story. Interpretations of ecology are, after all, characteristically equivocal in rocks of this age.

  16. Field demonstration of improved shallow land burial practices for low-level radioactive solid wastes: preliminary site characterization and progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Huff, D.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Walls, E.C.

    1982-12-01

    A 5-year field demonstration (ETF) of improved shallow land burial practices for low-level radioactive solid wastes in a humid environment evaluates the use of a trench liner and grout as alternate trench treatments for improving shallow land burial site performance in the humid East. The ETF is located within the Copper Creek thrust block of the Valley and Ridge Province of east Tennessee and is underlain by strata of the Middle to Late Cambrian Conasauga Group. The Maryville Limestone formation, which is composed of ribbon-bedded and interclastic limestones and dark grey shales and mudstones, comprises the bedrock immediately beneath the site. The bedrock and residuum structure are characterized by anticlinal folds with numerous joints and fractures, some of which are filled with calcite. Seismic and electrical resistivity geophysical methods were useful in characterizing the thickness of residuum and presence of structural features. Soils are illitic and range from podzolic to lithosols to alluvial in the vicinity of the ETF, but the original soil solum was removed in 1975 when the mixed hardwood forest was cleared and the site was planted in grasses. The remaining residuum consists of acidic soil aggregate and extensively weathered siltstone and sandstone which exhibit the original rock structure. Mean annual precipitation at the site is 1500 mm, although during the initial study period (10-1-80 to 9-30-81) the annual total was 939 mm. Runoff was estimated to be about 50% of the precipitation total, based on observations at two Parshall flumes installed at the site. Storm runoff is quite responsive to rainfall, and the lag time between peak rainfall and runoff is less than 15 min during winter storms. Tracer studies of the ground-water system, suggest that ground-water flow has two distinct components, one associated with fracture flow and the other with intergranular flow

  17. Upper Cambrian (Furongian) biostratigraphy in Scandinavia revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj; Weidner, Thomas; Terfelt, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    The traditional Furongian trilobite biozones of Scandinavia, recently proposed abandoned due to inconsistent boundary definitions [Terfelt, F., Eriksson, M.E., Ahlberg, P. & Babcock, L.E., 2008: Furongian Series (Cambrian) biostratigraphy of Scandinavia – a revision. Norwegian Journal of Geology88...... the Protopeltura and Peltura superzones, respectively. Accordingly, all Furongian superzones have a uniform naming style referring to a characteristic genus. The six Furongian superzones currently comprise 27 trilobite zones. The Paradoxides forchhammeri Superzone (Cambrian Series 3) is extended upwards...

  18. Cambrian trilobites with Siberian affinities, southwestern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.R.; Egbert, R.M.; Sullivan, R.; Knoth, J.S.

    1985-02-01

    Cambrian trilobites occur in two levels (about 7 m apart) in the core of a large, complex anticlinal structure in the area between the Taylor Mountains and the Hoholitna River in southwestern Alaska. The lower collection contains Erbia, Macannaia (a species close to Soviet forms described as Pagetia ferox Lermontova), two species of Kootenia (including one perhaps cospecific with forms from the central Brooks range), and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. It is clear that biogeographic affinities are with the transitional facies of the eastern Siberian platform and the south Siberian foldbelt. In Soviet terms, the age of the collection falls in a disputed interval called latest Early Cambrian (Tojonian) by some authors, and earliest Middle Cambrian (Amgan) by others. In North American terms, Macannaia is known only from early Middle Cambrian beds. The younger collection contains abundant agnostids, a variety of conocoryphids, Paradoxides, and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. This is an assemblage of undoubted late Middle Cambrian age, comparable to faunas described from the Maya State of the Siberian platform and the Paradoxides paradoxissimus Stage of the Baltic region. Both faunas are from ocean-facing or outer shelf environments. None of the key non-agnostid or non-pagetiid elements have been seen previously in deposits of Cambrian North America.

  19. Uranium distribution and sandstone depositional environments: oligocene and upper Cretaceous sediments, Cheyenne basin, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nibbelink, K.A.; Ethridge, F.G.

    1984-01-01

    Wyoming-type roll-front uranium deposits occur in the Upper Cretaceous Laramie and Fox Hills sandstones in the Cheyenne basin of northeastern Colorado. The location, geometry, and trend of specific depositional environments of the Oligocene White River and the Upper Cretaceous Laramie and Fox Hills formations are important factors that control the distribution of uranium in these sandstones. The Fox Hills Sandstone consists of up to 450 ft (140 m) of nearshore marine wave-dominated delta and barrier island-tidal channel sandstones which overlie offshore deposits of the Pierre Shale and which are overlain by delta-plain and fluvial deposits of the Laramie Formation. Uranium, which probably originated from volcanic ash in the White River Formation, was transported by groundwater through the fluvial-channel deposits of the White River into the sandstones of the Laramie and Fox Hills formations where it was precipitated. Two favorable depositional settings for uranium mineralization in the Fox Hills Sandstone are: (1) the landward side of barrier-island deposits where barrier sandstones thin and interfinger with back-barrier organic mudstones, and (2) the intersection of barrier-island and tidal channel sandstones. In both settings, sandstones were probably reduced during early burial by diagenesis of contained and adjacent organic matter. The change in permeability trends between the depositional strike-oriented barrier sandstones and the dip-oriented tidal-channel sandstones provided sites for dispersed groundwater flow and, as demonstrated in similar settings in other depositional systems, sites for uranium mineralization

  20. Shallow land burial handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    The facility development phases (preliminary analysis, site selection, facility design and construction, facility operation, and facility closure/post-closure) are systematically integrated into a logical plan for developing near surface disposal plans. The Shallow Land Burial Handbook provides initial guidance and concepts for understanding the magnitude and the complexity of developing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

  1. Burial No. 67 of the Keliysky Burial Ground (Ingushetia Highlands)

    OpenAIRE

    Narozhny Evgeniy I; Narozhny Vitaliy E.

    2012-01-01

    Martial burial No, 67 from excavations of Keliyskiy burial ground in Ingushetia highlands is introduced into scientific use. The grave goods contained in the burial are quite traditional: a knife, arrowheads, belt buckles dating from the Golden Horde epoch. An iron helmet with a visor is a find standing apart. Helmets of the kind are similar not only to those found in burial sites of Ingushetia, but also to the helmets discovered in the burials of the Golden Horde nomads, which makes it possi...

  2. Cambrian-lower Middle Ordovician passive carbonate margin, southern Appalachians: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, J. Fred; Repetski, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The southern Appalachian part of the Cambrian–Ordovician passive margin succession of the great American carbonate bank extends from the Lower Cambrian to the lower Middle Ordovician, is as much as 3.5 km (2.2 mi) thick, and has long-term subsidence rates exceeding 5 cm (2 in.)/k.y. Subsiding depocenters separated by arches controlled sediment thickness. The succession consists of five supersequences, each of which contains several third-order sequences, and numerous meter-scale parasequences. Siliciclastic-prone supersequence 1 (Lower Cambrian Chilhowee Group fluvial rift clastics grading up into shelf siliciclastics) underlies the passive margin carbonates. Supersequence 2 consists of the Lower Cambrian Shady Dolomite–Rome-Waynesboro Formations. This is a shallowing-upward ramp succession of thinly bedded to nodular lime mudstones up into carbonate mud-mound facies, overlain by lowstand quartzose carbonates, and then a rimmed shelf succession capped by highly cyclic regressive carbonates and red beds (Rome-Waynesboro Formations). Foreslope facies include megabreccias, grainstone, and thin-bedded carbonate turbidites and deep-water rhythmites. Supersequence 3 rests on a major unconformity and consists of a Middle Cambrian differentiated rimmed shelf carbonate with highly cyclic facies (Elbrook Formation) extending in from the rim and passing via an oolitic ramp into a large structurally controlled intrashelf basin (Conasauga Shale). Filling of the intrashelf basin caused widespread deposition of thin quartz sandstones at the base of supersequence 4, overlain by widespread cyclic carbonates (Upper Cambrian lower Knox Group Copper Ridge Dolomite in the south; Conococheague Formation in the north). Supersequence 5 (Lower Ordovician upper Knox in the south; Lower to Middle Ordovician Beekmantown Group in the north) has a basal quartz sandstone-prone unit, overlain by cyclic ramp carbonates, that grade downdip into thrombolite grainstone and then storm

  3. Upper lower Cambrian (provisional Cambrian Series 2 trilobites from northwestern Gansu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bergström†

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Upper lower Cambrian (provisional Cambrian Series 2 trilobites are described from three sections through the Shuangyingshan Formation in the Beishan area, northwestern Gansu Province, China. The trilobite fauna is dominated by eodiscoid and corynexochid trilobites, together representing at least ten genera: Serrodiscus, Tannudiscus, Calodiscus, Pagetides, Kootenia, Edelsteinaspis, Ptarmiganoides?, Politinella, Dinesus and Subeia. Eleven species are described, of which seven are identified with previously described taxa and four described under open nomenclature. The composition of the fauna suggests biogeographic affinity with Siberian rather than Gondwanan trilobite faunas, and the Cambrian Series 2 faunas described herein and from elsewhere in northwestern China seem to be indicative of the marginal areas of the Siberian palaeocontinent. This suggests that the Middle Tianshan–Beishan Terrane may have been located fairly close to Siberia during middle–late Cambrian Epoch 2.

  4. The Steksovo II burial ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martianov Vladimir N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the results of many-years’ (1990-2010 excavations on the ancient Mordovian Steksovo II burial ground site. The burial ground had functioned in the 3rd to 13th centuries AD. The investigations revealed hundreds of burials, which enabled the researchers to judge upon the wealth of material items found and the variety of burial rites of the population that had formed the burial ground. The 1st millennium AD is characterized by bi-ritualism, while inhumation is characteristic of the 11-13th-century period; horses’ burials were also discovered. The data of the burial ground make it possible to modify the concept of the stages in ancient Mordovians ethnogenesis. It is generally attributed to the Erzya Mordvins, but in early burials the combination of the Erzya and Moksha ancientries is traced. Complexes of the items of crucial importance for the chronology of the burial are discussed in the article with a representation of statistical data characterizing funeral rites and traditions.

  5. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.; Davis, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    World-class sandstone-type uranium deposits are defined as epigenetic concentrations of uranium minerals occurring as uneven impregnations and minor massive replacements primarily in fluvial, lacustrine, and deltaic sandstone formations. The main purpose of this introductory paper is to define, classify, and introduce to the general geologic setting for sandstone-type uranium deposits

  6. Phanerozoic burial and exhumation history of southernmost Norway estimated from apatite fission-track analysis data and geological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Green, Paul F.; Bonow, Johan M.; Chalmers, James A.; Rasmussen, Erik S.

    2016-04-01

    We present new apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) data from 27 basement samples from Norway south of ~60°N. The data define three events of cooling and exhumation that overlap in time with events defined from AFTA in southern Sweden (Japsen et al. 2015). The samples cooled below palaeotemperatures of >100°C in a major episode of Triassic cooling as also reported by previous studies (Rohrman et al. 1995). Our study area is just south of the Hardangervidda where Cambrian sediments and Caledonian nappes are present. We thus infer that these palaeotemperatures reflect heating below a cover that accumulated during the Palaeozoic and Triassic. By Late Triassic, this cover had been removed from the Utsira High, off SW Norway, resulting in deep weathering of a granitic landscape (Fredin et al. 2014). Our samples were therefore at or close to the surface at this time. Palaeotemperatures reached ~80°C prior to a second phase of cooling and exhumation in the Jurassic, following a phase of Late Triassic - Jurassic burial. Upper Jurassic sandstones rest on basement near Bergen, NW of our study area (Fossen et al. 1997), and we infer that the Jurassic event led to complete removal of any remaining Phanerozoic cover in the region adjacent to the evolving rift system prior to Late Jurassic subsidence and burial. The data reveal a third phase of cooling in the early Miocene when samples that are now near sea level cooled below palaeotemperatures of ~60°C. For likely values of the palaeogeothermal gradient, such palaeotemperatures correspond to burial below rock columns that reach well above the present-day landscape where elevations rarely exceed 1 km above sea level. This implies that the present-day landscape was shaped by Neogene erosion. This is in agreement with the suggestion of Lidmar-Bergström et al. (2013) that the near-horizontal Palaeic surfaces of southern Norway are the result of Cenozoic erosion to sea level followed by uplift to their present elevations in a

  7. Hydrogeology of the Potsdam Sandstone in northern New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John H.; Reynolds, Richard J.; Franzi, David A.; Romanowicz, Edwin A.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    2010-01-01

    The Potsdam Sandstone of Cambrian age forms a transboundary aquifer that extends across northern New York and into southern Quebec. The Potsdam Sandstone is a gently dipping sequence of arkose, subarkose, and orthoquartzite that unconformably overlies Precambrian metamorphic bedrock. The Potsdam irregularly grades upward over a thickness of 450 m from a heterogeneous feldspathic and argillaceous rock to a homogeneous, quartz-rich and matrix-poor rock. The hydrogeological framework of the Potsdam Sandstone was investigated through an analysis of records from 1,500 wells and geophysical logs from 40 wells, and through compilation of GIS coverages of bedrock and surficial geology, examination of bedrock cores, and construction of hydrogeological sections. The upper several metres of the sandstone typically is weathered and fractured and, where saturated, readily transmits groundwater. Bedding-related fractures in the sandstone commonly form sub-horizontal flow zones of relatively high transmissivity. The vertical distribution of sub-horizontal flow zones is variable; spacings of less than 10 m are common. Transmissivity of individual flow zones may be more than 100 m2/d but typically is less than 10 m2/d. High angle fractures, including joints and faults, locally provide vertical hydraulic connection between flow zones. Hydraulic head gradients in the aquifer commonly are downward; a laterally extensive series of sub-horizontal flow zones serve as drains for the groundwater flow system. Vertical hydraulic head differences between shallow and deep flow zones range from 1 m to more than 20 m. The maximum head differences are in recharge areas upgradient from the area where the Chateauguay and Chazy Rivers, and their tributaries, have cut into till and bedrock. Till overlies the sandstone in much of the study area; its thickness is generally greatest in the western part, where it may exceed 50 m. A discontinuous belt of bedrock pavements stripped of glacial drift extends

  8. Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di-Ying; Chen, Jun-Yuan; Vannier, Jean; Saiz Salinas, J I

    2004-08-22

    We report the discovery of sipunculan worms from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan Shale, near Kunming (southwest China). Their sipunculan identity is evidenced by the general morphology of the animals (sausage-shaped body with a slender retractable introvert and a wider trunk) and by other features, both external (e.g. perioral crown of tentacles, and hooks, papillae and wrinkle rings on the body surface) and internal (U-shaped gut, and the anus opening near the introvert-trunk junction). The three fossil forms (Archaeogolfingia caudata gen. et sp. nov., Cambrosipunculus tentaculatus gen. et sp. nov. and Cambrosipunculus sp.) have striking similarities to modern sipunculans, especially the Golfingiidae to which their evolutionary relationships are discussed. This study suggests that most typical features of extant sipunculans have undergone only limited changes since the Early Cambrian, thus indicating a possible evolutionary stasis over the past 520 Myr.

  9. Uranium isotopes distinguish two geochemically distinct stages during the later Cambrian SPICE event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Boyle, Richard A.; Canfield, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    . Here we report high-precision uranium isotopic data in marine carbonates deposited during the Late Cambrian 'SPICE' event, at ca. 499 Ma, documenting a well-defined -0.18‰ negative δ238U excursion that occurs at the onset of the SPICE event's positive δ13C and δ34S excursions, but peaks (and tails off......) before them. Dynamic modelling shows that the different response of the U reservoir cannot be attributed solely to differences in residence times or reservoir sizes - suggesting that two chemically distinct ocean states occurred within the SPICE event. The first ocean stage involved a global expansion...... depletion in the oceans (Gill et al., 2011). We discuss scenarios for how an interval of elevated pyrite and organic carbon burial could have been sustained without widespread euxinia in the water column (both non-sulfidic anoxia and/or a more oxygenated ocean state are possibilities). Either way, the SPICE...

  10. Beads from Inhumation Rite Burials of Gnezdovo Burial Mound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrova Olga P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The beads from 33 inhumation burials at Gnezdovo burial mound are examined in the article. The beads (total 367 were crafted from stretched tube (258, stretched stick (3, winding (45, press molding (2 pcs., welding (2 pcs., and mosaic beads (9 pcs.. The burial mound contains virtually no broken beads, including the settlement's most common yellow glass beads. Besides glass beads, cornelian, crystal, amber and faience beads have been registered among the burial mound material, as well as beads crafted with metal. Apart from beads, grave inventories contained a series of pendants with a bead strung on a wire ring. The considered complexes contain five pendants of this type. Besides Gnezdovo, similar pendants have been discovered in Kiev, Timerev, Pskov and Vladimir barrows. A comparison between bead sets from Gnezdovo and Kiev burial mounds allows to conclude that the general composition and occurrence frequency of beads is identical for these burials. At the same time, beads crafted with rock crystal, cornelian and metal are more frequently discovered in Kiev inhumations.

  11. Cambrian rivers and floodplains: the significance of microbial cementation, groundwater and aeolian sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesink, A. J. H.; Best, J.; Freiburg, J. T.; Nathan, W.

    2016-12-01

    Rivers that existed before land plants colonized the Earth are commonly considered to be unaffected by microbial activity on their floodplains, because the limited cementation produced by microbial activity is insufficient to stabilize the river banks. Although this assumption is likely correct, such emphasis on channel dynamics ignores the potential role of floodplain dynamics as an integral component of the river system. Detailed analysis of cores from the Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone, Illinois, suggests that a significant proportion of the terrestrial sequence is composed of flat-bedded `crinkly' structures that provide evidence of cementation by soil crusts and microbial biofilms, and that promoted the adhesion of sediment to sticky surfaces. Wind ripples and local desert pavements were abundant. These findings highlight that sediment deposition on Cambrian floodplains was often dominated by wind in locations where the ground water table reached the surface, and was thus likely independent of sediment transport within the river channel. Erosion by wind would thus have been hindered by surface cementation and the formation of desert pavements. Such ground water control on deposition, and resistance to erosion by floodplain surface hardening, appear to have been the primary controls on Cambrian floodplain topography. Because floodplain topography poses a key control on channel and floodplain flow, these processes may have affected patterns of erosion and deposition, as well as reach-scale dynamics such as channel avulsions. The autonomous operation of wind-and-groundwater controlled floodplains makes pre-vegetated river systems more sensitive to climatic conditions such as precipitation and evaporation, and strikingly different from those that occurred after the development of land plants.

  12. Isotopic investigation of the late neoproterozoic and early cambrian carbon cycle on the northern Yangtze platform, south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Qingjun; Liu Congqiang; Harald Strauss; Tatiana Goldberg

    2003-01-01

    The Precambrian-Cambrian transition is one of the critical time intervals in Earth history. Profound geotectonic, climatic and biological changes occur during the late Neoproterozoic and its transition into the early Cambrian. This study has researched on paired carbonate and organic carbon isotope determinations from Nanjiang, Sichuan Province of the Yangtze Platform, and provided a preliminary geochemical explanation for environmental variations and bio-events observed on the northern Yangtze Platform during the Precambrian-Cambrian transitional interval and their causal relationship. Organic carbon isotopic compositions on sediments vary from -35.8 to -30.1‰ at Nanjiang section; carbonate carbon isotopic compositions change between -3.5 and +0.5‰. Various carbon and sulphur isotopic compositions, different pyrite and organic matter content reflect changing environment and burial of organic matter in the Dengying Fm., the lower and upper part of Niutitang Fm. Anoxic conditions result in widespread preservation of organic rich sediments and pyrites in the black shales on the Yangtze Platform. (authors)

  13. Oxygen-isotope trends and seawater temperature changes across the Late Cambrian Steptoean positive carbon-isotope excursion (SPICE event)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrick, M.; Rieboldt, S.; Saltzman, M.; McKay, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The globally recognized Late Cambrian Steptoean positive C-isotope excursion (SPICE) is characterized by a 3???-5??? positive ??13C shift spanning SPICE represents a widespread ocean anoxic event leading to enhanced burial/preservation of organic matter (Corg) and pyrite. We analyzed ??18O values of apatitic inarticulate brachiopods from three Upper Cambrian successions across Laurentia to evaluate paleotemperatures during the SPICE. ??18O values range from ~12.5??? to 16.5???. Estimated seawater temperatures associated with the SPICE are unreasonably warm, suggesting that the brachiopod ??18O values were altered during early diagenesis. Despite this, all three localities show similar trends with respect to the SPICE ??13C curve, suggesting that the brachiopod apatite preserves a record of relative ??18O and temperature changes. The trends include relatively high ??18O values at the onset of the SPICE, decreasing and lowest values during the main event, and an increase in values at the end of the event. The higher ??18O values during the global extinction at the onset of the SPICE suggests seawater cooling and supports earlier hypotheses of upwelling of cool waters onto the shallow shelf. Decreasing and low ??18O values coincident with the rising limb of the SPICE support the hypothesis that seawater warming and associated reduced thermohaline circulation rates contributed to decreased dissolved O2 concentrations, which enhanced the preservation/burial of Corg causing the positive ??13C shift. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  14. 78 FR 76574 - Burial Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ..., Congress' clear motivation was to make burial benefits ``easier to administer, i.e., through existing VA...'' means any action taken to honor the memory of a deceased individual. 38 CFR 38.600. 3.1701 Deceased...

  15. Late Cambrian - Early Ordovician turbidites of Gorny Altai (Russia): Compositions, sources, deposition settings, and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Nikolai N.; Kuibida, Yana V.; Shokalsky, Sergey P.; Kiselev, Vladimir I.; Gusev, Nikolay I.

    2018-06-01

    The Cambrian-Ordovician transition was the time of several key events in the history of Central Asia. They were the accretion of Mariana-type island arc systems to the Siberian continent, the related large-scale orogeny and intrusions of basaltic and granitic magma and the formation of a huge turbidite basin commensurate with the Bengal Gulf basin in the western part of the Central Asian orogenic belt (CAOB). The structure of the basin, as well as the sources and environments of deposition remain open to discussion. This paper presents new major- and trace-element data on Late-Cambrian-Early Ordovician turbidites from different parts of the Russian Altai and a synthesis of Nd isotope composition and ages of detrital zircons. The turbidites share chemical similarity with material shed from weathered continental arcs. Broad variations of CIA (39-73) and ICV (0.63-1.66) signatures in sandstones suggest origin from diverse sources and absence of significant sorting. Trace elements vary considerably and have generally similar patterns in rocks from different terranes. On the other hand, there are at least two provinces according to Nd isotope composition and age of detrital zircons. Samples from eastern Russian Altai contain only Phanerozoic zircons and have Nd isotope ratios similar to those in Early Cambrian island arcs (εNdt + 4.4… + 5.4; TNd(DM)-2-st = 0.8-0.9 Ga). Samples from central, western, and southern parts of Russian Altai contain Precambrian zircons (some as old as Late Archean) and have a less radiogenic Nd composition (εNdt up to -3.6; TNd(DM)-2-st up to 1.5 Ga). The chemical signatures of Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician turbidites indicate a provenance chemically more mature than the island arc rocks, and the presence of zircons with 510-490 Ma ages disproves their genetic relation with island arcs. The turbidite basin formed simultaneously with peaks of granitic and alkali-basaltic magmatism in the western Central Asian orogen and resulted from

  16. Sandstone Turning by Abrasive Waterjet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Petr; Cárach, J.; Hloch, Sergej; Vasilko, K.; Klichová, Dagmar; Klich, Jiří; Lehocká, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2015), s. 2489-2493 ISSN 0723-2632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : turning away from the jet * conventional turning towards the jet * sandstone * abrasive water jet Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 2.386, year: 2015 http://www.springerprofessional.de/sandstone-turning-by-abrasive-waterjet/6038028.html

  17. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, S.R.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Three overall factors are necessary for formation of uranium deposits in sandstone: a source of uranium, host rocks capable of transmitting uranium-bearing solutions, and a precipitant. Possible sources of uranium in sandstone-type deposits include groundwaters emanating from granitic highlands, arkosic sediments, tuffaceous material within or overlying the host rocks, connate fluids, and overlying black shales. The first three sources are considered the most likely. Host rocks are generally immature sandstones deposited in alluvial-fan, intermontane-basin or marginal-marine environments, but uranium deposits do occur in well-winnowed barrier-bar or eolian sands. Host rocks for uranium deposits generally show coefficients of permeability on the order of 1 to 100 gal/day/ft 2 . Precipitants are normally agents capable of reducing uranium from the uranyl to the uranous state. The association of uranium with organic matter is unequivocal; H 2 S, a powerful reductant, may have been present at the time of formation of some deposits but may go unnoticed today. Vanadium can serve to preserve the tabular characteristics of some deposits in the near-surface environment, but is considered an unlikely primary precipitant for uranium. Uranium deposits in sandstone are divided into two overall types: peneconcordant deposits, which occur in locally reducing environments in otherwise oxidized sandstones; and roll-type deposits, which occur at the margin of an area where an oxidized groundwater has permeated an otherwise reduced sandstone. Uranium deposits are further broken down into four subclasses; these are described

  18. Ichnology of the Early Cambrian Tal Group, Mussoorie Syncline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33, General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun 248 001, India. ∗ ... Mussoorie Syncline, being one of the five synclines, exposes the Cambrian ... Belt of Lesser Himalaya is represented by the Tal. Group.

  19. The oldest brachiopods from the lower cambrian of South Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topper, Timothy Paul; Holmer, Lars E.; Skovsted, Christian B.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology and organophosphatic shell structure of the paterinate brachiopod Askepasma is documented using new and previously collected specimens from the lower Cambrian of South Australia. Lack of adequately preserved material has seen the majority of paterinate specimens previously reported...... from South Australia referred to the genus Askepasma and treated under open nomenclature. Large collections of paterinates from the lower Cambrian Wilkawillina, Ajax, and Wirrapowie limestones in the Arrowie Basin, South Australia have prompted redescription of the type species Askepasma toddense...... and the erection of a new species, Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. currently represents the oldest known brachiopod from the lower Cambrian successions in South Australia with a FAD in pre-trilobitic (Terreneuvian, Cambrian Stage 2, lower Atdabanian) strata in the basal part...

  20. Textiles from Scythian burial complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fialko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Northern Black Sea steppes were excavated more than three thousand Scythian burial mounds. In the studied burials were discovered large quantities of artifacts, but leather and textile items are preserved only in a few cases. Some ideas about Scythian costume are found in the works of Greek authors. In this regard, extremely important is the funerary complex dated with the 4th century BC, discovered in barrow Vishnevaja Moghila (Zaporizhia region, Ukraine. In the crypt, which remained undisturbed over time, was found a burial of a Scythian girl. The unique condition of preservation of the textiles and leather findings allowed reconstructing the entire costume of the Scythian. It consisted of six layers of clothing. Various pieces of clothing were made from different materials: white linen cloth, orange satin fabric, reddish-brown fur, black cloth, fur, red skin. This discovery is one of a kind in the Northern Black Sea region, which is currently a reference example of female costume of early nomads of the region.

  1. Stratigraphic framework of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in the central Appalachian Basin from Medina County, Ohio, through southwestern and south-central Pennsylvania to Hampshire County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Harris, Anita G.; Repetski, John E.; revised and digitized by Crangle, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    are identified by the following descriptive names: (1) sandstone, shale, limestone, and dolomite unit, (2) dolomite and sandstone unit, (3) limestone and black shale unit, and (4) shale and sandstone unit. Each of these units and their associated subunits thicken from west to east across the restored section to a maximum near the depositional axis of the Rome trough and then thin eastward to the end of the section. The sandstone, shale, limestone, and dolomite unit is largely confined to the asymmetric graben that marks the initial phase of the Rome trough. This unit is Early and Middle Cambrian in age and consists, in ascending order, of a basal sandstone unit (undrilled but probably present), the Tomstown Dolomite (undrilled but probably present), the Waynesboro Formation, and the Pleasant Hill Limestone and its equivalent lower one-third of the Elbrook Formation at the eastern end of the section. The dolomite and sandstone unit forms the core of the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence. In the Rome trough and on the adjoining South-central Pennsylvania arch, this unit consists, in ascending order, of the Middle and Upper Cambrian Warrior Formation and the equivalent upper two-thirds of the Elbrook Formation at the eastern end of the section, the Upper Cambrian Gatesburg Formation, and the Lower Ordovician and Middle Ordovician (Whiterockian and Chazyan) Beekmantown Group. West of the Ohio-West Virginia hinge zone, the dolomite and sandstone unit consists, in ascending order, of the Conasauga Formation of Janssens (1973), the Krysik sandstone of driller's usage, the B zone of Calvert (1964), the Knox Dolomite and the associated Rose Run Sandstone Member, and the Wells Creek Formation. The widespread Knox unconformity is located at the base of the Wells Creek Formation and at or near the top of the adjoining Beekmantown Group, except near the depositional axis of the Rome trough, where the unconformity seems to be absent. The limestone and black shale unit i

  2. Cause of Cambrian Explosion - Terrestrial or Cosmic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Edward J; Al-Mufti, Shirwan; Augustyn, Kenneth A; Chandrajith, Rohana; Coghlan, John P; Coulson, S G; Ghosh, Sudipto; Gillman, Mark; Gorczynski, Reginald M; Klyce, Brig; Louis, Godfrey; Mahanama, Kithsiri; Oliver, Keith R; Padron, Julio; Qu, Jiangwen; Schuster, John A; Smith, W E; Snyder, Duane P; Steele, Julian A; Stewart, Brent J; Temple, Robert; Tokoro, Gensuke; Tout, Christopher A; Unzicker, Alexander; Wainwright, Milton; Wallis, Jamie; Wallis, Daryl H; Wallis, Max K; Wetherall, John; Wickramasinghe, D T; Wickramasinghe, J T; Wickramasinghe, N Chandra; Liu, Yongsheng

    2018-08-01

    We review the salient evidence consistent with or predicted by the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe (H-W) thesis of Cometary (Cosmic) Biology. Much of this physical and biological evidence is multifactorial. One particular focus are the recent studies which date the emergence of the complex retroviruses of vertebrate lines at or just before the Cambrian Explosion of ∼500 Ma. Such viruses are known to be plausibly associated with major evolutionary genomic processes. We believe this coincidence is not fortuitous but is consistent with a key prediction of H-W theory whereby major extinction-diversification evolutionary boundaries coincide with virus-bearing cometary-bolide bombardment events. A second focus is the remarkable evolution of intelligent complexity (Cephalopods) culminating in the emergence of the Octopus. A third focus concerns the micro-organism fossil evidence contained within meteorites as well as the detection in the upper atmosphere of apparent incoming life-bearing particles from space. In our view the totality of the multifactorial data and critical analyses assembled by Fred Hoyle, Chandra Wickramasinghe and their many colleagues since the 1960s leads to a very plausible conclusion - life may have been seeded here on Earth by life-bearing comets as soon as conditions on Earth allowed it to flourish (about or just before 4.1 Billion years ago); and living organisms such as space-resistant and space-hardy bacteria, viruses, more complex eukaryotic cells, fertilised ova and seeds have been continuously delivered ever since to Earth so being one important driver of further terrestrial evolution which has resulted in considerable genetic diversity and which has led to the emergence of mankind. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  4. Proterozoic and early Cambrian protists: evidence for accelerating evolutionary tempo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A. H.

    1994-01-01

    In rocks of late Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic age (ca. 1700-1000 million years ago), probable eukaryotic microfossils are widespread and well preserved, but assemblage and global diversities are low and turnover is slow. Near the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary (1000 million years ago), red, green, and chromophytic algae diversified; molecular phylogenies suggest that this was part of a broader radiation of "higher" eukaryotic phyla. Observed diversity levels for protistan microfossils increased significantly at this time, as did turnover rates. Coincident with the Cambrian radiation of marine invertebrates, protistan microfossils again doubled in diversity and rates of turnover increased by an order of magnitude. Evidently, the Cambrian diversification of animals strongly influenced evolutionary rates, within clades already present in marine communities, implying an important role for ecology in fueling a Cambrian explosion that extends across kingdoms.

  5. Early Cambrian oxygen minimum zone-like conditions at Chengjiang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammarlund, Emma U.; Gaines, Robert R.; Prokopenko, Maria G.

    2017-01-01

    in early Cambrian marine settings and the relationship of those conditions to early metazoan ecosystems is still emerging. Here, we report multi-proxy geochemical data from two drill cores through the early Cambrian (Series 2) Yu’anshan Formation of Yunnan, China. Results reveal dynamic water...... oxygen-minimum zones. The oxygenated benthic environments in which the Chengjiang biota thrived were proximal to, but sharply separated from, the open ocean by a persistent anoxic water mass that occupied a portion of the outer shelf. Oxygen depletion in the lower water column developed dynamically...

  6. Cambrian trace fossil Zoophycos from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doucek, J.; Mikuláš, Radek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 6 (2014), s. 403-409 ISSN 1335-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1521 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Cambrian * Bohemian Massif * Železné hory * ichnology * marine settings * Zoophycos Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.761, year: 2014

  7. Shallow-land-burial handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Davis, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    The initial draft of the Shallow-Land Burial Handbook has been prepared and submitted to the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for review and comment. The Handbook informs the reader of the current way in which low-level wastes are being handled, outlines the legal and institutional problems that would be involved in developing and licensing such a facility, and describes in some detail the considerations and data needs for siting, designing, operating, and closing such a facility. The initial draft is not a Handbook that provides answers to all questions, nor insures that following the steps detailed in the Handbook guarantees that the facility will be licensed. It does illustrate the types of actions that must be considered and the types of information required to achieve successful operations

  8. The Bahrain Burial Mound Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    2007-01-01

    the majority of burial mounds have been removed to make way for roads and housing, and in this process about 8000 mounds have been excavated; of these only c. 265 have been published. In 2006 the Bahrain Directorate for Culture & National Heritage and Moesgaard Museum decided on a collaborative project...... process of linking relevant information to the mounds have been initiated in the course of which excavation data of individual monument is being fed into a relational database. Our preliminary study of the digital maps of the mound cemeteries has revealed an abundance of interesting patterns...... that immediately gave rise to puzzling new questions that will direct the future explorations of the project. Of particular interest is a distinctive new type of elite monuments situated to the south of the so-called Royal Mounds in the centre of the island. The newly discovered type of mounds apparently reflect...

  9. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki J Hendrick

    Full Text Available The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura, the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus, showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa. With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally

  10. Proterozoic structure, cambrian rifting, and younger faulting as revealed by a regional seismic reflection network in the Southern Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.J.; Drahovzal, James A.; Sargent, M.L.; McBride, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Four high-quality seismic reflection profiles through the southern Illinois Basin, totaling 245 km in length, provide an excellent regional subsurface stratigraphic and structural framework for evaluation of seismic risk, hydrocarbon occurrence, and other regional geologic studies. These data provide extensive subsurface information on the geometry of the intersection of the Cambrian Reelfoot and Rough Creek rifts, on extensive Proterozoic reflection sequences, and on structures (including the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex and Hicks Dome) that underlie a transitional area between the well-defined New Madrid seismic zone (to the southwest) and a more diffuse area of seismicity in the southern Illinois Basin. Our principal interpretations from these data are listed here in order of geologic age, from oldest to youngest: 1. Prominent Proterozoic layering, possibly equivalent to Proterozoic (???1 Ga) Middle Run Formation clastic strata and underlying (1.3-1.5 Ga) volcanic rocks of the East Continent rift basin, has been strongly deformed, probably as part of the Grenville foreland fold and thrust belt. 2. A well-defined angular unconformity is seen in many places between Proterozoic and Cambrian strata; a post-Grenville Proterozoic sequence is also apparent locally, directly beneath the base of the Cambrian. 3. We infer a major reversal in Cambrian rift polarity (accommodation zone) in the Rough Creek Graben in western Kentucky. 4. Seismic facies analysis suggests the presence of basin-floor fan complexes at and near the base of the Cambrian interval and within parts of a Proterozoic post-Grenville sequence in several parts of the Rough Creek Graben. 5. There is an abrupt pinchout of the Mount Simon Sandstone against crystalline basement beneath the Dale Dome (near the Texaco no. 1 Cuppy well, Hamilton County) in southeastern Illinois, and a more gradual Mount Simon pinchout to the southeast. 6. Where crossed by the seismic reflection line in southeast Illinois, some

  11. The Late Cambrian SPICE (δ13C) event and the Sauk II-Sauk III regression: new evidence from Laurentian basins in Utah, Iowa, and Newfoundland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Matthew R.; Cowan, Clinton A.; Runkel, Anthony C.; Runnegar, Bruce; Stewart, Michael C.; Palmer, Allison R.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon isotope data from Upper Cambrian sections in three Laurentian basins in northern Utah, central Iowa, and western Newfoundland record a large positive ??13C excursion (SPICE event) of up to + 5???. Peak ??13C ratios are well dated by trilobite collections to the middle of the Steptoean Stage (Dunderbergia Zone) and occur during maximum regression associated with formation of the Sauk II-Sauk III subsequence boundary on the North American craton. Maximum regression was marked by an influx of quartz sand into carbonate-platform settings in all three widely separated basins. In northern Utah, this quartz sand formed a thick sequence known as the Worm Creek Quartzite, which marks a conspicuous interruption of carbonate deposition during the Middle to Late Cambrian in the region. In western Newfoundland, the thickness of the quartz sand unit is much reduced but still marks a brief shutdown of the carbonate factory that is unique to the Cambrian shelf succession of the area. In the central Iowa area of the cratonic interior, an upward-shallowing carbonate succession culminates in cross-stratified trilobite grainstones at the peak of the SPICE in Dunderbergia Zone time, and the lowest point on the relative-sea-level curve is associated with the occurrence of coarse quartz sand derived from the encroaching shoreface. Although it is difficult to determine precisely the departure from baseline ??13C that marks the beginning of the SPICE excursion in the stratigraphic successions analyzed, our results are consistent with a rise and subsequent fall in ??13C tracking a major regressive-transgressive event recorded across northern Laurentia. The correlation of a major ??13C excursion with regression is similar to that described for the Late Ordovician, for which the pattern has been attributed to either increased carbonate relative to terrigenous weathering rates as ice sheets covered up organic-matter-containing silicates at high latitudes or high productivity and organic

  12. Compilation and network analyses of cambrian food webs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Dunne

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A rich body of empirically grounded theory has developed about food webs--the networks of feeding relationships among species within habitats. However, detailed food-web data and analyses are lacking for ancient ecosystems, largely because of the low resolution of taxa coupled with uncertain and incomplete information about feeding interactions. These impediments appear insurmountable for most fossil assemblages; however, a few assemblages with excellent soft-body preservation across trophic levels are candidates for food-web data compilation and topological analysis. Here we present plausible, detailed food webs for the Chengjiang and Burgess Shale assemblages from the Cambrian Period. Analyses of degree distributions and other structural network properties, including sensitivity analyses of the effects of uncertainty associated with Cambrian diet designations, suggest that these early Paleozoic communities share remarkably similar topology with modern food webs. Observed regularities reflect a systematic dependence of structure on the numbers of taxa and links in a web. Most aspects of Cambrian food-web structure are well-characterized by a simple "niche model," which was developed for modern food webs and takes into account this scale dependence. However, a few aspects of topology differ between the ancient and recent webs: longer path lengths between species and more species in feeding loops in the earlier Chengjiang web, and higher variability in the number of links per species for both Cambrian webs. Our results are relatively insensitive to the exclusion of low-certainty or random links. The many similarities between Cambrian and recent food webs point toward surprisingly strong and enduring constraints on the organization of complex feeding interactions among metazoan species. The few differences could reflect a transition to more strongly integrated and constrained trophic organization within ecosystems following the rapid

  13. Compilation and network analyses of cambrian food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Jennifer A; Williams, Richard J; Martinez, Neo D; Wood, Rachel A; Erwin, Douglas H

    2008-04-29

    A rich body of empirically grounded theory has developed about food webs--the networks of feeding relationships among species within habitats. However, detailed food-web data and analyses are lacking for ancient ecosystems, largely because of the low resolution of taxa coupled with uncertain and incomplete information about feeding interactions. These impediments appear insurmountable for most fossil assemblages; however, a few assemblages with excellent soft-body preservation across trophic levels are candidates for food-web data compilation and topological analysis. Here we present plausible, detailed food webs for the Chengjiang and Burgess Shale assemblages from the Cambrian Period. Analyses of degree distributions and other structural network properties, including sensitivity analyses of the effects of uncertainty associated with Cambrian diet designations, suggest that these early Paleozoic communities share remarkably similar topology with modern food webs. Observed regularities reflect a systematic dependence of structure on the numbers of taxa and links in a web. Most aspects of Cambrian food-web structure are well-characterized by a simple "niche model," which was developed for modern food webs and takes into account this scale dependence. However, a few aspects of topology differ between the ancient and recent webs: longer path lengths between species and more species in feeding loops in the earlier Chengjiang web, and higher variability in the number of links per species for both Cambrian webs. Our results are relatively insensitive to the exclusion of low-certainty or random links. The many similarities between Cambrian and recent food webs point toward surprisingly strong and enduring constraints on the organization of complex feeding interactions among metazoan species. The few differences could reflect a transition to more strongly integrated and constrained trophic organization within ecosystems following the rapid diversification of species, body

  14. Burial container subsidence load stress calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veith, E.M.

    1995-11-01

    This document captures the supporting analyses conducted to determine if the LLCE (Long-Length Contaminated Equipment) burial containers are structurally adequate under different trench closure scenarios. The LLCE is equipment that was inside tank farm tanks

  15. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  16. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  17. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson

    2006-12-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities.

  18. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.S.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities

  19. Tropical shoreline ice in the late Cambrian: Implications for earth's climate between the Cambrian Explosion and the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Anthony C.; MacKey, T.J.; Cowan, Clinton A.; Fox, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Middle to late Cambrian time (ca. 513 to 488 Ma) is characterized by an unstable plateau in biodiversity, when depauperate shelf faunas suffered repeated extinctions. This poorly understood interval separates the Cambrian Explosion from the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event and is generally regarded as a time of sustained greenhouse conditions. We present evidence that suggests a drastically different climate during this enigmatic interval: Features indicative of meteoric ice are well preserved in late Cambrian equatorial beach deposits that correspond to one of the shelf extinction events. Thus, the middle to late Cambrian Earth was at least episodically cold and might best be considered a muted analogue to the environmental extremes that characterized the Proterozoic, even though cooling in the two periods may have occurred in response to different triggers. Such later Cambrian conditions may have significantly impacted evolution preceding the Ordovician radiation.

  20. Decommissioning and decontamination (burial ground stabilization) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The decommissioning and decontamination of retired Hanford facilities and the future use of surrounding landscapes require isolation of contaminated wastes from the biosphere. Burial ground stabilization studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of physical barriers for isolating contaminated wastes in shallow-land burial sites from plants and animals. This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of using a layer of loose rock between the waste and the surface soil covering to prevent both plant root and animal penetrations

  1. Oxygen, ecology, and the Cambrian radiation of animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Erik A.; Frieder, Christina A.; Raman, Akkur V.; Girguis, Peter R.; Levin, Lisa A.; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2013-08-01

    The Proterozoic-Cambrian transition records the appearance of essentially all animal body plans (phyla), yet to date no single hypothesis adequately explains both the timing of the event and the evident increase in diversity and disparity. Ecological triggers focused on escalatory predator-prey "arms races" can explain the evolutionary pattern but not its timing, whereas environmental triggers, particularly ocean/atmosphere oxygenation, do the reverse. Using modern oxygen minimum zones as an analog for Proterozoic oceans, we explore the effect of low oxygen levels on the feeding ecology of polychaetes, the dominant macrofaunal animals in deep-sea sediments. Here we show that low oxygen is clearly linked to low proportions of carnivores in a community and low diversity of carnivorous taxa, whereas higher oxygen levels support more complex food webs. The recognition of a physiological control on carnivory therefore links environmental triggers and ecological drivers, providing an integrated explanation for both the pattern and timing of Cambrian animal radiation.

  2. Early Cambrian pentamerous cubozoan embryos from South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extant cubozoans are voracious predators characterized by their square shape, four evenly spaced outstretched tentacles and well-developed eyes. A few cubozoan fossils are known from the Middle Cambrian Marjum Formation of Utah and the well-known Carboniferous Mazon Creek Formation of Illinois. Undisputed cubozoan fossils were previously unknown from the early Cambrian; by that time probably all representatives of the living marine phyla, especially those of basal animals, should have evolved. METHODS: Microscopic fossils were recovered from a phosphatic limestone in the Lower Cambrian Kuanchuanpu Formation of South China using traditional acetic-acid maceration. Seven of the pre-hatched pentamerous cubozoan embryos, each of which bears five pairs of subumbrellar tentacle buds, were analyzed in detail through computed microtomography (Micro-CT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM without coating. RESULTS: The figured microscopic fossils are unequivocal pre-hatching embryos based on their spherical fertilization envelope and the enclosed soft-tissue that has preserved key anatomical features arranged in perfect pentaradial symmetry, allowing detailed comparison with modern cnidarians, especially medusozoans. A combination of features, such as the claustrum, gonad-lamella, suspensorium and velarium suspended by the frenula, occur exclusively in the gastrovascular system of extant cubozoans, indicating a cubozoan affinity for these fossils. Additionally, the interior anatomy of these embryonic cubozoan fossils unprecedentedly exhibits the development of many new septum-derived lamellae and well-partitioned gastric pockets unknown in living cubozoans, implying that ancestral cubozoans had already evolved highly specialized structures displaying unexpected complexity at the dawn of the Cambrian. The well-developed endodermic lamellae and gastric pockets developed in the late embryonic stages of these cubozoan fossils are comparable with

  3. Genesis of early Cambrian phosphorite of Krol Belt, Lesser Himalaya

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazumdar, A.; Banerjee, D.M.

    depositional en- vironment. Similar shallow marine character for Late Vendian and Early Cambrian phosphorites have been recorded from Yangtze Basin (South China), Khub- shugul Basin (Mongolia), Karatau Basin (Kazakh- stan), Soltaniah Basin (Iran), Tal Basin.... This characteris- tic of microbial mats may enable them to bind the franco- lite microcrysts on their surfaces, giving rise to microbial laminations. The capacity of microbiota, viz. bacteria, fungi and cyanobacterial mat-forming microphytes to trap and bind...

  4. Cambrian and ordovician systems around the pacific basin (part 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Teiichi

    1987-10-25

    This report describes the history of the studies made about old rocks and Cambrian and Ordovician Systems in North America. In last century, development of the Pre-Canbrian stratigraphy and mineral resources was started in Canada, while the New York System was instituted in the middle and east areas of North America, and it was later correlated to the European sequence. Walcott who published many reports including the vental anatomy of trilobites made invaluable contribution on the study of Cambrian geology. The Cambro-Ordovician faunas which distributed in the Appalachian mountains and further westerly beyond the lower Mississipy river were related to the European ones. The systems in the Cordilleran geosyncline was also described. Stratigraphy in the western sites is followed on the Alaskan faunas in the north which were allied to the Siberian faunas and later to the Eastern Asiatic ones. Lastly, Circum-Pacific Cambro-Ordovician belt was taken up. The eastern side of the Circum-Pacific Cambrian belt belonged to Olenellian province, and the other side constituted the Redlichia province. (2 figs, 5 tabs, 101 refs)

  5. Lower Cambrian biogeography and the prehistory of early animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signor, P.W. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Biogeographic distributions of animals reflect the complex interplay of biological and physical processes acting over geological time. In particular, plate tectonics and the evolution of lineages within clades play fundamental roles in determining faunal distributions. Ranges expand through vicariant events or dispersal and contract through local and regional extinctions. Vicariance promotes the evolutionary divergence of closely related lineages. Viewed as historical phenomena, biogeographic distributions can be employed to infer prior tectonic and evolutionary events. For example, the existence of modern marine faunal provinces reflects the interaction of evolution and plate tectonics. The Proterozoic history of skeletogenous organisms (and their ancestors) is a contentious subject, with many authors arguing that skeletogenous clades have no significant prehistory before their appearance in the fossil record. The existence of trilobite provinces dominated by different suborders, for example, suggests the trilobites evolved and dispersed, or were separated by plate movement, and then evolved independently for an extended period prior to their appearance in the fossil record. Similar arguments can be applied to other groups. The paleobiogeographic distribution of organisms also provides useful insights into late Proterozoic and Early Cambrian paleogeography. The provincial distribution of Early Cambrian taxa suggests that the putative Proterozoic supercontinent, if it existed, began to separate well before the Early Cambrian. Separate provinces would not have evolved had the various plates remained united. Therefore, the dawn of the Phanerozoic could not have coincided with the breakup of the Proterozoic supercontinent.

  6. Armored kinorhynch-like scalidophoran animals from the early Cambrian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaqiao; Xiao, Shuhai; Liu, Yunhuan; Yuan, Xunlai; Wan, Bin; Muscente, A D; Shao, Tiequan; Gong, Hao; Cao, Guohua

    2015-11-26

    Morphology-based phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the Scalidophora (Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida) and Nematoida (Nematoda, Nematomorpha), together constituting the monophyletic Cycloneuralia that is the sister group of the Panarthropoda. Kinorhynchs are unique among living cycloneuralians in having a segmented body with repeated cuticular plates, longitudinal muscles, dorsoventral muscles, and ganglia. Molecular clock estimates suggest that kinorhynchs may have diverged in the Ediacaran Period. Remarkably, no kinorhynch fossils have been discovered, in sharp contrast to priapulids and loriciferans that are represented by numerous Cambrian fossils. Here we describe several early Cambrian (~535 million years old) kinorhynch-like fossils, including the new species Eokinorhynchus rarus and two unnamed but related forms. E. rarus has characteristic scalidophoran features, including an introvert with pentaradially arranged hollow scalids. Its trunk bears at least 20 annuli each consisting of numerous small rectangular plates, and is armored with five pairs of large and bilaterally placed sclerites. Its trunk annuli are reminiscent of the epidermis segments of kinorhynchs. A phylogenetic analysis resolves E. rarus as a stem-group kinorhynch. Thus, the fossil record confirms that all three scalidophoran phyla diverged no later than the Cambrian Period.

  7. A comparative assessment of the role of anoxia during the Cambrian SPICE event

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoy, M.; Gill, B. C.; Sperling, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Cambrian SPICE (Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion) is recognized as a major oceanographic event recorded in globally-distributed stratigraphic sections as positive isotopic excursions in marine carbonates (δ13Ccarb), organic matter (δ13Corg), sulfate (δ34SCAS) and pyrite (δ34Spy). A proposed mechanism for these observed isotopic trends is that a transient increase in the areal extent of anoxic conditions within the oceans fostered enhanced burial of organic carbon and pyrite. However, direct sedimentary (e.g., abundant black shale) and geochemical (e.g., redox proxy) evidence for such a shift is scant. While the antiquity of this event is likely responsible for loss of much of this evidence, through destruction by tectonic processes, a number of stratigraphic successions suitable for investigating this hypothesis exist. Here we explore the relationship between anoxia and the SPICE using previously published and novel data generated from core material from three sedimentary basins distributed along the margins of the Iapetus Ocean. The units studied are: the Nolichucky Formation of eastern Laurentia, the Alum Shale of Baltica, and the Outwoods Shale of Avalonia. Our iron speciation data indicate consistently oxic conditions prior to the SPICE along Laurentia, while Avalonia was oxic with intervals of anoxia, and Baltica was persistently anoxic. With the initiation of the SPICE, anoxic conditions intensified in Laurentia and Avalonia and continued to persist in Baltica. This redox shift was coupled with a sharp rise in δ34Spy at all three locations. Average total organic carbon (TOC) showed little change in relation to the SPICE at the Laurentia location ( 0.15 wt%), but showed an increase in conjunction with the excursion in both the Avalonia ( 1 to 1.5 wt%) and Baltica ( 8 to 12 wt%) sections. Large differences in nutrient availability and sedimentation rates are likely responsible for the between-site disparity in TOC, while overall, anoxia

  8. Shallow land burial technology: humid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Yeh, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    Applying engineered modifications to present shallow land burial (SLB) practices is one method of ensuring safe operation and improving overall disposal-site performance. Two such engineered modifications, trench lining and grouting, are being demonstrated and evaluated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Engineered Test Facility (ETF), using nine 28-m 3 experimental trenches containing compacted low-level waste (LLW). Concurrent to this field demonstration experiment, two finite-element hydrologic models have been developed to model water movement and solute transport at a waste disposal site. This paper covers progress made in these two areas during FY 1984. Though the economic analysis of the two trench treatments favored Hypalon lining (lining costs were 33% lower at this demonstration scale), results of field experiments examining waste hydrologic isolation favored the cement-bentonite grout treatment. Data from water pump-out and water pump-in tests, combined with observed intratrench water-level fluctuations, suggest that the original goal of constructing watertight liners in three experimental trenches was not achieved. In addition, trench-cover subsidence of approx. 2% of the total trench depth has been measured over two of the three lined trenches but has not occurred over any of the three grouted or three control (untreated) trenches. The evaluation of the two trench treatments is continuing. However, results indicate that the cement-bentonite treatment, implemented at a cost of $160/m 3 of grout, provides a degree of waste isolation not afforded by the lined and control trenches and should be considered for use at SLB sites with water-related problems. 11 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  9. Shallow Land Burial Technology - Humid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1983-01-01

    The Shallow Land Burial Technology - Humid Project is being conducted for the Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program with the objective of identifying and demonstrating improved technology for disposing of low-level solid waste in humid environments. Two improved disposal techniques are currently being evaluated using nine demonstration trenches at the Engineered Test Facility (ETF). The first is use of a cement-bentonite grout applied as a waste backfill material prior to trench closure and covering. The second is complete hydrologic isolation of waste by emplacement in a trench that is lined on all four sides, top and bottom using synthetic impermeable lining material. An economic analysis of the trench grouting and lining demonstration favored the trench lining operation ($1055/demonstration trench) over trench grouting ($1585/demonstration trench), with the cost differential becoming even greater (as much as a factor of 6 in favor of lining for typical ORNL trenches) as trench dimensions increase and trench volumes exceed those of the demonstration trenches. In addition to the evaluation of trench grouting and lining, major effort has centered on characterization of the ETF site. Though only a part of the overall study, characterization is an extremely important component of the site selection process; it is during these activities that potential problems, which may obviate the site from further consideration, are found. Characterization of the ETF has included studies of regional and site-specific geology, the physical and chemical properties of the soils in which the demonstration trenches are located, and hydrology of the small watershed of which the ETF is a part. 12 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  10. Regional diagenesis of sandstone in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansley, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    The author reports that early authigenic mineral assemblages and vitroclastic textures are very well preserved in upper sandstones of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. The distributions of the authigenic minerals were controlled, in part, by chemical gradients in a large saline, alkaline lake (Lake T'oo'dichi) that existed in late Morrison time. Sandstones on lake margins were cemented by smectite and silica, whereas sandstones nearer the lake center, in which waters were most saline and alkaline, were cemented by zeolites. Diagenetic alterations in sandstones were promoted by alkaline interstitial waters that emanated from adjacent fine-grained, tuffaceous lake beds. Metastable phases that precipitated first were replaced relatively quickly by more stable, ordered phases in the geochemically favorable environment of the closed basin setting. Elevation of temperatures above the geothermal gradient was proved by the influx of warm, deep-basin waters that locally modified early diagenetic assemblages during burial diagenesis. In organic- (and commonly also uranium ore-) bearing sandstones located primarily in the southern part of the basin, complex diagenetic assemblages resulted from water/rock reactions involving soluble organic complexes

  11. Antarctica, supercontinents and the palaeogeography of the Cambrian 'explosion'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, Ian

    2014-05-01

    Laurentia is bordered by latest Precambrian-Cambrian rifted margins and must therefore have been located within a Precambrian supercontinent. Geochronologic and geochemical evidence indicates that it was attached to parts of the East Antarctic craton within the Rodinian supercontinent in the late Mesoproterozoic. The Mawson craton of Antarctica rifted from the proto-Pacific margin of Laurentia during the Neooproterozoic, colliding with the present 'southern cone' of Laurentia at ~600 Ma along the Shackleton Range suture zone as Gondwana and Laurentia amalgamated to form the ephemeral Pannotia supercontinental assembly at the end of the Precambrian. The abrupt appearance of almost all animal phyla in the fossil record is often colloquially referred to as the Cambrian 'explosion' of life on Earth. It is also named 'Darwin's dilemma,' as he appreciated that this seemingly mysterious event posed a major problem for his theory of evolution by natural selection. It coincided with a time of major marine transgression over all the continents. Although the metazoan 'explosion' is now seen as more protracted than formerly recognized, it is still regarded one of the most critical events in the history of the biosphere. One of the most striking aspects of the earliest Cambrian fossils is geographic differentiation. In particular, the first benthic trilobite faunas on Laurentia, ancestral North America, and the newly amalgamated southern supercontinent of Gondwana are distinctly different. This has led to the suggestion of an unknown vicariant event intervening between an ancestral trilobite clade and higher members that are represented in the fossil record, possibly one related to the breakup of a supercontinent. Igneous rocks along the Panthalassic margin of Gondwana, including South America, southernmost Africa and the Ellsworth-Whitmore crustal block of Antarctica, and along the proto-Appalachian margin of Laurentia indicate that final separation of Laurentia from

  12. Relationship between the Neoproterozoic snowball Earth and Cambrian explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, S.; Yoshihara, A.; Isozaki, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Origin of snowball Earth has been debated in terms of greenhouse gas (e.g., Hoffman and Schrag), obliqueness of Earth's rotation axis (Williams, 1975), true polar wander (Evans, 2003), Galactic cosmic ray radiation (Shaviv and Veizer, 2003; Svensmark, 2006), or weakened geomagnetism (Maruyama and Yoshihara, 2003). A major difficulty for the greenhouse gas hypothesis is the on-off switch causing decrease and increase of appropriate amounts of CO2 by plume- and plate tectonics, and also in available amount of CO2 in atmosphere to be consistent with the observations. In contrast, the cosmic ray radiation models due to the star burst peaked at 2.5- 2.1 Ga and 1.4-0.8 Ga can explain on-off switch more easily than the greenhouse gas model. Cosmic ray radiations, however, must be modified by the geomagnetic intensity, fluctuating 150"% to cause the snowball Earth. Time difference between the Neoproterozoic snowball Earth and Cambrian explosion is as large as 250 millions years, and this refuses their direct close-relationship. Role of frequent mass extinctions, i.e., 8 times during 100 m.y. from 585 Ma to 488 Ma, during the Ediacaran and Cambrian, has been proposed (Zhu et al., 2007). This frequency is one order of magnitude higher compared to that in the post-Ordovician time. Yet, the Cambrian explosion cannot be explained by mass extinction which replaced the vacant niches shortly after the mass extinction and never created a new animal with a new body plan. A new model proposed herein is derived from weakened geomagnetism and resultant extensive cosmic radiation to alter gene and genome for a long period over advancement of low magnetic intensity and cosmic radiations (Svensmark, 2006) from 1.2-0.8Ga. As to the new body plans of animals, it took an appreciably long time to prepare all 34 genometypes before the apparent Cambrian explosion. Geochemically extreme conditions and widened shallow marine environment on continental shelf by the return-flow of sweater into

  13. Shallow land burial of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Rose, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    The authors discuss low-level, solid radioactive wastes buried in the ground since the startup of nuclear operations by the Manhattan Engineer District in the early 1940's. These operations were originally intended to be temporary so the primary consideration in locating land burial sites was their accessibility from the source of waste production. Early land-burial facilities were located on large reservations owned by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and operated by their prime contractors. Shallow land burial consists of excavating a trench or vault, emplacing the waste, minimizing void space within the disposal unit, and covering the waste with earth to control access to the waste. Problems encountered in the land-burial of radioactive wastes are classified into areas which relate to the environmental characteristics of the sites, waste characteristics, operational practices and control, and predictive capability. The most serious environmentally related problems involve water management. Water provides primary vehicle for both erosional processes, which affect the structural integrity of the waste trenches, and for the migration of radionuclides. Although there is consensus that the current level of off-site movement of radionuclides from operating burial grounds does not constitute an immediate health hazard, there is less certainty with respect to the ability of the facilities to provide long-term containment and isolation

  14. Migration of radionuclides following shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlet, J.; Golchert, N.W.

    1980-01-01

    A study of radionuclide migration was conducted at a facility used from 1944 to 1949 for the shallow land burial of radwaste produced during operations with two reactors and related nuclear research. It is situated in glacial drift 45 m thick. Underlying the drift is a generally level Silurian dolomite bedrock 60 m thick. The thickness of the drift decreases as the surface slopes downhill (north) until the dolomite reaches the surface and forms the bed of a river, 700 m to the north. This study was begun after tritiated water was detected in two picnic wells north of the facility, between the burial plot and the river. Surface and subsurface measurements indicate that tritium is migrating out of the burial site, but no other radionuclides have left the plot. The tritium concentrations decrease with distance from the plot. Tritium was found in the subsoil at all depths sampled, so the ground beneath and immediately around the plot contains tritium down to the dolomite aquifer. Time of travel of water from the burial plot to the nearest well is estimated to be 54 months. This would imply the peak concentration would reach the dolomite in about 35 years. By this time, 86% of the tritium would have disappeared by radioactive decay. The cyclical nature of the tritium content in the two wells implies that tritiated water is carried from the burial site by the spring rains when they recharge the groundwater supply

  15. Disparity, decimation and the Cambrian "explosion": comparison of early Cambrian and Present faunal communities with emphasis on velvet worms (Onychophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Monge-Nájera

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The controversy about a Cambrian "explosion" of morphological disparity (followed by decimation, cladogenesis and fossilization is of central importance for the history of life. This paper revisits the controversy (with emphasis in onychophorans, which include emblematic organisms such as Hallucigenia, presents new data about the Chengjiang (Cambrian of China faunal community and compares it and the Burgess Shale (Cambrian of Canada with an ecologically similar but modern tropical marine site where onychophorans are absent, and with a modern neotropical terrestrial onychophoran community. Biovolume was estimated from material collected in Costa Rica and morphometric measurements were made on enlarged images of fossils. Cambrian tropical mudflats were characterized by the adaptive radiation of two contrasting groups: the vagile arthropods and the sessile poriferans. Arthropods were later replaced as the dominant benthic taxon by polychaetes. Vagility and the exoskeleton may explain the success of arthropods from the Cambrian to the modern marine and terrestrial communities, both in population and biovolume. Food ecological displacement was apparent in the B. Shale, but not in Chengjiang or the terrestrial community. When only hard parts were preserved, marine and terrestrial fossil deposits of tropical origin are even less representative than deposits produced by temperate taxa, Chengjiang being an exception. Nutrient limitations might explain why deposit feeding is less important in terrestrial onychophoran communities, where carnivory, scavenging and omnivory (associated with high motility and life over the substrate became more important. Fossil morphometry supports the interpretation of "lobopod animals" as onychophorans, whose abundance in Chengjiang was equal to their abundance in modern communities. The extinction of marine onychophorans may reflect domination of the infaunal habitat by polychaetes. We conclude that (1 a mature ecological

  16. Preliminary hydrogeologic investigation of the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site, Fleming County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehner, Harold H.

