Sample records for cambrian impact hypothesis

  1. Tropical shoreline ice in the late Cambrian: Implications for earth's climate between the Cambrian Explosion and the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (United States)

    Runkel, Anthony C.; MacKey, T.J.; Cowan, Clinton A.; Fox, David L.


    Middle to late Cambrian time (ca. 513 to 488 Ma) is characterized by an unstable plateau in biodiversity, when depauperate shelf faunas suffered repeated extinctions. This poorly understood interval separates the Cambrian Explosion from the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event and is generally regarded as a time of sustained greenhouse conditions. We present evidence that suggests a drastically different climate during this enigmatic interval: Features indicative of meteoric ice are well preserved in late Cambrian equatorial beach deposits that correspond to one of the shelf extinction events. Thus, the middle to late Cambrian Earth was at least episodically cold and might best be considered a muted analogue to the environmental extremes that characterized the Proterozoic, even though cooling in the two periods may have occurred in response to different triggers. Such later Cambrian conditions may have significantly impacted evolution preceding the Ordovician radiation.

  2. Upper lower Cambrian (provisional Cambrian Series 2 trilobites from northwestern Gansu Province, China

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    Jan Bergström†


    Full Text Available Upper lower Cambrian (provisional Cambrian Series 2 trilobites are described from three sections through the Shuangyingshan Formation in the Beishan area, northwestern Gansu Province, China. The trilobite fauna is dominated by eodiscoid and corynexochid trilobites, together representing at least ten genera: Serrodiscus, Tannudiscus, Calodiscus, Pagetides, Kootenia, Edelsteinaspis, Ptarmiganoides?, Politinella, Dinesus and Subeia. Eleven species are described, of which seven are identified with previously described taxa and four described under open nomenclature. The composition of the fauna suggests biogeographic affinity with Siberian rather than Gondwanan trilobite faunas, and the Cambrian Series 2 faunas described herein and from elsewhere in northwestern China seem to be indicative of the marginal areas of the Siberian palaeocontinent. This suggests that the Middle Tianshan–Beishan Terrane may have been located fairly close to Siberia during middle–late Cambrian Epoch 2.

  3. Oxygen, ecology, and the Cambrian radiation of animals (United States)

    Sperling, Erik A.; Frieder, Christina A.; Raman, Akkur V.; Girguis, Peter R.; Levin, Lisa A.; Knoll, Andrew H.


    The Proterozoic-Cambrian transition records the appearance of essentially all animal body plans (phyla), yet to date no single hypothesis adequately explains both the timing of the event and the evident increase in diversity and disparity. Ecological triggers focused on escalatory predator-prey "arms races" can explain the evolutionary pattern but not its timing, whereas environmental triggers, particularly ocean/atmosphere oxygenation, do the reverse. Using modern oxygen minimum zones as an analog for Proterozoic oceans, we explore the effect of low oxygen levels on the feeding ecology of polychaetes, the dominant macrofaunal animals in deep-sea sediments. Here we show that low oxygen is clearly linked to low proportions of carnivores in a community and low diversity of carnivorous taxa, whereas higher oxygen levels support more complex food webs. The recognition of a physiological control on carnivory therefore links environmental triggers and ecological drivers, providing an integrated explanation for both the pattern and timing of Cambrian animal radiation.

  4. Paleomagnetism of a well-dated marine succession in South China: A possible Late Cambrian true polar wander (TPW) (United States)

    Jiao, Wen-Jun; Li, Yong-Xiang; Yang, Zhen-Yu


    The Cambrian true polar wander (TPW) hypothesis remains controversial largely because of the uncertainties in the quality and/or fidelity of the paleomagnetic data as well as their chronological control. Testing the TPW hypothesis requires high-quality paleomagnetic data of sufficient spatial and temporal resolutions. Here, we present paleomagnetic results of a continuous Cambrian shallow marine succession from South China where available detailed biostratigraphy provides exceptional chronological constraints. Forty-three sites of paleomagnetic samples were collected from this limestone-dominated succession. Stepwise thermal demagnetization generally reveals three-component magnetizations. Low- and intermediate-temperature components can be cleaned by ∼330 °C, and the high-temperature component (HTC) was isolated typically from ∼350 to ∼450 °C. A positive fold test and the presence of reversed polarity in the strata, together with rock magnetic data as well as the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) results, collectively suggest that the HTCs are likely primary. A directional shift of the HTCs occurs between the lower-middle Cambrian and the upper Cambrian strata in the succession and is tentatively interpreted to indicate a ∼57° polar wander from ∼500.5 to 494 Ma. Because the rate of polar wander is too fast to be a tectonic origin, this polar wander is interpreted to represent a Late Cambrian TPW. This TPW appears coeval with the Steptoean positive carbon isotope excursion (SPICE) and the major trilobite mass extinctions, suggesting a potential link between the TPW and the Late Cambrian biotic and climatic changes. Because the proposed TPW event is exceptionally well-dated, it should be testable through examination of other worldwide sections.

  5. Relationship between the Neoproterozoic snowball Earth and Cambrian explosion (United States)

    Maruyama, S.; Yoshihara, A.; Isozaki, Y.


    Origin of snowball Earth has been debated in terms of greenhouse gas (e.g., Hoffman and Schrag), obliqueness of Earth's rotation axis (Williams, 1975), true polar wander (Evans, 2003), Galactic cosmic ray radiation (Shaviv and Veizer, 2003; Svensmark, 2006), or weakened geomagnetism (Maruyama and Yoshihara, 2003). A major difficulty for the greenhouse gas hypothesis is the on-off switch causing decrease and increase of appropriate amounts of CO2 by plume- and plate tectonics, and also in available amount of CO2 in atmosphere to be consistent with the observations. In contrast, the cosmic ray radiation models due to the star burst peaked at 2.5- 2.1 Ga and 1.4-0.8 Ga can explain on-off switch more easily than the greenhouse gas model. Cosmic ray radiations, however, must be modified by the geomagnetic intensity, fluctuating 150"% to cause the snowball Earth. Time difference between the Neoproterozoic snowball Earth and Cambrian explosion is as large as 250 millions years, and this refuses their direct close-relationship. Role of frequent mass extinctions, i.e., 8 times during 100 m.y. from 585 Ma to 488 Ma, during the Ediacaran and Cambrian, has been proposed (Zhu et al., 2007). This frequency is one order of magnitude higher compared to that in the post-Ordovician time. Yet, the Cambrian explosion cannot be explained by mass extinction which replaced the vacant niches shortly after the mass extinction and never created a new animal with a new body plan. A new model proposed herein is derived from weakened geomagnetism and resultant extensive cosmic radiation to alter gene and genome for a long period over advancement of low magnetic intensity and cosmic radiations (Svensmark, 2006) from 1.2-0.8Ga. As to the new body plans of animals, it took an appreciably long time to prepare all 34 genometypes before the apparent Cambrian explosion. Geochemically extreme conditions and widened shallow marine environment on continental shelf by the return-flow of sweater into

  6. Cambrian trace fossil Zoophycos from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doucek, J.; Mikuláš, Radek


    Roč. 65, č. 6 (2014), s. 403-409 ISSN 1335-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1521 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Cambrian * Bohemian Massif * Železné hory * ichnology * marine settings * Zoophycos Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.761, year: 2014

  7. Arthropod pattern theory and Cambrian trilobites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundberg, Frederick A.


    An analysis of duplomere (= segment) distribution within the cephalon, thorax, and pygidium of Cambrian trilobites was undertaken to determine if the Arthropod Pattern Theory (APT) proposed by Schram & Emerson (1991) applies to Cambrian trilobites. The boundary of the cephalon/thorax occurs within

  8. Cambrian trilobites with Siberian affinities, southwestern Alaska

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    Palmer, A.R.; Egbert, R.M.; Sullivan, R.; Knoth, J.S.


    Cambrian trilobites occur in two levels (about 7 m apart) in the core of a large, complex anticlinal structure in the area between the Taylor Mountains and the Hoholitna River in southwestern Alaska. The lower collection contains Erbia, Macannaia (a species close to Soviet forms described as Pagetia ferox Lermontova), two species of Kootenia (including one perhaps cospecific with forms from the central Brooks range), and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. It is clear that biogeographic affinities are with the transitional facies of the eastern Siberian platform and the south Siberian foldbelt. In Soviet terms, the age of the collection falls in a disputed interval called latest Early Cambrian (Tojonian) by some authors, and earliest Middle Cambrian (Amgan) by others. In North American terms, Macannaia is known only from early Middle Cambrian beds. The younger collection contains abundant agnostids, a variety of conocoryphids, Paradoxides, and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. This is an assemblage of undoubted late Middle Cambrian age, comparable to faunas described from the Maya State of the Siberian platform and the Paradoxides paradoxissimus Stage of the Baltic region. Both faunas are from ocean-facing or outer shelf environments. None of the key non-agnostid or non-pagetiid elements have been seen previously in deposits of Cambrian North America.

  9. The Ecology of the Cambrian Radiation (United States)

    Briggs, Derek E. G.

    The Cambrian radiation is one of the most exciting and controversial events in the fossil record. It was marked by a sudden abundance of shells, the first steep rise in plots of diversity through time, and the appearance of the fabulous soft-bodied fossils of the Burgess Shale in British Columbia and elsewhere in the world. The Cambrian radiation was also the subject of Steve Gould's Wonderful Life and Simon Conway Morris's Crucible of Creation.. The Ecology of the Cambrian Radiation is a long-awaited compilation that tackles one of the more impenetrable parts of the story. Interpretations of ecology are, after all, characteristically equivocal in rocks of this age.

  10. Disparity, decimation and the Cambrian "explosion": comparison of early Cambrian and Present faunal communities with emphasis on velvet worms (Onychophora

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    Julián Monge-Nájera


    community structure was generalized during the Cambrian, and even biodiversity and equitability indices were surprisingly close to modern values; (2 the morphological diversity and geographic distribution of onychophorans indicate a significant pre-Cambrian evolutionary history which does not support the "explosion" hypothesis; (3 disparity among phyla was not as important as the explosion-decimation model predicts, but in the case of onychophorans, disparity within the phylum was greater than it is today and its reduction may have been associated with migration into the sediment when large predators evolved.Con base en nuevos hallazgos paleontológicos hechos en el sur de China se analiza la controversia sobre la "explosión del Cámbrico" que supuestamente incluyó un gran aumento en la diversidad morfológica, con la aparición de muchos filos que posteriormente se extinguieron. Se compara las comunidades fósiles de Cheng-yiang (China y Burgess Shale (Canadá con una comunidad marina similar moderna (Punta Morales, Costa Rica y con una comunidad terrestre moderna (Coronado, Costa Rica que al igual que los dos depósitos fosilíferos incluye al filo Onychophora. Se concluye que (1 durante el Cámbrico las comunidades costeras tropicales eran similares a las modernas al punto de que incluso los índices de biodiversidad y equitabilidad eran semejantes a los actuales; (2 la diversidad morfológica y distribución geográfica de los onicóforos indican una larga historia evolutiva precámbrica que no apoya el modelo de la "explosión"; (3 las diferencias morfológicas entre filos no eran tan importantes como predice el modelo de "explosión seguida de extinción", pero en la caso de los onicóforos, la diversidad morfológica dentro del filo era mayor en el Cámbrico que en la actualidad, y su reducción puede haber estado asociada con la migración al interior del sedimento al evolucionar mayores depredadores.

  11. Arachnostega Bertling, 1992 in the Drumian (Cambrian) sediments of the Teplá-Barrandian region (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fatka, O.; Mikuláš, Radek; Szabad, M.; Micka, V.; Valent, M.


    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2011), s. 367-381 ISSN 0001-5709 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/0395; GA ČR GA205/09/1521 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Cambrian * Teplá-Barrandian region * ichnofossils * Jince Formation * Buchava Formation * Arachnostega * Cambrian (Czech Republic) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.565, year: 2011

  12. Tests of the Giant Impact Hypothesis (United States)

    Jones, J. H.


    The giant impact hypothesis has gained popularity as a means of explaining a volatile-depleted Moon that still has a chemical affinity to the Earth. As Taylor's Axiom decrees, the best models of lunar origin are testable, but this is difficult with the giant impact model. The energy associated with the impact would be sufficient to totally melt and partially vaporize the Earth. And this means that there should he no geological vestige of Barber times. Accordingly, it is important to devise tests that may be used to evaluate the giant impact hypothesis. Three such tests are discussed here. None of these is supportive of the giant impact model, but neither do they disprove it.

  13. The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis: A critical review

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    van Hoesel, A.; Hoek, W.Z.; Pennock, G.M.; Drury, Martyn


    The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis suggests that multiple extraterrestrial airbursts or impacts resulted in the Younger Dryas cooling, extensive wildfires, megafaunal extinctions and changes in human population. After the hypothesis was first published in 2007, it gained much criticism, as the

  14. The oldest brachiopods from the lower cambrian of South Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topper, Timothy Paul; Holmer, Lars E.; Skovsted, Christian B.


    The morphology and organophosphatic shell structure of the paterinate brachiopod Askepasma is documented using new and previously collected specimens from the lower Cambrian of South Australia. Lack of adequately preserved material has seen the majority of paterinate specimens previously reported...... from South Australia referred to the genus Askepasma and treated under open nomenclature. Large collections of paterinates from the lower Cambrian Wilkawillina, Ajax, and Wirrapowie limestones in the Arrowie Basin, South Australia have prompted redescription of the type species Askepasma toddense...... and the erection of a new species, Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. currently represents the oldest known brachiopod from the lower Cambrian successions in South Australia with a FAD in pre-trilobitic (Terreneuvian, Cambrian Stage 2, lower Atdabanian) strata in the basal part...

  15. Upper Cambrian (Furongian) biostratigraphy in Scandinavia revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj; Weidner, Thomas; Terfelt, Fredrik


    The traditional Furongian trilobite biozones of Scandinavia, recently proposed abandoned due to inconsistent boundary definitions [Terfelt, F., Eriksson, M.E., Ahlberg, P. & Babcock, L.E., 2008: Furongian Series (Cambrian) biostratigraphy of Scandinavia – a revision. Norwegian Journal of Geology88...... the Protopeltura and Peltura superzones, respectively. Accordingly, all Furongian superzones have a uniform naming style referring to a characteristic genus. The six Furongian superzones currently comprise 27 trilobite zones. The Paradoxides forchhammeri Superzone (Cambrian Series 3) is extended upwards...

  16. Compilation and network analyses of cambrian food webs.

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    Jennifer A Dunne


    Full Text Available A rich body of empirically grounded theory has developed about food webs--the networks of feeding relationships among species within habitats. However, detailed food-web data and analyses are lacking for ancient ecosystems, largely because of the low resolution of taxa coupled with uncertain and incomplete information about feeding interactions. These impediments appear insurmountable for most fossil assemblages; however, a few assemblages with excellent soft-body preservation across trophic levels are candidates for food-web data compilation and topological analysis. Here we present plausible, detailed food webs for the Chengjiang and Burgess Shale assemblages from the Cambrian Period. Analyses of degree distributions and other structural network properties, including sensitivity analyses of the effects of uncertainty associated with Cambrian diet designations, suggest that these early Paleozoic communities share remarkably similar topology with modern food webs. Observed regularities reflect a systematic dependence of structure on the numbers of taxa and links in a web. Most aspects of Cambrian food-web structure are well-characterized by a simple "niche model," which was developed for modern food webs and takes into account this scale dependence. However, a few aspects of topology differ between the ancient and recent webs: longer path lengths between species and more species in feeding loops in the earlier Chengjiang web, and higher variability in the number of links per species for both Cambrian webs. Our results are relatively insensitive to the exclusion of low-certainty or random links. The many similarities between Cambrian and recent food webs point toward surprisingly strong and enduring constraints on the organization of complex feeding interactions among metazoan species. The few differences could reflect a transition to more strongly integrated and constrained trophic organization within ecosystems following the rapid

  17. Compilation and network analyses of cambrian food webs. (United States)

    Dunne, Jennifer A; Williams, Richard J; Martinez, Neo D; Wood, Rachel A; Erwin, Douglas H


    A rich body of empirically grounded theory has developed about food webs--the networks of feeding relationships among species within habitats. However, detailed food-web data and analyses are lacking for ancient ecosystems, largely because of the low resolution of taxa coupled with uncertain and incomplete information about feeding interactions. These impediments appear insurmountable for most fossil assemblages; however, a few assemblages with excellent soft-body preservation across trophic levels are candidates for food-web data compilation and topological analysis. Here we present plausible, detailed food webs for the Chengjiang and Burgess Shale assemblages from the Cambrian Period. Analyses of degree distributions and other structural network properties, including sensitivity analyses of the effects of uncertainty associated with Cambrian diet designations, suggest that these early Paleozoic communities share remarkably similar topology with modern food webs. Observed regularities reflect a systematic dependence of structure on the numbers of taxa and links in a web. Most aspects of Cambrian food-web structure are well-characterized by a simple "niche model," which was developed for modern food webs and takes into account this scale dependence. However, a few aspects of topology differ between the ancient and recent webs: longer path lengths between species and more species in feeding loops in the earlier Chengjiang web, and higher variability in the number of links per species for both Cambrian webs. Our results are relatively insensitive to the exclusion of low-certainty or random links. The many similarities between Cambrian and recent food webs point toward surprisingly strong and enduring constraints on the organization of complex feeding interactions among metazoan species. The few differences could reflect a transition to more strongly integrated and constrained trophic organization within ecosystems following the rapid diversification of species, body

  18. Proterozoic and early Cambrian protists: evidence for accelerating evolutionary tempo (United States)

    Knoll, A. H.


    In rocks of late Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic age (ca. 1700-1000 million years ago), probable eukaryotic microfossils are widespread and well preserved, but assemblage and global diversities are low and turnover is slow. Near the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary (1000 million years ago), red, green, and chromophytic algae diversified; molecular phylogenies suggest that this was part of a broader radiation of "higher" eukaryotic phyla. Observed diversity levels for protistan microfossils increased significantly at this time, as did turnover rates. Coincident with the Cambrian radiation of marine invertebrates, protistan microfossils again doubled in diversity and rates of turnover increased by an order of magnitude. Evidently, the Cambrian diversification of animals strongly influenced evolutionary rates, within clades already present in marine communities, implying an important role for ecology in fueling a Cambrian explosion that extends across kingdoms.

  19. Syn-rift unconformities punctuating the lower-middle Cambrian transition in the Atlas Rift, Morocco (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ezzouhairi, Hassan; Clausen, Sébastien; Ribeiro, M. Luisa; Solá, Rita


    The Cambrian Tamdroust and Bab n'Ali Volcanic Complexes represent two magmatic episodes developed in the latest Ediacaran-Cambrian Atlas Rift of Morocco. Their rifting pulses were accompanied by accumulation of volcanosedimentary edifices (dominated by effusive lava flows in the former and explosive acidic aprons in the latter) associated with active tilting and uplift. Sealing of their peneplaned horst-and-graben palaeotopographies led to the onset of distinct onlapping geometries and angular discordances capping eroded basements ranging from the Ediacaran Ouarzazate Supergroup to the Cambrian Asrir Formation. Previous interpretations of these discordances as pull-apart or compressive events are revised here and reinterpreted in an extensional (rifting) context associated with active volcanism. The record of erosive unconformities, stratigraphic gaps, condensed beds and onlapping patterns across the traditional "lower-middle Cambrian" (or Cambrian Series 2-3) transition of the Atlas Rift must be taken into consideration for global chronostratigraphic correlation based on their trilobite content.

  20. The sedimentological characteristics of microbialites of the Cambrian in the vicinity of Beijing, China

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    Yin-Ye Wu


    Full Text Available With oil and gas exploration transferring to deeper and more ancient marine strata, more researches have been conducted about the Meso–Neoproterozoic and Cambrian microbial carbonate rocks by petroleum geologists. The Cambrian deposits experienced the first transgression of the Paleozoic, with shallow marine facies depositing in most areas, which are favorable for different kinds of biological reproduction. The Lower Cambrian in Beijing area is lithologically dominated by purple red shales interbedded with limestones, the Middle Cambrian is mainly composed of thick oolitic limestones, and the Upper Cambrian consists of thin limestones and flat-pebble conglomerates. Two beds of microbial carbonate rocks were discovered in the Cambrian outcrops in the vicinity of Beijing. One is from the Zhangxia Formation of Middle Cambrian, and the other is from the Gushan Formation of Upper Cambrian. The microbialites are characterized by combination of multiple stromatolites forming different bioherms. The bioherms are mostly in oval shape and with different sizes, which are 3–4 m long, and 1–3 m high. The surrounding strata beneath the bioherms are oolitic limestones. A central core of flat-pebble conglomerates occurred within each bioherm. Wavy or columnar stromatolites grow on the basis of flat-pebble conglomerates, with dentate erosional surfaces. The bioherm carbonate rocks are interpreted as products from a deep ramp sedimentary environment where potential oil and gas reservoirs can be found. The analysis of sedimentological characteristics of bioherm carbonate rocks and its lithofacies palaeogeography has significant implication for petroleum exploration. Research on geological record of microbialites is beneficial to investigating the Earth evolution, biodiversity, palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimate change, as well as biological extinction event during geological transitions. It also gives warning to human beings of modern biological crisis.

  1. Early Cambrian oxygen minimum zone-like conditions at Chengjiang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammarlund, Emma U.; Gaines, Robert R.; Prokopenko, Maria G.


    in early Cambrian marine settings and the relationship of those conditions to early metazoan ecosystems is still emerging. Here, we report multi-proxy geochemical data from two drill cores through the early Cambrian (Series 2) Yu’anshan Formation of Yunnan, China. Results reveal dynamic water...... oxygen-minimum zones. The oxygenated benthic environments in which the Chengjiang biota thrived were proximal to, but sharply separated from, the open ocean by a persistent anoxic water mass that occupied a portion of the outer shelf. Oxygen depletion in the lower water column developed dynamically...

  2. A review of the Late Cambrian (Furongian) palaeogeography in the western Mediterranean region, NW Gondwana (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ferretti, Annalisa; González-Gómez, Cristina; Serpagli, Enrico; Tortello, M. Franco; Vecoli, Marco; Vizcaïno, Daniel


    The Cambrian-Ordovician transition of the western Mediterranean region (NW Gondwana) is characterized by the record of major erosive unconformities with gaps that range from a chronostratigraphic stage to a series. The hiatii are diachronous and involved progressively younger strata along the Gondwanan margin, from SW (Morocco) to NE (Montagne Noire). They can be related to development of a multi-stage rifting (further North), currently connected to the opening of the Rheic Ocean, and concomitant erosion on southern rift shoulders. The platforms of this margin of Gondwana occupied temperate-water, mid latitudes and were dominated by siliciclastic sedimentation, while carbonate factories were only episodically active in the Montagne-Noire platform. The Upper Cambrian is devoid of significant gaps in the southern Montagne Noire and the Iberian Chains. There, the sedimentation took place in a transgressive-dominated depositional system, with common offshore deposits and clayey substrates, and was bracketed by two major regressive trends. The Late Cambrian is also associated with the record of volcanic activity ( e.g., in the Cantabrian and Ossa-Morena zones, and the northern Montagne Noire), and widespread development of a tectonic instability that led to the episodic establishment of palaeotopographies and record of slope-related facies associations. Several immigration events are recognized throughout the latest Middle Cambrian, Late Cambrian and Tremadocian. The trilobites show a stepwise replacement of Acado-Baltic-type families ( e.g., the conocoryphid-paradoxidid-solenopleurid assemblage) characterized by: (i) a late Languedocian (latest Middle Cambrian) co-occurrence of Middle Cambrian trilobite families with the first anomocarid, dorypygid and proasaphiscid invaders; (ii) a Late Cambrian immigration replacing previous faunas, composed of trilobites (aphelaspidids, catillicephalids, ceratopygids, damesellids, eulomids, idahoiids, linchakephalids, lisariids

  3. Early Cambrian pentamerous cubozoan embryos from South China.

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    Jian Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extant cubozoans are voracious predators characterized by their square shape, four evenly spaced outstretched tentacles and well-developed eyes. A few cubozoan fossils are known from the Middle Cambrian Marjum Formation of Utah and the well-known Carboniferous Mazon Creek Formation of Illinois. Undisputed cubozoan fossils were previously unknown from the early Cambrian; by that time probably all representatives of the living marine phyla, especially those of basal animals, should have evolved. METHODS: Microscopic fossils were recovered from a phosphatic limestone in the Lower Cambrian Kuanchuanpu Formation of South China using traditional acetic-acid maceration. Seven of the pre-hatched pentamerous cubozoan embryos, each of which bears five pairs of subumbrellar tentacle buds, were analyzed in detail through computed microtomography (Micro-CT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM without coating. RESULTS: The figured microscopic fossils are unequivocal pre-hatching embryos based on their spherical fertilization envelope and the enclosed soft-tissue that has preserved key anatomical features arranged in perfect pentaradial symmetry, allowing detailed comparison with modern cnidarians, especially medusozoans. A combination of features, such as the claustrum, gonad-lamella, suspensorium and velarium suspended by the frenula, occur exclusively in the gastrovascular system of extant cubozoans, indicating a cubozoan affinity for these fossils. Additionally, the interior anatomy of these embryonic cubozoan fossils unprecedentedly exhibits the development of many new septum-derived lamellae and well-partitioned gastric pockets unknown in living cubozoans, implying that ancestral cubozoans had already evolved highly specialized structures displaying unexpected complexity at the dawn of the Cambrian. The well-developed endodermic lamellae and gastric pockets developed in the late embryonic stages of these cubozoan fossils are comparable with

  4. Moulting in the lobopodian Onychodictyon from the lower Cambrian of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topper, Timothy Paul; Skovsted, Christian B.; Peel, John S.


    A number of lobopodian taxa from the Cambrian display pairs of sclerotized plates symmetrically positioned along the dorsum of the animal, predominantly above the walking appendages. Most genera were described from complete body fossils exquisitely preserved in the famous Cambrian Lagerstatten, b...

  5. The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis: A requiem (United States)

    Pinter, Nicholas; Scott, Andrew C.; Daulton, Tyrone L.; Podoll, Andrew; Koeberl, Christian; Anderson, R. Scott; Ishman, Scott E.


    The Younger Dryas (YD) impact hypothesis is a recent theory that suggests that a cometary or meteoritic body or bodies hit and/or exploded over North America 12,900 years ago, causing the YD climate episode, extinction of Pleistocene megafauna, demise of the Clovis archeological culture, and a range of other effects. Since gaining widespread attention in 2007, substantial research has focused on testing the 12 main signatures presented as evidence of a catastrophic extraterrestrial event 12,900 years ago. Here we present a review of the impact hypothesis, including its evolution and current variants, and of efforts to test and corroborate the hypothesis. The physical evidence interpreted as signatures of an impact event can be separated into two groups. The first group consists of evidence that has been largely rejected by the scientific community and is no longer in widespread discussion, including: particle tracks in archeological chert; magnetic nodules in Pleistocene bones; impact origin of the Carolina Bays; and elevated concentrations of radioactivity, iridium, and fullerenes enriched in 3He. The second group consists of evidence that has been active in recent research and discussions: carbon spheres and elongates, magnetic grains and magnetic spherules, byproducts of catastrophic wildfire, and nanodiamonds. Over time, however, these signatures have also seen contrary evidence rather than support. Recent studies have shown that carbon spheres and elongates do not represent extraterrestrial carbon nor impact-induced megafires, but are indistinguishable from fungal sclerotia and arthropod fecal material that are a small but common component of many terrestrial deposits. Magnetic grains and spherules are heterogeneously distributed in sediments, but reported measurements of unique peaks in concentrations at the YD onset have yet to be reproduced. The magnetic grains are certainly just iron-rich detrital grains, whereas reported YD magnetic spherules are

  6. Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China. (United States)

    Huang, Di-Ying; Chen, Jun-Yuan; Vannier, Jean; Saiz Salinas, J I


    We report the discovery of sipunculan worms from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan Shale, near Kunming (southwest China). Their sipunculan identity is evidenced by the general morphology of the animals (sausage-shaped body with a slender retractable introvert and a wider trunk) and by other features, both external (e.g. perioral crown of tentacles, and hooks, papillae and wrinkle rings on the body surface) and internal (U-shaped gut, and the anus opening near the introvert-trunk junction). The three fossil forms (Archaeogolfingia caudata gen. et sp. nov., Cambrosipunculus tentaculatus gen. et sp. nov. and Cambrosipunculus sp.) have striking similarities to modern sipunculans, especially the Golfingiidae to which their evolutionary relationships are discussed. This study suggests that most typical features of extant sipunculans have undergone only limited changes since the Early Cambrian, thus indicating a possible evolutionary stasis over the past 520 Myr.

  7. Paleoecologic Implications of Ichnofossils Associated with Slightly Skeletonized Body Fossils, Middle Cambrian of the Barrandian Area, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuláš, Radek; Fatka, O.; Szabad, M.


    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2012), s. 199-210 ISSN 1042-0940 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1521 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Middle Cambrian * ichnofossils * slightly skeletonized fauna * Barrandian area Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.727, year: 2012

  8. The onset of the 'Ordovician Plankton Revolution' in the late Cambrian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Servais, Thomas; Perrier, Vincent; Danelian, Taniel


    Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion δ13Ccarb (SPICE) event in the late Cambrian (Paibian Stage, Furongian Series) has been related to a major increase in atmospheric O2 (from 10-18% to some 20 - 29%) and to increased oceanic nutrient availability. Here we analyze the diversification of the planktonic groups...... during the late Cambrian and Early Ordovician, in particular in relation to the SPICE event. Our analyses include the changing diversities of the phytoplankton (acritarchs), diverse groups of zooplankton (e.g., radiolarians, graptolites, chitinozoans) and the switch to a planktonic mode of life of fossil...... of the different planktonic organisms can be related directly to the SPICE event. However, a long term (10-20millionyears) oxygenation pulse related to the SPICE event might have fuelled the explosion of phytoplankton diversity observed in the latest Cambrian-Early Ordovician that led to completely modified...

  9. Armored kinorhynch-like scalidophoran animals from the early Cambrian. (United States)

    Zhang, Huaqiao; Xiao, Shuhai; Liu, Yunhuan; Yuan, Xunlai; Wan, Bin; Muscente, A D; Shao, Tiequan; Gong, Hao; Cao, Guohua


    Morphology-based phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the Scalidophora (Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida) and Nematoida (Nematoda, Nematomorpha), together constituting the monophyletic Cycloneuralia that is the sister group of the Panarthropoda. Kinorhynchs are unique among living cycloneuralians in having a segmented body with repeated cuticular plates, longitudinal muscles, dorsoventral muscles, and ganglia. Molecular clock estimates suggest that kinorhynchs may have diverged in the Ediacaran Period. Remarkably, no kinorhynch fossils have been discovered, in sharp contrast to priapulids and loriciferans that are represented by numerous Cambrian fossils. Here we describe several early Cambrian (~535 million years old) kinorhynch-like fossils, including the new species Eokinorhynchus rarus and two unnamed but related forms. E. rarus has characteristic scalidophoran features, including an introvert with pentaradially arranged hollow scalids. Its trunk bears at least 20 annuli each consisting of numerous small rectangular plates, and is armored with five pairs of large and bilaterally placed sclerites. Its trunk annuli are reminiscent of the epidermis segments of kinorhynchs. A phylogenetic analysis resolves E. rarus as a stem-group kinorhynch. Thus, the fossil record confirms that all three scalidophoran phyla diverged no later than the Cambrian Period.