    1979-01-01

    Burial trenches at the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site , Fleming County, Ky., cover an area of about 0.03 square mile, and are located on a plateau, about 300 to 400 feet above surrounding valleys. Although surface-water characteristics are known, little information is available regarding the ground-water hydrology of the Maxey Flats area. If transport of radionuclides from the burial site were to occur, water would probably be the principal mechanism of transport by natural means. Most base flow in streams around the burial site is from valley alluvium, and from the mantle of regolith, colluvium, and soil partially covering adjacent hills. Very little base flow is due to ground-water flow from bedrock. Most water in springs is from the mantle, rather than from bedrock. Rock units underlying the Maxey Flats area are, in descending order, the Nancy and Farmers Members of the Borden Formation, Sunbury, Bedford, and Ohio Shales, and upper part of the Crab Orchard Formation. These units are mostly shales, except for the Farmers Member, which is mostly sandstone. Total thickness of the rocks is about 320 feet. All radioactive wastes are buried in the Nancy Member. Most ground-water movement in bedrock probably occurs in fractures. The ground-water system at Maxey Flats is probably unconfined, and recharge occurs by (a) infiltration of rainfall into the mantle, and (b) vertical, unsaturated flow from the saturated regolith on hilltops to saturated zones in the Farmers Member and Ohio Shale. Data are insufficient to determine if saturated zones exist in other rock units. The upper part of the Crab Orchard Formation is probably a hydrologic boundary, with little ground-water flow through the formation. (USGS)

  17. Water budget for SRP burial ground area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, J.E.; Emslie, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide migration from the SRP burial ground for solid low-level waste has been studied extensively. Most of the buried radionuclides are fixed on the soil and show negligible movement. The major exception is tritium, which when leached from the waste by percolating rainfall, forms tritiated water and moves with the groundwater. The presence of tritium has been useful in tracing groundwater flow paths to outcrop. A subsurface tritium plume moving from the southwest corner of the burial ground toward an outcrop near Four Mile Creek has been defined. Groundwater movement is so slow that much of the tritium decays before reaching the outcrop. The burial ground tritium plume defined to date is virtually all in the uppermost sediment layer, the Barnwell Formation. The purpose of the study reported in this memorandum was to investigate the hypothesis that deeper flow paths, capable of carrying substantial amounts of tritium, may exist in the vicinity of the burial ground. As a first step in seeking deeper flow paths, a water budget was constructed for the burial ground site. The water budget, a materials balance used by hydrologists, is expressed in annual area inches of rainfall. Components of the water budget for the burial ground area were analyzed to determine whether significant flow paths may exist below the tan clay. Mean annual precipitation was estimated as 47 inches, with evapotranspiration, run-off, and groundwater recharge estimated as 30, 2, and 15 inches, respectively. These estimates, when combined with groundwater discharge data, suggest that 5 inches of the groundwater recharge flow above the tan clay and that 10 inches flow below the tan clay. Therefore, two-thirds of the groundwater recharge appears to follow flow paths that are deeper than those previously found. 13 references, 10 figures, 5 tables

  18. Diagenetic history of the Surma Group sandstones (Miocene) in the Surma Basin, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Julleh Jalalur; McCann, Tom

    2012-02-01

    This study examines the various diagenetic controls of the Miocene Surma Group sandstones encountered in petroleum exploration wells from the Surma Basin, which is situated in the northeastern part of the Bengal Basin, Bangladesh. The principal diagenetic minerals/cements in the Surma Group sandstones are Fe-carbonates (with Fe-calcite dominating), quartz overgrowths and authigenic clays (predominantly chlorite, illite-smectite and minor kaolin). The isotopic composition of the carbonate cement revealed a narrow range of δ 18O values (-10.3‰ to -12.4‰) and a wide range of δ 13C value (+1.4‰ to -23.1‰). The δ 13C VPDB and δ 18O VPDB values of the carbonate cements reveal that carbon was most likely derived from the thermal maturation of organic matter during burial, as well as from the dissolution of isolated carbonate clasts and precipitated from mixed marine-meteoric pore waters. The relationship between the intergranular volume (IGV) versus cement volume indicates that compaction played a more significant role than cementation in destroying the primary porosity. However, cementation also played a major role in drastically reducing porosity and permeability in sandstones with poikilotopic, pore-filling blocky cements formed in early to intermediate and deep burial areas. In addition to Fe-carbonate cements, various clay minerals including illite-smectite and chlorite occur as pore-filling and pore-lining authigenic phases. Significant secondary porosity has been generated at depths from 2500 m to 4728 m. The best reservoir rocks found at depths of 2500-3300 m are well sorted, relatively coarse grained; more loosely packed and better rounded sandstones having good porosities (20-30%) and high permeabilities (12-6000 mD). These good quality reservoir rocks are, however, not uniformly distributed and can be considered to be compartmentalized as a result of interbedding with sandstone layers of low to moderate porosities, low permeabilities owing to poor

  19. Moulting in the lobopodian Onychodictyon from the lower Cambrian of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topper, Timothy Paul; Skovsted, Christian B.; Peel, John S.

    2013-01-01

    A number of lobopodian taxa from the Cambrian display pairs of sclerotized plates symmetrically positioned along the dorsum of the animal, predominantly above the walking appendages. Most genera were described from complete body fossils exquisitely preserved in the famous Cambrian Lagerstatten, b...

  20. Rate type isotach compaction of consolidated sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, J.A. de; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Pruiksma, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on samples from a consolidated sandstone reservoir are presented that demonstrate rate type compaction behaviour similar to that observed on unconsolidated sands and soils. Such rate type behaviour can have large consequences for reservoir compaction, surface subsidence and

  1. Syn-rift unconformities punctuating the lower-middle Cambrian transition in the Atlas Rift, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ezzouhairi, Hassan; Clausen, Sébastien; Ribeiro, M. Luisa; Solá, Rita

    2015-04-01

    The Cambrian Tamdroust and Bab n'Ali Volcanic Complexes represent two magmatic episodes developed in the latest Ediacaran-Cambrian Atlas Rift of Morocco. Their rifting pulses were accompanied by accumulation of volcanosedimentary edifices (dominated by effusive lava flows in the former and explosive acidic aprons in the latter) associated with active tilting and uplift. Sealing of their peneplaned horst-and-graben palaeotopographies led to the onset of distinct onlapping geometries and angular discordances capping eroded basements ranging from the Ediacaran Ouarzazate Supergroup to the Cambrian Asrir Formation. Previous interpretations of these discordances as pull-apart or compressive events are revised here and reinterpreted in an extensional (rifting) context associated with active volcanism. The record of erosive unconformities, stratigraphic gaps, condensed beds and onlapping patterns across the traditional "lower-middle Cambrian" (or Cambrian Series 2-3) transition of the Atlas Rift must be taken into consideration for global chronostratigraphic correlation based on their trilobite content.

  2. Experimental strain analysis of Clarens Sandstone colonised by endolithic lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wessels

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Endolithic lichens occur commonly on Clarens Sandstone in South Africa, where they significantly contribute to the weathering of sandstone by means of mechanical and chemical weathering processes. This preliminary investigation reports on the success- ful use of strain gauges in detecting strain differences between sandstone without epilithic lichens and sandstone colonised by the euendolithic lichen Lecidea aff. sarcogynoides Korb. Mechanical weathering, expressed as strain changes, in Clarens Sandstone was studied during the transition from relatively dry winter to wet summer conditions. Daily weathering of sandstone due to thermal expansion and contraction of colonised and uncolonised sandstone could be shown. Our results show that liquid water in sandstone enhances the mechanical weathering of uncolonised Clarens Sandstone while water in the gaseous phase enhances mechanical weathering of sandstone by euendolithic lichens.

  3. Late Ediacaran-Cambrian structures and their reactivation during the Variscan and Alpine cycles in the Anti-Atlas (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulaimani, A.; Michard, A.; Ouanaimi, H.; Baidder, L.; Raddi, Y.; Saddiqi, O.; Rjimati, E. C.

    2014-10-01

    basement faults accommodate the Variscan shortening by strike-slip movement expressed by en echelon fold pattern in the overlying cover. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolution of the Anti-Atlas is again marked by the reactivation of the basement faults. During the Triassic, the Anti-Atlas belongs to the uplifted shoulder of the Atlasic-Atlantic rift zone. Remobilisations of paleofaults again play a significant role in the weak burial of the Anti-Atlas during the Late Cretaceous-Eocene before the Neogene exhumation related to the Africa-Europe collision. Hence the structural evolution of the Anti-Atlas during the Paleozoic to Present times has been heavily dependent on the fault pattern inherited from the Late Ediacaran-Cambrian rifting evolution at the northern fringe of the WAC, already deeply affected by the Pan-African orogeny.

  4. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  5. Cyclicity recorded in the provenance sandstones in the sedimentary in fill of the Cameros basin (N. Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Acebron, L.; Arribas, J.; Omodeo-Sale, S.; Arribas, E.; Le Pera, E.; Mas, R.; Lopez-Elorza, M.; Fernandez-Diaz, P. R.

    2013-06-01

    The intra plate Cameros rift basin in the north of Spain was formed came into being between the Tithonian and the Early Albian and contains 9 000 m of mostly continental sediments. This basin is a good example of cyclicity of different depositional sequences (DSs) in sedimentary environments, which show clear repetition in their sandstone composition (petrofacies) and diagenetic patterns. The DSs are arranged in two mega sequences (MSs) separated by a tectonic unconformity. A similar vertical sandstone compositional evolution, subdivided into two stages that repeat cyclically, has been recognised in both MSs: the first comprises quartzo-sedimentolithic petrofacies and the second is made up of several quartzo-feldspathic petrofacies. This was caused by a progression from the recycling of the pre-rift sedimentary cover to the erosion of the mainly plutonic and metamorphic crystalline basement. These changes in the erosion of the different source areas were conditioned by the tectonics of the basin. Furthermore, the original sandstone framework composition conditioned the diagenetic pattern of the two stages: quartzo-sedimentolithic sandstones containing large amounts of very pervasive carbonate cement that reduce their original porosity considerably, and quartzo-feldspathic petrofacies with a rigid framework that maintained the original pores during burial diagenesis. This compositional and diagenetic pattern is probably applicable to other non-volcanic rifted basins, depending upon the original amount of carbonate rock fragments present. (Author)

  6. Mass-production of Cambro-Ordovician quartz-rich sandstone as a consequence of chemical weathering of Pan-African terranes: Environmental implications [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avigad, D.; Sandler, A.; Kolodner, K.; Stern, R. J.; McWilliams, M.; Miller, N.; Beyth, M.

    2005-12-01

    A vast sheet of mature quartz sand blanketed north Africa and Arabia from the Atlantic coast to the Persian Gulf in Cambro-Ordovician times. U-Pb geochronology of a representative section of Cambrian sandstone in southern Israel shows that these sediments are dominated by 550-650 Ma detrital zircons derived from Neoproterozoic Pan-African basement. The short time lag between magmatic consolidation of a Pan-African source and deposition of its erosional products indicates that, despite their significant mineralogical maturity, the voluminous quartz-rich sandstones on the northern margin of Gondwana are essentially first-cycle sediments. Mass production of these voluminous first-cycle quartz-rich sandstones resulted from widespread chemical weathering of the Pan-African continental basement. We suggest that conditions favoring silicate weathering, particularly a warm and humid climate, low relief and low sedimentation rates prevailed over large tracts of Gondwana in the aftermath of the Pan-African orogeny. An unusually corrosive Cambro-Ordovician atmosphere and humid climate enhanced chemical weathering on the vegetation-free landscape. We infer that late Neoproterozoic-Cambro-Ordovician atmospheric pCO 2 rose as a consequence of widespread late Neoproterozoic volcanism, followed by an uptake of CO 2 by chemical weathering to produce the Cambro-Ordovician sandstone as a negative feedback.

  7. What classic greywacke (litharenite) can reveal about feldspar diagenesis: An example from Permian Rotliegend sandstone in Hessen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Nicolaas; Felder, Marita; Bär, Kristian; Götz, Annette E.

    2015-08-01

    Rotliegend siliciclastic sediments in southern Hessen (Germany) are a good example of dissolution of detrital feldspars, which is a common feature in many sandstones. Dissolution occurred after mechanical compaction of the lithic-rich sandstone, which experienced framework collapse with pores and pore connections filled and obstructed by deformed ductile lithic grains (pseudomatrix) thereby reducing pore space to microporosity., The advanced degree of compaction and reduced porosity caused low permeability and low hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass. This is further reduced by the presence of wackes and shales that occur intercalated with the sandstones. Feldspar dissolution thus took place in low permeable sediments when large-scale flow of meteoric or acidic fluids is ruled out as a cause of feldspar dissolution. Mineral precipitation (illite, kaolinite, and albite) took place within pseudomatrix and detrital matrix as well as in secondary pores created by feldspar dissolution. Feldspar was the source for the authigenesis. The system was thus closed during burial after framework collapse, and diagenetic reactants in the form of detrital components were already present within the system. The original mass was preserved, but redistributed and diagenetic minerals were the local sinks for the dissolved reactants, precipitating within the system. This also suggests that burial diagenesis in general might be more mass conservative than usually assumed. Rotliegend sandstones thus form a case where, despite of the lack of external exchange of mass by fluid flow, major diagenetic processes did take place and significantly modified the original mineralogy and texture. Feldspar diagenesis can take place from other processes than mere large-scale flushing of open systems as often supposed. It implies that the volumes of rock affected by feldspar diagenesis may be much larger than anticipated based upon the common hold believe that feldspar diagenesis is linked to

  8. Sequence stratigraphy of the Upper Cambrian (Furongian; Jiangshanian and Sunwaptan) Tunnel City Group, Upper Mississippi Valley: Transgressing assumptions of cratonic flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D.

    2014-01-01

    New data from detailed measured sections permit comprehensive analysis of the sequence framework of the Furongian (Upper Cambrian; Jiangshanian and Sunwaptan stages) Tunnel City Group (Lone Rock Formation and Mazomanie Formation) of Wisconsin and Minnesota. The sequence-stratigraphic architecture of the lower part of the Sunwaptan Stage at the base of the Tunnel City Group, at the contact between the Wonewoc Formation and Lone Rock Formation, records the first part of complex polyphase flooding (Sauk III) of the Laurentian craton, at a scale smaller than most events recorded by global sea-level curves. Flat-pebble conglomerate and glauconite document transgressive ravinement and development of a condensed section when creation of accommodation exceeded its consumption by sedimentation. Thinly-bedded, fossiliferous sandstone represents the most distal setting during earliest highstand. Subsequent deposition of sandstone characterized by hummocky or trough cross-stratification records progradational pulses of shallower, storm- and wave-dominated environments across the craton before final flooding of Sauk III commenced with carbonate deposition during the middle part of the Sunwaptan Stage. Comparison of early Sunwaptan flooding of the inner Laurentian craton to published interpretations from other parts of North America suggests that Sauk III was not a single, long-term accommodation event as previously proposed.

  9. Thallium isotopes track fluctuations in global manganese oxide burial during the Ediacaran Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, C. M.; Nielsen, S.; Owens, J. D.; Jiang, G.; Planavsky, N.; Sahoo, S. K.; Zhang, F.; Lyons, T. W.; Anbar, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Complex marine ecosystems appear in the geologic record for the first time during the Ediacaran (635 - 541 Ma), after the Marinoan Glaciation but before the Cambrian Explosion. Much debate surrounds the redox-state of global oceans during this diversification, with some arguing for pervasive anoxic conditions and others for increased oxygenation, including the possibility of episodic oxygen increases. Here, we use thallium (Tl) isotopes preserved in organic-rich shales from a deep-water section at Wuhe, South China, to track large-scale perturbations in Mn oxide burial during the Ediacaran. Changes to the Tl isotope composition of seawater over geologic timescales are driven dominantly by fluctuations in global Mn oxide burial, which require persistent O2 at the sediment-water interface. Importantly, the suite of sedimentary rocks analyzed is thought to have been deposited beneath persistent localized euxinia, which is an environment shown to effectively capture the Tl isotope composition of seawater. Within samples previously suggested to host oceanic oxygenation episodes (OOEs) because of high redox-sensitive element (RSE) enrichments (Sahoo et al. 2016, Geobiology), we find Tl isotope values as light as -5 epsilon units, which are indicative of removal of heavy Tl by Mn oxides elsewhere in the Ediacaran ocean and in-line with the presence of deep-marine O2. Intriguingly, between these events, during periods previously viewed as dominantly anoxic, we find Tl isotope excursions to values that are even lighter than during the OOEs (less than -10 epsilon units). To first order, these results imply that an even larger Mn oxide sink was present between the OOEs, which would require pervasive oceanic oxygenation. This interpretation is in direct conflict with interpretations of low RSE enrichments in these same samples, which invoke reservoir drawdown due to widespread anoxia—as well as many other data that suggest dominantly anoxic deep marine conditions through the

  10. SRS Burial Ground Complex: Remediation in Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, M.; Crapse, B.; Cowan, S.

    1998-01-01

    Closure of the various areas in the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) represents a major step in the reduction of risk at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a significant investment of resources. The Burial Ground Complex occupies approximately 195 acres in the central section of the SRS. Approximately 160 acres of the BGC consists of hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites that require remediation. Of these source acres, one-third have been remediated while two-thirds are undergoing interim or final action. These restoration activities have been carried out in a safe and cost effective manner while minimizing impact to operating facilities. Successful completion of these activities is in large part due to the teamwork demonstrated by the Department of Energy, contractor/subcontractor personnel, and the regulatory agencies. The experience and knowledge gained from the closure of these large disposal facilities can be used to expedite closure of similar facilities

  11. Effect of temperature on sandstone permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Kjøller, Claus

    Hot water injection in geothermal sandstone aquifers is considered for seasonal energy storage in Denmark. However, an increase in the aquifer temperature might reduce permeability, and thereby increase production costs. An understanding of the factors that control permeability is required in order...... and the Klinkenberg procedure showed the expected correlation between the two measures, however, differences could be around one order of magnitude. In tight gas sandstones, permeability is often sensitive to net stress, which might change due to the pore pressure change in the Klinkenberg procedure. Besides...... affecting the Klinkenberg procedure, the combined effect of slip and changes in permeability would affect production during pressure depletion in tight gas sandstone reservoirs; therefore effects of gas slip and net stress on permeability were combined in a model based on the Klinkenberg equation. A lower...

  12. The disappearance of European smiths' burials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2015), s. 121-143 ISSN 0959-7743 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M300021203 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : elite * burial * forging tools * symbolic * ritual * prehistory * Early Middle Ages * Marxism-Leninism Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  13. Evaluation of burial ground soil covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    Solid radioactive waste burial at the Savannah River Plant between 1955 and 1972 filled a 76-acre site. Burial operations then were shifted to an adjacent site, and a program was begun to develop a land cover that would: (1) minimize soil erosion; and (2) protect the buried waste from deep-rooted plants, since radionuclides can be recycled by uptake through root systems. In anticipation of the need for a suitable soil cover, five grass species were planted on 20 plots (4 plots of each species) at the burial ground (Facility 643-G) in 1969. The grass plots were planted for evaluation of viability, root depth, and erosion protection existing under conditions of low fertility and minimum care. In addition, 16 different artificial soil covers were installed on 32 plots (each cover on two plots) to evaluate: (1) resistance of cover to deterioration from weathering; (2) resistance of cover to encroachment by deep-rooted plants; and (3) soil erosion protection provided by the cover. All test plots were observed and photographed in 1970 and in 1974. After both grass and artificial soil covers were tested five years, the following results were observed: Pensacola Bahia grass was the best of the five cover grasses tested; and fifteen of the sixteen artificial covers that were tested controlled vegetation growth and soil erosion. Photographs of the test plots will be retaken at five-year intervals for future documentation

  14. Clay squirt: Local flow dispersion in shale-bearing sandstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kanne; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Dispersion of elastic-wave velocity is common in sandstone and larger in shaly sandstone than in clean sandstone. Dispersion in fluid-saturated shaly sandstone often exceeds the level expected from the stress-dependent elastic moduli of dry sandstone. The large dispersion has been coined clay...... squirt and is proposed to originate from a pressure gradient between the clay microporosity and the effective porosity. We have formulated a simple model that quantifies the clay-squirt effect on bulk moduli of sandstone with homogeneously distributed shale laminae or dispersed shale. The model...... predictions were compared with the literature data. For sandstones with dispersed shale, agreement was found, whereas other sandstones have larger fluid-saturated bulk modulus, possibly due to partially load-bearing shales or heterogeneous shale distribution. The data that agree with the clay-squirt model...

  15. Petrography and geochemistry of Jurassic sandstones from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Periasamy

    On the basis of geochemical results, sandstones are classified into arkose, ..... Geochemical classification diagram of sandstone samples from the Jhuran Formation based on log(SiO2/Al2O3)– ..... 1993) showing single trend for the Jhuran.

  16. High-resolution 3D X-ray microtomography as tool to investigate size distribution of grain phase and pore space in sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Holzheid, Astrid

    2013-04-01

    The geometry and internal structures of sandstone reservoirs, like grain size, sorting, degree of bioturbation, and the history of the diagenetic alterations determine the quantity, flow rates, and recovery of hydrocarbons present in the pore space. In this respect, processes influencing the deep reservoir quality in sandstones are either of depositional, shallow diagenetic, or deep-burial origin. To assess the effect of compaction and cementation on the pore space during diagenesis, we investigated a set of sandstone samples using high-resolution microtomography (µ-CT). By high-resolution µ-CT, size distributions (in 2D and 3D), surface areas and volume fractions of the grain skeleton and pore space of sandstones and - in addition - of mineral powders have been determined. For this study, we analysed aliquots of sandstones that exhibit either complete, partial or no cemententation of the pore space, and sets of mineral powders (quartz, feldspar, calcite). As the resolution of the µ-CT scans is in the µm-range, the surface areas determined for sandstones and powders do detect the geometric surface of the material (Kahl & Holzheid, 2010). Since there are differing approaches to "size" parameters like e.g., long/short particle axes, area equivalent radius, Feret-diameter (2D), and structural thickness (3D), we decided to illustrate the effect of various size determinations for (a) single grains, (b) grain skeletons, and (c) pore space. Therefor, the computer-aided morphometric analysis of the segmented 3D models of the reconstructed scan images comprises versatile calculation algorithms. For example, size distribution of the pore space of partially cemented sandstones can be used to infer the timing of the formation of the cement in respect to tectonic/diagenetic activities. In the case of a late-stage partial cementation of a Bunter sandstone, both pore space and cement phase show identical size distributions. On the contrary, the anhydrite cement of a

  17. Reservoir characterization of the Mt. Simon Sandstone, Illinois Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Damico, J.; Leetaru, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    The integration of open hole well log analyses, core analyses and pressure transient analyses was used for reservoir characterization of the Mt. Simon sandstone. Characterization of the injection interval provides the basis for a geologic model to support the baseline MVA model, specify pressure design requirements of surface equipment, develop completion strategies, estimate injection rates, and project the CO2 plume distribution.The Cambrian-age Mt. Simon Sandstone overlies the Precambrian granite basement of the Illinois Basin. The Mt. Simon is relatively thick formation exceeding 800 meters in some areas of the Illinois Basin. In the deeper part of the basin where sequestration is likely to occur at depths exceeding 1000 m, horizontal core permeability ranges from less than 1 ?? 10-12 cm 2 to greater than 1 ?? 10-8 cm2. Well log and core porosity can be up to 30% in the basal Mt. Simon reservoir. For modeling purposes, reservoir characterization includes absolute horizontal and vertical permeability, effective porosity, net and gross thickness, and depth. For horizontal permeability, log porosity was correlated with core. The core porosity-permeability correlation was improved by using grain size as an indication of pore throat size. After numerous attempts to identify an appropriate log signature, the calculated cementation exponent from Archie's porosity and resistivity relationships was used to identify which porosity-permeability correlation to apply and a permeability log was made. Due to the relatively large thickness of the Mt. Simon, vertical permeability is an important attribute to understand the distribution of CO2 when the injection interval is in the lower part of the unit. Only core analyses and specifically designed pressure transient tests can yield vertical permeability. Many reservoir flow models show that 500-800 m from the injection well most of the CO2 migrates upward depending on the magnitude of the vertical permeability and CO2 injection

  18. A review of the Late Cambrian (Furongian) palaeogeography in the western Mediterranean region, NW Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ferretti, Annalisa; González-Gómez, Cristina; Serpagli, Enrico; Tortello, M. Franco; Vecoli, Marco; Vizcaïno, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    The Cambrian-Ordovician transition of the western Mediterranean region (NW Gondwana) is characterized by the record of major erosive unconformities with gaps that range from a chronostratigraphic stage to a series. The hiatii are diachronous and involved progressively younger strata along the Gondwanan margin, from SW (Morocco) to NE (Montagne Noire). They can be related to development of a multi-stage rifting (further North), currently connected to the opening of the Rheic Ocean, and concomitant erosion on southern rift shoulders. The platforms of this margin of Gondwana occupied temperate-water, mid latitudes and were dominated by siliciclastic sedimentation, while carbonate factories were only episodically active in the Montagne-Noire platform. The Upper Cambrian is devoid of significant gaps in the southern Montagne Noire and the Iberian Chains. There, the sedimentation took place in a transgressive-dominated depositional system, with common offshore deposits and clayey substrates, and was bracketed by two major regressive trends. The Late Cambrian is also associated with the record of volcanic activity ( e.g., in the Cantabrian and Ossa-Morena zones, and the northern Montagne Noire), and widespread development of a tectonic instability that led to the episodic establishment of palaeotopographies and record of slope-related facies associations. Several immigration events are recognized throughout the latest Middle Cambrian, Late Cambrian and Tremadocian. The trilobites show a stepwise replacement of Acado-Baltic-type families ( e.g., the conocoryphid-paradoxidid-solenopleurid assemblage) characterized by: (i) a late Languedocian (latest Middle Cambrian) co-occurrence of Middle Cambrian trilobite families with the first anomocarid, dorypygid and proasaphiscid invaders; (ii) a Late Cambrian immigration replacing previous faunas, composed of trilobites (aphelaspidids, catillicephalids, ceratopygids, damesellids, eulomids, idahoiids, linchakephalids, lisariids

  19. Syn-rift unconformities punctuating the lower-middle Cambrian transition in the Atlas Rift, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ezzouhairi, Hassan; Clausen, Sébastien; Ribeiro, Maria Luísa; Solá, Ana Rita

    2015-01-01

    The Cambrian Tamdroust and Bab n’Ali Volcanic Complexes represent two magmatic episodes developed in the latest Ediacaran–Cambrian Atlas Rift of Morocco. Their rifting pulses were accompanied by accumulation of volcanosedimentary edifices (dominated by effusive lava flows in the former and explosive acidic aprons in the latter) associated with active tilting and uplift. Sealing of their peneplaned horst-and-graben palaeotopographies led to the onset of distinct onlapping geometrie...

  20. The sedimentological characteristics of microbialites of the Cambrian in the vicinity of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Ye Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With oil and gas exploration transferring to deeper and more ancient marine strata, more researches have been conducted about the Meso–Neoproterozoic and Cambrian microbial carbonate rocks by petroleum geologists. The Cambrian deposits experienced the first transgression of the Paleozoic, with shallow marine facies depositing in most areas, which are favorable for different kinds of biological reproduction. The Lower Cambrian in Beijing area is lithologically dominated by purple red shales interbedded with limestones, the Middle Cambrian is mainly composed of thick oolitic limestones, and the Upper Cambrian consists of thin limestones and flat-pebble conglomerates. Two beds of microbial carbonate rocks were discovered in the Cambrian outcrops in the vicinity of Beijing. One is from the Zhangxia Formation of Middle Cambrian, and the other is from the Gushan Formation of Upper Cambrian. The microbialites are characterized by combination of multiple stromatolites forming different bioherms. The bioherms are mostly in oval shape and with different sizes, which are 3–4 m long, and 1–3 m high. The surrounding strata beneath the bioherms are oolitic limestones. A central core of flat-pebble conglomerates occurred within each bioherm. Wavy or columnar stromatolites grow on the basis of flat-pebble conglomerates, with dentate erosional surfaces. The bioherm carbonate rocks are interpreted as products from a deep ramp sedimentary environment where potential oil and gas reservoirs can be found. The analysis of sedimentological characteristics of bioherm carbonate rocks and its lithofacies palaeogeography has significant implication for petroleum exploration. Research on geological record of microbialites is beneficial to investigating the Earth evolution, biodiversity, palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimate change, as well as biological extinction event during geological transitions. It also gives warning to human beings of modern biological crisis.

  1. PALEOEVIRONMENT OF NIGERIA'S AJALI SANDSTONES: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ajali Sandstone is a major clastic formation of Campanian-Maastrichtian age occuring within the Anambra Basin, Southeastern Nigeria. ... The result is in line with earlier conclusions of fluvial or fluviodeltaic depositional environment based on analysis of faceis, sedimentary rock which are suitable for morphometrical ...

  2. Classification of burial rituals of the cemeteries without burial mounds in regions of the Tsarevskoe ancient settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedashkovsky Leonard F.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Article is dedicated to analysis of burial rituals of the Golden Horde cemeteries without burial mounds in surroundings of the Tsarevskoe ancient settlement. 51 burials (19.9% of total number in mausoleums or in crypts can be attributed as burials of the Golden Horde aristocracy. In the graves found without burial mounds the most wide-spread were of western, south-western and north-western (which could be considered as azimuth deviation from western orientations (they comprise 94.9% of all burials, which are peculiar to the majority of the urban Muslim population of the Golden Horde. However it must be considered that 56 from these burials (21.9% of total number are burials of necropolis of the population of Old Russian settlement of the Vodyanskoe site. Comparing the aristocratic (in mausoleums and crypts burials without burial mounds in the Lower Volga, it is possible conclude that their percentage was significantly higher in the region of the Tsarevskoe settlement, than in other regions; these data allow to assume here the greatest density of residence of settled elite of the Golden Horde. The smallest share of Muslim burials in coffins in the Lower Volga (44.9% and the maximal one of burials with grave goods (13.6% recorded in the region of the Tsarevskoe site. Burial grounds in the region of the Tsarevskoe ancient settlement were in vicinity of the settlements, that is clearly testified about the degree of territorial closeness of cemeteries of settled population of the Golden Horde with urban and rural settlements of the considered period.

  3. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-8 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-8 Burial Ground, also referred to as the Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 8, 318-8, and the Early Solid Waste Burial Ground. During its period of operation, the 618-8 site is speculated to have been used to bury uranium-contaminated waste derived from fuel manufacturing, and construction debris from the remodeling of the 313 Building

  4. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-3 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-3 Solid Waste Burial Ground, also referred to as Burial Ground Number 3 and the Dry Waste Burial Ground Number 3. During its period of operation, the 618-3 site was used to dispose of uranium-contaminated construction debris from the 311 Building and construction/demolition debris from remodeling of the 313, 303-J and 303-K Buildings

  5. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.; Anselm, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground. This burial ground, formerly called Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 1, was the original solid waste disposal site for the 100-F Area. Eight trenches contained miscellaneous solid waste from the 105-F Reactor and one trench contained solid waste from the biology facilities

  6. Shallow land burial - why or why not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Ledbetter, J.O.; Rohlich, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes a master's thesis on the state-of-the-art for shallow land burial of solid low-level radioactive wastes. The coverage of the thesis, which is condensed for this paper, ranges from site selection to problem case histories. Inherent in such coverage is the assessment of risk, the discussion of operational and management problems and the real significance of off-site migration. This topic is discussed in light of the stands taken that the migration is a serious problem and that it is not. Emphasis is on the engineering parameters of importance in site selection, and what pretreatment, if any, is needed

  7. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  8. Great Moravian burial grounds in Rajhrad and Rajhradice

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrychová, Soňa

    2015-01-01

    The diploma thesis presented deals with an overall assessment of the Great Moravian burial ground in Rajhrad (Brno- venkov), which was excavated in the years 1972 to 1976. The work is based on a catalogue of this burial ground and the neighbouring one in Rajhradice published by Čeněk Staňa. It follows individual aspects of funeral rites at a necropolis and evaluates the inventory of the graves. Based on the findings, the work dates the burial ground, compares with burial ground in Rajhradice ...

  9. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... children and step-children; an individual's brothers, sisters, parents, adoptive parents, and the spouses... are set aside for the burial arrangements of the eligible child's ineligible parent or parent's spouse... separation; i.e., a circumstance beyond an individual's control which makes conversion/separation impossible...

  10. New geochronologic and stratigraphic evidence confirms the paleocene age of the dinosaur-bearing ojo alamo sandstone and animas formation in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Dinosaur fossils are present in the Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone and Animas Formation in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and Colorado. Evidence for the Paleo-cene age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone includes palynologic and paleomagnetic data. Palynologic data indicate that the entire Ojo Alamo Sandstone, including the lower dinosaur-bearing part, is Paleocene in age. All of the palynomorph-productive rock samples collected from the Ojo Alamo Sandstone at multiple localities lacked Creta-ceous index palynomorphs (except for rare, reworked specimens) and produced Paleocene index palynomorphs. Paleocene palynomorphs have been identified strati-graphically below dinosaur fossils at two separate localities in the Ojo Alamo Sand-stone in the central and southern parts of the basin. The Animas Formation in the Colorado part of the basin also contains dinosaur fossils, and its Paleocene age has been established based on fossil leaves and palynology. Magnetostratigraphy provides independent evidence for the Paleocene age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone and its dinosaur-bearing beds. Normal-polarity magnetochron C29n (early Paleocene) has been identified in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone at six localities in the southern part of the San Juan Basin. An assemblage of 34 skeletal elements from a single hadrosaur, found in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone in the southern San Juan Basin, provided conclusive evidence that this assemblage could not have been reworked from underlying Cretaceous strata. In addition, geochemical studies of 15 vertebrate bones from the Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone and 15 bone samples from the underlying Kirtland Formation of Late Creta-ceous (Campanian) age show that each sample suite contained distinctly different abundances of uranium and rare-earth elements, indicating that the bones were miner-alized in place soon after burial, and that none of the Paleocene dinosaur bones ana-lyzed had been reworked. ?? U.S. Geological Survey, Public Domain April 2009.

  11. Sedimentation and diagenesis at a Late Cambrian biomere extinction horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, K.A.; Miller, J.F.; Taylor, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The base of the Eurekia apopsis Subzone of the Saukia Zone, slightly below the present Cambrian-Ordovician boundary, has been interpreted as a biomere extinction crisis for trilobites and conodonts. This boundary can be recognized to within two centimeters in platform carbonates in Utah, Nevada, Texas, and Oklahoma. Regional stratigraphy in West Utah reveals that this extinction horizon occurs within a shoaling upward sequence in which sedimentation was predominantly episodic. Shallow subtidal sedimentation, producing bioturbated mixed-skeletal wackestones and graded intraclastic grainsupportstones (tempestites), shifted to peritidal sedimentation through the boundary interval and for the duration of the E. apopsis Subzone. Associated lithofacies include sponge-dominated thrombolite mounds with tidal channels, sublittoral stromatolite reefs, and a restricted marine lagoon. The base of the E. apopsis Subzone in West Utah is a sharp contact but is interpreted as neither a disconformity nor a surface of subaerial exposure. In Texas, this boundary is a planar disconformity between biosparites. The bed underlying this surface displays features that reflect wholesale aragonite dissolution followed by two stages of inferred meteroic phreatic cementation. The surface is well washed and provided a clean substrate for epitaxial cementation across the boundary. The overlying basal strata of the E. apopsis Subzone are cemented with marine phreatic non-ferroan calcite and contain faunas that are strikingly dissimilar to those below.

  12. Effects of reduction in porosity and permeability with depth on storage capacity and injectivity in deep saline aquifers: A case study from the Mount Simon Sandstone aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, C.R.; Rupp, J.A.; Barnes, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone is recognized as a deep saline reservoir that has significant potential for geological sequestration in the Midwestern region of the United States. Porosity and permeability values collected from core analyses in rocks from this formation and its lateral equivalents in Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, and Ohio indicate a predictable relationship with depth owing to a reduction in the pore structure due to the effects of compaction and/or cementation, primarily as quartz overgrowths. The regional trend of decreasing porosity with depth is described by the equation: ??(d)=16.36??e-0.00039*d, where ?? is the porosity and d is the depth in m. The decrease of porosity with depth generally holds true on a basinwide scale. Bearing in mind local variations in lithologic and petrophysical character within the Mount Simon Sandstone, the source data that were used to predict porosity were utilized to estimate the pore volume available within the reservoir that could potentially serve as storage space for injected CO2. The potential storage capacity estimated for the Mount Simon Sandstone in the study area, using efficiency factors of 1%, 5%, 10%, and 15%, is 23,680, 118,418, 236,832, and 355,242 million metric tons of CO2, respectively. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Radionuclide transport in sandstones with WIPP brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed, H.C.; Bazan, F.; Fontanilla, J.; Garrison, J.; Rego, J.; Winslow, A.M.

    1981-02-01

    Retardation factors (R) have been measured for the transport of 3 H, /sup 95m/Tc, and 85 Sr in WIPP brine using St. Peter, Berea, Kayenta, and San Felipe sandstone cores. If tritium is assumed to have R=1, /sup 95m/Tc has R=1.0 to 1.3 and therefore is essentially not retarded. Strontium-85 has R = 1.0 to 1.3 on St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta, but R=3 on San Felipe. This is attributed to sorption on the matrix material of San Felipe, which has 45 volume % matrix compared with 1 to 10 volume % for the others. Retardation factors (R/sub s/) for 85 Sr calculated from static sorption measurements are unity for all the sandstones. Therefore, the static and transport results for 85 Sr disagree in the case of San Felipe, but agree for St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta

  14. Performance of Different Acids on Sandstone Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zaman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Some of these reactions may result in formation damage. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. It is a mixture of hydrofluoric (HF and hydrochloric (HCl acids designed to dissolve clays and siliceous fines accumulated in the near-wellbore region. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50% to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid – Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF – 12% HCl. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results calculated are porosity, permeability, and FESEM Analysis and Strength tests. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  15. Dialectics of Burial and Teritoriality in Barclays Ayakoroma's A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is conceived to investigate the subjects of death, burial, pride and territorial supremacy in African drama with special focus on A Matter of Honour by Barclays Ayakoroma. The study becomes crucial because the question of burial and struggle over rights of possession of a corpse by two parties has become a ...

  16. Underwater Munitions Expert System to Predict Mobility and Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-14

    for predicting the location and possible burial of underwater munitions is required to advise site managers as they plan...that region above the given UXO relative density, which is defined as the UXO density divided by the sand grain density, ( nominally 2650 g...0.0 + 2.5*dsed ; % nominal bed roughness if no burial % (Potentially in future version, ripple height

  17. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake J Beaulieu

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams can increase watershed-scale N retention.

  18. Customary right to befitting burial: a jurisprudential appraisal of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These symbols reveal unique rights for the people's entitlement. Among the rights to which an African is entitled is the right to befitting burial/funerals. This right comes with it, certain duties and/or obligations. The aim of this paper is to deconstruct the elements of applicable burial customs with a view to demonstrating their ...

  19. Project TN-030: hydrogeology - ORNL radioactive waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Continuation of an effort started in 1980, the water-level and precipitation data collected during the early years of the project were compiled into a series of five basic data reports. Technical advice on the design of piezometers in Burial Ground 5 was provided, and their construction has been monitored. Field work has continued, principally in Burial Grounds 5 and 6

  20. URBAN STREAM BURIAL INCREASES WATERSHED-SCALE NITRATE EXPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial reduces the capacity of streams to remove nitrate (NO3-) from the water column by in...

  1. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation

  2. Cathodoluminescence characteristics of sandstone and the implications for sandstone type No. 512 uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaodong; Guan Taiyang

    1998-12-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) technique, as a special petrologic tool, has been applied to the studies of uranium hosted sandstone from No. 512 uranium deposit located in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Northwest China. The detrital grains including quartz, feldspar, debris and cements display distinguishing CL properties. The quartz grains mainly demonstrate brown and dark blue CL, feldspar grains demonstrate blue and bright blue CL, calcite cement displays bright yellow-orange and orange-red CL with significant CL zoning, while the debris, mud and sand cements have dark red CL, multicolor CL or non-luminescence. The characteristics of overgrowth, fracture healing, and the original contact relations of detrital grains appear much more significant with CL than that with conventional visual methods. Much more information can be contributed by CL technique to decipher the provenance area, to explain the cementation, consolidation and other diagenesis processes of sandstone. The CL technique also provides and efficient tool for identifying detrital grains and cements, and for more precisely estimating the proportions of various detrital grains and cement components in sandstone. The CL emission of uranium hosted sandstone revealed the existence of radiation-damage rims of quartz grains at the places with a little or no uranium minerals nearby, which may imply a uranium-leaching episode during the diagenesis of sandstone

  3. Neoproterozoic–Cambrian stratigraphic framework of the Anti-Atlas and Ouzellagh promontory (High Atlas), Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, Jose Javier; Benziane, Fouad; Thomas, Robert; Walsh, Gregory J.; Yazidi, Abdelaziz

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, great progress has been made in the geochronological, chrono- and chemostratigraphic control of the Neoproterozoic and Cambrian from the Anti-Atlas Ranges and the Ouzellagh promontory (High Atlas). As a result, the Neoproterozoic is lithostratigraphically subdivided into: (i) the Lkest-Taghdout Group (broadly interpreted at c. 800–690 Ma) representative of rift-to-passive margin conditions on the northern West African craton; (ii) the Iriri (c. 760–740 Ma), Bou Azzer (c. 762–697 Ma) and Saghro (c. 760?–610 Ma) groups, the overlying Anezi, Bou Salda, Dadès and Tiddiline formations localized in fault-grabens, and the Ouarzazate Supergroup (c. 615–548 Ma), which form a succession of volcanosedimentary complexes recording the onset of the Pan-African orogeny and its aftermath; and (iii) the Taroudant (the Ediacaran–Cambrian boundary lying in the Tifnout Member of the Adoudou Formation), Tata, Feijas Internes and Tabanite groups that have recorded development of the late Ediacaran–Cambrian Atlas Rift. Recent discussions of Moroccan strata to select new global GSSPs by the International Subcommissions on Ediacaran and Cambrian Stratigraphy have raised the stratigraphic interest in this region. A revised and updated stratigraphic framework is proposed here to assist the tasks of both subcommissions and to fuel future discussions focused on different geological aspects of the Neoproterozoic–Cambrian time span.

  4. Uprooting and burial of invasive alien plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollmann, Johannes Christian; Brink-Jensen, Kasper; Frandsen, Sally I.

    2011-01-01

    (Japanese Rose), an invasive shrub in north-western Europe with negative effects on coastal biodiversity. Two months after uprooting and burial in dunes of north-eastern Denmark, 89% of the 58 shrubs resprouted from roots and rhizomes; on average 41 resprouts per shrub. Resprout density was twice as high...... at former shrub margins compared with the center; resprouts were taller and originated from more superficial soil layers at the margin than in the center. Resprouting was negatively correlated with fragment depth, and no resprouts were observed from greater than 15 cm depth. The number of resprouts...... increased with fragment dry mass (0.5–168.5 g). After 18 months with harrowing the species was still resprouting, flowering, and fruiting, albeit with no difference between shrub margin and center. Resprouts were taller (26 cm) and coverage was higher (0–4%) after two compared with three times harrowing...

  5. Managing soil moisture on waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.E.; Ratzlaff, T.D.

    1991-11-01

    Shallow land burial is a common method of disposing of industrial, municipal, and low-level radioactive waste. The exclusion of water from buried wastes is a primary objective in designing and managing waste disposal sites. If wastes are not adequately isolated, water from precipitation may move through the landfill cover and into the wastes. The presence of water in the waste zone may promote the growth of plant roots to that depth and result in the transport of toxic materials to above-ground foliage. Furthermore, percolation of water through the waste zone may transport contaminants into ground water. This report presents results from a field study designed to assess the the potential for using vegetation to deplete soil moisture and prevent water from reaching buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Our results show that this approach may provide an economical means of limiting the intrusion of water on waste sites

  6. Burial of a Man-At-Arms in Kudash I Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazantseva Olga A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article features a comprehensive analysis of items discovered in male burial 160 of Kudash I burial ground – a unique source of materials for the research of interactions between the local and foreign population on the Middle Kama region in 3rd – 5th centuries A.D. The monument is located in Bardymsky district of Perm Krai. The complex of metal objects comprises a set of personal protective armament rarely discovered in the Kama region: an open-work helmet, a set of plate armour, a sword, a spear head, a knife and "crooked scythes". The article contains a description of the grave, its structure, morphology and classification of findings, as well as the results of an investigation of the manufacturing technology of the following armament and implements: sword, spear head, knife, and "crooked scythe" conducted using the metallographic method. It also features a graphical reconstruction of the warriors’s protective armament – the helmet. The authors determined counterparts of the grave complex discovered at archaeological sites in the Middle Kama region and the Altai Mountains. The apparel of the man-at-arms represents a unique set of protective and offensive armament. The armour of the deceased is complemented by an open-work ceremonial helmet with an aventail, which suggests that the grave belonged to a military commander. The date of burial was determined on the basis of artefact study results as late 4th – early 5th centuries A.D.

  7. The onset of the 'Ordovician Plankton Revolution' in the late Cambrian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Servais, Thomas; Perrier, Vincent; Danelian, Taniel

    2016-01-01

    Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion δ13Ccarb (SPICE) event in the late Cambrian (Paibian Stage, Furongian Series) has been related to a major increase in atmospheric O2 (from 10-18% to some 20 - 29%) and to increased oceanic nutrient availability. Here we analyze the diversification of the planktonic groups...... during the late Cambrian and Early Ordovician, in particular in relation to the SPICE event. Our analyses include the changing diversities of the phytoplankton (acritarchs), diverse groups of zooplankton (e.g., radiolarians, graptolites, chitinozoans) and the switch to a planktonic mode of life of fossil...... of the different planktonic organisms can be related directly to the SPICE event. However, a long term (10-20millionyears) oxygenation pulse related to the SPICE event might have fuelled the explosion of phytoplankton diversity observed in the latest Cambrian-Early Ordovician that led to completely modified...

  8. Arroyo del Soldado group: paleontology, dating and Vendian to Lower Cambrian, Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaucher, C.; Sprechmann, P.

    1998-01-01

    The fossil content of the Vendian to Lower Cambrian Arroyo del Soldado Group of the Nico Perez Terrane of Uruguay is analysed.Organic walled microfossils represented by acritarchs, eukariotic algae (sensu lato) and iron bacteria are recognized. An updated list of these microfossils is presented, which were are now reported in the Yerbal and Barriga Negra formations.Events of weutrphic conditions were reconstructed. The occurrence of Cloudina riemkeae, the earliest known metazoanwith a mineralized skeleton is communicated for the first time in Uruguay. The organic walled microfossils as well as Cloudina riemkeae are indicative of a Vendian age, whereas the trace fossils of the uppermost unit(Cerro Victoria) suggest the Early Cambrian. This would imply that the Group contains the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. The Arroyo del Soldado Group is correlated with the Jacadiga and Corunba Groups (Brasil) and the Nama Group (Namibia). (author)

  9. A normalised seawater strontium isotope curve. Possible implications for Neoproterozoic-Cambrian weathering rates and the further oxygenation of the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The strontium isotope composition of seawater is strongly influenced on geological time scales by changes in the rates of continental weathering relative to ocean crust alteration. However, the potential of the seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curve to trace globally integrated chemical weathering rates has not been fully realised because ocean 87 Sr/ 86 Sr is also influenced by the isotopic evolution of Sr sources to the ocean. A preliminary attempt is made here to normalise the seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curve to plausible trends in the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of the three major Sr sources: carbonate dissolution, silicate weathering and submarine hydrothermal exchange. The normalised curve highlights the Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic transition as a period of exceptionally high continental influence, indicating that this interval was characterised by a transient increase in global weathering rates and/or by the weathering of unusually radiogenic crustal rocks. Close correlation between the normalised 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curve, a published seawater δ 34 S curve and atmospheric pCO 2 models is used here to argue that elevated chemical weathering rates were a major contributing factor to the steep rise in seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr from 650 Ma to 500 Ma. Elevated weathering rates during the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian interval led to increased nutrient availability, organic burial and to the further oxygenation of Earth's surface environment. Use of normalised seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curves will, it is hoped, help to improve future geochemical models of Earth System dynamics. (orig.)

  10. INAA and petrological study of sandstones from the Angkor monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Kranda, K.; Soukal, L.; Novak, J.K.; Lang, M.; Poncar, J.; Krausova, I.; Cunin, O.

    2008-01-01

    We determined 35 major, minor and trace elements in sandstone samples taken from building blocks of 19 Angkor temples and from an old and a new quarry using INAA. We also characterized the sandstone samples with conventional microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. Using cluster analysis, we found no straightforward correlation between the chemical/petrological properties of the sandstones and a presumed period of individual temples construction. The poor correlation may result either from the inherent inhomogeneity of sandstone or just reflect the diversity of quarries that supplied building blocks for the construction of any particular temple. (author)

  11. The migration of uranium through sandstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.G.; Read, D.; Lawless, T.A.; Sims, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Three column experiments are described in which the migration of uranium through Clashach Sandstone was studied. A priori predictions of uranium migration in the experiments were made using an equilibrium chemical transport model. The experimental results showed that, even under oxidising conditions, the migration of uranium is strongly retarded owing to the affinity of uranium for mineral surfaces. For the relatively simple chemical system investigated, the chemical transport model was successful in predicting the migration of uranium and its distribution along the column. (author)

  12. Detrital zircons from samples of five Neo proterozoic sandstone units deposited on Uruguay and Argentina: about evolution of paleographic Rio de la Plata craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaucher, C.; Poire, D.G.; Pamoukaghlian, K.; Gomez Peral, L.; Finney, S.; Valencia, V.; Blanco, G.

    2007-01-01

    We report U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from samples of five Neoproterozoic sandstone units deposited on the Rio de la Plata Craton (RPC) in Uruguay and Argentina. Quartz-arenites of the Piedras de Afilar Formation show typical Transamazonian ages, with peaks at 2.00-2.07, 1.87 and 1.78 Ga. However, the most important zircon population is Mesoproterozoic, showing maxima at 1.49, 1.35, 1.25 and 1.0 Ga. Zircons recovered from two sandstone levels in the Arroyo del Soldado Group (Yerbal and Cerros San Francisco formations) are mostly Archean in age, with maxima at 3.2 and 2.7 Ga. Palaeoproterozoic zircons are also prominent in this unit, with peaks at 2.45 and 2.18, with the latter a typical Transamazonian age. Two samples from the Sierras Bayas Group in Tandilia (Argentina) show different age spectra. Sandstones of the Villa Monica Formation show a unimodal zircon population of Transamazonian age (peak at 2.13 Ga). Sandstones of the Cerro Largo Formation are characterized by a dominant Transamazonian zircon population (peaks at 2.15, 2.0 and 1.79), but also important Archean-lowermost Palaeoproterozoic (3.33, 2.99, 2.7, 2.47 Ga) and Mesoproterozoic peaks (1.55, 1.23 and 1.06). The abundance of Mesoproterozoic detrital zircons is surprising. A proto-Andean, Mesoproterozoic belt is suggested as the source of the Mesoproterozoic detritus. Archean rocks of the RPC crop out only in the Nico Perez Terrane in Uruguay, suggesting that the Nico Perez Terrane was much closer to Tandilia than it is today. The sinistral reactivation of the Sarandi del Yi Shear Zone in the Cambrian, as a result of tangential collision of the Cuchilla Dionisio-Pelotas Terrane, may explain this observations. The absence of Neoproterozoic zircons shows that the studied units were deposited in a stable continental margin opening to the East and South. These Neoproterozoic basins had obviously no contribution whatsoever from Brasiliano-Pan African belts, supporting the idea of Cambrian terrane

  13. About the problem of self-burial of radioactive wasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosachevskij, L.Ya.; Syui, L.S.

    1999-01-01

    Problem dealing with self-burial of finite thickness spherical container with radioactive waste into the melting rock was approached. The elaborated mathematical model in contrast to the available ones takes account of thermal losses in the hard rock and in the melting behind the container as well as, the back heat release at melting hardening. Calculation conducted for the particular case of self-burial into granite demonstrates that accounting of these factors increases essentially the maximum permissible radius when container remains in the solid state and decreases the rate of its burial [ru

  14. Sedimentary facies of the upper Cambrian (Furongian; Jiangshanian and Sunwaptan) Tunnel City Group, Upper Mississippi Valley: new insight on the old stormy debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D.

    2014-01-01

    New data from detailed measured sections permit a comprehensive revision of the sedimentary facies of the Furongian (upper Cambrian; Jiangshanian and Sunwaptan stages) Tunnel City Group (Lone Rock Formation and Mazomanie Formation) of Wisconsin and Minnesota. Heterogeneous sandstones, comprising seven lithofacies along a depositional transect from shoreface to transitional-offshore environments, record sedimentation in a storm-dominated, shallow-marine epicontinental sea. The origin of glauconite in the Birkmose Member and Reno Member of the Lone Rock Formation was unclear, but its formation and preserved distribution are linked to inferred depositional energy rather than just net sedimentation rate. Flat-pebble conglomerate, abundant in lower Paleozoic strata, was associated with the formation of a condensed section during cratonic flooding. Hummocky cross-stratification was a valuable tool used to infer depositional settings and relative paleobathymetry, and the model describing formation of this bedform is expanded to address flow types dominant during its genesis, in particular the importance of an early unidirectional component of combined flow. The depositional model developed here for the Lone Rock Formation and Mazomanie Formation is broadly applicable to other strata common to the early Paleozoic that document sedimentation along flooded cratonic interiors or shallow shelves.

  15. Modeling of Sediment Mechanics for Mine Burial Prediction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brandes, Horst

    2004-01-01

    Numerical model development and testing were carried out for the purpose of assessing the influence of seafloor liquefaction on the burial of mines in shallow water due to cyclic loading by surface water waves...

  16. Waste migration studies at the Savannah River Plant burial ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Oblath, S.B.; Hawkins, R.H.; Grant, M.W.; Hoeffner, S.L.; King, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste burial ground at the Savannah River Plant is a typical shallow-land-burial disposal site in a humid region. Studies of waste migration at this site provide generic data for designing other disposal facilities. A program of field, laboratory, and modeling studies for the SRP burial ground has been conducted for several years. Recent results of lysimeter tests, soil-water chemistry studies, and transport modeling are reported. The lysimeter experiments include ongoing tests with 40 lysimeters containing a variety of defense wastes, and recently concluded lysimeter tests with tritium and plutonium waste forms. The tritium lysimeter operated 12 years. In chemistry studies, measurements of soil-water distribution coefficients (K/sub d/) were concluded. Current emphasis is on identification of trace organic compounds in groundwater from the burial site. Development of the dose-to-man model was completed, and the computer code is available for routine use. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Carbonate rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age in the Lancaster quadrangle, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisler, Harold; Becher, Albert E.

    1968-01-01

    Detailed mapping has shown that the carbonate rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age in the Lancaster quadrangle, Pennsylvania, can be divided into 14 rock-stratigraphic units. These units are defined primarily by their relative proportions of limestone and dolomite. The oldest units, the Vintage, Kinzers, and Ledger Formations of Cambrian age, and the Conestoga Limestone of Ordovician age are retained in this report. The Zooks Corner Formation, of Cambrian age, a dolomite unit overlying the Ledger Dolomite, is named here for exposures along Conestoga Creek near the village of Zooks Corner. The Conococheague (Cambrian) and Beekmantown (Ordovician) Limestones, as mapped by earlier workers, have been elevated to group rank and subdivided into formations that are correlated with and named for geologic units in Lebanon and Berks Counties, Pa. These formations, from oldest to youngest, are the Buffalo Springs, Snitz Creek, Millbach, and Richland Formations of the Conococheague Group, and the Stonehenge, Bpler, and Ontelaunee Formations of the Beekmantown Group. The Annville and Myerstown Limestones, which are named for lithologically similar units in Dauphin and Lebanon Counties, Pa., overlie the Beekmantown Group in one small area in the quadrangle.