  10. Carbonate rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age in the Lancaster quadrangle, Pennsylvania (United States)

    Meisler, Harold; Becher, Albert E.


    Detailed mapping has shown that the carbonate rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age in the Lancaster quadrangle, Pennsylvania, can be divided into 14 rock-stratigraphic units. These units are defined primarily by their relative proportions of limestone and dolomite. The oldest units, the Vintage, Kinzers, and Ledger Formations of Cambrian age, and the Conestoga Limestone of Ordovician age are retained in this report. The Zooks Corner Formation, of Cambrian age, a dolomite unit overlying the Ledger Dolomite, is named here for exposures along Conestoga Creek near the village of Zooks Corner. The Conococheague (Cambrian) and Beekmantown (Ordovician) Limestones, as mapped by earlier workers, have been elevated to group rank and subdivided into formations that are correlated with and named for geologic units in Lebanon and Berks Counties, Pa. These formations, from oldest to youngest, are the Buffalo Springs, Snitz Creek, Millbach, and Richland Formations of the Conococheague Group, and the Stonehenge, Bpler, and Ontelaunee Formations of the Beekmantown Group. The Annville and Myerstown Limestones, which are named for lithologically similar units in Dauphin and Lebanon Counties, Pa., overlie the Beekmantown Group in one small area in the quadrangle.

  11. The Lower Cambrian of Scandinavia: Depositional environment, sequence stratigraphy and palaeogeography (United States)

    Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj; Schovsbo, Niels Hemmingsen


    impact related. Sequences are defined as transgressive-regressive depositional cycles bounded by maximum regressive surfaces and their correlative conformities. Sea-level rises are identified by fining-upward lithologies, cratonwards shifts in facies and depocentres, formation of widespread thin lime- and ironstones as well as precipitation of phosphorite and glaucony; the latter formed at remarkably shallow depth in comparison with the modern world. Sea-level falls are identified by coarsening-upwards lithologies, basinwards shifts in facies and gaps in the sedimentary record relating to non-deposition/erosion during falling stage and lowstand. Due to the pronounced clastic starvation neither lowstand nor highstand system tracts are developed subsequent to the earliest transgressive phases and eustasy was the primary control on depth changes. The Lower Cambrian comprises two supersequences (2nd order sequences), separated by regional subaerial unconformities reflecting the Rispebjerg Lowstand (new name) and the Hawke Bay Event. The Rispebjerg Lowstand was likely glacio-eustatic. Supersequence 1 (Rovnian-Lontovan-Dominopolian-'Ljubomlian') comprises about nine 3rd order sequences but the exact number of sequences in the Lontovan is unsettled. Supersequence 2 (Vergalian-Rausvian-lower Kibartian) comprises five sequences. Two or more subsequences (new term = 4th order sequences) are recognized in all sequences but long-distance correlation is usually difficult. The sequence stratigraphical resolution of the Lower Cambrian is more than twice as high as the acritarch biozonation. Baltica became intensively peneplained during the Neoproterozoic and was by and large completely flat at the dawn of the Cambrian. The profound Early Cambrian sea-level rise, comprising a series of individual 3rd order drowning events, was associated with step-wise transgression of Baltoscandia and concomitantly the sedimentary supply declined. The sequence stratigraphical analysis indicates onset

  12. Cambrian and ordovician systems around the pacific basin (part 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Teiichi


    This report describes the history of the studies made about old rocks and Cambrian and Ordovician Systems in North America. In last century, development of the Pre-Canbrian stratigraphy and mineral resources was started in Canada, while the New York System was instituted in the middle and east areas of North America, and it was later correlated to the European sequence. Walcott who published many reports including the vental anatomy of trilobites made invaluable contribution on the study of Cambrian geology. The Cambro-Ordovician faunas which distributed in the Appalachian mountains and further westerly beyond the lower Mississipy river were related to the European ones. The systems in the Cordilleran geosyncline was also described. Stratigraphy in the western sites is followed on the Alaskan faunas in the north which were allied to the Siberian faunas and later to the Eastern Asiatic ones. Lastly, Circum-Pacific Cambro-Ordovician belt was taken up. The eastern side of the Circum-Pacific Cambrian belt belonged to Olenellian province, and the other side constituted the Redlichia province. (2 figs, 5 tabs, 101 refs)

  13. Life cycle and morphology of a cambrian stem-lineage loriciferan. (United States)

    Peel, John S; Stein, Martin; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg


    Cycloneuralians form a rich and diverse element within Cambrian assemblages of exceptionally preserved fossils. Most resemble priapulid worms whereas other Cycloneuralia (Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera), well known at the present day, have little or no fossil record. First reports of Sirilorica Peel, 2010 from the lower Cambrian Sirius Passet fauna of North Greenland described a tubular lorica covering the abdomen and part of a well developed introvert with a circlet of 6 grasping denticles near the lorica. The introvert is now known to terminate in a narrow mouth tube, while a conical anal field is also developed. Broad muscular bands between the plates in the lorica indicate that it was capable of movement by rhythmic expansion and contraction of the lorica. Sirilorica is regarded as a macrobenthic member of the stem-lineage of the miniaturised, interstitial, present day Loricifera. Like loriciferans, Sirilorica is now known to have grown by moulting. Evidence of the life cycle of Sirilorica is described, including a large post-larval stage and probably an initial larva similar to that of the middle Cambrian fossil Orstenoloricusshergoldii.

  14. Life cycle and morphology of a cambrian stem-lineage loriciferan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S Peel

    Full Text Available Cycloneuralians form a rich and diverse element within Cambrian assemblages of exceptionally preserved fossils. Most resemble priapulid worms whereas other Cycloneuralia (Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, well known at the present day, have little or no fossil record. First reports of Sirilorica Peel, 2010 from the lower Cambrian Sirius Passet fauna of North Greenland described a tubular lorica covering the abdomen and part of a well developed introvert with a circlet of 6 grasping denticles near the lorica. The introvert is now known to terminate in a narrow mouth tube, while a conical anal field is also developed. Broad muscular bands between the plates in the lorica indicate that it was capable of movement by rhythmic expansion and contraction of the lorica. Sirilorica is regarded as a macrobenthic member of the stem-lineage of the miniaturised, interstitial, present day Loricifera. Like loriciferans, Sirilorica is now known to have grown by moulting. Evidence of the life cycle of Sirilorica is described, including a large post-larval stage and probably an initial larva similar to that of the middle Cambrian fossil Orstenoloricusshergoldii.

  15. Arroyo del Soldado group: paleontology, dating and Vendian to Lower Cambrian, Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaucher, C.; Sprechmann, P.


    The fossil content of the Vendian to Lower Cambrian Arroyo del Soldado Group of the Nico Perez Terrane of Uruguay is analysed.Organic walled microfossils represented by acritarchs, eukariotic algae (sensu lato) and iron bacteria are recognized. An updated list of these microfossils is presented, which were are now reported in the Yerbal and Barriga Negra formations.Events of weutrphic conditions were reconstructed. The occurrence of Cloudina riemkeae, the earliest known metazoanwith a mineralized skeleton is communicated for the first time in Uruguay. The organic walled microfossils as well as Cloudina riemkeae are indicative of a Vendian age, whereas the trace fossils of the uppermost unit(Cerro Victoria) suggest the Early Cambrian. This would imply that the Group contains the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. The Arroyo del Soldado Group is correlated with the Jacadiga and Corunba Groups (Brasil) and the Nama Group (Namibia). (author)

  16. Antarctica, supercontinents and the palaeogeography of the Cambrian 'explosion' (United States)

    Dalziel, Ian


    Laurentia is bordered by latest Precambrian-Cambrian rifted margins and must therefore have been located within a Precambrian supercontinent. Geochronologic and geochemical evidence indicates that it was attached to parts of the East Antarctic craton within the Rodinian supercontinent in the late Mesoproterozoic. The Mawson craton of Antarctica rifted from the proto-Pacific margin of Laurentia during the Neooproterozoic, colliding with the present 'southern cone' of Laurentia at ~600 Ma along the Shackleton Range suture zone as Gondwana and Laurentia amalgamated to form the ephemeral Pannotia supercontinental assembly at the end of the Precambrian. The abrupt appearance of almost all animal phyla in the fossil record is often colloquially referred to as the Cambrian 'explosion' of life on Earth. It is also named 'Darwin's dilemma,' as he appreciated that this seemingly mysterious event posed a major problem for his theory of evolution by natural selection. It coincided with a time of major marine transgression over all the continents. Although the metazoan 'explosion' is now seen as more protracted than formerly recognized, it is still regarded one of the most critical events in the history of the biosphere. One of the most striking aspects of the earliest Cambrian fossils is geographic differentiation. In particular, the first benthic trilobite faunas on Laurentia, ancestral North America, and the newly amalgamated southern supercontinent of Gondwana are distinctly different. This has led to the suggestion of an unknown vicariant event intervening between an ancestral trilobite clade and higher members that are represented in the fossil record, possibly one related to the breakup of a supercontinent. Igneous rocks along the Panthalassic margin of Gondwana, including South America, southernmost Africa and the Ellsworth-Whitmore crustal block of Antarctica, and along the proto-Appalachian margin of Laurentia indicate that final separation of Laurentia from

  17. Neoproterozoic–Cambrian stratigraphic framework of the Anti-Atlas and Ouzellagh promontory (High Atlas), Morocco (United States)

    Alvaro, Jose Javier; Benziane, Fouad; Thomas, Robert; Walsh, Gregory J.; Yazidi, Abdelaziz


    In the last two decades, great progress has been made in the geochronological, chrono- and chemostratigraphic control of the Neoproterozoic and Cambrian from the Anti-Atlas Ranges and the Ouzellagh promontory (High Atlas). As a result, the Neoproterozoic is lithostratigraphically subdivided into: (i) the Lkest-Taghdout Group (broadly interpreted at c. 800–690 Ma) representative of rift-to-passive margin conditions on the northern West African craton; (ii) the Iriri (c. 760–740 Ma), Bou Azzer (c. 762–697 Ma) and Saghro (c. 760?–610 Ma) groups, the overlying Anezi, Bou Salda, Dadès and Tiddiline formations localized in fault-grabens, and the Ouarzazate Supergroup (c. 615–548 Ma), which form a succession of volcanosedimentary complexes recording the onset of the Pan-African orogeny and its aftermath; and (iii) the Taroudant (the Ediacaran–Cambrian boundary lying in the Tifnout Member of the Adoudou Formation), Tata, Feijas Internes and Tabanite groups that have recorded development of the late Ediacaran–Cambrian Atlas Rift. Recent discussions of Moroccan strata to select new global GSSPs by the International Subcommissions on Ediacaran and Cambrian Stratigraphy have raised the stratigraphic interest in this region. A revised and updated stratigraphic framework is proposed here to assist the tasks of both subcommissions and to fuel future discussions focused on different geological aspects of the Neoproterozoic–Cambrian time span.

  18. Biofacies evidence for Late Cambrian low-paleolatitude oceans, western United State and central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.E. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Cook, H.E. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Melnikova, L. (Palaeontological Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation))


    Biofacies that formed on carbonate platform-margin slopes adjacent to an early Paleozoic, low-paleolatitude paleoocean are contained in the Upper Cambrian Swarbrick Formation, Tyby Shale, and Upper Cambrian-lowest Ordovician Hales Limestone of the Hot Creek Range, Nevada, and the Upper Cambrian-lowest Ordovician part of the Shabakty Suite of the Malyi Karatau, southern Kazakhstan. These in-situ limestones formed in platform-margin slope and basin-plain environments. Shoal-water faunal assemblages occur in carbonate-turbidite and debris-flow deposits interbedded with in-situ deeper water assemblages of the submarine-fan facies. Abundant sponge spicules, geographically widespread benthic trilobites, and rare ostracodes occur in some of the in-situ beds. In contrast, the shoal-water platform environments were well oxygenated and contain mainly endemic trilobite assemblages. These biofacies characteristics support an interpretation that Late Cambrian oceans were poorly oxygenated, but not anoxic, below the surface mixing layer and that benthic trilobite faunas were widely distributed in response to the more-or-less continuous deep water, low-oxygen habitats. Elements of the Late Cambrian low-oxygen biofacies are widespread in the Tien Shan structural belt of China and the Soviet Union, in central and eastern China, and along the western margin of early Paleozoic North America. This facies distribution pattern defines the transition from low-paleolatitude, shoal-water carbonate platforms to open oceans which have since been destroyed by pre-Late Ordovician and pre-middle Paleozoic Paleotectonic activity.

  19. Ichnology of the Early Cambrian Tal Group, Mussoorie Syncline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33, General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun 248 001, India. ∗ ... Mussoorie Syncline, being one of the five synclines, exposes the Cambrian ... Belt of Lesser Himalaya is represented by the Tal. Group.

  20. Lower Cambrian biogeography and the prehistory of early animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signor, P.W. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))


    Biogeographic distributions of animals reflect the complex interplay of biological and physical processes acting over geological time. In particular, plate tectonics and the evolution of lineages within clades play fundamental roles in determining faunal distributions. Ranges expand through vicariant events or dispersal and contract through local and regional extinctions. Vicariance promotes the evolutionary divergence of closely related lineages. Viewed as historical phenomena, biogeographic distributions can be employed to infer prior tectonic and evolutionary events. For example, the existence of modern marine faunal provinces reflects the interaction of evolution and plate tectonics. The Proterozoic history of skeletogenous organisms (and their ancestors) is a contentious subject, with many authors arguing that skeletogenous clades have no significant prehistory before their appearance in the fossil record. The existence of trilobite provinces dominated by different suborders, for example, suggests the trilobites evolved and dispersed, or were separated by plate movement, and then evolved independently for an extended period prior to their appearance in the fossil record. Similar arguments can be applied to other groups. The paleobiogeographic distribution of organisms also provides useful insights into late Proterozoic and Early Cambrian paleogeography. The provincial distribution of Early Cambrian taxa suggests that the putative Proterozoic supercontinent, if it existed, began to separate well before the Early Cambrian. Separate provinces would not have evolved had the various plates remained united. Therefore, the dawn of the Phanerozoic could not have coincided with the breakup of the Proterozoic supercontinent.

  1. Cambrian-lower Middle Ordovician passive carbonate margin, southern Appalachians: Chapter 14 (United States)

    Read, J. Fred; Repetski, John E.


    The southern Appalachian part of the Cambrian–Ordovician passive margin succession of the great American carbonate bank extends from the Lower Cambrian to the lower Middle Ordovician, is as much as 3.5 km (2.2 mi) thick, and has long-term subsidence rates exceeding 5 cm (2 in.)/k.y. Subsiding depocenters separated by arches controlled sediment thickness. The succession consists of five supersequences, each of which contains several third-order sequences, and numerous meter-scale parasequences. Siliciclastic-prone supersequence 1 (Lower Cambrian Chilhowee Group fluvial rift clastics grading up into shelf siliciclastics) underlies the passive margin carbonates. Supersequence 2 consists of the Lower Cambrian Shady Dolomite–Rome-Waynesboro Formations. This is a shallowing-upward ramp succession of thinly bedded to nodular lime mudstones up into carbonate mud-mound facies, overlain by lowstand quartzose carbonates, and then a rimmed shelf succession capped by highly cyclic regressive carbonates and red beds (Rome-Waynesboro Formations). Foreslope facies include megabreccias, grainstone, and thin-bedded carbonate turbidites and deep-water rhythmites. Supersequence 3 rests on a major unconformity and consists of a Middle Cambrian differentiated rimmed shelf carbonate with highly cyclic facies (Elbrook Formation) extending in from the rim and passing via an oolitic ramp into a large structurally controlled intrashelf basin (Conasauga Shale). Filling of the intrashelf basin caused widespread deposition of thin quartz sandstones at the base of supersequence 4, overlain by widespread cyclic carbonates (Upper Cambrian lower Knox Group Copper Ridge Dolomite in the south; Conococheague Formation in the north). Supersequence 5 (Lower Ordovician upper Knox in the south; Lower to Middle Ordovician Beekmantown Group in the north) has a basal quartz sandstone-prone unit, overlain by cyclic ramp carbonates, that grade downdip into thrombolite grainstone and then storm

  2. Evolution of oceanic molybdenum and uranium reservoir size around the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition: Evidence from western Zhejiang, South China (United States)

    Xiang, Lei; Schoepfer, Shane D.; Shen, Shu-zhong; Cao, Chang-qun; Zhang, Hua


    The "Cambrian explosion" is one of the most fascinating episodes of diversification in the history of life; however, its relationship to the oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere around the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition is not fully understood. Marine inventories of redox-sensitive trace elements reflect the relative balance of oxidative weathering on land and deposition in anoxic water masses, and can be used to explore the evolution of oceanic and atmospheric redox conditions. For this study, we conducted a series of geochemical analyses on the upper Lantian, Piyuancun, and Hetang formations in the Chunye-1 well, part of the lower Yangtze Block in western Zhejiang. Iron speciation results indicate that the entire studied interval was deposited under anoxic conditions, with three intervals of persistent euxinia occurring in the uppermost Lantian Fm., the lower Hetang Formation (Fm.), and the upper Hetang Fm. Molybdenum (Mo) and uranium (U) contents and Mo/TOC and U/TOC ratios from the anoxic/euxinic intervals of the Chunye-1 well, combined with published data from the sections in the middle and upper Yangtze Block, suggest that the oceanic Mo reservoir declined consistently from the Ediacaran to Cambrian Stage 3, while the size of the oceanic U reservoir remained relatively constant. Both metals were depleted in the ocean in lower Cambrian Stage 4, before increasing markedly at the end of Stage 4. The lack of an apparent increase in the size of the marine Mo and U reservoir from the upper Ediacaran to Cambrian Stage 3 suggests that oxic water masses did not expand until Cambrian Stage 4. The increase in marine Mo and U availability in the upper Hetang Fm. may have been due to the expansion of oxic water masses in the oceans, associated with oxygenation of the atmosphere during Cambrian Stage 4. This expansion of oxic waters in the global ocean postdates the main phase of Cambrian diversification, suggesting that pervasive oxygenation of the ocean on a large

  3. Syn-rift unconformities punctuating the lower-middle Cambrian transition in the Atlas Rift, Morocco


    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ezzouhairi, Hassan; Clausen, Sébastien; Ribeiro, Maria Luísa; Solá, Ana Rita


    The Cambrian Tamdroust and Bab n’Ali Volcanic Complexes represent two magmatic episodes developed in the latest Ediacaran–Cambrian Atlas Rift of Morocco. Their rifting pulses were accompanied by accumulation of volcanosedimentary edifices (dominated by effusive lava flows in the former and explosive acidic aprons in the latter) associated with active tilting and uplift. Sealing of their peneplaned horst-and-graben palaeotopographies led to the onset of distinct onlapping geometrie...

  4. Multiple sources of metals of mineralization in Lower Cambrian black shales of South China: Evidence from geochemical and petrographic study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pašava, J.; Kříbek, B.; Vymazalová, A.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Žák, Karel; Orberger, B.


    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2008), s. 25-42 ISSN 1344-1698 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : multiple source * Cambrian Ni-Mo-polymetalic black shale * SEDEX barite deposit Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 0.377, year: 2008

  5. Modern optics in exceptionally preserved eyes of Early Cambrian arthropods from Australia (United States)

    Lee, Michael S. Y.; Jago, James B.; García-Bellido, Diego C.; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Gehling, James G.; Paterson, John R.


    Despite the status of the eye as an ``organ of extreme perfection'', theory suggests that complex eyes can evolve very rapidly. The fossil record has, until now, been inadequate in providing insight into the early evolution of eyes during the initial radiation of many animal groups known as the Cambrian explosion. This is surprising because Cambrian Burgess-Shale-type deposits are replete with exquisitely preserved animals, especially arthropods, that possess eyes. However, with the exception of biomineralized trilobite eyes, virtually nothing is known about the details of their optical design. Here we report exceptionally preserved fossil eyes from the Early Cambrian (~515 million years ago) Emu Bay Shale of South Australia, revealing that some of the earliest arthropods possessed highly advanced compound eyes, each with over 3,000 large ommatidial lenses and a specialized `bright zone'. These are the oldest non-biomineralized eyes known in such detail, with preservation quality exceeding that found in the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang deposits. Non-biomineralized eyes of similar complexity are otherwise unknown until about 85 million years later. The arrangement and size of the lenses indicate that these eyes belonged to an active predator that was capable of seeing in low light. The eyes are more complex than those known from contemporaneous trilobites and are as advanced as those of many living forms. They provide further evidence that the Cambrian explosion involved rapid innovation in fine-scale anatomy as well as gross morphology, and are consistent with the concept that the development of advanced vision helped to drive this great evolutionary event.

  6. Trace fossils accompanying possible "Ediacaran organisms" in the Middle Cambrian sediments of the St. Petersburg Region, Russia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Natalin, N. M.; Mikuláš, Radek; Dronov, A. V.


    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2010), s. 71-75+[2] ISSN 0001-5709 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/0151; GA ČR GA205/09/1521 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Skolithos ichnofacies * Edicarian-like organism * Middle Cambrian * shallow-marine * Baltic Shied * ichnology (Russia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.779, year: 2010

  7. Cambrian Evolutionary Radiation: Context, correlation, and chronostratigraphy—Overcoming deficiencies of the first appearance datum (FAD) concept (United States)

    Landing, Ed; Geyer, Gerd; Brasier, Martin D.; Bowring, Samuel A.


    Use of the first appearance datum (FAD) of a fossil to define a global chronostratigraphic unit's base can lead to intractable correlation and stability problems. FADs are diachronous—they reflect species' evolutionary history, dispersal, biofacies, preservation, collection, and taxonomy. The Cambrian Evolutionary Radiation is characterised by diachronous FADs, biofacies controls, and provincialism of taxa and ecological communities that confound a stable Lower Cambrian chronostratigraphy. Cambrian series and stage definitions require greater attention to assemblage zone successions and non-biostratigraphic, particularly carbon isotope, correlation techniques such as those that define the Ediacaran System base. A redefined, basal Cambrian Trichophycus pedum Assemblage Zone lies above the highest Ediacaran-type biotas (vendobionts, putative metazoans, and calcareous problematica such as Cloudina) and the basal Asteridium tornatum-Comasphaeridium velvetum Zone (acritarchs). This definition and the likely close correspondence of evolutionary origin and local FAD of T. pedum preserves the Fortune Head, Newfoundland, GSSP of the Cambrian base and allows the presence of sub-Cambrian, branched ichnofossils. The sub-Tommotian-equivalent base of Stage 2 (a suggested "Laolinian Stage") should be defined by the I'/L4/ZHUCE δ13C positive peak, bracketed by the lower ranges of Watsonella crosbyi and Aldanella attleborensis (molluscs) and the Skiagia ornata-Fimbrioglomerella membranacea Zone (acritarchs). The W. crosbyi and A. attleborensis FADs cannot define a Stage 2 base as they are diachronous even in the Newfoundland "type" W. crosbyi Zone. The Series 2 base cannot be based on a species' FAD owing to the provincialism of skeletalised metazoans in the Terreneuvian-Series 2 boundary interval and global heterochrony of the oldest trilobites. A Series 2 and Stage 3 (a suggested "Lenaldanian Series" and "Zhurinskyan Stage," new) GSSP base is proposed at the Siberian lower

  8. Why did life develop on the surface of the Earth in the Cambrian?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Doglioni


    Full Text Available Life was limited for most of Earth's history, remaining at a primitive stage and mostly marine until about 0.55 Ga. In the Paleozoic, life eventually exploded and colonized the continental realm. Why had there been such a long period of delayed evolution of life? Early life was dominated by Archaea and Bacteria, which can survive ionizing radiation better than other organisms. The magnetic field preserves the atmosphere, which is the main shield of UV radiation. We explore the hypothesis that the Cambrian explosion of life could have been enabled by the increase of the magnetic field dipole intensity due to the solidification of the inner core, caused by the cooling of the Earth, and the concomitant decrease with time of the high-energy solar flux since the birth of the solar system. Therefore, the two phenomena could be responsible for the growth and thickening of the atmosphere and the development of land surface life.

  9. Replacement of benthic communities in two Neoproterozoic-Cambrian subtropical-to-temperate rift basins, High Atlas and Anti-Atlas, Morocco (United States)

    Clausen, Sébastien; Álvaro, J. Javier; Zamora, Samuel


    The ‘Cambrian explosion’ is often introduced as a major shift in benthic marine communities with a coeval decline of microbial consortia related to the diversification of metazoans and development of bioturbation (‘Agronomic Revolution’). Successive community replacements have been reported along with ecosystem diversification and increase in guild complexity from Neoproterozoic to Cambrian times. This process is recorded worldwide but with regional diachroneities, some of them directly controlled by the geodynamic conditions of sedimentary basins. The southern High Atlas and Anti-Atlas of Morocco record development of two rifts, Tonian (?) - early Cryogenian and latest Ediacarian-Cambrian in age, separated by the onset of the Pan-African Orogeny. This tectonically controlled, regional geodynamic change played a primary control on pattern and timing of benthic ecosystem replacements. Benthic communities include microbial consortia, archaeocyathan-thromboid reefal complexes, chancelloriid-echinoderm-sponge meadows, and deeper offshore echinoderm-dominated communities. Microbial consortia appeared in deeper parts of the Tonian (?) - early Cryogenian fluvio-deltaic progradational rift sequences, lacustrine environments of the Ediacaran Volcanic Atlasic Chain (Ouarzazate Supergroup) and the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary interval, characterized by the peritidal-dominated Tifnout Member (Adoudou Formation). They persisted and were largely significant until Cambrian Age 3, as previous restricted marine conditions precluded the immigration of shelly metazoans in the relatively shallow epeiric parts of the Cambrian Atlas Rift. Successive Cambrian benthic communities were replaced as a result of distinct hydrodynamic and substrate conditions, which allow identification of biotic (e.g., antagonistic relationships between microbial consortia and echinoderms, and taphonomic feedback patterns in chancelloriid-echinoderm-sponge meadows) and abiotic (e.g., rifting

  10. Review of the Cambrian volcanic activity in Morocco: geochemical fingerprints and geotectonic implications for the rifting of West Gondwana (United States)

    Pouclet, André; El Hadi, Hassan; Álvaro, J. Javier; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Benharref, Mohammed; Fekkak, Abdelilah


    Volcanic activities related to the opening of a Cambrian rift in Morocco were widespread from the Fortunian to the Cambrian Epoch 3. Numerous data are available from northwestern volcanic sites, particularly in the western High Atlas, but they are scarce from the southeastern sites. New data are documented here from the volcanic formations exposed in the Jbel Tazoult n'Ouzina of the Tafilalt Province, eastern Anti-Atlas and dated to Cambrian Epoch 2-3. The Cambrian volcanic activities recorded in the High Atlas, Anti-Atlas, and Coastal Meseta are synthesized to refine their stratigraphic setting and to characterize their magmatic affinities and fingerprints. Six volcanic pulses are determined as tholeiitic, transitional, and alkaline suites. The tholeiitic and transitional magmas originated from primitive mantle and E-MORB-type sources with a spinel- and garnet-bearing lherzolite composition. Some of them were modified by assimilation-fractional crystallisation processes during crust-mantle interactions. The alkaline magmas fit with an OIB-type and a garnet-bearing lherzolite source. The palaeogeographic distribution of the magmatic suites was controlled by the lithospheric thinning of the Cambrian Atlas Rift and lithospheric constraints of the Pan-African metacraton and West African craton.

  11. 40Ar/39Ar dating of exceptional concentration of metals by weathering of Precambrian rocks at the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnell, John; Mark, Darren F.; Frei, Robert


    The sub-Cambrian surface, including diverse metalliferous deposits, shows evidence of intense weathering of Precambrian rocks to form supergene-enriched ores and metalliferous placers, followed by widespread peneplanation. Much of the metal would have been flushed to the Cambrian ocean during...... with mobilization on land of redox sensitive metals by oxidative terrestrial weathering. This unprecedented flushing of metals from the weathered Precambrian surface would have contributed to the chemistry of the earliest Cambrian ocean at a time of marked faunal evolution....

  12. The Cambrian-Ordovician rocks of Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona, southwestern margin of North America (Laurentia): chapter 35 (United States)

    Page, William R.; Harris, Alta C.; Repetski, John E.; Derby, James R.; Fritz, R.D.; Longacre, S.A.; Morgan, W.A.; Sternbach, C.A.


    Cambrian and Ordovician shelf, platform, and basin rocks are present in Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona and were deposited on the southwestern continental margin of North America (Laurentia). Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in Sonora, Mexico, are mostly exposed in scattered outcrops in the northern half of the state. Their discontinuous nature results from extensive Quaternary and Tertiary surficial cover, from Tertiary and Mesozoic granitic batholiths in western Sonora, and from widespread Tertiary volcanic deposits in the Sierra Madre Occidental in eastern Sonora. Cambrian and Ordovician shelf rocks were deposited as part of the the southern miogeocline on the southwestern continental margin of North America.

  13. Oxygen-isotope trends and seawater temperature changes across the Late Cambrian Steptoean positive carbon-isotope excursion (SPICE event) (United States)

    Elrick, M.; Rieboldt, S.; Saltzman, M.; McKay, R.M.


    The globally recognized Late Cambrian Steptoean positive C-isotope excursion (SPICE) is characterized by a 3???-5??? positive ??13C shift spanning SPICE represents a widespread ocean anoxic event leading to enhanced burial/preservation of organic matter (Corg) and pyrite. We analyzed ??18O values of apatitic inarticulate brachiopods from three Upper Cambrian successions across Laurentia to evaluate paleotemperatures during the SPICE. ??18O values range from ~12.5??? to 16.5???. Estimated seawater temperatures associated with the SPICE are unreasonably warm, suggesting that the brachiopod ??18O values were altered during early diagenesis. Despite this, all three localities show similar trends with respect to the SPICE ??13C curve, suggesting that the brachiopod apatite preserves a record of relative ??18O and temperature changes. The trends include relatively high ??18O values at the onset of the SPICE, decreasing and lowest values during the main event, and an increase in values at the end of the event. The higher ??18O values during the global extinction at the onset of the SPICE suggests seawater cooling and supports earlier hypotheses of upwelling of cool waters onto the shallow shelf. Decreasing and low ??18O values coincident with the rising limb of the SPICE support the hypothesis that seawater warming and associated reduced thermohaline circulation rates contributed to decreased dissolved O2 concentrations, which enhanced the preservation/burial of Corg causing the positive ??13C shift. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  14. Decoupling of body-plan diversification and ecological structuring during the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition: evolutionary and geobiological feedbacks. (United States)

    Mángano, M Gabriela; Buatois, Luis A


    The rapid appearance of bilaterian clades at the beginning of the Phanerozoic is one of the most intriguing topics in macroevolution. However, the complex feedbacks between diversification and ecological interactions are still poorly understood. Here, we show that a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the trace-fossil record of the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition indicates that body-plan diversification and ecological structuring were decoupled. The appearance of a wide repertoire of behavioural strategies and body plans occurred by the Fortunian. However, a major shift in benthic ecological structure, recording the establishment of a suspension-feeder infauna, increased complexity of the trophic web, and coupling of benthos and plankton took place during Cambrian Stage 2. Both phases were accompanied by different styles of ecosystem engineering, but only the second one resulted in the establishment of the Phanerozoic-style ecology. In turn, the suspension-feeding infauna may have been the ecological drivers of a further diversification of deposit-feeding strategies by Cambrian Stage 3, favouring an ecological spillover scenario. Trace-fossil information strongly supports the Cambrian explosion, but allows for a short time of phylogenetic fuse during the terminal Ediacaran-Fortunian.

  15. Selenium and hazardous elements distribution in plant-soil-water system and human health risk assessment of Lower Cambrian, Southern Shaanxi, China. (United States)

    Du, Yajun; Luo, Kunli; Ni, Runxiang; Hussain, Rahib


    The natural selenium poisoning due to toxic Se levels in food chain had been observed in humans and animals in Lower Cambrian outcrop areas in Southern Shaanxi, China. To find out the distribution pattern of selenium and other hazardous elements in the plant, soil and water of Lower Cambrian in Southern Shaanxi, China, and their possible potential health risk, a total of 30 elements were analyzed and the health risk assessment of 18 elements was calculated. Results showed that the soil, plant and natural water of Lower Cambrian all had relatively high Se levels. In Lower Cambrian, the soil was enriched with Se, As, Ba, Cu, Mo, Ni, Zn, Ga, Cd and Cr (1.68 food intake was the major pathway. For minimizing potential health risk, the local inhabitants should use the mix-imported food with local growing foods.

  16. Specific activity and hazards of Archeozoic-Cambrian rock samples collected from the Weibei area of Shaanxi (China))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinwei, L.; Lingqing, W.; Xiaodan, J.; Leipeng, Y.; Gelian, D.


    The present work deals with the radioactivity of the Archeozoic-Cambrian rocks of the Weibei area, Shaanxi (China)). A total of 45 rock samples of Archeozoic-Cambrian strata were investigated. The radionuclides of the samples, in Bq kg -1 , have been measured using Na(I)Tl gamma-ray spectrometer. The concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the Archeozoic-Cambrian rock samples range from 12.3 to 55.4, from 2.4 to 98.7 and from 58.6 to 1613.3 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the typical world average values. To assess the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity in the samples, the radium equivalent activity, the external hazard index, internal hazard index and the annual gonadal dose equivalent associated with the radionuclides were calculated and compared with the international recommended values. (authors)

  17. Problems with the Younger Dryas Boundary (YDB) Impact Hypothesis (United States)

    Boslough, M.


    One breakthrough of 20th-century Earth science was the recognition of impacts as an important geologic process. The most obvious result is a crater. There are more than 170 confirmed terrestrial impact structures with a non-uniform spatial distribution suggesting more to be found. Many have been erased by tectonics and erosion. Deep water impacts do not form craters, and craters in ice sheets disappear when the ice melts. There is growing speculation that such hidden impacts have caused frequent major environmental events of the Holocene, but this is inconsistent with the astronomically-constrained population of Earth-crossing asteroids. Impacts can have consequences much more significant than excavation of a crater. The K/T boundary mass extinction is attributed to the environmental effects of a major impact, and some researchers argue that other extinctions, abrupt climate changes, and even civilization collapses have resulted from impacts. Nuclear winter models suggest that 2-km diameter asteroids exceed a "global catastrophe threshold" by injecting sufficient dust into the stratosphere to cause short-term climate changes, but would not necessarily collapse most natural ecosystems or cause mass extinctions. Globally-catastrophic impacts recur on timescales of about one million years. The 1994 collision of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter led us recognize the significance of terrestrial airbursts caused by objects exploding violently in Earth’s atmosphere. We have invoked airbursts to explain rare forms of non-volcanic glasses and melts by using high-resolution computational models to improve our understanding of atmospheric explosions, and have suggested that multiple airbursts from fragmented impactors could be responsible for regional effects. Our models have been cited in support of the widely-publicized YDB impact hypothesis. Proponents claim that a broken comet exploded over North America, with some fragments cratering the Laurentide Ice Sheet. They

  18. Estimation of porosity of Khewra sandstone of cambrian age by using helium porosimeter and its application in reservoir evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Bhatti, A.A.; Gillani, S.T.A.; Raza, A.


    Estimation of petrophysical properties of the rock formations played decisive role in all the processes of petroleum exploration. The Cambrian sequence is well established as reservoir rocks in the various parts of the world from where petroleum is being tapped. The Cambrian sequence has been encountered in the Potwar area and limited petroleum is being produced from the Adhi Oil Field. The Khewra Sandstone of the Cambrian sequence is outcropped in the Khewra Gorge, Salt Range Pakistan below an unconformity qf the Tobra Formation. For the assessment of porosity and reservoir characterization Helium Porosimeter has been used, six samples Qf the upper horizon were collected from various locations of the Khewra Gorge and the Khewra Choha Sadden Shah road side section; cores were prepared from these samples according to the instrument standard. The results of this study revealed that the upper horizon Qf the Khewra Sandstone Formation has good porosity ranging from 18.76% to 21.07%, porosity varied in different parts of the formation. These results are in good agreement with the internationally reported values for petroleum reservoir of the Cambrian sandstone. (author)

  19. Stratigraphic significance of Cruziana: New data concerning the Cambrian-Ordovician ichnostratigraphic paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magwood, J.P.A.; Pemberton, S.G. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))


    The classic Cambrian-Ordovician ichnostratigraphic paradigm originally developed in Europe is based on the assumption that Cruziana - ichnofossils presumably produced by trilobites - can be used in much the same way as trilobite body fossils have been used in chronostratigraphy. That these ichnofossils can be found in many otherwise unfossiliferous, shallow-marine siliciclastic deposits has made them extremely valuable as correlation tools. The paradigm has been used to date lower Paleozoic units in eastern Canada and Europe. It has also been used as supporting evidence to show close affinities between (1) eastern North America, Wales, and Spain and (2) Spain, northern Africa, and southern Asia. Ichnospecies indicative of the Lower Ordovician (Tremadocian and Arenigian), according to the paradigm, have been recovered from the Lower Cambrian (Atdabanian) Gog Group, near Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada. This discovery indicates that these ichnospecies cannot be used as global Lower Ordovician index fossils.

  20. Isotopic investigation of the late neoproterozoic and early cambrian carbon cycle on the northern Yangtze platform, south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Qingjun; Liu Congqiang; Harald Strauss; Tatiana Goldberg


    The Precambrian-Cambrian transition is one of the critical time intervals in Earth history. Profound geotectonic, climatic and biological changes occur during the late Neoproterozoic and its transition into the early Cambrian. This study has researched on paired carbonate and organic carbon isotope determinations from Nanjiang, Sichuan Province of the Yangtze Platform, and provided a preliminary geochemical explanation for environmental variations and bio-events observed on the northern Yangtze Platform during the Precambrian-Cambrian transitional interval and their causal relationship. Organic carbon isotopic compositions on sediments vary from -35.8 to -30.1‰ at Nanjiang section; carbonate carbon isotopic compositions change between -3.5 and +0.5‰. Various carbon and sulphur isotopic compositions, different pyrite and organic matter content reflect changing environment and burial of organic matter in the Dengying Fm., the lower and upper part of Niutitang Fm. Anoxic conditions result in widespread preservation of organic rich sediments and pyrites in the black shales on the Yangtze Platform. (authors)

  1. Diachronism in the late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian arc-rift transition of North Gondwana: A comparison of Morocco and the Iberian Ossa-Morena Zone (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Bellido, Félix; Gasquet, Dominique; Pereira, M. Francisco; Quesada, Cecilio; Sánchez-García, Teresa


    In the northwestern border of the West African craton (North Gondwana), a transition from late Neoproterozoic subduction/collision to Cambrian rift processes was recorded in the Anti-Atlas (Morocco) and in the Ossa-Morena Zone (Iberia). Cambrian rifting affected both Pan-African and Cadomian basements in a stepwise and diachronous way. Subsequently, both areas evolved into a syn-rift margin episodically punctuated by uplift and tilting that precluded Furongian sedimentation. A comparison of sedimentary, volcanic and geodynamic evolution is made in the late Neoproterozoic (Pan-African and Cadomian) belts and Cambrian rifts trying to solve the apparent diachronous (SW-NE-trending) propagation of an early Palaeozoic rifting regime that finally led to the opening of the Rheic Ocean.

  2. Genesis of early Cambrian phosphorite of Krol Belt, Lesser Himalaya

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazumdar, A.; Banerjee, D.M.

    depositional en- vironment. Similar shallow marine character for Late Vendian and Early Cambrian phosphorites have been recorded from Yangtze Basin (South China), Khub- shugul Basin (Mongolia), Karatau Basin (Kazakh- stan), Soltaniah Basin (Iran), Tal Basin.... This characteris- tic of microbial mats may enable them to bind the franco- lite microcrysts on their surfaces, giving rise to microbial laminations. The capacity of microbiota, viz. bacteria, fungi and cyanobacterial mat-forming microphytes to trap and bind...

  3. Nd-Sr isotopic and geochemical systematics in Cambrian boninites and tholeiites from Victoria, Australia (United States)

    Nelson, D. R.; Crawford, A. J.; McCulloch, M. T.


    Rocks with boninitic affinities have been recognised in a number of “ophiolites”, including the Cambrian Heathcote and Mt Wellington Greenstone Belts of Victoria. Boninites and high-Mg andesites from the Heathcote Greenstone Belt show a restricted range of initial ɛ Nd values of between +3.3 to +5.8. Extremely refractory boninites from the Mt Wellington Greenstone Belt have ɛ Nd ranging from +1.3 to -9. Ti/Zr is positively correlated with Sm/Nd with the Heathcote lavas generally possessing greater depletion of Ti and enrichment of Zr relative to the middle and heavy REE with increasing LREE/HREE. These data are consistent with the generation of boninites by partial melting of refractory peridotite following invasion by LREE- and Zr-enriched, low ɛ Nd fluids. Tholeiites overlying the boninites in both greenstone belts have flat REE patterns and ɛ Nd˜+5, lower than that anticipated for lavas derived from depleted MORB source reservoirs in the Cambrian, suggesting that their source was also contaminated by a LREE-enriched, low ɛ Nd component similar to that involved in the generation of the Howqua boninites. The added components have characteristics compatible with their derivation from subducted altered oceanic crust and/or from wet subducted sediments. The identification of boninites and other low-Ti lavas in the Victorian greenstone belts is strong evidence for island arc development in southeastern Australia during the Lower Cambrian and provides further support for a subduction-related origin for many ophiolites.

  4. Cambrian and Ordovician Fossil-Lagerstätten in the Barrandian area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fatka, O.; Budil, P.; Kraft, P.; Mergl, M.; Mikuláš, Radek; Valent, M.; Lajblová, K.; Rak, Š.; Steinová, M.; Szabad, M.; Micka, V.; Aubrechtová, M.; Lajbl, L.; Nohejlová, M.; Vodička, J.


    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2012), s. 22-25 ISSN 1212-6209. [Congress of CGS and SGS. Moninec, 2011.09.22-2011.09.25] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/0395; GA ČR GA205/09/1521 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Cambrian * Ordovician * Fossil-Lagerstätten Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  5. Self-regulation of trilobite diversity in Murero (middle Cambrian, Spain) due to compensatory extinction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Villalta, J.S.


    As species accumulate in a community, competition for available ecospace is expected to prevent the addition of new species and to facilitate species extinction, thus producing a dynamic equilibrium of diversity. This mechanism remains under debate since its empirical support comes mainly from indirect or partial evidence, with very few direct tests at the species level. Here a new method is described to detect the presence of selfregulation feedbacks between species richness and turnover rates. It consists of Monte Carlo simulations which randomize the distribution of species ranges among stratigraphic intervals, providing predictions which allow the detection of genuine self-regulation feedbacks in the real data. Since the simulations include any potential bias due to preservation, sampling, or change in depositional environment, and these biases would also affect the real dataset, they are thus ruled out as explanations for any difference found. This method is applied to one of the best known fossiliferous sequences worldwide, the Rambla de Valdemiedes in Murero (RV1 section, middle Cambrian, Spain), a classic locality that has been studied for more than 150 years and which stands out due to its excellent sampling density, continuous deposition, and homogeneous fossil preservation. The results show that trilobite species richness was self-regulated due to positive feedback with extinction rate, which implies that compensatory extinction regulated this fauna in spite of the on-going Cambrian radiation. The lack of evidence of any origination feedback suggests ecological opportunities were not limiting for new species to colonize this Cambrian community. (Author)

  6. The strata and palaeo-geomorphology framework at the end of neoproterozoic and development mode of source rocks at the beginning of Cambrian in Tarim Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang


    Full Text Available Referred to the new recognition from petroleum exploration of the Sinian to Cambrian in South China, it could be considered that the distribution of the early Cambrian source rocks was controlled by the palaeo-geomorphology at the end of Neoproterozoic in the Tarim Basin. Based on the zircon U-Pb dating of pyroclastic rock samples from the clastic rock stratum under the bottom of Cambrian carbonate rocks, the stratigraphic correlation of the Sinian to Cambrian was conducted to build the palaeo-geomorphology framework at the end of Neoproterozoic in Tarim Basin. Lastly, according to the development mode of source rocks at the beginning of Cambrian, the distribution of source rocks was predicted initially through the division of seismic facies. The youngest zircon concordia age of pyroclastic rocks from the bottom of well Tong 1 is 707±8Ma. It was revealed by the strata framework of the Sinian to Cambrian, the palaeo-geomorphology at the end of Neoproterozoic in Tarim Basin was characterized by an uplift highland in Bachu-Tazhong area, the south north high-low, and the west is higher than the east. The distribution of source rocks in the bottom of the Cambrian on the palaeo-platform and slopes was coincident with the Upper Sinian dolomite basically. But the contemporaneous sediment happened to be absent or changed in sedimentary facies on the uplift and its edges. From the seismic facies of the strata under the bottom of Cambrian, it could be concluded that source rocks in the type of the Xishanbraque Group (∈1xs was limited in the Manjiaer Depression, while the source rocks in the type of the Yuertusi Group (∈1y are widely distributed in south of Tabei Uplift, east Awat Depression, and even the Maigt Slope. However, among the west Awat Depression and western Tanguzibasi Depression, and the middle area of the Bachu-Tazhong Uplifts, the contemporaneous source rocks may have changed into sedimentary facies of tidal flat and lagoon, instead of

  7. Ichnologic evidence of a Cambrian age in the southern Amazon Craton: Implications for the onset of the Western Gondwana history (United States)

    Santos, Hudson P.; Mángano, M. Gabriela; Soares, Joelson L.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Bandeira, José; Rudnitzki, Isaac D.


    Colonization of the infaunal ecospace by burrowing bilaterians is one of the most important behavioral innovations during the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. The establishment of vertical burrows by suspension feeders in high-energy nearshore settings during Cambrian Age 2 is reflected by the appearance of the Skolithos Ichnofacies. For the first time, unquestionable vertical burrows typical of the Skolithos Ichnofacies, such as Skolithos linearis, Diplocraterion parallelum and Arenicolites isp., are recorded from nearshore siliciclastic deposits of the Raizama Formation, southeastern Amazon Craton, Brazil. Integration of ichnologic and sedimentologic datasets suggests that these trace fossils record colonization of high-energy and well-oxygenated nearshore sandy environments. Chronostratigraphically, the presence of these vertical burrows indicates an age not older than early Cambrian for the Raizama Formation, which traditionally has been regarded as Ediacaran. Therefore, the Raizama ichnofauna illustrates the advent of modern Phanerozoic ecology marked by the Agronomic Revolution. The discovery of the Skolithos Ichnofacies in these shallow-marine strata suggests possible connections between some central Western Gondwana basins.

  8. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of Cambrian to Triassic miogeoclinal and eugeoclinal strata of Sonora, Mexico (United States)

    Gehrels, G.E.; Stewart, John H.


    One hundred and eighty two individual detrital zircon grains from Cambrian through Permian miogeoclinal strata, Ordovician eugeoclinal rocks, and Triassic post-orogenic sediments in northwestern Sonora have been analyzed. During Cambrian, Devonian, Permian, and Triassic time, most zircons accumulating along this part of the Cordilleran margin were shed from 1.40-1.45 and 1.62-1.78 Ga igneous rocks that are widespread in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Zircons with ages of approximately 1.11 Ga are common in Cambrian strata and were apparently shed from granite bodies near the sample site. The sources of 225-280 Ma zircons in our Triassic sample are more problematic, as few igneous rocks of these ages are recognized in northwestern Mexico. Such sources may be present but unrecognized, or the grains could have been derived from igneous rocks of the appropriate ages to the northwest in the Mojave Desert region, to the east in Chihuahua and Coahuila, or to the south in accreted(?) arc-type terranes. Because the zircon grains in our Cambrian and Devonian to Triassic samples could have accumulated in proximity to basement rocks near their present position or in the Death Valley region of southern California, our data do not support or refute the existence of the Mojave-Sonora megashear. Ordovician strata of both miogeoclinal and eugeoclinal affinity are dominated by >1.77 Ga detrital zircons, which are considerably older than most basement rocks in the region. Zircon grains in the miogeoclinal sample were apparently derived from the Peace River arch area of northwestern Canada and transported southward by longshore currents. The eugeoclinal grains may also have come from the Peace River arch region, with southward transport by either sedimentary or tectonic processes, or they may have been shed from off-shelf slivers of continents (perhaps Antarctica?) removed from the Cordilleran margin during Neoproterozoic rifting. It is also possible that the

  9. Late Cambrian - Early Ordovician turbidites of Gorny Altai (Russia): Compositions, sources, deposition settings, and tectonic implications (United States)

    Kruk, Nikolai N.; Kuibida, Yana V.; Shokalsky, Sergey P.; Kiselev, Vladimir I.; Gusev, Nikolay I.


    The Cambrian-Ordovician transition was the time of several key events in the history of Central Asia. They were the accretion of Mariana-type island arc systems to the Siberian continent, the related large-scale orogeny and intrusions of basaltic and granitic magma and the formation of a huge turbidite basin commensurate with the Bengal Gulf basin in the western part of the Central Asian orogenic belt (CAOB). The structure of the basin, as well as the sources and environments of deposition remain open to discussion. This paper presents new major- and trace-element data on Late-Cambrian-Early Ordovician turbidites from different parts of the Russian Altai and a synthesis of Nd isotope composition and ages of detrital zircons. The turbidites share chemical similarity with material shed from weathered continental arcs. Broad variations of CIA (39-73) and ICV (0.63-1.66) signatures in sandstones suggest origin from diverse sources and absence of significant sorting. Trace elements vary considerably and have generally similar patterns in rocks from different terranes. On the other hand, there are at least two provinces according to Nd isotope composition and age of detrital zircons. Samples from eastern Russian Altai contain only Phanerozoic zircons and have Nd isotope ratios similar to those in Early Cambrian island arcs (εNdt + 4.4… + 5.4; TNd(DM)-2-st = 0.8-0.9 Ga). Samples from central, western, and southern parts of Russian Altai contain Precambrian zircons (some as old as Late Archean) and have a less radiogenic Nd composition (εNdt up to -3.6; TNd(DM)-2-st up to 1.5 Ga). The chemical signatures of Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician turbidites indicate a provenance chemically more mature than the island arc rocks, and the presence of zircons with 510-490 Ma ages disproves their genetic relation with island arcs. The turbidite basin formed simultaneously with peaks of granitic and alkali-basaltic magmatism in the western Central Asian orogen and resulted from

  10. Cambrian rivers and floodplains: the significance of microbial cementation, groundwater and aeolian sediment transport (United States)

    Reesink, A. J. H.; Best, J.; Freiburg, J. T.; Nathan, W.


    Rivers that existed before land plants colonized the Earth are commonly considered to be unaffected by microbial activity on their floodplains, because the limited cementation produced by microbial activity is insufficient to stabilize the river banks. Although this assumption is likely correct, such emphasis on channel dynamics ignores the potential role of floodplain dynamics as an integral component of the river system. Detailed analysis of cores from the Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone, Illinois, suggests that a significant proportion of the terrestrial sequence is composed of flat-bedded `crinkly' structures that provide evidence of cementation by soil crusts and microbial biofilms, and that promoted the adhesion of sediment to sticky surfaces. Wind ripples and local desert pavements were abundant. These findings highlight that sediment deposition on Cambrian floodplains was often dominated by wind in locations where the ground water table reached the surface, and was thus likely independent of sediment transport within the river channel. Erosion by wind would thus have been hindered by surface cementation and the formation of desert pavements. Such ground water control on deposition, and resistance to erosion by floodplain surface hardening, appear to have been the primary controls on Cambrian floodplain topography. Because floodplain topography poses a key control on channel and floodplain flow, these processes may have affected patterns of erosion and deposition, as well as reach-scale dynamics such as channel avulsions. The autonomous operation of wind-and-groundwater controlled floodplains makes pre-vegetated river systems more sensitive to climatic conditions such as precipitation and evaporation, and strikingly different from those that occurred after the development of land plants.

  11. Le volcanisme cambrien du Maroc central : implications géodynamiquesThe Central Morocco Cambrian volcanism: geodynamic implications (United States)

    Ouali, Houssa; Briand, Bernard; Bouchardon, Jean-Luc; Capiez, Paul


    In southeastern Central Morocco, the Bou-Acila volcanic complex is considered of Cambrian age. In spite of low-grade metamorphic effect, initial volcanic texture and mineralogy can be recognized and volcanic rocks are dominated by dolerites and porphyric dolerites. The initial mineralogy is composed of plagioclases, pyroxenes and dark minerals. A secondary mineral assemblage is composed of albite, epidote, chlorite and calcite. According to their immobile elements compositions, the southeastern central Morocco metavolcanites are of within-plate continental tholeiites. This volcanism and those recognized in many other areas in Morocco confirm a Cambrian extensive episode within the Gondwana supercontinent. To cite this article: H. Ouali et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).To cite this article: H. Ouali et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  12. High-Precision U-Pb Geochronology and Correlation: An example Using the Neoproterozic-Cambrian Transition (United States)

    Bowring, S. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Amthor, J.; Martin, M. E.


    The precise, global correlation of Precambrian and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks can be achieved using temporally calibrated chemostratigraphic records. This approach is essential for determining rates and causes of environmental and faunal change, including mass extinctions. For example, The Neoproterozoic is marked by major environmental change, including periods of global glaciation, large fluctuations in the sequestration of carbon and major tectonic reorganization followed by the explosive diversification of animals in the earliest Cambrian. The extreme climatic change associated with these glaciations have been implicated as a possible trigger for the Cambrian explosion. The recognition of thin zircon-bearing air-fall ash in Neoproterozoic and Cambrian rocks has allowed the establishment of a high-precision temporal framework for animal evolution and is helping to untangle the history of glaciations. In some cases analytical uncertainties translate to age uncertainties of less than 1 Ma and when integrated with chemostratigraphy, the potential for global correlations at even higher resolution. Progress in the global correlation of Neoproterozoic strata has been achieved through the use of C and Sr isotope chemostratigraphy although it has been hampered by a lack of precise geochronological and faunal control. For example, the period from ca 800-580 Ma is characterized by at least two and perhaps as many as four glacial events that are interpreted by many to be global glaciations on a "Snowball Earth". A lack of precise chronological constraints on the number and duration of glaciations, multiple large excursions in the carbon isotopic record, and an absence of detailed biostratigraphy have complicated global correlation and hindered our understanding of this important period of Earth history. However, the ongoing integration of chemostratigraphic and geochronological data are improving temporal resolution and detailed correlations. These data are critical for

  13. The Early Cambrian Mianyang-Changning Intracratonic Sag and Its Control on Petroleum Accumulation in the Sichuan Basin, China

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    Shugen Liu


    Full Text Available The older and deeper hydrocarbon accumulations receive increasing attention across the world, providing more technical and commercial challenges to hydrocarbon exploration. We present a study of an asymmetrical, N-S striking intracratonic sag which developed across the Sichuan basin, south China, from Late Ediacaran to Early Cambrian times. The Mianyang-Changning intracratonic sag is ~50 km wide, with its steepest part in the basin center. In particular the eastern margin shows its greatest steepness. Five episodes in the evolutions of the sag can be recognized. It begins in the Late Ediacaran with an uplift and erosion correlated to Tongwan movement. Initial extension occurred during the Early Cambrian Maidiping period, when more strata of the Maidiping Formation were deposited across the sag. Subsequently, maximum extension occurred during the Early Cambrian Qiongzhusi period that resulted in 450–1700 m thick Maidiping-Canglangpu Formations being deposited in the sag. Then, the sag disappeared at the Longwangmiao period, as it was infilled by the sediments. The intracratonic sag has significant influence on the development of high-quality reservoirs in the Dengying and Longwangmiao Formations and source-rock of the Niutitang Formation. It thus indicates that a high probability for oil/gas accumulation exists along the intracratonic sag, across the central Sichuan basin.

  14. A Blind Test of the Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis.

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    Vance Holliday

    Full Text Available The Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis (YDIH states that North America was devastated by some sort of extraterrestrial event ~12,800 calendar years before present. Two fundamental questions persist in the debate over the YDIH: Can the results of analyses for purported impact indicators be reproduced? And are the indicators unique to the lower YD boundary (YDB, i.e., ~12.8k cal yrs BP? A test reported here presents the results of analyses that address these questions. Two different labs analyzed identical splits of samples collected at, above, and below the ~12.8ka zone at the Lubbock Lake archaeological site (LL in northwest Texas. Both labs reported similar variation in levels of magnetic micrograins (>300 mg/kg >12.8ka and <11.5ka, but <150 mg/kg 12.8ka to 11.5ka. Analysis for magnetic microspheres in one split, reported elsewhere, produced very low to nonexistent levels throughout the section. In the other split, reported here, the levels of magnetic microspherules and nanodiamonds are low or nonexistent at, below, and above the YDB with the notable exception of a sample <11,500 cal years old. In that sample the claimed impact proxies were recovered at abundances two to four orders of magnitude above that from the other samples. Reproducibility of at least some analyses are problematic. In particular, no standard criteria exist for identification of magnetic spheres. Moreover, the purported impact proxies are not unique to the YDB.

  15. Fossil embryos from the Middle and Late Cambrian period of Hunan, south China. (United States)

    Dong, Xi-Ping; Donoghue, Philip C J; Cheng, Hong; Liu, Jian-Bo


    Comparative embryology is integral to uncovering the pattern and process of metazoan phylogeny, but it relies on the assumption that life histories of living taxa are representative of their antecedents. Fossil embryos provide a crucial test of this assumption and, potentially, insight into the evolution of development, but because discoveries so far lack phylogenetic constraint, their significance is moot. Here we describe a collection of embryos from the Middle and Late Cambrian period (500 million years ago) of Hunan, south China, that preserves stages of development from cleavage to the pre-hatching embryo of a direct-developing animal comparable to living Scalidophora (phyla Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera). The latest-stage embryos show affinity to the Lower Cambrian embryo Markuelia, whose life-history strategy contrasts both with the primitive condition inferred for metazoan phyla and with many proposed hypotheses of affinity, all of which prescribe indirect development. Phylogenetic tests based on these embryological data suggest a stem Scalidophora affinity. These discoveries corroborate, rather than contradict, the predictions of comparative embryology, providing direct historical support for the view that the life-history strategies of living taxa are representative of their stem lineages.

  16. Controls on gut phosphatisation: the trilobites from the Weeks Formation Lagerstätte (Cambrian; Utah.

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    Rudy Lerosey-Aubril

    Full Text Available Despite being internal organs, digestive structures are frequently preserved in Cambrian Lagerstätten. However, the reasons for their fossilisation and their biological implications remain to be thoroughly explored. This is particularly true with arthropods--typically the most diverse fossilised organisms in Cambrian ecosystems--where digestive structures represent an as-yet underexploited alternative to appendage morphology for inferences on their biology. Here we describe the phosphatised digestive structures of three trilobite species from the Cambrian Weeks Formation Lagerstätte (Utah. Their exquisite, three-dimensional preservation reveals unique details on trilobite internal anatomy, such as the position of the mouth and the absence of a differentiated crop. In addition, the presence of paired pygidial organs of an unknown function is reported for the first time. This exceptional material enables exploration of the relationships between gut phosphatisation and the biology of organisms. Indeed, soft-tissue preservation is unusual in these fossils as it is restricted to the digestive structures, which indicates that the gut played a central role in its own phosphatisation. We hypothesize that the gut provided a microenvironment where special conditions could develop and harboured a source of phosphorus. The fact that gut phosphatization has almost exclusively been observed in arthropods could be explained by their uncommon ability to store ions (including phosphorous in their digestive tissues. However, in some specimens from the Weeks Formation, the phosphatisation extends to the entire digestive system, suggesting that trilobites might have had some biological particularities not observed in modern arthropods. We speculate that one of them might have been an increased capacity for ion storage in the gut tissues, related to the moulting of their heavily-mineralised carapace.

  17. Morphology and ultrastructure of epilithic versus cryptic, microbial growth in lower Cambrian phosphorites from the Montagne Noire, France. (United States)

    Alvaro, J J; Clausen, S


    The lower Cambrian grainy phosphorites of the northern Montagne Noire occur interbedded with grey to black, laminated to massive shales and limestones deposited along the edge of a continental shelf, associated with slope-related facies and unstable substrates. The concentration of phosphate took place by repeated alternations of low sedimentation rates and condensation (hardgrounds), in situ early-diagenetic precipitation of fluorapatite, winnowing and polyphase reworking of previously phosphatized skeletons and hardground-derived clasts. The succession of repeated cycles of sedimentation, phosphate concentration, and reworking led to multi-event phosphate deposits rich in allochthonous particles. Phosphogenesis was primarily mediated by microbial activity, which is evidenced by the abundance of phosphatized putative microbial remains. These occur as smooth and segmented filaments, sheaths, and ovoid-shaped coccoids. These simple morphologies commonly form composite frameworks as a result of their aggregation and entanglement, leading to the record of biofilms, microbial mats, and complex networks. These infested the calcitic skeletonized microfossils that littered the substrate. Microbial activity evidences epilithic (anisotropic coatings on skeletons), euendolithic (perforating skeletal walls), and cryptoendolithic (lining inter- and intraparticulate pores) strategies, the latter dominated by bundles of filaments and globular clusters that grew along the cavities of helcionellids and hyoliths. According to their epilithic versus cryptic strategies, microbial populations that penetrated and dwelled inside hard skeletal substrates show different network and colonial morphologies. These early Cambrian shell concentrations were the loci of a stepwise colonization made by saprophytic to mutualistic, cyanobacterial-fungal consortia. Their euendolithic and cryptoendolithic ecological niches provided microbial refugia to manage the grazing impact mainly led by metazoans.