  18. Tritium in the burial ground of the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder, M.L.

    1993-06-01

    This memorandum reviews the available information on tritium-contaminated material discarded to burial grounds. Tritium was the first isotope studied because it represents the most immediate concern with regard to release to the environment. Substantial amounts of tritium are known to be present in the ground water underneath the area, and outcropping of this ground water in springs and seeps has been observed. The response to this release of tritium from the burial ground is a current concern. The amount of tritium emplaced in the burial ground facilities is very uncertain, however, some general conclusions can be made. In particular, most of the tritium buried is associated with spent equipment and other waste, rather than spent melts. Correspondingly, most of the tritium in the ground water seems to be associated with burials of this type, rather than the spent melts. Maps are presented showing the location of burials of tritiated waste by type, and the location of the largest individual burials according to COBRA records

  19. Problems of solidificated radioactive wastes burial into deep geological structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovskij, O.L.; Leonov, E.A.; Romadin, N.M.; Shishcits, I.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    Perspectives are noted of the radioactive wastes burial into deep geopogical structures. For these purposes it has been proposed to investigate severap types of rocks, which do not have intensive gas-generation when beeng heated; salt deposits and clays. Basing on the results of calculations it has been shown that the dimentions of zones of substantial deformations in the case of the high-level radioactive wastes burial to not exceed several hundreds of meters. Conclusion is made that in the case of choosing the proper geotogicat structure for burial and ir the case of inclusion in the structure of the burial site a zone of sanitary alienation, it is possible to isolate wastes safely for all the period of preservation. Preliminary demands have been formulated to geological structures and underground burial sites. As main tasks for optimizatiop of burial sited are considered: determination of necessary types, number and reliability of barriers which ensure isolation of wastes; to make prognoses of the stressed and deformed state of a geological massif on the influence of thermal field; investigation in changes of chemical and physical properties of rocks under heat, radiative and chemical influence; estimation of possible diffusion of radioactivity in a mountin massif; development of a rational mining-thechnological schemes of the burual of wastes of different types. A row of tasks in the farmeworks of this probtem are sotved successfutty. Some resutts are given of the theoretical investigations in determination of zones of distructions of rocks because of heat-load [ru

  20. Packaging design criteria modified fuel spacer burial box. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    Various Hanford facilities must transfer large radioactively contaminated items to burial/storage. Presently, there are eighteen Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (FSBBs) available on the Hanford Site for transport of such items. Previously, the FSBBS were transported from a rail car to the burial trench via a drag-off operation. To allow for the lifting of the boxes into the burial trench, it will be necessary to improve the packagings lifting attachments and provide structural reinforcement. Additional safety improvements to the packaging system will be provided by the addition of a positive closure system and package ventilation. FSBBs that are modified in such a manner are referred to as Modified Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (MFSBs). The criteria provided by this PDC will be used to demonstrate that the transfer of the MFSB will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by a package meeting offsite transportation requirements. This fulfills the onsite transportation safety requirements implemented in WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) will be prepared to evaluate the safety of the transfer operation. Approval of the SARP is required to authorize transfer. Criteria are also established to ensure burial requirements are met

  1. Examples from the 1.6 Ga Chorhat Sandstone, Vindhyan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper addresses macroscopic signatures of microbial mat-related structures within the 1.6 Ga-old Chorhat Sandstone of the Semri Group –the basal stratigraphic unit of the Vindhyan succession in Son valley.The Chorhat Sandstone broadly represents a prograding succession of three depositional facies ranging from ...

  2. Geothermal characteristics of Buntsandstein sandstone reservoir of Alsace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffen, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    The Buntsandstein, located in the Upper Rhine Graben, appears to be an easy target for geothermal exploitation, linking sandstone and clay with the regional thermal anomaly. This study aims at characterizing petrophysical characteristics of these sandstones as well as the fracturing affecting them, with the intention of providing a conceptual model of the formation which will act as guide for future exploitation. The sedimentary facies are composed by five petrographical facies (clean sandstones, sandstones with clayey coating, clay matrix sandstones, silicified sandstones and carbonated matrix sandstones) which split with variable proportions and control a part of petrophysical properties measured at matrix scale. The comparison between petrophysical data, macroscopic data from temperature gradient analysis, modelling data and fracturing, allows the building of a Buntsandstein Sandstones fluids circulation conceptual model. This analysis points the role of the damage zone of fault zones for fluids transfer at large scale, but also that of two sedimentary facies: marginal erg and Playa Lake. The analysis of different outcrops shows that the fracturing evolves according to the situation in the sedimentary pile and according to the situation in comparison with major tectonic accidents. (author) [fr

  3. INTRODUCTION Sandstone beds within Auchi locality are the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major framework composition is Q F L which classifies the sandstone as Quartz ... The grains are texturally immature as depicted by their subangular edges but mineralogically ..... Fig 6 : Vertical Section of Bioturbated Sandstone Lithofacies Showing Trace Fossils ..... on Water Quality and Planktonic Production in an.

  4. Sediment transport direction in fluviatile Karharbari sandstone, Giridih Basin, Bihar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, R C; Casshyap, S M

    1978-01-01

    The sandstone is pebbly, very coarse grained in the lower part, and coarse to medium grained in the upper part. Shale and coal respectively constitute 9 and 5% of the strata Small and large erosional channels and successive sets of large scale cross-bedding characterize the sandstone. Palaeo- currents reveal that the paleodrainage and sediment transport were dominantly directed from SSW to NNE.

  5. Sandstone landforms shaped by negative feedback between stress and erosion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Soukup, J.; Vaculíková, J.; Filippi, Michal; Schweigstillová, Jana; Mayo, A. L.; Mašín, D.; Kletetschka, Günther; Řihošek, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 8 (2014), s. 597-601 ISSN 1752-0894 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28040S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : sandstone * sandstone landsforms * stress * erosion Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 11.740, year: 2014

  6. Petrographic and geochemical analysis of the Givetian-Frasnian sandstones in the Kuh-e-Tizi section, southeastern Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, S. H.; Adabi, M. H.; Moussavi Harami, S. R.; Khosro Tehrani, K.

    2009-04-01

    The Givetian-Frasnian sandstones at the type section of Zarand Formation, sensu Wendt et al. (2002), unconformably overlie the Upper Cambrian Kuhbanan and underlie the Lower Carboniferous Hutk Formations respectively, in southeastern Central Iran. Petrographical data show that these sandstones are well-sorted and sub-angular to rounded grains quartzarenite. They are highly enriched in quartz, but poor in feldspar, lithic fragments and heavy minerals. Diagenetic features include physical and chemical compactions (straight, concavo-convex, sutured grain contacts and pressure solution of quartz grain), reduction of the pore space through rearrangements, and cementation (mostly silica, as quartz overgrowth). The provenance and tectonic setting of these sandstones have been interpreted using integrated petrographic and geochemical data. Petrographic analysis using standard methods (Basu et al., 1975; Dickinson et al., 1983) revealed that mono and poly-crystalline quartz grains have been derived from plutonic rocks of an interior cratonic setting. Elemental analysis and their ratios used for provenance studies (Th/Sc & La/Sc) which are similar to sediments derived from weathering of mostly felsic rocks (Amstrong-Altrin et al., 2004). Values representing chemical index of alteration (CIA) and the plagioclase index of alteration (PIA) range from 44.24 to 83.43, with an average of 69.96, and from 42.98 to 92.56, with an average of 75.8, respectively. However, most samples have values greater than 60, suggesting moderate to high weathering in the source area or during transportation prior to deposition. Major and trace element concentrations indicated a depositional setting in a passive continental margin, resembling those defined by Bhatia (1983), Bhatia & Crook (1986), Roser & Korsch (1986) and Kroonenberg (1994). Therefore, it can be concluded that these sandstones have been derived from stable cratonic setting. Refrences: Amstrong-Altrin, J.S., Lee, Y.I., Verma, S

  7. Hydrological modelling in sandstone rocks watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponížilová, Iva; Unucka, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The contribution is focused on the modelling of surface and subsurface runoff in the Ploučnice basin. The used rainfall-runoff model is HEC-HMS comprising of the method of SCS CN curves and a recession method. The geological subsurface consisting of sandstone is characterised by reduced surface runoff and, on the contrary, it contributes to subsurface runoff. The aim of this paper is comparison of the rate of influence of sandstone on reducing surface runoff. The recession method for subsurface runoff was used to determine the subsurface runoff. The HEC-HMS model allows semi- and fully distributed approaches to schematisation of the watershed and rainfall situations. To determine the volume of runoff the method of SCS CN curves is used, which results depend on hydrological conditions of the soils. The rainfall-runoff model assuming selection of so-called methods of event of the SCS-CN type is used to determine the hydrograph and peak flow rate based on simulation of surface runoff in precipitation exceeding the infiltration capacity of the soil. The recession method is used to solve the baseflow (subsurface) runoff. The method is based on the separation of hydrograph to direct runoff and subsurface or baseflow runoff. The study area for the simulation of runoff using the method of SCS CN curves to determine the hydrological transformation is the Ploučnice basin. The Ploučnice is a hydrologically significant river in the northern part of the Czech Republic, it is a right tributary of the Elbe river with a total basin area of 1.194 km2. The average value of CN curves for the Ploučnice basin is 72. The geological structure of the Ploučnice basin is predominantly formed by Mesozoic sandstone. Despite significant initial loss of rainfall the basin response to the causal rainfall was demonstrated by a rapid rise of the surface runoff from the watershed and reached culmination flow. Basically, only surface runoff occures in the catchment during the initial phase of

  8. Safety analysis of the Chernobyl accident origin decontamination waste burials in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skurat, V.V.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Myshkina, N.K.; Gvozdev, A.A.; Serebryanyj, G.Z.; Golikova, N.B.

    2002-01-01

    Potential dangerous of the decontamination waste burials was estimated by means of the generalized multicompartmental model. Characteristics of 24 the most large and unfavorable decontamination waste burials are shown and an estimate of their safety is given. The burial effect zones were determined (100-300 m). A reliability of the forecasting estimate of potential dangerous radioactive contamination of ground waters near the burials was checked on example of the Dudichi decontamination waste burial

  9. Biofacies evidence for Late Cambrian low-paleolatitude oceans, western United State and central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.E. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Cook, H.E. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Melnikova, L. (Palaeontological Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1991-02-01

    Biofacies that formed on carbonate platform-margin slopes adjacent to an early Paleozoic, low-paleolatitude paleoocean are contained in the Upper Cambrian Swarbrick Formation, Tyby Shale, and Upper Cambrian-lowest Ordovician Hales Limestone of the Hot Creek Range, Nevada, and the Upper Cambrian-lowest Ordovician part of the Shabakty Suite of the Malyi Karatau, southern Kazakhstan. These in-situ limestones formed in platform-margin slope and basin-plain environments. Shoal-water faunal assemblages occur in carbonate-turbidite and debris-flow deposits interbedded with in-situ deeper water assemblages of the submarine-fan facies. Abundant sponge spicules, geographically widespread benthic trilobites, and rare ostracodes occur in some of the in-situ beds. In contrast, the shoal-water platform environments were well oxygenated and contain mainly endemic trilobite assemblages. These biofacies characteristics support an interpretation that Late Cambrian oceans were poorly oxygenated, but not anoxic, below the surface mixing layer and that benthic trilobite faunas were widely distributed in response to the more-or-less continuous deep water, low-oxygen habitats. Elements of the Late Cambrian low-oxygen biofacies are widespread in the Tien Shan structural belt of China and the Soviet Union, in central and eastern China, and along the western margin of early Paleozoic North America. This facies distribution pattern defines the transition from low-paleolatitude, shoal-water carbonate platforms to open oceans which have since been destroyed by pre-Late Ordovician and pre-middle Paleozoic Paleotectonic activity.

  10. The Cambrian-Ordovician rocks of Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona, southwestern margin of North America (Laurentia): chapter 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Harris, Alta C.; Repetski, John E.; Derby, James R.; Fritz, R.D.; Longacre, S.A.; Morgan, W.A.; Sternbach, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cambrian and Ordovician shelf, platform, and basin rocks are present in Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona and were deposited on the southwestern continental margin of North America (Laurentia). Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in Sonora, Mexico, are mostly exposed in scattered outcrops in the northern half of the state. Their discontinuous nature results from extensive Quaternary and Tertiary surficial cover, from Tertiary and Mesozoic granitic batholiths in western Sonora, and from widespread Tertiary volcanic deposits in the Sierra Madre Occidental in eastern Sonora. Cambrian and Ordovician shelf rocks were deposited as part of the the southern miogeocline on the southwestern continental margin of North America.

  11. Relationship between characteristics of fan-delta sandstone bodies and in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Fengjun; Zhou Weixun; Guan Taiyang; Li Sitian

    2000-01-01

    Like normal deltas, fan-deltas are composed of three parts, i.e., fan-delta plain, fan-delta front and pre-fin-delta, In-situ leachable uranium deposits are commonly distributed along the margins of in-land basins. The author analyzes the possible relationship between the basic characteristics of fan-delta sandstone bodies and uranium mineralization. Two examples, e.g., the fan delta depositional systems in the eastern part of Jungger basin and the southern part of Yili basin, are given to illustrate the fan-delta vertical sequence and planar distribution of sedimentary facies. It has been pointed out that the braided channel sandstone bodies on delta plain, sub-aqueous distributional channel sandstone bodies and delta front sandstone bodies may be the favourable host rocks for in-situ leachable sandstone uranium deposits

  12. Colour origin of red sandstone beds within the Hüdai Formation (Early Cambrian), Aydıncık (Mersin), southern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KADİR, Muhsin EREN Selahattin

    2013-01-01

    A randomized complete block design field study with split plot arrangements was conducted during 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 at the Agronomic Research Station in Khanewal, Pakistan, to evaluate if seed priming could improve grain yield and water use efficiency of late-sown wheat under limited water supply conditions. Seeds of cultivar Inqlab-91 received one of the following treatments: they were soaked in aerated distilled water for 12 or 24 h (hydropriming), layered between moist gunny bags for ...

  13. Effects of urban stream burial on nitrogen uptake and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanization has resulted in extensive burial and channelization of headwater streams, yet little is known about impacts on stream ecosystem functions critical for reducing downstream nitrogen pollution. To characterize the biogeochemical impact of stream burial, we measured NO3- uptake, using 15N-NO3- isotope tracer releases, and whole stream metabolism, during four seasons in three paired buried and open streams reaches within the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long-term Ecological Research Network. Stream burial increased NO3- uptake lengths, by a factor of 7.5 (p < 0.01) and decreased nitrate uptake velocity and areal nitrate uptake rate by factors of 8.2 (p = 0.01) and 9.6 (p < 0.001), respectively. Stream burial decreased gross primary productivity by a factor of 9.2 (p < 0.05) and decreased ecosystem respiration by a factor of 4.2 (p = 0.06). From statistical analysis of Excitation Emissions Matrices (EEMs), buried streams were also found to have significantly less labile dissolved organic matter. Furthermore, buried streams had significantly lower transient storage and water temperatures. Overall, differences in NO3- uptake and metabolism were primarily explained by decreased transient storage and light availability in buried streams. We estimate that stream burial increases daily watershed nitrate export by as much as 500% due to decreased in-stream retention and may considerably decrease carbon export via decreased primary production. These results

  14. The evolution of the passive continental margin of Norway and its adjacent mainland - using the sub-Cambrian peneplain as a reference surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsen, R. H.; Faleide, J. I.; Jarsve, E. M.

    2012-04-01

    -ESE-trending profile across south Norway. Simultaneously a detailed mapping to establish a full map of the sub-Cambrian peneplain for southern Norway has been initiated, using automatic correlation techniques based on digital topographic data. A WNW-ESE-oriented profile across southern Norway displays a pronounced asymmetry with an eastern flank dipping moderately to the ESE, a strikingly flat to slightly undulating central part with a minor ESE-erly dip and a steepened westerly crest, and a faulted, steep WNW-flank. The fault throw along the western flank of the Hardangervidda Plateau is in the excess of one kilometer. This fault system is associated with the collapse of the Caledonides, but bear the signs of multiple stages of rejuvenation. Even farther to the west, the sub-Cambrian peneplain is broken by the Mesozoic external fault systems of the Jurassic-Cretaceous offshore graben systems, which also offsets the peneplain (down-to-east extension) by several kilometres. Also this system bears indications of reactivation. The sub-Cambrian peneplain itself displays a variety of configurations, including an undisturbed basal conglomerate, a weathered and mineralized, undulating surface with small pockets of alun shale or siltstone, a tectonically disturbed primary contact with parauthochtonous black shale or black sandstone and a more strongly tectonized contact with mylonite and rejuvenated basement lenses. The present analysis utilized the sub-Cambrian peneplain as a reference surface, because its present topography resulted from several elements of deformation accumulated throughout the Caledonian to the Present. Hence, it can be used as a reference surface for younger erosional surfaces onland Norway, whether this are of regional or local origin. In section of southern Norway including the (present) inner shelf and the hinterland, several morphological elements can be identified, from west to east: 1) The eastern, stable platform of the Mesozoic Viking Graben, 2) the external

  15. comparison of authigenic minerals in sandstones and interbedded

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Mechanically compacted mudstones, siltstones and shales expelled large ... quartz, and (16) hydrocarbon migration; pyrite and apatite precipitation [1, 7, 12]. ... relationship of the authigenic minerals, burial history and fluid inclusions studies.

  16. Burial history of two potential clay host formations in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, J.; Wouters, L.; Van Marcke, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    When dealing with long term stability of repository host rocks, it is important to consider and learn from all past geological events since the deposition of the formations. The burial history of the Boom Clay and Ypresian Clays, both considered as potential host rocks in Belgium, illustrates that the North Belgian region was tectonically relatively stable since deposition. In Northern Belgium, where both formations are located at a few hundreds meters of depth, tectonic movements were relatively small and no significant uplifts took place. The burial history of the Boom Clay in Mol, where the HADES underground research facility is located illustrates this. On the poster, the burial history for both formations is presented at two locations each: one location in the outcrop region and one research site location, where the formation is currently buried under a few 100 metres of sediment. (authors)

  17. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhuang

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  18. Organic Carbon Burial in Brazilian Mangrove Sediments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, C.; Smoak, J. M.; Sanders, L.; Patchineelam, S.

    2010-12-01

    This study reviews the organic carbon (OC) burial rates in mangrove forests, margins and mud flats in geographically distinct areas of the Brazilian coastline. We exam the burial rates, taking into account the geomorphology of each region. Our initial results indicate that the Northeastern region of Brazil is sequestering significantly more OC than in the Southeastern areas, being that the mass sediment accumulation rates remained consistent within the forests as opposed to large variations found in the mudflats. The other pertinent factor was OC content, which differed substantially in respect to region. Given that the mangrove forests of the Southeastern regions of Brazil may be more susceptible to a rising sea level, as these areas are constricted by vast mountain ranges, this work attempts to put in perspective the possible impacts of climate change on mangrove ecosystems and OC burial along the Brazilian coastal ocean. We also compare our result to global averages.

  19. The Semiotics of Pemature Burial: Feminism in a Postfeminist Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hawkesworth

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I will explore how the death of feminism is represented in order to plumb the larger meanings embedded in proclamations of feminism’s symbolic death. I will begin by investigating two mechanisms by which feminism’s death has been produced to unearth the tacit values of feminism’s morticians. I will then consider competing accounts of the “signs of death” in order to explore how particular assumptions about the ontology of feminism are tied to specific forms of metaphorical death. Given the particular kind of distortion involved in the premature burial of a thriving global feminism, the final section of the article situates contemporary feminism’s death knell in the context of a gendered history of live burial practices. By excavating and interpreting such archaic practices, I will link the rhetorical burial of contemporary feminism to an ongoing effort to undermine feminist struggles for social justice.

  20. 618-11 Burial Ground USRADS radiological surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes and documents the results of the radiological surveys conducted from February 4 through February 10, 1993 over the 618-11 Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. In addition, this report explains the survey methodology using the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS). The 618-11 Burial Ground radiological survey field task consisted of two activities: characterization of the specific background conditions and the radiological survey of the area. The radiological survey of the 618-11 Burial Ground, along with the background study, were conducted by Site Investigative Surveys Environmental Restoration Health Physics Organization of the Westinghouse Hanford Company. The survey methodology was based on utilization of the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) for automated recording of the gross gamma radiation levels at or near six (6) inches and at three (3) feet from the surface soil

  1. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  2. Soil Burial of Polylactic Acid/Paddy Straw Powder Biocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorulnajwa Diyana Yaacob

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the biodegradability of polylactic acid (PLA/paddy straw powder (PSP biocomposites. Environmental degradation was evaluated by composting the biocomposite samples into the soil. Different techniques, including mechanical tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, were used to obtain a view of the degradation that occurred during the soil burial of the biocomposites. Results of the mechanical tests showed that an increasing content of PSP in the biocomposites decreased the tensile strength and elongation at break (EB, while it increased the modulus of elasticity after six months of exposure. Scanning electron microscopy on the surface after soil burial showed that the filler was poorly wetted by the matrix. This explains the reduction in tensile strength and the elongation at break after soil burial. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the crystallinity of the biocomposites increased with longer composting periods.

  3. Stratigraphic significance of Cruziana: New data concerning the Cambrian-Ordovician ichnostratigraphic paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magwood, J.P.A.; Pemberton, S.G. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1990-08-01

    The classic Cambrian-Ordovician ichnostratigraphic paradigm originally developed in Europe is based on the assumption that Cruziana - ichnofossils presumably produced by trilobites - can be used in much the same way as trilobite body fossils have been used in chronostratigraphy. That these ichnofossils can be found in many otherwise unfossiliferous, shallow-marine siliciclastic deposits has made them extremely valuable as correlation tools. The paradigm has been used to date lower Paleozoic units in eastern Canada and Europe. It has also been used as supporting evidence to show close affinities between (1) eastern North America, Wales, and Spain and (2) Spain, northern Africa, and southern Asia. Ichnospecies indicative of the Lower Ordovician (Tremadocian and Arenigian), according to the paradigm, have been recovered from the Lower Cambrian (Atdabanian) Gog Group, near Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada. This discovery indicates that these ichnospecies cannot be used as global Lower Ordovician index fossils.

  4. Nodular features from Proterozoic Sonia Sandstone, Jodhpur Group ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Corresponding author. e-mail: parthageology@gmail.com. The Sonia ..... cement variety in the form of dispersed dark brown clots and .... content within the nodule sandstones bear sig- nature in ..... Carbonates and Evaporites 21 133–143.

  5. provenance of sandstone on the western flank of anambra basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES VOL. 14, 2016: 13-21. COPYRIGHT© ... from Fugar locality. The sandstones each classify as quartz arenites and sublitharenites. ... Tectonic movement in the Santonian times resulted in the ...

  6. Characterization of application of acu sandstone in ceramic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, L.F.P.M.; Souza, M.M.; Gomes, Y.S.; Fernandes, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    The sandstone is a sedimentary rock formed mainly by quartz grains. In Rio Grande do Norte, there is the Potiguar Basin with the Jandaira and Acu Formations. The latter consists of thick layers of whitish-colored sandstones. It stands out as a water storage facility in the state, but it is also used for building aggregates. This article aimed at the use of the sandstone of this formation in the ceramic mass for coating. Initially, the material was sampled. It went through the comminution process to achieve the required granulometry. After this, three formulations were made to incorporate this new material into the traditional ones. The methods were performed according to ISO 13816. After sintering at 1200 °C, the specimens were subjected to the physical tests. A positive result was obtained for the use of the Acu sandstone in low concentrations. It is clear, therefore, its use in ceramics for coating

  7. Transport of silver nanoparticles in single fractured sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukum, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are used in various consumer products and are one of the most prevalent metallic nanoparticle in commodities and are released into the environment. Transport behavior of Ag-NP in groundwater is one important aspect for the assessment of environmental impact and protection of drinking water resources in particular. Ag-NP transport processes in saturated single-fractured sandstones using triaxial flow cell experiments with different kind of sandstones is investigated. Ag-NP concentration and size are analyzed using flow field-flow fractionation and coupled SEM-EDX analysis. Results indicate that Ag-NP are more mobile and show generally lower attachment on rock surface compared to experiments in undisturbed sandstone matrix and partially fractured sandstones. Ag-NP transport is controlled by the characteristics of matrix porosity, time depending blocking of attachment sites and solute chemistry. Where Ag-NP attachment occur, it is heterogeneously distributed on the fracture surface.

  8. Natural Erosion of Sandstone as Shape Optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostanin, Igor; Safonov, Alexander; Oseledets, Ivan

    2017-12-11

    Natural arches, pillars and other exotic sandstone formations have always been attracting attention for their unusual shapes and amazing mechanical balance that leave a strong impression of intelligent design rather than the result of a stochastic process. It has been recently demonstrated that these shapes could have been the result of the negative feedback between stress and erosion that originates in fundamental laws of friction between the rock's constituent particles. Here we present a deeper analysis of this idea and bridge it with the approaches utilized in shape and topology optimisation. It appears that the processes of natural erosion, driven by stochastic surface forces and Mohr-Coulomb law of dry friction, can be viewed within the framework of local optimisation for minimum elastic strain energy. Our hypothesis is confirmed by numerical simulations of the erosion using the topological-shape optimisation model. Our work contributes to a better understanding of stochastic erosion and feasible landscape formations that could be found on Earth and beyond.

  9. Failure Forecasting in Triaxially Stressed Sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, A.; Bell, A. F.; Curtis, A.; Main, I. G.

    2017-12-01

    Precursory signals to fracturing events have been observed to follow power-law accelerations in spatial, temporal, and size distributions leading up to catastrophic failure. In previous studies this behavior was modeled using Voight's relation of a geophysical precursor in order to perform `hindcasts' by solving for failure onset time. However, performing this analysis in retrospect creates a bias, as we know an event happened, when it happened, and we can search data for precursors accordingly. We aim to remove this retrospective bias, thereby allowing us to make failure forecasts in real-time in a rock deformation laboratory. We triaxially compressed water-saturated 100 mm sandstone cores (Pc= 25MPa, Pp = 5MPa, σ = 1.0E-5 s-1) to the point of failure while monitoring strain rate, differential stress, AEs, and continuous waveform data. Here we compare the current `hindcast` methods on synthetic and our real laboratory data. We then apply these techniques to increasing fractions of the data sets to observe the evolution of the failure forecast time with precursory data. We discuss these results as well as our plan to mitigate false positives and minimize errors for real-time application. Real-time failure forecasting could revolutionize the field of hazard mitigation of brittle failure processes by allowing non-invasive monitoring of civil structures, volcanoes, and possibly fault zones.

  10. Electrical conductivity of sandstone, limestone, and granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duba, A.; Piwinskii, A.J.; Santor, M.; Weed, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of cylindrical cores of Westerly granite, Indiana limestone and Nugget, St Peter and Kayenta sandstones was measured at about 25/sup 0/C in vacuo, in air, and after saturation in distilled water, tap water, and 0.1 M NaCl solution. The three-electrode technique with a guard ring and the two-electrode technique without a guard ring were used. Core aspect ratio over the range of 2.00 to 0.25, as well as frequency over the range of 50 Hz to 10 kHz, influences the conductivity of all rocks, especially those measured in vacuo. Measurements from water-saturated samples using a guard ring are not appreciably different from those obtained without a guard ring. The conductivity of rocks saturated in 0.1 M NaCl solution changes least with a change in aspect ratio; for these rocks a linear relationship, known as Archie's Law, exists between log porosity and log conductivity. No simple correlation was found between those factors in rocks saturated with tap or distilled water. Thus, it appears Archie's Law is of questionable value for correlating laboratory data from rocks saturated with low-conductivity fluids.

  11. Free span burial inspection pig. Phase B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This report deals with design and construction of a pipeline pig for on-line internal inspection of offshore trenched gas pipelines for pipeline burial, free spans, exposures and loss of concrete weight coating. The measuring principle uses detection of the natural gamma radiation emitted by sea bed formations and the concrete coating of the pipe to map pipeline condition. The gamma ray flux penetrating to the internal side of the pipeline is an effect of the outside conditions. The measuring principle was confirmed in a occasionally present in the gas, blurred seriously sensor signals of the previous instrumentation. The continued project activities have been divided in two phases. Phase A comprised design and construction of a detector system, which could identify and quantify radioactive components from decay of radon-222. During Phase A a new gamma detector was tested in full scale exposed to radon-222. New data analysis procedures for the correction for the influence of radon-222 inside the pipeline, where developed and its utility successfully demonstrated. During Phase B the new detector was mounted in a pipeline pig constructed for inspection of 30-inch gas pipelines. Working conditions were demonstrated in three runs through the southern route of the DONG owned 30-inch gas pipelines crossing the Danish strait named the Great Belt. The FSB-technology found 88% of the free spans identified with the latest acoustic survey. The FSB-technology found in addition 22 free spans that were termed ''invisible'', because they were not identified by the most recent acoustic survey. It is believed that ''invisible free spans'' are either real free spans or locations, where the pipeline has no or very little support from deposits in the pipeline trench. The FSB-survey confirmed all exposed sections longer than 20 metres found by the acoustic survey in the first 21 kilometre of the pipeline. However, the FSB-survey underestimated

  12. Estimated erosion rate at the SRP burial ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.H.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1978-04-01

    The rate of soil erosion at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) burial ground can be calculated by means of the universal soil loss equation. Erosion rates estimated by the equation are more suitable for long-term prediction than those which could be measured with a reasonable effort in field studies. The predicted erosion rate at the SRP burial ground ranges from 0.0007 cm/year under stable forest cover to 0.38 cm/year if farmed with cultivated crops. These values correspond to 170,000 and 320 years, respectively, to expose waste buried 4 ft deep

  13. Taenia sp. in human burial from Kan River, East Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepchenko, Sergey Mikhailovich; Ivanov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Vybornov, Anton Vasilevich; Alekseevich, Tsybankov Alexander; Sergeyevich, Slavinsky Vyacheslav; Lysenko, Danil Nikolaevich; Matveev, Vyacheslav Evgenievich

    2017-05-01

    We present an arhaeoparasitological analysis of a unique burial from the Neftprovod II burial ground in East Siberia, which dated from the Bronze Age. Analysis of a sediment sample from the sacral region of the pelvis revealed the presence of Taenia sp. eggs. Because uncooked animal tissue is the primary source of Taenia, this indicated that the individual was likely consuming raw or undercooked meat of roe deer, red deer, or elk infected with Taenia. This finding represents the oldest case of a human infected with Taenia sp. from Eastern Siberia and Russia.

  14. Alternatives to the burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J. Mark

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The approach for management of LLRW in different countries has evolved differently due to many factors such as culture and public sentiment, systems of government, public policy, and geography. There are also various methods to disposition LLRW including but not limited to: - Long term statutes and unconditional or conditional release of material, - Direct Burial, - Treatment (Processing) → Burial, - Treatment → Unconditional Release, - Recycle for Unconditional Release or Reuse Within Any Industry, - Controlled Recycle within Nuclear Industry. (author)

  15. Modern optics in exceptionally preserved eyes of Early Cambrian arthropods from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael S. Y.; Jago, James B.; García-Bellido, Diego C.; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Gehling, James G.; Paterson, John R.

    2011-06-01

    Despite the status of the eye as an ``organ of extreme perfection'', theory suggests that complex eyes can evolve very rapidly. The fossil record has, until now, been inadequate in providing insight into the early evolution of eyes during the initial radiation of many animal groups known as the Cambrian explosion. This is surprising because Cambrian Burgess-Shale-type deposits are replete with exquisitely preserved animals, especially arthropods, that possess eyes. However, with the exception of biomineralized trilobite eyes, virtually nothing is known about the details of their optical design. Here we report exceptionally preserved fossil eyes from the Early Cambrian (~515 million years ago) Emu Bay Shale of South Australia, revealing that some of the earliest arthropods possessed highly advanced compound eyes, each with over 3,000 large ommatidial lenses and a specialized `bright zone'. These are the oldest non-biomineralized eyes known in such detail, with preservation quality exceeding that found in the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang deposits. Non-biomineralized eyes of similar complexity are otherwise unknown until about 85 million years later. The arrangement and size of the lenses indicate that these eyes belonged to an active predator that was capable of seeing in low light. The eyes are more complex than those known from contemporaneous trilobites and are as advanced as those of many living forms. They provide further evidence that the Cambrian explosion involved rapid innovation in fine-scale anatomy as well as gross morphology, and are consistent with the concept that the development of advanced vision helped to drive this great evolutionary event.

  16. Cambrian and Ordovician Fossil-Lagerstätten in the Barrandian area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fatka, O.; Budil, P.; Kraft, P.; Mergl, M.; Mikuláš, Radek; Valent, M.; Lajblová, K.; Rak, Š.; Steinová, M.; Szabad, M.; Micka, V.; Aubrechtová, M.; Lajbl, L.; Nohejlová, M.; Vodička, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2012), s. 22-25 ISSN 1212-6209. [Congress of CGS and SGS. Moninec, 2011.09.22-2011.09.25] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/0395; GA ČR GA205/09/1521 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Cambrian * Ordovician * Fossil-Lagerstätten Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.sci.muni.cz/gap/casop/

  17. Applying reaction condition index to predict sandstone type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gongxin; Liu Jinhui; Cheng Hai

    2002-01-01

    On the basic of the explanation of reaction condition index, the deduction of reaction condition index calculation principle, the hydrogeological setting in Gongpoquan basin in Baishan, Gansu province and the study of reaction condition index of its water source point, the north Luotuoquan area in Gongpoquan basin seems to be a favourable place for sandstone type uranium deposit, and the prospect area for sandstone type uranium deposit is delimitated

  18. Micropore Structure Representation of Sandstone in Petroleum Reservoirs Using an Atomic Force Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yong-Qiang; Zhu Xing; Wu Jun-Zheng; Bai Wen-Guang

    2011-01-01

    The pore structure of sandstone in an oil reservoir is investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). At nanoscale resolution, AFM images of sandstone show us the fine structure. The real height data of images display the three-dimensional space structure of sandstone effectively. The three-dimensional analysis results show that the AFM images of sandstone have unique characteristics that, like fingerprints, can identify different structural properties of sandstones. The results demonstrate that AFM is an effective method used to represent original sandstone in petroleum reservoirs, and may help geologists to appreciate the sandstone in oil reservoirs fully. (general)

  19. Deformation bands in porous sandstones their microstructure and petrophysical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torabi, Anita

    2007-12-15

    Deformation bands are commonly thin tabular zones of crushed or reorganized grains that form in highly porous rocks and sediments. Unlike a fault, typically the slip is negligible in deformation bands. In this dissertation the microstructure and petrophysical properties of deformation bands have been investigated through microscopy and numerical analysis of experimental and natural examples. The experimental work consists of a series of ring-shear experiments performed on porous sand at 5 and 20 MPa normal stresses and followed by microscopic examination of thin sections from the sheared samples. The results of the ring-shear experiments and comparison of them to natural deformation bands reveals that burial depth (level of normal stress in the experiments) and the amount of shear displacement during deformation are the two significant factors influencing the mode in which grains break and the type of shear zone that forms. Two end-member types of experimental shear zones were identified: (a) Shear zones with diffuse boundaries, which formed at low levels of normal stress and/or shear displacement; and (b) Shear zones with sharp boundaries, which formed at higher levels of normal stress and/or shear displacement. Our interpretation is that with increasing burial depth (approximately more than one kilometer, simulated in the experiments by higher levels of normal stress), the predominant mode of grain fracturing changes from flaking to splitting; which facilitates the formation of sharp-boundary shear zones. This change to grain splitting increases the power law dimension of the grain size distribution (D is about 1.5 in sharp boundary shear zones). Based on our observations, initial grain size has no influence in the deformation behavior of the sand at 5 MPa normal stresses. A new type of cataclastic deformation band is described through outcrop and microscopic studies; here termed a 'slipped deformation band'. Whereas previously reported cataclastic

  20. Self-regulation of trilobite diversity in Murero (middle Cambrian, Spain) due to compensatory extinction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Villalta, J.S.

    2016-07-01

    As species accumulate in a community, competition for available ecospace is expected to prevent the addition of new species and to facilitate species extinction, thus producing a dynamic equilibrium of diversity. This mechanism remains under debate since its empirical support comes mainly from indirect or partial evidence, with very few direct tests at the species level. Here a new method is described to detect the presence of selfregulation feedbacks between species richness and turnover rates. It consists of Monte Carlo simulations which randomize the distribution of species ranges among stratigraphic intervals, providing predictions which allow the detection of genuine self-regulation feedbacks in the real data. Since the simulations include any potential bias due to preservation, sampling, or change in depositional environment, and these biases would also affect the real dataset, they are thus ruled out as explanations for any difference found. This method is applied to one of the best known fossiliferous sequences worldwide, the Rambla de Valdemiedes in Murero (RV1 section, middle Cambrian, Spain), a classic locality that has been studied for more than 150 years and which stands out due to its excellent sampling density, continuous deposition, and homogeneous fossil preservation. The results show that trilobite species richness was self-regulated due to positive feedback with extinction rate, which implies that compensatory extinction regulated this fauna in spite of the on-going Cambrian radiation. The lack of evidence of any origination feedback suggests ecological opportunities were not limiting for new species to colonize this Cambrian community. (Author)

  1. Life cycle and morphology of a cambrian stem-lineage loriciferan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, John S; Stein, Martin; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg

    2013-01-01

    Cycloneuralians form a rich and diverse element within Cambrian assemblages of exceptionally preserved fossils. Most resemble priapulid worms whereas other Cycloneuralia (Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera), well known at the present day, have little or no fossil record. First reports of Sirilorica Peel, 2010 from the lower Cambrian Sirius Passet fauna of North Greenland described a tubular lorica covering the abdomen and part of a well developed introvert with a circlet of 6 grasping denticles near the lorica. The introvert is now known to terminate in a narrow mouth tube, while a conical anal field is also developed. Broad muscular bands between the plates in the lorica indicate that it was capable of movement by rhythmic expansion and contraction of the lorica. Sirilorica is regarded as a macrobenthic member of the stem-lineage of the miniaturised, interstitial, present day Loricifera. Like loriciferans, Sirilorica is now known to have grown by moulting. Evidence of the life cycle of Sirilorica is described, including a large post-larval stage and probably an initial larva similar to that of the middle Cambrian fossil Orstenoloricusshergoldii.

  2. Life cycle and morphology of a cambrian stem-lineage loriciferan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S Peel

    Full Text Available Cycloneuralians form a rich and diverse element within Cambrian assemblages of exceptionally preserved fossils. Most resemble priapulid worms whereas other Cycloneuralia (Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, well known at the present day, have little or no fossil record. First reports of Sirilorica Peel, 2010 from the lower Cambrian Sirius Passet fauna of North Greenland described a tubular lorica covering the abdomen and part of a well developed introvert with a circlet of 6 grasping denticles near the lorica. The introvert is now known to terminate in a narrow mouth tube, while a conical anal field is also developed. Broad muscular bands between the plates in the lorica indicate that it was capable of movement by rhythmic expansion and contraction of the lorica. Sirilorica is regarded as a macrobenthic member of the stem-lineage of the miniaturised, interstitial, present day Loricifera. Like loriciferans, Sirilorica is now known to have grown by moulting. Evidence of the life cycle of Sirilorica is described, including a large post-larval stage and probably an initial larva similar to that of the middle Cambrian fossil Orstenoloricusshergoldii.

  3. Channel sandstone and bar morphology of the Beaufort group uranium district near Beaufort West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stear, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Sheet-like and lenticular sandstone bodies in the Lower Beaufort Group (Adelaide Subgroup) uranium district occur in megacyclic repetition as superimposed systems of ephemeral fluvial channels that display characteristics of complex lateral and vertical accretion. Channel sandstone bodies are defined on morphological grounds into two types. Sheet sandstone bodies are the commonest type and comprise the bulk of sandstone packages in arenaceous zones of megacycles. Composite sandstone sheets result from multilateral coalescence of individual sandstone bodies. Isolated lenticular sandstone units in argillaceous zones of megacycles comprise sheet and ribbon sandstone types. Multi-storeying is a prominent feature of most channel sandstone bodies and often results in local sandstone thickening. Bedforms relate to the formation of compound bars and record periods of dynamic accretion and erosion. Rarely preserved palaeosurfaces vividly illustrate the fluctuating hydrodynamic conditions that typified ephemeral fluvial sedimentation in a semi-arid environment during Lower Beaufort times

  4. Channel sandstone and bar morphology of the Beaufort group uranium district near Beaufort West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stear, W M

    1980-01-01

    Sheet-like and lenticular sandstone bodies in the Lower Beaufort Group (Adelaide Subgroup) uranium district occur in megacyclic repetition as superimposed systems of ephemeral fluvial channels that display characteristics of complex lateral and vertical accretion. Channel sandstone bodies are defined on morphological grounds into two types. Sheet sandstone bodies are the commonest type and comprise the bulk of sandstone packages in arenaceous zones of megacycles. Composite sandstone sheets result from multilateral coalescence of individual sandstone bodies. Isolated lenticular sandstone units in argillaceous zones of megacycles comprise sheet and ribbon sandstone types. Multi-storeying is a prominent feature of most channel sandstone bodies and often results in local sandstone thickening. Bedforms relate to the formation of compound bars and record periods of dynamic accretion and erosion. Rarely preserved palaeosurfaces vividly illustrate the fluctuating hydrodynamic conditions that typified ephemeral fluvial sedimentation in a semi-arid environment during Lower Beaufort times.

  5. Sensing, Measuring and Modelling the Mechanical Properties of Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, S. J.; Olugbenga, A.; Ozerkan, N. G.

    2018-02-01

    We present a hybrid framework for simulating the strength and dilation characteristics of sandstone. Where possible, the grain-scale properties of sandstone are evaluated experimentally in detail. Also, using photo-stress analysis, we sense the deviator stress (/strain) distribution at the micro-scale and its components along the orthogonal directions on the surface of a V-notch sandstone sample under mechanical loading. Based on this measurement and applying a grain-scale model, the optical anisotropy index K 0 is inferred at the grain scale. This correlated well with the grain contact stiffness ratio K evaluated using ultrasound sensors independently. Thereafter, in addition to other experimentally characterised structural and grain-scale properties of sandstone, K is fed as an input into the discrete element modelling of fracture strength and dilation of the sandstone samples. Physical bulk-scale experiments are also conducted to evaluate the load-displacement relation, dilation and bulk fracture strength characteristics of sandstone samples under compression and shear. A good level of agreement is obtained between the results of the simulations and experiments. The current generic framework could be applied to understand the internal and bulk mechanical properties of such complex opaque and heterogeneous materials more realistically in future.

  6. 40Ar/39Ar dating of exceptional concentration of metals by weathering of Precambrian rocks at the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnell, John; Mark, Darren F.; Frei, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The sub-Cambrian surface, including diverse metalliferous deposits, shows evidence of intense weathering of Precambrian rocks to form supergene-enriched ores and metalliferous placers, followed by widespread peneplanation. Much of the metal would have been flushed to the Cambrian ocean during...... with mobilization on land of redox sensitive metals by oxidative terrestrial weathering. This unprecedented flushing of metals from the weathered Precambrian surface would have contributed to the chemistry of the earliest Cambrian ocean at a time of marked faunal evolution....

  7. Mesolithic burial place in La Martina Cave (Dinant, Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewez, M.; Gilot, E.; Groessens-Van-Dyck, M.C.; Cordy, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The ''La Martina'' cave is located near Dinant (Belgium). Although the sediments had been shoveled out in the mid XIXth century, a calcic breccia has provided prehistoric bones. We can distinguish a Pleistocene fauna with cave bear, one Mesolithic burial place with two cromagnoid skeletons, from the 6th millennium BC, and some Holocene faunal remains. (authors). 7 refs

  8. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds that are located in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize and obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit

  9. Quantification and presence of human ancient DNA in burial place ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantification and presence of human ancient DNA in burial place remains of Turkey using real time polymerase chain reaction. ... A published real-time PCR assay, which allows for the combined analysis of nuclear or ancient DNA and mitochondrial DNA, was modified. This approach can be used for recovering DNA from ...

  10. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulloway, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car

  11. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, C.R.

    1996-09-19

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, and obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit.

  12. Quantification and presence of human ancient DNA in burial place ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... burial place remains of Turkey using real time ... DNA was isolaled from fossil bone tissue remains with Bio Robot EZ1 and ... the increase in the amount of DNA as it is amplified. The ... species or human blood in this work.

  13. Composition of natural gas and crude oil produced from 10 wells in the Lower Silurian "Clinton" Sandstone, Trumbull County, Ohio: Chapter G.7 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruss, Robert A.; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Natural gases and associated crude oils in the “Clinton” sandstone, Medina Group sandstones, and equivalent Tuscarora Sandstone in the northern Appalachian basin are part of a regional, continuous-type or basin-centered accumulation. The origin of the hydrocarbon charge to regional continuoustype accumulations is poorly understood. We have analyzed the molecular and stable isotopic composition of gases and oils produced from 10 wells in the “Clinton” sandstone in Trumbull County, Ohio, in an initial attempt to identify the characteristics of the accumulated fluids. The analyses show that the fluids have remarkably uniform compositions that are similar to previously published analyses of oils (Cole and others, 1987) and gases (Laughrey and Baldasarre, 1998) in Early Silurian reservoirs elsewhere in Ohio; however, geochemical parameters in the oils and gases suggest that the fluids have experienced higher levels of thermal stress than the present-day burial conditions of the reservoir rocks. The crude oils have an unusual geochemical characteristic: they do not contain detectable levels of sterane and triterpane biomarkers. The origin of these absences is unknown.

  14. Environmental analysis burial of offsite low-level waste at SRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poe, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    The environmental effects of receipt and burial of low-level naval waste generated at Department of Energy Laboratories are assessed in this environmental analysis. Through 1979, this low-level DOE waste was sent to the NRC-licensed burial ground operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., at Barnwell, South Carolina. DOE announced on October 26, 1979, that DOE-generated low-level waste would no longer be buried at commercial waste burial sites. SRP was selected to receive the naval waste described in this analysis. Receipt and burial of these wastes will have a negligible effect on SRP's environment and increase only slightly the environmental effects of the SRP operations discussed in the EIS on SRP waste management operations. The environmental effects of burial of this waste at Chem-Nuclear Burial Ground or at the SRP Burial Ground are described in this environmental analysis to permit assessment of incremental effects caused by the decision to bury this naval waste in the SRP Burial Ground rather than in the Barnwell Burial Ground. The radiological effects from burial of this waste in either the SRP or Chem-Nuclear Burial Ground are very small when compared to those from natural background radiation or to the annual population dose commitment from operation of SRP. The environmental effects of burial at SRP to dose commitments normally received by the population surrounding SRP are compared

  15. Funeral dress and textiles in 17th and 19th century burials in Ostrobothnia, Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipkin, S.; Vajanto, K.; Kallio-Seppä, T.; Kuokkanen, T.; Niinimäki, S.; Väre, T.; van Bommel, M.; Grömer, K.; Pritchard, F.

    2015-01-01

    The 17th-19th-century burial materials from northern Ostrobothnia are studied in order to consider the value, origin and meaning of textiles especially in child burials. The focus is on the preservation, quality and dyes of burial textiles unearthed at the yard of Oulu Cathedral as well as the

  16. Sarmatian Burials Near the Astanino Village in the Eastern Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropotov Viktor Valeryevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article contains the materials of two Sarmatian burials that had been studied in 1966-1967 years by the Kerch expedition of Institute of Archeology of Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (the chief of expedition – A.M. Leskov in the Astanino village in the Eastern Crimea. These burials had been made on small depth in embankments of barrows of the bronze epoch, therefore it is not possible to track contours of funeral constructions. The dead were laid on their backs, heads turned to the North and the North-West. The utensils buried in the same tombs included two ceramic gray-clay pelikes, two gray-clay bowls, a red-gloss vessel, a red-clay pottery, a set of glass and cornelian beads, and the Egyptian faience beads. These things allow to exactly date the investigated complexes within the second half of the 1st century BC – the beginnings of the 1st century AD. The main distinctive characteristics of Early-Sarmatian burials of Northern Pontic region consist in the use of already existing barrows for burial places, orientations of the dead in the Northern sector, the insignificant depth of burials. Therefore published monuments should be also referred to them. A small number of such complexes with their distribution on the quite big territory between the Don and Dnepr rivers testify to the low density of the nomadic population at that time. The antique sources of the end of the 2nd – 1st centuries BC mention the presence of Roxolani in the given region. The described complexes supplement our poor knowledge of Sarmatian antiquities of the Eastern Crimea and specify the direct contacts of nomads of Northern Pontic region to the antique centers, in immediate proximity from which they had been located.

  17. Evaluation of the ORNL area for future waste burial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenick, T.F.; Byerly, D.W.; Gonzales, S.

    1983-10-01

    Additional waste-burial facilities will be needed at ORNL within this decade. In order to find environmentally acceptable sites, the ORNL area must be systematically evaluated. This document represents the first step in that selection process. Geologic and hydrologic data from the literature and minor field investigations are used to identify more favorable sites for Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 7. Also underway at this time is a companion study to locate a Central Waste Storage Area which could be used in the future to accommodate wastes generated by the X-10, Y-12, and K-25 facilities. From the several watershed options available, the Whiteoak Creek drainage basin is selected as the most promising hydrologic regime. This area contains all past and present waste-disposal facilities and is thus already well monitored. The seven bedrock units within the ORNL area are evaluated as potential burial media. Shales of the Conasauga Group, which are currently used for waste burial in the Whiteoak Creek drainage basin, and the Knox Group are considered the leading candidates. Although the residuum derived from and overlying the Knox dolomite has many favorable characteristics and may be regarded as having a high potential for burial of low-level wastes, at the present it is unproven. Therefore, the Conasauga shales are considered a preferable option for SWSA 7 within the ORNL area. Since the Conasauga interval is currently used for waste burial, it is better understood. One tract in Melton Valley that is underlain by Conasauga shales is nominated for detailed site-characterization studies, and several other tracts are recommended for future exploratory drilling. Exploration is also suggested for a tract in the upper Whiteoak Creek basin where Knox residuum is the shallow subsurface material

  18. Deformation bands in porous sandstone: case study in basins of northeast Brazil; Bandas de deformacao em arenitos porosos: estudo de casos em bacias do nordeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Talles Souza [PETROBRAS, RN (Brazil). Interpretacao e Avaliacao de bacias da Costa Leste do Brasil E and P. Gerencia de Interpretacao], e-mail: tallesferreira@petrobras.com.br; Silva, Fernando Cesar Alves da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN). Dept. de Geologia Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geodinamica e Geofisica (Brazil)], e-mail: fernando@geologia.ufrn.br

    2010-05-15

    The meso and microscopic scale sandstone characterizations of the deformation bands of three sedimentary basins in northeastern Brazil; the Potiguar and Sergipe-Alagoas basins (Brazilian Atlantic Margin) and the Tucano Basin (aborted rift basin) were compared for their similarities and differences. Deformation bands are structures commonly developed in porous sandstones that make up the main reservoir-rock in siliciclastic petroleum systems. These structures influence the permo-porous properties and consequently the migration pathway into a sandstone reservoir. To understand their formation process and development has been the focus of a great number of articles in recent petroleum geology literature. This study highlights the similarities and the differences in the features and deformation mechanisms that provoked the development of deformation bands in the damage zones of major faults in three different sedimentary basins. In terms of basin tectonics, the deformation bands' formation and geometric arrangements are associated with major structures. In the case of the Acu Formation, a correlation was observed with the dextral Afonso Bezerra fault system, whereas in the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin the normal dextral strike-slip faults can be associated with the faulting of the boarder basin. In the Tucano Basin case, the deformation basins are related to the Jeremoabo transpressional fault, a major structure a few kilometers to the north. This study applies structural geology tools to better understand the geometric arrangement and growing mechanisms of deformation bands in different lithological and tectonic settings. Although the deformation bands present a similar aspect in a macroscopic view, the interplay between depositional and mineralogical parameters of the host rock, as well as the basin's burial and tectonic history resulted in the development of different sandstone deformation bands in three northeastern brazilian basins. (author)

  19. Evolution of oceanic molybdenum and uranium reservoir size around the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition: Evidence from western Zhejiang, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lei; Schoepfer, Shane D.; Shen, Shu-zhong; Cao, Chang-qun; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-01

    The "Cambrian explosion" is one of the most fascinating episodes of diversification in the history of life; however, its relationship to the oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere around the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition is not fully understood. Marine inventories of redox-sensitive trace elements reflect the relative balance of oxidative weathering on land and deposition in anoxic water masses, and can be used to explore the evolution of oceanic and atmospheric redox conditions. For this study, we conducted a series of geochemical analyses on the upper Lantian, Piyuancun, and Hetang formations in the Chunye-1 well, part of the lower Yangtze Block in western Zhejiang. Iron speciation results indicate that the entire studied interval was deposited under anoxic conditions, with three intervals of persistent euxinia occurring in the uppermost Lantian Fm., the lower Hetang Formation (Fm.), and the upper Hetang Fm. Molybdenum (Mo) and uranium (U) contents and Mo/TOC and U/TOC ratios from the anoxic/euxinic intervals of the Chunye-1 well, combined with published data from the sections in the middle and upper Yangtze Block, suggest that the oceanic Mo reservoir declined consistently from the Ediacaran to Cambrian Stage 3, while the size of the oceanic U reservoir remained relatively constant. Both metals were depleted in the ocean in lower Cambrian Stage 4, before increasing markedly at the end of Stage 4. The lack of an apparent increase in the size of the marine Mo and U reservoir from the upper Ediacaran to Cambrian Stage 3 suggests that oxic water masses did not expand until Cambrian Stage 4. The increase in marine Mo and U availability in the upper Hetang Fm. may have been due to the expansion of oxic water masses in the oceans, associated with oxygenation of the atmosphere during Cambrian Stage 4. This expansion of oxic waters in the global ocean postdates the main phase of Cambrian diversification, suggesting that pervasive oxygenation of the ocean on a large

  20. Review of the Cambrian volcanic activity in Morocco: geochemical fingerprints and geotectonic implications for the rifting of West Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouclet, André; El Hadi, Hassan; Álvaro, J. Javier; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Benharref, Mohammed; Fekkak, Abdelilah

    2018-03-01

    Volcanic activities related to the opening of a Cambrian rift in Morocco were widespread from the Fortunian to the Cambrian Epoch 3. Numerous data are available from northwestern volcanic sites, particularly in the western High Atlas, but they are scarce from the southeastern sites. New data are documented here from the volcanic formations exposed in the Jbel Tazoult n'Ouzina of the Tafilalt Province, eastern Anti-Atlas and dated to Cambrian Epoch 2-3. The Cambrian volcanic activities recorded in the High Atlas, Anti-Atlas, and Coastal Meseta are synthesized to refine their stratigraphic setting and to characterize their magmatic affinities and fingerprints. Six volcanic pulses are determined as tholeiitic, transitional, and alkaline suites. The tholeiitic and transitional magmas originated from primitive mantle and E-MORB-type sources with a spinel- and garnet-bearing lherzolite composition. Some of them were modified by assimilation-fractional crystallisation processes during crust-mantle interactions. The alkaline magmas fit with an OIB-type and a garnet-bearing lherzolite source. The palaeogeographic distribution of the magmatic suites was controlled by the lithospheric thinning of the Cambrian Atlas Rift and lithospheric constraints of the Pan-African metacraton and West African craton.

  1. Structural-Diagenetic Controls on Fracture Opening in Tight Gas Sandstone Reservoirs, Alberta Foothills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukar, Estibalitz; Eichhubl, Peter; Fall, Andras; Hooker, John

    2013-04-01

    relatively undeformed backlimb strata. Fracture apertures locally increase adjacent to reverse faults without an overall increase in fracture frequency. Fluid inclusion analyses of crack-seal quartz cement indicate both aqueous and methane-rich inclusions are present. Homogenization temperatures of two-phase inclusions indicate synkinematic fracture cement precipitation and fracture opening under conditions at or near maximum burial of 190-210°C in core samples, and 120-160°C in outcrop samples. In comparison with the fracture evolution in other, less deformed tight-gas sandstone reservoirs such as the Piceance and East Texas basins where fracture opening is primarily controlled by gas generation, gas charge, and pore fluid pressure, these results suggest a strong control of regional tectonic processes on fracture generation. In conjunction with timing and rate of gas charge, rates of fracture cement growth, and stratigraphic-lithological controls, these processes determine the overall distribution of open fractures in these reservoirs.

  2. U-Th Burial Dates on Ostrich Eggshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, W. D.; Fylstra, N. D.; Tryon, C. A.; Faith, J. T.; Peppe, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Obtaining precise and accurate dates at archaeological sites beyond the range of radiocarbon dating is challenging but essential for understanding human origins. Eggshells of ratites (large flightless birds including ostrich, emu and others) are common in many archaeological sequences in Africa, Australia and elsewhere. Ancient eggshells are geochemically suitable for the U-Th technique (1), which has about ten times the range of radiocarbon dating (>500 rather than 50 ka), making eggshells attractive dating targets. Moreover, C and N isotopic studies of eggshell provide insights into paleovegetation and paleoprecipitation central to assessing past human-environment interactions (2,3). But until now, U-Th dates on ratite eggshell have not accounted for the secondary origin of essentially all of their U. We report a novel approach to U-Th dating of eggshell that explicitly accounts for secondary U uptake that begins with burial. Using ostrich eggshell (OES) from Pleistocene-Holocene east African sites, we have measured U and 232Th concentration profiles across OES by laser ablation ICP-MS. U commonly peaks at 10s to 100s of ppb and varies 10-fold or more across the ~2 mm thickness of OES, with gradients modulated by the layered structure of the eggshell. Common Th is high near the shell surfaces, but low in the middle "pallisade" layer of OES, making it optimal for U-Th dating. We determine U-Th ages along the U concentration gradient by solution ICP-MS analyses of two or more fractions of the pallisade layer. We then estimate OES burial dates using a simple model for diffusive uptake of uranium. Comparing such "U-Th burial dates" with radiocarbon dates for OES calcite from the same shells, we find good agreement in 7 out of 9 cases, consistent with rapid burial and confirming the accuracy of the approach. The remaining 2 eggshells have anomalous patterns of apparent ages that reveal they are unsuitable for U-Th dating, thereby providing reliability criteria innate

  3. Late Sarmatian Elite Military Burial From the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivosheev Mikhail Vasilyevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the burial of a warrior of Late Sarmatian time from the Southern Urals. The complex from mound no. 4 of the burial mound Taksai I is distinguished by large size of barrow and grave. The reconstructed height of the mound was less than 2 meters. The depth of the burial pit was more than 3 meters. For Late Sarmatian culture such dimensions of sepulchral structures are unique. Under the mound the ritual platform from mainland soil was discovered. The found inventory of a warrior-rider included: horse bridle, a set of bladed weapons consisting of a long sword, dagger and knife, as well as a small bronze cauldron. Analysis of inventory allows us to date this burial to the second half of the 3rd century A.D. This burial belongs to an elite funerary complexes of Late Sarmatian culture and is a burial of professional warriors. This social stratum was formed in Late Sarmatian society at the end of the 2nd - first half of the 3rd century A.D. Most of these graves are dating back to the first half of the 3rd century A.D and were found in the Low Don and in the Volga region. The situation in these regions changed in that period due to the invasion of the tribes of the North-Caucasian origin. Their occurrence is associated with the destruction of the Tanais in the Lower Don region and the spread of graves in the T-shaped catacombs in the steppe monuments. The tradition of burying warriors-horsemen of high social status almost disappears in the Volga-Don steppes after the middle of 3rd century A.D. In the Southern Urals where these processes had an indirect influence, the existence of traditional hierarchies of Late Sarmatian society could continue until the end of the 3rd century A.D. Among the parts of a horse bridle the researchers discovered bronze B-shape buckle. These buckles are widely distributed in the 4th-5th centuries A.D. in the basin of the Kama river and the Danube river. The found buckle is the earliest currently known

  4. Geological principles of exploration for sandstone-hosted uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, J.P.

    1982-10-01

    Although the importance of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits has seemingly faded in recent years due to the discovery of large, high -grade deposits elsewhere, a forecasted energy shortage in the near future will probably necessitate a new look at sedimentary basins as a source of uranium. Back-arc basins adjacent to calcalkaline source areas are especially favourable if they are filled with fluvial, post-Devonian sediments. Syn- and post-depositional tectonics play an important role in the sedimentation-mineralisation process and should be investigated. The oxidation-reduction state of the sandstones is a valid prospecting tool. Sedimentological environments govern the permeability and vegetal matter content of sandstones and directly control uranium mineralisation

  5. Electrokinetic desalination of sandstones for NaCl removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben V.

    2012-01-01

    of reliable methods to remove the damaging salts in order to stop the decay. Electrokinetic desalination of fired clay bricks have previously shown efficient in laboratory scale and in the present work the method is tested for desalination of Cotta and Posta sandstones, which both have lower porosity than...... each stone, but electroosmosis in the poultices may have caused suction/pressure over the interface between stone and poultice causing the differences in poultice water content. The transport numbers for Cl− and Na+ differed in the two stones and were highest in the most porous Cotta sandstone in spite...... of similar high pore water concentrations and the same applied electric current. The hypotheses is that a layered structure of the sandstones could be the cause for this, as the electric current may preferentially flow in certain paths through the stone, which are thus desalinated first. After...

  6. On the migration of uranium isotopes in sandstone aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, K.; Gellermann, R.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of natural 238 U and 234 U activity in groundwater of sandstone aquifers have been used to study the migration of these uranium isotopes. Regarding the uranium exchange between liquid phase and rock surface during migration, two different models were applied for evaluating the experimental results. Values of corresponding parameters (retardation factor K, removal rate R) reflecting different behaviour concerning this exchange were determined. For example, the values obtained for 238 U in a Triassic sandstone aquifer of the GDR are K = 8.6 x 10 6 and R = 1.3 x 10 -3 a -1 , respectively. It was found that, under the conditions of the sandstone aquifer concerned, the removal rate model is better suited for calculating uranium-isotope migration in groundwater. (author)

  7. Regional distribution regularity of sandstone uranium deposits in Asian continent and prospecting strategy for sandstone uranium deposits in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuyi

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1980's, after the discovery of numerous sandstone uranium deposits in Middle Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan) many large sandstone uranium deposits have been found in both Russia and Mongolia. So that Asia has become the most concentrated region of sandstone uranium deposits. The known sandstone uranium deposits occur mostly in a arcual tectonic belt constrained from the north by the Siberian continental block, and the Tarim-North China continental block from the south. This belt is named by Russian geologists as the Central Asian Mobile Belt, and some Chinese geologists call it the 'Mongolian Arc'. A lot of large and super large metallic, non-metallic, gold, polymetallic, porphyry copper and gold, massive sulphide and uranium deposits (of sandstone and volcanic types) with different origin and various types concentrated occur in this belt. The abundant and colourful mineral resources in the region are closely associated with the specific geologic-tectonic evolution of the above belt. It is necessary to strengthen the detailed geologic research and uranium prospecting in the region

  8. Paleomagnetism of Early Cambrian Itabaiana mafic dikes (NE Brazil) and the final assembly of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; D'Agrella-Filho, Manoel S.; Epof, Igor; Brito Neves, Benjamim B.

    2006-04-01

    Paleomagnetic analysis on 15 early Cambrian mafic dikes from Itabaiana (Paraíba State) yielded a southern (northwestern) direction with steep upward (downward) inclination ( Dm = 167.5°, Im = - 63.7°, α95 = 7.3°). AF and Thermal demagnetization, thermomagnetic curves, and hysteresis results suggest that this component is dominantly carried by fine-grained SD magnetite. The high stability of this component and positive baked contact tests on three dikes indicate it represents a primary thermoremanent magnetization. Ar-Ar analysis on whole-rock samples from two sites provides a strong constraint on the age of the Itabaiana paleomagnetic pole (134.6° E, 34.9° S; A95 = 7.3, K = 28) defined by plateau ages of 525 ± 5 and 526 ± 4 Ma. This pole completely satisfies six out of the seven quality criteria proposed by Van der Voo [R. Van der Voo, The reliability of paleomagnetic data, Tectonophysics 184 (1990) 1-9.] and permits a tight constraint on the Early Cambrian sector of the Gondwana apparent polar wander path. Paleogeographic reconstructions consistent with the available paleomagnetic and geological record show that Gondwana was sutured along three major orogenies, the Mozambique (Brasilano/Pan-African) Orogeny (800-650 Ma), the Kuunga Orogeny (570-530 Ma) and the Pampean-Araguaia Orogeny (540-520 Ma). We suggest that after rifting away from Laurentia at the end of the Neoproterozoic, opening the Iapetus ocean, the Amazonian craton and minor adjoining blocks, such as Rio Apa and Pampia, collided with the proto-Gondwana by Cambrian times at ca. 530-520 Ma. Unless for small adjustments, Gondwana was completely formed by 525 Ma whose paleogeography is defined by the Itabaiana pole.

  9. The Lower Cambrian of Scandinavia: Depositional environment, sequence stratigraphy and palaeogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj; Schovsbo, Niels Hemmingsen

    2011-08-01

    Lower Cambrian successions described from Scandinavia are reviewed and subjected to sequence stratigraphical analysis; comparisons are also made with successions described from northeast Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The treated stratigraphic interval is bounded upwards by a regional unconformity ascribed to the Hawke Bay Event. The East European regional stage classification, comprising the Rovnian, Lontovan, Dominopolian, Ljubomlian, Vergalian, Rausvian and Kibartian, is adopted for the Lower Cambrian of Scandinavia. These units are approximately equivalent to the Terreneuvian and Cambrian provisional series 2. The Rovnian and Lontovan stages are pre-trilobitic. The Dominopolian and 'Ljubomlian' stages encompass the ' Rusophycus' and Schmidtiellus mickwitzi zones; whether the former zone is of pre-trilobitic age is uncertain but possible. The 'Ljubomlian' is treated informally because the definition adopted in this paper does not correspond to the original concept of the stage. The Vergalian and Rausvian are for the time being classified as one combined stage. The lower main part of the Vergalian-Rausvian corresponds to the new informal Holmia kjerulfi- 'Ornamentaspis' linnarssoni zone, whereas the upper part is separated as the new informal Comluella?-Ellipsocephalus lunatus zone. This zone also includes the Kibartian Stage. Volborthella and poorly known olenellid trilobites range into the Kibartian and the stage is considered of Early Cambrian age. The Holmia inusitata Zone is abandoned; it is contemporaneous with the traditional ' O.' linnarssoni Zone. The autochthonous strata underlying the Hawke Bay unconformity in the Laisvall sector, Swedish Lapland, are assigned to the Laisberg and Grammajukku formations and it is proposed to abandon the Laisvall and Såvvare formations. The Laisberg Fm can locally be divided into the Ackerselet, Saivatj, Maiva, Kautsky Ore, Tjalek, Nadok Ore and Assjatj members. The Vakkejokk Breccia near Luopakte is likely

  10. Nd-Sr isotopic and geochemical systematics in Cambrian boninites and tholeiites from Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. R.; Crawford, A. J.; McCulloch, M. T.

    1984-11-01

    Rocks with boninitic affinities have been recognised in a number of “ophiolites”, including the Cambrian Heathcote and Mt Wellington Greenstone Belts of Victoria. Boninites and high-Mg andesites from the Heathcote Greenstone Belt show a restricted range of initial ɛ Nd values of between +3.3 to +5.8. Extremely refractory boninites from the Mt Wellington Greenstone Belt have ɛ Nd ranging from +1.3 to -9. Ti/Zr is positively correlated with Sm/Nd with the Heathcote lavas generally possessing greater depletion of Ti and enrichment of Zr relative to the middle and heavy REE with increasing LREE/HREE. These data are consistent with the generation of boninites by partial melting of refractory peridotite following invasion by LREE- and Zr-enriched, low ɛ Nd fluids. Tholeiites overlying the boninites in both greenstone belts have flat REE patterns and ɛ Nd˜+5, lower than that anticipated for lavas derived from depleted MORB source reservoirs in the Cambrian, suggesting that their source was also contaminated by a LREE-enriched, low ɛ Nd component similar to that involved in the generation of the Howqua boninites. The added components have characteristics compatible with their derivation from subducted altered oceanic crust and/or from wet subducted sediments. The identification of boninites and other low-Ti lavas in the Victorian greenstone belts is strong evidence for island arc development in southeastern Australia during the Lower Cambrian and provides further support for a subduction-related origin for many ophiolites.

  11. Controls on gut phosphatisation: the trilobites from the Weeks Formation Lagerstätte (Cambrian; Utah.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Lerosey-Aubril

    Full Text Available Despite being internal organs, digestive structures are frequently preserved in Cambrian Lagerstätten. However, the reasons for their fossilisation and their biological implications remain to be thoroughly explored. This is particularly true with arthropods--typically the most diverse fossilised organisms in Cambrian ecosystems--where digestive structures represent an as-yet underexploited alternative to appendage morphology for inferences on their biology. Here we describe the phosphatised digestive structures of three trilobite species from the Cambrian Weeks Formation Lagerstätte (Utah. Their exquisite, three-dimensional preservation reveals unique details on trilobite internal anatomy, such as the position of the mouth and the absence of a differentiated crop. In addition, the presence of paired pygidial organs of an unknown function is reported for the first time. This exceptional material enables exploration of the relationships between gut phosphatisation and the biology of organisms. Indeed, soft-tissue preservation is unusual in these fossils as it is restricted to the digestive structures, which indicates that the gut played a central role in its own phosphatisation. We hypothesize that the gut provided a microenvironment where special conditions could develop and harboured a source of phosphorus. The fact that gut phosphatization has almost exclusively been observed in arthropods could be explained by their uncommon ability to store ions (including phosphorous in their digestive tissues. However, in some specimens from the Weeks Formation, the phosphatisation extends to the entire digestive system, suggesting that trilobites might have had some biological particularities not observed in modern arthropods. We speculate that one of them might have been an increased capacity for ion storage in the gut tissues, related to the moulting of their heavily-mineralised carapace.

  12. Controls on Gut Phosphatisation: The Trilobites from the Weeks Formation Lagerstätte (Cambrian; Utah)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Hegna, Thomas A.; Kier, Carlo; Bonino, Enrico; Habersetzer, Jörg; Carré, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Despite being internal organs, digestive structures are frequently preserved in Cambrian Lagerstätten. However, the reasons for their fossilisation and their biological implications remain to be thoroughly explored. This is particularly true with arthropods – typically the most diverse fossilised organisms in Cambrian ecosystems – where digestive structures represent an as-yet underexploited alternative to appendage morphology for inferences on their biology. Here we describe the phosphatised digestive structures of three trilobite species from the Cambrian Weeks Formation Lagerstätte (Utah). Their exquisite, three-dimensional preservation reveals unique details on trilobite internal anatomy, such as the position of the mouth and the absence of a differentiated crop. In addition, the presence of paired pygidial organs of an unknown function is reported for the first time. This exceptional material enables exploration of the relationships between gut phosphatisation and the biology of organisms. Indeed, soft-tissue preservation is unusual in these fossils as it is restricted to the digestive structures, which indicates that the gut played a central role in its own phosphatisation. We hypothesize that the gut provided a microenvironment where special conditions could develop and harboured a source of phosphorus. The fact that gut phosphatization has almost exclusively been observed in arthropods could be explained by their uncommon ability to store ions (including phosphorous) in their digestive tissues. However, in some specimens from the Weeks Formation, the phosphatisation extends to the entire digestive system, suggesting that trilobites might have had some biological particularities not observed in modern arthropods. We speculate that one of them might have been an increased capacity for ion storage in the gut tissues, related to the moulting of their heavily-mineralised carapace. PMID:22431989

  13. THE FIRST RECORD OF CAMBRIAN CONODONTS FROM THE HUQF-HAUSHI OUTCROPS, OMAN, ARABIAN PENINSULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELLA BAGNOLI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Outcrops of Cambrian sediments of the uppermost Miqrat Formation, the Al Bashair Formation and the basal Barik Formation were sampled for conodont and palynomorph studies. The units are part of the Palaeozoic Haima Supergroup, exposed in the Huqf-Haushi area in central eastern Oman, Arabian Peninsula. Palynomorphs were absent but conodont samples yielded a small conodont fauna. The presence of Muellerodus? erectus allows the recognition of the Muellerodus? erectus Zone established for North China (late Paibian – early Jiangshanian, in accordance with previous reports on the trilobite fauna from the same interval.

  14. New data on the Lower Cambrian trilobites of Cortijos de Malagon (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jago, J. B.

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available A Small trilobite fauna from the late Lower Cambrian Sanstones from Los Cortijos de Malagon of Southem Spain is described herein. This fauna ineludes the following taxa: Realaspis (? sp.; Kingaspis (? sp.; cf. Latoucheia sp. and Lusatiops afI. ribotanusd, Richter and Richter, 1948.En este trabajo se describe la fauna de trilobites del Cámbrico inferior de las areniscas de los Cortijos de Malagón en el SE español. Comprende Realaspis (? sp., Kingaspis (? sp.; cf. Latoucheia sp. y Lusatiops afI. ribotanus. Richter y Richter, 1948.

  15. Arthropod eyes: The early Cambrian fossil record and divergent evolution of visual systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Ma, Xiaoya; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Fortey, Richard A; Land, Michael F; Liu, Yu; Cong, Peiyun; Hou, Xianguang

    2016-03-01

    Four types of eyes serve the visual neuropils of extant arthropods: compound retinas composed of adjacent facets; a visual surface populated by spaced eyelets; a smooth transparent cuticle providing inwardly directed lens cylinders; and single-lens eyes. The first type is a characteristic of pancrustaceans, the eyes of which comprise lenses arranged as hexagonal or rectilinear arrays, each lens crowning 8-9 photoreceptor neurons. Except for Scutigeromorpha, the second type typifies Myriapoda whose relatively large eyelets surmount numerous photoreceptive rhabdoms stacked together as tiers. Scutigeromorph eyes are facetted, each lens crowning some dozen photoreceptor neurons of a modified apposition-type eye. Extant chelicerate eyes are single-lensed except in xiphosurans, whose lateral eyes comprise a cuticle with a smooth outer surface and an inner one providing regular arrays of lens cylinders. This account discusses whether these disparate eye types speak for or against divergence from one ancestral eye type. Previous considerations of eye evolution, focusing on the eyes of trilobites and on facet proliferation in xiphosurans and myriapods, have proposed that the mode of development of eyes in those taxa is distinct from that of pancrustaceans and is the plesiomorphic condition from which facetted eyes have evolved. But the recent discovery of enormous regularly facetted compound eyes belonging to early Cambrian radiodontans suggests that high-resolution facetted eyes with superior optics may be the ground pattern organization for arthropods, predating the evolution of arthrodization and jointed post-protocerebral appendages. Here we provide evidence that compound eye organization in stem-group euarthropods of the Cambrian can be understood in terms of eye morphologies diverging from this ancestral radiodontan-type ground pattern. We show that in certain Cambrian groups apposition eyes relate to fixed or mobile eyestalks, whereas other groups reveal concomitant

  16. Reproductive cyst and operculum formation in the Cambrian-Ordovician galeate-plexus microfossils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agic, Heda; Moczydlowska, Malgorzata; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Unicellular organic-walled microfossils from the Cambrian-Ordovician transition in Estonia (ca. 490-480million years ago) exhibit rare characters reflecting their function as reproductive algal cysts. The studied assemblages record the evolutionary history of phytoplankton in the early Palaeozoic...... alga Acetabularia (Chlorophyta), which possesses an intrinsic lid-forming apparatus used during the organism's reproductive stage. Based on the observations on the fossil material and studies on the Acetabularia lid formation, we propose a model of operculum formation in the galeate plexus micro-organisms...

  17. Specific activity and hazards of Archeozoic-Cambrian rock samples collected from the Weibei area of Shaanxi (China))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinwei, L.; Lingqing, W.; Xiaodan, J.; Leipeng, Y.; Gelian, D.

    2006-01-01

    The present work deals with the radioactivity of the Archeozoic-Cambrian rocks of the Weibei area, Shaanxi (China)). A total of 45 rock samples of Archeozoic-Cambrian strata were investigated. The radionuclides of the samples, in Bq kg -1 , have been measured using Na(I)Tl gamma-ray spectrometer. The concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the Archeozoic-Cambrian rock samples range from 12.3 to 55.4, from 2.4 to 98.7 and from 58.6 to 1613.3 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the typical world average values. To assess the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity in the samples, the radium equivalent activity, the external hazard index, internal hazard index and the annual gonadal dose equivalent associated with the radionuclides were calculated and compared with the international recommended values. (authors)

  18. Shallow ground burial of low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, A.; Cooper, M.B.; Hargrave, N.J.; Munslow-Davies, L.

    1989-01-01

    Acceptance criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes are presented for adoption throughout Australia, a continent in which there are readily available areas in arid, sparsely inhabited places, likely to be suitable as sites for shallow ground burial. Drawing upon overseas practices and experiences, criteria have been developed for low-level waste disposal and are intended to be applicable and relevant to the Australian situation. Concentration levels have been derived for a shallow ground burial facility assuming a realistic institutional control period of 200 years. A comparison is made between this period and institutional control for 100 years and 300 years. Longer institutional control periods enable the acceptance of higher concentrations of radionuclides of intermediate half-lives. Scenarios, which have been considered, include current Australian pastoral practices and traditional Aboriginal occupancy. The derived radionuclide concentration levels for the disposal of low level wastes are not dissimilar to those developed in other countries. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  19. Preliminary report on a glass burial experiment in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Zhu, B.F.; Robinson, R.S.; Wicks, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of a two-year burial experiment in granite are discussed. Three compositions of simulated alkali borosilicate waste glasses were placed in boreholes approximately 350 meters deep. The glass sample configurations include mini-cans (stainless steel rings into which glass has been cast) and pineapple slices (thin sections from cylindrical blocks). Assemblies of these glass samples were prepared by stacking them together with granite, compacted bentonite and metal rings to provide several types of interfaces that are expected to occur in the repository. The assemblies were maintained at either ambient mine temperature (8 to 10 0 C) or 90 0 C. The glasses were analyzed before burial and after one month storage at 90 0 C. The most extensive surface degradation occurred on the glasses interfaced with bentonite. In general, very little attack was observed on glass surfaces in contact with the other materials. The limited field and laboratory data are compared

  20. Fluvial-deltaic sedimentation and stratigraphy of the ferron sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P.B.; Chidsey, T.C.; Ryer, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    East-central Utah has world-class outcrops of dominantly fluvial-deltaic Turonian to Coniacian aged strata deposited in the Cretaceous foreland basin. The Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale records the influences of both tidal and wave energy on fluvial-dominated deltas on the western margin of the Cretaceous western interior seaway. Revisions of the stratigraphy are proposed for the Ferron Sandstone. Facies representing a variety of environments of deposition are well exposed, including delta-front, strandline, marginal marine, and coastal-plain. Some of these facies are described in detail for use in petroleum reservoir characterization and include permeability structure.

  1. Sandstone-type uranium deposits. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.

    1985-01-01

    The similarity of most of the deposits described in this report is striking even though they occur in sandstone host rocks ranging in age from Carboniferous to Tertiary and on every continent outside the polar regions. Geologic environments of the uranium deposits consist of distinctive sets of tectonic and sedimentary-depositional systems, all of which have some common threads of favorable geologic processes. In this summary paper it is hoped that this report has sharpened an understanding of the deposit's ''home environment'' that will aid future exploration for these resource-important sandstone-type uranium ores

  2. Elevated Uranium in Aquifers of the Jacobsville Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, H.; Gierke, J.

    2003-12-01

    The EPA has announced a new standard for uranium in drinking water of 30 parts per billion (ppb). This maximum contaminant level (MCL) takes effect for community water supplies December 2003. The EPA's ruling has heightened awareness among residential well owners that uranium in drinking water may increase the risk of kidney disease and cancer and has created a need for a quantified, scientific understanding of the occurrence and distribution of uranium isotopes in aquifers. The authors are investigating the occurrence of elevated uranium in northern Michigan aquifers of the Middle Proterozoic Jacobsville sandstone, a red to mottled sequence of sandstones, conglomerates, siltstones and shales deposited as basin fill in the 1.1 Ga Midcontinent rift. Approximately 25% of 300 well water samples tested for isotopic uranium have concentrations above the MCL. Elevated uranium occurrences are distributed throughout the Jacobsville sandstone aquifers stretching across Michigan's Upper Peninsula. However, there is significant variation in well water uranium concentrations (from 0.01 to 190 ppb) and neighboring wells do not necessarily have similar concentrations. The authors are investigating hydrogeologic controls on ground water uranium concentrations in the Jacobsville sandstone, e.g. variations in lithology, mineralogy, groundwater residence time and geochemistry. Approximately 2000' of Jacobsville core from the Amoco St. Amour well was examined in conjunction with the spectral gamma ray log run in the borehole. Spikes in equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from the log are frequently associated with clay and heavy mineral layers in the sandstone core. The lithology and mineralogy of these layers will be determined by analysis of thin sections and x-ray diffraction. A portable spectrometer, model GRS-2000/BL, will be used on the sandstone cliffs along Lake Superior to characterize depositional and lithologic facies of the Jacobsville sandstone in terms of

  3. A new bee species that excavates sandstone nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Michael C; Griswold, Terry; Pitts, James P; Parker, Frank D

    2016-09-12

    Humanity has long been fascinated by animals with apparently unfavorable lifestyles [1]. Nesting habits are especially important because they can limit where organisms live, thereby driving population, community, and even ecosystem dynamics [2]. The question arises, then, why bees nest in active termite mounds [3] or on the rim of degassing volcanoes, seemingly preferring such hardship [4]. Here, we present a new bee species that excavates sandstone nests, Anthophora (Anthophoroides) pueblo Orr (described in Supplemental Information, published with this article online), despite the challenges already inherent to desert life. Ultimately, the benefits of nesting in sandstone appear to outweigh the associated costs in this system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Touchstones from early medieval burials in Tuna in Alsike, Sweden

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, February (2014), s. 422-429 ISSN 0305-4403 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M300021203 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * Viking Age * elite * boat burial * touchstone * precious metal * zinc * nickel Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.196, year: 2014

  5. Discovery of a predynastic elephant burial at Hierakonpolis, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Adams

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available It has long been known that the ancient Egyptians buried such animals as dogs, baboons and cattle, sometimes in human tombs and sometimes in separate graves of their own. Now excavation in a cemetery associated with the large settlement of Hierakonpolis has led to the unexpected discovery of a 5700-year-old elephant burial. Here the Research Curator of the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology at UCL describes the discovery and discusses its significance.

  6. Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is documented

  7. Development of waste unit for use in shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, K.

    1986-01-01

    A hexagonal waste unit has been developed for use in shallow land burial of low- and medium-level radioactive waste. The waste units used as overpack on empty standard 210 1 drums have been tested for tightness and mechanical resistance. Experimental burial of 21 empty full-size units has demonstrated the emplacement of the containers and the sealing of the crevises between them with molten bitumen. The development of the experimental burial with time is being followed. Three different conceptual designs for advanced burial systems using the hexagonal standard units are described. The outer barrier is a thick concrete structure covered by 2, 10 or 20 m soil, respectively. The waste units were cast from a normal high-quality concrete as well as from Densit, a new, very strong and impermeable type of concrete prepared by the combined use of silica-fume (microsilica) and a superplastizicer as additives. The migration of Cl - , Cs + and tritiated water was found to be much slower in Densit than in normal concrete. In combination with leaching measurements for Cs + from the same materials the results are used to present some theoretical considerations concerning transport through solution-filled pore systems as dependent on pore-size distribution, tortuosity, etc. A method based on neutron-activated cement cast in form of thin plates has been developed and used to study the dissolution chemistry of concrete. A preliminary model is presented. Indications for precipitation mechanisms were obtained. Densit was demonstrated to ensure a high degree of corrosion protection for steel reinforcement. The reason is mainly the high electrical resistivity combined with low diffusive transport in the material. The pozzolanic reaction results in somewhat lower pH in the pore water than in normal concrete, but the effect is not so pronounced that the passivation of steel reinforcement is endangered

  8. Enhanced Site Characterization of the 618-4 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Chien, Yi-Ju

    2001-09-25

    This report describes the results obtained from deployment of the Enhanced Site Characterization System (ESCS) at the Hanford Site's 618-4 Burial Ground. The objective of this deployment was to use advanced geostatistical methods to integrate and interpret geophysical and ground truth data, to map the physical types of waste materials present in unexcavated portions of the burial ground. One issue of particularly interest was the number of drums (containing depleted uranium metal shavings or uranium-oxide powder) remaining in the burial ground and still requiring removal.Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART), a neural network classification method, was used to cluster the study area into 3 classes based on their geophysical signatures. Multivariate statistical analyses and discriminant function analysis (DFA) indicated that the drum area as well as a second area (the SW anomaly) had similar geophysical signatures that were different from the rest of the burial ground. Further analysis of the drum area suggested that as many as 770 drums to 850 drums may remain in that area. Similarities between the geophysical signatures of the drum area and the SW anomaly suggested that excavation of the SW anomaly area also proceed with caution.Deployment of the ESCS technology was successful in integrating multiple geophysical variables and grouping these observations into clusters that are relevant for planning further excavation of the buried ground. However, the success of the technology could not be fully evaluated because reliable ground truth data were not available to enable calibration of the different geophysical signatures against actual waste types.

  9. Discovery of a predynastic elephant burial at Hierakonpolis, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Adams

    1998-01-01

    It has long been known that the ancient Egyptians buried such animals as dogs, baboons and cattle, sometimes in human tombs and sometimes in separate graves of their own. Now excavation in a cemetery associated with the large settlement of Hierakonpolis has led to the unexpected discovery of a 5700-year-old elephant burial. Here the Research Curator of the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology at UCL describes the discovery and discusses its significance.

  10. Paleomagnetism of a well-dated marine succession in South China: A possible Late Cambrian true polar wander (TPW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wen-Jun; Li, Yong-Xiang; Yang, Zhen-Yu

    2018-04-01

    The Cambrian true polar wander (TPW) hypothesis remains controversial largely because of the uncertainties in the quality and/or fidelity of the paleomagnetic data as well as their chronological control. Testing the TPW hypothesis requires high-quality paleomagnetic data of sufficient spatial and temporal resolutions. Here, we present paleomagnetic results of a continuous Cambrian shallow marine succession from South China where available detailed biostratigraphy provides exceptional chronological constraints. Forty-three sites of paleomagnetic samples were collected from this limestone-dominated succession. Stepwise thermal demagnetization generally reveals three-component magnetizations. Low- and intermediate-temperature components can be cleaned by ∼330 °C, and the high-temperature component (HTC) was isolated typically from ∼350 to ∼450 °C. A positive fold test and the presence of reversed polarity in the strata, together with rock magnetic data as well as the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) results, collectively suggest that the HTCs are likely primary. A directional shift of the HTCs occurs between the lower-middle Cambrian and the upper Cambrian strata in the succession and is tentatively interpreted to indicate a ∼57° polar wander from ∼500.5 to 494 Ma. Because the rate of polar wander is too fast to be a tectonic origin, this polar wander is interpreted to represent a Late Cambrian TPW. This TPW appears coeval with the Steptoean positive carbon isotope excursion (SPICE) and the major trilobite mass extinctions, suggesting a potential link between the TPW and the Late Cambrian biotic and climatic changes. Because the proposed TPW event is exceptionally well-dated, it should be testable through examination of other worldwide sections.

  11. Cambrian Evolutionary Radiation: Context, correlation, and chronostratigraphy—Overcoming deficiencies of the first appearance datum (FAD) concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landing, Ed; Geyer, Gerd; Brasier, Martin D.; Bowring, Samuel A.

    2013-08-01

    Use of the first appearance datum (FAD) of a fossil to define a global chronostratigraphic unit's base can lead to intractable correlation and stability problems. FADs are diachronous—they reflect species' evolutionary history, dispersal, biofacies, preservation, collection, and taxonomy. The Cambrian Evolutionary Radiation is characterised by diachronous FADs, biofacies controls, and provincialism of taxa and ecological communities that confound a stable Lower Cambrian chronostratigraphy. Cambrian series and stage definitions require greater attention to assemblage zone successions and non-biostratigraphic, particularly carbon isotope, correlation techniques such as those that define the Ediacaran System base. A redefined, basal Cambrian Trichophycus pedum Assemblage Zone lies above the highest Ediacaran-type biotas (vendobionts, putative metazoans, and calcareous problematica such as Cloudina) and the basal Asteridium tornatum-Comasphaeridium velvetum Zone (acritarchs). This definition and the likely close correspondence of evolutionary origin and local FAD of T. pedum preserves the Fortune Head, Newfoundland, GSSP of the Cambrian base and allows the presence of sub-Cambrian, branched ichnofossils. The sub-Tommotian-equivalent base of Stage 2 (a suggested "Laolinian Stage") should be defined by the I'/L4/ZHUCE δ13C positive peak, bracketed by the lower ranges of Watsonella crosbyi and Aldanella attleborensis (molluscs) and the Skiagia ornata-Fimbrioglomerella membranacea Zone (acritarchs). The W. crosbyi and A. attleborensis FADs cannot define a Stage 2 base as they are diachronous even in the Newfoundland "type" W. crosbyi Zone. The Series 2 base cannot be based on a species' FAD owing to the provincialism of skeletalised metazoans in the Terreneuvian-Series 2 boundary interval and global heterochrony of the oldest trilobites. A Series 2 and Stage 3 (a suggested "Lenaldanian Series" and "Zhurinskyan Stage," new) GSSP base is proposed at the Siberian lower

  12. Decommissioning of commercial shallow-land burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.S.; Holter, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    Estimated costs and safety considerations for decommissioning LLW burial grounds have been evaluated. Calculations are based on a generic burial ground assumed to be located at a western and an eastern site. Decommissioning modes include: (1) site stabilization followed by long-term care of the site; and (2) waste relocation. Site stabilization is estimated to cost from $0.4 million to $7.5 million, depending on the site and the stabilization option chosen. Long-term care is estimated to cost about $100,000 annually, with somewhat higher costs during early years because of increased site maintenance and environmental monitoring requirements. Long-term care is required until the site is released for unrestricted public use. Occupational and public safety impacts of site stabilization and long-term care are estimated to be small. Relocation of all the waste from a reference burial ground is estimated to cost more than $1.4 billion and to require more than 20 years for completion. Over 90% of the cost is associated with packaging, transportation, and offsite disposal of the exhumed waste. Waste relocation results in significant radiation exposure to decommissioning workers

  13. Examination of representative drum from 618-9 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The work described in this report was conducted in pursuance of Task E of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Solid Waste Technology Support Program for Westinghouse Hanford Company. Task E calls for a determination of the corrosion rate of low-carbon steels under typical Hanford Site conditions. To meet this objective, Pacific Northwest Laboratory examined one intact drum that was judged to be representative of the largely intact drums excavated at the 618-9 Burial Ground located west of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. Six samples were examined to characterize the drum, its composition, and its corrosion and corrosion products. The drum, which was found empty, was constructed of low-carbon steel. Its surface appeared relatively sound. The drum metal varied in thickness, but the minimum thickness in the samples was near 0.020 in. The corrosion corresponds to approximately 25 to 35 mils of metal loss, roughly a 1 mil/yr corrosion rate. Corrosion products were goethite and maghymite, expected products of iron buried in soil. Apparently, the drum leaked some time ago, but the cause of the leakage is unknown because records of the drums and their burial are limited. The drum was empty when found, and it is possible that it could have failed by pitting rather than by general corrosion. A pitting rate of about 3.5 mils/yr would have caused loss of drum integrity in the time since burial

  14. Arachnostega Bertling, 1992 in the Drumian (Cambrian) sediments of the Teplá-Barrandian region (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fatka, O.; Mikuláš, Radek; Szabad, M.; Micka, V.; Valent, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2011), s. 367-381 ISSN 0001-5709 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/0395; GA ČR GA205/09/1521 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Cambrian * Teplá-Barrandian region * ichnofossils * Jince Formation * Buchava Formation * Arachnostega * Cambrian (Czech Republic) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.565, year: 2011 https://geojournals.pgi.gov.pl/agp/article/view/9705

  15. Athabasca basin unconformity-type uranium deposits. A special class of sandstone-type deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeve, J.

    1980-01-01

    Two major episodes of uranium metallogenesis are recognized in Northern Saskatchewan. The first is of late-Hudsonian age and gave rise to metamorphic-hydrothermal pitchblende deposits of simple mineralogy at Beaverlodge (primary mineralization: 1780+-20 m.y.). The second and more important episode of approximately Grenvillian age rendered unconformity-type deposits in the Athabasca Basin (primary mineralization: 1000-1300 m.y.). The late-Hudsonian deposits at Beaverlodge were overprinted by this second event and new deposits of complex mineralogy were formed in that area. The metallogenetic importance of a third and much later episode which gave rise to mineralization within the Athabasca Formation is uncertain at the moment. With regards to metallogenesis of the unconformity-type deposits, presently available evidence favours a diagenetic-hydrothermal rather than a near-surface supergene or a magmatic/metamorphic hydrothermal model. The diagenetic-hydrothermal model relates uranium mineralization to 'red bed-type' diagenetic processes in the Athabasca Formation involving post-depositional oxidation and leaching, which continued for several hundred million years after deposition. Ore deposits were formed by interaction, under conditions of deep burial at elevated temperatures and pressures, of a uraniferous oxidizing Athabasca aquifer with reducing, graphite-bearing, metamorphic rocks of the basin floor. The large-scale convection required for such interaction may have been induced by mafic magmatic activity coeval with the episode of mineralization. The diagenetic-hydrothermal model displays close similarities with metallogenetic models developed for certain sandstone-type deposits. (author)

  16. Report on waste burial charges: Escalation of decommissioning waste disposal costs at low-level waste burial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    One of the requirements placed upon nuclear power reactor licensees by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is for the licensees to periodically adjust the estimate of the cost of decommissioning their plant, in dollars of the current year, as part of the process to provide reasonable assurance that adequate funds for decommissioning will be available when needed. This report, which is scheduled to be revised annually, contains the development of a formula for escalating decommissioning cost estimates that is acceptable to the NRC, and contains values for the escalation of radioactive waste burial costs, by site and by year. The licensees may use the formula, the coefficients, and the burial escalation factors from this report in their escalation analysis, or may use an escalation rate at least equal to the escalation approach presented herein. 4 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Discussion on the origin of bleached sandstone of Qianjiadian uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Yaqing; Xiang Weidong; Li Tiangang; Chen Xiaolin; Xia Yuliang

    2007-01-01

    Qianjiadian uranium deposit is a sandstone-type uranium deposit that has been discovered in Songliao Basin in recent years. Uranium ore bodies are planar or lenticular in shape and under the control of the contact between gray sandstones and bleached sandstones. The bleached sandstone is white in color, cemented loosely, nearly without TOC and pyrite contained and rich in uranium. Geochemical characteristics and types and assemblages of clay minerals of the bleached sandstone reveal that the bleached sandstone is the product of oxidation of the interlayer oxidation zone, and it is a part of the interlayer oxidation zone. The main reasons for white color of the bleached sandstone are transfer of iron ion, oxidation of TOC and kaolinization of sandstone. (authors)

  18. Report on waste burial charges. Escalation of decommissioning waste disposal costs at low-level waste burial facilities, Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    One of the requirements placed upon nuclear power reactor licensees by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is for the licensees to periodically adjust the estimate of the cost of decommissioning their plants, in dollars of the current year, as part of the process to provide reasonable assurance that adequate funds for decommissioning will be available when needed. This report, which is scheduled to be revised periodically, contains the development of a formula for escalating decommissioning cost estimates that is acceptable to the NRC. The sources of information to be used in the escalation formula are identified, and the values developed for the escalation of radioactive waste burial costs, by site and by year, are given. The licensees may use the formula, the coefficients, and the burial escalation factors from this report in their escalation analyses, or they may use an escalation rate at least equal to the escalation approach presented herein. This fourth revision of NUREG-1307 contains revised spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference PWR and the reference BWR and the ratios of disposal costs at the Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina sites for the years 1986, 1988, 1991 and 1993, superseding the values given in the May 1993 issue of this report. Burial cost surcharges mandated by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) have been incorporated into the revised ratio tables for those years. In addition, spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference reactors and ratios of disposal costs at the two remaining burial sites in Washington and South Carolina for the year 1994 are provided. These latter results do not include any LLRWPAA surcharges, since those provisions of the Act expired at the end of 1992. An example calculation for escalated disposal cost is presented, demonstrating the use of the data contained in this report

  19. Microbial involvement in the formation of Cambrian sea-floor silica-iron oxide deposits, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhig, Nathan C.; Davidson, Garry J.; Stolz, Joe

    1992-06-01

    The Cambrian-Ordovician Mount Windsor volcanic belt in northern Australia is host to stratiform lenses of massive ferruginous chert that are spatially associated with volcanogenic massive sulfide occurrences, in particular the Thalanga zinc-lead-copper-silver deposit. The rocks are composed principally of Fe2O3 and SiO2, with very low concentrations of alkalic elements, and lithogenous elements such as Al, Zr, and Ti; they are interpreted as nearly pure chemical sediments. Textural evidence is documented of the integral role of filamentous bacteria (and/or fungi) in depositing iron from hydrothermal fluids, and of the inorganic precipitation of silica-iron-oxyhydroxide gels that subsequently matured to subcrystalline and crystalline silica forms. At least three distinct iron-accumulating microbial forms are distinguished: networks of septate filaments, nonseptate filament networks, and extremely coarse branching filaments that do not reconnect. Values for δ34S in disseminated pyrite are up to 50‰ lighter than those of contemporaneous Cambrian seawater, suggesting postdepositional colonization of some ironstones by sulfur-reducing bacteria. The site not only preserves the textural interplay of biological and inorganic depositional processes in exhalites, but also extends the oldest known instance of microbial mediation in vent-proximal hydrothermal iron precipitation to at least 500 Ma.

  20. Fossil embryos from the Middle and Late Cambrian period of Hunan, south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xi-Ping; Donoghue, Philip C J; Cheng, Hong; Liu, Jian-Bo

    2004-01-15

    Comparative embryology is integral to uncovering the pattern and process of metazoan phylogeny, but it relies on the assumption that life histories of living taxa are representative of their antecedents. Fossil embryos provide a crucial test of this assumption and, potentially, insight into the evolution of development, but because discoveries so far lack phylogenetic constraint, their significance is moot. Here we describe a collection of embryos from the Middle and Late Cambrian period (500 million years ago) of Hunan, south China, that preserves stages of development from cleavage to the pre-hatching embryo of a direct-developing animal comparable to living Scalidophora (phyla Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera). The latest-stage embryos show affinity to the Lower Cambrian embryo Markuelia, whose life-history strategy contrasts both with the primitive condition inferred for metazoan phyla and with many proposed hypotheses of affinity, all of which prescribe indirect development. Phylogenetic tests based on these embryological data suggest a stem Scalidophora affinity. These discoveries corroborate, rather than contradict, the predictions of comparative embryology, providing direct historical support for the view that the life-history strategies of living taxa are representative of their stem lineages.

  1. Kodymirus and the case for convergence of raptorial appendages in Cambrian arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsdell, James C; Stein, Martin; Selden, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    Kodymirus vagans Chlupáč and Havlíček in Sb Geol Ved Paleontol 6:7-20, 1965 is redescribed as an aglaspidid-like arthropod bearing a single pair of enlarged raptorial appendages, which are shown to be the second cephalic appendage. A number of early Palaeozoic arthropods, recognized from predominantly Cambrian Konservat-Lagerstätten, are known to have borne single pairs of large raptorial appendages. They are well established for the iconic yet problematic anomalocarids, the common megacheirans, and the ubiquitous bivalved Isoxys. Further taxa, such as fuxianhuiids and Branchiocaris, have been reported to have single pairs of specialized cephalic appendages, i.e., appendages differentiated from a largely homonomous limbs series, members of which act in metachronal motion. The homology of these raptorial appendages across these Cambrian arthropods has often been assumed, despite differences in morphology. Thus, anomalocaridids, for instance, have long multiarticulate "frontal appendages" consisting of many articles bearing an armature of paired serial spines, while megacheirans and Isoxys have short "great appendages" consisting of few articles with well-developed endites or elongate fingers. Homology of these appendages would require them to belong to the same cephalic segment. We argue based on morphological evidence that, to the contrary, the raptorial appendages of some of these taxa can be shown to belong to different cephalic segments and are the result of convergence in life habits. K. vagans is yet another important example for this, representing an instance for this morphology from a marginal marine environment.

  2. Mathematical model quantifies multiple daylight exposure and burial events for rock surfaces using luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiesleben, Trine; Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew; Jain, Mayank; Al Khasawneh, Sahar; Hvidt, Søren; Jakobsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of rock surfaces has increased significantly over the last few years, as the potential of the method has been explored. It has been realized that luminescence-depth profiles show qualitative evidence for multiple daylight exposure and burial events. To quantify both burial and exposure events a new mathematical model is developed by expanding the existing models of evolution of luminescence–depth profiles, to include repeated sequential events of burial and exposure to daylight. This new model is applied to an infrared stimulated luminescence-depth profile from a feldspar-rich granite cobble from an archaeological site near Aarhus, Denmark. This profile shows qualitative evidence for multiple daylight exposure and burial events; these are quantified using the model developed here. By determining the burial ages from the surface layer of the cobble and by fitting the new model to the luminescence profile, it is concluded that the cobble was well bleached before burial. This indicates that the OSL burial age is likely to be reliable. In addition, a recent known exposure event provides an approximate calibration for older daylight exposure events. This study confirms the suggestion that rock surfaces contain a record of exposure and burial history, and that these events can be quantified. The burial age of rock surfaces can thus be dated with confidence, based on a knowledge of their pre-burial light exposure; it may also be possible to determine the length of a fossil exposure, using a known natural light exposure as calibration. - Highlights: • Evidence for multiple exposure and burial events in the history of a single cobble. • OSL rock surface dating model improved to include multiple burial/exposure cycles. • Application of the new model quantifies burial and exposure events.

  3. Petrographic study of core plugs from lower goru sandstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, M.K.; Tunio, A.; Leghari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Petrographic rock type description is a fundamental component in the reservoir description processes and typically included measurement to identify sediment source, texture, composition and mineralogy. Petroleum workers have long used the Petrographic microscope as an in put device to aid in the study of pore systems. Standard Petrographic thin sections are typically 30 micrometers thick and are usually illuminated by transmitted light. Experienced examiners have trained themselves to see information such as pore size, mineralogy, compaction, etc by disregarding artifacts produced by passing light through a section. This method is adequate for qualitative interpretation of data from thin sections. Rocks in thin section under a microscope display great complexity in pore sizes and shapes. Petrographic study provides measurement on rock texture. Texture deals with the size, shape and arrangement of the component minerals of a rock. It is essentially the micro geometry of the rock. Permeability of collected core plugs of lower Goru sandstones was measured. From this Petrographic study we have identified as the sandstone of Lower Goru constitute almost entirely of quartz. The grains range in size from very fine to medium, moderately well sorted to well sorted and rounded to sub rounded in shape. Particularly attention was paid to mineral content present in Lower Goru Sandstone. The mineral composition from these core plugs of Lower Goru Sandstone as identified contain about 70-80% Quartz with traces of feldspar, muscovite, biotite, Epidote and hornblende. Calcite was present as cementing material and it was about 15 -30% of the total rock. (author)

  4. Provenance of sandstone on the western flank of Anambra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrographic and heavy mineral studies were carried out on clastic deposits that crop out in Ikpeshi, Auchi and Fugar localities in order to determine the provenance of the ... The heavy mineral suites and the petrographic signatures of the sandstones suggest derivation mainly from acid igneous rocks, gneisses and older ...

  5. A new bee species that excavates sandstone nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many wonder why animals act in seemingly injurious ways. Understanding the behavior of pollinators such as bees is especially important because of the necessary ecosystem service they provide. The new species Anthophora pueblo, discovered excavating sandstone nests, provides a model system for addre...

  6. Modal analysis and geochemistry of two sandstones of the Bhander ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and tectonic setting interpretations are based on modal analysis and whole rock geochemistry. The average ... that major part of the sediments were derived from the granitic source area. The sandstone ...... The geochemical gap shown by trace and rare ... of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research,. New Delhi, in ...

  7. Effect of Crushed Sandstone Sand on the Properties of High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents results of the laboratory investigation on high performance concrete (HPC) using crushed sandstone sand as 20%, 40%, and 60% replacement of river sand together with superplastisizer and silica fume (SF). The fresh concrete properties such as slump, air content and fresh concrete density have been ...

  8. The effect of hot water injection on sandstone permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Haugwitz, Christian; Jacobsen, Peter Sally Munch

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal energy storage can be achieved by hot water injection in geothermal sandstone aquifers. We present an analysis of literature data in combination with new short-term flow through permeability experiments in order to address physical and physico-chemical mechanisms that can alter...

  9. Influence of fluvial sandstone architecture on geothermal energy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, C.J.L.; Maghami Nick, Hamidreza M.; Weltje, G.J.; Donselaar, M.E.; Bruhn, D.F.

    2015-01-01

    Fluvial sandstone reservoirs composed of stacked meander belts are considered as potential geothermal resources in the Netherlands. Net-to-gross, orientation and stacking pattern of the channel belts is of major importance for the connectivity between the injection and production well in such

  10. Diagenesis, provenance and depositional environments of the Bunter Sandstone Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Mette; Weibel, Rikke; Friis, Henrik

    The Bunter Sandstone Formation in the northern North German Basin has large geothermal potential with high porosity and permeability (generally >15% and >100 mD, respectively) and with pore fluid temperatures that are adequate for geothermal energy production (c. 55–60˚C). A combined investigation...

  11. A complex investigation of building sandstones from Saxony (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetze, Jens; Siedel, Heiner

    2007-01-01

    The present paper provides a methodology for the investigation and characterization of building sandstones. This analytical scheme was designed for distinguishing mature arenites, which in general show very similar properties and are difficult to distinguish. This is shown for Cretaceous sandstones from various occurrences in Saxony (Germany), which have been used for centuries as building materials. The procedure is mainly based on the combination of macroscopic rock description, thin section polarizing microscopy (phase composition, texture, grain-size distribution) and cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy (quartz types, feldspar and kaolinite content) coupled with image analysis, scanning electron microscopy (accessories, pore cement, diagenetic grain surface features), and analysis of pore space data. Sometimes, additional data from X-ray diffraction or chemical analyses (major and trace elements) can be used. Especially in the case of quartz rich arenites, CL is a powerful tool for provenance analysis. The detailed analysis of sandstone material in most cases allows us to assign historically used building material to a specific sandstone occurrence. These results are important for both interpreting the weathering behaviour of the building material and the conservation, reconstruction and stone replacement of historical monuments

  12. Aeromagnetic gradient survey used in sandstone type uranium deposits prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaolu; Chang Shushuai

    2014-01-01

    The principle, advantage and data processing of aeromagnetic gradient survey approach is introduced in this paper which was used in sandstone type uranium deposits prospecting to study the shallow surface faults, uranium ore-forming environment and depth of magnetic body, which proved to be a good results. (authors)

  13. Burial and exhumation history of southern Sweden estimated from apatite fission-track data, stratigraphic landform analysis and the geological record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Green, Paul F.; Lidmar-Bergström, Karna; Bonow, Johan M.; Erlström, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    We present new apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) data from 87 samples of basement and sediment from southern Sweden, including samples from a 1.7 km deep borehole. The new AFTA data allow us to confirm the development of the South Swedish Dome as inferred from stratigraphic landform analysis (e.g. Lidmar-Bergström et al., 2013) and also to define the timing and magnitude of the events of burial and exhumation that shaped this prominent feature. Southern Sweden underwent a complex Palaeozoic - early Triassic history of burial and exhumation, but after a mid-Triassic event of uplift and exhumation, rocks on the Sub-Cambrian Peneplain cooled from palaeotemperatures ≥100°C. This event, that also affected southern Norway, West and East Greenland, marks an important phase in the breakup of Pangea. A second, regional phase of cooling and exhumation affected the area in the mid-Jurassic and eventually lead to stripping of the basement along the western and southern flanks of the South Swedish Dome prior to Late Cretaceous subsidence and burial and thus to formation of the sub-Cretaceous hilly relief. This event affected much of NW Europe as well as West and East Greenland, and it is coeval with the initial opening of the central Atlantic. A third, regional phase of cooling and exhumation from palaeotemperatures of 50-60°C took place in the Miocene and lead to the formation of the South Småland Peneplain. This phase affected southern Scandinavia but has no counterpart in Greenland. A final uplift phase that raised the South Småland Peneplain to its present elevation and lead to re-exposure of sub-Cretaceous hilly relief is not resolved in the AFTA data. The results underline the importance of epeirogenic movements (both uplift and subsidence) in regions that are often considered as stable cratons (cf. Green et al., 2013). Green, P.F., Lidmar-Bergström, K., Japsen, P., Bonow, J.M., Chalmers, J.A., 2013. Stratigraphic landscape analysis, thermochronology and the

  14. Sandstone Relief Geohazards and their Mitigation: Rock Fall Risk Management in the Bohemian Switzerland National Park

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vařilová, Zuzana; Zvelebil, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, - (2005), s. 53-58 ISSN 1682-5519. [Sandstone Landscapes in Europe. Past, Present and Future. International Conference on Sandstone Landscapes /2./. Vianden, 25.05.2005-28.05.2005] Keywords : sandstones * rock-slope instability * rock fall * risk evalution and mitigation * monitoring net * remedial works Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation

  15. Fast evolving conduits in clay-bonded sandstone: Characterization, erosion processes and significance for the origin of sandstone landforms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Svetlik, D.; Soukup, J.; Schweigstillová, Jana; Válek, Jan; Sedláčková, M.; Mayo, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 177, December (2012), s. 178-193 ISSN 0169-555X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130806 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:68378297 Keywords : sandstone * erosion * piping * tensile strength * conduit * landform Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.552, year: 2012

  16. Mathematical model quantifies multiple daylight exposure and burial events for rock surfaces using luminescence dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Trine Holm; Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of rock surfaces has increased significantly over the last few years, as the potential of the method has been explored. It has been realized that luminescence-depth profiles show qualitative evidence for multiple daylight exposure...... and burial events. To quantify both burial and exposure events a new mathematical model is developed by expanding the existing models of evolution of luminescenceedepth profiles, to include repeated sequential events of burial and exposure to daylight. This new model is applied to an infrared stimulated...... events. This study confirms the suggestion that rock surfaces contain a record of exposure and burial history, and that these events can be quantified. The burial age of rock surfaces can thus be dated with confidence, based on a knowledge of their pre-burial light exposure; it may also be possible...

  17. Studies of Pre-Mongol Bulgar Burials in the Territory of the Astrakhan Oblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutukov Dmitriy V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The funeral ceremonial features traced in three Bulgar burials, which have been discovered during archaeological excavations on the burial grounds named "Shchuchii", "Posol’skii" and "Kovyl’nyi" (Astrakhan oblast, are discussed in the article. The burials are dated, respectively, to the early 10th century, the early 9th century, and the late 8th – early 9th centuries. The funeral gifts include mainly ceramic vessels. The "Posol’skii" burial site also yielded jewelry and weapon fragments (bow plates. In two burials ("Posol’skii" and "Kovyl’nyi", sheep bones were recorded. The burials apparently reflect the process of the Bulgars settling in the southern direction to the Lower Volga river area, up to its deltaic part

  18. Paleoecologic Implications of Ichnofossils Associated with Slightly Skeletonized Body Fossils, Middle Cambrian of the Barrandian Area, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuláš, Radek; Fatka, O.; Szabad, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2012), s. 199-210 ISSN 1042-0940 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1521 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Middle Cambrian * ichnofossils * slightly skeletonized fauna * Barrandian area Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.727, year: 2012

  19. Decoupling of body-plan diversification and ecological structuring during the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition: evolutionary and geobiological feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mángano, M Gabriela; Buatois, Luis A

    2014-04-07

    The rapid appearance of bilaterian clades at the beginning of the Phanerozoic is one of the most intriguing topics in macroevolution. However, the complex feedbacks between diversification and ecological interactions are still poorly understood. Here, we show that a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the trace-fossil record of the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition indicates that body-plan diversification and ecological structuring were decoupled. The appearance of a wide repertoire of behavioural strategies and body plans occurred by the Fortunian. However, a major shift in benthic ecological structure, recording the establishment of a suspension-feeder infauna, increased complexity of the trophic web, and coupling of benthos and plankton took place during Cambrian Stage 2. Both phases were accompanied by different styles of ecosystem engineering, but only the second one resulted in the establishment of the Phanerozoic-style ecology. In turn, the suspension-feeding infauna may have been the ecological drivers of a further diversification of deposit-feeding strategies by Cambrian Stage 3, favouring an ecological spillover scenario. Trace-fossil information strongly supports the Cambrian explosion, but allows for a short time of phylogenetic fuse during the terminal Ediacaran-Fortunian.

  20. Multidisciplinary studies on ancient sandstone quarries of Western Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Silvana Maria; Del Vais, Carla; Naitza, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The ancient coastal quarries of Mediterranean are increasingly considered geosites of multidisciplinary relevance. They are sites of historical-archaeological interest that show ancient techniques of stone extraction; they are significant for cultural heritage conservation and restoration, as sources of the stones used in ancient buildings and monuments; they are sites of geological relevance, as often retain important stratigraphic sections; they are also useful markers of secular changes in the sea level. A multisciplinary study is in progress on the ancient quarries of the Sinis region (western Sardinia island), integrating archaeological, geological, minero-petrographical data. In Sardinia, coastal quarries have been established from Punic and Roman times. Many of them exploited Quaternary sediments along the southern and western coasts of the island. They consist of middle-late Pleistocene marine conglomerates and carbonate sandstones, and of coastal (aeolian) carbonate sandstones. Sandstone blocks of different sizes have been widely used in ancient cities for buildings, defensive works, harbours, etc. Three main areas of stone extraction (San Giovanni di Sinis, Punta Maimoni, Is Arutas) have been so far recognized in the Sinis. GIS-supported mapping and documentation of the sites includes their geology and stratigraphy, the extension and layout of the quarries, and an evaluation of volumes of extracted rocks. Documented archaeological evidences include ancient extraction fronts, spoil heaps, working areas, working traces in the old fronts, transport routes of blocks, and traces of loading facilities. The study is aimed at reconstructing the relationships of the quarries with the urban areas of Sinis, as the ancient Punic-Roman city of Tharros. Consequently, a minero-petrographical characterization (optical microscopy, XRD) is performed on sandstones sampled in each quarry, and in historical buildings in Tharros and other centres of the region (Cabras

  1. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance criteria for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-B Reactor and P-10 Tritium Separation Project and also received waste from the 105-N Reactor. The burial ground received reactor hardware, process piping and tubing, fuel spacers, glassware, electrical components, tritium process wastes, soft wastes and other miscellaneous debris

  2. Biomass burial and storage to reduce atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, N.

    2012-04-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a theoretical carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC/y, but probably 1-3 GtC/y can be realized in practice. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other environmental concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from forest industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be 14/tCO2 (50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The low cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is possible because the technique uses the natural process of photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe, and can be stopped at any time, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  3. Burial history influence on the generation of some Italian oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattavelli, L.; Novelli, L. (AGIP SPA, San Donato Milanese (Italy))

    1990-05-01

    Many Italian oils were sourced by Triassic source rock; evidence of this exists in the Po Plain. In the Adriatic Sea, and offshore southern Sicily. Bulk and geochemical characteristics of these oils are quite dissimilar: heavy oils as well as gasolines were discovered. Such differences are partly attributable to the organic matter type and to environmental conditions, but the role of the source rock's burial histories is fundamental in determining oil characteristics. The different burial histories in these two areas definitely account for these differences. In the Po Plain, the Raethian Argilliti di Riva di Solto Formation, source rock of condensates of the Malossa area, started to generate very early as a consequence of the noticeable Rhaetian-Liassic subsidence. The generation of oil continued for a long geological time, but probably hydrocarbons were lost for the lack of traps. Only condensates, generated by the further Pliocene-Quaternary burial, were accumulated in the Neogene traps. In the western part of the Po Plain, Gaggiano and Villafortuna oils (34 and 40{degree} API), sourced by the Ladinian Meride Formation, were generated only during the sizeable Neogene-Quaternary subsidence. The high heating rate in this case probably enhanced expulsion efficiency, allowing secondary migration toward shallower depths and, consequently, preventing hydrocarbons from secondary cracking. Offshore in southern Sicily (Gela field), the recent subsidence (Pliocene-Pleistocene) is responsible for Triassic source rock maturation. In this case the shallower depth reached by the source rock and, consequently, the lower temperatures at which maturity occurred are partly responsible for the generation of heavy oils, even if other factors such as early expulsion due to tectonics and organic matter type probably play a more important role.

  4. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.B.; Jacobs, D.G.; Lee, D.W.

    1986-02-01

    The performance objectives included in regulations for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61 for commercial waste and DOE Order 5820.2 for defense waste) are generic principles that generate technical requirements which must be factored into each phase of the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility. These phases include a determination of the quantity and characteristics of the waste, selection of a site and appropriate facility design, use of sound operating practices, and closure of the facility. The collective experience concerning shallow land burial operations has shown that achievement of the performance objectives (specifically, waste isolation and radionuclide containment) requires a systems approach, factoring into consideration the interrelationships of the phases of facility development and operation and their overall impact on performance. This report presents the technical requirements and procedures for the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility for low-level radioactive waste. The systems approach is embodied in the presentation. The report is not intended to be an instruction manual; rather, emphasis is placed on understanding the technical requirements and knowing what information and analysis are needed for making informed choices to meet them. A framework is developed for using the desired site characteristics to locate potentially suitable sites. The scope of efforts necessary for characterizing a site is then described and the range of techniques available for site characterization is identified. Given the natural features of a site, design options for achieving the performance objectives are discussed, as are the operating practices, which must be compatible with the design. Site closure is presented as functioning to preserve the containment and isolation provided at earlier stages of the development and operation of the facility

  5. Distinguishing of uranium-bearing sandstone by the geochemical characteristics in northern Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wangzhang; Zhang Zhufeng; Wang Yunliang; Sun Shuqin.

    1994-01-01

    Expounding geochemical characteristics of sandstone-type uranium deposits in northern Sichuan, the authors demonstrate the favourable and unfavourable conditions for enrichment of uranium on the basis of element abundances and ratios of U, Th and K measured by the gamma-ray spectroscopy surveying. The differences between uranium-bearing and non-uranium sandstones and between red sandstone (clay stone) and greenish sandstone can be determined by the gamma-ray spectroscopy (measuring U, Th and K) and XRF analysis (measuring As and Ba). Therefore, the prospecting of the sandstone-type uranium deposits in northern Sichuan can be concentrated in a certain range

  6. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  7. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text

  8. Disposal of radioactive waste in land burial facilities at Studsvik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, G.; Haegg, C.; Bergman, C.