  18. Arthropod eyes: The early Cambrian fossil record and divergent evolution of visual systems. (United States)

    Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Ma, Xiaoya; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Fortey, Richard A; Land, Michael F; Liu, Yu; Cong, Peiyun; Hou, Xianguang


    Four types of eyes serve the visual neuropils of extant arthropods: compound retinas composed of adjacent facets; a visual surface populated by spaced eyelets; a smooth transparent cuticle providing inwardly directed lens cylinders; and single-lens eyes. The first type is a characteristic of pancrustaceans, the eyes of which comprise lenses arranged as hexagonal or rectilinear arrays, each lens crowning 8-9 photoreceptor neurons. Except for Scutigeromorpha, the second type typifies Myriapoda whose relatively large eyelets surmount numerous photoreceptive rhabdoms stacked together as tiers. Scutigeromorph eyes are facetted, each lens crowning some dozen photoreceptor neurons of a modified apposition-type eye. Extant chelicerate eyes are single-lensed except in xiphosurans, whose lateral eyes comprise a cuticle with a smooth outer surface and an inner one providing regular arrays of lens cylinders. This account discusses whether these disparate eye types speak for or against divergence from one ancestral eye type. Previous considerations of eye evolution, focusing on the eyes of trilobites and on facet proliferation in xiphosurans and myriapods, have proposed that the mode of development of eyes in those taxa is distinct from that of pancrustaceans and is the plesiomorphic condition from which facetted eyes have evolved. But the recent discovery of enormous regularly facetted compound eyes belonging to early Cambrian radiodontans suggests that high-resolution facetted eyes with superior optics may be the ground pattern organization for arthropods, predating the evolution of arthrodization and jointed post-protocerebral appendages. Here we provide evidence that compound eye organization in stem-group euarthropods of the Cambrian can be understood in terms of eye morphologies diverging from this ancestral radiodontan-type ground pattern. We show that in certain Cambrian groups apposition eyes relate to fixed or mobile eyestalks, whereas other groups reveal concomitant

  19. Stable isotope (δ13Cker, δ13Ccarb, δ18Ocarb distribution along a Cambrian outcrop section in the eastern Tarim Basin, NW China and its geochemical significance

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    Hu Liu


    Full Text Available This study investigated the geochemical features of the lower Paleozoic strata of Yaerdang Mountain outcrop along with the core samples from well TD2∈ in the eastern Tarim Basin, NW China. The total organic carbon abundance, hydrocarbon-generating precursor biospecies, and stable isotope ratios of organics and carbonate (δ13Cker, δ13Ccarb and δ18Ocarb were comprehensively studied for their possible correlative constraints during sedimentary evolution. The results revealed that the δ13Cker (VPDB of Cambrian kerogens along the outcrop section varied from −34.6‰ to −28.4‰, indicating an increasing tendency from the lower Cambrian to the upper Cambrian. This was on the whole accompanied by the variation in the δ13Ccarb and δ18Ocarb along the profile, which might be associated with the changes in the sea level and also in the compositional variation of benthic and planktonic biomass. The large variation in the stable carbon isotope ratios up to 6‰ along the outcrop section reflected the heterogeneity of the Cambrian source rocks from the eastern Tarim Basin. Hence, the 13C-enriched crude oils from well TD2∈ might have been derived from a localized stratum of Cambrian source rocks. The results from this study showed the possibility of multiple source kitchens in the Cambrian–lower Ordovician portion of Tarim Basin.

  20. Late Pleistocene Megafaunal Extinction Consistent With YDB Impact Hypothesis at Younger Dryas Onset (United States)

    Kennett, J. P.; Kennett, D. J.


    At least 35 mammal and 19 bird genera became extinct across North America near the end of the Pleistocene. Modern increases in stratigraphic and dating resolution suggest that this extinction occurred relatively rapidly near 12.9 ka (11 radiocarbon kyrs). Within the context of a long-standing debate about its cause, Firestone et al., (2007) proposed that this extinction resulted from an extraterrestrial (ET) impact over North America at 12.9 ka. This hypothesis predicts that the extinction of most of these animals should have occurred abruptly at 12.9 ka. To test this hypothesis, we have critically examined radiocarbon ages and the extinction stratigraphy of these taxa. From a large data pool, we selected only radiocarbon dates with low error margins with a preference for directly dated biological materials (e.g., bone, dung, etc.) and modern chemical purification techniques. A relatively small number of acceptable dates indicate that at least 16 animal genera and several other species became extinct close to 12.9 ka. These taxa include the most common animals of the late Pleistocene such as horses, camels, and mammoths. Also, the remains of extinct taxa are reportedly found up to, but not above, the base of a widely distributed carbon-rich layer called the black mat. This stratum forms an abrupt, major biostratigraphic boundary at the Younger Dryas onset (12.9 ka), which also contains multiple ET markers comprising the impact layer (the YDB). Surviving animal populations were abruptly reduced at the YDB (e.g., Bison), with major range restrictions and apparent evolutionary bottlenecks. The abruptness of this major extinction is inconsistent with the hypotheses of human overkill and climatic change. We argue that extinction ages older than 12.9 ka for many less common species result from the Signor-Lipps effect, but the impact hypothesis predicts that as new dates are acquired, they will approach ever closer to 12.9 ka. The megafaunal extinction is strongly

  1. Proterozoic structure, cambrian rifting, and younger faulting as revealed by a regional seismic reflection network in the Southern Illinois Basin (United States)

    Potter, C.J.; Drahovzal, James A.; Sargent, M.L.; McBride, J.H.


    Four high-quality seismic reflection profiles through the southern Illinois Basin, totaling 245 km in length, provide an excellent regional subsurface stratigraphic and structural framework for evaluation of seismic risk, hydrocarbon occurrence, and other regional geologic studies. These data provide extensive subsurface information on the geometry of the intersection of the Cambrian Reelfoot and Rough Creek rifts, on extensive Proterozoic reflection sequences, and on structures (including the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex and Hicks Dome) that underlie a transitional area between the well-defined New Madrid seismic zone (to the southwest) and a more diffuse area of seismicity in the southern Illinois Basin. Our principal interpretations from these data are listed here in order of geologic age, from oldest to youngest: 1. Prominent Proterozoic layering, possibly equivalent to Proterozoic (???1 Ga) Middle Run Formation clastic strata and underlying (1.3-1.5 Ga) volcanic rocks of the East Continent rift basin, has been strongly deformed, probably as part of the Grenville foreland fold and thrust belt. 2. A well-defined angular unconformity is seen in many places between Proterozoic and Cambrian strata; a post-Grenville Proterozoic sequence is also apparent locally, directly beneath the base of the Cambrian. 3. We infer a major reversal in Cambrian rift polarity (accommodation zone) in the Rough Creek Graben in western Kentucky. 4. Seismic facies analysis suggests the presence of basin-floor fan complexes at and near the base of the Cambrian interval and within parts of a Proterozoic post-Grenville sequence in several parts of the Rough Creek Graben. 5. There is an abrupt pinchout of the Mount Simon Sandstone against crystalline basement beneath the Dale Dome (near the Texaco no. 1 Cuppy well, Hamilton County) in southeastern Illinois, and a more gradual Mount Simon pinchout to the southeast. 6. Where crossed by the seismic reflection line in southeast Illinois, some

  2. Three-dimensionally preserved minute larva of a great-appendage arthropod from the early Cambrian Chengjiang biota (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Melzer, Roland R.; Haug, Joachim T.; Haug, Carolin; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Hörnig, Marie K.; He, Yu-yang; Hou, Xian-guang


    A three-dimensionally preserved 2-mm-long larva of the arthropod Leanchoilia illecebrosa from the 520-million-year-old early Cambrian Chengjiang biota of China represents the first evidence, to our knowledge, of such an early developmental stage in a short-great-appendage (SGA) arthropod. The larva possesses a pair of three-fingered great appendages, a hypostome, and four pairs of well-developed biramous appendages. More posteriorly, a series of rudimentary limb Anlagen revealed by X-ray microcomputed tomography shows a gradient of decreasing differentiation toward the rear. This, and postembryonic segment addition at the putative growth zone, are features of late-stage metanauplii of eucrustaceans. L. illecebrosa and other SGA arthropods, however, are considered representative of early chelicerates or part of the stem lineage of all euarthropods. The larva of an early Cambrian SGA arthropod with a small number of anterior segments and their respective appendages suggests that posthatching segment addition occurred in the ancestor of Euarthropoda.

  3. Paleomagnetism of Early Cambrian Itabaiana mafic dikes (NE Brazil) and the final assembly of Gondwana (United States)

    Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; D'Agrella-Filho, Manoel S.; Epof, Igor; Brito Neves, Benjamim B.


    Paleomagnetic analysis on 15 early Cambrian mafic dikes from Itabaiana (Paraíba State) yielded a southern (northwestern) direction with steep upward (downward) inclination ( Dm = 167.5°, Im = - 63.7°, α95 = 7.3°). AF and Thermal demagnetization, thermomagnetic curves, and hysteresis results suggest that this component is dominantly carried by fine-grained SD magnetite. The high stability of this component and positive baked contact tests on three dikes indicate it represents a primary thermoremanent magnetization. Ar-Ar analysis on whole-rock samples from two sites provides a strong constraint on the age of the Itabaiana paleomagnetic pole (134.6° E, 34.9° S; A95 = 7.3, K = 28) defined by plateau ages of 525 ± 5 and 526 ± 4 Ma. This pole completely satisfies six out of the seven quality criteria proposed by Van der Voo [R. Van der Voo, The reliability of paleomagnetic data, Tectonophysics 184 (1990) 1-9.] and permits a tight constraint on the Early Cambrian sector of the Gondwana apparent polar wander path. Paleogeographic reconstructions consistent with the available paleomagnetic and geological record show that Gondwana was sutured along three major orogenies, the Mozambique (Brasilano/Pan-African) Orogeny (800-650 Ma), the Kuunga Orogeny (570-530 Ma) and the Pampean-Araguaia Orogeny (540-520 Ma). We suggest that after rifting away from Laurentia at the end of the Neoproterozoic, opening the Iapetus ocean, the Amazonian craton and minor adjoining blocks, such as Rio Apa and Pampia, collided with the proto-Gondwana by Cambrian times at ca. 530-520 Ma. Unless for small adjustments, Gondwana was completely formed by 525 Ma whose paleogeography is defined by the Itabaiana pole.

  4. Controls on Gut Phosphatisation: The Trilobites from the Weeks Formation Lagerstätte (Cambrian; Utah) (United States)

    Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Hegna, Thomas A.; Kier, Carlo; Bonino, Enrico; Habersetzer, Jörg; Carré, Matthieu


    Despite being internal organs, digestive structures are frequently preserved in Cambrian Lagerstätten. However, the reasons for their fossilisation and their biological implications remain to be thoroughly explored. This is particularly true with arthropods – typically the most diverse fossilised organisms in Cambrian ecosystems – where digestive structures represent an as-yet underexploited alternative to appendage morphology for inferences on their biology. Here we describe the phosphatised digestive structures of three trilobite species from the Cambrian Weeks Formation Lagerstätte (Utah). Their exquisite, three-dimensional preservation reveals unique details on trilobite internal anatomy, such as the position of the mouth and the absence of a differentiated crop. In addition, the presence of paired pygidial organs of an unknown function is reported for the first time. This exceptional material enables exploration of the relationships between gut phosphatisation and the biology of organisms. Indeed, soft-tissue preservation is unusual in these fossils as it is restricted to the digestive structures, which indicates that the gut played a central role in its own phosphatisation. We hypothesize that the gut provided a microenvironment where special conditions could develop and harboured a source of phosphorus. The fact that gut phosphatization has almost exclusively been observed in arthropods could be explained by their uncommon ability to store ions (including phosphorous) in their digestive tissues. However, in some specimens from the Weeks Formation, the phosphatisation extends to the entire digestive system, suggesting that trilobites might have had some biological particularities not observed in modern arthropods. We speculate that one of them might have been an increased capacity for ion storage in the gut tissues, related to the moulting of their heavily-mineralised carapace. PMID:22431989

  5. Reproductive cyst and operculum formation in the Cambrian-Ordovician galeate-plexus microfossils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agic, Heda; Moczydlowska, Malgorzata; Canfield, Donald Eugene


    Unicellular organic-walled microfossils from the Cambrian-Ordovician transition in Estonia (ca. 490-480million years ago) exhibit rare characters reflecting their function as reproductive algal cysts. The studied assemblages record the evolutionary history of phytoplankton in the early Palaeozoic...... alga Acetabularia (Chlorophyta), which possesses an intrinsic lid-forming apparatus used during the organism's reproductive stage. Based on the observations on the fossil material and studies on the Acetabularia lid formation, we propose a model of operculum formation in the galeate plexus micro-organisms...

  6. New data on the Lower Cambrian trilobites of Cortijos de Malagon (Spain

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    Jago, J. B.


    Full Text Available A Small trilobite fauna from the late Lower Cambrian Sanstones from Los Cortijos de Malagon of Southem Spain is described herein. This fauna ineludes the following taxa: Realaspis (? sp.; Kingaspis (? sp.; cf. Latoucheia sp. and Lusatiops afI. ribotanusd, Richter and Richter, 1948.En este trabajo se describe la fauna de trilobites del Cámbrico inferior de las areniscas de los Cortijos de Malagón en el SE español. Comprende Realaspis (? sp., Kingaspis (? sp.; cf. Latoucheia sp. y Lusatiops afI. ribotanus. Richter y Richter, 1948.

  7. X-ray tomographic microscopy tightens affinity of the early Cambrian Oymurania to the brachiopod stem group

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    Artem Kouchinsky


    Full Text Available The geologically rapid biotic evolution in the early Cambrian is marked by the first appearance of major groups of animals in the fossil record (e.g., Budd and Jensen 2000; Kouchinsky et al. 2012. Along with the earliest crown-group representatives of the phylum Brachiopoda, more basal branches of the phylogenetic tree belonging to the stem-group Brachiopoda, such as tannuolinids and mikwitziids, diversified and became widespread during the early Cambrian (e.g., Williams and Holmer 2002; Balthasar et al. 2009; Skovsted et al. 2014. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM of Oymurania gravestocki reveals the microstructure of its calcium-phosphatic shell differentiated into two layers and intersecting systems of canals. The outer layer shows the acrotretoid columnar microstructure and the inner layer consists of continuous prismatic columns. Phosphatized setae preserved within tangential canals, as well as perpendicular canals of Micrina–Setatella type demonstrate homology with the tannuolinid Micrina and the mickwitziid Setatella. A unique and novel combination of microstructural features in Oymurania confirms its evolutionary position within the brachiopod stem group.

  8. Density Variations in Quartz As a Key for Deciphering Impact-Related Ultrasonic Sounding (Rajlich's Hypothesis)? (United States)

    Mestan, J.; Alvarez Polanco, E. I.


    Ultrasound is a form of mechanical energy with a frequency greater than ≈ 20 kHz (upper human hearing limit). It is used in many scientific as well as industrial fields. Most modern applications of ultrasound utilize sources which are either piezoelectric or magnetostrictive (Benwell et Bly 1987). A meteorite impact has been considered to be an ultrasound source during last years (Rajlich 2011). Rajlich (2014) is coming with a hypothesis that white planes made of microcavities in Bohemian quartz have their origin in an impact-related ultrasonic sounding. The Bohemian Massif has been considered to be one of the largest impact craters in whole of the world (Papagiannis et El-Baz 1988, Papagiannis 1989, Rajlich 2014). Rajlich's hypothesis implies a liquid behavior of quartz during the impact event. We state that then there have to exist planes of slightly higher density than their surroundings together with planes of microcavities. They should intersect each other without mutual influencing (as in a case of planes made of microcavities). Because physics of ultrasound during an impact event is a brand new and unknown field, we try to choose a simple way of its cognition. It is possible to take the sine wave and set 3 requirements. (1) There exist some surroundings of points of peak amplitudes. (2) These surroundings are of higher density (compression) or lower density (rarefaction) than the mean density of quartz. (3) The difference between the higher/lower and surrounding density is measurable. There was done an experimental study of Bohemian quartz using QCT bone densitometry at the Radiology Munich. Quartz with a size of ≈ 5 x 8 cm absorbed too much RTG radiation (kV 140, mAs 330), which made a picture of internal structure impossible. We propose another techniques and appeal to other scientists to face this challenge. If Bohemian quartz has a harmonically distributed density, we consider it to be a support for Rajlich's hypothesis. AcknowledgementsWe would like

  9. Microbial involvement in the formation of Cambrian sea-floor silica-iron oxide deposits, Australia (United States)

    Duhig, Nathan C.; Davidson, Garry J.; Stolz, Joe


    The Cambrian-Ordovician Mount Windsor volcanic belt in northern Australia is host to stratiform lenses of massive ferruginous chert that are spatially associated with volcanogenic massive sulfide occurrences, in particular the Thalanga zinc-lead-copper-silver deposit. The rocks are composed principally of Fe2O3 and SiO2, with very low concentrations of alkalic elements, and lithogenous elements such as Al, Zr, and Ti; they are interpreted as nearly pure chemical sediments. Textural evidence is documented of the integral role of filamentous bacteria (and/or fungi) in depositing iron from hydrothermal fluids, and of the inorganic precipitation of silica-iron-oxyhydroxide gels that subsequently matured to subcrystalline and crystalline silica forms. At least three distinct iron-accumulating microbial forms are distinguished: networks of septate filaments, nonseptate filament networks, and extremely coarse branching filaments that do not reconnect. Values for δ34S in disseminated pyrite are up to 50‰ lighter than those of contemporaneous Cambrian seawater, suggesting postdepositional colonization of some ironstones by sulfur-reducing bacteria. The site not only preserves the textural interplay of biological and inorganic depositional processes in exhalites, but also extends the oldest known instance of microbial mediation in vent-proximal hydrothermal iron precipitation to at least 500 Ma.

  10. Kodymirus and the case for convergence of raptorial appendages in Cambrian arthropods. (United States)

    Lamsdell, James C; Stein, Martin; Selden, Paul A


    Kodymirus vagans Chlupáč and Havlíček in Sb Geol Ved Paleontol 6:7-20, 1965 is redescribed as an aglaspidid-like arthropod bearing a single pair of enlarged raptorial appendages, which are shown to be the second cephalic appendage. A number of early Palaeozoic arthropods, recognized from predominantly Cambrian Konservat-Lagerstätten, are known to have borne single pairs of large raptorial appendages. They are well established for the iconic yet problematic anomalocarids, the common megacheirans, and the ubiquitous bivalved Isoxys. Further taxa, such as fuxianhuiids and Branchiocaris, have been reported to have single pairs of specialized cephalic appendages, i.e., appendages differentiated from a largely homonomous limbs series, members of which act in metachronal motion. The homology of these raptorial appendages across these Cambrian arthropods has often been assumed, despite differences in morphology. Thus, anomalocaridids, for instance, have long multiarticulate "frontal appendages" consisting of many articles bearing an armature of paired serial spines, while megacheirans and Isoxys have short "great appendages" consisting of few articles with well-developed endites or elongate fingers. Homology of these appendages would require them to belong to the same cephalic segment. We argue based on morphological evidence that, to the contrary, the raptorial appendages of some of these taxa can be shown to belong to different cephalic segments and are the result of convergence in life habits. K. vagans is yet another important example for this, representing an instance for this morphology from a marginal marine environment.

  11. Lack of inhibiting effect of oil emplacement on quartz cementation: Evidence from Cambrian reservoir sandstones, Paleozoic Baltic Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molenaar, Nicolaas; Cyziene, Jolanta; Sliaupa, Saulius


    Currently, the question of whether or not the presence of oil in sandstone inhibits quartz cementation and preserves porosity is still debated. Data from a number of Cambrian sandstone oil fields and dry fields have been studied to determine the effects of oil emplacement on quartz cementation. T...

  12. Paleoproterozoic mojaveprovince in northwestern Mexico? Isotopic and U-Pb zircon geochronologic studies of precambrian and Cambrian crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Caborca, Sonora (United States)

    Lang, Farmer G.; Bowring, S.A.; Matzel, J.; Maldonado, G.E.; Fedo, C.; Wooden, J.


    Whole-rock Nd isotopic data and U-Pb zircon geochronology from Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Caborca area, northern Sonora, reveal that these rocks are most likely a segment of the Paleoproterozoic Mojave province. Supporting this conclusion are the observations that paragneiss from the ??? 1.75 Ga Bamori Complex has a 2.4 Ga Nd model age and contains detrital zircons ranging in age from Paleo- proterozoic (1.75 Ga) to Archean (3.2 Ga). Paragneisses with similar age and isotopic characteristics occur in the Mojave province in southern California. In addition, "A-type" granite exposed at the southern end of Cerro Rajon has ca 2.0 Ga Nd model age and a U-Pb zircon age of 1.71 Ga, which are similar to those of Paleoproterozoic granites in the Mojave province. Unlike the U.S. Mojave province, the Caborcan crust contains ca. 1.1 Ga granite (Aibo Granite), which our new Nd isotopic data suggest is largely the product of anatexis of the local Precambrian basement. Detrital zircons from Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian miogeoclinal arenites at Caborca show dominant populations ca. 1.7 Ga, ca. 1.4 Ga, and ca. 1.1 Ga, with subordinate Early Cambrian and Archean zircons. These zircons were likely derived predominately from North American crust to the east and northeast, and not from the underlying Caborcan basement. The general age and isotopic similarities between Mojave province basement and overlying miogeoclinal sedimentary rocks in Sonora and southern California is necessary, but not sufficient, proof of the hypothesis that Sonoran crust is allochthonous and was transported to its current position during the Mesozoic along the proposed Mojave-Sonora megashear. One viable alternative model is that the Caborcan Precambrian crust is an isolated, autochthonous segment of Mojave province crust that shares a similar, but not identical, Proterozoic geological history with Mojave province crust found in the southwest United States ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  13. Experimental taphonomy and the anatomy and diversity of the earliest fossil vertebrates (Chengjiang Biota, Cambrian, China) (United States)

    Purnell, Mark; Gabbott, Sarah; Murdock, Duncan; Cong, Peiyun


    The oldest fossil vertebrates are from the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang biota of China, which contains four genera of fish-like, primitive vertebrates: Haikouichthys, Myllokunmingia, Zhongjianichthys and Zhongxiniscus. These fossils play key roles in calibrating molecular clocks and informing our view of the anatomy of animals close to the origin of vertebrates, potentially including transitional forms between vertebrates and their nearest relatives. Despite the evident importance of these fossils, the degree to which taphonomic processes have affected their anatomical completeness has not been investigated. For example, some or all might have been affected by stemward slippage - the pattern observed in experimental decay of non-biomineralised chordates in which preferential decay of synapomorphies and retention of plesiomorphic characters would cause fossil taxa to erroneously occupy more basal positions than they should. This hypothesis is based on experimental data derived from decay of non-biomineralised chordates under laboratory conditions. We have expanded this analysis to include a broader range of potentially significant environmental variables; we have also compared and combined the results of experiments from several taxa to identify general patterns of chordate decay. Examination of the Chengjiang vertebrates in the light of these results demonstrates that, contrary to some assertions, experimentally derived models of phylogenetic bias are applicable to fossils. Anatomical and phylogenetic interpretations of early vertebrates that do not take taphonomic biases into account risk overestimating diversity and the evolutionary significance of differences between fossil specimens.

  14. Characterization of the Lower Cambrian sandstone aquifer in the Swedish Baltic Sea area - assessment regarding its potential suitability for storage of CO2 (United States)

    Erlström, M.; Sivhed, U.


    In the Baltic region the Cambrian sandstone is considered to have great economic value concerning its aquifer and reservoir properties. Its potential as petroleum reservoir is well known, especially from the Polish, Lithuanian and Russian sectors of the Baltic Sea where oil and gas has been found in anticline traps in the sandstone sequence. Offshore exploration in the Swedish sector has so far not encountered any significant findings of oil and gas. However, the extensive exploration has generated data, which is now being used for assessing the overall properties regarding suitability for storage of CO2. The Swedish primary industry has a great interest in finding potential sites for storage of CO2. A suitable site in the Baltic Sea would be a most favourable alternative in comparison to more remote alternatives such as deep saline aquifers in the North Sea. The Lower Cambrian is in the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea composed of three main sandstone units varying in thickness between 5 and 50 m occurring within an up to 250 m thick Cambrian sequence dominated by fine-grained terriclastic sediments. The limit of Lower Palaeozoic sequence in the Baltic area is today defined by erosional truncation because of the gently dipping Lower Palaeozoic sequence. To the north and northwest, the limit is found in the Pre-Quaternary, whereas the erosional limit is deeply buried beneath Permian and Mesozoic sediments to the south. Here the Lower Palaeozoic limit is buried to depths reaching more than 2 km. The Cambrian sequence in the distal parts of the Swedish sector occurs at depths of c. 1300 m while it constitutes the bedrock surface in a narrow zone trending from Öland to the north of of Gotland. Sandstone beds constitute 40-60% of the total Cambrian sequence. The main sandstone units have a regional distribution of several thousands of square kilometres. The up to 50 m thick Faludden sandstone member exhibits the best reservoir properties including porosities in the

  15. Disc-shaped fossils resembling porpitids or eldonids from the early Cambrian (Series 2: Stage 4 of western USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce S. Lieberman


    Full Text Available The morphology and affinities of newly discovered disc-shaped, soft-bodied fossils from the early Cambrian (Series 2: Stage 4, Dyeran Carrara Formation are discussed. These specimens show some similarity to the Ordovician Discophyllum Hall, 1847; traditionally this taxon had been treated as a fossil porpitid. However, recently it has instead been referred to as another clade, the eldonids, which includes the enigmatic Eldonia Walcott, 1911 that was originally described from the Cambrian Burgess Shale. The status of various Proterozoic and Phanerozoic taxa previously referred to porpitids and eldonids is also briefly considered. To help ascertain that the specimens were not dubio- or pseudofossils, elemental mapping using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS was conducted. This, in conjunction with the morphology of the specimens, indicated that the fossils were not hematite, iron sulfide, pyrolusite, or other abiologic mineral precipitates. Instead, their status as biologic structures and thus actual fossils is supported. Enrichment in the element carbon, and also possibly to some extent the elements magnesium and iron, seems to be playing some role in the preservation process.

  16. The origin of Phobos grooves from ejecta launched from impact craters on Mars: Tests of the hypothesis (United States)

    Ramsley, Kenneth R.; Head, James W.


    The surface of the martian moon Phobos is characterized by parallel and intersecting grooves that bear resemblance to secondary crater chains observed on planetary surfaces. Murray (2011) has hypothesized that the main groove-forming process on Phobos is the intersection of Phobos with ejecta from primary impact events on Mars to produce chains of secondary craters. The hypothesis infers a pattern of parallel jets of ejecta, either fluidized or solidified, that break into equally-spaced fragments and disperse uniformly along-trajectory during the flight from Mars to Phobos. At the moment of impact with Phobos the dispersed fragments emplace secondary craters that are aligned along strike corresponding to the flight pattern of ejecta along trajectory. The aspects of the characteristics of grooves on Phobos cited by this hypothesis that might be explained by secondary ejecta include: their observed linearity, parallelism, planar alignment, pitted nature, change in character along strike, and a "zone of avoidance" where ejecta from Mars is predicted not to impact (Murray, 2011). To test the hypothesis we plot precise Keplerian orbits for ejecta from Mars (elliptical and hyperbolic with periapsis located below the surface of Mars). From these trajectories we: (1) set the fragment dispersion limits of ejecta patterns required to emplace the more typically well-organized parallel grooves observed in returned images from Phobos; (2) plot ranges of the ejecta flight durations from Mars to Phobos and map regions of exposure; (3) utilize the same exposure map to observe trajectory-defined ejecta exposure shadows; (4) observe hemispheric exposure in response to shorter and longer durations of ejecta flight; (5) assess the viability of ejecta emplacing the large family of grooves covering most of the northern hemisphere of Phobos; and (6) plot the arrival of parallel lines of ejecta emplacing chains of craters at oblique incident angles. We also assess the bulk volume of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Outcrops of Cambrian sediments of the uppermost Miqrat Formation, the Al Bashair Formation and the basal Barik Formation were sampled for conodont and palynomorph studies. The units are part of the Palaeozoic Haima Supergroup, exposed in the Huqf-Haushi area in central eastern Oman, Arabian Peninsula. Palynomorphs were absent but conodont samples yielded a small conodont fauna. The presence of Muellerodus? erectus allows the recognition of the Muellerodus? erectus Zone established for North China (late Paibian – early Jiangshanian, in accordance with previous reports on the trilobite fauna from the same interval.

  18. Late Ediacaran-Cambrian structures and their reactivation during the Variscan and Alpine cycles in the Anti-Atlas (Morocco) (United States)

    Soulaimani, A.; Michard, A.; Ouanaimi, H.; Baidder, L.; Raddi, Y.; Saddiqi, O.; Rjimati, E. C.


    The post-Pan-African evolution of the northern border of the West African Craton is largely controlled by the remobilisation of Late Neoproterozoic basement faults. The Upper Ediacaran volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Ouarzazate Group show dramatic and rapid thickness changes, consistent with active extensional faulting associated with post-orogenic collapse and incipient continental rifting. The geometry and kinematics of these faults differ from west to east in the Anti-Atlas. N- to NE-trending faults dominate in western Anti-Atlas in response to E-W to NW-SE pure extension, while a transtensive opening regime characterize the central (Bou Azzer) and eastern (Saghro-Ougnate) Anti-Atlas. The marine incursion in the west-central Anti-Atlas during the late Ediacaran-Early Cambrian occurred without major geodynamical break between the continental Ouarzazate Group and marine sediments of the Adoudou Fm. Extensional tectonics went on during the Early Cambrian, being concentrated in the western and central parts of the belt. From Middle Cambrian to Lower Devonian and mainly due to thermal subsidence, the Anti-Atlas basement was buried under marine sediments with dominant south-derived detrital input. Basement faults control the distribution of subsiding versus shallow areas. During the Middle-Late Devonian, the dislocation of the Saharan platform occurred, mainly in the eastern Anti-Atlas where Precambrian faults were also remobilized during the Early Carboniferous. During the Variscan orogeny, the Paleozoic series of the Anti-Atlas basin were involved in folding tectonics, concomitant with the uplift of Proterozoic basement blocks bounded by inherited basement faults. The pre-existing rift-related faults were variably inverted across the Anti-Atlas. In the westernmost part of the belt, Variscan shortening induced positive inversions along the remobilized basement faults, but in some cases, some faults preserved an apparently normal throw. Some hidden

  19. Stratigraphic framework of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in the central Appalachian Basin from Medina County, Ohio, through southwestern and south-central Pennsylvania to Hampshire County, West Virginia (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Harris, Anita G.; Repetski, John E.; revised and digitized by Crangle, Robert D.