    1987-01-01

    The report presents the formal background for the handling of the Studsvik application for permission to build a plant for deposition of radioactive waste in land burial facilities. The SSI (National Swedish Institute of Radiation Protection) basis for assessment is reported and relevant factors are presented. The radiation doses calculated by the SSI do not exceed a few microsievert per annum in spite of very pessimistic assumptions. The report constitutes assessment material for the standpoint to be taken by the board of SSI. (L.F.)

  9. Traces of the heritage arising from the Macelj sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golež, Mateja

    2014-05-01

    The landscape of Southeast Slovenia and its stone heritage principally reveal itself through various Miocene sandstones. The most frequently found type on the borderline between Slovenia and Croatia, i.e. east of Rogatec, is the micaceous-quartz Macelj sandstone. This rock ranges in colour from greenish grey to bluish grey and yellowish, depending on the content of glauconite, which colours it green. In its composition, the rock is a heterogeneous mixture of grains of quartz, dolomite, muscovite, microcline, anorthite and glauconite. The average size of grains is 300μm. In cross-section, they are oblong, semi-rounded or round. The mechanical-physical and durability properties of the Macelj sandstone, which have been characterised pursuant to the applicable standards for natural stone, reveal that the rock exhibits poor resistance to active substances from the atmosphere, particularly in the presence of salt. In the surroundings of Rogatec, there are around 45 abandoned quarries of the Macelj sandstone, which are the result of the exploitation of this mineral resource from the 17th century on. The local quarrymen earned their bread until 1957, when the Kambrus quarry industry closed down. From the original use of this mineral resource as construction and decorative material, the useful value of the Macelj sandstone expanded during the development of the metals industry to the manufacture of large and small grindstones for the needs of the domestic and international market. Therefore, traces of quarrying can not only be seen in the disused quarries, but also in the rich architectural heritage of Rogatec and its surroundings, the stone furniture - from portals, window frames, wells, various troughs, pavements to stone walls - and other. The living quarrying heritage slowly passed into oblivion after World War II, although the analysis of the social image of the people residing in Rogatec and its surroundings revealed that there was an average of one stonemason in

  10. Integrated geomechanical, petrographical and petrophysical study of the sandstones of the Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Hariri, Mustafa; Al-Shaibani, Abdulaziz; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed

    2018-07-01

    The Cambro-Permian siliciclastic succession in southwestern Saudi Arabia is represented by the Wajid Group, which consists mainly of fluvial, shallow marine, aeolian, and glacial sandstones. The Wajid Group comprises the Dibsiyah, Sanamah, Qalibah, Khusayyayn, and Juwayl Formations. It is exposed in the Wadi Al-Dawasir area and extends to Najran City. The sandstones of the Wajid Group serve as groundwater aquifers in the Wadi Al-Dawasir and Najran areas and host hydrocarbon (mainly gas) reservoirs in the Rub' Al-Khali Basin. This study aims to characterize the geomechanical properties (rock strength and Young's modulus) of the sandstones of the Wajid Group using field and experimental techniques. A further objective is to investigate the relationships between the geomechanical properties and the petrographical and petrophysical properties of the studied sandstones. The geomechanical properties of the studied sandstones vary from glacial to non-glacial sandstones, as the glacial sandstones display high values of the geomechanical properties with high variability indices. Four geological factors including grain size, cement content, porosity and permeability were observed as the main controls on the geomechanical behaviour of the studied sandstones except for the Khusayyayn sandstone, where the mineral composition was also important. Significant correlations were observed between the petrographical and petrophysical properties and the geomechanical properties of the glacial sandstones. Predictive models of the geomechanical properties (RN, UCS, and E) were generated using regression analysis to account for the glacial sandstones.

  11. Sedimentary uranium occurrences in Eastern Europe with special reference to sandstone formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, F.; Hahn, L.

    1985-01-01

    Sedimentary uranium deposits, especially in sandstones, play an important role in uranium mining in Eastern Europe. The paper reviews recent publications on uranium occurrences in sandstone formations in the German Democratic Republic, Poland, CSSR, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania. The uranium deposits in sandstones in Yugoslavia are described in a separate paper in this volume. Sandstone deposits of the USSR are not reviewed. Uranium mineralizations occur in sandstones from Ordovician to Tertiary age. Major deposits are developed in Upper Carboniferous sandstones in association with coal (GDR, Poland), in Permian strata (CSSR, Hungary, Romania), in Cretaceous sandstones (GDR, CSSR), and in Tertiary sediments (CSSR). The Permian deposits can be compared with deposits of similar age in Northern Italy and Northern Yugoslavia. Roll-type orebodies are developed in some of the Cenomanian sandstones. Tertiary deposits are mainly associated with lignites. Uranium deposits in sandstones of Albania and Bulgaria are not described in the literature. Geologic similarities with sandstone basins in adjacent countries suggest the presence of uranium mineralizations in Permian, Lower Triassic, and Tertiary sandstones. (author)

  12. The Sanrafaelic remagnetization revisited: Magnetic properties and magnetofabrics of Cambrian-Ordovician carbonates of the Eastern Precordillera of San Juan, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzito, Sabrina Y.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Poiré, Daniel G.

    2017-11-01

    Systematic rock-magnetic and magnetofabric studies were carried out on samples from twenty-three palaeomagnetic sites distributed on the La Laja, Zonda, La Flecha, La Silla and San Juan Formations, which constitute a thick middle Cambrian to early Ordovician carbonate sequence exposed in the Eastern Precordillera of Argentina. Previous palaeomagnetic studies on these rocks showed that this succession is characterized by a recent full overprint in the lower levels and a post-tectonic Permian remagnetization associated to the widespread Sanrafaelic event in the upper part. Our investigation revealed that the fluctuations of the magnetic properties are stratigraphically (lithologically) controlled. Anisotropy of magnetic and anhysteretic susceptibility measurements defined consistent fabrics along the entire section that switch progressively from "inverse", at the bottom, to "normal", at the top, with "intermediate" fabrics occurring mainly at medium levels. Degree of dolomitization significantly affects many rock-magnetic parameters, but appears unrelated to the presence of the Permian remagnetization, which is determined to reside in magnetite despite the complex magnetic mineralogy shown by the studied carbonates. Hysteresis cycles of rocks affected by the Sanrafaelic remagnetization are governed by ferromagnetic fractions showing a clear difference respect to those not affected and characterized by the dominance of paramagnetic or diamagnetic signals. The magnetic fabrics and mineralogical characterization rule out a thermoviscous origin and suggest a chemical remagnetization originated in the authigenic formation of magnetite for the Sanrafaelic overprint. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that clay minerals are virtually absent in the whole succession with no traces of illite in any sample, discarding burial diagenesis of clay minerals for the origin of the remagnetization. Lack of late Palaeozoic magmatic rocks near the study area difficults correlation of

  13. Distribution characteristics of Shihongtan uranium deposits calcareous sandstone and discussion on their genesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Huanqiao; Jia Heng; Xu Gaozhong; Li Zhanyou

    2007-12-01

    It is considered that the calcareous sandstone appear at layer along of a bunch of pear lens on and off, localled near up and down surface of sandbody or washed surface, has sandstone of more macro-grain and more gradation through statistics and analysis of calcareous sandstone in goal layer in Shihongtan uranium deposits. The calcareous sandstone accumulation thickness chorogram demonstrated that the calcareous sandstone centralized distribution in the ore body growth area, thus it can be seen, in the oxidation reduction intermediate belt the calcareous sandstone forms with the uranium mine has the certain origin relation. Choropleth map of summed thickness of calcareous sandstone deserves that it mainly appear in area of uranium body and related cause of formation of ore body of interlayer deacidizing--oxidation belt. (authors)

  14. Formation conditions and prospecting criteria for sandstone uranium deposit of interlayer oxidation type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shijie

    1994-01-01

    This paper comprehensively analyses the geotectonic setting and favourable conditions, such as structure of the basin, sedimentary facies and paleogeography, geomorphology and climate, hydrodynamics and hydrogeochemistry, the development of interlayered oxidation etc, necessary for the formation of sandstone uranium deposit of interlayered oxidation type. The following prospecting criteria is proposed, namely: abundant uranium source, arid climate, stable big basin, flat-lying sandstone bed, big alluvial fan, little change in sedimentary facies, intercalation of sandstone and mudstone beds, shallow burying of sandstone bed, well-aquiferous sandstone bed, high permeability of sandstone bed, development of interlayered oxidation, and high content of reductant in sandstone. In addition, the 6 in 1 hydrogenic genetic model is proposed

  15. Cambrian nepheline syenite complex at Jabal Sawda, Midyan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, W.K.; Ramsay, C.R.; Hedge, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The only nepheline syenite complex presently known in the Arabian Shield is at Jabal Sawda, about 30 km S of Haql in the extreme NW of Saudi Arabia. It is a post-tectonic, composite intrusion with a crudely concentric structure. A core of leuco-nepheline syenite, a partial ring of mela-nepheline syenite, and an almost complete outer ring of alkali-feldspar syenite are the main rock units. Several mega-inclusions of porphyritic nepheline syenite, nepheline monzosyenite, malignite and ijolite are present in the leuco-nepheline syenite. The chemical composition is notable for very high values of Al2O3, Na2O, Ba, La, Nb, Sr and Zr. U{single bond}Pb isotope dating indicates an emplacement age of 553 ?? 4 Ma, one of an increasing number of reliable Cambrian isotope dates in the northern Red Sea region. ?? 1986.

  16. The anatomy, taphonomy, taxonomy and systematic affinity of Markuelia: Early Cambrian to Early Ordovician scalidophorans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X.-P.; Bengtson, S.; Gostling, N.J.; Cunningham, J.A.; Harvey, T.H.P.; Kouchinsky, A.; Val'Kov, A.K.; Repetski, J.E.; Stampanoni, M.; Marone, F.; Donoghue, P.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Markuelia is a vermiform, annulated introvertan animal known as embryonic fossils from the Lower Cambrian to Lower Ordovician. Analysis of an expanded and revised dataset for Introverta shows that the precise position of Markuelia within this clade is dependent on the taxa included. As a result, Markuelia is assigned to the scalidophoran total group to reflect uncertainty as to whether it is a stem-scalidophoran or a stem-priapulid. The taxonomy of the genus is revised to provide an improved taxonomic framework for material assigned to Markuelia. Five species are recognized: M. secunda Val'kov, M. hunanensis Dong and Donoghue, M. lauriei Haug et al., M. spinulifera sp. nov. and M. waloszeki sp. nov. Finally, the preservation of Markuelia is evaluated in the light of both the taphonomy of the fossil embryos themselves and the experimental taphonomy of the priapulid Priapulus caudatus, which has been proposed as both a close relative and an anatomical analogue of Markuelia. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

  17. Why did life develop on the surface of the Earth in the Cambrian?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Doglioni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Life was limited for most of Earth's history, remaining at a primitive stage and mostly marine until about 0.55 Ga. In the Paleozoic, life eventually exploded and colonized the continental realm. Why had there been such a long period of delayed evolution of life? Early life was dominated by Archaea and Bacteria, which can survive ionizing radiation better than other organisms. The magnetic field preserves the atmosphere, which is the main shield of UV radiation. We explore the hypothesis that the Cambrian explosion of life could have been enabled by the increase of the magnetic field dipole intensity due to the solidification of the inner core, caused by the cooling of the Earth, and the concomitant decrease with time of the high-energy solar flux since the birth of the solar system. Therefore, the two phenomena could be responsible for the growth and thickening of the atmosphere and the development of land surface life.

  18. Cambrian nepheline syenite complex at Jabal Sawda, Midyan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, W. K.; Ramsay, C. R.; Hedge, C. E.

    The only nepheline syenite complex presently known in the Arabian Shield is at Jabal Sawda, about 30 km S of Haql in the extreme NW of Saudi Arabia. It is a post-tectonic, composite intrusion with a crudely concentric structure. A core of leuco-nepheline syenite, a partial ring of mela-nepheline syenite, and an almost complete outer ring of alkali-feldspar syenite are the main rock units. Several mega-inclusions of porphyritic nepheline syenite, nepheline monzosyenite, malignite and ijolite are present in the leuco-nepheline syenite. The chemical composition is notable for very high values of Al 2O 3, Na 2O, Ba, La, Nb, Sr and Zr. U sbnd Pb isotope dating indicates an emplacement age of 553 ± 4 Ma, one of an increasing number of reliable Cambrian isotope dates in the northern Red Sea region.

  19. Effect Of Hot Water Injection On Sandstone Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2012-01-01

    of published results regarding the effect of temperature on sandstone permeability. These tests are performed with mineral oil, nitrogen gas, distilled water and solutions of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 as well as brines that contain a mixture of salts. Thirteen sandstone formations, ranging from quartz arenites...... to formations with a significant fraction of fine particles including clay minerals are investigated. The porosities range from 0.10 to 0.30 and permeabilities span the range from 1 to 1000 md. To compare different rock types, specific surface is determined from permeability and porosity using Kozeny’s equation...... not account for all the permeability reductions observed. Permeablity reduction occurs both when distilled water is the saturating fluid as well as in tests with NaCl, KCl or CaCl2 solutions, however, this is not the case in tests with mineral oil or nitrogen gas. The formation of a filter cake or influx...

  20. Trilobite-based biostratigraphy (arthropoda-trilobita) and related faunas of the Cambrian from Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuen-Romero, F. J.; Valdez-Holguín, J. E.; Buitrón-Sánchez, B. E.; Monreal, R.; Enríquez-Ocaña, L. F.; Aguirre-Hinojosa, E.; Ochoa-Granillo, J. A.; Palafox-Reyes, J. J.

    2018-04-01

    A biostratigraphic analysis based on trilobites of the main Cambrian outcrops from Sonora, Mexico is performed. The data are based on a combination of field work and published sources, including four previously studied locations from northern and eastern Sonora (Caborca, Cananea, Mazatán, and Arivechi) as well as a new location in the central part of the state of Sonora (San José de Gracia). Chronostratigraphic positions are assigned to the Cambrian outcrops according to Peng et al., 2012 and Cohen et al., 2017. In the Caborca area, the Puerto Blanco, Proveedora, Buelna, Cerro Prieto, Arrojos and El Tren formations comprise a wide range of biozones, which starts from the Fritzaspis Zone until the Glossopleura walcotti Zone (Begadean-Lincolnian Series, global Stage 3-Stage 5, Series 2-Series 3). The Bolsa Quartzite and the Abrigo Limestone exposed in Cananea area are assigned to the Cedaria/Cedarina dakotaensis Zone until the Crepicephalus Zone (Lincolnian Series-Marjuman Stage, global Series 3-Guzhangian). In the San José de Gracia area, The Proveedora, Buelna, Cerro Prieto and El Gavilán formations range from the ?Bristolia mohavensis or ?Bristolia insolens zones until the upper part of Mexicella mexicana Zone, Albertella highlandensis Subzone (Series 2-Series 3, Stage 4-Stage 5). In the Arivechi area, the La Sata, El Mogallón, La Huerta and the Milpillas formations range from Poliella denticulata Zone to the Elvinia Zone (Lincolnian-Millardan, Delamaran-Steptoean, global Series 3-Furongian, Stage 5-Paibian). Paleozoic marine fauna distribution in northwest Mexico and the southwest United States of America, suggest that during this time an extensive faunal province existed, containing a great variety of marine invertebrates with notorious intraspecific affinity. The biotic association includes poriferans, archaeocyathids, brachiopods, mollusks, arthropods and echinoderms as predominant elements.

  1. A new stalked filter-feeder from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna J O'Brien

    Full Text Available Burgess Shale-type deposits provide invaluable insights into the early evolution of body plans and the ecological structure of Cambrian communities, but a number of species, continue to defy phylogenetic interpretations. Here we extend this list to include a new soft-bodied animal, Siphusauctum gregarium n. gen. and n. sp., from the Tulip Beds (Campsite Cliff Shale Member, Burgess Shale Formation of Mount Stephen (Yoho National Park, British Columbia. With 1,133 specimens collected, S. gregarium is clearly the most abundant animal from this locality.This stalked animal (reaching at least 20 cm in length, has a large ovoid calyx connected to a narrow bilayered stem and a small flattened or bulb-like holdfast. The calyx is enclosed by a flexible sheath with six small openings at the base, and a central terminal anus near the top encircled by indistinct openings. A prominent organ, represented by six radially symmetrical segments with comb-like elements, surrounds an internal body cavity with a large stomach, conical median gut and straight intestine. Siphusauctum gregarium was probably an active filter-feeder, with water passing through the calyx openings, capturing food particles with its comb-like elements. It often occurs in large assemblages on single bedding planes suggesting a gregarious lifestyle, with the animal living in high tier clusters. These were probably buried en masse more or less in-situ by rapid mud flow events.Siphusauctum gregarium resembles Dinomischus, another Cambrian enigmatic stalked animal. Principal points of comparison include a long stem with a calyx containing a visceral mass and bract-like elements, and a similar lifestyle albeit occupying different tiering levels. The presence in both animals of a digestive tract with a potential stomach and anus suggest a grade of organization within bilaterians, but relationships with extant phyla are not straightforward. Thus, the broader affinities of S. gregarium remain

  2. Waste migration in shallow burial sites under unsaturated flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicholz, G.G.; Whang, J.

    1987-01-01

    Unsaturated conditions prevail in many shallow-land burial sites, both in arid and humid regions. Unless a burial site is allowed to flood and possibly overflow, a realistic assessment of any migration scenario must take into account the conditions of unsaturated flow. These are more difficult to observe and to model, but introduce significant changes into projected rates of waste leaching and waste migration. Column tests have been performed using soils from the Southeastern coastal plain to observe the effects of varying degrees of ''unsaturation'' on the movement of radioactive tracers. The moisture content in the columns was controlled by maintaining various levels of hydrostatic suction on soil columns whose hydrodynamic characteristics had been determined carefully. Tracer tests, employing Cs-137, I-131 and Ba-133 were used to determine migration profiles and to follow their movement down the column for different suction values. A calculational model has been developed for unsaturated flow and seems to match the observations fairly well. It is evident that a full description of migration processes must take into account the reduced migration rates under unsaturated conditions and the hysteresis effects associated with wetting-drying cycles

  3. Chalk porosity and sonic velocity versus burial depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Gommesen, Lars; Krogsbøll, Anette Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Seventy chalk samples from four formations in the overpressured Danish central North Sea have been analyzed to investigate how correlations of porosity and sonic velocity with burial depth are affected by varying mineralogy, fluid pressure, and early introduction of petroleum. The results show th...... for fluid pressure because the cementing ions originate from stylolites, which are mechanically similar to fractures. We find that cementation occurs over a relatively short depth interval.......Seventy chalk samples from four formations in the overpressured Danish central North Sea have been analyzed to investigate how correlations of porosity and sonic velocity with burial depth are affected by varying mineralogy, fluid pressure, and early introduction of petroleum. The results show...... that porosity and sonic velocity follow the most consistent depth trends when fluid pressure and pore-volume compressibility are considered. Quartz content up to 10% has no marked effect, but more than 5% clay causes lower porosity and velocity. The mineralogical effect differs between P-wave and shear velocity...

  4. The Application of GPR in Florida for Detecting Forensic Burials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Koppenjan; J. J. Schultz; S. Ono; H. Lee

    2003-01-01

    A study was performed at the University of Florida to measure ground penetrating radar(GPR) performance for detecting forensic burials. In controlled scenarios, 24 burials were constructed with pig cadavers. Two soils were utilized to represent two of the most common soil orders in Florida: an Entisol and an Ultisol. Graves were monitored on a monthly basis for time periods up to 21 months with grid data acquired with pulsed and swept-frequency GPR systems incorporating several different frequency antennas. A small subset of the graves was excavated to assess decomposition and relate to the GPR images during the test. The grave anomalies in the GPR depth profiles became less distinctive over time due to body decomposition and settling of the disturbed soil (backfill) as it compacted. Soil type was a major factor. Grave anomalies became more difficult to recognize over time for deep targets that were within clay. Forensic targets that were in sandy soil were recognized for the duration of this study. Time elapsed imagery will be presented to elucidate the changes, or lack thereof, of grave anomalies over the duration of this study. Further analysis was performed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) reconstruction of images in 2-D and 3-D.

  5. Genetic research at a fivefold children's burial from medieval Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Jessica; Melisch, Claudia; Powers, Natasha; Geppert, Maria; Zander, Judith; Purps, Josephine; Spors, Birgit; Nagy, Marion

    2015-03-01

    Berlin originated from the two twin cities Berlin and Cölln, which both were founded at the beginning of the 13th century. However the real date of their foundation as well as the origin of the first settlers is still unknown. On the Berlin site the historic city center is still visible in the Nikolaiviertel, but the medieval origin of Cölln disappeared almost completely. In 2007 a large scale excavation, which comprised an area of about 1700m(2) of the historical center of the St. Peters church, recovers the remains of Cölln's first citizens and span a period of 500 years of medieval population. Here we present the first genetic analysis of a fivefold children's burial from excavations in Berlin. The genetic data unveiled next to ancestry and eye color data also the kinship and the gender of the five individuals. Together with the archeological context the new gained information help to shed more light on the possible reasons for this burial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  7. Rock stresses associated with burial of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voight, B.

    1977-01-01

    Rock stress changes related to long-term deep storage of nuclear waste involve thermoelastic and pore fluid pressure changes associated with excavation and heating. Computer models are being examined to assess the question of thermally-induced fracturing in storage rock surrounding radioactive waste containers. Stresses are evaluated in three dimensions, employing elastic-plastic finite element codes. Potential failure conditions are expressed in terms of ''effective stresses,'' and force and thermal fields are incremented to produce an appropriate load path. In general, heating in vicinity of waste containers produces a zone of high compression bonded by a zone of circumferential and axial tension. (At this conference an analogous case of thermal stresses was documented and illustrated for larger-scale temperature domains associated with geothermal areas in Iceland.) Fractures are possible in radial directions as well as perpendicular to the axis of the cylindrical heat source. In addition, the mechanical effect of a vapor pulse will be explored by a two-phase numerical fluid transport model used in conjunction with mechanical finite element models. This portion of the work, being conducted jointly with C. R. Faust and J. W. Mercer of the US Geological Survey, should provide a preliminary appreciation of the possible effect of phase changes on fracturing of burial sites. Preliminary work suggests the possibility of establishing design criteria (e.g., design burial depth, depth of canister below storage vault) in order to minimize problems of potential rock fracture

  8. Comparative Study of Christian and Pagan Burial Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Bazaraitė

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws a chronological timeline comparing burial customs and construction traditions in the cradle of Christian religion, and pagan traditions on the Eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, precisely Lithuania, since the early ages of Christianity (1c. A.D. until nowadays. This paper searches for reasons that could have effected cultural transformations, a shifting relation between inhumation and incineration in European culture. In the Ancient Roman culture, people used to cremate their dead before Christianity set in. Baltic pagans at the time were burying their dead in stone circles, and started incineration only during the Middle Ages. Then Christianity was a powerful institution indoctrinating European daily culture. Meanwhile, in the territory of Lithuania pagan culture was erased only in the 15th century, i.e. about 600 years ago, leaving evident vestiges on traditions and customs of nowadays. These revelations of pagan culture are usually mistaken as Christian or Catholic. The paper focuses on architectural and urban aspects of burial architecture, taking into account social and historical conditions.

  9. Ancient Item Spoilage Ritual Used in Nomadic Burial Rite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beisenov Arman Z.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the findings of items in ancient burials which were intentionally spoiled prior to deposition in graves. This tradition was widely spread both in terms of chronology and geography, and therefore cannot be attributed to any individual cultures or regions. The authors present new information on the ritual obtained during an investigation of Borsyk burial mound of the Middle Sarmatian period located in West Kazakhstan. The central grave of barrow 6 contained a heavily damaged bronze cauldron. The grave was looted in antiquity. Individual scattered bones of a human skeleton and minor gold foil adornments from the ceremonial dress of a nobleman were discovered in the grave. The authors suggest that the cauldron was intentionally deformed by the participants of an ancient mortuary and memorial ritual. According to the principal hypothesis concerning the essence of this ritual, spoilage of the items was related to the idea of assign the items with “different” and “transcendent” properties, which resulted from the necessity of burying the owner. Cauldrons played an important role in the life of steppe leaders. The authors assume a sacral nature of the use of cauldrons in the culture of steppe peoples associated with feasts, battles, and sacred hunting. Perhaps, there was a tradition of burying cauldrons together with their owners after spoiling the items in view of the concept of the other world and the role of a heroic leader therein.

  10. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976)

  11. Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The single dangerous waste permit identification number issued to the Hanford Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology is US Environmental Protection Agency/State Identification Number WA 7890008967. This identification number encompasses a number of waste management units within the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Low-Level Burial Grounds, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B Permit Application. The original Part A, submitted in November 1985, identified landfills, retrievable storage units, and reserved areas. An explanation of subsequent Part A revisions is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology

  12. Strength curves for shales and sandstones under hydrostatic confining pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.C.; Sikka, S.K.

    1978-01-01

    The experimental data for the effect of confining pressures on the fracture stress have been analysed for shales and sandstones. The normalized compressive strengths are found to lie in a narrow region so that Ohnaka's equation for crystalline rocks, can be fitted to the data. The fitted parameters are physically reasonable and indicate that the functional dependence of strength on porosity, strain rate and temperature is independent of the confining pressures. (author)

  13. New Acid Combination for a Successful Sandstone Acidizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. U.; Mahmud, H. K. B.; Rezaee, R.

    2017-05-01

    With the development of new enhanced oil recovery techniques, sandstone acidizing has been introduced and played a pivotal role in the petroleum industry. Different acid combinations have been applied, which react with the formation, dissolve the soluble particles; thus increase the production of hydrocarbons. To solve the problems which occurred using current preflush sandstone acidizing technology (hydrochloric acid); a new acid combination has been developed. Core flooding experiments on sandstone core samples with dimensions 1.5 in. × 3 in. were conducted at a flow rate of 2 cm3/min. A series of hydrochloric-acetic acid mixtures with different ratios were tested under 150°F temperature. The core flooding experiments performed are aimed to dissolve carbonate, sodium, potassium and calcium particles from the core samples. These experiments are followed by few important tests which include, porosity-permeability, pH value, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR measurements). All the results are compared with the results of conventional hydrochloric acid technology. NMR and porosity analysis concluded that the new acid combination is more effective in creating fresh pore spaces and thus increasing the reservoir permeability. It can be seen from the pore distribution before and after the acidizing. Prior applying acid; the large size of pores appears most frequently in the pore distribution while with the applied acid, it was found that the small pore size is most the predominant of the pore distribution. These results are validated using ICP analysis which shows the effective removal of calcium and other positive ions from the core sample. This study concludes that the combination of acetic-hydrochloric acid can be a potential candidate for the preflush stage of sandstone acidizing at high temperature reservoirs.

  14. Origin, conditions and processes of sandstone reservoir diagenetic silicification in the North Sea; Origine, conditions et processus de la silicification diagenetique de reservoir greseux en Mer du Nord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchet, A.

    2002-02-01

    The petroleum reservoir qualities of sandstones are partially reduce by the presence of diagenetic quartz which occlude the cement porosity. Two sandstones reservoirs have been studied to understand the process and origin of silicification. The Brent sandstones have been sampled in the Alwyn north and Dunbar fields (North Sea) and the Franklin sandstones in the Elgin and Glenelg fields (North Sea). Fluid inclusions are often used to constrain quartz precipitation temperature. However their possible stretching with burial is still a problem. Fluid inclusion (FI) petrographic and micro-thermometric study does not show any evidence of stretching: no correlation between size, shape and homogenization temperature (Th) has been observed. Large Th range, even for FI in a single detrital grain overgrowth boundary, cannot been explained by temperature reset. The fluorescence of hydrocarbon inclusions has been analysed by micro-spectro-fluorimeter (MSF) and interpreted as density after calibration using known crude oils. Hydrocarbon inclusions show large density range for FI trapped along a single detrital grain overgrowth boundary. Raman spectroscopy reveals that aqueous inclusions are not saturated with methane. Moreover, a linear relation between methane content and Th implies pressure corrections reducing the range of trapping temperatures. The similarity of Th and MSF data between FI located along detrital grain-overgrowth boundary and within the overgrowth of a single grain indicates that FI located along the boundary are trapped after the precipitation of the first overgrowth zone. These inclusions cannot then be used to represent the beginning of the silicification. The diagenetic sequence and aluminium content in the quartz overgrowth allow to establish the origin of silica for each overgrowth zone defined in cathodoluminescence. High aluminium contents (up to 1375 ppm) are linked to feldspar dissolution which can be induced by acid meteoric water or organic acids

  15. Controls on the variability of net infiltration to desert sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.; Zhdanov, Michael S.; Watt, Dennis E.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in arid climates and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration becomes critically important for accurately inventorying water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. This paper presents a conceptual model of net infiltration to desert sandstone and then develops an empirical equation for its spatial quantification at the watershed scale using linear least squares inversion methods for evaluating controlling parameters (independent variables) based on estimated net infiltration rates (dependent variables). Net infiltration rates used for this regression analysis were calculated from environmental tracers in boreholes and more than 3000 linear meters of vadose zone excavations in an upland basin in southwestern Utah underlain by Navajo sandstone. Soil coarseness, distance to upgradient outcrop, and topographic slope were shown to be the primary physical parameters controlling the spatial variability of net infiltration. Although the method should be transferable to other desert sandstone settings for determining the relative spatial distribution of net infiltration, further study is needed to evaluate the effects of other potential parameters such as slope aspect, outcrop parameters, and climate on absolute net infiltration rates.

  16. Lattice strain measurements on sandstones under load using neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischbutter, A.; Neov, D.; Scheffzük, Ch.; Vrána, M.; Walther, K.

    2000-11-01

    Neutron diffraction methods (both time-of-flight- and angle-dispersive diffraction) are applied to intracrystalline strain measurements on geological samples undergoing uniaxial increasing compressional load. The experiments were carried out on Cretaceous sandstones from the Elbezone (East Germany), consisting of >95% quartz which are bedded but without crystallographic preferred orientation of quartz. From the stress-strain relation the Young's modulus for our quartz sample was determined to be (72.2±2.9) GPa using results of the neutron time-of-flight method. The influence of different kinds of bedding in sandstones (laminated and convolute bedding) could be determined. We observed differences of factor 2 (convolute bedding) and 3 (laminated bedding) for the elastic stiffness, determined with angle dispersive neutron diffraction (crystallographic strain) and with strain gauges (mechanical strain). The data indicate which geological conditions may influence the stress-strain behaviour of geological materials. The influence of bedding on the stress-strain behaviour of a laminated bedded sandstone was indicated by direct residual stress measurements using neutron time-of-flight diffraction. The measurements were carried out six days after unloading the sample. Residual strain was measured for three positions from the centre to the periphery and within two radial directions of the cylinder. We observed that residual strain changes from extension to compression in a different manner for two perpendicular directions of the bedding plane.

  17. Geological Carbon Sequestration Storage Resource Estimates for the Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone, Illinois and Michigan Basins, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, David; Ellett, Kevin; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    The Cambro-Ordovician strata of the Midwest of the United States is a primary target for potential geological storage of CO2 in deep saline formations. The objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive evaluation of the Cambro-Ordovician strata in the Illinois and Michigan Basins above the basal Mount Simon Sandstone since the Mount Simon is the subject of other investigations including a demonstration-scale injection at the Illinois Basin Decatur Project. The primary reservoir targets investigated in this study are the middle Ordovician St Peter Sandstone and the late Cambrian to early Ordovician Knox Group carbonates. The topic of this report is a regional-scale evaluation of the geologic storage resource potential of the St Peter Sandstone in both the Illinois and Michigan Basins. Multiple deterministic-based approaches were used in conjunction with the probabilistic-based storage efficiency factors published in the DOE methodology to estimate the carbon storage resource of the formation. Extensive data sets of core analyses and wireline logs were compiled to develop the necessary inputs for volumetric calculations. Results demonstrate how the range in uncertainty of storage resource estimates varies as a function of data availability and quality, and the underlying assumptions used in the different approaches. In the simplest approach, storage resource estimates were calculated from mapping the gross thickness of the formation and applying a single estimate of the effective mean porosity of the formation. Results from this approach led to storage resource estimates ranging from 3.3 to 35.1 Gt in the Michigan Basin, and 1.0 to 11.0 Gt in the Illinois Basin at the P10 and P90 probability level, respectively. The second approach involved consideration of the diagenetic history of the formation throughout the two basins and used depth-dependent functions of porosity to derive a more realistic spatially variable model of porosity rather than applying a

  18. On the water saturation calculation in hydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalheim, Stein Ottar

    2002-07-01

    The main goal of this work was to identify the most important uncertainty sources in water saturation calculation and examine the possibility for developing new S{sub w} - equations or possibility to develop methods to remove weaknesses and uncertainties in existing S{sub w} - equations. Due to the need for industrial applicability of the equations we aimed for results with the following properties: The accuracy in S{sub w} should increase compared with existing S{sub w} - equations. The equations should be simple to use in petrophysical evaluations. The equations should be based on conventional logs and use as few as possible input parameters. The equations should be numerical stable. This thesis includes an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the most common S{sub w} equations. The results are addressed in chapter 3 and were intended to find the most important uncertainty sources in water saturation calculation. To increase the knowledge of the relationship between R{sub t} and S{sub w} in hydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs and to understand how the pore geometry affects the conductivity (n and m) of the rock a theoretical study was done. It was also an aim to examine the possibility for developing new S{sub w} - equations (or investigation an effective medium model) valid inhydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs. The results are presented in paper 1. A new equation for water saturation calculation in clean sandstone oil reservoirs is addressed in paper 2. A recommendation for best practice of water saturation calculation in non water wet formation is addressed in paper 3. Finally a new equation for water saturation calculation in thinly interbedded sandstone/mudstone reservoirs is presented in paper 4. The papers are titled: 1) Is the saturation exponent n a constant. 2) A New Model for Calculating Water Saturation In 3) Influence of wettability on water saturation modeling. 4) Water Saturation Calculations in Thinly Interbedded Sandstone/mudstone Reservoirs. A

  19. Experimental deformation in sandstone, carbonates and quartz aggregate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Cecilia See Nga [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The first part of my thesis is mainly focused on the effect of grain size distribution on compaction localization in porous sandstone. To identify the microstructural parameters that influence compaction band formation, I conducted a systematic study of mechanical deformation, failure mode and microstructural evolution in Bleurswiller and Boise sandstones, of similar porosity (~25%) and mineralogy but different sorting. Discrete compaction bands were observed to develop over a wide range of pressure in the Bleurswiller sandstone that has a relatively uniform grain size distribution. In contrast, compaction localization was not observed in the poorly sorted Boise sandstone. My results demonstrate that grain size distribution exerts important influence on compaction band development, in agreement with recently published data from Valley of Fire and Buckskin Gulch, as well as numerical studies. The second part aimed to improve current knowledge on inelastic behavior, failure mode and brittle-ductile transition in another sedimentary rock, porous carbonates. A micritic Tavel (porosity of ~13%) and an allochemical Indiana (~18%) limestones were deformed under compaction in wet and dry conditions. At lower confining pressures, shear localization occurred in brittle faulting regime. Through transitional regime, the deformation switched to cataclastic flow regime at higher confining pressure. Specifically in the cataclastic regime, the (dry and wet) Tavel and dry Indiana failed by distributed cataclastic flow, while in contrast, wet Indiana failed as compaction localization. My results demonstrate that different failure modes and mechanical behaviors under different deformation regimes and water saturation are fundamental prior to any geophysical application in porous carbonates. The third part aimed to focus on investigating compaction on quartz aggregate starting at low (MPa) using X-ray diffraction. We report the diffraction peak evolution of quartz with increasing

  20. 618-10 Burial Ground Trench Remediation and 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground Nonintrusive Characterization of Vertical Pipe Units Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, J. W.

    2012-06-28

    A “lessons learned” is a noteworthy practice or innovative approach that is captured and shared to promote repeat application, or an adverse work practice/experience that is captured and shared to avoid reoccurrence. This document provides the lessons learned identified by the 618-10 Burial Ground trench remediation and the 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground nonintrusive characterization of the vertical pipe units (VPUs).

  1. Properties and durability assessment of glauconitic sandstone: A case study on Zamel sandstone from Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinec, Petr; Vavro, M.; Ščučka, Jiří; Mašláň, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 115, 3/4 (2010), s. 175-181 ISSN 0013-7952 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP101/07/P512; GA ČR(CZ) GA103/07/1662 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : building stone * sandstone * physical properties Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.442, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

  2. Effects of post-burial siliceous diagenesis deformations on the microthermometric behaviour of fluid inclusions: an example in the Francevillian uraniferous sandstone reservoir (Gabon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier-Lafaye, F.; Weber, F.

    1984-01-01

    New data about fluid inclusions associated to a siliceous diagenesis show that a deformation phase in the first stage of catagenesis disturbed their microthermometric behaviour. Nevertheless, temperature and pressure of fluids associated to the uraniferous paragenesis and contemporary with the Oklo natural reactors are estimated at 140-160 0 C and 250-500 bar [fr

  3. Selenium and hazardous elements distribution in plant-soil-water system and human health risk assessment of Lower Cambrian, Southern Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yajun; Luo, Kunli; Ni, Runxiang; Hussain, Rahib

    2018-03-01

    The natural selenium poisoning due to toxic Se levels in food chain had been observed in humans and animals in Lower Cambrian outcrop areas in Southern Shaanxi, China. To find out the distribution pattern of selenium and other hazardous elements in the plant, soil and water of Lower Cambrian in Southern Shaanxi, China, and their possible potential health risk, a total of 30 elements were analyzed and the health risk assessment of 18 elements was calculated. Results showed that the soil, plant and natural water of Lower Cambrian all had relatively high Se levels. In Lower Cambrian, the soil was enriched with Se, As, Ba, Cu, Mo, Ni, Zn, Ga, Cd and Cr (1.68 food intake was the major pathway. For minimizing potential health risk, the local inhabitants should use the mix-imported food with local growing foods.

  4. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

    2007-07-25

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

  5. About the burial of nuclear power plants, damaged or in the process of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbrond, J.

    1994-01-01

    Some underground mining methods leave deep empty holes in the earth's surface behind them. In this paper it is described how to use such mining methods for the burial of damaged nuclear power plants and for the decommissioning by burial of nuclear reactors. The design of a new power plant should be integrated with that of an escapeway - an underground arrangement for burial. The described mining methods are block caving for catastrophy burial, and various stoping methods for planned burial and decommissioning. Blind shaft sinking by full face boring machines for burial and decommissioning of the reactor vessel is also described. All the described activities of mining and shaft sinking are well known. The total costs of burial by these methods are estimated using standard mining industry cost data. These include the costs for normal mine ventilation and groundwater control. However, the estimates of the cost and duration do not include the capital and operational costs of the pre- and post burial activities of ventilation and groundwater control related to the radioactivity. (author)

  6. About One of Burials of Novotitorovka Culture From the Territory of Kuban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya A. Balabanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the burial complex and the skull of the Novotitorovka culture from burial no. 35 of the Ovalny burial mound, Kalininsky district of the Krasnodar region. The burial itself was non-inventory, but it was synchronous with burial no. 26. Both burials were excavated from the level of the ancient surface and covered by the same barrow. The bones from the studied burial belonged to a young man, who died at the age of 20-25. His craniological type is characterized by meso-dolichocrania, ellipsoidal vertical norm, the average width of forehead, wide and low face, orthognathy-like in a vertical plane and slightly profiled at the level of low eye sockets. The face is also characterized by narrow and sharply protruding nasal bones. The article also deals with the possible relationship between the tribes of the Novotitorovka culture and the Azov-Black Sea sites of Catacomb culture. This conclusion is based on the results of intergroup comparison by the method of canonical analysis. The studied skull of the Novotitorovka culture has a morphological complex that characterizes the groups of burials of the Catacomb culture localized on the terraces of the Ingul river and on the terraces of the Don river left bank. This conclusion calls into question the archaeologists’ hypothesis on the connection of the the Novotitorovka culture with the tribes of the Novosvobodnenskaya culture and the Maykop culture.

  7. Introduction: Life Space and Burial Space in the Post-Apartheid City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Landscapes of the dead are always, simultaneously, landscapes of the living. It is this coterminousness of life and death that gives the burial site its salience and emotional power. Different societies, at different times, renegotiate the relationship between what anthropologists call 'life space\\' and 'burial space\\', depending on ...

  8. Hiding from swans: optimal burial depth of sago pondweed tubers foraged by Bewick's swans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santamaría, L.; Rodriguez-Girones, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    1 We used a combination of laboratory and field experiments to test the hypothesis that the burial depth of Potamogeton pectinatus tubers will vary with local sediment type and swan predation pressure. 2 In the field, mortality due to predation by swans decreased linearly with burial depth (from 100

  9. Technical data summary: Plan for closure of the 643-G burial ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    This report involves the actions of closing the 643-G burial ground which involves waste removal, stabilization, and capping. Remedial action involves the removing of the transuranic waste and closing of the grid wells. The closure cap for the burial site will consist of native soil, clay, and gravel. This will assure long-term physical and chemical stability. (MB)

  10. The study of secondary burial in Mycenaean mortuary traditions: a new approach to the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Olivia A.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines the methodological and interpretative frameworks proposed as the most holistic and inclusive manner for studying Mycenaean burial data. It provides a deeper exploration of mortuary themes, such as secondary burial, and argues that human remains should be studied in correlation

  11. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.; Capron, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes

  12. Necropolis on Bor lake: New reports on Bronze age burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapuran Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the social and anthropological aspects of burial rituals during the Middle Bronze Age in Timočka Krajina. Decades of systematic research of necropolises and reconnaissance in the basin of the Crni Timok proved an increase in number of sites around ore - rich areas of the east Kučaj mountains as well as around Romuliana site and the fertile valleys of Džanovo polje (Map. 1. The quantitative increase in settlements was reflected by the emergence of large necropolises, only three of which have been systematically explored; those in Trnjani, Magura and Bor Lake (Fig. 1; Plan 1. Analysis of geographical features of many settlements and their position in relation to natural resources helped define two communities, one of which carried out mining and metallurgical activities, while the other group engaged in the production of food. Both groups lived in the immediate vicinity and mutual dependence, functioning within a developed market for copper production. During the exploration of the necropolis near Bor Lake in 1997, the remains of burnt skeletons were collected from burial structures 2/97 and 13/97 (Fig. 2; Plans 2 and 3. Anthropological analysis of the cremated remains of the deceased showed that high temperatures were used during the cremation process, which we assume could have only been achieved in metallurgical furnaces. This is confirmed by the fact that the skeletal fragments contain traces of melted metal, as well as finds of bronze slag inside urns and grave structures in the necropolis in Trnjani (Figs. 3 and 4; Tables 1-4. Burial ritual of this kind was not proved by systematic archaeological research of necropolises in the basin of Crni Timok, although anthropological data collected from necropolises linked to metallurgical settlements may indicate some guidelines in the ritual cremation of prominent members of these communities. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177020: Arheologija Srbije

  13. Improvement in operating incident experience at the Savannah River Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes generated at the Savannah River Plant and Laboratory are stored at the Savannah River burial ground. These wastes have accumulated from >20 years of reprocessing nuclear fuels and materials for defense programs at the Savannah River Plant. Burial in earthen trenches and aboveground storage for transuranic materials are the principal modes of storage. The infrequent operating incidents that have occurred during the 20-year period have been analyzed. The incidents can be categorized as those causing airborne contamination, waterborne contamination, or vegetation contamination through penetration of plant roots into contaminated soil. Contamination was generally confined to the immediate area of the burial ground. Several incidents occurred because of unintentional burial or exhumation of material. The frequency of operating incidents decreased with operating experience of the burial ground, averaging only about two incidents per year during the last six years of operation

  14. Mine burial in the seabed of high-turbidity area—Findings of a first experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeye, Matthias; Fettweis, Michael; Legrand, Sebastien; Dupont, Yves; Van Lancker, Vera

    2012-07-01

    The seabed of the North Sea is covered with ammunition dating back from World Wars I and II. With increasing human interference (e.g. fisheries, aggregate extraction, harbor related activities), it forms a threat to the safety at sea. In this study, test mines were deployed on a sandy seabed for 3 months to investigate mine burial processes as a function of hydrodynamic and meteorological conditions. The mine experiment was conducted in a shallow (9 m), macrotidal environment characterized by highly turbid waters (yearly and depth-averaged suspended particulate matter concentration of 100 mg l-1). Results showed some variability of the overall mine burial, which corresponded with scouring processes induced by a (sub-) tidal forcing mechanism. The main burial events however were linked to storm-related scouring processes, and subsequent mine roll into the resulting pit. Two storms affecting the mines during the 3-month experiment resulted in enduring increases in burial volume to 60% and 80%, respectively. More cyclic and ephemeral burial and exposure events appear to be linked to the local hydrodynamic regime. During slack tides, suspended sediment settles on the seabed, increasing the burial volume. In between slack tides, sediment is resuspended, decreasing the burial volume. The temporal pattern of this never reported burial mechanism, as measured optically, mimics the cyclicity of the suspended sediment concentration as recorded by ultrasonic signals at a nearby benthic observatory. Given the similarity in response signals at the two sites, we hypothesize that the formation of high-concentrated mud suspensions (HCMS) is a mechanism causing short-term burial and exposure of mines. This short-term burial and exposure increase the chance that mines are 'missed' during tracking surveys. Test mines contribute to our understanding of the settling and erosion of HCMS, and thus shed a light on generic sedimentary processes.

  15. Radionuclide distributions and migration mechanisms at shallow land burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, L.J.; Toste, A.P.; Thomas, C.W.; Rickard, W.H.; Nielson, H.L.; Campbell, R.M.; McShane, M.C.; Wilkerson, C.L.; Robertson, D.E.

    1991-02-01

    During the past several years, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted research at the Maxey Flats Disposal Site (MFDS) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This work has identified the spectrum of radionuclides present in the waste trenches, determined the processes that were occurring relative to degradation of radioactive material within the burial trenches, determined the chemical and physical characteristics of the trench leachates and the chemical forms of the leached radionuclides, determined the mobility of these radionuclides, investigated the subsurface and surface transport processes, determined the biological uptake by the native vegetation, developed strategies for environmental monitoring, and investigated other factors that influence the long-term fate of the radionuclide inventory at the disposal site. This report is a final summary of the research conducted by PNL and presents the results and discussions relative to the above investigative areas. 45 refs., 31 figs., 17 tabs

  16. Subsidence and settlement and their effect on shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    Subsidence and settlement are phenomena that are much more destructive than generally thought. In shallow land burials they may lead to cracking of the overburden and eventual exposure and escape of waste material. The primary causes are consolidation and cave-ins. Laboratory studies performed at Los Alamos permit us to predict settlement caused by consolidation or natural compaction of the crushed tuff overburden. Examples of expected settlement and subsidence are calculated based on the known geotechnical characteristics of crushed tuff. The same thing is done for bentonite/tuff mixes because some field experiments were performed using this additive (bentonite) to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the crushed tuff. Remedial actions, i.e., means to limit the amount of settlement, are discussed. Finally, we briefly comment on our current field experiment, which studies the influence of subsidence on layered systems in general and on biobarriers in particular

  17. Onset of scour below pipelines and self-burial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Truelsen, Christoffer; Sichmann, T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study on the onset of scour below and self-burial of pipelines in currents/waves. Pressure was measured on the surface of a slightly buried pipe at two points, one at the upstream side and the other at the downstream side of the pipe, both...... in the sand bed. The latter enabled the pressure gradient (which drives a seepage flow underneath the pipe) to be calculated. The results indicated that the excessive seepage flow and the resulting piping are the major factor to cause the onset of scour below the pipeline. The onset of scour occurred always...... locally (but not along the length of the pipeline as a two-dimensional process). The critical condition corresponding to the onset of scour was determined both in the case of currents and in the case of waves. Once the scour breaks out, it will propagate along the length of the pipeline, scour holes being...

  18. Alternatives To The Burial Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J. Mark

    2008-01-01

    The approach for management of LLRW in different countries has evolved differently due to many factors such as culture and public sentiment, systems of government, public policy, and geography. There are also various methods to disposition LLRW including but not limited to: - Long term statutes and unconditional or conditional release of material; - Direct Burial; - Treatment (Processing); - Burial; - Treatment; - Unconditional Release; - Recycle for Unconditional Release or Reuse Within Any Industry; - Controlled Recycle within Nuclear Industry. This paper examines the options of controlled recycle of material within the nuclear industry and cites several successful examples. Controlled recycling of LLRW materials within the nuclear industry has been demonstrated to be practical and economical. The reuse of materials within the nuclear industry properly addressed stakeholder concerns for material being used for what they believe to be improper purposes. There are a number of environmental benefits including: - Preservation of resources; - Energy Conservation (in cases where less energy is required to recycle/reuse as compared to mainstream new fuel storages. - Preservation of burial space at disposal sites. In many cases recycling is cost beneficial as compared to other options to disposition the LLRW. In some cases burial costs are comparatively higher. To further the advancement of controlled recycle countries must continue to embrace the concept and create large enough feedstocks of like type material to achieve economies of scale. Additionally, a mechanism to uniformly track material to show where material has been moved and ultimately dispositioned would also contribute to enhancing the endorsement of controlled recycling. There is a large amount of LLRW material that could potentially be recycled. To date, 100 mines, 90 commercial power reactors, over 250 research reactors and a number of fuel cycle facilities, have been retired from operation. Some of these

  19. Burial stress and elastic strain of carbonate rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Burial stress on a sediment or sedimentary rock is relevant for predicting compaction or failure caused by changes in, e.g., pore pressure in the subsurface. For this purpose, the stress is conventionally expressed in terms of its effect: “the effective stress” defined as the consequent elastic...... strain multiplied by the rock frame modulus. We cannot measure the strain directly in the subsurface, but from the data on bulk density and P‐wave velocity, we can estimate the rock frame modulus and Biot's coefficient and then calculate the “effective vertical stress” as the total vertical stress minus...... the product of pore pressure and Biot's coefficient. We can now calculate the elastic strain by dividing “effective stress” with the rock frame modulus. By this procedure, the degree of elastic deformation at a given time and depth can be directly expressed. This facilitates the discussion of the deformation...

  20. High integrity container evaluation for solid waste disposal burial containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    In order to provide radioactive waste disposal practices with the greatest measure of public protection, Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) adopted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirement to stabilize high specific activity radioactive waste prior to disposal. Under NRC guidelines, stability may be provided by several mechanisms, one of which is by placing the waste in a high integrity container (HIC). During the implementation process, SWD found that commercially-available HICs could not accommodate the varied nature of weapons complex waste, and in response developed a number of disposal containers to function as HICs. This document summarizes the evaluation of various containers that can be used for the disposal of Category 3 waste in the Low Level Burial Grounds. These containers include the VECTRA reinforced concrete HIC, reinforced concrete culvert, and the reinforced concrete vault. This evaluation provides justification for the use of these containers and identifies the conditions for use of each

  1. Subsidence and settlement and their effect on shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    Subsidence and settlement are phenomena that are much more destructive than generally thought. In shallow land burials they may lead to cracking of the overburden and eventual exposure and escape of waste material. The primary causes are consolidation and cave-ins. Laboratory studies performed at Los Alamos permit us to predict settlement caused by consolidation or natural compaction of the crushed tuff overburden. Examples of expected settlement and subsidence are calculated based on the known geotechnical characteristics of crushed tuff. The same thing is done for bentonite/tuff mixes because some field experiments were performed using this additive (bentonite) to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the crushed tuff. Remedial actions, i.e., means to limit the amount of settlement, are discussed. Finally, we briefly comment on our current field experiment, which studies the influence of subsidence on layered systems, in general, and on biobarriers, in particular. 16 references, 7 figures, 5 tables

  2. Determination of post-burial interval using entomology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; Sharma, Sahil; Sharma, Arun

    2016-08-01

    Insects and other arthropods are used in different matters pertinent to the criminal justice system as they play very important role in the decomposition of cadavers. They are used as evidence in a criminal investigation to determine post mortem interval (PMI). Various researches and review articles are available on forensic entomology to determine PMI in the terrestrial environment but very less work has been reported in context to buried bodies. Burring the carcass, is one of the methods used by criminals to conceal the crime. So, to drive the attention of researchers toward this growing field and to help various investigating agencies, the present paper reviews the studies done on determination of post-burial interval (PBI), its importance and future prospective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Alternative techniques for low-level waste shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.; Mezga, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Experience to date relative to the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) indicates that the physical stability of the disposal unit and the hydrologic isolation of the waste are the two most important factors in assuring disposal site performance. Disposal unit stability can be ensured by providing stable waste packages and waste forms, compacting backfill material, and filling the void spaces between the packages. Hydrologic isolation can be achieved though a combination of proper site selection, subsurface drainage controls, internal trench drainage systems, and immobilization of the waste. A generalized design of a LLW disposal site that would provide the desired long-term isolation of the waste is discussed. While this design will be more costly than current practices, it will provide additional confidence in predicted and reliability and actual site performance

  4. Migration of tritium from a nuclear waste burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, R.H.

    1975-09-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) has routinely and continuously monitored the local environment (land, water, air, flora, and fauna) since 1951. As part of this intensive program, a three-part study was made to assess the tritium migration from an onsite burial ground for solid nuclear wastes and the resulting dose-to-man. A major source of tritium is buried, massive, Li-Al residues (referred to as melts) from the thermal extraction step in the SRP tritium production process. A melt with its extraction crucible and lid were immersed in water to measure the amounts of tritium released as HTO and HT to the water and to air. The result was a rapid release of 23 curies, of which approximately 99 percent was HTO that remained in the immersion water, and 1 percent was HT that passed into the air. (auth)

  5. Le volcanisme cambrien du Maroc central : implications géodynamiquesThe Central Morocco Cambrian volcanism: geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouali, Houssa; Briand, Bernard; Bouchardon, Jean-Luc; Capiez, Paul

    2003-05-01

    In southeastern Central Morocco, the Bou-Acila volcanic complex is considered of Cambrian age. In spite of low-grade metamorphic effect, initial volcanic texture and mineralogy can be recognized and volcanic rocks are dominated by dolerites and porphyric dolerites. The initial mineralogy is composed of plagioclases, pyroxenes and dark minerals. A secondary mineral assemblage is composed of albite, epidote, chlorite and calcite. According to their immobile elements compositions, the southeastern central Morocco metavolcanites are of within-plate continental tholeiites. This volcanism and those recognized in many other areas in Morocco confirm a Cambrian extensive episode within the Gondwana supercontinent. To cite this article: H. Ouali et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).To cite this article: H. Ouali et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  6. Low-level burial grounds dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This document is submitted to request an exemption for Trench 94 from dangerous waste landfill liner and leachate collection and removal system (hereinafter referred to as liner/leachate system) requirements. This exemption request is based on an evaluation which demonstrates that burial in Trench 94 of cathodically protected submarine reactor compartments (SRC), which contain lead and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) as hazardous constituents, is as effective as disposal in a landfill having a liner/leachate system. This demonstration also considers the effectiveness of burial in Trench 94 in terms of preventing long-term migration of contaminants to groundwater or surface water. Modeling results indicate that release of contaminants to the groundwater or surface water will not occur until after long periods of time and that even after reaching the groundwater, contaminants will not be in excess of current regulatory limits, such as drinking water standards. Chapter 1.0 provides introductory information concerning this request, including the scope of the exemption request and relevant background information. The five subsequent chapters provide information needed to support the exemption request. Chapter 2.0 discusses the regulatory basis for the exemption request and presents performance objectives related to regulatory requirements. Chapter 3.0 provides a description of the site and its operation. Chapter 4.0 describes the wastes subject to this exemption request Chapter 5.0 discusses the performance of the disposal site with respect to performance objectives. Finally, Chapter 6.0 presents the actual request for exemption from requirements for a liner/leachate system. 30 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Migration and biological transfer of radionuclides from shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This document is the final report of the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Migration and Biological Transfer of Radionuclides from Shallow Land Burial. It contains a description of the objectives of the CRP, its meetings, its achievements and the work of this individual members. Some early experiences in the operation of shallow land repositories have indicated that in the short-term, at least, radioactive wastes can be disposed of safely. However, while these experiences are encouraging, the safety of shallow-land burial for radioactive wastes remains to be demonstrated in the longer term. Some of the industrialized and more developed countries represented have well established disposal programmes for low level wastes (UK, France, USA, Japan, Sweden, Czechoslovakia, Argentina, India) while some of the developing countries represented are still at the preliminary planning stage (Thailand, Iraq). Accordingly, the interests of the participants are concerned with different aspects. Those from countries with existing facilities tend to be more interested in the development and improvement of safety assessment techniques and of a coherent long term disposal philosophy. Participants from countries without disposal facilities tend to be mainly concerned with basic experimental studies aimed at obtaining an understanding of radionuclide behaviour in soils. However, this division was by no means complete and on-going experimental studies were also reported by participants from USA, Canada and France. A total of 11 research agreements and 5 research contracts were allocated, but in addition a number of independent observers attended each of the three Research Coordination Meetings (RCMs). The RCMs were held in Vienna 4-8 November 1985, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, 7-11 September 1987, and Paris, France 17-21 April 1989. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Organic carbon burial in fjords: Terrestrial versus marine inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xingqian; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Savage, Candida; Smith, Richard W.

    2016-10-01

    Fjords have been identified as sites of enhanced organic carbon (OC) burial and may play an important role in regulating climate change on glacial-interglacial timescales. Understanding sediment processes and sources of sedimentary OC are necessary to better constrain OC burial in fjords. In this study, we use Fiordland, New Zealand, as a case study and present data on surface sediments, sediment down-cores and terrestrial end-members to examine dynamics of sediments and the sources of OC in fjord sediments. Sediment cores showed evidence of multiple particle sources, frequent bioturbation and mass-wasting events. A multi-proxy approach (stable isotopes, lignin-phenols and fatty acids) allowed for separation of marine, soil and vascular plant OC in surface sediments. The relationship between mass accumulation rate (MAR) and OC contents in fjord surface sediments suggested that mineral dilution is important in controlling OC content on a global scale, but is less important for specific regions (e.g., New Zealand). The inconsistency of OC budgets calculated by using MAR weighted %OC and OC accumulation rates (AR; 6 vs 21-31 Tg OC yr-1) suggested that sediment flux in fjords was likely underestimated. By using end-member models, we propose that 55% to 62% of total OC buried in fjords is terrestrially derived, and accounts for 17 ± 12% of the OCterr buried in all marine sediments. The strong correlation between MAR and OC AR indicated that OC flux will likely decrease in fjords in the future with global warming due to decrease in sediment flux caused by glacier denudation.

  9. Burial trench dynamic compaction demonstration at a humid site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    This task has the objective of determining the degree of consolidation which can be achieved by dynamic compaction of a closed burial trench within a cohesive soil formation. A seven-year-old burial trench in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was selected for this demonstration. This 251 m 3 trench contained about 80 Ci of mixed radionuclides, mostly 90 Sr, in 25 m 3 of waste consisting of contaminated equipment, dry solids, and demolition debris. Prior to compaction, a total trench void space of 79 m 3 was measured by pumping the trench full of water with corrections for seepage. Additional pre-compaction characterization included trench cap bulk density (1.68 kg/L), trench cap permeability (3 x 10 -7 m/s), and subsurface waste/backfill hydraulic conductivity (>0.01 m/s). Compaction was achieved by repeatedly dropping a 4-ton steel-reinforced concrete cylinder from heights of 4 to 8 m using the whipline of a 70-ton crane. The average trench ground surface was depressed 0.79 m, with some sections over 2 m, yielding a surveyed volumetric depression which totaled to 64% of the measured trench void space. Trench cap (0 to 60 cm) bulk density and permeability were not affected by compaction indicating that the consolidation was largely subsurface. Neither surface nor airborne radioactive contamination were observed during repeated monitoring during the demonstration. Dynamic compaction was shown to be an excellent and inexpensive (i.e., about $20/m 2 ) method to collapse trench void space, thereby hastening subsidence and stabilizing the land surface. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  10. High-level waste glass field burial tests at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnyk, T.W.; Walton, F.B.; Johnson, H.L.

    1983-06-01

    In 1960 June, 25 nepheline syenite-based glass hemispheres containing the fission products 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 144 Ce and 106 Ru were buried below the water table in fluvial sand at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Soil and groundwater concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs have been determined since then and the data have been interpreted using kinetically limited migration models to deduce the leaching history of the glass for these burial conditions. The leaching history derived from the field data is compared to laboratory leaching of samples from a glass hemisphere retrieved in 1978, and also to pre-burial laboratory leaching of identical hemispheres. The time dependence of the leach rates observed for the buried specimens suggests that leaching is being inhibited by the formation of a protective surface layer, although no direct observation of this layer has been made. Using an average leach rate of 5.6 x 10 -14 kg/(m 2 .s) derived from the field data for the period 1966 to 1977, it is estimated that it would require approximately 20 million years to dissolve the glass hemispheres. The effect of the kinetic limitations of the fission-product/fluvial-sand interactions is discussed with respect to the migration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs over a 20-a time scale. It is concluded that kinetically limited sorption by oxyhydroxides rather than equilibrium ion exchange controls the long-term migration of 90 Cr; the action of the oxyhydroxides immobilizes the 90 Sr on the longer time scale. Cesium is initially rapidly bound to the micaceous fraction of the sand. On a longer time scale, slow remobilization of 137 Cs in particulate form is observed and is believed to be related to bacterial action

  11. Discussion on distribution characteristics of calcareous sandstone in Shihongtan uranium deposit and its genesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Huanqiao; Qiao Haiming; Jia Heng; Xu Gaozhong

    2007-01-01

    Based on the observation and statistics on the calcareous sandstone in the ore host layer in Shihongtan uranium deposit, this paper finds that the calcareous sandstone occurs on and off near the top or wash surface of the sandbody as beads-strings lens along the layer and concentrates in the area where the ore bodies are rich. In lithology, the calcareous sandstone is of coarse grain and fairly well sorted. According to the analysis on the lithogeochemical features and the carbon and oxygen isotopes of calcareous sandstones, it is realized that there some genetic relation between the formation of calcareous sandstone and uranium mineralization in the oxidation-deoxidation transitional belt, that is the precipitation and enrichment of uranium is accompanied by the deposition of carbonate and formation of calcareous sandstone. (authors)

  12. Multiple sources of metals of mineralization in Lower Cambrian black shales of South China: Evidence from geochemical and petrographic study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pašava, J.; Kříbek, B.; Vymazalová, A.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Žák, Karel; Orberger, B.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2008), s. 25-42 ISSN 1344-1698 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : multiple source * Cambrian Ni-Mo-polymetalic black shale * SEDEX barite deposit Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 0.377, year: 2008

  13. Cense Explosion Test Program. Report 1. Cense 1. Explosions in Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    series, "Analysis and Summary of CENSE Data." 10 * _ CHAPTER 2 APPROACH 2.1 DESCRIPTION OF TEST SITE An exposed outcrop of Kayenta sandstone with 180...ft/s seismic velocity previously determined (References 12-14) for the unweathered upper zone of the Kayenta sandstone. 16 I The P-wave propagation...Propagation along the horizontal radial was 8400 ft/s. The seismic velocity pre- viously determined for Kayenta sandstone in this area was 7500 ft/s

  14. The Early Cambrian Mianyang-Changning Intracratonic Sag and Its Control on Petroleum Accumulation in the Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shugen Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The older and deeper hydrocarbon accumulations receive increasing attention across the world, providing more technical and commercial challenges to hydrocarbon exploration. We present a study of an asymmetrical, N-S striking intracratonic sag which developed across the Sichuan basin, south China, from Late Ediacaran to Early Cambrian times. The Mianyang-Changning intracratonic sag is ~50 km wide, with its steepest part in the basin center. In particular the eastern margin shows its greatest steepness. Five episodes in the evolutions of the sag can be recognized. It begins in the Late Ediacaran with an uplift and erosion correlated to Tongwan movement. Initial extension occurred during the Early Cambrian Maidiping period, when more strata of the Maidiping Formation were deposited across the sag. Subsequently, maximum extension occurred during the Early Cambrian Qiongzhusi period that resulted in 450–1700 m thick Maidiping-Canglangpu Formations being deposited in the sag. Then, the sag disappeared at the Longwangmiao period, as it was infilled by the sediments. The intracratonic sag has significant influence on the development of high-quality reservoirs in the Dengying and Longwangmiao Formations and source-rock of the Niutitang Formation. It thus indicates that a high probability for oil/gas accumulation exists along the intracratonic sag, across the central Sichuan basin.

  15. Ichnologic evidence of a Cambrian age in the southern Amazon Craton: Implications for the onset of the Western Gondwana history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hudson P.; Mángano, M. Gabriela; Soares, Joelson L.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Bandeira, José; Rudnitzki, Isaac D.

    2017-07-01

    Colonization of the infaunal ecospace by burrowing bilaterians is one of the most important behavioral innovations during the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. The establishment of vertical burrows by suspension feeders in high-energy nearshore settings during Cambrian Age 2 is reflected by the appearance of the Skolithos Ichnofacies. For the first time, unquestionable vertical burrows typical of the Skolithos Ichnofacies, such as Skolithos linearis, Diplocraterion parallelum and Arenicolites isp., are recorded from nearshore siliciclastic deposits of the Raizama Formation, southeastern Amazon Craton, Brazil. Integration of ichnologic and sedimentologic datasets suggests that these trace fossils record colonization of high-energy and well-oxygenated nearshore sandy environments. Chronostratigraphically, the presence of these vertical burrows indicates an age not older than early Cambrian for the Raizama Formation, which traditionally has been regarded as Ediacaran. Therefore, the Raizama ichnofauna illustrates the advent of modern Phanerozoic ecology marked by the Agronomic Revolution. The discovery of the Skolithos Ichnofacies in these shallow-marine strata suggests possible connections between some central Western Gondwana basins.

  16. Pan African Collisional Tectonics Along the Moroccan West African Craton Continued to Ediacaran-Cambrian Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferan, K. P.; Samson, S. D.; Rice, K.; Soulaimani, A.

    2016-12-01

    Precision geochronologic dating and field mapping in the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco document a Neoproterozoic Pan African orogenic cycle consisting of three distinct orogenic events: Iriri-Tichibanine orogeny (760-700 Ma), Bou Azzer orogeny (680-640 Ma) and the WACadomian orogeny (620 Ma to either 555 or 544 Ma). The Iriri-Tichibanine and Bou Azzer orogenies involved northward directed subduction beneath island arc volcanic terranes. These orogenic events generated calc-alkaline magmatism and supra-subduction zone ophiolites exposed in the Bou Azzer and Siroua erosional inliers. The WACadomian orogeny involved subduction and collision of the Cadomia arc complex with the West African Craton and generation of clastic sedimentary basins. The termination of the WACadomian orogeny has been the subject of debate as calc-alkaline to high K magmatism and folding continued to 544 Ma: Was 620-544 Ma calc-alkaline to high K magmatism and clastic basin development due to a) continental rift basin tectonics or b) southward directed subduction and collisional tectonics with associated back arc basin tectonism? We present field and geochemical data supporting the continuation of subduction-collisional tectonics to the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary 544 Ma. Field mapping in the Central Anti-Atlas (Agadir Melloul) clearly documents an angular unconformity between Ouarzazate Group and Adoudounian limestones (N 30°31'28.91", W07°48'29.12"). Volcaniclastic rocks of Ouarzazate Group (615-545 Ma) are clearly folded and unconformably overlain by Adoudou Formation (541-529 Ma) limestones to the north. Geochemical discrimination diagrams on Latest Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline to high K igneous rocks throughout the Anti-Atlas plot in subduction and collisional arc magma domains. Back arc basin tectonism is likely responsible for localized extensional basins but continental rift tectonics and passive margin sedimentation did not begin in the Anti-Atlas Mountains until Early

  17. Sedimentary mode and reservoir distribution of the Cambrian carbonate & evaporate paragenesis system in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cambrian carbonate & evaporite paragenesis system in the Sichuan Basin is made up of the Longwangmiao, Gaotai and Xixiangchi Fms. So far, great breakthrough has been made only in the Longwangmiao Fm instead of the latter two, and the Anyue Gasfield was discovered in the center of this basin. In this paper, therefore, the Cambrian carbonate & evaporite paragenesis system in the Sichuan Basin was analyzed in terms of its structural–sedimentary setting, sequence stratigraphic framework, sedimentary facies and the distribution of evaporites by using various geologic, logging and seismic data. Then, the geological model of sedimentary facies was established and the distribution range of favorable reservoirs was predicted. Based on these studies, the following results are obtained. Firstly, the palaeotectonic framework is characterized by the style of “one depression between two uplifts” in the setting of a large SE dipping slope, and the stratigraphic filling is in the structure of “onlapping at the bottom and truncation at the top” which is thin in the west and thick in the east. Secondly, three third-order sequence cycles which, on the whole, become shallow upward are developed from bottom to top, and gypsum-salt rocks are mainly located at the high system tract (HST of third-order sequences and concentrated in the Wanzhou–Yibin sag. Thirdly, the geological model of sedimentary facies is composed of three major sedimentary structural layers from bottom to top, namely the evaporative carbonate ramp, the evaporative diamictic restricted platform and the evaporative restricted platform. The sedimentary environment changes from the open to the closed and the penesaline for a long time, and then back to the open. The distribution of shoals changes from the pattern of “dual banks” in a large area to more scattered shoals and banded shoals, while the evaporative lagoon and tidal flat shrink. Fourthly, the reservoir distribution is

  18. The Paleozoic-Mesozoic recycling of the Rakaia Terrane, South Island, New Zealand : sandstone clast and sandstone petrology, geochemistry, and geochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandres, A.M.; Bradshaw, J.D.; Ireland, T.

    2005-01-01

    The Torlesse terranes - part of the New Zealand Eastern Province - are accretionary complexes that comprise an enormous volume of quartzofeldspathic sandstones and mudstones with subsidiary conglomerates plus minor oceanic assemblages. Two terranes are recognised in the South Island - the Permian to Late Triassic Rakaia Terrane and the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Pahau Terrane. Sandstone clasts from two Rakaia Terrane and two Pahau Terrane conglomerates were collected. We present the first combined detailed information on petrography and geochemistry of Torlesse conglomerate sandstone clasts and use our own and published U-Pb SHRIMP detrital zircon age data to demonstrate the recycling of the Rakaia Terrane into Rakaia strata itself and into Pahau Terrane strata. Sandstone clast major and trace element chemical data largely support petrographic observations derived from thin-section analysis. The similarities of petrographic and geochemical data between sandstone clasts from the Rakaia Terrane and Rakaia sandstones suggest that clasts in the Permian Te Moana and Late Triassic Lake Hill Conglomerates were derived by autocannibalistic reworking of older, consolidated, Rakaia sediments. Data from sandstone clasts from the Pahau Terrane suggest that uplift of the Rakaia Terrane continued into the Cretaceous. These Pahau Terrane clasts indicate that at the time of the Pahau sedimentation Permian to early Late Triassic Rakaia rocks were exposed and recycled into the Pahau Basin. (author). 57 refs., 8 figs., 3 tables

  19. Trilobites from the Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj; Harper, David Alexander Taylor

    2014-01-01

    During the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) sandstones and siltstones were deposited in the epicontinental Larapintine Sea, which covered large parts of central Australia. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone has, for the first time, been sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils to track marine...... benthic biodiversity in this clastic-dominated shallow-water palaeoenvironment situated along the margin of northeastern Gondwana. The faunas from the Stairway Sandstone are generally of low diversity and dominated by bivalves but include several animal groups, with trilobites representing 25......% of the entire shelly fauna. Thirteen trilobite taxa are described from the Stairway Sandstone; the fauna displays a high degree of endemism. One new species, Basilicus (Parabasilicus) brumbyensis sp. nov. is described....

  20. Study of petrological characteristics of uranium-bearing sandstone in the south of ordos basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Cheng; Jia Licheng; Li Song; Zhang Zimin

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the relation between uranium-bearing abundance and texture constituent of sedimentary rock, on the basis of the research of petrological characteristic of sandstone in the south of Ordos basin. The influence of infiltration of sandstone and uranium migration and accumulation by the major diagenesis of compaction and cementation, clay minerals evolution, corrosion and forming of secondary porosity are discussed. Uranium-bearing sandstones are divided into four types and their petrological characteristics are discussed. After mineralization conditions being summed up, the uranium-mineralization model of sandstone-type is built. Reliable petrological evidences for evaluating favourable uranium mineralization rich areas are furnished. (authors)

  1. Water Vapor Diffusion and Adsorption of Sandstones: Influence of Rock Texture and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Keppert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term sandstone is used for wide range of rocks containing quartz clasts which can be cemented by secondary precipitated quartz or calcite; moreover the space between clasts can be filled by matrix. These facts result in existence of numerous rocks having highly various properties. Sandstones have been used as construction materials due to their good accessibility and workability. Since most of sandstones are porous, water vapor can penetrate through sandstone constructions. The rate of water vapor diffusion, as well as the vapor sorption isotherm, was determined for range of sandstone types. The diffusion resistance factor was found to be dependent on the total porosity of sandstone but the sorption behavior was strongly influenced by nature of the particular sandstone; the specific surface area of stone and presence of clay matrix are determining its sorption isotherm. The published data enable estimating (i diffusion resistance factor of a sandstone via knowledge of its total porosity and (ii the sorption isotherm via knowledge of the stone’s nature and specific surface area. This approach can significantly reduce the time necessary to acquire vapor-related properties of a sandstone.

  2. Greybull Sandstone Petroleum Potential on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David A.

    2002-05-13

    The focus of this project was to explore for stratigraphic traps that may be present in valley-fill sandstone at the top of the Lower Cretaceous Kootenai Formation. This sandstone interval, generally known as the Greybull Sandstone, has been identified along the western edge of the reservation and is a known oil and gas reservoir in the surrounding region. The Greybull Sandstone was chosen as the focus of this research because it is an excellent, well-documented, productive reservoir in adjacent areas, such as Elk Basin; Mosser Dome field, a few miles northwest of the reservation; and several other oil and gas fields in the northern portion of the Bighorn Basin.

  3. Simulation of channel sandstone architecture in an incised valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frykman, P.; Johannessen, P.; Andsbjerg, J.

    1998-12-31

    The present report describes a geostatistical modelling study that is aimed at reflecting the architecture of the channel sandstones in an incised valley fill. The example used for this study is a part of the Middle Jurassic sandy succession of the Bryne Formation in the Danish central Graben. The succession consists mainly of fluvial sediments in the lower part, overlain by tidal influenced sediments, which again is overlain by shallow marine sediments. The modelling study has been performed on a sequence of incised valley sediments in the upper part of the Bryne Formation overlying fluvial sediments. (au) EFP-96. 19 refs.

  4. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  5. Thermal study of sandstones from different Czech localities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plevová, Eva; Vaculíková, Lenka; Kožušníková, Alena; Daněk, T.; Ritz, M.; Simha Martynková, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 3 (2011), s. 835-843 ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/08/1398; GA ČR GP105/07/P416 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP105/09/397 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : thermomechanical and differential thermal analysis * optical microscopy * sandstones Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.604, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/71n5427j2707g331/

  6. Formation of Burial Mounds of the Sarmatian Time in the Basin of the Esaulovsky Aksai River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Korobkova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the features of the formation of the burial mounds in the basin of the Esaulovsky Aksai river in the Sarmatian period. Most of the burial mounds of the region begin to form in the Bronze Age and continue to function throughout the early, middle and early late-Sarmatian periods. Most of the burial mounds were located on the watersheds and above-flood terraces of different levels. All of them are characterized by same principles of planning, barrows in them are stretched in a chain in the natural form of the terrace on which the burial mound was built. The territories developed already in the Bronze Age were chosen for creating mounds in the early Sarmatian period. The main part of them is concentrated on a small section landplot of the middle course of the Esaulovsky Aksai river. During the Middle Sarmatian period, the main part of barrows were also located in the middle course of the Esaulovsky Aksai, but represented 2 plots. One of these plots continues to use large burial mounds of the previous period, and the other one undergoes the creation of small barrow groups consisting usually of two-three barrows containing the richest burials of the region with the “classical” set of Middle Sarmatian features. In the late Sarmatian period, as well as in the previous stages of the Sarmatian culture, the burial mounds of the middle course of the Esaulovsky Aksai continue to be used, which cease to function no later than at the first half of the 3rd century AD. But the territory of actively used burial mounds changes, and the main complexes of that time concentrate in the upper reaches, where new burial mounds are created and continue to function until the end of the Sarmatian era.

  7. Resurrection imageries: A study of the motives for extravagant burial rituals in ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike in the New Testament whereby faith in Christ can resurrect the dead, the ancient Egyptians believed that the bereaved created the resurrection of their deceased through burial rituals and by encouraging the living to serve their kings. They thought that faith alone in god or the gods was not enough to resurrect the dead, thus they seemingly superimposed resurrection alongside burials. Using the various forms of Egyptian burial rituals and evaluated from the perspective of the Christian concept of resurrection, this researcher attempts to search for the motives behind specific Egyptian burial rituals. The researcher proposes that the activities of the bereaved or of the living over the dead were paramount in resurrecting the dead in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this research is, firstly, to explain how the Egyptian burial rituals influenced their thoughts on resurrection and, secondly, to show that the Egyptian god(s might have depended on the living to raise the dead.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The ancient Egyptians lived their lives mainly to satisfy the interests of the dead, hence their extensive burial rituals. Whilst they believed in the power of the gods to raise the dead, there seemed to be another motive behind their burial practices which suggested that the living may have had more power to raise the dead. The power was realised in the activities of the living in the form of burials, tomb designs, mummification, food offering, and in remembering the dead. This research explains that these burial activities were relevant in resurrecting the dead without which the gods alone were not able to do that.

  8. Experimental taphonomy and the anatomy and diversity of the earliest fossil vertebrates (Chengjiang Biota, Cambrian, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Mark; Gabbott, Sarah; Murdock, Duncan; Cong, Peiyun

    2016-04-01

    The oldest fossil vertebrates are from the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang biota of China, which contains four genera of fish-like, primitive vertebrates: Haikouichthys, Myllokunmingia, Zhongjianichthys and Zhongxiniscus. These fossils play key roles in calibrating molecular clocks and informing our view of the anatomy of animals close to the origin of vertebrates, potentially including transitional forms between vertebrates and their nearest relatives. Despite the evident importance of these fossils, the degree to which taphonomic processes have affected their anatomical completeness has not been investigated. For example, some or all might have been affected by stemward slippage - the pattern observed in experimental decay of non-biomineralised chordates in which preferential decay of synapomorphies and retention of plesiomorphic characters would cause fossil taxa to erroneously occupy more basal positions than they should. This hypothesis is based on experimental data derived from decay of non-biomineralised chordates under laboratory conditions. We have expanded this analysis to include a broader range of potentially significant environmental variables; we have also compared and combined the results of experiments from several taxa to identify general patterns of chordate decay. Examination of the Chengjiang vertebrates in the light of these results demonstrates that, contrary to some assertions, experimentally derived models of phylogenetic bias are applicable to fossils. Anatomical and phylogenetic interpretations of early vertebrates that do not take taphonomic biases into account risk overestimating diversity and the evolutionary significance of differences between fossil specimens.

  9. Preservation and phylogeny of Cambrian ecdysozoans tested by experimental decay of Priapulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Robert S.

    2016-09-01

    The exceptionally preserved Cambrian fossil record provides unique insight into the early evolutionary history of animals. Understanding of the mechanisms of exceptional soft tissue preservation frames all interpretations of the fauna and its evolutionary significance. This is especially true for recent interpretations of preserved nervous tissues in fossil ecdysozoans. However, models of soft tissue preservation lack empirical support from actualistic studies. Here experimental decay of the priapulid Priapulus reveal consistent bias towards rapid loss of internal non-cuticular anatomy compared with recalcitrant cuticular anatomy. This is consistent with models of Burgess Shale-type preservation and indicates that internal tissues are unlikely to be preserved with fidelity if organically preserved. This pattern, along with extreme body margin distortion, is consistent with onychophoran decay, and is therefore resolved as general for early ecdysozoans. Application of these patterns to phylogenetic data finds scalidophoran taxa to be very sensitive to taphonomically informed character coding, but not panarthropodan taxa. Priapulid decay also have unexpected relevance for interpretation of myomeres in fossil chordates. The decay data presented serve not only as a test of models of preservation but also a framework with which to interpret ecdysozoan fossil anatomies, and the subsequent evolutionary inferences drawn from them.

  10. Ancient tombs in China and shallow ground burial of solid low-intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yawen; Gu Cunli

    1987-01-01

    Having reviewed the experiences with ancient tombs in China, particularly the experiences with tomb siting, configuration of tombs, backfilling materials, civil engineering techniques, sealing techniques, drainage system, antiseptic techniques, a comparison between the ancient tombs and the shallow ground burial of solid radioactive wastes is made. The authors believe that the brilliant achievements of ancient tombs in China in keeping ancient corpses and funeral objects are a historical evidence for safety of shallow ground burial of radioactive wastes, and that the main experiences with the ancient tombs may be useful to shallow ground burial of solid radioactive wastes

  11. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  12. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  13. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  14. Modelling of a diffusion-sorption experiment on sandstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.A.

    1989-11-01

    The results of a diffusion-sorption experiment on a sample of Darley Dale sandstone, using simulated groundwater spiked with a mixture of 125 I, 85 Sr and 137 Cs, are modelled by a one-dimensional porous medium approach in which sorption is described by Freundlich isotherms. The governing equations are solved analytically for the special case of a linear isotherm, and numerically using the computer code RANCHDIFF for non-linear isotherms. A set of time-dependent, ordinary differential equations is obtained using the Lagrange interpolation technique and integrated by Gear's variable order predictor-corrector method. It is shown that the sorption behaviour of 85 Sr can be modelled successfully by a linear isotherm, using a sorption parameter consistent with batch-sorption tests. The behaviour of 137 Cs may be modelled by a non-linear isotherm, but the amount of 137 Cs sorbed is less than that anticipated from batch-sorption tests. 125 I is assumed to be non-sorbing and is used to determine the porosity of the sandstone. (author) 10 figs., 4 tabs., 6 refs

  15. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, Mian Umer; Mahmud, Hisham Khaled Ben; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H 3 PO 4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid. (paper)

  16. Selected trace and minor elements in sandstones from Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facetti-Masulli, J.F.; Gonzalez, E.; Kump, P.

    2010-01-01

    Selected trace and minor elements analyzed by XRF in sandstone samples were Rb-Sr-Zr-Nb-Ba-La-Ce-Nd as well as Ti-Mn-Fe with which they are often correlated. Refractory elements like REE are considered useful indicators of geochemical processes and, in this case, of provenance. Usually they maintain their original relationships and are transferred almost directly into sediments. The values here found, absolute and normalized, show correlations among the samples, allowing the establishment of their origin. Most of them in the spidergram patterns display positive spikes of Zr, and negative anomalies at Nb, Sr, Ti: differences in their height/depth could be in relation with the different Series or Formations. Strikingly, spidergrams of samples collected from the Patino Formation show marked negative anomalies interalia of Ba, as well as positive spikes of Nb and Zr, very similar to those found in magmatic specimens from Misiones, Carapegua-Acahay and Alto Paraguay Province and quite different from the other analyzed samples. In addition a remarkable presence of Precambrian signatures were found in the analyzed sandstones from the Paleozoic. (orig.)

  17. Selected trace and minor elements in sandstones from Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facetti-Masulli, J.F.; Gonzalez, E. [Hydroconsult SRL, Asuncion (Paraguay); Kump, P. [J. Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-07-01

    Selected trace and minor elements analyzed by XRF in sandstone samples were Rb-Sr-Zr-Nb-Ba-La-Ce-Nd as well as Ti-Mn-Fe with which they are often correlated. Refractory elements like REE are considered useful indicators of geochemical processes and, in this case, of provenance. Usually they maintain their original relationships and are transferred almost directly into sediments. The values here found, absolute and normalized, show correlations among the samples, allowing the establishment of their origin. Most of them in the spidergram patterns display positive spikes of Zr, and negative anomalies at Nb, Sr, Ti: differences in their height/depth could be in relation with the different Series or Formations. Strikingly, spidergrams of samples collected from the Patino Formation show marked negative anomalies interalia of Ba, as well as positive spikes of Nb and Zr, very similar to those found in magmatic specimens from Misiones, Carapegua-Acahay and Alto Paraguay Province and quite different from the other analyzed samples. In addition a remarkable presence of Precambrian signatures were found in the analyzed sandstones from the Paleozoic. (orig.)

  18. Clay minerals in sandstone uranium deposits: radwaste applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Clay minerals play an important role in the genesis of uranium deposits in sandstones. They incorporate the rate earths (REE), U, Sb, Th, Cs, Rb, Sr, Y, Ba, and even small amounts of chalcophiles. These minerals possess analog elements for many of the radwaste fission products as well as actinides and some actinide daughters. In sandstone uranium deposits, clay minerals are also associated with sulfide minerals, usually pyrite, and organic carbonaceous matter. The primary clay minerals are usually smectites, illites, chlorites and mixed layer varieties. The integrity of these clay minerals is demonstrated by their retention of formational-mineralization ages determined by Rb-Sr geochronologic investigation of the Grants Mineral Belt of the United States. The importance of the clay minerals as analog for parts of the multi-barrier concept in radwaste disposal is their ability to impede water penetration into - and movement of key elements out of uranium rich zones. The clay minerals further sorb and in other ways incorporate into their structures many fission products and actinide analogs from man-made nuclear wastes. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  19. Measuring the zeta potential. The relationships with sandstone fineness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Luxán, M. P.

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of the zeta potential technique in the area of construction materials and Portland cement is quite recent. The initial research work involved the study of cement suspensions or suspensions of one of the components of cement, such as alite, tricalcium alumínate, in the presence of additives and, more specifically, superplasticizers. The studies of this sort were extended with the mixing of active additions into cement (fly ashes, etc.. The present study discusses the application of siliceous materials (sandstone as a basis of the research into the behaviour of sandstone mortars containing repair products.

    La aplicación de la técnica del potencial zeta en el campo de los materiales de construcción y del cemento portland es muy reciente. Las primeras investigaciones se refieren al estudio de suspensiones de cemento o de alguno de sus compuestos que lo forman como alita, aluminato tricálcico, en presencia de aditivos y, más concretamente, de superfluidificantes. Con la incorporación de adiciones activas al cemento (cenizas volantes,... se amplían los estudios de este tipo de cementos. En este trabajo se considera la aplicación a los materiales silíceos (arenisca como base para la investigación del comportamiento de los morteros de arenisca conteniendo productos de reparación.

  20. Pore network properties of sandstones in a fault damage zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossennec, Claire; Géraud, Yves; Moretti, Isabelle; Mattioni, Luca; Stemmelen, Didier

    2018-05-01

    The understanding of fluid flow in faulted sandstones is based on a wide range of techniques. These depend on the multi-method determination of petrological and structural features, porous network properties and both spatial and temporal variations and interactions of these features. The question of the multi-parameter analysis on fluid flow controlling properties is addressed for an outcrop damage zone in the hanging wall of a normal fault zone on the western border of the Upper Rhine Graben, affecting the Buntsandstein Group (Early Triassic). Diagenetic processes may alter the original pore type and geometry in fractured and faulted sandstones. Therefore, these may control the ultimate porosity and permeability of the damage zone. The classical model of evolution of hydraulic properties with distance from the major fault core is nuanced here. The hydraulic behavior of the rock media is better described by a pluri-scale model including: 1) The grain scale, where the hydraulic properties are controlled by sedimentary features, the distance from the fracture, and the impact of diagenetic processes. These result in the ultimate porous network characteristics observed. 2) A larger scale, where the structural position and characteristics (density, connectivity) of the fracture corridors are strongly correlated with both geo-mechanical and hydraulic properties within the damage zone.

  1. Replacement of benthic communities in two Neoproterozoic-Cambrian subtropical-to-temperate rift basins, High Atlas and Anti-Atlas, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Sébastien; Álvaro, J. Javier; Zamora, Samuel

    2014-10-01

    The ‘Cambrian explosion’ is often introduced as a major shift in benthic marine communities with a coeval decline of microbial consortia related to the diversification of metazoans and development of bioturbation (‘Agronomic Revolution’). Successive community replacements have been reported along with ecosystem diversification and increase in guild complexity from Neoproterozoic to Cambrian times. This process is recorded worldwide but with regional diachroneities, some of them directly controlled by the geodynamic conditions of sedimentary basins. The southern High Atlas and Anti-Atlas of Morocco record development of two rifts, Tonian (?) - early Cryogenian and latest Ediacarian-Cambrian in age, separated by the onset of the Pan-African Orogeny. This tectonically controlled, regional geodynamic change played a primary control on pattern and timing of benthic ecosystem replacements. Benthic communities include microbial consortia, archaeocyathan-thromboid reefal complexes, chancelloriid-echinoderm-sponge meadows, and deeper offshore echinoderm-dominated communities. Microbial consortia appeared in deeper parts of the Tonian (?) - early Cryogenian fluvio-deltaic progradational rift sequences, lacustrine environments of the Ediacaran Volcanic Atlasic Chain (Ouarzazate Supergroup) and the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary interval, characterized by the peritidal-dominated Tifnout Member (Adoudou Formation). They persisted and were largely significant until Cambrian Age 3, as previous restricted marine conditions precluded the immigration of shelly metazoans in the relatively shallow epeiric parts of the Cambrian Atlas Rift. Successive Cambrian benthic communities were replaced as a result of distinct hydrodynamic and substrate conditions, which allow identification of biotic (e.g., antagonistic relationships between microbial consortia and echinoderms, and taphonomic feedback patterns in chancelloriid-echinoderm-sponge meadows) and abiotic (e.g., rifting

  2. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m 3 ) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time

  3. Effects of sand burial on the survival and growth of two shrubs dominant in different habitats of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hao; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Zhao, Xue-Yong; Zuo, Xiao-An; Wang, Shao-Kun; Chen, Min

    2017-04-01

    Plants that grow in dune ecosystems always suffer from sand burial. Shrubs play implications on the healthy functioning of dune ecosystems due to control blowing sand. However, the survival and growth responses of shrubs to sand burial remain poorly understood. The survival rate and seedling height of two shrubs (Artemisia halodendron and Lespedeza davurica) along with the soil properties under different burial depths were examined in order to reveal the causing ecophysiological attributes of sand burial on shrubs in the desertified region. It was found that A. halodendron can survive a burial depth of 6 cm greater than its seedling height, which is a dominant shrub in mobile dunes with intense burial, whereas a burial depth equivalent to three fourths of its seedling height is detrimental to L. davurica, which is dominant in fixed dunes with less burial. The reasons for the shrub death under sand burial were associated with the physical barrier to vertical growth and the reduction in photosynthetic area. In conclusion, A. halodendron can facilitate the stabilization of mobile dunes because of their high tolerance to the frequent and intensive sand burial, while L. davurica can be beneficial for the recovery process because of their higher survival rates under shallow burial following restoration of mobile dunes.

  4. Sandstone-body and shale-body dimensions in a braided fluvial system: Salt wash sandstone member (Morrison formation), Garfield County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J.W.; McCabea, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Excellent three-dimensional exposures of the Upper Jurassic Salt Wash Sandstone Member of the Morrison Formation in the Henry Mountains area of southern Utah allow measurement of the thickness and width of fluvial sandstone and shale bodies from extensive photomosaics. The Salt Wash Sandstone Member is composed of fluvial channel fill, abandoned channel fill, and overbank/flood-plain strata that were deposited on a broad alluvial plain of low-sinuosity, sandy, braided streams flowing northeast. A hierarchy of sandstone and shale bodies in the Salt Wash Sandstone Member includes, in ascending order, trough cross-bedding, fining-upward units/mudstone intraclast conglomerates, singlestory sandstone bodies/basal conglomerate, abandoned channel fill, multistory sandstone bodies, and overbank/flood-plain heterolithic strata. Trough cross-beds have an average width:thickness ratio (W:T) of 8.5:1 in the lower interval of the Salt Wash Sandstone Member and 10.4:1 in the upper interval. Fining-upward units are 0.5-3.0 m thick and 3-11 m wide. Single-story sandstone bodies in the upper interval are wider and thicker than their counterparts in the lower interval, based on average W:T, linear regression analysis, and cumulative relative frequency graphs. Multistory sandstone bodies are composed of two to eight stories, range up to 30 m thick and over 1500 m wide (W:T > 50:1), and are also larger in the upper interval. Heterolithic units between sandstone bodies include abandoned channel fill (W:T = 33:1) and overbank/flood-plain deposits (W:T = 70:1). Understanding W:T ratios from the component parts of an ancient, sandy, braided stream deposit can be applied in several ways to similar strata in other basins; for example, to (1) determine the width of a unit when only the thickness is known, (2) create correlation guidelines and maximum correlation lengths, (3) aid in interpreting the controls on fluvial architecture, and (4) place additional constraints on input variables to

  5. Middle Ordovician brachiopods from the Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Brock, Glenn A.; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj

    2014-01-01

    -water palaeoenvironment along the margin of northeastern Gondwana. The brachiopods from the Stairway Sandstone are of low diversity and represent ca 9% of the entire shelly fauna. Five brachiopod taxa are described from the Stairway Sandstone; all are endemic to the Amadeus Basin at species level. Two new species...

  6. Brief analysis on relationship between red beds and sandstone-type uranium ore-formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zengxian

    2006-01-01

    Red beds are sandy gravel beds deposited under the arid and hot climates and correspondent to the oxidation environment of continental basins. As an exogenetic epigenetic uranium deposit, the formation of the sandstone-type uranium deposit needs a large chronologic gap between the diagenesis and the subsequent uranium metallogenesis of the ore-hosting target layer with a sedimentary discontinuity and an alternative humid-arid climate. Red beds are the product of this time. The evolutionary times of red beds are in accordance with the formation of the sandstone-type uranium deposit. Both domestic and abroad researches indicate that each times evolution of a red bed might be associated with uranium ore-formation in one or more sandstone layers in the region. In China, red beds are developed in many geologic periods, but sandstone-type uranium mineralization occurs mostly in Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Taking five known sandstone-type uranium deposits as examples, the author makes a primary analysis on the relationship between red beds and the subsequent sandstone-type uranium mineralization. It is suggested that the deposition of red beds and sandstone-type uranium metallogenesis are of 'cogenesis and coexistence' and that the deposition of red beds and its evolutionary times can be regarded as the prerequisites to judge the potential of sandstone-type uranium mineralization in a Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basin. (authors)

  7. Analysis on metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits in kelulun region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Feng [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology, Beijing (China)

    1999-07-01

    On the basis of comprehensively analyzing metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits, the author discusses regional geologic background, characteristics of the basement and sedimentary cover of Kelulun basin and Huchawula-Hulun Lake basin, and the metallogenic potential of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits is proposed.

  8. Analysis on metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits in kelulun region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingyue

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of comprehensively analyzing metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits, the author discusses regional geologic background, characteristics of the basement and sedimentary cover of Kelulun basin and Huchawula-Hulun Lake basin, and the metallogenic potential of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits is proposed

  9. Different effects of temperature and salinity on permeability reduction by fines migration in Berea sandstone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Kjøller, Claus; Riis, Jacob Fabricius

    2015-01-01

    Hot water injection into geothermal aquifers is considered in order to store energy seasonally. Berea sandstone is often used as a reference formation to study mechanisms that affect permeability in reservoir sandstones. Both heating of the pore fluid and reduction of the pore fluid salinity can...

  10. The Bentheim Sandstone: Geology, petrophysics, varieties and it's use as dimension stone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubelaar, C.W.; Nijland, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    The shallow-marine Bentheim Sandstone was deposited in one of the NW-SE trending basins north of the London-Brabant and Rhenish massifs during the Valanginian (Early Cretaceous). The Bentheim Sandstone forms an important reservoir rock for petroleum, but has also proven itself as a very durable

  11. Biobarriers used in shallow-burial ground stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.F.

    1979-03-01

    These data show that cobblestone can be effective as a barrier to burrowing animals and insects, but not totally effective as a barrier to plant roots. Because of variable weather patterns at Hanford, five to six year studies are recommended for further evaluation of the effectiveness of different materials as biobarriers to radioactive substances. The following criteria must be met to present plant roots from entering buried waste and transporting radioactive or other elements to the soil surface where they can enter the food web: (1) the burial zone beneath the cover should be kept dry; (2) enough soil or other water-retaining substance should be placed in the cover to hold annual precipitation; (3) plants or other substances should be placed in the cover to remove soil moisture from site each year via evaporation and plant transpiration; and (4) different additions to the cover should be designed and placed over the buried waste to prevent burrowing animals from causing channelization of water through the cover to the lower levels. Stone size appeared to affect the plants' rate of root growth since root growth slowed in the air spaces between stones. Root toxin was 100% effective as a means of keeping roots out of the buried waste; this method could be used as a barrier modification where no plant cover is needed. 9 figures, 2 tables

  12. Dating floodplain sediments using tree-ring response to burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J.M.; Vincent, K.R.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Floodplain sediments can be dated precisely based on the change in anatomy of tree rings upon burial. When a stem of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) or sandbar willow (Salix exigua) is buried, subsequent annual rings in the buried section resemble the rings of roots: rings become narrower, vessels within the rings become larger, and transitions between rings become less distinct. We combined observations of these changes with tree-ring counts to determine the year of deposition of sedimentary beds exposed in a 150-m-long trench across the floodplain of the Rio Puerco, a rapidly filling arroyo in New Mexico. This method reliably dated most beds thicker than about 30 cm to within a year of deposition. Floodplain aggradation rates varied dramatically through time and space. Sediment deposition was mostly limited to brief overbank flows occurring every few years. The most rapid deposition occurred on channel-margin levees, which migrated laterally during channel narrowing. At the decadal timescale, the cross-section-average sediment deposition rate was steady, but there was a shift in the spatial pattern of deposition in the 1980s. From 1936 to 1986, sediment deposition occurred by channel narrowing, with little change in elevation of the thalweg. After 1986 sediment deposition occurred by vertical aggradation. From 1936 to 2000 about 27 per cent of the arroyo cross-section filled with sediment. The rate of filling from 1962 to 2000 was 0·8 vertical m/decade or 85 m2/decade.

  13. Numerical modelling of GPR electromagnetic fields for locating burial sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carcione José M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground-penetrating radar (GPR is commonly used for locating burial sites. In this article, we acquired radargrams at a site where a domestic pig cadaver was buried. The measurements were conducted with the ProEx System GPR manufactured by the Swedish company Mala Geoscience with an antenna of 500MHz. The event corresponding to the pig can be clearly seen in the measurements. In order to improve the interpretation, the electromagnetic field is compared to numerical simulations computed with the pseudo-spectral Fourier method. A geological model has been defined on the basis of assumed electromagnetic properties (permittivity, conductivity and magnetic permeability. The results, when compared with the GPR measurements, show a dissimilar amplitude behaviour, with a stronger reflection event from the bottom of the pit. We have therefore performed another simulation by decreasing the electrical conductivity of the body very close to that of air. The comparison improved, showing more reflections, which could be an indication that the body contains air or has been degraded to a certain extent that the electrical resistivity has greatly increased.

  14. Low-level waste shallow burial assessment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Little, C.A.; Emerson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Exposures from Shallow Trench Operationns) is a computer code developed under United States Environmental Protection Agency funding to evaluate possible health effects from radionuclide releases from shallow, radioctive-waste disposal trenches and from areas contaminated with operational spillage. The model is intended to predict radionuclide transport and the ensuing exposure and health impact to a stable, local population for a 1000-year period following closure of the burial grounds. Several classes of submodels are used in PRESTO to represent scheduled events, unit system responses, and risk evaluation processes. The code is modular to permit future expansion and refinement. Near-surface transport mechanisms considered in the PRESTO code are cap failure, cap erosion, farming or reclamation practices, human intrusion, chemical exchange within an active surface soil layer, contamination from trench overflow, and dilution by surface streams. Subsurface processes include infiltration and drainage into the trench, the ensuing solubilization of radionuclides, and chemical exchange between trench water and buried solids. Mechanisms leading to contaminated outflow include trench overflow and downwad vertical percolation. If the latter outflow reaches an aquifer, radiological exposure from irrigation or domestic consumption is considered. Airborne exposure terms are evaluated using the Gaussian plume atmospheric transport formulation as implemented by Fields and Miller

  15. Design for the second phase Rokkasho LLW burial facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumata, Tadamasa

    1997-01-01

    Rokkasho Low Level radioactive Waste management center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (hereafter called JNFL) has been operating for five years and about 90,000 (200 liter) drums have already been buried. Currently, JNFL is planning the 2nd phase of the burial program. The basic design of the new facility has been completed and applied for license additionally. Wastes buried in the 2nd phase facility are mainly dry active wastes from nuclear power plants. Inflammable wastes except for plastics are incinerated before they are disposed, because organic materials can generate gas and their degraded materials affect the distribution coefficients of the radionuclides. Most of the aluminum wastes which can generate hydrogen gas by corrosion are also removed from the waste. The 2nd phase facility accepts metal, plastics and non-flammable wastes. These are solidified with mortar in the 200 liter drums at the power plants. The radioactive inventory of the 2nd phase facility is considered to be as much as that of the 1st phase facility. (author)

  16. Books, Baths, and Burials: Notes on Certain Nineteenth Century Adoptive Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    Early legislation relating to street lighting, baths and washhouses, burial of the dead, public libraries and public improvements in England and Wales, reflected Parliament's suspicion of local democracy and distrust of local authorities. (9 references) (Author)

  17. Low-level burial grounds dangerous waste permit application design documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    This document serves a supplement to the already existing ''Low-Level Burial Ground Dangerous Waste Permit Application Design Documents.'' This paper contains information regarding drawings, construction specifications, and liner/leachate compatibility test plans

  18. Phosphorus recycling and burial in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting redox conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mort, Haydon P; Slomp, Caroline P; Gustafson, Bo G

    2010-01-01

    . Most burial of P takes place as organic P. We find no evidence for significant authigenic Ca–P formation or biogenic Ca–P burial. The lack of major inorganic P burial sinks makes the Baltic Sea very sensitive to the feedback loop between increased hypoxia, enhanced regeneration of P and increased......In this study, redox-dependent phosphorus (P) recycling and burial at 6 sites in the Baltic Sea is investigated using a combination of porewater and sediment analyses and sediment age dating (210Pb and 137Cs). We focus on sites in the Kattegat, Danish Straits and Baltic Proper where present...... be accounted for in budgets and models for the Baltic Sea....

  19. LASL experimental engineered waste burial facility: design considerations and preliminary plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The LASL Experimental Engineered Waste Burial Facility is a part of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program on Shallow-Land Burial Technology. It is a test facility where basic information can be obtained on the processes that occur in shallow-land burial operations and where new concepts for shallow-land burial can be tested on an accelerated basis on an appropriate scale. The purpose of this paper is to present some of the factors considered in the design of the facility and to present a preliminary description of the experiments that are initially planned. This will be done by discussing waste management philosophies, the purposes of the facility in the context of the waste management philosophy for the facility, and the design considerations, and by describing the experiments initially planned for inclusion in the facility, and the facility site

  20. The sandstone's chromatic alteration of the florentine cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettori, S.; Pecchioni, E.; Cantisani, E.; Ricci, M.; Fratini, F.; Garzonio, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    Pietra Serena is one of the materials more used in Florentine architecture. It is a sandstone that outcrops in the hills north of the city in the municipality of Fiesole and it has been employed mainly for ornamental purposes. This litotype belongs to the the Macigno Formation (Oligocene Upper- Miocene Lower) which consists of beds of turbiditic sandstones separated by pelitic levels which are the finest components of each single turbidity layer. Petrographically, Pietra Serena can be defined as a medium-coarse-grained greywacke made of quartz, feldspars, micas, fragments of metamorphic and magmatic rocks. The clayey matrix is quite abundant, mainly composed by illite, kaolinite and chlorite-vermiculite (present only in some quarries). It is well known that the processes of decay of the sandstones are related to the type of matrix, the amount of cement, the kind of clay minerals and to the pore size distribution, which lead to water infiltrations, swelling of the clay minerals, separation of the clayey matrix, with resulting exfoliation and peeling of the stone artefacts. Pietra Serena has a bluish-grey colour in fresh cut, but many times it is easily oxidized acquiring an ochraceous-reddish brown colour on buildings. Such changes in colour, appear to be due in part to the oxidation of iron, proceeding very quickly from the surface to the inside, though the cohesion is not affected. It is possible to hypothesize that the chromatic changes not necessarily involve a progressive state of alteration of the artefact, but they may often to represents a natural patina acquired with the time. Nevertheless it is necessary to remember that the oxidized layer and its hardness could also be the result of treatments performed in the past. In Florence, several monuments and buildings are affected by such phenomenon, in particular it is possible to note an intense and diffuse reddish colouring on the Pietra Serena utilized for columns and for façade's decorations. In this work

  1. Exploring sustainable burial practices in South Africa: Potential challenges and opportunities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leuta, T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available . In addition to the various faiths/religions, many cultures believe that burial is the most respectful and dignified way to treat the body, and for loved ones to find comfort in having a specific gravesite to visit. The primary drawback to conventional... across a range of cultures and religions. 3. The way forward This paper aimed to enhance an understanding of the challenges faced by South African municipalities concerning inadequate land for cemetery development. Burial forms part of important...

  2. PROBLEMS OF THE BURIAL REGISTERS IN TURKEY: A QUALITATIVE STUDY ON MATERNAL MORTALITY

    OpenAIRE

    ERGÖÇMEN, Banu Akadlı; YÜKSEL, İlknur

    2006-01-01

    In this article deficiencies of the burial registers in Turkey are discussed with specificemphasis on maternal mortality. The analysis is based on the qualitative data of “Turkey NationalMaternal Mortality Study, 2005”. This article aims to understand the reasons behind thedeficiencies in reporting and registering of the maternal deaths through interviews conducted withthe officers in charge of the burial registers in urban and rural settlements as well as the personsresponsible in recording ...

  3. Recycling and shallow land burial as goals for fusion reactor materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponti, C.

    1988-01-01

    The acceptability of each natural element as a constituent for fusion reactor materials has been determined for the purpose of limiting long-lived radioactivity, so that the material could be recycled or disposed of by near-surface burial. The results show that there is little incentive for optimizing the composition of steels for recycling. The development of a steel with an optimized composition that would allow reaching shallow land burial conditions even for the first wall is more interesting and feasible

  4. Cover integrity in shallow land burial of low-level wastes: hydrology and erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.J.; Nyhan, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of a state-of-the-art technology for simulating hydrologic processes and erosion affecting cover integrity at shallow land waste burial sites are described. A nonpoint source pollution model developed for agricultural systems has been adapted for application to waste burial sites in semiarid and arid regions. Applications include designs for field experiments, evaluation of slope length and steepness, evaluation of various soil types, and evaluation of vegetative cover influencing erosion rates and the water balance within the soil profile

  5. Elementary analysis on the main factors affecting the permeability of sandstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Binli

    2006-01-01

    Researches show that in the early stage of sandstone diagenesis, compaction, pressure solution, cementation and replacement reduce both the porosity and the permeability. The cementation of authigenic kaolinite may preserve the tiny intergranular pore-space, and slightly influence the porosity, and even increase the permeability. During the middle to late stage of diagenesis, the organic matter becomes matured, hydrocarbon and acidic water are produced, which forms secondary porosity by the dissolution and the corrosion, and greatly increases the permeability of sandstones and provides a favorable prerequisite for the formation of sandstone-type uranium deposits. The interlayered oxidation alteration, oil-gas reduction and low-temperature hydrothermal alteration also produce secondary porosity in epigenetic reforming stage, which finally decides the permeability after the formation of sandstone-type uranium deposits. This is an important condition for in-situ leaching of sandstone-type uranium deposit. (authors)

  6. Age, sedimentary environments, and other aspects of sandstone and related host rocks for uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Project II of the Uranium Geology Working Group was assigned to the study of sedimentary basins and sandstone - type uranium deposits. About 40% of the worlds's uranium resources are contained in sandstone-type deposits, which has led to extensive research. The research was carried out mainly by correspondence, and the results reported by 21 geologists from 10 nations are summarized in this report. It investigated five topics dealing with important aspects of the geology of uranium ores in sandstone host formations: age of host rock; partitioning of uranium between continental and marine sediments; latitude limitation on formation of sandstone deposits; effect of rock formation dip on sandstone ores; usefulness of stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies. The results of studies on these subjects form part of a wider programme of the Working Group, whose final results will be presented at the 27th International Geological Congress in Moscow in 1984

  7. Stable isotope (δ13Cker, δ13Ccarb, δ18Ocarb distribution along a Cambrian outcrop section in the eastern Tarim Basin, NW China and its geochemical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the geochemical features of the lower Paleozoic strata of Yaerdang Mountain outcrop along with the core samples from well TD2∈ in the eastern Tarim Basin, NW China. The total organic carbon abundance, hydrocarbon-generating precursor biospecies, and stable isotope ratios of organics and carbonate (δ13Cker, δ13Ccarb and δ18Ocarb were comprehensively studied for their possible correlative constraints during sedimentary evolution. The results revealed that the δ13Cker (VPDB of Cambrian kerogens along the outcrop section varied from −34.6‰ to −28.4‰, indicating an increasing tendency from the lower Cambrian to the upper Cambrian. This was on the whole accompanied by the variation in the δ13Ccarb and δ18Ocarb along the profile, which might be associated with the changes in the sea level and also in the compositional variation of benthic and planktonic biomass. The large variation in the stable carbon isotope ratios up to 6‰ along the outcrop section reflected the heterogeneity of the Cambrian source rocks from the eastern Tarim Basin. Hence, the 13C-enriched crude oils from well TD2∈ might have been derived from a localized stratum of Cambrian source rocks. The results from this study showed the possibility of multiple source kitchens in the Cambrian–lower Ordovician portion of Tarim Basin.

  8. Mirrors in the Burial Rites of Saryarka Population in the Golden Horde Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasenova Bakhyt M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the mirrors which were originally discovered in ancient Turkic burials, but became widely spread as late as in the Golden Horde period, which was largely accounted for by the intensification of contacts due to the establishment of the Mongol Empire. High-quality Chinese mirrors and their local imitations have been discovered across the entire vast territory in which the steppe peoples established new state formations. The authors support the opinion advanced by many researchers, according to which the mirrors represent ritual items. There is evidence of the fact that in the ancient Turkic period mirrors were characteristic of female burials. This information is partially confirmed for the developed medieval period as well, for paleoanthropological characteristics are not always available. The authors provide information on the conditions in which mirrors have been discovered in the burials of the historical period in question. The article features the first description of individual mirrors discovered in the burials of the steppe area of Kazakhstan. Of considerable interest is the discovery of one of the mirrors underneath a grave in a female burial conducted in accordance with the Muslim funerary rite. The authors attempt to identify the role of individual items in the burial rite of the medieval period, in this case mirrors, as a marker of gender identity.

  9. Extent of Stream Burial and Relationships to Watershed Area, Topography, and Impervious Surface Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E. Weitzell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stream burial—the routing of streams through culverts, pipes, and concrete lined channels, or simply paving them over—is common during urbanization, and disproportionately affects small, headwater streams. Burial undermines the physical and chemical processes governing life in streams, with consequences for water quality and quantity that may amplify from headwaters to downstream receiving waters. Knowledge of the extent of stream burial is critical for understanding cumulative impacts to stream networks, and for future decision-making allowing for urban development while protecting ecosystem function. We predicted stream burial across the urbanizing Potomac River Basin (USA for each 10-m stream segment in the basin from medium-resolution impervious cover data and training observations obtained from high-resolution aerial photography in a GIS. Results were analyzed across a range in spatial aggregation, including counties and independent cities, small watersheds, and regular spatial grids. Stream burial was generally correlated with total impervious surface area (ISA, with areas exhibiting ISA above 30% often subject to elevated ratios of stream burial. Recurring patterns in burial predictions related to catchment area and topographic slope were also detected. We discuss these results in the context of physiographic constraints on stream location and urban development, including implications for environmental management of aquatic resources.

  10. The age, nature and likely genesis of the Cambrian Khantaishir arc, Lake Zone, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoušek, Vojtěch; Jiang, Yingde; Schulmann, Karel; Buriánek, David; Hanžl, Pavel; Lexa, Ondrej; Ganchuluun, Turbat; Battushig, Altanbaatar

    2014-05-01

    Recent discovery of the huge Cambrian arc in the Khantaishir Mountain Range (SE Mongolian Altai) suggests that the principal Neoproterozoic and Devonian-Carboniferous episodes of crustal growth in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) (Sengör et al. 1993) have to be revised. This probably the largest arc system known in the Mongolian tract of the CAOB is seemingly intrusive into the Neoproterozoic accretionary wedge (the Lake Zone) in the N and underthrust southwards below the Palaeozoic volcanosedimentary prism (Gobi Altai Zone). The arc shows a section from deep, ultramafic cumulates to shallower crustal levels of the magmatic system and thus provides an excellent opportunity to study this important period of crustal growth in the Mongolian CAOB. The magmatic rocks are intermediate to ultrabasic (SiO2 = 39.2-61.8 wt. %), rather primitive (mg# = 45-60) Amp-Bt tonalites to coarse-grained Amp gabbros and hornblendites. They are Na-rich (Na2O/K2O = 1.3-9.7 by wt.), exclusively metaluminous and mostly subalkaline, except for the ultrabasic types that enter the alkaline domain due to accumulation of Amp crystals. The P-T conditions calculated using the Amp thermobarometer of Ridolfi et al. (2010) show that the gabbro crystallized at 930-950 ° C and 0.36-0.43 GPa. The (normal-) calc-alkaline chemistry and characteristic trace-element enrichment in hydrous-fluid mobile large-ion lithophile elements (LILE: Rb, Ba, Th, U, K and Pb) over high-field strength elements (HFSE: Nb and Ta) confirm an origin within an igneous arc. The newly obtained LA ICP-MS zircon ages for three tonalites-diorites range between 516 ± 2 Ma and 494 ± 3 Ma. While zircons in two of them give high initial ɛHf values (+8 to +14), implying a derivation by (near) closed-system fractionation from little modified, depleted-mantle derived magmas, the third contains significantly different component (ɛHf = +3 to +6). The latter component may have come from a distinct, less depleted

  11. Population Structure, Life Strategies and Systematics of Phosphatocope Ostracods from the Middle Cambrian of Bornholm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hinz-Schallreuter

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available She Middle Cambrian Borregård Member of Bornholm which is the stratigraphical equivalent to the Baltoscandian Exsulans Limestone yielded a rich and comparatively diverse ostracod fauna in its upper part. It comprises eight species out of four genera. They belong to three known subfamilies that are redefined on the basis of special characters of the contact margin. An ontogenetic character unknown from typical ostracods is documented in several species: during early ontogeny the gestalt (l:h ratio develops constantly in becoming increasingly longer until the so-called ontogenetical turning point (OTP from which the direction of growth focusses on carapace height. This phenomenon may be explained by changes in body morphology. The Borregård association represents an ecologic community type differing from other yet recorded Middle Cambrian communities in the Baltoscandic region. Apart from Vestrogothia longispinosa which is a common faunal element in Baltoscandian ostracod faunas, the yet recorded species of Bidimorpha are unknown from other Baltoscandian occurrences. Vice versa, the known species of Bidimorpha described from Swedish occurrences have not been recognized in the rich Borregård community. Similarly, Falites insula and Hesslandona abdominalis may be of local significance, too, but the respective records from contemporaneous Swedish localities are insufficient in this respect, yet. Due to specific morphological adaptations, the four genera are assumed to represent different benthic life strategies. New taxa are: Bidimorpha arator n. sp., Bidimorpha labiator n. sp., Bidimorpha sexspinosa n. sp., Falites insula n. sp., Hesslandona abdominalis n. sp., Vestrogothia herrigi n. sp. and Vestrogothia minilaterospinata n. sp. Aus dem mittelkambrischen Borregård Member von Bornholm, einem zeitlichen Äquivalent des baltoskandischen Exsulanskalkes, wurde eine reiche und vergleichsweise diverse Ostrakodenfauna gewonnen. Sie umfaßt 8 Arten aus

  12. Paleoarchean and Cambrian observations of the geodynamo in light of new estimates of core thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarduno, John; Bono, Richard; Cottrell, Rory

    2015-04-01

    Recent estimates of core thermal conductivity are larger than prior values by a factor of approximately three. These new estimates suggest that the inner core is a relatively young feature, perhaps as young as 500 million years old, and that the core-mantle heat flux required to drive the early dynamo was greater than previously assumed (Nimmo, 2015). Here, we focus on paleomagnetic studies of two key time intervals important for understanding core evolution in light of the revisions of core conductivity values. 1. Hadean to Paleoarchean (4.4-3.4 Ga). Single silicate crystal paleointensity analyses suggest a relatively strong magnetic field at 3.4-3.45 Ga (Tarduno et al., 2010). Paleointenity data from zircons of the Jack Hills (Western Australia) further suggest the presence of a geodynamo between 3.5 and 3.6 Ga (Tarduno and Cottrell, 2014). We will discuss our efforts to test for the absence/presence of the geodynamo in older Eoarchean and Hadean times. 2. Ediacaran to Early Cambrian (~635-530 Ma). Disparate directions seen in some paleomagnetic studies from this time interval have been interpreted as recording inertial interchange true polar wander (IITPW). Recent single silicate paleomagnetic analyses fail to find evidence for IITPW; instead a reversing field overprinted by secondary magnetizations is defined (Bono and Tarduno, 2015). Preliminary analyses suggest the field may have been unusually weak. We will discuss our on-going tests of the hypothesis that this interval represents the time of onset of inner core growth. References: Bono, R.K. & Tarduno, J.A., Geology, in press (2015); Nimmo, F., Treatise Geophys., in press (2015); Tarduno, J.A., et al., Science (2010); Tarduno, J.A. & Cottrell, R.D., AGU Fall Meeting (2014).