    A 275-mi-long restored stratigraphic cross section from Medina County, Ohio, through southwestern and south-central Pennsylvania to Hampshire County, W. Va., provides new details on Cambrian and Ordovician stratigraphy in the central Appalachian basin and the structure of underlying Precambrian basement rocks. From west to east, the major structural elements of the block-faulted basement in this section are (1) the relatively stable, slightly extended craton, which includes the Wooster arch, (2) the fault-controlled Ohio-West Virginia hinge zone, which separates the craton from the adjoining Rome trough, (3) the Rome trough, which consists of an east-facing asymmetric graben and an overlying sag basin, and (4) a positive fault block, named here the South-central Pennsylvania arch, which borders the eastern margin of the graben part of the Rome trough. Pre-Middle Ordovician structural relief on Precambrian basement rocks across the down-to-the-west normal fault that separates the Rome trough and the adjoining South-central Pennsylvania arch amounted to between 6,000 and 7,000 ft. The restored cross section shows eastward thickening of the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence from about 3,000 ft near the crest of the Wooster arch at the western end of the section to about 5,150 ft at the Ohio-West Virginia hinge zone adjoining the western margin of the Rome trough to about 19,800 ft near the depositional axis of the Rome trough. East of the Rome trough, at the adjoining western edge of the South-central Pennsylvania arch, the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence thins abruptly to about 13,500 ft and then thins gradually eastward across the arch to about 12,700 ft near the Allegheny structural front and to about 10,150 ft at the eastern end of the restored section. In general, the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence along this section consists of four major lithofacies that are predominantly shallow marine to peritidal in origin. In ascending stratigraphic order, the lithofacies

  20. The Cambrian to Devonian odyssey of the Brabant Massif within Avalonia: A review with new zircon ages, geochemistry, Sm-Nd isotopes, stratigraphy and palaeogeography (United States)

    Linnemann, Ulf; Herbosch, Alain; Liégeois, Jean-Paul; Pin, Christian; Gärtner, Andreas; Hofmann, Mandy


    This study provides an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the Early Palaeozoic evolution of the Brabant Massif belonging to the Anglo-Brabant Deformation Belt. Situated at the southeastern side of Avalonia microplate, it is the only well-known part of the northern passive margin of the Rheic Ocean. The Cambrian-Silurian sedimentary pile is > 13 km thick, with > 9 km for the Cambrian only. The unraveling of this continuous registration reflects the successive rifting and drifting of Avalonia from the Gondwana mainland, followed by soft-collisional processes with Baltica and finally the formation of Laurussia. Based on recently established detailed stratigraphy, sedimentology and basin development, on U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analyses of igneous and detrital zircon grains along with geochemical data including Sm-Nd isotopes, a new geodynamic and palaeogeographic evolution is proposed. Brabant Megasequence 1 (lower Cambrian to lowermost Ordovician, > 9 km thick) represents an embayment of the peri-Gondwanan rift from which the Rheic Ocean has evolved. Detrital zircon ages demonstrate that the Brabant is a typical peri-Gondwanan terrane with a major Pan-African (Neoproterozoic age) and a mixed West African and Amazonian source (Palaeoproterozoic, Archaean and some Mesoproterozoic age). The transition towards the Avalonia drifting is marked by an unconformity and a short volcanic episode. The northward drift of Avalonia towards Baltica is recorded by the Megasequence 2 (Middle to Upper Ordovician, 1.3 km thick). The source for Mesoproterozoic zircons vanished, as the result of the Rheic Ocean opening and the isolation from Amazonian sources. The transition to Megasequence 3 is marked by a drastic change in palaeobathymetry and an important (sub)volcanic episode during a tectonic instability period (460-430 Ma), reflecting the Avalonia-Baltica soft docking as also shown by the reappearance of Mesoproterozoic detrital zircons, typical of Baltica. Unradiogenic Nd isotope

  1. Basalts and picrites from a plume-type ophiolite in the South Qilian Accretionary Belt, Qilian Orogen: Accretion of a Cambrian Oceanic Plateau? (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqi; Song, Shuguang; Yang, Liming; Su, Li; Niu, Yaoling; Allen, Mark B.; Xu, Xin


    Oceanic plateaus with high-Mg rocks in the present-day oceanic crust have attracted much attention for their proposed mantle-plume origins and abnormally high mantle potential temperatures (Tp). However, equivalent rocks in ancient oceanic environments are usually poorly preserved because of deformation and metamorphism. Here we present petrological, geochronological and geochemical data for pillow lavas from Cambrian ophiolites in the Lajishan and Yongjing regions of the South Qilian Accretionary Belt (SQAB), from the southern part of the Qilian Orogen, northern China. Three rock groups can be identified geochemically: (1) sub-alkaline basalts with enriched mid- ocean ridge basalt (E-MORB) affinity; (2) alkaline basalts with oceanic island basalt (OIB) features, probably derived from partial melting of an enriched mantle source; and (3) picrites with MgO (18-22 wt%). Cr-numbers [Cr# = Cr/(Cr + Al)] of spinels from the picrites suggest 18-21% degree of partial melting at the estimated mantle potential temperature (Tp) of 1489-1600 °C, equivalent to values of Cenozoic Hawaiian picrites (1500-1600 °C). Zircons from one gabbro sample yielded a U-Pb Concordia age of 525 ± 3 Ma, suggesting the oceanic crust formed in the Cambrian. Available evidence suggests that Cambrian mantle plume activity is preserved in the South Qilian Accretionary Belt, and influenced the regional tectonics: "jamming" of the trench by thick oceanic crust explains the emplacement and preservation of the oceanic plateau, and gave rise to the generation of concomitant Ordovician inner-oceanic island arc basalts via re-organisation of the subduction zones in the region.

  2. Measurements of iridium and the meteoric impact hypothesis at cretaceous end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sircilli Neto, F.


    Both instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis methods were developed for trace-element determination, such as iridium and gold, for application in cosmochemistry. The magnitude of the determined concentrations is in the range of parts per billion. In the instrumental method 1.5 grams of sample were submitted to irradiation by 10 13 thermal -2 .s -1 during 32 hours. The gamma spectrometry is carried out with 10 to 12 hours counting time after 40 days of decay. In the radiochemical analysis a method of radiochemical separation of noble metals based on tellurium coprecipitation is implanted for iridium and gold determinations. As an application of the instrumental neutron activation analysis, preliminary iridium concentrations are measured for the first time in sedimentary rocks collected in the Brazilian territory. These techniques for determinations of iridium will be useful to check the asteroid impact hypothesis, which is supposed to be the cause of the great Cretaceous/Tertiary mass extinction, using samples collected in the South Hemisphere. (Author) [pt

  3. The Sirius Passet Lagerstätte: silica death masking opens the window on the earliest mat ground community of the Cambrian Explosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strang, Katie M; Armstrong, Howard; Harper, David A. T.; Trabucho-Alexandre, João


    The Sirius Passet Lagerstätte (SP), Peary Land, North Greenland, occurs in black slates deposited at or just below storm wave base. It represents the earliest Cambrian microbial mat community with exceptional preservation, predating the Burgess Shale by 10 million years. Trilobites from the SP are

  4. [Dilemma of null hypothesis in ecological hypothesis's experiment test. (United States)

    Li, Ji


    Experimental test is one of the major test methods of ecological hypothesis, though there are many arguments due to null hypothesis. Quinn and Dunham (1983) analyzed the hypothesis deduction model from Platt (1964) and thus stated that there is no null hypothesis in ecology that can be strictly tested by experiments. Fisher's falsificationism and Neyman-Pearson (N-P)'s non-decisivity inhibit statistical null hypothesis from being strictly tested. Moreover, since the null hypothesis H 0 (α=1, β=0) and alternative hypothesis H 1 '(α'=1, β'=0) in ecological progresses are diffe-rent from classic physics, the ecological null hypothesis can neither be strictly tested experimentally. These dilemmas of null hypothesis could be relieved via the reduction of P value, careful selection of null hypothesis, non-centralization of non-null hypothesis, and two-tailed test. However, the statistical null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) should not to be equivalent to the causality logistical test in ecological hypothesis. Hence, the findings and conclusions about methodological studies and experimental tests based on NHST are not always logically reliable.

  5. Precambrian-Cambrian boundary in the Tal formation of Garhwal Lesser Himalaya : Rb-Sr age evidence from black shales underlying phosphorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.K.; Rameshwar Rao, D.; Azmi, R.J.; Gopalan, K.; Pantulu, G.V.C.


    The recently reported faunal evidence for placing the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary within the main phosphorite unit of the Chert-Phosphorite Member of the Tal Formation, Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, is supported by the present report of 626 ± 13 myr for the whole-rock Rb-Sr isochron age of the black shales directly underlying the phosphorite band. (author). 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Ferroan dolomite cement in Cambrian sandstones: burial history and hydrocarbon generation of the Baltic sedimentary basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliaupa, S.; Cyziene, J.; Molenaar, Nicolaas


    The conditions and timing of carbonate cementation in Cambrian sandstones of the Baltic sedimentary basin were determined by oxygen and carbon stable isotope and chemical data in combination with optical and cathodoluminescence petrographic studies. Studied samples represent a range in present...... burial depth from 340 to 2150 m. The carbonate cement is dominantly ferroan dolomite that occurs as dispersed patches of poikilotopic crystals. Temperatures of dolomite precipitation, based on delta O-18 values, range from 27 degrees C in the shallow buried to 95 degrees C in the deep buried sandstones...

  7. Trilobite-based biostratigraphy (arthropoda-trilobita) and related faunas of the Cambrian from Sonora, Mexico (United States)

    Cuen-Romero, F. J.; Valdez-Holguín, J. E.; Buitrón-Sánchez, B. E.; Monreal, R.; Enríquez-Ocaña, L. F.; Aguirre-Hinojosa, E.; Ochoa-Granillo, J. A.; Palafox-Reyes, J. J.


    A biostratigraphic analysis based on trilobites of the main Cambrian outcrops from Sonora, Mexico is performed. The data are based on a combination of field work and published sources, including four previously studied locations from northern and eastern Sonora (Caborca, Cananea, Mazatán, and Arivechi) as well as a new location in the central part of the state of Sonora (San José de Gracia). Chronostratigraphic positions are assigned to the Cambrian outcrops according to Peng et al., 2012 and Cohen et al., 2017. In the Caborca area, the Puerto Blanco, Proveedora, Buelna, Cerro Prieto, Arrojos and El Tren formations comprise a wide range of biozones, which starts from the Fritzaspis Zone until the Glossopleura walcotti Zone (Begadean-Lincolnian Series, global Stage 3-Stage 5, Series 2-Series 3). The Bolsa Quartzite and the Abrigo Limestone exposed in Cananea area are assigned to the Cedaria/Cedarina dakotaensis Zone until the Crepicephalus Zone (Lincolnian Series-Marjuman Stage, global Series 3-Guzhangian). In the San José de Gracia area, The Proveedora, Buelna, Cerro Prieto and El Gavilán formations range from the ?Bristolia mohavensis or ?Bristolia insolens zones until the upper part of Mexicella mexicana Zone, Albertella highlandensis Subzone (Series 2-Series 3, Stage 4-Stage 5). In the Arivechi area, the La Sata, El Mogallón, La Huerta and the Milpillas formations range from Poliella denticulata Zone to the Elvinia Zone (Lincolnian-Millardan, Delamaran-Steptoean, global Series 3-Furongian, Stage 5-Paibian). Paleozoic marine fauna distribution in northwest Mexico and the southwest United States of America, suggest that during this time an extensive faunal province existed, containing a great variety of marine invertebrates with notorious intraspecific affinity. The biotic association includes poriferans, archaeocyathids, brachiopods, mollusks, arthropods and echinoderms as predominant elements.

  8. A new stalked filter-feeder from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna J O'Brien

    Full Text Available Burgess Shale-type deposits provide invaluable insights into the early evolution of body plans and the ecological structure of Cambrian communities, but a number of species, continue to defy phylogenetic interpretations. Here we extend this list to include a new soft-bodied animal, Siphusauctum gregarium n. gen. and n. sp., from the Tulip Beds (Campsite Cliff Shale Member, Burgess Shale Formation of Mount Stephen (Yoho National Park, British Columbia. With 1,133 specimens collected, S. gregarium is clearly the most abundant animal from this locality.This stalked animal (reaching at least 20 cm in length, has a large ovoid calyx connected to a narrow bilayered stem and a small flattened or bulb-like holdfast. The calyx is enclosed by a flexible sheath with six small openings at the base, and a central terminal anus near the top encircled by indistinct openings. A prominent organ, represented by six radially symmetrical segments with comb-like elements, surrounds an internal body cavity with a large stomach, conical median gut and straight intestine. Siphusauctum gregarium was probably an active filter-feeder, with water passing through the calyx openings, capturing food particles with its comb-like elements. It often occurs in large assemblages on single bedding planes suggesting a gregarious lifestyle, with the animal living in high tier clusters. These were probably buried en masse more or less in-situ by rapid mud flow events.Siphusauctum gregarium resembles Dinomischus, another Cambrian enigmatic stalked animal. Principal points of comparison include a long stem with a calyx containing a visceral mass and bract-like elements, and a similar lifestyle albeit occupying different tiering levels. The presence in both animals of a digestive tract with a potential stomach and anus suggest a grade of organization within bilaterians, but relationships with extant phyla are not straightforward. Thus, the broader affinities of S. gregarium remain

  9. Hypothesis analysis methods, hypothesis analysis devices, and articles of manufacture (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P [Richland, WA; Cowell, Andrew J [Kennewick, WA; Gregory, Michelle L [Richland, WA; Baddeley, Robert L [Richland, WA; Paulson, Patrick R [Pasco, WA; Tratz, Stephen C [Richland, WA; Hohimer, Ryan E [West Richland, WA


    Hypothesis analysis methods, hypothesis analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a hypothesis analysis method includes providing a hypothesis, providing an indicator which at least one of supports and refutes the hypothesis, using the indicator, associating evidence with the hypothesis, weighting the association of the evidence with the hypothesis, and using the weighting, providing information regarding the accuracy of the hypothesis.

  10. Redox history of the Three Gorges region during the Ediacaran and Early Cambrian as indicated by the Fe isotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sawaki


    To circumvent this deficiency, we drilled a fossiliferous Ediacaran to Early Cambrian sedimentary succession in the Three Gorges region, South China. We analyzed the iron isotope ratios (δ56/54Fe of pyrite grains in the drill cores using laser ablation multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate large variations in δ56/54Fe, from −1.6 to 1.6‰, and positive iron isotope ratios are observed in many successions. The presence of positive δ56/54Fe in pyrite indicates that the ferrous iron in the seawater was partially oxidized, suggesting that seawater at Three Gorges was ferruginous during the Ediacaran and Early Cambrian periods. However, aggregated pyrite grains in organic carbon-rich black shales at Member 4 of the Doushantuo Formation and the base of the Shuijingtuo Formation yield near-zero δ56/54Fe values; this suggests that the ocean was transiently dominated by sulfidic conditions during these periods. Notably negative δ56/54Fe values, lower than −1‰, can be interpreted as a signature of DIR. The DIR also might contribute in part to the re-mineralization of organic matter during the largest negative carbon isotope anomaly in the Ediacaran.

  11. Paleoarchean and Cambrian observations of the geodynamo in light of new estimates of core thermal conductivity (United States)

    Tarduno, John; Bono, Richard; Cottrell, Rory


    Recent estimates of core thermal conductivity are larger than prior values by a factor of approximately three. These new estimates suggest that the inner core is a relatively young feature, perhaps as young as 500 million years old, and that the core-mantle heat flux required to drive the early dynamo was greater than previously assumed (Nimmo, 2015). Here, we focus on paleomagnetic studies of two key time intervals important for understanding core evolution in light of the revisions of core conductivity values. 1. Hadean to Paleoarchean (4.4-3.4 Ga). Single silicate crystal paleointensity analyses suggest a relatively strong magnetic field at 3.4-3.45 Ga (Tarduno et al., 2010). Paleointenity data from zircons of the Jack Hills (Western Australia) further suggest the presence of a geodynamo between 3.5 and 3.6 Ga (Tarduno and Cottrell, 2014). We will discuss our efforts to test for the absence/presence of the geodynamo in older Eoarchean and Hadean times. 2. Ediacaran to Early Cambrian (~635-530 Ma). Disparate directions seen in some paleomagnetic studies from this time interval have been interpreted as recording inertial interchange true polar wander (IITPW). Recent single silicate paleomagnetic analyses fail to find evidence for IITPW; instead a reversing field overprinted by secondary magnetizations is defined (Bono and Tarduno, 2015). Preliminary analyses suggest the field may have been unusually weak. We will discuss our on-going tests of the hypothesis that this interval represents the time of onset of inner core growth. References: Bono, R.K. & Tarduno, J.A., Geology, in press (2015); Nimmo, F., Treatise Geophys., in press (2015); Tarduno, J.A., et al., Science (2010); Tarduno, J.A. & Cottrell, R.D., AGU Fall Meeting (2014).

  12. Paleo-environmental conditions of the Early Cambrian Niutitang Formation in the Fenggang area, the southwestern margin of the Yangtze Platform, southern China: Evidence from major elements, trace elements and other proxies (United States)

    Li, Jin; Tang, Shuheng; Zhang, Songhang; Xi, Zhaodong; Yang, Ning; Yang, Guoqiao; Li, Lei; Li, Yanpeng


    The Precambrian/Cambrian transition was a key time in Earth history, especially for marine biological evolution and oceanic chemistry. The redox-stratification with oxic shallow water and anoxic (even euxinic) deeper water in the Early Cambrian Yangtze Sea, which gradually became completely oxygenated, has been suggested as a possible trigger for the "Cambrian explosion" of biological diversity. However, for some areas in northern Guizhou where the exploration and research are lacking, identifying this pattern of redox-stratification by paleo-environmental analysis from borehole data is still in need. Here, we report a remarkable variation range in trace elements (Mo, V, U, Ni, Th, Co, Sc, Zn and Cu), molar Corg:P ratios and pyrite morphology from 27 core samples from one new drill hole (XY1, located in the Fenggang area, northern Guizhou) on the Yangtze Platform, South China. High levels of Ba (from 3242 ppm to 33,800 ppm) and total organic carbon (TOC; from 4% to 9.36%) in 15 core samples in the Lower Member (LM) of the Niutitang Formation indicated elevated primary productivity in the study area. Redox change was recorded based on enrichment factors (EFs) for RSTEs (Mo, U, and V), redox proxies (V/(V + Ni), Ni/Co, V/Sc and Th/U), Corg:P ratios and particle size of framboidal pyrite. These signatures demonstrate that the LM was deposited under anoxic conditions with sulfidic episodes, whereas the Upper Member (UM) of the Niutitang Formation was deposited under suboxic/oxic conditions with intermittently anoxic episodes. Mo/TOC ratios (from 3.72 to 39.86, mean 18.76) suggest weak-moderate water mass restriction. Mo-U covariation patterns (strong but variable enrichment of Mo and U; MoEF ranging from 31.45 to 257.97; UEF ranging from 4.68 to 39.07) in the LM show alternation of particulate shuttling and redox conditions occurred in the Early Cambrian Yangtze Sea, whereas Mo-U covariation patterns (moderate Mo enrichment but depletion or non-enrichment of U; mean Mo

  13. Accumulation conditions and enrichment patterns of natural gas in the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm reservoirs of the Leshan-Longnǚsi Palaeohigh, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chunchun


    Full Text Available As several major new gas discoveries have been made recently in the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm reservoirs in the Leshan-Longnǚsi Palaeohigh of the Sichuan Basin, a super-huge gas reservoir group with multiple gas pay zones vertically and cluster reservoirs laterally is unfolding in the east segment of the palaeohigh. Study shows that the large-scale enrichment and accumulation of natural gas benefits from the good reservoir-forming conditions, including: (1 multiple sets of source rocks vertically, among which, the high-quality Lower Paleozoic source rocks are widespread, and have a hydrocarbon kitchen at the structural high of the Palaeohigh, providing favorable conditions for gas accumulation near the source; (2 three sets of good-quality reservoirs, namely, the porous-vuggy dolomite reservoirs of mound-shoal facies in the 2nd and 4th members of the Sinian Dengying Fm as well as the porous dolomite reservoirs of arene-shoal facies in the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm, are thick and wide in distribution; (3 structural, lithological and compound traps developed in the setting of large nose-like uplift provide favorable space for hydrocarbon accumulation. It is concluded that the inheritance development of the Palaeohigh and its favorable timing configuration with source rock evolution are critical factors for the extensive enrichment of gas in the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm reservoirs. The structural high of the Palaeohigh is the favorable area for gas accumulation. The inherited structural, stratigraphic and lithological traps are the favorable sites for gas enrichment. The areas where present structures and ancient structures overlap are the sweet-spots of gas accumulation.

  14. Multi-hypothesis distributed stereo video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren


    for stereo sequences, exploiting an interpolated intra-view SI and two inter-view SIs. The quality of the SI has a major impact on the DVC Rate-Distortion (RD) performance. As the inter-view SIs individually present lower RD performance compared with the intra-view SI, we propose multi-hypothesis decoding...

  15. The evolution of the passive continental margin of Norway and its adjacent mainland - using the sub-Cambrian peneplain as a reference surface. (United States)

    Gabrielsen, R. H.; Faleide, J. I.; Jarsve, E. M.


    The structuring, uplift and subsidence of the passive margin and shelf of Norway and its adjacent mainland were affected by several profound geological processes, including inherited basement structural grain related to the Proterozoic and Caledonian orogens and also including the extensional collapse of the Caledonides (Gabrielsen et al. 2000). This has been followed by several stages of late Palaoezoic - Cenozoic rifting and associated thermotectonic activity, Cenozoic accelerated uplift of uncertain origin of the hinterland, creating an irregular pattern of upheaval and, finally Pleistocene - Holocene glacial loading and unloading (Gabrielsen et al. 2010). These processes have strongly influenced the topography of the hinterland, thus causing and acting in concert with climate fluctuations (Nielsen et al. 2009). The correlation of erosional surfaces of regional significance on the shelf and on the mainland is a key to the evaluating the total topography of the margin. Because of the lack of datable surfaces on the mainland, this is problematic. The so-called Paleic surface has been used in this context, but its age and nature is not well constrained and the absence of post-Caledonian rocks in the western and central mainland of southern Norway adds to this complexity. In contrast, the sub-Cambrian peneplain, which is found in larger parts of Scandinavia, is well established when it comes to dating and development (e.g. Strøm 1948). It is generally accepted that this surface had only a minor topography, if any, throughout Scandinavia at the earliest Cambrian. Hence, its present relief is the result of the accumulated vertical displacements from the Caledonian to the Present. Still, even though it was well established through regional mapping already in the late 19th century, much remains in the detailed documentation of this important surface. To improve the topographic accuracy in its characterization, fieldwork has been initiated to establish a detailed WNW

  16. Cambrian nepheline syenite complex at Jabal Sawda, Midyan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Liddicoat, W.K.; Ramsay, C.R.; Hedge, C.E.


    The only nepheline syenite complex presently known in the Arabian Shield is at Jabal Sawda, about 30 km S of Haql in the extreme NW of Saudi Arabia. It is a post-tectonic, composite intrusion with a crudely concentric structure. A core of leuco-nepheline syenite, a partial ring of mela-nepheline syenite, and an almost complete outer ring of alkali-feldspar syenite are the main rock units. Several mega-inclusions of porphyritic nepheline syenite, nepheline monzosyenite, malignite and ijolite are present in the leuco-nepheline syenite. The chemical composition is notable for very high values of Al2O3, Na2O, Ba, La, Nb, Sr and Zr. U{single bond}Pb isotope dating indicates an emplacement age of 553 ?? 4 Ma, one of an increasing number of reliable Cambrian isotope dates in the northern Red Sea region. ?? 1986.

  17. Cambrian nepheline syenite complex at Jabal Sawda, Midyan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Liddicoat, W. K.; Ramsay, C. R.; Hedge, C. E.

    The only nepheline syenite complex presently known in the Arabian Shield is at Jabal Sawda, about 30 km S of Haql in the extreme NW of Saudi Arabia. It is a post-tectonic, composite intrusion with a crudely concentric structure. A core of leuco-nepheline syenite, a partial ring of mela-nepheline syenite, and an almost complete outer ring of alkali-feldspar syenite are the main rock units. Several mega-inclusions of porphyritic nepheline syenite, nepheline monzosyenite, malignite and ijolite are present in the leuco-nepheline syenite. The chemical composition is notable for very high values of Al 2O 3, Na 2O, Ba, La, Nb, Sr and Zr. U sbnd Pb isotope dating indicates an emplacement age of 553 ± 4 Ma, one of an increasing number of reliable Cambrian isotope dates in the northern Red Sea region.

  18. Cause of Cambrian Explosion - Terrestrial or Cosmic? (United States)

    Steele, Edward J; Al-Mufti, Shirwan; Augustyn, Kenneth A; Chandrajith, Rohana; Coghlan, John P; Coulson, S G; Ghosh, Sudipto; Gillman, Mark; Gorczynski, Reginald M; Klyce, Brig; Louis, Godfrey; Mahanama, Kithsiri; Oliver, Keith R; Padron, Julio; Qu, Jiangwen; Schuster, John A; Smith, W E; Snyder, Duane P; Steele, Julian A; Stewart, Brent J; Temple, Robert; Tokoro, Gensuke; Tout, Christopher A; Unzicker, Alexander; Wainwright, Milton; Wallis, Jamie; Wallis, Daryl H; Wallis, Max K; Wetherall, John; Wickramasinghe, D T; Wickramasinghe, J T; Wickramasinghe, N Chandra; Liu, Yongsheng


    We review the salient evidence consistent with or predicted by the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe (H-W) thesis of Cometary (Cosmic) Biology. Much of this physical and biological evidence is multifactorial. One particular focus are the recent studies which date the emergence of the complex retroviruses of vertebrate lines at or just before the Cambrian Explosion of ∼500 Ma. Such viruses are known to be plausibly associated with major evolutionary genomic processes. We believe this coincidence is not fortuitous but is consistent with a key prediction of H-W theory whereby major extinction-diversification evolutionary boundaries coincide with virus-bearing cometary-bolide bombardment events. A second focus is the remarkable evolution of intelligent complexity (Cephalopods) culminating in the emergence of the Octopus. A third focus concerns the micro-organism fossil evidence contained within meteorites as well as the detection in the upper atmosphere of apparent incoming life-bearing particles from space. In our view the totality of the multifactorial data and critical analyses assembled by Fred Hoyle, Chandra Wickramasinghe and their many colleagues since the 1960s leads to a very plausible conclusion - life may have been seeded here on Earth by life-bearing comets as soon as conditions on Earth allowed it to flourish (about or just before 4.1 Billion years ago); and living organisms such as space-resistant and space-hardy bacteria, viruses, more complex eukaryotic cells, fertilised ova and seeds have been continuously delivered ever since to Earth so being one important driver of further terrestrial evolution which has resulted in considerable genetic diversity and which has led to the emergence of mankind. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Les microbialites de l'Anti-Atlas occidental (Maroc) : marqueurs stratigraphiques et témoins des changements environnementaux au Cambrien inférieur Stratigraphic and environmental significance of the Lower-Cambrian western Anti-Atlasic microbialites (Morocco) (United States)

    Benssaou, Mohammed; Hamoumi, Naima


    Three microbialite forms are recognized in the Lower-Cambrian succession of Irherm area in the western Anti-Atlas (Morocco). Stromatolites, which correspond to non-calcified shallow marine laminated microbialites, are well developed in the basal Lower-Cambrian succession. Occurrence of calcified microbial thrombolites, in the middle part of this succession, reflects an increasing sea level from the peritidal zone to the subtidal environment. In the upper part of this succession, a second increasing water depth event and the development of branching archaeocyathan reefal framework lead to dendritic microbialite emergence. To cite this article: M. Benssaou, N. Hamoumi, C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  20. A comparative assessment of the role of anoxia during the Cambrian SPICE event (United States)

    LeRoy, M.; Gill, B. C.; Sperling, E. A.


    The Cambrian SPICE (Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion) is recognized as a major oceanographic event recorded in globally-distributed stratigraphic sections as positive isotopic excursions in marine carbonates (δ13Ccarb), organic matter (δ13Corg), sulfate (δ34SCAS) and pyrite (δ34Spy). A proposed mechanism for these observed isotopic trends is that a transient increase in the areal extent of anoxic conditions within the oceans fostered enhanced burial of organic carbon and pyrite. However, direct sedimentary (e.g., abundant black shale) and geochemical (e.g., redox proxy) evidence for such a shift is scant. While the antiquity of this event is likely responsible for loss of much of this evidence, through destruction by tectonic processes, a number of stratigraphic successions suitable for investigating this hypothesis exist. Here we explore the relationship between anoxia and the SPICE using previously published and novel data generated from core material from three sedimentary basins distributed along the margins of the Iapetus Ocean. The units studied are: the Nolichucky Formation of eastern Laurentia, the Alum Shale of Baltica, and the Outwoods Shale of Avalonia. Our iron speciation data indicate consistently oxic conditions prior to the SPICE along Laurentia, while Avalonia was oxic with intervals of anoxia, and Baltica was persistently anoxic. With the initiation of the SPICE, anoxic conditions intensified in Laurentia and Avalonia and continued to persist in Baltica. This redox shift was coupled with a sharp rise in δ34Spy at all three locations. Average total organic carbon (TOC) showed little change in relation to the SPICE at the Laurentia location ( 0.15 wt%), but showed an increase in conjunction with the excursion in both the Avalonia ( 1 to 1.5 wt%) and Baltica ( 8 to 12 wt%) sections. Large differences in nutrient availability and sedimentation rates are likely responsible for the between-site disparity in TOC, while overall, anoxia

  1. Water Taxation and the Double Dividend Hypothesis


    Nicholas Kilimani


    The double dividend hypothesis contends that environmental taxes have the potential to yield multiple benefits for the economy. However, empirical evidence of the potential impacts of environmental taxation in developing countries is still limited. This paper seeks to contribute to the literature by exploring the impact of a water tax in a developing country context, with Uganda as a case study. Policy makers in Uganda are exploring ways of raising revenue by taxing environmental goods such a...

  2. Lower Cambrian-Ediacaran Paleogeography and True Polar Wander with New Paleomagnetic Constraints from West African Craton (United States)

    Robert, B.; Besse, J.; Blein, O.; Greff-Lefftz, M.; Baudin, T.; Fernando, L.; Meslouh, S.; Belbadaoui, M.


    Paleomagnetic data from Laurentia and Baltica continents suggest fast large oscillations of the virtual geomagnetic poles (VGP) from high to low latitudes during the Ediacaran (635-542 Ma). These data are interpreted in the literature either as oscillations of the Earth magnetic dipole between polar and equatorial positions, or as True Polar Wander (TPW), implying a very fast tumbling of continents and perhaps, of whole Earth. In this study, we try to test these hypotheses by bringing new paleomagnetic data on volcanic series from another continent, the West African Craton (WAC). We have sampled well dated pyroclastic and lava flows from the Ouarzazate and Taroudant groups in the Anti-Atlas, (Morocco). 480 samples from 105 sites were thermally demagnetized in our laboratory. Our preliminary results highlight two major groups of directions, mainly carried by hematite, magnetite also contributing sometimes to the magnetization. The first group consists of a dual polarity high inclination direction that may represent the original magnetization. The observed paleolatitude is compatible with that predicted by the lower Cambrian-Ediacaran apparent polar wander path (APWP) of Gondwana, assuming that the WAC was already accreted to Gondwana at this age. Nevertheless, a complete agreement between our pole and the APWP needs a local rotation of around 80° on a vertical axis. The second group displays a single polarity direction, with a shallow inclination and a south-east declination. This direction is close to the expected direction derived from the Permo-Carboniferous segment of the Gondwana APWP, and may represent a remagnetization acquired during the Kiaman reversed polarity superchron. Our preliminary paleomagnetic results thus display large changes in the VGP position, as also evidenced by others on Baltica and Laurentia. However, their interpretation does not favor TPW episodes or equatorial Earth magnetic dipole during the lower Cambrian-Ediacaran periods, but

  3. The sedimentary facies characteristics and lithofacies palaeogeography during Middle-Late Cambrian, Sichuan Basin and adjacent area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifan Lu


    Full Text Available Combined with the regional strata filling characteristics of Middle-Upper Cambrian, the present paper conducts a systematic research on sedimentary facies in the basin and its peripheral area by utilizing 164 field outcrops and drilling and coring data. Further, the method of “multi-factor comprehensive synthesis based on single-factor analysis” was employed to investigate the sedimentary facies and palaeogeography of the study area and establish the sedimentary facies model. Stratigraphic reveals that the study area represents the pattern of thin-northwest and thick-southeast by stretching northeast-southwest. Within the present basin, the pattern of “one thin and two thick” predominates, while outside the basin “four thin and three thick” filling feature was found. Sedimentary facies shows that the study area was featured by rimmed carbonate platform. Specifically, carbonate platform, slope and northeastern corner Qinling paleooceanic Basin and southeastern corner Jiangnan Bain was identified from the west to the east. The carbonate platform contains restricted platform, evaporation-restricted platform, semi-restricted platform and the platform margin. Single factor analysis and lithofacies palaeogeographic characteristics manifests that during Middle-Late Cambrian, the western Old land evolved into peneplain stage, and that the eastern and southwestern sub-sags remained connected to the open-sea to some extent. At the time, the shllow seawater circulation was relatively restricted, while the ancient seabed tended to be flat and evaporation characteristics significantly diminished. Secondary sea-level fluctuation intensively influenced the development of scaled grain beach. It is suggested that tide marginal beach, intraplatform shoal subfacies zone, along with Shiqian-SangZhi in southeast and Zhenba-Xinshan in northeast platform-margin beach subfacies zone to be preferable targets for the favorable reservoir facies zone and

  4. The oldest known digestive system consisting of both paired digestive glands and a crop from exceptionally preserved trilobites of the Guanshan Biota (Early Cambrian, China.