  13. Three Cambrian fossils assembled into an extinct body plan of cnidarian affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Qiang; Han, Jian; Zhang, Zhifei; Shu, Degan; Sun, Ge; Mayer, Georg

    2017-08-15

    The early Cambrian problematica Xianguangia sinica , Chengjiangopenna wangii , and Galeaplumosus abilus from the Chengjiang biota (Yunnan, China) have caused much controversy in the past and their phylogenetic placements remain unresolved. Here we show, based on exceptionally preserved material (85 new specimens plus type material), that specimens previously assigned to these three species are in fact parts of the same organism and propose that C. wangii and G. abilus are junior synonyms of X. sinica Our reconstruction of the complete animal reveals an extinct body plan that combines the characteristics of the three described species and is distinct from all known fossil and living taxa. This animal resembled a cnidarian polyp in overall morphology and having a gastric cavity partitioned by septum-like structures. However, it possessed an additional body cavity within its holdfast, an anchoring pit on the basal disk, and feather-like tentacles with densely ciliated pinnules arranged in an alternating pattern, indicating that it was a suspension feeder rather than a predatory actiniarian. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony suggest that X. sinica is a stem-group cnidarian. This relationship implies that the last common ancestor of X. sinica and crown cnidarians was probably a benthic, polypoid animal with a partitioned gastric cavity and a single mouth/anus opening. This extinct body plan suggests that feeding strategies of stem cnidarians may have been drastically different from that of their crown relatives, which are almost exclusively predators, and reveals that the morphological disparity of total-group Cnidaria is greater than previously assumed.

  14. Metamorphosis Is Ancestral for Crown Euarthropods, and Evolved in the Cambrian or Earlier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Joanna M

    2017-09-01

    Macroevolutionary developmental biology employs fossilized ontogenetic data and phylogenetic comparative methods to probe the evolution of development at ancient nodes. Despite the prevalence of ecologically differentiated larval forms in marine invertebrates, it has been frequently presumed that the ancestors of arthropods were direct developers, and that metamorphosis may not have evolved until the Ordovician or later. Using fossils and new dated phylogenies, I infer that metamorphosis was likely ancestral for crown arthropods, contradicting this assumption. Based on a published morphological dataset encompassing 217 exceptionally preserved fossil and 96 extant taxa, fossils were directly incorporated into both the topology and age estimates, as in "tip dating" analyses. Using data from post-embryonic fossils representing 25 species throughout stem and crown arthropod lineages (as well as most of the 96 extant taxa), characters for metamorphosis were assigned based on inferred ecological changes in development (e.g., changes in habitat and adaptive landscape). Under all phylogenetic hypotheses, metamorphosis was supported as most likely ancestral to both ecdysozoans and euarthropods. Care must be taken to account for potential drastic post-embryonic morphological changes in evolutionary analyses. Many stem group euarthrpods may have had ecologically differentiated larval stages that did not preserve in the fossil record. Moreover, a complex life cycle and planktonic ecology may have evolved in the Ediacaran or earlier, and may have typified the pre-Cambrian explosion "wormworld" prior to the origin of crown group euarthropods. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Benefits of a horizontal well in sandstone waterflood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    This is a case study which describes the planning and results of a horizontal well in a shallow Wilcox sandstone waterflood unit in central Louisiana. The Tremont H-13-1 was OXY USA Inc.'s first horizontal well. Analysis will include examination of the selection criteria, planning, execution, completion, and production. A variety of well and field data is presented and reviewed to access the value of this information as it applies towards other applications. The Cruse Waterflood Unit is a 2100 ft. Wilcox formation in central Louisiana. Production improvements have been 500% or greater for the horizontal well versus adjacent vertical wells. The horizontal well paid out in less than 4 months Results from this well indicate that not only was this project an economic success, but that other fields will similar conditions can be produced in a more profitable manner with horizontal wells

  16. Managing soil moisture on waste burial sites in arid regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.E.; Ratzlaff, T.D.; Nowak, R.S.; Markham, O.D.

    1993-01-01

    In semiarid regions, where potential evapotranspiration greatly exceeds precipitation, it is theoretically possible to preclude water form reaching interred wastes by (i) providing a sufficient cap of soil to store precipitation that falls while plants are dormant and (ii) establishing sufficient plant cover to deplete soil moisture during the growing season, thereby emptying the water storage reservoir of the soil. Here the authors discuss the theory and rationale for such an approach and then present the results of a field study to test its efficacy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). They examined the capacity of four species of perennial plants to deplete soil moisture on simulated waste trenches and determined the effective water storage capacity of the soil. Those data enabled them to estimate the minimum depth of fill soil required to prevent deep drainage. Any of the species studied can use all of the plant-available soil water, even during a very wet growing season. The water storage capacity of the soil studied is 17% by volume, so a trench cap of 1.6 m of soil should be adequate to store precipitation received at the INEL while plants are dormant. They recommend a fill soil depth of 2 m to provide a margin of safety in case water accumulates in local areas as a result of heavy snow accumulation, subsidence, or runoff. Fill soil requirements and choice of plant species will vary, but the concepts and general approach are applicable to other shallow land burial sites in arid or semiarid regions. 23 refs., 5 figs

  17. On the Semantics of Plates from the Shilovka Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonyakova (Chuvilo Natalia A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the finds made on the sites located in the Middle Volga region and Siberia, ivory plaques of high artistic value used to adorn combat saddle pommel are met. They would bear floral ornamentation or depict hunting scenes, reflecting the spiritual world of a nomad warrior. These images are dated widely, but not later than the 7th or 8th centuries. They were drawn with a sharp cutter and blackened down the lines. Of special interest are the bone plates from the Shilovka burial ground site (Uyanovsk oblast with the following images: two dragons in a heraldic posture, deer hunt scenes, horsemen in ambush, fight with a bear, and defense of the fortress. In the author’s opinion, the Shilovka plates depict a dramatic episode in the life of a Turkic warlord, which occurred in the midst of hostilities. During the hunt, a huge bear was unleashed against him. Part of his heavily armed convoy (or suite fled; some soldiers got ambushed (the enemy shot them from armor-piercing bows. Saving his life, the captain knelt and bent his bow, whose string broke at the most inopportune moment. Perhaps he died fighting a bear. One can assume that it was a stratagem of the enemy, which decided the outcome of the war. The symbol of victory on the plates is represented by the dragons, frozen in a heraldic posture, and expressing the basic principle of life characteristic of the nomad warriors in the Early Middle Ages: prosperity and well-being at a price of war and victories. The plaques were placed into the winner’s grave.

  18. Trace fossils accompanying possible "Ediacaran organisms" in the Middle Cambrian sediments of the St. Petersburg Region, Russia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Natalin, N. M.; Mikuláš, Radek; Dronov, A. V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2010), s. 71-75+[2] ISSN 0001-5709 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/0151; GA ČR GA205/09/1521 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Skolithos ichnofacies * Edicarian-like organism * Middle Cambrian * shallow-marine * Baltic Shied * ichnology (Russia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.779, year: 2010 https://geojournals.pgi.gov.pl/agp/article/view/9821/8355

  19. Hydrogeology of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in the northern Midwest: B in Regional aquifer-system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.L.; Siegel, D.I.

    1992-01-01

    The Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system contains the most extensive and continuous aquifers in the northern Midwest of the United States. It is the source of water for many municipalities, industries, and rural water users. Since the beginning of ground-water development from the aquifer system in the late 1800's, hydraulic heads have declined hundreds of feet in the heavily pumped Chicago-Milwaukee area and somewhat less in other metropolitan areas. The U.S. Geological Survey has completed a regional assessment of this aquifer system within a 161,000-square-mile area encompassing northern Illinois, northwestern Indiana, Iowa, southeastern Minnesota, northern Missouri, and Wisconsin.

  20. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of Cambrian to Triassic miogeoclinal and eugeoclinal strata of Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, G.E.; Stewart, John H.

    1998-01-01

    One hundred and eighty two individual detrital zircon grains from Cambrian through Permian miogeoclinal strata, Ordovician eugeoclinal rocks, and Triassic post-orogenic sediments in northwestern Sonora have been analyzed. During Cambrian, Devonian, Permian, and Triassic time, most zircons accumulating along this part of the Cordilleran margin were shed from 1.40-1.45 and 1.62-1.78 Ga igneous rocks that are widespread in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Zircons with ages of approximately 1.11 Ga are common in Cambrian strata and were apparently shed from granite bodies near the sample site. The sources of 225-280 Ma zircons in our Triassic sample are more problematic, as few igneous rocks of these ages are recognized in northwestern Mexico. Such sources may be present but unrecognized, or the grains could have been derived from igneous rocks of the appropriate ages to the northwest in the Mojave Desert region, to the east in Chihuahua and Coahuila, or to the south in accreted(?) arc-type terranes. Because the zircon grains in our Cambrian and Devonian to Triassic samples could have accumulated in proximity to basement rocks near their present position or in the Death Valley region of southern California, our data do not support or refute the existence of the Mojave-Sonora megashear. Ordovician strata of both miogeoclinal and eugeoclinal affinity are dominated by >1.77 Ga detrital zircons, which are considerably older than most basement rocks in the region. Zircon grains in the miogeoclinal sample were apparently derived from the Peace River arch area of northwestern Canada and transported southward by longshore currents. The eugeoclinal grains may also have come from the Peace River arch region, with southward transport by either sedimentary or tectonic processes, or they may have been shed from off-shelf slivers of continents (perhaps Antarctica?) removed from the Cordilleran margin during Neoproterozoic rifting. It is also possible that the

  1. High-Precision U-Pb Geochronology and Correlation: An example Using the Neoproterozic-Cambrian Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, S. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Amthor, J.; Martin, M. E.

    2001-05-01

    The precise, global correlation of Precambrian and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks can be achieved using temporally calibrated chemostratigraphic records. This approach is essential for determining rates and causes of environmental and faunal change, including mass extinctions. For example, The Neoproterozoic is marked by major environmental change, including periods of global glaciation, large fluctuations in the sequestration of carbon and major tectonic reorganization followed by the explosive diversification of animals in the earliest Cambrian. The extreme climatic change associated with these glaciations have been implicated as a possible trigger for the Cambrian explosion. The recognition of thin zircon-bearing air-fall ash in Neoproterozoic and Cambrian rocks has allowed the establishment of a high-precision temporal framework for animal evolution and is helping to untangle the history of glaciations. In some cases analytical uncertainties translate to age uncertainties of less than 1 Ma and when integrated with chemostratigraphy, the potential for global correlations at even higher resolution. Progress in the global correlation of Neoproterozoic strata has been achieved through the use of C and Sr isotope chemostratigraphy although it has been hampered by a lack of precise geochronological and faunal control. For example, the period from ca 800-580 Ma is characterized by at least two and perhaps as many as four glacial events that are interpreted by many to be global glaciations on a "Snowball Earth". A lack of precise chronological constraints on the number and duration of glaciations, multiple large excursions in the carbon isotopic record, and an absence of detailed biostratigraphy have complicated global correlation and hindered our understanding of this important period of Earth history. However, the ongoing integration of chemostratigraphic and geochronological data are improving temporal resolution and detailed correlations. These data are critical for

  2. Diachronism in the late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian arc-rift transition of North Gondwana: A comparison of Morocco and the Iberian Ossa-Morena Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Bellido, Félix; Gasquet, Dominique; Pereira, M. Francisco; Quesada, Cecilio; Sánchez-García, Teresa

    2014-10-01

    In the northwestern border of the West African craton (North Gondwana), a transition from late Neoproterozoic subduction/collision to Cambrian rift processes was recorded in the Anti-Atlas (Morocco) and in the Ossa-Morena Zone (Iberia). Cambrian rifting affected both Pan-African and Cadomian basements in a stepwise and diachronous way. Subsequently, both areas evolved into a syn-rift margin episodically punctuated by uplift and tilting that precluded Furongian sedimentation. A comparison of sedimentary, volcanic and geodynamic evolution is made in the late Neoproterozoic (Pan-African and Cadomian) belts and Cambrian rifts trying to solve the apparent diachronous (SW-NE-trending) propagation of an early Palaeozoic rifting regime that finally led to the opening of the Rheic Ocean.

  3. ANALYSIS OF OIL-BEARING CRETACEOUS SANDSTONE HYDROCARBON RESERVOIRS, EXCLUSIVE OF THE DAKOTA SANDSTONE, ON THE JICARILLA APACHE INDIAN RESERVATION, NEW MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennie Ridgley

    2000-01-01

    A goal of the Mesaverde project was to better define the depositional system of the Mesaverde in hopes that it would provide insight to new or by-passed targets for oil exploration. The new, detailed studies of the Mesaverde give us a better understanding of the lateral variability in depositional environments and facies. Recognition of this lateral variability and establishment of the criteria for separating deltaic, strandplain-barrier, and estuarine deposits from each other permit development of better hydrocarbon exploration models, because the sandstone geometry differs in each depositional system. Although these insights will provide better exploration models for gas exploration, it does not appear that they will be instrumental in finding more oil. Oil in the Mesaverde Group is produced from isolated fields on the Chaco slope; only a few wells define each field. Production is from sandstone beds in the upper part of the Point Lookout Sandstone or from individual fluvial channel sandstones in the Menefee. Stratigraphic traps rather than structural traps are more important. Source of the oil in the Menefee and Point Lookout may be from interbedded organic-rich mudstones or coals rather than from the Lewis Shale. The Lewis Shale appears to contain more type III organic matter and, hence, should produce mainly gas. Outcrop studies have not documented oil staining that might point to past oil migration through the sandstones of the Mesaverde. The lack of oil production may be related to the following: (1) lack of abundant organic matter of the type I or II variety in the Lewis Shale needed to produce oil, (2) ineffective migration pathways due to discontinuities in sandstone reservoir geometries, (3) cementation or early formation of gas prior to oil generation that reduced effective permeabilities and served as barriers to updip migration of oil, or (4) erosion of oilbearing reservoirs from the southern part of the basin. Any new production should mimic that of

  4. Radium mobility and the age of groundwater in public-drinking-water supplies from the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system, north-central USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackelberg, Paul E.; Szabo, Zoltan; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2018-01-01

    High radium (Ra) concentrations in potable portions of the Cambrian-Ordovician (C-O) aquifer system were investigated using water-quality data and environmental tracers (3H, 3Hetrit, SF6, 14C and 4Herad) of groundwater age from 80 public-supply wells (PSWs). Groundwater ages were estimated by calibration of tracers to lumped parameter models and ranged from modern (1 Myr) in the most downgradient, confined portions of the potable system. More than 80 and 40 percent of mean groundwater ages were older than 1000 and 50,000 yr, respectively. Anoxic, Fe-reducing conditions and increased mineralization develop with time in the aquifer system and mobilize Ra into solution resulting in the frequent occurrence of combined Ra (Rac = 226Ra + 228Ra) at concentrations exceeding the USEPA MCL of 185 mBq/L (5 pCi/L). The distribution of the three Ra isotopes comprising total Ra (Rat = 224Ra + 226Ra + 228Ra) differed across the aquifer system. The concentrations of 224Ra and 228Ra were strongly correlated and comprised a larger proportion of the Rat concentration in samples from the regionally unconfined area, where arkosic sandstones provide an enhanced source for progeny from the 232Th decay series. 226Ra comprised a larger proportion of the Ratconcentration in samples from downgradient confined regions. Concentrations of Rat were significantly greater in samples from the regionally confined area of the aquifer system because of the increase in 226Ra concentrations there as compared to the regionally unconfined area. 226Ra distribution coefficients decreased substantially with anoxic conditions and increasing ionic strength of groundwater (mineralization), indicating that Ra is mobilized to solution from solid phases of the aquifer as adsorption capacity is diminished. The amount of 226Ra released from solid phases by alpha-recoil mechanisms and retained in solution increases relative to the amount of Ra sequestered by adsorption processes or co

  5. Architecture and quantitative assessment of channeled clastic deposits, Shihezi sandstone (Lower Permian, Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengye Jia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lower Permian Shihezi sandstone in Ordos Basin is the largest gas reservoir in China. Architecture elements of channel, overbank and floodplain facies of braided channel deposits were identified through an outcrops survey, and their proportion of channel facies have been quantitatively estimated from well logging. Characteristics of architecture elements, such as sand thickness, bounding surfaces and lithofacies were investigated through outcrops and core. Petrology of Shihezi sandstone has also been studied in detail. Analysis on sandstone components shows that monocrystalline quartz with approximately 76% bulk volume, and lithic up to 5%–45% bulk volume, are the two main components. Litharenite and lithic quartz sandstone are the main rock types. Compaction is concluded by former researchers as the control factor of low permeability. Examination through thin section reveals that secondary pores developed well in coarse sand. Inter-granular dissolution is included as the positive effect to increasing porosity, and is concluded as the control factor to the generation of net pay. Scale of coarse grained channel fills and channel bar sandstone bodies are quantitatively estimated. Strike-oriented, dip-oriented, and vertical distribution of channel fills and channel bar sandstone bodies have been investigated. The geometry of sand bodies can be depicted as an elongated lens. Subsurface mapping reveals that channel sandstone bodies distribute widely from both lateral and longitudinal cross section profiles, and are poorly connected.

  6. Diagenetic controls on porosity variations within an aeolian sandstone reservoir, borehole Kudu 9A-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marot, J.E.B.

    1990-01-01

    Three boreholes, Kudu 9A-1, 9A-2 and 9A-3, were drilled approximately 125 km west of the Orange River mouth to test a gas-bearing structure of Barremian age. The reservoir interval comprises an upper unit of interbedded shallow marine sandstones, limestones and volcaniclastic mass flow deposits, and a lower non-marine unit of interbedded aeolian sandstones, basaltic lavas and volcaniclastic deposits. Despite the overall good poroperm characteristics of the aeolian sandstone and its apparent mineralogical homogeneity, as implied by a gamma ray trace, the core analysis results show an extreme variation in porosity and permeability values. In order to assist in reservoir quality prediction and to assess the regional prospectivity of the sandstone, it was necessary to explain these variations. The resuls of the study indicate that compositionally and texturally the sandstones are extremely homogeneous. It is concluded that the marked variation in the poroperm characteristics of the aeolian sandstones is a result of a relatively complex diagenesis. A fluctuating water table resulted in the formation of a pattern of calcite, anhydrite and quartz cements within an aeolian dune sandstone. 7 refs., 1 fig

  7. Sedimentological Characteristics and Re-interpretation of the Paleoenvironment of Lokoja Sandstone, Southern Bida Basin, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojo, O. J.; Akande, S. O.

    2002-01-01

    Detail mapping of the Lokoja Formation consisting predominantly of sandstones exposed along Okene-Abuja highway near the confluence of Rivers Niger and Benue in the southern Bida Basin was undertaken in an attempt to reconstruct their depositional history. The analyses of the lithofacies characteristics, pebble morphogenesis and ichnofossil content of the Lokoja sandstones in the study area reveal their depositional environments which evolved from alluvial fans through braided stream into nearshore shallow marine conditions. The massive, immature, matrix to grain supported conglomerate subfacies can be interpreted as debris flow. The conglomeratic sandstone facies (massive, cross stratified and graded subfacies) reflect deposits of deep braided channels. The bioturbated and herringbone cross stratified conglomeratic sandstones indicate shallowing to marginal marine environments. The fine to medium grained sandstones, siltstones and claystones are interpreted as channel bars and floodplain deposits.Results of pebble morphogenesis analysis indicate predominance of fluvial processes. Minor high energy (probably beach) condition is indicated by some individual clasts from the conglomeratic sandstone facies with sphericity and OP index values less that 0.66 and -1.5 respectively.The study is significant because it represents the first sedimentological evidence of influence of shallow marine in the development of Lokoja sandstones during Campanian-Maastrichtian times

  8. Effects of Pisha sandstone content on solute transport in a sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Qing; Zheng, Jiyong; He, Honghua; Han, Fengpeng; Zhang, Xingchang

    2016-02-01

    In sandy soil, water, nutrients and even pollutants are easily leaching to deeper layers. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of Pisha sandstone on soil solute transport in a sandy soil. The miscible displacement technique was used to obtain breakthrough curves (BTCs) of Br(-) as an inert non-adsorbed tracer and Na(+) as an adsorbed tracer. The incorporation of Pisha sandstone into sandy soil was able to prevent the early breakthrough of both tracers by decreasing the saturated hydraulic conductivity compared to the controlled sandy soil column, and the impeding effects increased with Pisha sandstone content. The BTCs of Br(-) were accurately described by both the convection-dispersion equation (CDE) and the two-region model (T-R), and the T-R model fitted the experimental data slightly better than the CDE. The two-site nonequilibrium model (T-S) accurately fit the Na(+) transport data. Pisha sandstone impeded the breakthrough of Na(+) not only by decreasing the saturated hydraulic conductivity but also by increasing the adsorption capacity of the soil. The measured CEC values of Pisha sandstone were up to 11 times larger than those of the sandy soil. The retardation factors (R) determined by the T-S model increased with increasing Pisha sandstone content, and the partition coefficient (K(d)) showed a similar trend to R. According to the results of this study, Pisha sandstone can successfully impede solute transport in a sandy soil column. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Time-temperature-burial significance of Devonian anthracite implies former great (approx.6.5 km) depth of burial of Catskill Mountains, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, G.M.; Sanders, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of coalified plant debris in Tully-correlative strata of the Gilboa Formation (uppermost Middle Devonian) within the eastern Catskill Mountains of New York State have been converted to anthracite having a vitrinite reflectance of 2.5%. This implies a level of organic metamorphism (LOM) of 16. The specimens are about 350 m.y. old; if 200 m.y. is taken as the duration of the time of exposure to the maximum geothermal temperature, then the LOM of 16 and other thermal indicators imply a maximum temperature of 190 0 C. Using a geothermal gradient of 26 0 C.km -1 (17 0 F.1,000 ft -1 ), a former depth of burial of 6.5 km is implied. Such former deep burial is not usually inferred for the Catskills, but it is consistent with the idea that the thick (about 6.4 km or 21,000 ft) Carboniferous strata of northeastern Pennsylvania formerly extended northeast far enough to bury the Catskills. The lack of metamorphism of the Paleozoic strata lying about 4.5 km beneath the Tully-correlative rocks and exposed in the adjacent Hudson Valley places low limits on the former geothermal gradient; this supports the concept of great depth of former burial of the Catskills. For example, 6.5 km of former burial and a geothermal gradient of 26 0 C.km -1 imply a temperature of 307 0 C for the base of the Paleozoic. By contrast, only 1 km of former burial requires a geothermal gradient of 170 0 C.km -1 , which would have subjected the base of the Paleozoic to a temperature of 955 0 GAMMA, which is far higher than the 600 to 650 0 C recently inferred for the Acadian-age metamorphism of the Taconic allochthon in southwestern Massachusetts and adjoining areas

  10. Field demonstration of in situ grouting of radioactive solid waste burial trenches with polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Fontaine, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrations of in situ grouting with polyacrylamide were carried out on two undisturbed burial trenches and one dynamically compacted burial trench in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The injection of polyacrylamide was achieved quite facilely for the two undisturbed burial trenches which were filled with grout, at typical pumping rates of 95 L/min, in several batches injected over several days. The compacted burial trench, however, failed to accept grout at more than 1.9 L/min even when pressure was applied. Thus, it appears that burial trenches, stabilized by dynamic compaction, have a permeability too low to be considered groutable. The water table beneath the burial trenches did not respond to grout injections indicating a lack of hydrologic connection between fluid grout and the water table which would have been observed if the grout failed to set. Because grout set times were adjusted to less than 60 min, the lack of hydrologic connection was not surprising. Postgrouting penetration testing revealed that the stability of the burial trenches was increased from 26% to 79% that measured in the undisturbed soil surrounding the trenches. In situ permeation tests on the grouted trenches indicated a significant reduction in hydraulic conductivity of the trench contents from a mean of 2.1 x 10 -3 to 1.85 x 10 -5 cm/s. Preliminary observations indicated that grouting with polyacrylamide is an excellent method for both improved stability and hydrologic isolation of radioactive waste and its incidental hazardous constituents

  11. The strata and palaeo-geomorphology framework at the end of neoproterozoic and development mode of source rocks at the beginning of Cambrian in Tarim Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Referred to the new recognition from petroleum exploration of the Sinian to Cambrian in South China, it could be considered that the distribution of the early Cambrian source rocks was controlled by the palaeo-geomorphology at the end of Neoproterozoic in the Tarim Basin. Based on the zircon U-Pb dating of pyroclastic rock samples from the clastic rock stratum under the bottom of Cambrian carbonate rocks, the stratigraphic correlation of the Sinian to Cambrian was conducted to build the palaeo-geomorphology framework at the end of Neoproterozoic in Tarim Basin. Lastly, according to the development mode of source rocks at the beginning of Cambrian, the distribution of source rocks was predicted initially through the division of seismic facies. The youngest zircon concordia age of pyroclastic rocks from the bottom of well Tong 1 is 707±8Ma. It was revealed by the strata framework of the Sinian to Cambrian, the palaeo-geomorphology at the end of Neoproterozoic in Tarim Basin was characterized by an uplift highland in Bachu-Tazhong area, the south north high-low, and the west is higher than the east. The distribution of source rocks in the bottom of the Cambrian on the palaeo-platform and slopes was coincident with the Upper Sinian dolomite basically. But the contemporaneous sediment happened to be absent or changed in sedimentary facies on the uplift and its edges. From the seismic facies of the strata under the bottom of Cambrian, it could be concluded that source rocks in the type of the Xishanbraque Group (∈1xs was limited in the Manjiaer Depression, while the source rocks in the type of the Yuertusi Group (∈1y are widely distributed in south of Tabei Uplift, east Awat Depression, and even the Maigt Slope. However, among the west Awat Depression and western Tanguzibasi Depression, and the middle area of the Bachu-Tazhong Uplifts, the contemporaneous source rocks may have changed into sedimentary facies of tidal flat and lagoon, instead of

  12. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-05-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground.

  13. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground

  14. 57Fe Mössbauer and X-ray characterisation of sandstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Waanders, F. B.

    2013-01-01

    Sandstones from the Free State province in South Africa have been mined and processed mainly by small scale and artisanal miners in the rural areas. In the present investigation basic fire proof and water absorption tests, X-ray and γ-ray based characterisation techniques were used to study the sandstones. The collected samples were grouped according to their apparent colour in day light conditions and the elemental analysis showed the presence of a high amount of oxygen (>52%) and silicon (>38%) with Mn, Al, Fe and Ca as major elements in proportions related to the colour distribution of the various sandstones. The uniaxial compressive stress was found to be the highest (56 MPa) for the greyish sandstone and the lowest (8 MPa) for the white sandstone sample, also associated with the lowest (Al+Fe)/Si value of 0.082. The humidity test showed that the 6 % water absorption was lower than the recommended ASTM value of 8 %. The sandstone samples were also subjected to various high temperatures to simulate possible fire conditions and it was found that the non alteration of the mineral species might be one of the reasons why the sandstones are regarded as the most refractory amongst the building materials typically used. Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that iron is present in all the sandstones, mainly as Fe 3 +  with the black sandstone showing an additional presence of 3 % Fe 2 +  indicating that a higher iron content coupled to higher silicon content, contributes to an increase in the uniaxial compressive strength.

  15. Roman Bronze Vessels From the Late Sarmatian Burial of the Lebedevka Burial-Ground in Western Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treister Mikhail Yuryevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to studying cultural monuments – bronze vessels, a jug and a basin from the barrow no. 1/1967 of the Lebedevka Late Sarmatian burial mound (Western Kazakhstan, dating back to the middle of the 3rd century AD at the latest. These items do not find exact parallels among the bronze vessels of provincial Rome. Although the shape of the jug handle with a curved leaf turned upright between two horizontally arranged swan heads has parallels on the so-called “composite jug with handles” (“gegliederten Henkelkrügen”, the cylindrical form of the jug’s neck peculiar of the glass jugs of allegedly Syrian manufacture of the second half of the 3rd-4th centuries AD is very unusual. Even more unusual is a basin with horizontally bent rim and elaborate handles with pearls on a high narrow stand-ring. The XRF analyses of the Lebedevka jug’s metal revealed that its body and handle were made of a copper-based alloy with very high admixtures of zinc (24-27 % and inconsiderable additions of lead (up to 3 %. A similar alloy was used for manufacturing a vessel in the form of a crouching young negro from Niederbieber. Most objects of provincial Roman import reached Western Kazakhstan via the Bosporan kingdom along the Northern branch of the Silk Road. The above discussed bronze vessels from Lebedevka let suggest, that the nomads could receive some import articles that were brought along the caravan routes leading from Egypt and Syria to the East.

  16. Physical and chemical properties for sandstone and bentonites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo

    2004-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties such as porosity, pore-size distribution, dry density, solid density, mineralogy and chemical composition, which are important parameters for the understanding and analysis of the diffusion phenomena of radionuclides and ions in bentonite and in the geosphere, were measured. The measurements were performed for sandstone, of which fundamental data and information are limited. For bentonite, 3 kinds of bentonites with different smectite contents (Kunigel-V1, Kunipia-F, MX80) were used. In the measurements of the physical and chemical properties of rock, the measurements of solid density by pychnometer, the measurements of porosity, dry density and solid density by water saturation method, the measurements of porosity, dry density, solid density, pore-size distribution and specific surface area of pores by Hg porosimetry, the identifications of constituent minerals by X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), the measurement of chemical composition by whole rock analysis, the observations of micropore structure by Laser Confocal Microscope (LCM), the measurements of water vaporization curves and the measurements of the homogeneity of the rock by penetration of KMnO 4 were performed. While, in the measurements of the physical and chemical properties for bentonite, water basis water content, water content, porosity, dry density, solid density and their distributions in samples were measured, and the degree of inhomogeneity was quantitatively evaluated by comparing with data and information reported up to date. The porosities of sandstone are 15.6±0.21% for water saturation method and 15.5±0.2% for Hg porosimetry, and similar values were obtained in both methods. The solid densities ranged 2.65-2.69 Mg/m 3 for 3 methods, and the average value was 2.668±0.012 Mg/m 3 . The average pore size was 88.8±0.5nm, and pore sizes ≤10μm shared 80% of total pore volume and pore sizes ≤1μm shared 40%. The specific surface area of the pores is 4.09±0.017 m

  17. Facies architecture of the Bluejacket Sandstone in the Eufaula Lake area, Oklahoma: Implications for the reservoir characterization of the Bartlesville Sandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Liangmiao; Yang, Kexian [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Outcrop studies of the Bluejacket Sandstone (Middle Pennsylvanian) provide significant insights to reservoir architecture of the subsurface equivalent Bartlesville Sandstone. Quarry walls and road cuts in the Lake Eufaula area offer excellent exposures for detailed facies architectural investigations using high-precision surveying, photo mosaics. Directional minipermeameter measurements are being conducted. Subsurface studies include conventional logs, borehole image log, and core data. Reservoir architectures are reconstructed in four hierarchical levels: multi-storey sandstone, i.e. discrete genetic intervals; individual discrete genetic interval; facies within a discrete genetic interval; and lateral accretion bar deposits. In both outcrop and subsurface, the Bluejacket (Bartlesville) Sandstone comprises two distinctive architectures: a lower braided fluvial and an upper meandering fluvial. Braided fluvial deposits are typically 30 to 80 ft thick, and are laterally persistent filling an incised valley wider than the largest producing fields. The lower contact is irregular with local relief of 50 ft. The braided-fluvial deposits consist of 100-400-ft wide, 5-15-ft thick channel-fill elements. Each channel-fill interval is limited laterally by an erosional contact or overbank deposits, and is separated vertically by discontinuous mudstones or highly concentrated mudstone interclast lag conglomerates. Low-angle parallel-stratified or trough cross-stratified medium- to coarse-grained sandstones volumetrically dominate. This section has a blocky well log profile. Meandering fluvial deposits are typically 100 to 150 ft thick and comprise multiple discrete genetic intervals.

  18. Discussion on metallogenic prospect of sandstone-type uranium deposit in Yabulai basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lianshe; Li Xiangping

    2003-01-01

    Based on characteristics of initial basin type and tectonic reworking process, this article analyses the distribution features of depositional system and subsequent alteration of the target horizon of sandstone-type uranium deposits in Yabulai basin. Guided by prognostic criteria of sandstone-type uranium deposits, authors suggest that the post-depositional tectonic reworking in the basin was quite intense, and uranium metallogenic prospects are unfavorable. However, the Lower Cretaceous in the paleo-slope at the middle of the basin does show certain metallogenic prospects for sandstone-type uranium deposits

  19. Quantifying the effect of squirt flow dispersion from compliant clay porosity in clay bearing sandstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kanne; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Compliant porosity in the form of cracks is known to cause significant attenuation and velocity dispersion through pore pressure gradients and consequent relaxation, dubbed squirt flow. Squirt flow from cracks vanish at high confining stress due to crack closing. Studies on clay bearing sandstones......-squirt flow on the bulk modulus of a clay bearing sandstone. The predicted magnitude of the clay-squirt effect on the bulk modulus is compared with experimental data. The clay-squirt effect is found to possibly account for a significant portion of the deviances from Gassmann fluid substitution in claybearing...... sandstones....

  20. Stable isotopic mass balance in sandstone-shale couplets. An example from the Neogene Pannonian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyas, J.; Geologisches Institut.

    1996-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic ratios of carbonate cements in the Neogene sandstones of the Pannonian Basin show distinct variations: early calcites 3-6 per mille lighter than the late calcites from the same location and depth. This shift is thought to be related to the isotopically heavy oxygen released from the mixed-layer illite/smectite during illitisation. For sandstones dominated by compactional flow, closed system mass balance calculations predict an isotopic shift comparable to that deducted from petrographic and geochemical observations. The model suggests that variations of geothermal gradient has little effect on isotopic evolution; much more significant is the sandstone: shale ratio in the couplets. (author)

  1. Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë L Hutchison

    Full Text Available Sedimentation in the sea occurs through natural processes, such as wave and tidal action, which can be exacerbated during storms and floods. Changes in terrestrial land use, marine aggregate extraction, dredging, drilling and mining are known to result in substantial sediment deposition. Research suggests that deposition will also occur due to the modern development of marine renewable energy. The response to individual burial under three depths of sediment, three sediment fractions and five burial durations was investigated in two mussel species, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis in specialist mesocosms. Both mussel species showed substantial mortality, which increased with duration of burial and burial by finer sediment fractions. M. modiolus was better able to survive short periods of burial than M. edulis, but at longer durations mortality was more pronounced. No mortality was observed in M. modiolus in burial durations of eight days or less but by 16 days of burial, over 50% cumulative mortality occurred. Under variable temperature regimes, M. edulis mortality increased from 20% at 8°C to over 60% at 14.5 and 20°C. Only M. edulis was able to emerge from burial, facilitated by increased byssus production, laid mostly on vertical surfaces but also on sediment particles. Emergence was higher from coarse sediment and shallow burials. Byssus production in M. edulis was not related to the condition index of the mussels. Results suggest that even marginal burial would result in mortality and be more pronounced in warm summer periods. Our results suggest that in the event of burial, adult M. modiolus would not be able to emerge from burial unless local hydrodynamics assist, whereas a small proportion of M. edulis may regain contact with the sediment water interface. The physiological stress resulting in mortality, contribution of local hydrodynamics to survival and other ecological pressures such as mussels existing in aggregations, are

  2. Glauconitic deposits at Julegård on the south coast of Bornholm, Denmark dated to the Cambrian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B.; Bromley, Richard Granville; Holm, Paul Martin

    2011-01-01

    Bioturbated, glauconitic siltstones and sandstones are overlain by presumed Upper Triassic deposits at coastal exposures at Julegård on the south coast of Bornholm. These glauconitic deposits have not previously been dated. A 40Ar-39Ar dating of the glaucony gives an age of 493 ± 2 Ma suggesting ...... of Rusophycus Hall, 1852, probably trilobite trace fossils, are also represented....

  3. X-ray tomographic microscopy tightens affinity of the early Cambrian Oymurania to the brachiopod stem group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Kouchinsky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The geologically rapid biotic evolution in the early Cambrian is marked by the first appearance of major groups of animals in the fossil record (e.g., Budd and Jensen 2000; Kouchinsky et al. 2012. Along with the earliest crown-group representatives of the phylum Brachiopoda, more basal branches of the phylogenetic tree belonging to the stem-group Brachiopoda, such as tannuolinids and mikwitziids, diversified and became widespread during the early Cambrian (e.g., Williams and Holmer 2002; Balthasar et al. 2009; Skovsted et al. 2014. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM of Oymurania gravestocki reveals the microstructure of its calcium-phosphatic shell differentiated into two layers and intersecting systems of canals. The outer layer shows the acrotretoid columnar microstructure and the inner layer consists of continuous prismatic columns. Phosphatized setae preserved within tangential canals, as well as perpendicular canals of Micrina–Setatella type demonstrate homology with the tannuolinid Micrina and the mickwitziid Setatella. A unique and novel combination of microstructural features in Oymurania confirms its evolutionary position within the brachiopod stem group.

  4. Disc-shaped fossils resembling porpitids or eldonids from the early Cambrian (Series 2: Stage 4 of western USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce S. Lieberman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and affinities of newly discovered disc-shaped, soft-bodied fossils from the early Cambrian (Series 2: Stage 4, Dyeran Carrara Formation are discussed. These specimens show some similarity to the Ordovician Discophyllum Hall, 1847; traditionally this taxon had been treated as a fossil porpitid. However, recently it has instead been referred to as another clade, the eldonids, which includes the enigmatic Eldonia Walcott, 1911 that was originally described from the Cambrian Burgess Shale. The status of various Proterozoic and Phanerozoic taxa previously referred to porpitids and eldonids is also briefly considered. To help ascertain that the specimens were not dubio- or pseudofossils, elemental mapping using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS was conducted. This, in conjunction with the morphology of the specimens, indicated that the fossils were not hematite, iron sulfide, pyrolusite, or other abiologic mineral precipitates. Instead, their status as biologic structures and thus actual fossils is supported. Enrichment in the element carbon, and also possibly to some extent the elements magnesium and iron, seems to be playing some role in the preservation process.

  5. Redox history of the Three Gorges region during the Ediacaran and Early Cambrian as indicated by the Fe isotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sawaki

    2018-01-01

    To circumvent this deficiency, we drilled a fossiliferous Ediacaran to Early Cambrian sedimentary succession in the Three Gorges region, South China. We analyzed the iron isotope ratios (δ56/54Fe of pyrite grains in the drill cores using laser ablation multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate large variations in δ56/54Fe, from −1.6 to 1.6‰, and positive iron isotope ratios are observed in many successions. The presence of positive δ56/54Fe in pyrite indicates that the ferrous iron in the seawater was partially oxidized, suggesting that seawater at Three Gorges was ferruginous during the Ediacaran and Early Cambrian periods. However, aggregated pyrite grains in organic carbon-rich black shales at Member 4 of the Doushantuo Formation and the base of the Shuijingtuo Formation yield near-zero δ56/54Fe values; this suggests that the ocean was transiently dominated by sulfidic conditions during these periods. Notably negative δ56/54Fe values, lower than −1‰, can be interpreted as a signature of DIR. The DIR also might contribute in part to the re-mineralization of organic matter during the largest negative carbon isotope anomaly in the Ediacaran.

  6. Three-dimensionally preserved minute larva of a great-appendage arthropod from the early Cambrian Chengjiang biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Melzer, Roland R.; Haug, Joachim T.; Haug, Carolin; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Hörnig, Marie K.; He, Yu-yang; Hou, Xian-guang

    2016-05-01

    A three-dimensionally preserved 2-mm-long larva of the arthropod Leanchoilia illecebrosa from the 520-million-year-old early Cambrian Chengjiang biota of China represents the first evidence, to our knowledge, of such an early developmental stage in a short-great-appendage (SGA) arthropod. The larva possesses a pair of three-fingered great appendages, a hypostome, and four pairs of well-developed biramous appendages. More posteriorly, a series of rudimentary limb Anlagen revealed by X-ray microcomputed tomography shows a gradient of decreasing differentiation toward the rear. This, and postembryonic segment addition at the putative growth zone, are features of late-stage metanauplii of eucrustaceans. L. illecebrosa and other SGA arthropods, however, are considered representative of early chelicerates or part of the stem lineage of all euarthropods. The larva of an early Cambrian SGA arthropod with a small number of anterior segments and their respective appendages suggests that posthatching segment addition occurred in the ancestor of Euarthropoda.

  7. Quantifying opening-mode fracture spatial organization in horizontal wellbore image logs, core and outcrop: Application to Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation tight gas sandstones, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. Z.; Laubach, S. E.; Gale, J. F. W.; Marrett, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation is a naturally fractured gas-producing sandstone in Wyoming. Regionally, random and statistically more clustered than random patterns exist in the same upper to lower shoreface depositional facies. East-west- and north-south-striking regional fractures sampled using image logs and cores from three horizontal wells exhibit clustered patterns, whereas data collected from east-west-striking fractures in outcrop have patterns that are indistinguishable from random. Image log data analyzed with the correlation count method shows clusters ∼35 m wide and spaced ∼50 to 90 m apart as well as clusters up to 12 m wide with periodic inter-cluster spacings. A hierarchy of cluster sizes exists; organization within clusters is likely fractal. These rocks have markedly different structural and burial histories, so regional differences in degree of clustering are unsurprising. Clustered patterns correspond to fractures having core quartz deposition contemporaneous with fracture opening, circumstances that some models suggest might affect spacing patterns by interfering with fracture growth. Our results show that quantifying and identifying patterns as statistically more or less clustered than random delineates differences in fracture patterns that are not otherwise apparent but that may influence gas and water production, and therefore may be economically important.

  8. Preliminary study on features of mineralogical zoning of epigenetic alteration at sandstone-type uranium deposit, Dongsheng area, Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Xinjian; Li Ziying; Chen Anping

    2004-01-01

    Sandstone-type uranium deposits located in Dongsheng area, northern Ordos basin, occur in Zhiluo Formation, Middle Jurassic. The Zhiluo Formation is divided into two members. The lower member is further divided into two submembers. The lower submember is dominantly composed of grey sandstone being the ore-hosting horizon; the upper submember consists of grey-green sandstone and mudstone. The upper member of Zhiluo Formation is made of mottled medium-fine grained sandstone and mudstone. Through the microscopic observation and study on sandstones of Zhiluo Formation, authors have established a vertical zonation of epigenetic alteration (from the top to the bottom): the limonitization + clayization + carbonation in the mottled fine-grained sandstone of the upper member of Zhiluo Formation; the green alteration (II) (mainly the chloritization of biotite, as well as the chloritization and epidotization of feldspar) + clayization + carbonation in the grey-green sandstone of the upper submember of the lower member of Zhiluo Formation; and the green alteration (I) (mainly the epidotization of feldspar) + carbonation in grey, grey-white sandstone of the lower submember. The epigenetic alteration basically occurs in grey-green sandstone. The sandstone shows grey-green color because it contains much green biotite (not chlorite). The epigenetic alteration in sandstone layer is closely associated with the uranium ore-formation

  9. Methane Recycling During Burial of Methane Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, K.; Flemings, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    We quantitatively investigate the integral processes of methane hydrate formation from local microbial methane generation, burial of methane hydrate with sedimentation, and methane recycling at the base of the hydrate stability zone (BHSZ) with a multiphase multicomponent numerical model. Methane recycling happens in cycles, and there is not a steady state. Each cycle starts with free gas accumulation from hydrate dissociation below the BHSZ. This free gas flows upward under buoyancy, elevates the hydrate saturation and capillary entry pressure at the BHSZ, and this prevents more free gas flowing in. Later as this layer with elevated hydrate saturation is buried and dissociated, the large amount of free gas newly released and accumulated below rapidly intrudes into the hydrate stability zone, drives rapid hydrate formation and creates three-phase (gas, liquid and hydrate) equilibrium above the BHSZ. The gas front retreats to below the BHSZ until all the free gas is depleted. The shallowest depth that the free gas reaches in one cycle moves toward seafloor as more and more methane is accumulated to the BHSZ with time. More methane is stored above the BHSZ in the form of concentrated hydrate in sediments with relatively uniform pore throat, and/or with greater compressibility. It is more difficult to initiate methane recycling in passive continental margins where the sedimentation rate is low, and in sediments with low organic matter content and/or methanogenesis reaction rate. The presence of a permeable layer can store methane for significant periods of time without recycling. In a 2D system where the seafloor dips rapidly, the updip gas flow along the BHSZ transports more methane toward topographic highs where methane gas and elevated hydrate saturation intrude deeper into the hydrate stability zone within one cycle. This could lead to intermittent gas venting at seafloor at the topographic highs. This study provides insights on many phenomenon associated with

  10. Recovery of macrobenthic assemblages following experimental sand burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Barrón

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was supported by a fund provided by the Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (UNAM and a fund provided to Celia Olabarria in 2004 and 2005 by the University of Vigo for overseas short stays.AbstractPeriodic inundation by sand is a very common feature of rocky coasts throughout the world. Even so, there have been few direct observations or experiments to investigate the role of sediments on intertidal rocky shores. We designed a field experiment in Mazatlán Bay, Mexico, to test the initial impact and subsequent recovery of intertidal macrobenthic assemblages exposed to sand burial at two sites of varying wave exposure. Both sites supported different natural assemblages. Treatment plots for the addition of sediment and control plots (50 × 50 cm, separated by at least 1.5 m, were randomly placed across the mid-water tidal level. The initial response of the resident macrobenthos and the subsequent recolonization was monitored over a period of 95 days. The main effect of sediment deposition at both sites was mortality and removal of biota due to smothering. The recovery process was rapid and may in part have been the result of the mechanism by which the small, disturbed patches were recolonized. Most of the invertebrates colonized the patches as adults; several seaweeds exhibited vegetative growth as the major mechanism of colonization (e.g., Ulva lactuca Linnaeus, 1753, Amphiroa valonioides Yendo, 1902 and Chaetomorpha antennina (Borgensen Kutzing, 1849. The rate of recovery varied between the sites, however. Recovery of species numbers proceeded quickly at the sheltered site (day 7, but took 95 days at the exposed site. In contrast, biomass reached control levels by day 45 at the sheltered site, but already by day 15 at the exposed site. By day 95, the assemblages recovered to 83.5% and 81% similarity with the controls at the sheltered and exposed sites respectively. Although differences in wave exposure could be very

  11. Munition Burial by Local Scour and Sandwaves: large-scale laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Our effort has been the direct observation and monitoring of the burial process of munitions induced by the combined action of waves, currents and pure oscillatory flows. The experimental conditions have made it possible to observe the burial process due to both local scour around model munitions as well as the passage of sandwaves. One experimental facility is the Large Oscillating Water Sediment Tunnel (LOWST) constructed with DURIP support. LOWST can reproduce field-like conditions near the sea bed. The second facility is a multipurpose wave-current flume which is 4 feet (1.20 m) deep, 6 feet (1.8 m) wide, and 161 feet (49.2 m) long. More than two hundred experiments were carried out in the wave-current flume. The main task completed within this effort has been the characterization of the burial process induced by local scour as well in the presence of dynamic sandwaves with superimposed ripples. It is found that the burial of a finite-length model munition (cylinder) is determined by local scour around the cylinder and by a more global process associated with the formation and evolution of sandwaves having superimposed ripples on them. Depending on the ratio of the amplitude of these features and the body's diameter (D), a model munition can progressively get partially or totally buried as such bedforms migrate. Analysis of the experimental data indicates that existing semi-empirical formulae for prediction of equilibrium-burial-depth, geometry of the scour hole around a cylinder, and time-scales developed for pipelines are not suitable for the case of a cylinder of finite length. Relative burial depth (Bd / D) is found to be mainly a function of two parameters. One is the Keulegan-Carpenter number, KC, and the Shields parameter, θ. Munition burial under either waves or combined flow, is influenced by two different processes. One is related to the local scour around the object, which takes place within the first few hundred minutes of flow action (i.e. short

  12. [Effect of shifting sand burial on evaporation reduction and salt restraint under saline water irrigation in extremely arid region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Xin-Wen; Lei, Jia-Qiang; Li, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Yong-Dong

    2014-05-01

    The Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt is drip-irrigated with high saline groundwater (2.58-29.70 g x L(-1)), and shifting sand burial and water-salt stress are most common and serious problems in this region. So it is of great importance to study the effect of shifting sand burial on soil moisture evaporation, salt accumulation and their distribution for water saving, salinity restraint, and suitable utilization of local land and water resources. In this study, Micro-Lysimeters (MLS) were used to investigate dynamics of soil moisture and salt under different thicknesses of sand burial (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm), and field control experiments of drip-irrigation were also carried out to investigate soil moisture and salt distribution under different thicknesses of shifting sand burial (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 cm). The soil daily and cumulative evaporation decreased with the increase of sand burial thickness in MLS, cumulative evaporation decreased by 2.5%-13.7% compared with control. And evaporative inhibiting efficiency increased with sand burial thickness, evaporative inhibiting efficiency of 1-5 cm sand burial was 16.7%-79.0%. Final soil moisture content beneath the interface of sand burial increased with sand burial thickness, and it increased by 2.5%-13.7% than control. The topsoil EC of shifting sand in MLS decreased by 1.19-6.00 mS x cm(-1) with the increasing sand burial thickness, whereas soil salt content beneath the interface in MLS increased and amplitude of the topsoil salt content was higher than that of the subsoil. Under drip-irrigation with saline groundwater, average soil moisture beneath the interface of shifting sand burial increased by 0.4% -2.0% compare with control, and the highest value of EC was 7.77 mS x cm(-1) when the sand burial thickness was 10 cm. The trend of salt accumulation content at shifting sand surface increased firstly, and then decreased with the increasing sand burial thickness. Soil salt contents beneath the

  13. Temperature dependent elasticity and damping in dehydrated sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, T. W.; Struble, W.

    2013-12-01

    Work reported previously at this conference, outlining our observation of anomalously large elastic softening and damping in dehydrated Berea sandstone at elevated temperatures, has been analysed to study shear and compressional effects separately. Modeling of the sample using COMSOL software was necessary to identify modes, as the vibration spectrum of the sample is poorly approximated by a uniform isotropic solid. The first torsional mode of our evacuated, dry, core softens at nearly twice the rate of Young's modulus modes (bending and compressional) and is also damped nearly twice as strongly as temperature increases. We consider two possible models for explaining this behavior, based on the assumption that the mechanical properties of the sandstone are dominated by the framework of quartz grains and polycrystalline cementation, neglecting initially the effects of clay and feldspar inclusions. The 20cm x 2.54cm diameter core is dry such that the pressure of water vapor in the experiment chamber is below 1e-6 Torr at 70C, suggesting that surface water beyond a small number of monolayers is negligible. Our models consider (1) enhanced sliding of grain boundaries in the cementation at elevated temperature and reduced internal water content, and (2) strain microcracking of the cementatioin at low water content due to anisotropic expansion in the quartz grains. In model (1) interfaces parallel to polyhedral grain surfaces were placed in the cement bonds and assigned frictional properties. Model (2) has not yet been implemented. The overall elasticity of a 3-D several-grain model network was determined by modeling quasistatic loading and measuring displacements. Initial results with a small number of grains/bonds suggests that only the first model provides softening and damping for all the modes, however the details of the effects of defect motioin at individual interfaces as the source for the frictional properties is still being evaluated. Nonlinear effects are

  14. Application potential of sequence stratigraphy to prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposit in continental depositional basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shengxiang; Chen Zhaobo; Chen Zuyi; Xiang Weidong; Cai Yuqi

    2001-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy has been widely used in hydrocarbon exploration and development, and great achievements have been achieved. However, its application to the prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposits is just beginning. The metallogenic characteristics of sandstone-type uranium deposits and those of oil and gas are compared, and the relationship between sandstone-type uranium metallogenesis and the system tracts of sequence stratigraphy is studied. The authors propose that highest and system tracts are the main targets for prospecting interlayer oxidation zone type sandstone uranium deposits, and the incised valleys of low stand system tracts are favourable places for phreatic oxidation zone type sandstone uranium deposits, and transgressive system tracts are generally unfavorable to the formation of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits. Finally, the authors look ahead the application potential of sequence stratigraphy to the prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposits in continental depositional basins

  15. Chemical speciation of plutonium in the radioactive waste burial ground at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1978-08-01

    The plutonium chemical species in two types of samples from the Savannah River Plant burial ground for radioactive waste were identified. Samples analyzed were water and sediment from burial ground monitoring well C-17 and soil from an alpha waste burial trench. Soluble plutonium in the monitoring well was less than 12A in diameter, was cationic, and contained about 43% Pu(VI) and 25% Pu(IV). The equilibrium distribution coefficient (K /sub d/) for soluble plutonium from the well water (pH 7) to burial ground soil was about 60. Soil plutonium from the waste trench was not cation-exchanged; 78% of the soil plutonium was associated with metallic oxides in the soil. Approximately 9% of the Pu was contained in the crystalline soil matrix. Thus, about 87% of the plutonium in the soil was in a relatively immobile form. Ion-exchangeable and organic acid forms of plutonium amounted to only about 2.5% each. The bulk of the plutonium now on burial ground soils will be immobile except for movement of soil particles containing plutonium. 6 tables

  16. Hydrologic transport of radionuclides from low-level waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    The physical characteristics of the virgin site and of the disturbed site after burial drastically affect the transport of radionuclides from buried waste. The disturbance of the land surface during the waste burial operation causes changes in the local ground-water regimen. These changes can increase the water table elevation and cause the occurrence of perched water in burial trenches. The combination of these changes may lead to submersion of the waste and to increased radionuclide transport from the burial site in both surface and groundwater. Factors such as ion exchange can retard or in some cases, with competing ions, can also mobilize radionuclides and increase their discharge into ground and surface water. Because of complexing agents (organics) contained in the waste, increased mobility of some radionuclides can be expected. The chemical form of radionuclides in the water, the ground-water quality, and the chemistry of the geologic formation in which the waste is buried all influence the movement of radionuclides in the hydrologic system. For the assessment of the environmental impact of low-level waste burial, models capable of simulating both the chemical and the physical factors that affect hydrologic transport must be available. Several models for conducting such simulation are presently available. However, the input parameters used in these models are highly variable; and the accuracy of parameter measurement must be considered in evaluating the reliability of simulated results

  17. Riding Horse Harness (Based on Materials from the Chulkovo Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishakov Valeriy V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The items of riding horse harness (bits with psalia, stirrups, buckles, decorations of bridles are analyzed in the article on the basis of the materials from the Chulkovo (Murom burial ground site of the 8th-10th centuries, located on right bank of the Oka river. It has been established that the use of horse harness items by the Muroma culture population, which had left the Chulkovo burial ground, is in full correspondence with the general traditions of the Finno-Ugric peoples of the Volga river region characteristic of the 8th-10th centuries. The shapes of the bits correspond to both the steppe (bits with S-shaped and straight psalia and the local traditions (bits with two and three moving rings. A tendency to uniformity is observed in the tradition of stirrups production. The main differences of the Muroma burial grounds from the neighboring Mordovian ones consist in the presence of horse burials (not known among the Mordovians, and, on the other hand, in a practically complete lack of horse harness in the funeral set of human burials. It can be assumed that the importance of cavalry with the Muromа was lower than with the Mordovians who were living next to the steppe world.

  18. Initial site characterization and evaluation of radionuclide contaminated soil waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Sandness, G.A.

    1977-02-01

    A survey of historical records and literature containing information on the contents of 300 Area and North Burial Grounds was completed. Existing records of radioactive waste location, type, and quantity within each burial ground facility were obtained and distributed to cooperating investigators. A study was then initiated to evaluate geophysical exploration techniques for mapping buried waste materials, waste containers, and trench boundaries. Results indicate that a combination of ground penetrating radar, magnetometer, metal detector, and acoustic measurements will be effective but will require further study, hardware development, and field testing. Drilling techniques for recovering radionuclide-contaminated materials and sediment cores were developed and tested. Laboratory sediment characterization and fluid transport and monitoring analyses were begun by installation of in situ transducers at the 300 North Burial Ground site. Biological transport mechanisms that control radionuclide movement at contaminated sites were also studied. Flora and fauna presently inhabiting specific burial ground areas were identified and analyzed. Future monitoring of specific mammal populations will permit determination of dose rate and pathways of contaminated materials contained in and adjacent to burial ground sites

  19. Hydrologic transport of radionuclides from low-level waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.

    1977-01-01

    The physical characteristics of the virgin site and of the disturbed site after burial drastically affect the transport of radionuclides from buried waste. The disturbance of the land surface during the waste burial operation causes changes in the local ground-water regimen. These changes can increase the water table elevation and cause the occurrence of perched water in burial trenches. The combination of these changes may lead to submersion of the waste and to increased radionuclide transport from the burial site in both surface and ground water. Factors such as ion exchange can retard or in some cases, with competing ions, can also mobilize radionuclides and increase their discharge into ground and surface water. Because of complexing agents (organics) contained in the waste, increased mobility of some radionuclides can be expected. The chemical form of radionuclides in the water, the ground-water quality, and the chemistry of the geologic formation in which the waste is buried all influence the movement of radionuclides in the hydrologic system. For the assessment of the environmental impact of low-level waste burial, models capable of simulating both the chemical and the physical factors that affect hydrologic transport must be available. Several models for conducting such simulation are presently available. However,the input parameters used in these models are highly variable, and the accuracy of parameter measurement must be considered in evaluating the reliability of simulated results

  20. Desalination of salt damaged Obernkirchen sandstone by an applied DC field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matyščák, Ondřej; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Soluble salts are considered as one of the most common causes for decay of building materials. In the present work, an electrokinetic method for desalination of sandstones from a historic warehouse was tested. The sandstones claddings were removed from the warehouse during a renovation action...... in the stones, i.e. the present investigation faces more challenges relevant to a real desalination action. Experiments were conducted with two Obernkirchen sandstones from the same warehouse, but with different levels of salt concentrations and porosity. The investigation includes removal of the most common...... salts: chlorides, nitrates, sulphates. In the experimental setup the electrodes were placed in a clay poultice: a mixture of kaolinite, calcite and distilled water. An electric direct current (DC) field was applied to the sandstone.By applying 2mA for 5–11days it was possible to reduce the chloride...

  1. Heavy mineral sorting in downwards injected Palaeocene sandstone, Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Friis, Henrik; Svendsen, Johan Byskov

    2011-01-01

    Post-depositional remobilization and injection of sand are often seen in deep-water clastic systems and has been recently recognised as a significant modifier of deep-water sandstone geometry. Large-scale injectite complexes have been interpreted from borehole data in the Palaeocene Siri Canyon...... of depositional structures in deep-water sandstones, the distinction between "in situ" and injected or remobilised sandstones is often ambiguous. Large scale heavy mineral sorting (in 10 m thick units) is observed in several reservoir units in the Siri Canyon and has been interpreted to represent the depositional...... sorting. In this study we describe an example of effective shear-zone sorting of heavy minerals in a thin downward injected sandstone dyke which was encountered in one of the cores in the Cecilie Field, Siri Canyon. Differences in sorting pattern of heavy minerals are suggested as a tool for petrographic...