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    Melanie J Hopkins

    Full Text Available The early Cambrian Guanshan biota of eastern Yunnan, China, contains exceptionally preserved animals and algae. Most diverse and abundant are the arthropods, of which there are at least 11 species of trilobites represented by numerous specimens. Many trilobite specimens show soft-body preservation via iron oxide pseudomorphs of pyrite replacement. Here we describe digestive structures from two species of trilobite, Palaeolenus lantenoisi and Redlichia mansuyi. Multiple specimens of both species contain the preserved remains of an expanded stomach region (a "crop" under the glabella, a structure which has not been observed in trilobites this old, despite numerous examples of trilobite gut traces from other Cambrian Lagerstätten. In addition, at least one specimen of Palaeolenus lantenoisi shows the preservation of an unusual combination of digestive structures: a crop and paired digestive glands along the alimentary tract. This combination of digestive structures has also never been observed in trilobites this old, and is rare in general, with prior evidence of it from one juvenile trilobite specimen from the late Cambrian Orsten fauna of Sweden and possibly one adult trilobite specimen from the Early Ordovician Fezouata Lagerstätte. The variation in the fidelity of preservation of digestive structures within and across different Lagerstätten may be due to variation in the type, quality, and point of digestion of food among specimens in addition to differences in mode of preservation. The presence and combination of these digestive features in the Guanshan trilobites contradicts current models of how the trilobite digestive system was structured and evolved over time. Most notably, the crop is not a derived structure as previously proposed, although it is possible that the relative size of the crop increased over the evolutionary history of the clade.

  5. The oldest known digestive system consisting of both paired digestive glands and a crop from exceptionally preserved trilobites of the Guanshan Biota (Early Cambrian, China). (United States)

    Hopkins, Melanie J; Chen, Feiyang; Hu, Shixue; Zhang, Zhifei


    The early Cambrian Guanshan biota of eastern Yunnan, China, contains exceptionally preserved animals and algae. Most diverse and abundant are the arthropods, of which there are at least 11 species of trilobites represented by numerous specimens. Many trilobite specimens show soft-body preservation via iron oxide pseudomorphs of pyrite replacement. Here we describe digestive structures from two species of trilobite, Palaeolenus lantenoisi and Redlichia mansuyi. Multiple specimens of both species contain the preserved remains of an expanded stomach region (a "crop") under the glabella, a structure which has not been observed in trilobites this old, despite numerous examples of trilobite gut traces from other Cambrian Lagerstätten. In addition, at least one specimen of Palaeolenus lantenoisi shows the preservation of an unusual combination of digestive structures: a crop and paired digestive glands along the alimentary tract. This combination of digestive structures has also never been observed in trilobites this old, and is rare in general, with prior evidence of it from one juvenile trilobite specimen from the late Cambrian Orsten fauna of Sweden and possibly one adult trilobite specimen from the Early Ordovician Fezouata Lagerstätte. The variation in the fidelity of preservation of digestive structures within and across different Lagerstätten may be due to variation in the type, quality, and point of digestion of food among specimens in addition to differences in mode of preservation. The presence and combination of these digestive features in the Guanshan trilobites contradicts current models of how the trilobite digestive system was structured and evolved over time. Most notably, the crop is not a derived structure as previously proposed, although it is possible that the relative size of the crop increased over the evolutionary history of the clade.

  6. Hydrogeology of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in the northern Midwest: B in Regional aquifer-system analysis (United States)

    Young, H.L.; Siegel, D.I.


    The Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system contains the most extensive and continuous aquifers in the northern Midwest of the United States. It is the source of water for many municipalities, industries, and rural water users. Since the beginning of ground-water development from the aquifer system in the late 1800's, hydraulic heads have declined hundreds of feet in the heavily pumped Chicago-Milwaukee area and somewhat less in other metropolitan areas. The U.S. Geological Survey has completed a regional assessment of this aquifer system within a 161,000-square-mile area encompassing northern Illinois, northwestern Indiana, Iowa, southeastern Minnesota, northern Missouri, and Wisconsin.

  7. Discovery and basic characteristics of high-quality source rocks found in the Yuertusi Formation of the Cambrian in Tarim Basin, China

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    Guangyou Zhu


    Full Text Available The Upper Paleozoic strata of the Tarim Basin have abundant resources of marine oil and gas. In the Tahe area, Halahatang area, and Tazhong area of the basin, many large-scale oilfields have been found. These oilfields have a confirmed oil and gas reserves worth more than 2.5 billion tons and have completed the annual output of more than 14 million tons of marine oil and gas equivalent. The belief that the only main hydrocarbon source rocks are of the Cambrian or Ordovician is still controversial. Chemists have made significant progress and have effectively lead the oil and gas exploration in Tarim Basin. Due to the complexity of the basin and the limitation of samples, the research work, and fine contrast is restricted. In this article, we investigated the Cambrian strata outcrop of Tarim Basin in detail. By analyzing a lot of outcrops, high-quality hydrocarbon source rocks of Yuertusi Formation have been found in more than 10 outcrop points in Aksu region. The source rocks' lithology is black shale with total organic carbon (TOC content that ranges between 2% and 16%. Total organic carbon (TOC of the black shale layer could be as much as 4%–16%, especially in the outcrops of the Yutixi and Shiairike. This by far is the best marine hydrocarbon source rock that was found in China. The source rocks were distributed consistently in the Aksu region, the thickness of which is about 10–15 m. It was formed in a sedimentary environment of a middle gentle slope to a low gentle slope. Organic matter enrichment is controlled by the upwelling currents. The thick strata of dolostone that developed in the Xiaoerblak Formation are considered to be good reservoirs of the beach and microbial reef in the upper strata of Yuertusi Formation. No hydrocarbon source rocks have been found in the outcrop of Xiaoerblak Formation. The thick strata of gyprock and mudstone development are a set of satisfactory cap layer in the Lower Cambrian. This hydrocarbon

  8. Dopamine and reward: the anhedonia hypothesis 30 years on. (United States)

    Wise, Roy A


    The anhedonia hypothesis--that brain dopamine plays a critical role in the subjective pleasure associated with positive rewards--was intended to draw the attention of psychiatrists to the growing evidence that dopamine plays a critical role in the objective reinforcement and incentive motivation associated with food and water, brain stimulation reward, and psychomotor stimulant and opiate reward. The hypothesis called to attention the apparent paradox that neuroleptics, drugs used to treat a condition involving anhedonia (schizophrenia), attenuated in laboratory animals the positive reinforcement that we normally associate with pleasure. The hypothesis held only brief interest for psychiatrists, who pointed out that the animal studies reflected acute actions of neuroleptics whereas the treatment of schizophrenia appears to result from neuroadaptations to chronic neuroleptic administration, and that it is the positive symptoms of schizophrenia that neuroleptics alleviate, rather than the negative symptoms that include anhedonia. Perhaps for these reasons, the hypothesis has had minimal impact in the psychiatric literature. Despite its limited heuristic value for the understanding of schizophrenia, however, the anhedonia hypothesis has had major impact on biological theories of reinforcement, motivation, and addiction. Brain dopamine plays a very important role in reinforcement of response habits, conditioned preferences, and synaptic plasticity in cellular models of learning and memory. The notion that dopamine plays a dominant role in reinforcement is fundamental to the psychomotor stimulant theory of addiction, to most neuroadaptation theories of addiction, and to current theories of conditioned reinforcement and reward prediction. Properly understood, it is also fundamental to recent theories of incentive motivation.

  9. Water-quality assessment of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in the northern Midwest, United States (United States)

    Wilson, John T.


    This report provides a regional assessment of groundwater quality of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system, based primarily on raw water samples collected by the NAWQA Program during 1995 through 2007. The NAWQA Program has published findings in local study-unit reports encompassing parts of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system. Data collected from the aquifer system were used in national synthesis reports on selected topics such as specific water-quality constituent classes, well type, or aquifer material; however, a synthesis of groundwater quality at the principal aquifer scale has not been completed and is therefore the major purpose of this report. Water samples collected by the NAWQA Program were analyzed for various classes of characteristics including physical properties, major ions, trace elements, nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, radionuclides (tritium, radon, and radium), pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Subsequent sections of this report provide discussions on these classes of characteristics. The assessment objectives of this report are to (1) summarize constituent concentrations and compare them to human-health benchmarks and non-health guidelines; (2) determine the geographic distribution of constituent concentrations and relate them to various factors such as confining conditions, well type, land use, and groundwater age; and (3) evaluate near-decadal-scale changes in nitrate concentrations and pesticide detections. The most recent sample collected from each well by the NAWQA Program was used for most analyses. Near-decadal-scale changes in nitrate concentrations and pesticide detections were evaluated for selected well networks by using the most recent sample from each well and comparing it to the results from a sample collected 7 or 11 years earlier. Because some of the NAWQA well networks provide a limited areal coverage of the aquifer system, data for raw water samples from other USGS sources and state agencies were included

  10. Uranium isotopes distinguish two geochemically distinct stages during the later Cambrian SPICE event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Boyle, Richard A.; Canfield, Donald E.


    . Here we report high-precision uranium isotopic data in marine carbonates deposited during the Late Cambrian 'SPICE' event, at ca. 499 Ma, documenting a well-defined -0.18‰ negative δ238U excursion that occurs at the onset of the SPICE event's positive δ13C and δ34S excursions, but peaks (and tails off......) before them. Dynamic modelling shows that the different response of the U reservoir cannot be attributed solely to differences in residence times or reservoir sizes - suggesting that two chemically distinct ocean states occurred within the SPICE event. The first ocean stage involved a global expansion...... depletion in the oceans (Gill et al., 2011). We discuss scenarios for how an interval of elevated pyrite and organic carbon burial could have been sustained without widespread euxinia in the water column (both non-sulfidic anoxia and/or a more oxygenated ocean state are possibilities). Either way, the SPICE...

  11. Reconstruction of the Paleoenvironment of the Early Cambrian Yurtus Black Shale in the Tarim Basin, Northwestern China, and Its Control on Organic Matter Accumulation (United States)

    Li, J.; Ding, W.; Dong, L.


    The black shale in the early Cambrian Yurtus Formation (>521 Ma) in the Tarim basin, northwestern China, is characterized by its high TOC value (up to 16%) andgreat lateral continuity. It has been proven to be high-quality hydrocarbon source rocks. Abundant phytoplanktons and small shelly fossils have been reported from the lower Yurtus chert. However, recent biomarker discovery of aryl isoprenoid hydrocarbons suggests the existence of green sulfur bacteria, which indicates that the water column was stratified and the photic zone was prevailingly euxinic. These seemingly contradictory observations hamper our further understanding of the paleoenvironment in which the Yurtus shale was deposited and its control on the accumulation of organic matter. In this study, we systematically collected samples from the Yurtus Formation at the Kungaikuotan Section, and measured the organic carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions and the content of trace element Barium (Ba). The strong negative excursions of nitrogen isotope ( -13‰) in the lower and upper parts of the Yurtus Formation are likely attributed to the biological activity of green and purple sulfur bacteria, which is consistent with our organic carbon isotope data as well as previous biomarker discovery. As green sulfur bacteria can only live in euxinic photic zone, it may indicate that the water column above this euxinic zone contains prolific organic matters which consume all the dissolved oxidants in surface ocean. It is well accepted that Ba flux can be used as an indicator for surface ocean primary productivity. Significant increase of barium content (from matter in the early Cambrian surface ocean mainly result from extremely high primary productivity. The abundant phytoplankton fossil record from this time period also supports this interpretation. In summary, high TOC in the Yurtus shale may derive from the extremely high primary productivity of phytoplanktons. Organic matter consumes all the dissolved

  12. Hypothesis Designs for Three-Hypothesis Test Problems


    Yan Li; Xiaolong Pu


    As a helpful guide for applications, the alternative hypotheses of the three-hypothesis test problems are designed under the required error probabilities and average sample number in this paper. The asymptotic formulas and the proposed numerical quadrature formulas are adopted, respectively, to obtain the hypothesis designs and the corresponding sequential test schemes under the Koopman-Darmois distributions. The example of the normal mean test shows that our methods are qu...

  13. A Cambrian mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform in SW Gondwana: evidence from the Western Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina) and implications for the early Paleozoic paleogeography of the proto-Andean margin (United States)

    Ramacciotti, Carlos D.; Casquet, César; Baldo, Edgardo G.; Galindo, Carmen; Pankhurst, Robert J.; Verdecchia, Sebastián O.; Rapela, Carlos W.; Fanning, Mark


    The Western Sierras Pampeanas (WSP) of Argentina record a protracted geological history from the Mesoproterozoic assembly of the Rodinia supercontinent to the early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of SW Gondwana. Two well-known orogenies took place at the proto-Andean margin of Gondwana in the Cambrian and the Ordovician, i.e., the Pampean (545-520 Ma) and Famatinian (490-440 Ma) orogenies, respectively. Between them, an extensive continental platform was developed, where mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation occurred. This platform was later involved in the Famatinian orogeny when it underwent penetrative deformation and metamorphism. The platform apparently extended from Patagonia to northwestern Argentina and the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, and has probable equivalents in SW Africa, Peru, and Bolivia. The WSP record the outer (deepest) part of the platform, where carbonates were deposited in addition to siliciclastic sediments. Detrital zircon U-Pb SHRIMP ages from clastic metasedimentary successions and Sr-isotope compositions of marbles from the WSP suggest depositional ages between ca. 525 and 490 Ma. The detrital zircon age patterns further suggest that clastic sedimentation took place in two stages. The first was sourced mainly from re-working of the underlying Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and the uplifted core of the early Cambrian Pampean orogen, without input from the Paleoproterozoic Río de la Plata craton. Sediments of the second stage resulted from the erosion of the still emerged Pampean belt and the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogen in the NE with some contribution from the Río de la Plata craton. An important conclusion is that the WSP basement was already part of SW Gondwana in the early Cambrian, and not part of the exotic Precordillera/Cuyania terrane, as was previously thought.

  14. Life Origination Hydrate Hypothesis (LOH-Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ostrovskii


    Full Text Available The paper develops the Life Origination Hydrate Hypothesis (LOH-hypothesis, according to which living-matter simplest elements (LMSEs, which are N-bases, riboses, nucleosides, nucleotides, DNA- and RNA-like molecules, amino-acids, and proto-cells repeatedly originated on the basis of thermodynamically controlled, natural, and inevitable processes governed by universal physical and chemical laws from CH4, niters, and phosphates under the Earth's surface or seabed within the crystal cavities of the honeycomb methane-hydrate structure at low temperatures; the chemical processes passed slowly through all successive chemical steps in the direction that is determined by a gradual decrease in the Gibbs free energy of reacting systems. The hypothesis formulation method is based on the thermodynamic directedness of natural movement and consists ofan attempt to mentally backtrack on the progression of nature and thus reveal principal milestones alongits route. The changes in Gibbs free energy are estimated for different steps of the living-matter origination process; special attention is paid to the processes of proto-cell formation. Just the occurrence of the gas-hydrate periodic honeycomb matrix filled with LMSEs almost completely in its final state accounts for size limitation in the DNA functional groups and the nonrandom location of N-bases in the DNA chains. The slowness of the low-temperature chemical transformations and their “thermodynamic front” guide the gross process of living matter origination and its successive steps. It is shown that the hypothesis is thermodynamically justified and testable and that many observed natural phenomena count in its favor.

  15. Sedimentation and diagenesis at a Late Cambrian biomere extinction horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, K.A.; Miller, J.F.; Taylor, J.F.


    The base of the Eurekia apopsis Subzone of the Saukia Zone, slightly below the present Cambrian-Ordovician boundary, has been interpreted as a biomere extinction crisis for trilobites and conodonts. This boundary can be recognized to within two centimeters in platform carbonates in Utah, Nevada, Texas, and Oklahoma. Regional stratigraphy in West Utah reveals that this extinction horizon occurs within a shoaling upward sequence in which sedimentation was predominantly episodic. Shallow subtidal sedimentation, producing bioturbated mixed-skeletal wackestones and graded intraclastic grainsupportstones (tempestites), shifted to peritidal sedimentation through the boundary interval and for the duration of the E. apopsis Subzone. Associated lithofacies include sponge-dominated thrombolite mounds with tidal channels, sublittoral stromatolite reefs, and a restricted marine lagoon. The base of the E. apopsis Subzone in West Utah is a sharp contact but is interpreted as neither a disconformity nor a surface of subaerial exposure. In Texas, this boundary is a planar disconformity between biosparites. The bed underlying this surface displays features that reflect wholesale aragonite dissolution followed by two stages of inferred meteroic phreatic cementation. The surface is well washed and provided a clean substrate for epitaxial cementation across the boundary. The overlying basal strata of the E. apopsis Subzone are cemented with marine phreatic non-ferroan calcite and contain faunas that are strikingly dissimilar to those below.

  16. Does Portuguese economy support crude oil conservation hypothesis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashiri Behmiri, Niaz; Pires Manso, José R.


    This paper examines cointegration relationships and Granger causality nexus in a trivariate framework among oil consumption, economic growth and international oil price in Portugal. For this purpose, we employ two Granger causality approaches: the Johansen cointegration test and vector error correction model (VECM) and the Toda–Yamamoto approaches. Cointegration test proves the existence of a long run equilibrium relationship among these variables and VECM and Toda–Yamamoto Granger causality tests indicate that there is bidirectional causality between crude oil consumption and economic growth (feed back hypothesis). Therefore, the Portuguese economy does not support crude oil conservation hypothesis. Consequently, policymakers should consider that implementing oil conservation and environmental policies may negatively impact on the Portuguese economic growth. - Highlights: ► We examine Granger causality among oil consumption, GDP and oil price in Portugal. ► VECM and Toda–Yamamoto tests found bidirectional causality among oil and GDP. ► Portuguese economy does not support the crude oil conservation hypothesis.

  17. Fractal Markets Hypothesis and the Global Financial Crisis: Scaling, Investment Horizons and Liquidity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav


    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2012), 1250065-1-1250065-13 ISSN 0219-5259 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 118310; SVV(CZ) 265 504 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : fractal markets hypothesis * scaling * fractality * investment horizons * efficient markets hypothesis Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.647, year: 2012 markets hypothesis and the global financial crisis scaling investment horizons and liquidity.pdf

  18. Pan African Collisional Tectonics Along the Moroccan West African Craton Continued to Ediacaran-Cambrian Boundary (United States)

    Hefferan, K. P.; Samson, S. D.; Rice, K.; Soulaimani, A.


    Precision geochronologic dating and field mapping in the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco document a Neoproterozoic Pan African orogenic cycle consisting of three distinct orogenic events: Iriri-Tichibanine orogeny (760-700 Ma), Bou Azzer orogeny (680-640 Ma) and the WACadomian orogeny (620 Ma to either 555 or 544 Ma). The Iriri-Tichibanine and Bou Azzer orogenies involved northward directed subduction beneath island arc volcanic terranes. These orogenic events generated calc-alkaline magmatism and supra-subduction zone ophiolites exposed in the Bou Azzer and Siroua erosional inliers. The WACadomian orogeny involved subduction and collision of the Cadomia arc complex with the West African Craton and generation of clastic sedimentary basins. The termination of the WACadomian orogeny has been the subject of debate as calc-alkaline to high K magmatism and folding continued to 544 Ma: Was 620-544 Ma calc-alkaline to high K magmatism and clastic basin development due to a) continental rift basin tectonics or b) southward directed subduction and collisional tectonics with associated back arc basin tectonism? We present field and geochemical data supporting the continuation of subduction-collisional tectonics to the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary 544 Ma. Field mapping in the Central Anti-Atlas (Agadir Melloul) clearly documents an angular unconformity between Ouarzazate Group and Adoudounian limestones (N 30°31'28.91", W07°48'29.12"). Volcaniclastic rocks of Ouarzazate Group (615-545 Ma) are clearly folded and unconformably overlain by Adoudou Formation (541-529 Ma) limestones to the north. Geochemical discrimination diagrams on Latest Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline to high K igneous rocks throughout the Anti-Atlas plot in subduction and collisional arc magma domains. Back arc basin tectonism is likely responsible for localized extensional basins but continental rift tectonics and passive margin sedimentation did not begin in the Anti-Atlas Mountains until Early

  19. Proposed stratotype for the base of the highest Cambrian stage at the first appearance datum of Cordylodus andresi, Lawson Cove section, Utah, USA (United States)

    Miller, J.F.; Ethington, Raymond L.; Evans, K.R.; Holmer, L.E.; Loch, James D.; Popov, L.E.; Repetski, J.E.; Ripperdan, R.L.; Taylor, John F.


    We propose a candidate for the Global Standard Stratotype-section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the highest stage of the Furongian Series of the Cambrian System. The section is at Lawson Cove in the Ibex area of Millard County, Utah, USA. The marker horizon is the first appearance datum (FAD) of the conodont Cordylodus andresi Viira et Sergeyeva in Kaljo et al. [Kaljo, D., Borovko, N., Heinsalu, H., Khazanovich, K., Mens, K., Popov, L., Sergeyeva, S., Sobolevskaya, R., Viira, V., 1986. The Cambrian-Ordovician boundary in the Baltic-Ladoga clint area (North Estonia and Leningrad Region, USSR). Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised. Geologia 35, 97-108]. At this section and elsewhere this horizon also is the FAD of the trilobite Eurekia apopsis (Winston et Nicholls, 1967). This conodont characterizes the base of the Cordylodus proavus Zone, which has been recognized in many parts of the world. This trilobite characterizes the base of the Eurekia apopsis Zone, which has been recognized in many parts of North America. The proposed boundary is 46.7 m above the base of the Lava Dam Member of the Notch Peak Formation at the Lawson Cove section. Brachiopods, sequence stratigraphy, and carbon-isotope geochemistry are other tools that characterize this horizon and allow it to be recognized in other areas. ?? 2006 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

  20. Sedimentology of SPICE (Steptoean positive carbon isotope excursion): A high-resolution trace fossil and microfabric analysis of the middle to late Cambrian Alum Shale Formation, southern Sweden (United States)

    Egenhoff, Sven; Fishman, Neil; Ahlberg, Per; Maletz, Jorg; Jackson, Allison; Kolte, Ketki; Lowers, Heather; Mackie, James; Newby, Warren; Petrowsky, Matthew


    The Cambrian Alum Shale Formation in the Andrarum-3 core from Scania, southern Sweden, consists of black siliciclastic mudstone with minor carbonate intercalations. Four facies comprise three siliciclastic mudstones and one fine-grained carbonate. The facies reflect deposition along a transect from deep ramp to basin on a Cambrian shelf. The three mudstone facies contain abundant clay clasts and laterally variable siltstone laminae. Bed-load transport processes seem to have dominated deposition on this deep shelf. These sedimentary rocks record mainly event deposition, and only relatively few, thin laminae probably resulted from suspension settling. The Alum Shale Formation deep shelf did not show a bioturbation gradient, but fecal strings are common and Planolites burrows are rare in all mudstone facies. Evidence for biotic colonization indicates that this mudstone environment was not persistently anoxic, but rather was most likely intermittently dysoxic. The Alum Shale Formation in the Andrarum-3 core shows an overall decrease of grain size, preserved energy indicators, and carbonate content upsection interpreted to reflect a deepening upward. The succession can also be divided into four small-scale fining-upward cycles that represent deepening, and four overlying coarsening-upward cycles that represent upward shallowing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this article, the concept of capital market is analysed using Fractal Market Hypothesis which is a modern, complex and unconventional alternative to classical finance methods. Fractal Market Hypothesis is in sharp opposition to Efficient Market Hypothesis and it explores the application of chaos theory and fractal geometry to finance. Fractal Market Hypothesis is based on certain assumption. Thus, it is emphasized that investors did not react immediately to the information they receive and of course, the manner in which they interpret that information may be different. Also, Fractal Market Hypothesis refers to the way that liquidity and investment horizons influence the behaviour of financial investors.





    In this article, the concept of capital market is analysed using Fractal Market Hypothesis which is a modern, complex and unconventional alternative to classical finance methods. Fractal Market Hypothesis is in sharp opposition to Efficient Market Hypothesis and it explores the application of chaos theory and fractal geometry to finance. Fractal Market Hypothesis is based on certain assumption. Thus, it is emphasized that investors did not react immediately to the information they receive and...

  3. Zn-Pb Ores of Mississippi Valley Type in the Lycksele-Storuman District, Northern Sweden: A Possible Rift-Related Cambrian Mineralisation Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Billström


    Full Text Available The epigenetic Zn-Pb deposits in the Lycksele-Storuman ore district, northern Sweden, are hosted by Paleoproterozoic basement near the margin of the Caledonian mountains. A paleogeographic reconstruction suggests that platform sediments, including Cambrian shales, overlaid the mineralised basement. The mineralisation type, containing sphalerite, galena, calcite and fluorite, is confined to veins and breccias and interpreted to be of Mississippi Valley Type (MVT style. There is no appreciable wall rock alteration. Fluid inclusion work reveals coexisting aqueous and hydrocarbon fluids. Ore deposition is interpreted to have occurred during mixing of two fluids; a cool (

  4. Learning-Related Changes in Adolescents' Neural Networks during Hypothesis-Generating and Hypothesis-Understanding Training (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ki; Kwon, Yongju


    Fourteen science high school students participated in this study, which investigated neural-network plasticity associated with hypothesis-generating and hypothesis-understanding in learning. The students were divided into two groups and participated in either hypothesis-generating or hypothesis-understanding type learning programs, which were…


    This review covers the past year’s papers germane to the Barker hypothesis. While much of the literature has centered on maternal and developmental nutrition, new findings have emerged on the ability of toxic exposures during development to impact fetal/developmental programming....

  6. A novel hypothesis splitting method implementation for multi-hypothesis filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel


    The paper presents a multi-hypothesis filter library featuring a novel method for splitting Gaussians into ones with smaller variances. The library is written in C++ for high performance and the source code is open and free1. The multi-hypothesis filters commonly approximate the distribution tran...

  7. The anatomy, taphonomy, taxonomy and systematic affinity of Markuelia: Early Cambrian to Early Ordovician scalidophorans (United States)

    Dong, X.-P.; Bengtson, S.; Gostling, N.J.; Cunningham, J.A.; Harvey, T.H.P.; Kouchinsky, A.; Val'Kov, A.K.; Repetski, J.E.; Stampanoni, M.; Marone, F.; Donoghue, P.C.J.


    Markuelia is a vermiform, annulated introvertan animal known as embryonic fossils from the Lower Cambrian to Lower Ordovician. Analysis of an expanded and revised dataset for Introverta shows that the precise position of Markuelia within this clade is dependent on the taxa included. As a result, Markuelia is assigned to the scalidophoran total group to reflect uncertainty as to whether it is a stem-scalidophoran or a stem-priapulid. The taxonomy of the genus is revised to provide an improved taxonomic framework for material assigned to Markuelia. Five species are recognized: M. secunda Val'kov, M. hunanensis Dong and Donoghue, M. lauriei Haug et al., M. spinulifera sp. nov. and M. waloszeki sp. nov. Finally, the preservation of Markuelia is evaluated in the light of both the taphonomy of the fossil embryos themselves and the experimental taphonomy of the priapulid Priapulus caudatus, which has been proposed as both a close relative and an anatomical analogue of Markuelia. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

  8. Variability: A Pernicious Hypothesis. (United States)

    Noddings, Nel


    The hypothesis of greater male variability in test results is discussed in its historical context, and reasons feminists have objected to the hypothesis are considered. The hypothesis acquires political importance if it is considered that variability results from biological, rather than cultural, differences. (SLD)

  9. Sedimentary mode and reservoir distribution of the Cambrian carbonate & evaporate paragenesis system in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Xu


    Full Text Available The Cambrian carbonate & evaporite paragenesis system in the Sichuan Basin is made up of the Longwangmiao, Gaotai and Xixiangchi Fms. So far, great breakthrough has been made only in the Longwangmiao Fm instead of the latter two, and the Anyue Gasfield was discovered in the center of this basin. In this paper, therefore, the Cambrian carbonate & evaporite paragenesis system in the Sichuan Basin was analyzed in terms of its structural–sedimentary setting, sequence stratigraphic framework, sedimentary facies and the distribution of evaporites by using various geologic, logging and seismic data. Then, the geological model of sedimentary facies was established and the distribution range of favorable reservoirs was predicted. Based on these studies, the following results are obtained. Firstly, the palaeotectonic framework is characterized by the style of “one depression between two uplifts” in the setting of a large SE dipping slope, and the stratigraphic filling is in the structure of “onlapping at the bottom and truncation at the top” which is thin in the west and thick in the east. Secondly, three third-order sequence cycles which, on the whole, become shallow upward are developed from bottom to top, and gypsum-salt rocks are mainly located at the high system tract (HST of third-order sequences and concentrated in the Wanzhou–Yibin sag. Thirdly, the geological model of sedimentary facies is composed of three major sedimentary structural layers from bottom to top, namely the evaporative carbonate ramp, the evaporative diamictic restricted platform and the evaporative restricted platform. The sedimentary environment changes from the open to the closed and the penesaline for a long time, and then back to the open. The distribution of shoals changes from the pattern of “dual banks” in a large area to more scattered shoals and banded shoals, while the evaporative lagoon and tidal flat shrink. Fourthly, the reservoir distribution is

  10. Preservation and phylogeny of Cambrian ecdysozoans tested by experimental decay of Priapulus (United States)

    Sansom, Robert S.


    The exceptionally preserved Cambrian fossil record provides unique insight into the early evolutionary history of animals. Understanding of the mechanisms of exceptional soft tissue preservation frames all interpretations of the fauna and its evolutionary significance. This is especially true for recent interpretations of preserved nervous tissues in fossil ecdysozoans. However, models of soft tissue preservation lack empirical support from actualistic studies. Here experimental decay of the priapulid Priapulus reveal consistent bias towards rapid loss of internal non-cuticular anatomy compared with recalcitrant cuticular anatomy. This is consistent with models of Burgess Shale-type preservation and indicates that internal tissues are unlikely to be preserved with fidelity if organically preserved. This pattern, along with extreme body margin distortion, is consistent with onychophoran decay, and is therefore resolved as general for early ecdysozoans. Application of these patterns to phylogenetic data finds scalidophoran taxa to be very sensitive to taphonomically informed character coding, but not panarthropodan taxa. Priapulid decay also have unexpected relevance for interpretation of myomeres in fossil chordates. The decay data presented serve not only as a test of models of preservation but also a framework with which to interpret ecdysozoan fossil anatomies, and the subsequent evolutionary inferences drawn from them.

  11. Physiopathological Hypothesis of Cellulite (United States)

    de Godoy, José Maria Pereira; de Godoy, Maria de Fátima Guerreiro


    A series of questions are asked concerning this condition including as regards to its name, the consensus about the histopathological findings, physiological hypothesis and treatment of the disease. We established a hypothesis for cellulite and confirmed that the clinical response is compatible with this hypothesis. Hence this novel approach brings a modern physiological concept with physiopathologic basis and clinical proof of the hypothesis. We emphasize that the choice of patient, correct diagnosis of cellulite and the technique employed are fundamental to success. PMID:19756187

  12. The Debt Overhang Hypothesis: Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Muhammad Imran


    Full Text Available This study investigates the debt overhang hypothesis for Pakistan in the period 1960-2007. The study examines empirically the dynamic behaviour of GDP, debt services, the employed labour force and investment using the time series concepts of unit roots, cointegration, error correlation and causality. Our findings suggest that debt-servicing has a negative impact on the productivity of both labour and capital, and that in turn has adversely affected economic growth. By severely constraining the ability of the country to service debt, this lends support to the debt-overhang hypothesis in Pakistan. The long run relation between debt services and economic growth implies that future increases in output will drain away in form of high debt service payments to lender country as external debt acts like a tax on output. More specifically, foreign creditors will benefit more from the rise in productivity than will domestic producers and labour. This suggests that domestic labour and capital are the ultimate losers from this heavy debt burden.

  13. Axial focusing of impact energy in the Earth's interior: Proof-of-principle tests of a new hypothesis (United States)

    Boslough, M. B.; Chael, E. P.; Trucano, T. G.; Kipp, M. E.; Crawford, D. A.


    A causal link between major impact events and global processes would probably require a significant change in the thermal state of the Earth's interior, presumably brought about by coupling of impact energy. One possible mechanism for such energy coupling from the surface to the deep interior would be through focusing due to axial symmetry. Antipodal focusing of surface and body waves from earthquakes is a well-known phenomenon which has previously been exploited by seismologists in studies of the Earth's deep interior. Antipodal focusing from impacts on the Moon, Mercury, and icy satellites has also been invoked by planetary scientists to explain unusual surface features opposite some of the large impact structures on these bodies. For example, 'disrupted' terrains have been observed antipodal to the Caloris impact basis on Mercury and Imbrium Basin on the Moon. Very recently there have been speculations that antipodal focusing of impact energy within the mantle may lead to flood basalt and hotspot activity, but there has not yet been an attempt at a rigorous model. A new hypothesis was proposed and preliminary proof-of-principle tests for the coupling of energy from major impacts to the mantle by axial focusing of seismic waves was performed. Because of the axial symmetry of the explosive source, the phases and amplitudes are dependent only on ray parameter (or takeoff angle) and are independent of azimuthal angle. For a symmetric and homogeneous Earth, all the seismic energy radiated by the impact at a given takeoff angle will be refocused (minus attenuation) on the axis of symmetry, regardless of the number of reflections and refractions it has experienced. Mantle material near the axis of symmetry will experience more strain cycles with much greater amplitude than elsewhere and will therefore experience more irreversible heating. The situation is very different than for a giant earthquake, which in addition to having less energy, has an asymmetric focal

  14. Extensional tectonics and sedimentary response of the Early–Middle Cambrian passive continental margin, Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqian Gao


    Full Text Available The fact that several half-grabens and normal faults developed in the Lower–Middle Cambrian of Tazhong (central Tarim Basin and Bachu areas in Tarim Basin, northwest China, indicates that Tarim Basin was under extensional tectonic setting at this time. The half-grabens occur within a linear zone and the normal faults are arranged in en echelon patterns with gradually increasing displacement eastward. Extensional tectonics resulted in the formation of a passive continental margin in the southwest and a cratonic margin depression in the east, and most importantly, influenced the development of a three-pronged rift in the northeast margin of the Tarim Basin. The fault system controlled the development of platform – slope – bathyal facies sedimentation of mainly limestone-dolomite-gypsum rock-saline rock-red beds in the half-grabens. The NW-SE trending half-grabens reflect the distribution of buried basement faults.

  15. Climatic-oceanic forcing on the organic accumulation across the shelf during the Early Cambrian (Age 2 through 3) in the mid-upper Yangtze Block, NE Guizhou, South China (United States)

    Yeasmin, Rumana; Chen, Daizhao; Fu, Yong; Wang, Jianguo; Guo, Zenghui; Guo, Chuan


    The organic-rich sediments were widely deposited over the entire Yangtze Block during the Early Cambrian (late Nemakit-Daldynian to Botomian). In the mid-upper Yangtze region, northeastern Guizhou, South China, they comprise, in ascending order, the Niutitang, Jiumenchong and lower Bianmachong formations which are dominated by black shales except the middle one characterized by interbedded shales-limestones. Three third-order depositional sequences are identified in the two studied sections located on the upper slope to basin of the open shelf. The organic-rich sediments were mostly deposited notably during transgressions on the shallower upper slope-margin (TOC up to 25 wt.%) where they are characterized by co-increases in C, P, Fe, and Ba concentrations, indicating the highest organic productivity and coupled C, P and Fe cycling there. In contrast, in the shelf basin, the concomitant organic-rich sediments yield lower organic (TOC Block within the north mid-low-latitude trade-wind zone during deposition (the Early Cambrian). As such, enhanced offshore currents driven by the trade winds could have further induced the upwelling of nutrient-rich deep waters along the shelf during the transgressions, although tended to wane onwards, leading to the tempo-spatial heterogeneities in organic production and redox state across the shelf sea.

  16. The Income Inequality Hypothesis Revisited : Assessing the Hypothesis Using Four Methodological Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, N.; Rözer, J.

    The income inequality hypothesis states that income inequality has a negative effect on individual’s health, partially because it reduces social trust. This article aims to critically assess the income inequality hypothesis by comparing several analytical strategies, namely OLS regression,

  17. The Late Cambrian SPICE (δ13C) event and the Sauk II-Sauk III regression: new evidence from Laurentian basins in Utah, Iowa, and Newfoundland (United States)

    Saltzman, Matthew R.; Cowan, Clinton A.; Runkel, Anthony C.; Runnegar, Bruce; Stewart, Michael C.; Palmer, Allison R.


    Carbon isotope data from Upper Cambrian sections in three Laurentian basins in northern Utah, central Iowa, and western Newfoundland record a large positive ??13C excursion (SPICE event) of up to + 5???. Peak ??13C ratios are well dated by trilobite collections to the middle of the Steptoean Stage (Dunderbergia Zone) and occur during maximum regression associated with formation of the Sauk II-Sauk III subsequence boundary on the North American craton. Maximum regression was marked by an influx of quartz sand into carbonate-platform settings in all three widely separated basins. In northern Utah, this quartz sand formed a thick sequence known as the Worm Creek Quartzite, which marks a conspicuous interruption of carbonate deposition during the Middle to Late Cambrian in the region. In western Newfoundland, the thickness of the quartz sand unit is much reduced but still marks a brief shutdown of the carbonate factory that is unique to the Cambrian shelf succession of the area. In the central Iowa area of the cratonic interior, an upward-shallowing carbonate succession culminates in cross-stratified trilobite grainstones at the peak of the SPICE in Dunderbergia Zone time, and the lowest point on the relative-sea-level curve is associated with the occurrence of coarse quartz sand derived from the encroaching shoreface. Although it is difficult to determine precisely the departure from baseline ??13C that marks the beginning of the SPICE excursion in the stratigraphic successions analyzed, our results are consistent with a rise and subsequent fall in ??13C tracking a major regressive-transgressive event recorded across northern Laurentia. The correlation of a major ??13C excursion with regression is similar to that described for the Late Ordovician, for which the pattern has been attributed to either increased carbonate relative to terrigenous weathering rates as ice sheets covered up organic-matter-containing silicates at high latitudes or high productivity and organic

  18. On the Keyhole Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kaare B.; Kidmose, Preben; Hansen, Lars Kai


    simultaneously recorded scalp EEG. A cross-validation procedure was employed to ensure unbiased estimates. We present several pieces of evidence in support of the keyhole hypothesis: There is a high mutual information between data acquired at scalp electrodes and through the ear-EEG "keyhole," furthermore we......We propose and test the keyhole hypothesis that measurements from low dimensional EEG, such as ear-EEG reflect a broadly distributed set of neural processes. We formulate the keyhole hypothesis in information theoretical terms. The experimental investigation is based on legacy data consisting of 10...

  19. Testing the fire-sale FDI hypothesis for the European financial crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, G.U.; Kling, G.; Gerritsen, D.


    Using a panel of corporate transactions in 27 EU countries from 1999 to 2012, we investigate the impact of the financial crisis on the market for corporate assets. In particular, we test the ‘fire-sale FDI’ hypothesis by analyzing the number of cross-border transactions, the price of corporate

  20. Testing the Fire-Sale FDI Hypothesis for the European Financial Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kling, G.; Gerritsen, Dirk; Weitzel, Gustav Utz


    Using a panel of corporate transactions in 27 EU countries from 1999 to 2012, we investigate the impact of the financial crisis on the market for corporate assets. In particular, we test the ‘fire-sale FDI’ hypothesis by analyzing the number of cross-border transactions, the price of corporate

  1. Approaches to informed consent for hypothesis-testing and hypothesis-generating clinical genomics research. (United States)

    Facio, Flavia M; Sapp, Julie C; Linn, Amy; Biesecker, Leslie G


    Massively-parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies create challenges for informed consent of research participants given the enormous scale of the data and the wide range of potential results. We propose that the consent process in these studies be based on whether they use MPS to test a hypothesis or to generate hypotheses. To demonstrate the differences in these approaches to informed consent, we describe the consent processes for two MPS studies. The purpose of our hypothesis-testing study is to elucidate the etiology of rare phenotypes using MPS. The purpose of our hypothesis-generating study is to test the feasibility of using MPS to generate clinical hypotheses, and to approach the return of results as an experimental manipulation. Issues to consider in both designs include: volume and nature of the potential results, primary versus secondary results, return of individual results, duty to warn, length of interaction, target population, and privacy and confidentiality. The categorization of MPS studies as hypothesis-testing versus hypothesis-generating can help to clarify the issue of so-called incidental or secondary results for the consent process, and aid the communication of the research goals to study participants.

  2. A test of the permanent income hypothesis on Czech voucher privatization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Tůma, Z.


    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2002), s. 235-254 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : Barro-Riccardian * equivalence * permanent income hypothesis Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.897, year: 2002 http://search. ebscohost .com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=6844845&site=ehost-live

  3. Mental Abilities and School Achievement: A Test of a Mediation Hypothesis (United States)

    Vock, Miriam; Preckel, Franzis; Holling, Heinz


    This study analyzes the interplay of four cognitive abilities--reasoning, divergent thinking, mental speed, and short-term memory--and their impact on academic achievement in school in a sample of adolescents in grades seven to 10 (N = 1135). Based on information processing approaches to intelligence, we tested a mediation hypothesis, which states…

  4. The frequentist implications of optional stopping on Bayesian hypothesis tests. (United States)

    Sanborn, Adam N; Hills, Thomas T


    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is the most commonly used statistical methodology in psychology. The probability of achieving a value as extreme or more extreme than the statistic obtained from the data is evaluated, and if it is low enough, the null hypothesis is rejected. However, because common experimental practice often clashes with the assumptions underlying NHST, these calculated probabilities are often incorrect. Most commonly, experimenters use tests that assume that sample sizes are fixed in advance of data collection but then use the data to determine when to stop; in the limit, experimenters can use data monitoring to guarantee that the null hypothesis will be rejected. Bayesian hypothesis testing (BHT) provides a solution to these ills because the stopping rule used is irrelevant to the calculation of a Bayes factor. In addition, there are strong mathematical guarantees on the frequentist properties of BHT that are comforting for researchers concerned that stopping rules could influence the Bayes factors produced. Here, we show that these guaranteed bounds have limited scope and often do not apply in psychological research. Specifically, we quantitatively demonstrate the impact of optional stopping on the resulting Bayes factors in two common situations: (1) when the truth is a combination of the hypotheses, such as in a heterogeneous population, and (2) when a hypothesis is composite-taking multiple parameter values-such as the alternative hypothesis in a t-test. We found that, for these situations, while the Bayesian interpretation remains correct regardless of the stopping rule used, the choice of stopping rule can, in some situations, greatly increase the chance of experimenters finding evidence in the direction they desire. We suggest ways to control these frequentist implications of stopping rules on BHT.

  5. Hypothesis in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eudaldo Enrique Espinoza Freire


    Full Text Available It is intended with this work to have a material with the fundamental contents, which enable the university professor to formulate the hypothesis, for the development of an investigation, taking into account the problem to be solved. For its elaboration, the search of information in primary documents was carried out, such as thesis of degree and reports of research results, selected on the basis of its relevance with the analyzed subject, current and reliability, secondary documents, as scientific articles published in journals of recognized prestige, the selection was made with the same terms as in the previous documents. It presents a conceptualization of the updated hypothesis, its characterization and an analysis of the structure of the hypothesis in which the determination of the variables is deepened. The involvement of the university professor in the teaching-research process currently faces some difficulties, which are manifested, among other aspects, in an unstable balance between teaching and research, which leads to a separation between them.

  6. Environmental regulation and competitiveness: Empirical evidence on the Porter Hypothesis from European manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubashkina, Yana; Galeotti, Marzio; Verdolini, Elena


    This paper investigates the “weak” and “strong” versions of Porter Hypothesis (PH) focusing on the manufacturing sectors of 17 European countries between 1997 and 2009. The hypothesis that well-crafted and well-enforced regulation would benefit both the environment and the firm was originally proposed by Porter (1991) and Porter and van der Linde (1995). To date, the literature has analyzed the impact of environmental regulation on innovation and on productivity mostly in separate analyses and focusing on the USA. The few existing contributions on Europe study the effect of environmental regulation either on green innovation or on performance indicators such as exports. We instead look at overall innovation and productivity impacts. First, focusing on overall innovative activity allows us to account for potential opportunity costs of induced innovations. Second, productivity impacts are arguably the most relevant indicators for the “strong” PH. As a proxy of environmental policy stringency we use pollution abatement and control expenditures (PACE), one of the few sectoral level indicators available. We remedy upon its main drawback, namely potential endogeneity, by adopting an instrumental variable estimation approach. We find evidence of a positive impact of environmental regulation on the output of innovation activity, as proxied by patents, thus providing support in favor of the “weak” PH. This result is in line with most of the literature. On the other front, we find no evidence in favor of the “strong” PH, as productivity appears to be unaffected by the degree of pollution control and abatement efforts. -- Highlights: •Weak and strong Porter Hypothesis. •Panel of manufacturing sectors of 17 European countries between 1997 and 2009. •Look at overall innovation and productivity impacts. •Pollution abatement & control expenditures proxy of environmental policy stringency. •Account for potential endogeneity of PACE by adopting

  7. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead? (United States)


    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed with concern by some of the public. This review article discusses reasons that mainstream science has largely abandoned the Aluminum Hypothesis and explores a possible reason for some in the general public continuing to view aluminum with mistrust. PMID:24806729

  8. Men’s Perception of Raped Women: Test of the Sexually Transmitted Disease Hypothesis and the Cuckoldry Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokop Pavol


    Full Text Available Rape is a recurrent adaptive problem of female humans and females of a number of non-human animals. Rape has various physiological and reproductive costs to the victim. The costs of rape are furthermore exaggerated by social rejection and blaming of a victim, particularly by men. The negative perception of raped women by men has received little attention from an evolutionary perspective. Across two independent studies, we investigated whether the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (the STD hypothesis, Hypothesis 1 or paternity uncertainty (the cuckoldry hypothesis, Hypothesis 2 influence the negative perception of raped women by men. Raped women received lower attractiveness score than non-raped women, especially in long-term mate attractiveness score. The perceived attractiveness of raped women was not influenced by the presence of experimentally manipulated STD cues on faces of putative rapists. Women raped by three men received lower attractiveness score than women raped by one man. These results provide stronger support for the cuckoldry hypothesis (Hypothesis 2 than for the STD hypothesis (Hypothesis 1. Single men perceived raped women as more attractive than men in a committed relationship (Hypothesis 3, suggesting that the mating opportunities mediate men’s perception of victims of rape. Overall, our results suggest that the risk of cuckoldry underlie the negative perception of victims of rape by men rather than the fear of disease transmission.

  9. Geochemical interpretation of the Precambrian basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone on Bornholm, Denmark: Implications for the weathering history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Yang, Tian


    show a depletion of major elements in the following order: Na N Ca N Mg N Si; Al and Ti are immobile and stay constant; K shows sample dependent enrichment or depletion; Fe is slightly enriched. The Cambrian sandstone overlying the basement in the Borggård borehole, assigned to the Gadeby Member...... but lost most of the plagioclase. The LSF has a comparable weathering history (CIA = 63–73), but the plagioclase is better preserved (PIA = 65–78). The significant variation of weathering rates of plagioclase and K-feldspar in the basement granite and the provenance of sandstone from the Borggård borehole...... are likely due to the different permeability developed within the internal crystal structures, a Ca- rich plagioclase original composition of the plagioclase, and the occurrence of weathering in a very humid climate. K metasomatism occurred in the basement granite and sandstone in both the Borggård and the G...

  10. Facies and porosity origin of reservoirs: Case studies from the Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation of Sichuan Basin, China, and their implications on reservoir prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjiang Shen


    Full Text Available The dolostone of the Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation has been a significant gas exploration area in Sichuan Basin. In Gaoshiti-Moxi regions, a giant gas pool with thousands of billion cubic meters' reserve has been discovered. However, the origin of the reservoir and the distribution patterns are still disputed, eventually constraining the dolostone exploration of the Longwangmiao Formation. This paper focuses on the characteristics, origin, and distribution patterns of the dolostone reservoir in the Longwangmiao Formation based on: the outcrop geological survey, cores, thin-sections observation, reservoir geochemical characteristics study, and reservoir simulation experiments. As a result, two realizations were acquired: (1 The Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation could be divided into upper and lower part in Sichuan Basin. Based on the two parts of the Longwangmiao Formation, two lithofacies paleogeographic maps were generated. In addition, the carbonate slope sedimentary models were established. The grainstone shoals are mainly distributed in the shallow slope of the upper part in the Longwangmiao Formation. (2 The grainstone shoals are the developing basis of the dolostone reservoir in the Longwangmiao Formation. Moreover, the contemporaneous dissolution was a critical factor of grainstone shoal reservoir development in the Longwangmiao Formation. Controlled by the exposure surface, the dissolution vugs are not only extensively distributed, but also successively developed along the contemporaneous pore zones. Hence, the distribution patterns could be predicted. The geological understandings of the origin of dolostone reservoir in the Longwangmiao Formation show that the reservoir distributed in the areas of karstification in the Gaoshiti-Moxi regions, as well as the widespread grainstone shoals in the whole basin, are the potential exploration targets. Keywords: Sichuan Basin, Longwangmiao Formation, Carbonate slope, Dolograinstone shoal

  11. The Red Queen hypothesis and geographical parthenogenesis in the alpine hawkweed Hieracium alpinum (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartmann, M.; Štefánek, M.; Zdvořák, P.; Heřman, P.; Chrtek, Jindřich; Mráz, P.


    Roč. 122, č. 4 (2017), s. 681-696 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : apomixis * polyploidy * Red Queen hypothesis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2016

  12. Three Cambrian fossils assembled into an extinct body plan of cnidarian affinity. (United States)

    Ou, Qiang; Han, Jian; Zhang, Zhifei; Shu, Degan; Sun, Ge; Mayer, Georg


    The early Cambrian problematica Xianguangia sinica , Chengjiangopenna wangii , and Galeaplumosus abilus from the Chengjiang biota (Yunnan, China) have caused much controversy in the past and their phylogenetic placements remain unresolved. Here we show, based on exceptionally preserved material (85 new specimens plus type material), that specimens previously assigned to these three species are in fact parts of the same organism and propose that C. wangii and G. abilus are junior synonyms of X. sinica Our reconstruction of the complete animal reveals an extinct body plan that combines the characteristics of the three described species and is distinct from all known fossil and living taxa. This animal resembled a cnidarian polyp in overall morphology and having a gastric cavity partitioned by septum-like structures. However, it possessed an additional body cavity within its holdfast, an anchoring pit on the basal disk, and feather-like tentacles with densely ciliated pinnules arranged in an alternating pattern, indicating that it was a suspension feeder rather than a predatory actiniarian. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony suggest that X. sinica is a stem-group cnidarian. This relationship implies that the last common ancestor of X. sinica and crown cnidarians was probably a benthic, polypoid animal with a partitioned gastric cavity and a single mouth/anus opening. This extinct body plan suggests that feeding strategies of stem cnidarians may have been drastically different from that of their crown relatives, which are almost exclusively predators, and reveals that the morphological disparity of total-group Cnidaria is greater than previously assumed.

  13. Fractal Markets Hypothesis and the Global Financial Crisis: Wavelet Power Evidence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav


    Roč. 3, č. 10 (2013), 2857-1-2857-12 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : fractal markets hypothesis * investment horizons * wavelets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 5.078, year: 2013

  14. Reassessing the Trade-off Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas, Guillermo; Manzetti, Luigi


    Do economic conditions drive voters to punish politicians that tolerate corruption? Previous scholarly work contends that citizens in young democracies support corrupt governments that are capable of promoting good economic outcomes, the so-called trade-off hypothesis. We test this hypothesis based...

  15. Tests of the lunar hypothesis (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.


    The concept that the Moon was fissioned from the Earth after core separation is the most readily testable hypothesis of lunar origin, since direct comparisons of lunar and terrestrial compositions can be made. Differences found in such comparisons introduce so many ad hoc adjustments to the fission hypothesis that it becomes untestable. Further constraints may be obtained from attempting to date the volatile-refractory element fractionation. The combination of chemical and isotopic problems suggests that the fission hypothesis is no longer viable, and separate terrestrial and lunar accretion from a population of fractionated precursor planetesimals provides a more reasonable explanation.

  16. A comparative analysis of two Early Palaeozoic marine impact structures in Estonia, Baltic Sea: Neugrund and Kärdla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sten Suuroja


    Full Text Available Kärdla and Neugrund are two Early Palaeozoic offshore impact structures located some 50 km apart along the Estonian coast of the Baltic Sea. They share many similarities but differing features are also found. The Kärdla impact structure is located at the NE coastof Hiiumaa Island (58°58’N, 22°46’E. The inner crater has a 4 km rim-to-rim diameter and a c. 130 m high central uplift, surrounded by a ring fault, c. 12 km in diameter. The well-preserved buried inner crater is outlined in the landscape by a circular ridge of upliftedbedrock. The perimeter of the outer crater is outlined on the seafloor by a semicircular ridge of narrow shoals. The variable height of the rim wall (50–240 m above the crystalline basement level and the asymmetric location of the inner crater is obviously a result of an oblique impact in a layered target and partial collapse of the rim wall. Shortly after the impact in a shallow epicontinental sea during Late Ordovician time (c. 455 My, calcareous biodetritic muds were deposited and the crater was buried. The Neugrund impact structure is located in the seabed at the entrance of the Gulf of Finland (59°20’N, 23°31’E. The inner crater has a 7 km rim-to-rim diameter and the outer limit of the structure passes through the Osmussaar Island to the southwest of the impact centre. The crater wasburied in a shallow epicontinental sea with siliciclastic deposition shortly after the impact at Early Cambrian time, c. 535 My. It was partially re-exposed by erosion during Pliocene. The target had a three-layered composition: Precambrian metamorphic rocks covered byEdiacaran and Early Cambrian siliciclastic rocks (c. 150 m and water (c. 100 m. The structure has been studied with seismoacoustic and sidescan sonar profiling, and by diving and sampling of submarine outcrops. Several hundred samples of impact breccias have been collected and investigated from erratic boulders distributed by glacial action in the west

  17. Updating the lamellar hypothesis of hippocampal organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Sloviter


    Full Text Available In 1971, Andersen and colleagues proposed that excitatory activity in the entorhinal cortex propagates topographically to the dentate gyrus, and on through a trisynaptic circuit lying within transverse hippocampal slices or lamellae [Andersen, Bliss, and Skrede. 1971. Lamellar organization of hippocampal pathways. Exp Brain Res 13, 222-238]. In this way, a relatively simple structure might mediate complex functions in a manner analogous to the way independent piano keys can produce a nearly infinite variety of unique outputs. The lamellar hypothesis derives primary support from the lamellar distribution of dentate granule cell axons (the mossy fibers, which innervate dentate hilar neurons and area CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons within the confines of a thin transverse hippocampal segment. Following the initial formulation of the lamellar hypothesis, anatomical studies revealed that unlike granule cells, hilar mossy cells, CA3 pyramidal cells, and Layer II entorhinal cells all form axonal projections that are more divergent along the longitudinal axis than the clearly lamellar mossy fiber pathway. The existence of pathways with translamellar distribution patterns has been interpreted, incorrectly in our view, as justifying outright rejection of the lamellar hypothesis [Amaral and Witter. 1989. The three-dimensional organization of the hippocampal formation: a review of anatomical data. Neuroscience 31, 571-591]. We suggest that the functional implications of longitudinally-projecting axons depend not on whether they exist, but on what they do. The observation that focal granule cell layer discharges normally inhibit, rather than excite, distant granule cells suggests that longitudinal axons in the dentate gyrus may mediate "lateral" inhibition and define lamellar function, rather than undermine it. In this review, we attempt a reconsideration of the evidence that most directly impacts the physiological concept of hippocampal lamellar

  18. Pathogenesis of and unifying hypothesis for idiopathic pouchitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, J Calvin


    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the procedure of choice in the surgical management of refractory ulcerative colitis. Pouchitis affects up to 60% of patients following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. It overlaps significantly with ulcerative colitis such that improvements in our understanding of one will impact considerably on the other. The symptoms are distressing and impinge significantly on patients\\' quality of life. Despite 30 years of scientific and clinical investigation, the pathogenesis of pouchitis is unknown; however, recent advances in molecular and cell biology make a synergistic hypothesis possible. This hypothesis links interaction between epithelial metaplasia, changes in luminal bacteria (in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria), and altered mucosal immunity. Specifically, colonic metaplasia supports colonization by sulfate-reducing bacteria that produce hydrogen sulfide. This causes mucosal depletion and subsequent inflammation. Although in most cases antibiotics lead to bacterial clearance and symptom resolution, immunogenetic subpopulations can develop a chronic refractory variant of pouchitis. The aims of this paper are to discuss proposed pathogenic mechanisms and to describe a novel mechanism that combines many hypotheses and explains several aspects of pouchitis. The implications for the management of both pouchitis and ulcerative colitis are discussed.

  19. Pathogenesis of and unifying hypothesis for idiopathic pouchitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, J Calvin


    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the procedure of choice in the surgical management of refractory ulcerative colitis. Pouchitis affects up to 60% of patients following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. It overlaps significantly with ulcerative colitis such that improvements in our understanding of one will impact considerably on the other. The symptoms are distressing and impinge significantly on patients\\' quality of life. Despite 30 years of scientific and clinical investigation, the pathogenesis of pouchitis is unknown; however, recent advances in molecular and cell biology make a synergistic hypothesis possible. This hypothesis links interaction between epithelial metaplasia, changes in luminal bacteria (in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria), and altered mucosal immunity. Specifically, colonic metaplasia supports colonization by sulfate-reducing bacteria that produce hydrogen sulfide. This causes mucosal depletion and subsequent inflammation. Although in most cases antibiotics lead to bacterial clearance and symptom resolution, immunogenetic subpopulations can develop a chronic refractory variant of pouchitis. The aims of this paper are to discuss proposed pathogenic mechanisms and to describe a novel mechanism that combines many hypotheses and explains several aspects of pouchitis. The implications for the management of both pouchitis and ulcerative colitis are discussed.

  20. Formation conditions, accumulation models and exploration direction of large-scale gas fields in Sinian-Cambrian, Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqi Wei


    Full Text Available According to comprehensive research on forming conditions including sedimentary facies, reservoirs, source rocks, and palaeo-uplift evolution of Sinian-Cambrian in Sichuan Basin, it is concluded that: (1 large-scale inherited palaeo-uplifts, large-scale intracratonic rifts, three widely-distributed high-quality source rocks, four widely-distributed karst reservoirs, and oil pyrolysis gas were all favorable conditions for large-scale and high-abundance accumulation; (2 diverse accumulation models were developed in different areas of the palaeo-uplift. In the core area of the inherited palaeo-uplift, “in-situ” pyrolysis accumulation model of paleo-reservoir was developed. On the other hand, in the slope area, pyrolysis accumulation model of dispersed liquid hydrocarbon was developed in the late stage structural trap; (3 there were different exploration directions in various areas of the palaeo-uplift. Within the core area of the palaeo-uplift, we mainly searched for the inherited paleo-structural trap which was also the foundation of lithological-strigraphic gas reservoirs. In the slope areas, we mainly searched for the giant structural trap formed in the Himalayan Period.

  1. Cambrian archaeocyathan metazoans: revision of morphological characters and standardization of genus descriptions to establish an online identification tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Kerner


    Full Text Available Archaeocyatha represent the oldest calcified sponges and the first metazoans to build bioconstructions in association with calcimicrobes. They are a key group in biology, evolutionary studies, biostratigraphy, paleoecology and paleogeography of the early Cambrian times. The establishing of a new standardized terminology for archaeocyathans description has permitted the creation of the first knowledge base in English including descriptions of all archaeocyathan genera. This base, using the XPER² software package, is an integral part of the -Archaeocyatha- a knowledge base website, freely available at url The website is composed of common information about Archaeocyatha, general remarks about the knowledge base, the description of the 307 genera recognized with images of type-specimens of type-species for each genus, as well as additional morphological data, an interactive free access key and its user guide.The automatic analysis and comparison of the digitized descriptions have identified some genera with highly similar morphology. These results are a great help for future taxonomic revisions and suggest a number of possible synonymies that require further study.

  2. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economist's model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  3. The hexagon hypothesis: Six disruptive scenarios. (United States)

    Burtles, Jim


    This paper aims to bring a simple but effective and comprehensive approach to the development, delivery and monitoring of business continuity solutions. To ensure that the arguments and principles apply across the board, the paper sticks to basic underlying concepts rather than sophisticated interpretations. First, the paper explores what exactly people are defending themselves against. Secondly, the paper looks at how defences should be set up. Disruptive events tend to unfold in phases, each of which invites a particular style of protection, ranging from risk management through to business continuity to insurance cover. Their impact upon any business operation will fall into one of six basic scenarios. The hexagon hypothesis suggests that everyone should be prepared to deal with each of these six disruptive scenarios and it provides them with a useful benchmark for business continuity.

  4. Exceptionally preserved Cambrian trilobite digestive system revealed in 3D by synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats E Eriksson

    Full Text Available The Cambrian 'Orsten' fauna comprises exceptionally preserved and phosphatised microscopic arthropods. The external morphology of these fossils is well known, but their internal soft-tissue anatomy has remained virtually unknown. Here, we report the first non-biomineralised tissues from a juvenile polymerid trilobite, represented by digestive structures, glands, and connective strands harboured in a hypostome from the Swedish 'Orsten' fauna. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy enabled three-dimensional internal recordings at sub-micrometre resolution. The specimen provides the first unambiguous evidence for a J-shaped anterior gut and the presence of a crop with a constricted alimentary tract in the Trilobita. Moreover, the gut is Y-shaped in cross section, probably due to a collapsed lumen of that shape, another feature which has not previously been observed in trilobites. The combination of anatomical features suggests that the trilobite hypostome is functionally analogous to the labrum of euarthropods and that it was a sophisticated element closely integrated with the digestive system. This study also briefly addresses the preservational bias of the 'Orsten' fauna, particularly the near-absence of polymerid trilobites, and the taphonomy of the soft-tissue-harbouring hypostome.