  2. Application status and vistas of sequence stratigraphy to the exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Qingyin; Chen Zuyi; Yu Jinshui; Han Shuqin

    2008-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy is a newly developed subject based on seismostratigraphy, and has been widely applied in the exploration of hydrocarbon and other sedimentogenic mineral deposits and great achievements have been obtained. However, the application of sequence stratigraphy to the exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits is just at the beginning. In this paper, some primary research achievements of sequence stratigraphy to the exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits are summarized, and problems and their reasons of the application of sequence stratigraphy are discussed. Further more, according to characteristics of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits and the development of sequence stratigraphy, the application vistas of sequence stratigraphy to the exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits are estimated. Finally, application directions are proposed, and some specific suggestions are given. (authors)

  3. Characteristics of isotope geology of sandstone-type uranium deposit in Turpan-Hami Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanbin; Xia Yuliang; Lin Jinrong; Fan Guang

    2003-01-01

    This paper expounds the isotope characteristics of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposit of Shihongtan in the southwestern part of Turpan-Hami basin. The results suggest that uranium mineralization age of 48 ± 2 Ma and 28 ± 4 Ma are obtained. The ages of the porphyritic granite and gneissic granite from the southwestern area are 422 ± 5 Ma and 268 ± 23 Ma. The U-Pb age of clastic zircons from ore-bearing sandstone is 283 ± 67 Ma, which is corresponding to the age of gneissic granite of the provenance area indicating the material source of uraniferous sandstone.Based. The sources are uraniferous sandstone accumulated during the deposition and the uranium leached from provenance area rocks by weathering. (authors)

  4. Local diversity versus geographical distribution of arthropods occuring in a sandstone rock labyrinth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Vlastimil; Mlejnek, R.; Šmilauer, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2010), s. 533-544 ISSN 1505-2249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : sandstone * microclimate * paleorefugium Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.542, year: 2010

  5. Brittle to Semibrittle Transition in Quartz Sandstone: Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Taka; Hirth, Greg

    2018-01-01

    Triaxial compression experiments were conducted on a quartz sandstone at effective pressures up to 175 MPa and temperatures up to 900°C. Our experiments show a transition from brittle faulting to semibrittle faulting with an increase in both pressure and temperature. The yield behavior of samples deformed in the semibrittle regime follows a compactant elliptical cap at low strain, but evolves to a dilatant Mohr-Coulomb relationship with continued compaction. Optical microscopy indicates that semibrittle deformation involves cataclastic flow through shear-enhanced compaction and grain crushing; however, transmission electron microscopy shows evidence for dislocation glide in limited portions of samples. To constrain the relative contribution of brittle and crystal plastic mechanisms, we estimate the partitioning of the inelastic work into the dissipation energy for microcracking, intergranular frictional slip, and dislocation glide. We conclude that semibrittle deformation is accommodated primarily by cataclastic mechanisms, with only a limited contribution from crystal plasticity. Mechanical data, acoustic emission records, and analysis of surface energy all indicate the activation of subcritical cracking at elevated temperature. Hence, we infer that the enhancement of subcritical cracking is responsible for the transition to semibrittle flow through promoting distributed grain-scale fractures and millimeter-scale shear bands. Subcritical cracking promotes the nucleation of microfractures at lower stresses, and the resulting decrease in flow stress retards the propagation of transgranular microfractures. Our study illuminates the important role of temperature on the micromechanics of the transition from brittle faulting to cataclastic flow in the Earth.

  6. Attrition of Tyee Formation Sandstone in a Natural Fluvial System

    Science.gov (United States)

    brandes, J. B.; Sanfilippo, J. D.; Lancaster, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    The data from this study will provide a rate of attrition with respect to change in volume, time and distance in a natural stream setting. Sandstone gravel attrition has been observed in previous studies with the use of rock tumblers, but measurements in natural systems are rare or absent. This study will use rocks with implanted passive integrated transponders (PIT) tags to track sediment movement. The study area is a natural mountain stream of approximately 4m width and 1m depth. This study is part of larger study of sediment transport. The rock volumes will be recorded prior to placement in an active channel using water displacement, the specific location along the channel will be recorded, and each tracer rock will be tracked using its individual radio frequency identification (RFID) number. Tracer rock deployment will occur before the annual high-water season. After one rainy season, the rocks will be located and removed from the stream using a radio frequency mobile radio frequency tracker. Their travel distances will be recorded and final volumes determined. Differences between initial and final volumes and travel distances will yield a distribution of attrition rates and, therefore, a mean gravel attrition rate.

  7. Outcrop analogue study of Permocarboniferous geothermal sandstone reservoir formations (northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany): impact of mineral content, depositional environment and diagenesis on petrophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Achim; Bär, Kristian; Götz, Annette E.; Sass, Ingo

    2016-07-01

    oil and acidic waters led to the dissolution of haematite cements in the lower Permocarboniferous formations. During the Eocene, subsidence of the Upper Rhine Graben porosities and permeabilities of the sandstones of these formations were strongly reduced to 2.5 % and 3.2 × 10-18 m2. The second important influence on reservoir quality is the distinct depositional environment and its influence on early diagenetic processes. In early stage diagenesis, the best influence on reservoir properties exhibits a haematite cementation. It typically occurs in eolian sandstones of the Kreuznach Formation (Upper Permocarboniferous) and is characterized by grain covering haematite coatings, which are interpreted to inhibit cementation, compaction and illitization of pore space during burial. Eolian sandstones taken from outcrops and reservoir depths exhibit the highest porosities (16.4; 12.3 %) and permeabilities (2.0 × 10-15; 8.4 × 10-16 m2). A third important influence on reservoir quality is the general mineral composition and the quartz content which is the highest in the Kreuznach Formation with 73.8 %. Based on the integrated study of depositional environments and diagenetic processes, reservoir properties of the different Permocarboniferous formations within the northern Upper Rhine Graben and their changes with burial depth can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy. This leads to a better understanding of the reservoir quality and enables an appropriate well design for exploration and exploitation of these geothermal resources.

  8. CO2 Storage Potential of the Eocene Tay Sandstone, Central North Sea, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Christopher; Williams, John

    2017-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is crucial for low-carbon industry, climate mitigation and a sustainable energy future. The offshore capacity of the UK is substantial and has been estimated at 78 Gt of CO2 in saline aquifers and hydrocarbon fields. The early-mid Eocene Tay Sandstone Member of the Central North Sea (CNS) is a submarine-fan system and potential storage reservoir with a theoretical capacity of 123 Mt of CO2. The Tay Sandstone comprises of 4 sequences, amalgamating into a fan complex 125km long and 40 km at a minimum of 1500 m depth striking NW-SE, hosting several hydrocarbon fields including Gannett A, B, D and Pict. In order to better understand the storage potential and characteristics, the Tay Sandstone over Quadrant 21 has been interpreted using log correlation and 3D seismic. Understanding the internal and external geometry of the sandstone as well as the lateral extent of the unit is essential when considering CO2 vertical and horizontal fluid flow pathways and storage security. 3D seismic mapping of a clear mounded feature has revealed the youngest sequence of the Tay complex; a homogenous sand-rich channel 12 km long, 1.5 km wide and on average 100 m thick. The sandstone has porosity >35%, permeability >5 D and a net to gross of 0.8, giving a total pore volume of 927x106 m3. The remaining three sequences are a series of stacked channels and interbedded mudstones which are more quiescent on the seismic, however, well logs indicate each subsequent sequence reduce in net to gross with age as mud has a greater influence in the early fan system. Nevertheless, the sandstone properties remain relatively consistent and are far more laterally extensive than the youngest sequence. The Tay Sandstone spatially overlaps several other potential storage sites including the older Tertiary sandstones of the Cromarty, Forties and Mey Members and deeper Jurassic reservoirs. This favours the Tay Sandstone to be considered in a secondary or multiple stacked

  9. Geophysical signature recognition of aquifuge and relatively impermeable interbed in ore-hosting sandstone layer at sandstone-type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xigang; Wu Hanning; Bai Guanjun; Zhu Huanqiao; Jia Heng

    2006-01-01

    Geophysical signature recognition of aquifuge and relatively impermeable interbed in ore-hosting aquifer has been carried out a Shihongtan uranium deposit by using comprehensive logging data. The spatial distribution of above aquifuge and impermeable interbed is discussed, and the relation of these layers to sandstone-type uranium deposit, and their impact to in-situ leach mining technology are discussed. It is suggested that the aquifuge and relatively impermeable interbed bring about significant effect to the formation of interlayer oxidation zone sandstone-type uranium deposit, as well as to in-situ leach mining of the deposit. (authors)

  10. Site selection criteria for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconer, K.L.; Hull, L.C.; Mizell, S.A.

    The shallow land burial of low-level waste must be accomplished in a manner that ensures the public and biosphere are protected from harmful amounts of radiation. This can be attained by selecting, designing, operating and closing sites such that contaminants never leave the site boundary in levels above regulatory limits. Site design, operation and closure are all functions of the characteristics of the site selected. As a result, the site selection process offers the most effective means for optimizing safe, efficient and economical low-level waste burial practices. The purpose of this document is to set forth criteria for the selection of shallow land burial sites. Criteria are standard rules, by which the ability of a site to meet waste management goals can be judged. They are comprehensive, universal, and qualitative and are applicable in any geologic environment. Site selection criteria provide the framework for the siting process

  11. Effect of phosphogypsum on workers and population's radiation exposure in vicinity of phosphogypsum waste burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.; Raja, G.; Sawaf, A.M.

    1997-05-01

    The phosphogypsum waste burial site was studied in more details of radiation viewpoint. This waste results from phosphate industry. The study covered ground water, nearby houses, air and emission rates of radon from this waste burial site. Results showed increasing of radiation exposure in the studied site and nearby area for both workers and population. Fortunately, this area was studied before instruction of the waste burial site. So it was easy to compare the new results with the previous ones and see the difference. Indoor radon concentration increased about 70%. Results also showed high emission rates which result in significant dose. The site needs continuous monitoring because the amount of phosphogypsum is increasing. Also groundwater should be monitored continuously to see the effect of the waste in the future if it happened. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Effect of phosphogypsum on workers and population's radiation exposure in vicinity of phosphogypsum waste burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.; Raja, G.; Sawaf, A.

    1998-01-01

    The phosphogypsum waste burial site was studied in more details of radiation viewpoint. This waste results from phosphate industry. The study covered ground water, nearby houses, air and emission rates of radon from this waste burial site. Results showed increasing of radiation exposure in the studied site and nearby area for both workers and population. Fortunately, this area was studied before instruction of the waste burial site. So it was easy to compare the new results with the previous ones and see the difference. Indoor radon concentration increased about 70%. Results also showed high emission rates which result in significant dose. The site needs continuous monitoring because the amount of phosphogypsum is increasing. Also groundwater should be monitored continuously to see the effect of the waste in the future if it happened. (author)

  13. DOE program for improvement practices for shallow burial of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckhoner, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The practice of burying solid radioactive waste in relatively shallow pits or trenches at government nuclear sites dates back to the Manhattan Project. In some cases, where local conditions were considered unfavorable, intersite shipment of waste has been required. This general concept was later used at commercially-operated sites under Federal or state regulation. The purpose, scope, and results of a DOE program begun several years ago for improvements of burial ground disposal methods are reviewed. The program includes the re-evaluation of the original siting and of operating practices at existing burial grounds (including monitoring for migration of activity); the development of improved criteria for siting of new grounds that might be required as the defense site operations continue; and development of corrective measures such as diking and better draining for possible unsatisfactory conditions that might be detected. The possible applications of these findings to commercial burial grounds is discussed

  14. Female Headdress from Dubrovskiy Burial Ground of 4th–5th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnopeоrov Alexander A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the remains of a female headdress from Dubrovskiy burial ground of Mazunino type in the Kama region of Udmurtia. The burial is defined by the Migration Period, and the leader of the excavations generally attributed it to the 4th – 5th centuries AD. As widely known, female dress was a status symbol, a sign of belonging to a tribe. The headdress studied here belonged to a young woman, whose status was demonstrated through the context of this collective burial and the grave goods. The type of the headdress is reconstructed by its constructive details, peculiar location of metallic decorations and preserved organics. According to the authors, the headdress had the front part (frontal piece on a solid base with decorative elements, and a soft back part (a shawl with metallic details. The authors refer to archaeological analogies and ethnographic parallels, which allow reconstructing the cultural context of the find.

  15. NSC confirms principles for safety review on Radioactive Waste Burial Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission authorized the scope of Principles for Safety Examination on Radioactive Waste Burial Facilities as suitable, the draft report for which was established by the Special Committee on Safety Standards of Radioactive Waste (Chairman Prof. Masao Sago, Science University of Tokyo) and reported on March 10 to the NSC. The principles include the theory that the facility must be controlled step by step, corresponding to the amount of radioactivity over 300 to 400 years after the burial of low-level solid radioactive waste with site conditions safe even in the event of occurrence of a natural disaster. The principles will be used for administrative safety examination against the application of the business on low-level radioactive waste burial facility which Japan Nuclear Fuel Industries, Inc. is planning to install at Rokkashomura, Aomori Prefecture. (author)

  16. Burial diagenesis of deep sea chalk as reflected in Biot's coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    2013-01-01

    to limestone as burial increases and porosity decreases. The porosity decrease is accompanied by an increasing velocity to elastic waves, and consequently a decreasing Biot's coefficient, as estimated from velocity and density of core samples. When the effective burial stress is normalized to total horizontal....... In the ooze, we find that the natural compaction causes an increasing stress on grain contact area, indicating that the ooze particles become strongly strained. In the chalk section, contact cement is probably the reason why particles become less strained as porosity declines. In the limestone, stress...... on particles apparently is low and not correlated with porosity, probably because the pore-filling cementation in this interval causes Biot's coefficient to decline as burial increases. Limestone from the water zone of the North sea Chalk Group follows the same stress trend as deep sea limestone. These results...

  17. Migration studies at the Savannah River Plant shallow land burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Oblath, S.B.; Hawkins, R.H.; Emslie, R.H.; Ryan, J.P. Jr.; King, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide migration from the Savannah River Plant low-level waste burial ground was studied in ongoing programs that provide generic data on a shallow land burial site in a humid region and support local waste disposal operations. Field, laboratory, and theoretical work continued in four areas. (1) Subsurface Monitoring: Groundwater around the burial ground was monitored for traces of radioactivity and mercury. (2) Lysimeter Tests: Gamma-emitting radionuclides were identified by sensitive methods in defense waste lysimeter percolate waters. Results from these and other lysimeters containing tritium, I-129, or Pu-239 sources are given. (3) Soil-Water Chemistry: Experiments on specific factors affecting migration of Cs-137 showed that potassium significantly increases cesium mobility, thus confirming observations with trench waters. Distribution coefficients for ruthenium were measured. (4) Transport Modeling: Efforts to refine and validate the SRL dose-to-man model continued. Transport calculations were made for tritium, Sr-90, Tc-99, and TRU radionuclides. 12 references, 3 tables

  18. Analyzing the Sand-fixing Effect of Feldspathic Sandstone from the Texture Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, lu; Ban, Jichang

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was aimed to study the sand fixing effect of feldspathic sandstone in Mu Us Sandy Land, to provide a scienticic basis for desertification control, soil and water conservation and development of farming there. Methods of mixing feldspathic sandstone and aeolian sandy soil according to 1: 0, 1: 1, 1: 2, 1: 5, and 0: 1 mass ratioes, the graded composition and characteristics were studied with laser particle size analyzer. The result showed that these features of sand-based, loosely structured, easy to wind erosion of aeolian sandy soil were changed before feldspathic sandstone and aeolian sandy soil compounding. The <0.05 mm particle mass increased with feldspathic sandstone mass increasing. The texture presented this kind of change from sand to sandy loam to loam to silt loam. The small particle size distribution, good homogeneity and other features of aeolian sandy soil were improved to a certain degree, and the particle size distribution became broad before feldspathic sandstone and aeolian sandy soil compounding. The particle grading was continuous, and the grading characteristic was good when m(F): m(S) was 1: 5(Cu was 54.71 and Cc was 2.54) or when m(F): m(S) was 1: 2(Cu was 76.21, Cc was 1.12). The conclusion is that feldspathic sandstone has sand-fixing effect in texture characteristics, which heightens with feldspathic sandstone mass increasing, and when the mass ratio of feldspathic sandstone: aeolian sandy soil is 1: 2 or 1: 5 which compound better.

  19. Temperature Effects on Stiffness Moduli of Reservoir Sandstone from the Deep North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlander, Tobias; Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    We investigate effect of testing temperature on the dynamic frame stiffness of quartz-bearing North Sea sandstone from depths of 5 km. We show that at low stress levels, the rock frame stiffens with increasing temperature and we propose an explanation for the controlling mechanisms. While...... temperature. This is unfortunate and hence, we designed a testing program with the intension of separating and quantifying effects of temperature and stress, specifically for the sandstone material subject to this study....

  20. Remote sensing information acquisition of paleo-channel sandstone-type uranium deposit in Nuheting area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianjun

    2000-01-01

    The author briefly describes the genesis and ore-formation mechanism of paleo-channel sandstone-type uranium deposit in Nuheting area. Techniques such as remote sensing digital image data processing and data enhancement, as well as 3-dimension quantitative analysis of drill hole data are applied to extract information on metallogenic environment of paleo-channel sandstone-type uranium deposit and the distribution of paleo-channel

  1. Discussion on several problems on the mineralization of paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shijie

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of comprehensively analyzing paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits at home and abroad, the author discusses the division of mineralization types of paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits, and analyzes the metallogenic geologic conditions such as regional geologic background, climatic and geomorphological conditions, basement and sedimentary cover, characteristics of paleo-valley and paleo-channel, mineralization features as well as epigenetic metallogenic process. Future prospecting direction is also proposed

  2. A method of quantitative prediction for sandstone type uranium deposit in Russia and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Shushuai; Jiang Minzhong; Li Xiaolu

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the foundational principle of quantitative predication for sandstone type uranium deposits in Russia. Some key methods such as physical-mathematical model construction and deposits prediction are described. The method has been applied to deposits prediction in Dahongshan region of Chaoshui basin. It is concluded that the technique can fortify the method of quantitative predication for sandstone type uranium deposits, and it could be used as a new technique in China. (authors)

  3. Elastic Dispersion and Attenuation in Fully Saturated Sandstones: Role of Mineral Content, Porosity, and Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimienta, Lucas; Borgomano, Jan V. M.; Fortin, Jérôme; Guéguen, Yves

    2017-12-01

    Because measuring the frequency dependence of elastic properties in the laboratory is a technical challenge, not enough experimental data exist to test the existing theories. We report measurements of three fluid-saturated sandstones over a broad frequency band: Wilkenson, Berea, and Bentheim sandstones. Those sandstones samples, chosen for their variable porosities and mineral content, are saturated by fluids of varying viscosities. The samples elastic response (Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio) and hydraulic response (fluid flow out of the sample) are measured as a function of frequency. Large dispersion and attenuation phenomena are observed over the investigated frequency range. For all samples, the variation at lowest frequency relates to a large fluid flow directly measured out of the rock samples. These are the cause (i.e., fluid flow) and consequence (i.e., dispersion/attenuation) of the transition between drained and undrained regimes. Consistently, the characteristic frequency correlates with permeability for each sandstone. Beyond this frequency, a second variation is observed for all samples, but the rocks behave differently. For Berea sandstone, an onset of dispersion/attenuation is expected from both Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio at highest frequency. For Bentheim and Wilkenson sandstones, however, only Young's modulus shows dispersion/attenuation phenomena. For Wilkenson sandstone, the viscoelastic-like dispersion/attenuation response is interpreted as squirt flow. For Bentheim sandstone, the second effect does not fully follow such response, which could be due to a lower accuracy in the measured attenuation or to the occurence of another physical effect in this rock sample.

  4. Exploration of the burial apartments in tomb complex AS 68. Preliminary report of the 2013 fall season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Vymazalová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of the tomb complex of king’s daughter Sheretnebty, which was discovered in 2012, continued in the archaeological season of 2013. In October–November, the work concentrated on the underground parts of the tombs, including the burial shafts and burial chambers. In tomb AS 68c, two shafts were unusually deep; at a depth of 11.00 m under the ground the burial chambers of a man and a woman had been hewn. The man’s chamber contained a large sarcophagus of fine limestone and the remains of his burial and his tomb equipment, while the woman’s chamber remained largely unfinished and contained her rather simple burial placed on the floor. The so far discovered evidence indicates that this was the burial of Princess Sheretnebty. Another four shafts in the tomb contained four other burials of a female and three males, most probably the couple’s descendants. In addition, the shafts in the two western rock-cut tombs were explored. In the tomb of Shepespuptah (AS 68b, a single shaft was dug in the tomb’s chapel, while the tomb owner was buried in a burial chamber south of the chapel. The shaft in the chapel was large but reached only 1.40 m deep and was never finished and never used for burial. The two shafts in the tomb of Duaptah (AS 68a revealed the burials of two men; the southern shaft belonged to Duaptah himself while the northern shaft to a certain Nefermin. The burials were mostly very simple, and all of them were disturbed by tomb robbers. The preserved bones might, however, still reveal important details about the individuals buried in the rock-cut tombs, and they will therefore be studied in order to trace the family relationships among the tomb owners.

  5. The Sirius Passet Lagerstätte: silica death masking opens the window on the earliest mat ground community of the Cambrian Explosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strang, Katie M; Armstrong, Howard; Harper, David A. T.; Trabucho-Alexandre, João

    2016-01-01

    The Sirius Passet Lagerstätte (SP), Peary Land, North Greenland, occurs in black slates deposited at or just below storm wave base. It represents the earliest Cambrian microbial mat community with exceptional preservation, predating the Burgess Shale by 10 million years. Trilobites from the SP are

  6. New hydroxyproline radiocarbon dates from Sungir, Russia, confirm early Mid Upper Palaeolithic burials in Eurasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Nalawade-Chavan

    Full Text Available Sungir (Russia is a key Mid-Upper Palaeolithic site in Eurasia, containing several spectacular burials that disclose early evidence for complex burial rites in the form of a range of grave goods deposited along with the dead. Dating has been particularly challenging, with multiple radiocarbon dates ranging from 19,160±270 to 28,800±240 BP for burials that are believed to be closely similar in age. There are disparities in the radiocarbon dates of human bones, faunal remains and charcoal found on the floor of burials. Our approach has been to develop compound-specific methods using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC to separate single amino acids, such as hydroxyproline, and thereby avoid the known human contamination on the bones themselves. Previously, we applied this technique to obtain radiocarbon dates of ∼30,000 BP for Sungir 2, Sungir 3 and a mammoth bone from the occupation levels of the site. The single amino acid radiocarbon dates were in good agreement with each other compared to all the dates previously reported, supporting their reliability. Here we report new hydroxyproline dates for two more human burials from the same site, Sungir 1 and Sungir 4. All five hydroxyproline dates reported are statistically indistinguishable and support an identical age for the group. The results suggest that compound-specific radiocarbon analysis should be considered seriously as the method of choice when precious archaeological remains are to be dated because they give a demonstrably contaminant-free radiocarbon age. The new ages are, together with the previously dated 'Red Lady of Paviland' human in the British Isles, the earliest for Mid Upper Palaeolithic burial behaviour in Eurasia, and point to the precocious appearance of this form of rite in Europe Russia.

  7. Engineering evaluation of the 618-9 Burial Ground expedited response action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    Throughout Hanford Site history, chemical waste products were disposed via burial in trenches. One such trench was the 618-9 Burial Ground, located in the 600 Area on the Hanford Site. The 618-9 Burial Ground was suspected to contain approximately 5,000 ga (19,000 L) of uranium contaminated solvent in 55-gal (208-L) steel drums. On December 20, 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) was instructed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) to initiate planning necessary to implement an expedited response action (ERA) for the 618-9 Burial Ground. The project was to be implemented in two phases: (1) removal of immediate human health and environmental hazards and (2) remediation of contaminated soil. Phase 1 of the project was initiated February 15, 1991. During Phase 1 activities approximately 700 gal (2,650 L) of methyl isobutyl ketone (hexone) and 900 gal (3,400 L) of kerosene solvent were removed from the 618-9 Burial Ground. A significant amount of scrap process equipment/building debris was excavated. The results of an environmental risk assessment for chemicals above detection further determined that risks posed by other detected constituents to human health and the environment are negligible. A compilation of activities utilized for determining subsequent remediation activities for the 618-9 Burial Ground is presented. This includes: (1) Phase 1 activities, (2) sampling performed and associated data results, (3) results of the risk assessment, and (4) applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. 13 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  8. New hydroxyproline radiocarbon dates from Sungir, Russia, confirm early Mid Upper Palaeolithic burials in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalawade-Chavan, Shweta; McCullagh, James; Hedges, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sungir (Russia) is a key Mid-Upper Palaeolithic site in Eurasia, containing several spectacular burials that disclose early evidence for complex burial rites in the form of a range of grave goods deposited along with the dead. Dating has been particularly challenging, with multiple radiocarbon dates ranging from 19,160±270 to 28,800±240 BP for burials that are believed to be closely similar in age. There are disparities in the radiocarbon dates of human bones, faunal remains and charcoal found on the floor of burials. Our approach has been to develop compound-specific methods using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to separate single amino acids, such as hydroxyproline, and thereby avoid the known human contamination on the bones themselves. Previously, we applied this technique to obtain radiocarbon dates of ∼30,000 BP for Sungir 2, Sungir 3 and a mammoth bone from the occupation levels of the site. The single amino acid radiocarbon dates were in good agreement with each other compared to all the dates previously reported, supporting their reliability. Here we report new hydroxyproline dates for two more human burials from the same site, Sungir 1 and Sungir 4. All five hydroxyproline dates reported are statistically indistinguishable and support an identical age for the group. The results suggest that compound-specific radiocarbon analysis should be considered seriously as the method of choice when precious archaeological remains are to be dated because they give a demonstrably contaminant-free radiocarbon age. The new ages are, together with the previously dated 'Red Lady of Paviland' human in the British Isles, the earliest for Mid Upper Palaeolithic burial behaviour in Eurasia, and point to the precocious appearance of this form of rite in Europe Russia.

  9. Phosphorus burial in the ocean over glacial-interglacial time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tamburini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of nutrients, such as phosphorus (P, and their impact on primary productivity and the fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 over glacial-interglacial periods are intensely debated. Suggestions as to the importance of P evolved from an earlier proposal that P actively participated in changing productivity rates and therefore climate change, to most recent ones that changes in the glacial ocean inventory of phosphorus were important but not influential if compared to other macronutrients, such as nitrate. Using new data coming from a selection of ODP sites, we analyzed the distribution of oceanic P sedimentary phases and calculate reactive P burial fluxes, and we show how P burial fluxes changed over the last glacial-interglacial period at these sites. Concentrations of reactive P are generally lower during glacial times, while mass accumulation rates (MAR of reactive P show higher variability. If we extrapolate for the analyzed sites, we may assume that in general glacial burial fluxes of reactive P are lower than those during interglacial periods by about 8%, because the lack of burial of reactive P on the glacial shelf reduced in size, was apparently not compensated by burial in other regions of the ocean. Using the calculated changes in P burial, we evaluate their possible impact on the phosphate inventory in the world oceans. Using a simple mathematical approach, we find that these changes alone could have increased the phosphate inventory of glacial ocean waters by 17–40% compared to interglacial stages. Variations in the distribution of sedimentary P phases at the investigated sites seem to indicate that at the onset of interglacial stages, shallower sites experienced an increase in reactive P concentrations, which seems to point to P-richer waters at glacial terminations. All these findings would support the Shelf-Nutrient Hypothesis, which assumes that during glacial low stands nutrients are transferred from shallow sites

  10. ) Sediment petrographic characterisation and diagenetic pathways of the Miocene Agbada sandstone, Niger delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaegbobi, I. M; Gaupp, R.; Fischer, C.

    2003-01-01

    Combined petrophysical and petrographic investigations of he Agbada sandstone interbeds has been undertaken in order to determine the controlling factors on the reservoir quality of he paralic sandstone facies. Well logs, petrophysical data and a set of core samples from two wells located in the eastern onshore of he Niger delta spanning a depth interval of 3200 to 330m, formed the basic material for the present study. Four sandstone and siltstone facies units ranging form coastal bar sands through transgressive sands to marine claystones were identified based on petrophysical log signatures. Thin section analysis of a selected set of sandstone samples revealed essentially a unimodal, homogeneous grain size distribution of the detrital mineral components. Quantitative assessment of the mineralogical composition using point count method (300 points) revealed the predominance of dring. etrital quartz (85%) over feldspar minerals (9%) and lithic fragments (6%). A database generated from the point counting of the sandstones provided a broad perspective to the relative variations of the intergranular porosities (28%), cementation and matrix. These are remarkable indicators for low compaction. Authigenic kaoline and illite were identified. The partial leaching of detrital feldspars are responsible for the low percentages of intragranular volume (secondary porosity). The main controlling factor on the high porosity can be traced to either low compactional effects (overpressure?) or total leaching of unknown early cements. We suggest that the excellent reservoir properties of the Agbada sandstones are due to under compaction, caused by continuous long-term over pressuring

  11. Effects of Heating Rate on the Dynamic Tensile Mechanical Properties of Coal Sandstone during Thermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of coal layered combustion and the heat injection rate on adjacent rock were examined in the process of underground coal gasification and coal-bed methane mining. Dynamic Brazilian disk tests were conducted on coal sandstone at 800°C and slow cooling from different heating rates by means of a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB test system. It was discovered that thermal conditions had significant effects on the physical and mechanical properties of the sandstone including longitudinal wave velocity, density, and dynamic linear tensile strength; as the heating rates increased, the thermal expansion of the sandstone was enhanced and the damage degree increased. Compared with sandstone at ambient temperature, the fracture process of heat-treated sandstone was more complicated. After thermal treatment, the specimen had a large crack in the center and cracks on both sides caused by loading; the original cracks grew and mineral particle cracks, internal pore geometry, and other defects gradually appeared. With increasing heating rates, the microscopic fracture mode transformed from ductile fracture to subbrittle fracture. It was concluded that changes in the macroscopic mechanical properties of the sandstone were result from changes in the composition and microstructure.

  12. Temperature effect on microstructure and P-wave propagation in Linyi sandstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hui; Sun, Qiang; Deng, Wenni; Zhang, Weiqiang; Lü, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Mass loss rate, P-wave velocity change rate and damage factor increase exponentially as temperatures rise. • The damage threshold temperature of sandstone samples is 300 °C and limit temperature is 900 °C. • P-wave velocity change rate of sandstone exhibits excellent linearity with mass loss rate. • Damage factor can be well expressed by mass loss rate. - Abstract: In order to study the effect of high temperature on the sandstone, scanning electron microscope (SEM) experiments and primary wave (P-wave) velocity tests have been carried out on sandstone specimens heated to different temperature. The results showed that: (1) the mass loss rate increases exponentially with the increase of temperature and reaches 2.97% at 900 °C; (2) the P-wave velocity change rate increases exponentially with the increase of temperature while there is some fluctuation before 500 °C; (3) the damage threshold temperature of sandstone samples is 300 °C and the limit temperature is 900 °C; (4) there is a good linear relationship between the mass loss rate and the P-wave velocity change rate, and the correlation coefficient (R) of the fitting line is 0.989; (5) the damage caused by high temperature can be reflected better by the mass loss rate than P-wave velocity change rate. The results obtained in this paper will be good for predicting the properties of sandstone when exposed to high temperature.

  13. Characteristics and model of sandstone type uranium deposit in south of Songliao basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wenbin; Yu Zhenqing

    2010-01-01

    Through analyzing the uranium deposit tectonic environment, upper cretaceous sequence stratigraphy, depositional system, evolutionary characteristics of sand bodies, the effect of subsequent transformation and the characteristic of uranium deposit, the sandstone type uranium deposit in southern basin is different from typical interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposit. The formation and evolution of sandstone-type uranium deposit are controlled by structure fensters; the favorable sedimentary facies type is braided river facies, and the ore body is braided river sand body. The size of uranium deposits is controlled by the local oxidation zone with the characteristics of sandstone type uranium deposit in partial oxidation zone. Uranium ore bodies which distribute in the roof wings of structure fenstes, and occur in gray layers between the upper and lower oxidation zone, showing tabular, and the plate of uranium ore body is controlled by the local oxidation zone. Based on the geological features of sandstone-type uranium deposits, the metallogenic model of local oxidation zones sandstone-type uranium deposits has been set up in the south of Songliao Baisn. (authors)

  14. Geohydrology of the Navajo sandstone in western Kane, southwestern Garfield, and southeastern Iron counties, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freethey, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    The upper Navajo and Lamb Point aquifers in the Navajo Sandstone are the principal source of water for the city of Kanab, irrigation, stock, and for rural homes in the study area. Well logs and outcrop descriptions indicate the Navajo Sandstone consists of the Lamb Point Tongue and an unnamed upper member that are separated by the Tenney Canyon Tongue of the Kayenta Formation. The main Kayenta Formation underlies the Lamb Point Tongue. The Lamb Point Tongue and the upper member of the Navajo Sandstone are saturated and hydraulically connected through the Tenney Canyon Tongue. Available data indicate that precipitation percolates to the groundwater reservoir where the Navajo Sandstone crops out. Estimates of the rate of recharge at the outcrop range from 0.1 to as much as 2.8 in/yr. Water level data indicate that water moves from the upper member of the Navajo Sandstone, through the Tenney Canyon Tongue, and into the Lamb Point Tongue. Lateral flow is generally from the outcrop areas toward the incised canyons formed by tributaries of Kanab Creek and Johnson Wash. Direction and rate of groundwater movement and the location and character of the natural hydrologic boundaries in the northern part of the area where the Navajo Sandstone is buried cannot be determined conclusively without additional water level data. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Decontamination and decommissioning regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, F.A.; Smith, R.F.; Phillips, S.J.

    1979-03-01

    The Hanford 300 Area Burial Grounds characterization project has identified four management alternatives for disposition of the burial grounds. These alternatives are: (1) abandonment, (2) entombment, (3) perpetual care, and (4) exhumation and translocation. Major Federal statutes and regulations that could apply to management alternatives are identified along with the constraints that applicable laws could impose. This analysis includes explicit attention to the uncertainty surrounding various legal constraints. Also specified are legislative developments as well as trends in other agencies and the courts, obtained by review of legislative proceedings, statutes and regulations, that could result in legislation or policies posing additional constraints

  16. Novel experiments for understanding the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    Data on the basic processes that occur in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes are needed to engineer facilities with guaranteed performance, to validate models for system predictions, and to provide input to models that consider contaminant pathways out of the facility. Two types of novel experiments that will provide experimental data on the basic processes in shallow land burial facilities are described in this paper. Generic experiments that give data on the movement of water and radionuclides and an experiment that is particularly important for semi-arid sites are described

  17. Determination of burial dose in incompletely bleached fluvial samples using single grains of quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, A.S.; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    We determine the burial dose in three known-age incompletely bleached fluvial samples using single grains of quartz. Estimation of burial dose in incompletely bleached samples requires that the characteristics of the well-bleached part of the distribution are known in order to distinguish between...... well-bleached and poorly bleached grains. It is especially important to investigate if the uncertainties assigned to individual estimates of dose adequately describe the observed variability in well-bleached dose distributions. We investigate this by quantifying the overdispersion in laboratory-bleached...

  18. Limits for the burial of the Department of Energy transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Potential limits for the shallow earth burial of transuranic elements were examined by simplified models of the individual pathways to man. Pathways examined included transport to surface steams, transport to ground water, intrusion, and people living on the burial ground area after the wastes have surfaced. Limits are derived for each pathway and operational limits are suggested based upon a dose to the organ receiving the maximum dose rate of 0.5 rem/y after 70 years of exposure for the maximum exposed individual

  19. Limits for the burial of the Department of Energy transuranic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1979-01-15

    Potential limits for the shallow earth burial of transuranic elements were examined by simplified models of the individual pathways to man. Pathways examined included transport to surface steams, transport to ground water, intrusion, and people living on the burial ground area after the wastes have surfaced. Limits are derived for each pathway and operational limits are suggested based upon a dose to the organ receiving the maximum dose rate of 0.5 rem/y after 70 years of exposure for the maximum exposed individual.

  20. Composition and origin of Early Cambrian Tiantaishan phosphorite-Mn carbonate ores, Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, J.R.; Fan, D.; Ye, J.; Liu, T.; Yeh, H.-W.

    1999-01-01

    The Tiantaishan phosphorite-Mn carbonate ores occur in the Early Cambrian Tananpo Formation in complexly folded and faulted rocks located in southern Shaanxi Province. About 65 x 106 tonnes of 17% P2O5 ore reserves exist and Mn-ore reserves are about 8.3 x 106 tonnes of +18% Mn. The stratigraphic sequence in ascending order consists of black phyllite, black to gray phosphorite ore, black phyllite, rhodochrostone ore, Mn mixed-carbonates, and dolostone. Data are presented from microprobe mineral chemistry, whole-rock chemistry, stable isotopes of carbonates, X-ray mineralogy, petrographic and SEM observations, and statistical analysis of chemical data. The dominant ore-forming minerals are hydroxy- and carbonate fluorapatite and Ca rhodochrosite, with Mg kutnahorite and dolomite comprising the Mn mixed-carbonate section. Pyrite occurs in all rock types and alabandite (MnS) occurs throughout the rhodochrostone section. The mean P2O5 content of phosphorite is 31% and argillaceous phosphorite is 16%, while the mean MnO content of rhodochrostone ore is 37%. Phosphorite ores are massive, spheroidal, laminated, and banded, while rhodochrostone ores have oolitic, spheroidal, and granular fabrics. The most distinguishing characteristics of the ores are high total organic carbon (TOC) contents (mean 8.4%) in the phosphorite and high P2O5 contents (mean 2.7%) in the rhodochrostone ore. The atypically high TOC contents in the Tiantaishan phosphorite probably result from very strong productivity leading to high sedimentation rates accompanied by weak reworking of sediments; poor utilization of the organic matter by bacteria; and/or partial replacement of bacterial or algal mats by the apatite. The depositional setting of the ores was the margin of an epicontinental seaway created as a direct consequence of global processes that included break-up of a supercontinent, formation of narrow seaways, creation of extensive continental shelves, overturn of stagnant, metal-rich deep

  1. 77 FR 64361 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste Burial Facilities AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level... for low-level waste. DATES: Submit comments by November 15, 2012. Comments received after this date...

  2. Effects of sand burial and seed size on seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling biomass of anabasis aphylla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.T.; Chu, G.M.; Jiang, P.; Wang, M.

    2017-01-01

    Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to test the effects of sand burial (0-2 cm) and seed size (small, medium and large) on seed germination and seedling growth of Anabasis aphylla, which is typically used as a windbreak and for the fixation of sand in the Gurbantunggut desert of Xinjiang, region of northwest China. The results showed that sand burial significantly affected seed germination, seedling emergence, survival and biomass of A. aphylla. The seed germination rate, seedling emergence rate, seedling survival rate and biomass were highest at the 0.2 and 0.5 cm sand burial depths. At different burial depths, different sizes of A. aphylla seed showed a significant difference in the germination and emergence rate. At the same sand burial depth, the seedling emergence rate of the large seeds was significantly higher than that of medium and small seeds. At sand burial depth of 0.2-2 cm, germination of large seeds and seedling survival rates were significantly higher than those at the same sand burial depth for medium seed germination, and the latter was significantly higher than for small seed. We speculate that tolerance to sand burial and diversity of seed size increased the adaption of A. aphylla to this environment, contributing to its dominance in the windy and sandy area of Gurbantunggut desert. (author)

  3. System analysis of shallow land burial. Volume 2: technical background. Technical report, 26 November 1979-23 January 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.; Buckley, D.; Donelson, S.; Dura, V.; Hecht, M.

    1981-03-01

    This is volume two of a three volume set detailing the activities and results of the System Analysis of Shallow Land Burial Project. Activities under four project tasks are described: Task 1 - Identify Potential Radionuclide Release Pathways, Task 2 - Systems Model for Shallow Land Burial of Low-Level Waste, Task 3 - Sensitivity and Optimization Study and Task 4 - Reference Facility Dose Assessment

  4. TOUGHREACT Testing in High Ionic Strength Brine Sandstone Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tianfu

    2008-01-01

    Deep saline formations and oil and gas reservoirs often contain concentrated brine solutions of ionic strength greater than 1 (I > 1 M). Geochemical modeling, involving high ionic strength brines, is a challenge. In the original TOUGHREACT code (Xu et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2006), activity coefficients of charged aqueous species are computed using an extended Debye-Huckel (DH) equation and parameters derived by Helgeson et al. (1981). The DH model can deal with ionic strengths from dilute to moderately saline water (up to 6 molal for an NaCl-dominant solution). The equations implemented for the DH model are presented in Appendix A. During the course of the Yucca Mountain project, a Pitzer ion-interaction model was implemented into TOUGHREACT. This allows the application of this simulator to problems involving much more concentrated aqueous solutions, such as those involving geochemical processes in and around high-level nuclear waste repositories where fluid evaporation and/or boiling is expected to occur (Zhang et al., 2007). The Pitzer ion-interaction model, which we refer to as the Pitzer virial approach, and associated ion-interaction parameters have been applied successfully to study non-ideal concentrated aqueous solutions. The formulation of the Pitzer model is presented in Appendix B; detailed information can be founded in Zhang et al. (2007). For CO 2 geological sequestration, the Pitzer ion-interaction model for highly concentrated brines was incorporated into TOUGHREACT/ECO2N, then was tested and compared with a previously implemented extended Debye-Hueckel (DH) ion activity model. The comparison was made through a batch geochemical system using a Gulf Coast sandstone saline formation

  5. Laboratory-determined transport properties of Berea sandstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily, W.D.; Lin, W.

    1985-01-01

    The authors report laboratory measurements of electrical resistivity water permeability k, and compressional wave velocity V/sub p/ for both intact and fractured Berea sandstone samples as functions of temperature from 20 C to 200 C and effective pressure P/sub e/ from 2.5 MPa to 50 MPa. For the intact sample, V/sub p/ increases from 3.52 km/s to 4.16 km/s as P/sub e/ goes from 3 to 50 MPa. With increasing temperature, V/sub p/ decreases at rates of about 3% per 100 C at P/sub e/ of 5 MPa and about 1.5% per 100 C at P/sub e/ of 38 MPa. Data from the fractured sample are qualitatively similar, but velocities are about 10% lower. For both intact and fractured samples, p increases less than 15% as P/sub e/ increases from 2.5 MPa to 50 MPa. Although both samples show a larger decrease in resistivity with increasing temperature, most of this change is attributed to the decrease in resistivity of the pore fluid over that temperature range. For both samples, k decreases with increasing pressure and temperature. The intact sample permeability varies from 23 mD at 3 MPa and 20 C to less than 1 mD at 50 MPa and 150 C. The permeability of the fractured sample varies from 676 mD at 3 MPa and 20 C to less than 1 mD at 40 MPa and 190 C. The effect of the fracture on k vanishes after several pressure cycles and above about 100 C. These laboratory data are used to demonstrate the possibility of using resistivity and velocity measurements to estimate in-situ permeability of a reservoir. 25 references, 10 figures

  6. The influence of clay minerals on acoustic properties of sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Olav

    1997-12-31

    This thesis aims to provide better understanding of the relationship between the acoustic properties and the petrophysical/mineralogical properties in sand-prone rock. It emphasizes the influence of clay minerals. The author develops a method to deposit clay minerals/mineral aggregates in pore space of a rigid rock framework. Kaolinite aggregates were flushed into porous permeable Bentheimer sandstone to evaluate the effect of pore filling minerals on porosity, permeability and acoustic properties. The compressional velocity was hardly affected by the clay content and it was found that the effect of minor quantities of pore filling minerals may be acoustically modelled as an ideal suspension, where the pore fluid bulk modulus is modified by the bulk modulus of the clay minerals. The influence of clays on acoustic velocities in petroleum reservoir rocks was investigated through ultrasonic measurements of compressional- and shear-waves on core material from reservoir and non-reservoir units on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The measured velocities decrease as the porosity increases, but are not strongly dependent on the clay content. The measured velocities are less dependent on the petrophysical and lithological properties than indicated by previous authors and published mathematical models, and stiffness reduction factors are introduced in two of the models to better match the data. Velocities are estimated along the wellbores based on non-sonic well logs and reflect well the actual sonic log well measurements. In some wells the compressional velocity cannot be modelled correctly by the models suggested. Very high compressional wave anisotropy was measured in the dry samples at atmospheric conditions. As the samples were saturated, the anisotropy was reduced to a maximum of about 30% and decreases further upon pressurization. Reservoir rocks retrieved from 2500 m are more stress dependent than those retrieved from less than 200 m depth. 168 refs., 117 figs., 24

  7. GREYBULL SANDSTONE PETROLEUM POTENTIAL ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Lopez

    2000-12-14

    Evaluation of the Lower Cretaceous Greybull Sandstone on the Crow Indian Reservation for potential stratigraphic traps in the valley-fill sandstone was the focus of this project. The Crow Reservation area, located in south-central Montana, is part of the Rocky Mountain Foreland structural province, which is characterized by Laramide uplifts and intervening structural basins. The Pryor and Bighorn mountains, like other foreland uplifts, are characterized by asymmetrical folds associated with basement-involved reverse faults. The reservation area east of the mountains is on the northwestern flank of the Powder River Basin. Therefore, regional dips are eastward and southeastward; however, several prominent structural features interrupt these regional dips. The nearly 4,000 mi{sup 2} reservation is under explored but has strong potential for increased oil and gas development. Oil and gas production is well established in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to the south as well as in the areas north and west of the reservation. However, only limited petroleum production has been established within the reservation. Geologic relations and trends indicate strong potential for oil and gas accumulations, but drilling has been insufficient for their discovery. The Greybull Sandstone, which is part of the transgressive systems tract that includes the overlying Fall River Sandstone, was deposited on a major regional unconformity. The erosional surface at the base of the Greybull Sandstone is the +100 Ma, late Aptian-Early Albian regional unconformity of Weimer (1984). This lowstand erosional surface was controlled by a basin-wide drop in sea level. In areas where incised Greybull channels are absent, the lowstand erosional unconformity is at the base of the Fall River Sandstone and equivalent formations. During the pre-Greybull lowstand, sediment bypassed this region. In the subsequent marine transgression, streams began to aggrade and deposit sand of the lower Greybull Sandstone

  8. ANALYSIS OF OIL-BEARING CRETACEOUS SANDSTONE HYDROCARBON RESERVOIRS, EXCLUSIVE OF THE DAKOTA SANDSTONE, ON THE JICARILLA APACHE INDIAN RESERVATION, NEW MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennie Ridgley

    2000-01-01

    An additional 450 wells were added to the structural database; there are now 2550 wells in the database with corrected tops on the Juana Lopez, base of the Bridge Creek Limestone, and datum. This completes the structural data base compilation. Fifteen oil and five gas fields from the Mancos-ElVado interval were evaluated with respect to the newly defined sequence stratigraphic model for this interval. The five gas fields are located away from the structural margins of the deep part of the San Juan Basin. All the fields have characteristics of basin-centered gas and can be considered as continuous gas accumulations as recently defined by the U.S. Geological Survey. Oil production occurs in thinly interbedded sandstone and shale or in discrete sandstone bodies. Production is both from transgressive and regressive strata as redefined in this study. Oil production is both stratigraphically and structurally controlled with production occurring along the Chaco slope or in steeply west-dipping rocks along the east margin of the basin. The ElVado Sandstone of subsurface usage is redefined to encompass a narrower interval; it appears to be more time correlative with the Dalton Sandstone. Thus, it was deposited as part of a regressive sequence, in contrast to the underlying rock units which were deposited during transgression

  9. Extensional tectonics and sedimentary response of the Early–Middle Cambrian passive continental margin, Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqian Gao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The fact that several half-grabens and normal faults developed in the Lower–Middle Cambrian of Tazhong (central Tarim Basin and Bachu areas in Tarim Basin, northwest China, indicates that Tarim Basin was under extensional tectonic setting at this time. The half-grabens occur within a linear zone and the normal faults are arranged in en echelon patterns with gradually increasing displacement eastward. Extensional tectonics resulted in the formation of a passive continental margin in the southwest and a cratonic margin depression in the east, and most importantly, influenced the development of a three-pronged rift in the northeast margin of the Tarim Basin. The fault system controlled the development of platform – slope – bathyal facies sedimentation of mainly limestone-dolomite-gypsum rock-saline rock-red beds in the half-grabens. The NW-SE trending half-grabens reflect the distribution of buried basement faults.

  10. Lower Cambrian-Ediacaran Paleogeography and True Polar Wander with New Paleomagnetic Constraints from West African Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, B.; Besse, J.; Blein, O.; Greff-Lefftz, M.; Baudin, T.; Fernando, L.; Meslouh, S.; Belbadaoui, M.

    2014-12-01

    Paleomagnetic data from Laurentia and Baltica continents suggest fast large oscillations of the virtual geomagnetic poles (VGP) from high to low latitudes during the Ediacaran (635-542 Ma). These data are interpreted in the literature either as oscillations of the Earth magnetic dipole between polar and equatorial positions, or as True Polar Wander (TPW), implying a very fast tumbling of continents and perhaps, of whole Earth. In this study, we try to test these hypotheses by bringing new paleomagnetic data on volcanic series from another continent, the West African Craton (WAC). We have sampled well dated pyroclastic and lava flows from the Ouarzazate and Taroudant groups in the Anti-Atlas, (Morocco). 480 samples from 105 sites were thermally demagnetized in our laboratory. Our preliminary results highlight two major groups of directions, mainly carried by hematite, magnetite also contributing sometimes to the magnetization. The first group consists of a dual polarity high inclination direction that may represent the original magnetization. The observed paleolatitude is compatible with that predicted by the lower Cambrian-Ediacaran apparent polar wander path (APWP) of Gondwana, assuming that the WAC was already accreted to Gondwana at this age. Nevertheless, a complete agreement between our pole and the APWP needs a local rotation of around 80° on a vertical axis. The second group displays a single polarity direction, with a shallow inclination and a south-east declination. This direction is close to the expected direction derived from the Permo-Carboniferous segment of the Gondwana APWP, and may represent a remagnetization acquired during the Kiaman reversed polarity superchron. Our preliminary paleomagnetic results thus display large changes in the VGP position, as also evidenced by others on Baltica and Laurentia. However, their interpretation does not favor TPW episodes or equatorial Earth magnetic dipole during the lower Cambrian-Ediacaran periods, but

  11. The sedimentary facies characteristics and lithofacies palaeogeography during Middle-Late Cambrian, Sichuan Basin and adjacent area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifan Lu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined with the regional strata filling characteristics of Middle-Upper Cambrian, the present paper conducts a systematic research on sedimentary facies in the basin and its peripheral area by utilizing 164 field outcrops and drilling and coring data. Further, the method of “multi-factor comprehensive synthesis based on single-factor analysis” was employed to investigate the sedimentary facies and palaeogeography of the study area and establish the sedimentary facies model. Stratigraphic reveals that the study area represents the pattern of thin-northwest and thick-southeast by stretching northeast-southwest. Within the present basin, the pattern of “one thin and two thick” predominates, while outside the basin “four thin and three thick” filling feature was found. Sedimentary facies shows that the study area was featured by rimmed carbonate platform. Specifically, carbonate platform, slope and northeastern corner Qinling paleooceanic Basin and southeastern corner Jiangnan Bain was identified from the west to the east. The carbonate platform contains restricted platform, evaporation-restricted platform, semi-restricted platform and the platform margin. Single factor analysis and lithofacies palaeogeographic characteristics manifests that during Middle-Late Cambrian, the western Old land evolved into peneplain stage, and that the eastern and southwestern sub-sags remained connected to the open-sea to some extent. At the time, the shllow seawater circulation was relatively restricted, while the ancient seabed tended to be flat and evaporation characteristics significantly diminished. Secondary sea-level fluctuation intensively influenced the development of scaled grain beach. It is suggested that tide marginal beach, intraplatform shoal subfacies zone, along with Shiqian-SangZhi in southeast and Zhenba-Xinshan in northeast platform-margin beach subfacies zone to be preferable targets for the favorable reservoir facies zone and

  12. Morphology and ultrastructure of epilithic versus cryptic, microbial growth in lower Cambrian phosphorites from the Montagne Noire, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, J J; Clausen, S

    2010-03-01

    The lower Cambrian grainy phosphorites of the northern Montagne Noire occur interbedded with grey to black, laminated to massive shales and limestones deposited along the edge of a continental shelf, associated with slope-related facies and unstable substrates. The concentration of phosphate took place by repeated alternations of low sedimentation rates and condensation (hardgrounds), in situ early-diagenetic precipitation of fluorapatite, winnowing and polyphase reworking of previously phosphatized skeletons and hardground-derived clasts. The succession of repeated cycles of sedimentation, phosphate concentration, and reworking led to multi-event phosphate deposits rich in allochthonous particles. Phosphogenesis was primarily mediated by microbial activity, which is evidenced by the abundance of phosphatized putative microbial remains. These occur as smooth and segmented filaments, sheaths, and ovoid-shaped coccoids. These simple morphologies commonly form composite frameworks as a result of their aggregation and entanglement, leading to the record of biofilms, microbial mats, and complex networks. These infested the calcitic skeletonized microfossils that littered the substrate. Microbial activity evidences epilithic (anisotropic coatings on skeletons), euendolithic (perforating skeletal walls), and cryptoendolithic (lining inter- and intraparticulate pores) strategies, the latter dominated by bundles of filaments and globular clusters that grew along the cavities of helcionellids and hyoliths. According to their epilithic versus cryptic strategies, microbial populations that penetrated and dwelled inside hard skeletal substrates show different network and colonial morphologies. These early Cambrian shell concentrations were the loci of a stepwise colonization made by saprophytic to mutualistic, cyanobacterial-fungal consortia. Their euendolithic and cryptoendolithic ecological niches provided microbial refugia to manage the grazing impact mainly led by metazoans.

  13. Sedimentological reservoir characteristics of the Paleocene fluvial/lacustrine Yabus Sandstone, Melut Basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahgoub, M. I.; Padmanabhan, E.; Abdullatif, O. M.

    2016-11-01

    Melut Basin in Sudan is regionally linked to the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Central and Western African Rift System (CWARS). The Paleocene Yabus Formation is the main oil producing reservoir in the basin. It is dominated by channel sandstone and shales deposited in fluvial/lacustrine environment during the third phase of rifting in the basin. Different scales of sedimentological heterogeneities influenced reservoir quality and architecture. The cores and well logs analyses revealed seven lithofacies representing fluvial, deltaic and lacustrine depositional environments. The sandstone is medium to coarse-grained, poorly to moderately-sorted and sub-angular to sub-rounded, arkosic-subarkosic to sublitharenite. On the basin scale, the Yabus Formation showed variation in sandstone bodies, thickness, geometry and architecture. On macro-scale, reservoir quality varies vertically and laterally within Yabus Sandstone where it shows progressive fining upward tendencies with different degrees of connectivity. The lower part of the reservoir showed well-connected and amalgamated sandstone bodies, the middle to the upper parts, however, have moderate to low sandstone bodies' connectivity and amalgamation. On micro-scale, sandstone reservoir quality is directly affected by textures and diagenetic changes such as compaction, cementation, alteration, dissolution and kaolinite clays pore fill and coat all have significantly reduced the reservoir porosity and permeability. The estimated porosity in Yabus Formation ranges from 2 to 20% with an average of 12%; while permeability varies from 200 to 500 mD and up to 1 Darcy. The understanding of different scales of sedimentological reservoir heterogeneities might contribute to better reservoir quality prediction, architecture, consequently enhancing development and productivity.

  14. Coastal dune facies, Permian Cutler Formation (White Rim Sandstone), Capitol Reef National Park area, southern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamola, Diane L.; Chan, Marjorie A.

    1988-04-01

    The Permian Cutler Formation (White Rim Sandstone) in the Capitol Reef National Park area in southern Utah is an excellent example of a coastal dune complex subjected to periodic flooding by marine waters. Wind-ripple, grainfall and grainflow laminae compose the cross-sets deposited by eolian dunes. However, wave-reworked structures such as oscillation ripples, the occurrence of the characteristically marine trace fossils Thalassinoides and Chondrites, and interfingering marine carbonate beds of the Kaibab Formation collectively indicate marine interaction with the eolian environment. Four facies are distinguished: cross-stratified sandstone, burrowed to bioturbated sandstone, brecciated and deformed sandstone, and ripple-laminated sandstone and thin carbonate beds. One unusual aspect of the cross-stratified sandstone facies is the abundance of coarse-grained sand. Coarse-grained sand is atypical in many ancient eolian slipface deposits, but occurs here in large slipface foresets as both grainflow and wind-ripple deposits. No water-laid structures are found in these slipface deposits. Coarse-grained sand was probably transported to the Cutler shoreline by fluvial systems draining the Uncompahgre Uplift to the east, and then concentrated as coarse-grained ripples in interdune areas. Some of these coarse-grained ripples migrated up the stoss side of the dunes and accumulations of coarse-grained sand avalanched down the crest to form grainflow deposits. An extensive amount of soft-sediment deformation is indicated by the presence of convolute bedding and brecciation. These features occur near the zone of interfingering with marine carbonate beds of the Kaibab Formation. The water-saturated and moist conditions required for extensive deformation may have been controlled by the proximity of these sandstones to the shoreline, and fluctuations in the associated groundwater table.

  15. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the 'metal line' of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  16. Natural analogue study for low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Cunli; Fan Zhiwen; Huang Yawen; Cui Anxi; Liu Xiuzheng; Zhang Jinshen

    1995-01-01

    The paper makes a comparison of low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal with Chinese ancient tombs in respects of siting, engineering structures, design principle and construction procedures. Results showed that Chinese ancient tombs are very good analogue for low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal. Long-term preservation of ancient tombs and buried objects demonstrated that low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal would be safe if suitable sites were selected, reasonable engineering structures and good backfill materials were adopted, and scientific construction procedures were followed. The paper reports for the first time the testing results of certain ancient tomb backfill materials. The results indicated that the materials have so low a permeability as 1.5 x 10 -8 cm/s , and strong adsorption to radionuclides Co and Cs with the distribution coefficients of 1.4 x 10 4 mL/g and 2.1 x 10 4 mL/g, and the retardation factors of 4.4 x 10 4 and 7.7 x 10 4 respectively. Good performance of these materials is important assurance of long-term preservation of the ancient tombs. These materials may be considered to be used as backfill materials in low-and-intermediate level radioactive shallow burial disposal. (4 figs., 10 tabs.)

  17. The distinguishing characteristics of interlayer oxidation zone and burial ancient ground oxidation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanshi; Zhou Wenbin

    1998-01-01

    The author discusses the main characteristics of interlayer oxidation zones and the burial ancient ground oxidation zones of Uranium deposit No. 512 in Xinjiang Uigur municipality. The epigenetic genesis, depending on some aquifer, the tongue-like in section, having the zonation along dip direction and having certain mineral assemblage are the typical features for interlayer oxidation zones

  18. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site, Fleming County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehner, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Burial trenches at the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site cover an area of about 20 acres, and are located on a plateau, about 300 to 400 feet above surrounding valleys. All waste is buried in the Nancy Member of the Borden Formation, and most is in the weathered shale (regolith) part of this member. Recharge to the rocks is probably by infiltration of rainfall through regolith at the top of the hill. At least two water tables are present: near the base of the regolith, at a depth of about 25 feet and; in the Ohio Shale, at a depth of about 300 feet. About 95 percent of ground-water discharge to streams is from colluvium on hillsides and valley alluvium. The remaining 5 percent is discharge from bedrock, of which about 0.5 percent is from rocks underlying the burial area. Waste radionuclides in the subsurface, other than tritium, were observed only in the regolith of the Nancy Member. Only tritium was observed with certainty in deeper rocks and in the adjacent valley alluvium. Other waste radionuclides were in streamwater and stream sediment, and may have been transported with overland runoff from the surface of the burial site. (USGS)

  19. Radioactive solid waste inventories at United States Department of Energy burial and storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1987-06-01

    Radioactive solid waste inventories are given for United States Department of Energy (DOE) burial and storage sites. These data are obtained from the Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS) and reflect the inventories as of the end of the calendar year 1986. 4 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Burial customs, the afterlife and pollution of death in ancient Greece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Funerary practices in ancient Greece were influenced by contemporary views on the afterlife and by concepts of pollution, but also by a desire to limit costs and a need to prevent the process of burial from causing inconvenience to the community or providing an opportunity for exploitation by those with ulterior political ...