  5. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders


    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economistís model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  6. Validity of Linder Hypothesis in Bric Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Atabay


    Full Text Available In this study, the theory of similarity in preferences (Linder hypothesis has been introduced and trade in BRIC countries has been examined whether the trade between these countries was valid for this hypothesis. Using the data for the period 1996 – 2010, the study applies to panel data analysis in order to provide evidence regarding the empirical validity of the Linder hypothesis for BRIC countries’ international trade. Empirical findings show that the trade between BRIC countries is in support of Linder hypothesis.

  7. Geology and lithogeochemistry of hydrothermal mudstones from the upper block near the Duck Pond volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit, Newfoundland, Canada: evidence for low-temperature venting into oxygenated mid-Cambrian seawater (United States)

    Piercey, Stephen J.; Squires, Gerry; Brace, Terry


    Pyrite- and pyrrhotite-rich mudstones are spatially associated with Cambrian ( 512-509 Ma) volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits throughout the Tally Pond group, central Newfoundland, Canada. At the Duck Pond mine, sulfide-rich mudstones are hosted within a weakly mineralized upper block that structurally overlies the deposit but is older ( 513 versus 509 Ma). The mudstones are laminated, 10-30-cm thick, and pyrite- and pyrrhotite-rich and occur along pillow lava selvages, or in between pillow lavas, rhyolite flows, and volcaniclastic rocks. The mudstones are laterally extensive and proximal to the mudstone host rocks are hydrothermally altered to epidote-quartz-chlorite (basalt host) and sericite-quartz (rhyolite host). Lithogeochemical data for the sulfide-rich mudstones reflect the varying contributions of elements from sedimentary detritus, hydrothermal discharge, and hydrogenous scavenging from middle Cambrian seawater. The mudstones have minor detrital element abundances and significant hydrothermal element enrichments (i.e., elevated Fe2O3, S, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ba concentrations, high Fe/Al ratios). The hydrothermal mudstones are also enriched in oxyanions (i.e., P2O5, U, V, Cr, Ni, Co, and Hg), interpreted to have been enriched via oxidative scavenging from seawater by Fe-oxide/oxyhydroxide particles. The mudstones also have REE-Y signatures similar to modern oxygenated seawater with high Y/Ho and negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce* = 0.40-0.86; average = 0.58), which correlate with adsorbed oxyanion concentrations. The low Eu/Eu* (1.02-1.86; average = 1.22) in the mudstones suggest that they were deposited from low-temperature (residence time to scavenge oxyanions from seawater and inherit a middle Cambrian seawater signature. The predominant seawater REE-Y-oxyanion signature in the Duck Pond upper block sulfide-rich mudstones suggests that they are distal hydrothermal sedimentary rocks that could have formed up to 10 km from their original vent sources

  8. The age, nature and likely genesis of the Cambrian Khantaishir arc, Lake Zone, Mongolia (United States)

    Janoušek, Vojtěch; Jiang, Yingde; Schulmann, Karel; Buriánek, David; Hanžl, Pavel; Lexa, Ondrej; Ganchuluun, Turbat; Battushig, Altanbaatar


    Recent discovery of the huge Cambrian arc in the Khantaishir Mountain Range (SE Mongolian Altai) suggests that the principal Neoproterozoic and Devonian-Carboniferous episodes of crustal growth in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) (Sengör et al. 1993) have to be revised. This probably the largest arc system known in the Mongolian tract of the CAOB is seemingly intrusive into the Neoproterozoic accretionary wedge (the Lake Zone) in the N and underthrust southwards below the Palaeozoic volcanosedimentary prism (Gobi Altai Zone). The arc shows a section from deep, ultramafic cumulates to shallower crustal levels of the magmatic system and thus provides an excellent opportunity to study this important period of crustal growth in the Mongolian CAOB. The magmatic rocks are intermediate to ultrabasic (SiO2 = 39.2-61.8 wt. %), rather primitive (mg# = 45-60) Amp-Bt tonalites to coarse-grained Amp gabbros and hornblendites. They are Na-rich (Na2O/K2O = 1.3-9.7 by wt.), exclusively metaluminous and mostly subalkaline, except for the ultrabasic types that enter the alkaline domain due to accumulation of Amp crystals. The P-T conditions calculated using the Amp thermobarometer of Ridolfi et al. (2010) show that the gabbro crystallized at 930-950 ° C and 0.36-0.43 GPa. The (normal-) calc-alkaline chemistry and characteristic trace-element enrichment in hydrous-fluid mobile large-ion lithophile elements (LILE: Rb, Ba, Th, U, K and Pb) over high-field strength elements (HFSE: Nb and Ta) confirm an origin within an igneous arc. The newly obtained LA ICP-MS zircon ages for three tonalites-diorites range between 516 ± 2 Ma and 494 ± 3 Ma. While zircons in two of them give high initial ɛHf values (+8 to +14), implying a derivation by (near) closed-system fractionation from little modified, depleted-mantle derived magmas, the third contains significantly different component (ɛHf = +3 to +6). The latter component may have come from a distinct, less depleted

  9. Einstein's Revolutionary Light-Quantum Hypothesis (United States)

    Stuewer, Roger H.


    The paper in which Albert Einstein proposed his light-quantum hypothesis was the only one of his great papers of 1905 that he himself termed ``revolutionary.'' Contrary to widespread belief, Einstein did not propose his light-quantum hypothesis ``to explain the photoelectric effect.'' Instead, he based his argument for light quanta on the statistical interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics, with the photoelectric effect being only one of three phenomena that he offered as possible experimental support for it. I will discuss Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis of 1905 and his introduction of the wave-particle duality in 1909 and then turn to the reception of his work on light quanta by his contemporaries. We will examine the reasons that prominent physicists advanced to reject Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis in succeeding years. Those physicists included Robert A. Millikan, even though he provided convincing experimental proof of the validity of Einstein's equation of the photoelectric effect in 1915. The turning point came after Arthur Holly Compton discovered the Compton effect in late 1922, but even then Compton's discovery was contested both on experimental and on theoretical grounds. Niels Bohr, in particular, had never accepted the reality of light quanta and now, in 1924, proposed a theory, the Bohr-Kramers-Slater theory, which assumed that energy and momentum were conserved only statistically in microscopic interactions. Only after that theory was disproved experimentally in 1925 was Einstein's revolutionary light-quantum hypothesis generally accepted by physicists---a full two decades after Einstein had proposed it.

  10. Inefficient volatile loss from the Moon-forming disk: Reconciling the giant impact hypothesis and a wet Moon (United States)

    Nakajima, Miki; Stevenson, David J.


    The Earth's Moon is thought to have formed from a circumterrestrial disk generated by a giant impact between the proto-Earth and an impactor approximately 4.5 billion years ago. Since this impact was energetic, the disk would have been hot (4000-6000 K) and partially vaporized (20-100% by mass). This formation process is thought to be responsible for the geochemical observation that the Moon is depleted in volatiles (e.g., K and Na). To explain this volatile depletion, some studies suggest the Moon-forming disk was rich in hydrogen, which was dissociated from water, and it escaped from the disk as a hydrodynamic wind accompanying heavier volatiles (hydrodynamic escape). This model predicts that the Moon should be significantly depleted in water, but this appears to contradict some of the recently measured lunar water abundances and D/H ratios that suggest that the Moon is more water-rich than previously thought. Alternatively, the Moon could have retained its water if the upper parts (low pressure regions) of the disk were dominated by heavier species because hydrogen would have had to diffuse out from the heavy-element rich disk, and therefore the escape rate would have been limited by this slow diffusion process (diffusion-limited escape). To identify which escape the disk would have experienced and to quantify volatiles loss from the disk, we compute the thermal structure of the Moon-forming disk considering various bulk water abundances (100-1000 ppm) and mid-plane disk temperatures (2500-4000 K). Assuming that the disk consists of silicate (SiO2 or Mg2SiO4) and water and that the disk is in the chemical equilibrium, our calculations show that the upper parts of the Moon-forming disk are dominated by heavy atoms or molecules (SiO and O at Tmid > 2500- 2800 K and H2O at Tmid lost water and hydrogen would have been small compared to the initial abundance assumed. This result indicates that the giant impact hypothesis can be consistent with the water-rich Moon

  11. Precambrian-Cambrian provenance of Matinde Formation, Karoo Supergroup, northwestern Mozambique, constrained from detrital zircon U-Pb age and Lu-Hf isotope data (United States)

    Bicca, Marcos Müller; Jelinek, Andrea Ritter; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; de Carvalho Lana, Cristiano; Alkmim, Ana Ramalho


    The Permian-Triassic time interval was a period of high sedimentation rates in the intracontinental Karoo rift basin of northwestern Mozambique, reflecting high exhumation rates in the surrounding high ground Precambrian-Cambrian basement and juxtaposed nappes. U-Pb LA-MC-ICPMS dating and Lu-Hf isotopic analysis of detrital zircons from the Late Permian-Early Triassic Matinde Formation of the Karoo Supergroup is used as a reliable proxy to map denudation patterns of source regions. Data allow discrimination of U-Pb age populations of ca. 1250-900 Ma, a secondary population between ca. 900-700 and a major contribution of ages around ca. 700-490 Ma. Zircon grains of the Mesoproterozoic age population present Mesoproterozoic (1000-1500 Ma) to Paleoproterozoic (1800-2300 Ma) Hf TDM ages, with positive (0 to +11) and negative εHf values (-3 to -15), respectively. The younger U-Pb age population also presents two different groups of zircon grains according to Lu-Hf isotopes. The first group comprise Paleoproterozoic (1800-2300 Ma) ages, with highly negative εHf values, between -10 and -22, and the second group exhibits Mesoproterozoic ages (1200-1500 Ma), with increased juvenile εHf values (ca. 0 to -5). These Hf isotopes reinforce the presence of unexposed ancient crust in this region. The oldest U-Pb age population resembles the late stages of Grenville Orogeny and the Rodinia Supercontinent geotectonic activity mostly represented by magmatic rocks, which are widely present in the basement of northern Mozambique. The juvenile Hf-isotope signature with an older age component is associated to rocks generated from subduction processes with crust assimilation by continental arcs, which we correlate to rocks of the Nampula Complex, south and east of the Moatize-Minjova Basin. The U-Pb ages between 900 and 700 Ma were correlated to the calc-alkaline magmatism registered in the Guro Suite, related to the breakup phase of Rodinia, and mark the western limit of the Moatize

  12. Morphology and function in the Cambrian Burgess Shale megacheiran arthropod Leanchoilia superlata and the application of a descriptive matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Joachim T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leanchoilia superlata is one of the best known arthropods from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale of British Columbia. Here we re-describe the morphology of L. superlata and discuss its possible autecology. The re-description follows a standardized scheme, the descriptive matrix approach, designed to provide a template for descriptions of other megacheiran species. Results Our findings differ in several respects from previous interpretations. Examples include a more slender body; a possible hypostome; a small specialised second appendage, bringing the number of pairs of head appendages to four; a further sub-division of the great appendage, making it more similar to that of other megacheirans; and a complex joint of the exopod reflecting the arthropod’s swimming capabilities. Conclusions Different aspects of the morphology, for example, the morphology of the great appendage and the presence of a basipod with strong median armature on the biramous appendages indicate that L. superlata was an active and agile necto-benthic predator (not a scavenger or deposit feeder as previously interpreted.

  13. Population Structure, Life Strategies and Systematics of Phosphatocope Ostracods from the Middle Cambrian of Bornholm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hinz-Schallreuter


    Full Text Available She Middle Cambrian Borregård Member of Bornholm which is the stratigraphical equivalent to the Baltoscandian Exsulans Limestone yielded a rich and comparatively diverse ostracod fauna in its upper part. It comprises eight species out of four genera. They belong to three known subfamilies that are redefined on the basis of special characters of the contact margin. An ontogenetic character unknown from typical ostracods is documented in several species: during early ontogeny the gestalt (l:h ratio develops constantly in becoming increasingly longer until the so-called ontogenetical turning point (OTP from which the direction of growth focusses on carapace height. This phenomenon may be explained by changes in body morphology. The Borregård association represents an ecologic community type differing from other yet recorded Middle Cambrian communities in the Baltoscandic region. Apart from Vestrogothia longispinosa which is a common faunal element in Baltoscandian ostracod faunas, the yet recorded species of Bidimorpha are unknown from other Baltoscandian occurrences. Vice versa, the known species of Bidimorpha described from Swedish occurrences have not been recognized in the rich Borregård community. Similarly, Falites insula and Hesslandona abdominalis may be of local significance, too, but the respective records from contemporaneous Swedish localities are insufficient in this respect, yet. Due to specific morphological adaptations, the four genera are assumed to represent different benthic life strategies. New taxa are: Bidimorpha arator n. sp., Bidimorpha labiator n. sp., Bidimorpha sexspinosa n. sp., Falites insula n. sp., Hesslandona abdominalis n. sp., Vestrogothia herrigi n. sp. and Vestrogothia minilaterospinata n. sp. Aus dem mittelkambrischen Borregård Member von Bornholm, einem zeitlichen Äquivalent des baltoskandischen Exsulanskalkes, wurde eine reiche und vergleichsweise diverse Ostrakodenfauna gewonnen. Sie umfaßt 8 Arten aus

  14. Advertising investment as a tool for boosting consumption: testing Galbraith's hypothesis for Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín-Alejandro Martínez-Fernández


    Full Text Available The recession that most of the world economies have been facing in the last years has caused a great interest in the study of its macroeconomic effects. In this context, a debate has resurged regarding the advertising investment, as for its potential capacity to impel the consumer spending and to impact positively on the economic recovery. This idea, sustained in the so-called Galbraith's hypothesis, constitutes the core of this paper, where the main objective is to test that hypothesis by means of an empirical analysis. In this study, we focus on the Spanish case and the data correspond to the period 1976 -2010. A cointegration analysis is carried out, using two different approaches (Engle-Granger test and Gregory-Hansen test, respectively, to determine if there is any relationship between the advertising investment and six macromagnitudes (GDP, National Income, Consumption, Savings and Fixed Capital Formation, as well as the registered unemployment rate. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that Galbraith's hypothesis is not fulfilled for the Spanish case.

  15. Metamorphosis Is Ancestral for Crown Euarthropods, and Evolved in the Cambrian or Earlier. (United States)

    Wolfe, Joanna M


    Macroevolutionary developmental biology employs fossilized ontogenetic data and phylogenetic comparative methods to probe the evolution of development at ancient nodes. Despite the prevalence of ecologically differentiated larval forms in marine invertebrates, it has been frequently presumed that the ancestors of arthropods were direct developers, and that metamorphosis may not have evolved until the Ordovician or later. Using fossils and new dated phylogenies, I infer that metamorphosis was likely ancestral for crown arthropods, contradicting this assumption. Based on a published morphological dataset encompassing 217 exceptionally preserved fossil and 96 extant taxa, fossils were directly incorporated into both the topology and age estimates, as in "tip dating" analyses. Using data from post-embryonic fossils representing 25 species throughout stem and crown arthropod lineages (as well as most of the 96 extant taxa), characters for metamorphosis were assigned based on inferred ecological changes in development (e.g., changes in habitat and adaptive landscape). Under all phylogenetic hypotheses, metamorphosis was supported as most likely ancestral to both ecdysozoans and euarthropods. Care must be taken to account for potential drastic post-embryonic morphological changes in evolutionary analyses. Many stem group euarthrpods may have had ecologically differentiated larval stages that did not preserve in the fossil record. Moreover, a complex life cycle and planktonic ecology may have evolved in the Ediacaran or earlier, and may have typified the pre-Cambrian explosion "wormworld" prior to the origin of crown group euarthropods. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email:

  16. Evaporation of impact water droplets in interception processes: Historical precedence of the hypothesis and a brief literature overview (United States)

    Dunkerley, David L.


    SummaryIntra-storm evaporation depths exceed post-storm evaporation depths in the interception of rainfall on plant canopies. An important fraction of the intra-storm evaporation may involve the small impact (or splash) droplets produced when raindrops, and perhaps gravity drops (drips released from plant parts), collide with wet plant surfaces. This idea has been presented as a new conception by Murakami [Murakami, S., 2006. A proposal for a new forest canopy interception mechanism: splash droplet evaporation. Journal of Hydrology 319, 72-82; Murakami, S., 2007a. Application of three canopy interception models to a young stand of Japanese cypress and interpretation in terms of interception mechanism. Journal of Hydrology 342, 305-319; Murakami, S., 2007b. A follow-up for the splash droplet evaporation hypothesis of canopy interception and remaining problems: why is humidity unsaturated during rainfall? In: Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference. Japan Society of Hydrology and Water Resources (in Japanese). ] but was in fact advanced by Dunin [Dunin, F.X., O'Loughlin, E.M., Reyenga, W., 1988. Interception loss from eucalypt forest: lysimeter determination of hourly rates for long term evaluation. Hydrological Processes 2, 315-329] more than 20 years ago. In addition, Dunin et al. considered that canopy ventilation might be enhanced in intense rain. This note draws attention to the historical precedence of the work of Dunin et al. and also presents a short review of literature on impact droplet production, highlighting areas where data are still required for the full exploration of the role of droplet evaporation in canopy interception. Droplet production needs to be properly parameterised and included in models of interception processes and landsurface-atmosphere interactions.

  17. Not armour, but biomechanics, ecological opportunity and increased fecundity as keys to the origin and expansion of the mineralized benthic metazoan fauna


    Cohen, B.L.


    This paper offers a new biotic interaction hypothesis for the Cambrian 'explosion' of mineralized, benthic, metazoan diversity. It proposes that organic-mineral composite structures (e.g. shells and muscle lever-arms) originated in Proterozoic lineages of primary larva-like, but reproductively competent, pelagic bilaterians because mineralization was both mechanically and energetically favourable, not because it provided armour against predation. Increased strength and rigidity of composite s...

  18. Testing the lexical hypothesis: are socially important traits more densely reflected in the English lexicon? (United States)

    Wood, Dustin


    Using a set of 498 English words identified by Saucier (1997) as common person-descriptor adjectives or trait terms, I tested 3 instantiations of the lexical hypothesis, which posit that more socially important person descriptors show greater density in the lexicon. Specifically, I explored whether trait terms that have greater relational impact (i.e., more greatly influence how others respond to a person) have more synonyms, are more frequently used, and are more strongly correlated with other trait terms. I found little evidence to suggest that trait terms rated as having greater relational impact were more frequently used or had more synonyms. However, these terms correlated more strongly with other trait terms in the set. Conversely, a trait term's loadings on structural factors (e.g., the Big Five, HEXACO) were extremely good predictors of the term's relational impact. The findings suggest that the lexical hypothesis may not be strongly supported in some ways it is commonly understood but is supported in the manner most important to investigations of trait structure. Specifically, trait terms with greater relational impact tend to more strongly correlate with other terms in lexical sets and thus have a greater role in driving the location of factors in analyses of trait structure. Implications for understanding the meaning of lexical factors such as the Big Five are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Late Cambrian magmatic arc activity in peri-Gondwana: geochemical evidence from the Basal Allochthonous Units of NW Iberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andonaegui, P.; Abati, J.; Díez-Fernández, R.


    The North African section of the Gondwana margin was the site of voluminous, arc-related magmatism during the Late Neoproterozoic (Avalonian–Cadomian orogen). The lower (and older) metasedimentary sequence that constitutes the Basal Units of the Allochthonous Complexes of NW Iberia was deposited in that setting. In these units, sedimentation was followed by the intrusion of tonalites and granodiorites in the late Cambrian (ca. 493–489Ma). In the Late Paleozoic, the collision of Gondwana and Laurussia (Variscan orogeny) deformed and metamorphosed the whole ensemble. New whole rock geochemical analysis performed in seven samples of metatonalites and fourteen samples of metagranodiorites are characterized by: i) slight enrichment in incompatible elements (Rb, Ba, Th, U), ii) negative anomalies in Nb, Ta, P, and Ti, and iii) negative anomalies in Eu. These chemical features are in agreement with a subduction-related setting for the genesis of both types of magma, which is also supported by chemical discrimination using tectonic setting diagrams. Positive anomalies of Pb suggest a crustal component. The new geochemical data reveal that the convergent orogen that ruled the paleogeography of the Gondwana periphery during the Neoproterozoic (Cadomian orogen) remained active bey.

  20. Rejecting the equilibrium-point hypothesis. (United States)

    Gottlieb, G L


    The lambda version of the equilibrium-point (EP) hypothesis as developed by Feldman and colleagues has been widely used and cited with insufficient critical understanding. This article offers a small antidote to that lack. First, the hypothesis implicitly, unrealistically assumes identical transformations of lambda into muscle tension for antagonist muscles. Without that assumption, its definitions of command variables R, C, and lambda are incompatible and an EP is not defined exclusively by R nor is it unaffected by C. Second, the model assumes unrealistic and unphysiological parameters for the damping properties of the muscles and reflexes. Finally, the theory lacks rules for two of its three command variables. A theory of movement should offer insight into why we make movements the way we do and why we activate muscles in particular patterns. The EP hypothesis offers no unique ideas that are helpful in addressing either of these questions.

  1. 226Ra and 228Ra in ground water of the Cambrian-Ordovician Aquifer System in northern Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilkeson, R.H.; Holtzman, R.B.


    Over a large region of Illinois, ground water of the Cambrian-Ordovician Aquifer System exceeds the US EPA drinking water standard of 5 pCi/L for the combined concentration of 226 Ra and 228 Ra. 226 Ra concentrations range from 226 Ra is the geochemistry of uranium in the ground-water flow system, while the 228 Ra activity in ground water which ranges from 232 Th-bearing minerals in the aquifer strata. The comparison of recent analyses to historical data gathered over the last 20 years indicates that, with few exceptions, 226 Ra and 228 Ra activities in ground water have remained constant. The combined concentrations of the two nuclides in ground water of the aquifer system ranged from 226 Ra concentrations were high (greater than or equal to 10 pCi/L), those of 228 Ra were low (less than or equal to 2 pCi/L), but, with few exceptions, in regions where 228 Ra concentrations were high, those of 226 Ra were also high. The range of values raises questions concerning the validity of the US EPA regulation which requires analysis for 228 Ra only when the concentration of 226 Ra exceeds 3.0 pCi/L

  2. Hypothesis Testing in the Real World (United States)

    Miller, Jeff


    Critics of null hypothesis significance testing suggest that (a) its basic logic is invalid and (b) it addresses a question that is of no interest. In contrast to (a), I argue that the underlying logic of hypothesis testing is actually extremely straightforward and compelling. To substantiate that, I present examples showing that hypothesis…

  3. The origin of increased salinity in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system on the Kopli Peninsula, northern Estonia (United States)

    Karro, Enn; Marandi, Andres; Vaikmäe, Rein

    Monitoring of the confined Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system utilised for industrial water supply at Kopli Peninsula in Tallinn over 24 years reveals remarkable changes in chemical composition of groundwater. A relatively fast 1.5 to 3.0-fold increase in TDS and in concentrations of major ions in ed groundwater is the consequence of heavy pumping. The main sources of dissolved load in Cambrian-Vendian groundwater are the leaching of host rock and the other geochemical processes that occur in the saturated zone. Underlying crystalline basement, which comprises saline groundwater in its upper weathered and fissured portion, and which is hydraulically connected with the overlying Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system, is the second important source of ions. The fractured basement and its clayey weathering crust host the Ca-Cl type groundwater, which is characterised by high TDS values (2-20 g/L). Intensive water ion accelerates the exchange of groundwaters and increases the area of influence of pumping. Chemical and isotopic studies of groundwater indicate an increasing contribution of old brackish water from the crystalline basement and rule out the potential implication of an intrusion of seawater into aquifer. L'origine de la salinité croissante dans le système aquifère du Cambrien-Vendien dans la péninsule de Kopli, nord de l'Estonie Le suivi à long terme du système aquifère captif du Cambrien-Vendien utilisé pour l'approvisionnement d'eaux industrielles dans la Péninsule de Kopli, nord de l'Estonie, révèle de remarquables changements dans la composition chimique des eaux souterraines. Une augmentation de facteur 1.5 à 3 de la TDS et des concentrations en ions majeurs dans l'eau souterraine est la conséquence de pompages intensifs. Les sources principales des charges dissoutes dans les eaux de l'aquifère du Cambrien-Vendien sont le lessivage des roches et d'autres phénomènes géochimiques ayant lieu dans la zone saturée. Le soubassement rocheux cristallin

  4. The atomic hypothesis: physical consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, Martin


    The hypothesis that matter is made of some ultimate and indivisible objects, together with the restricted relativity principle, establishes a constraint on the kind of variables we are allowed to use for the variational description of elementary particles. We consider that the atomic hypothesis not only states the indivisibility of elementary particles, but also that these ultimate objects, if not annihilated, cannot be modified by any interaction so that all allowed states of an elementary particle are only kinematical modifications of any one of them. Therefore, an elementary particle cannot have excited states. In this way, the kinematical group of spacetime symmetries not only defines the symmetries of the system, but also the variables in terms of which the mathematical description of the elementary particles can be expressed in either the classical or the quantum mechanical description. When considering the interaction of two Dirac particles, the atomic hypothesis restricts the interaction Lagrangian to a kind of minimal coupling interaction

  5. Testing the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis in the presence and absence of inbreeding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forstmeier, W.; Ihle, M.; Opatová, Pavlína; Martin, K.; Knief, U.; Albrechtová, Jana; Albrecht, Tomáš; Kempenaers, B.


    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2017), s. 968-976 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : display behaviour * mate choice * phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis * precopulatory traits * sexual selection * sperm abnormalities * sperm quality * sperm velocity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2016

  6. Testing the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis with bird populations as habitat-specific environmental indicators: evidence from Canada. (United States)

    Lantz, Van; Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto


    The traditional environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis postulates that environmental degradation follows an inverted U-shaped relationship with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. We tested the EKC hypothesis with bird populations in 5 different habitats as environmental quality indicators. Because birds are considered environmental goods, for them the EKC hypothesis would instead be associated with a U-shaped relationship between bird populations and GDP per capita. In keeping with the literature, we included other variables in the analysis-namely, human population density and time index variables (the latter variable captured the impact of persistent and exogenous climate and/or policy changes on bird populations over time). Using data from 9 Canadian provinces gathered over 37 years, we used a generalized least-squares regression for each bird habitat type, which accounted for the panel structure of the data, the cross-sectional dependence across provinces in the residuals, heteroskedasticity, and fixed- or random-effect specifications of the models. We found evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for 3 of the 5 bird population habitat types. In addition, the relationship between human population density and the different bird populations varied, which emphasizes the complex nature of the impact that human populations have on the environment. The relationship between the time-index variable and the different bird populations also varied, which indicates there are other persistent and significant influences on bird populations over time. Overall our EKC results were consistent with those found for threatened bird species, indicating that economic prosperity does indeed act to benefit some bird populations.

  7. Testing the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis with platinum-group elements (PGE), Re, and Os isotopes in sediments from Hall's Cave and Freidken Archaeological site, Texas (United States)

    Sun, N.; Brandon, A. D.; Forman, S. L.


    The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis suggests that extraterrestrial (ET) object(s) hit and exploded over North America 12,900 years ago and triggered the onset of Younger Dryas (YD) cooling and widespread megafaunal extinctions and the demise of the Clovis archeological culture. Supporting signatures such as concentrated carbon spherules and enlogaes, magnetic grains and spherules, nanodiamonds, and Ir-enrichment have been reported, but over time their lack of reproducibility of results at different locations have brought into question the impact hypothesis. Among the impact signatures investigated by previous studies, only few researchers included Re and platinum group element (PGE: Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, and Pd) characteristic concentrations, and 187Os/188Os ratios for ET mixing in terrestrial materials. Less than 1% of ET materials can provide enriched PGE concentrations, such that PGE are a sensitive tool to identify ET input in terrestrial materials. Because of the large difference between chondritic and continental crust 187Os/188Os ratios, 0.127 and >1.4, respectively, the 187Os/188Os ratios are also highly sensitive indicators of an extraterrestrial component in terrestrial and marine sediments. In this study, we examine sediments associated with the YD from two reported sites in North America, Hall's Cave and the Freidken Archaeological site in Central Texas, using the PGE and Re geochemical approach to test the evidence of the extraterrestrial projectiles during Younger Dryas period. Our current data show at Hall's Cave the PGE concentrations and patterns do not confirm the presence of an elevated meteoritic contribution. However, the 187Os/188Os depth profile shows a sudden 187Os/188Os decrease from 2.28 2.45 to 1.64 at the YD boundary layer, consistent with an increase in material derived from ET projectiles with chondritic 187Os/188Os ratios contaminating the Earth surface at the time of the YD extinction. Additional samples from the YD boundary at the

  8. Host susceptibility hypothesis for shell disease in American lobsters. (United States)

    Tlusty, Michael F; Smolowitz, Roxanna M; Halvorson, Harlyn O; DeVito, Simone E


    Epizootic shell disease (ESD) in American lobsters Homarus americanus is the bacterial degradation of the carapace resulting in extensive irregular, deep erosions. The disease is having a major impact on the health and mortality of some American lobster populations, and its effects are being transferred to the economics of the fishery. While the onset and progression of ESD in American lobsters is undoubtedly multifactorial, there is little understanding of the direct causality of this disease. The host susceptibility hypothesis developed here states that although numerous environmental and pathological factors may vary around a lobster, it is eventually the lobster's internal state that is permissive to or shields it from the final onset of the diseased state. To support the host susceptibility hypothesis, we conceptualized a model of shell disease onset and severity to allow further research on shell disease to progress from a structured model. The model states that shell disease onset will occur when the net cuticle degradation (bacterial degradation, decrease of host immune response to bacteria, natural wear, and resorption) is greater than the net deposition (growth, maintenance, and inflammatory response) of the shell. Furthermore, lesion severity depends on the extent to which cuticle degradation exceeds deposition. This model is consistent with natural observations of shell disease in American lobster.

  9. Multiple sclerosis: a geographical hypothesis. (United States)

    Carlyle, I P


    Multiple sclerosis remains a rare neurological disease of unknown aetiology, with a unique distribution, both geographically and historically. Rare in equatorial regions, it becomes increasingly common in higher latitudes; historically, it was first clinically recognized in the early nineteenth century. A hypothesis, based on geographical reasoning, is here proposed: that the disease is the result of a specific vitamin deficiency. Different individuals suffer the deficiency in separate and often unique ways. Evidence to support the hypothesis exists in cultural considerations, in the global distribution of the disease, and in its historical prevalence.

  10. The impact of parenthood on environmental attitudes and behaviour: a longitudinal investigation of the legacy hypothesis. (United States)

    Thomas, Gregory O; Fisher, Rose; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Milfont, Taciano L; Poortinga, Wouter


    Willingness to engage in sustainable actions may be limited by the psychological distance of climate change. In this study, we test the legacy hypothesis , which holds that having children leads parents to consider the legacy left to offspring in respect of environmental quality. Using the Understanding Society dataset, a longitudinal survey representative of the UK population ( n  = 18,176), we assess how having children may change people's individual environmental attitudes and behaviour. Results indicate that having a new child is associated with a small decrease in the frequency of a few environmental behaviours. Only parents with already high environmental concern show a small increase in the desire to act more sustainably after the birth of their first child. Overall, the results do not provide evidence in support of the legacy hypothesis in terms of individual-level environmental attitudes and behaviours. We argue that the transition to parenthood is a time where concern is prioritised on the immediate wellbeing of the child and not on the future environmental threats.



    Temel, Tugrul T.


    This paper adapts an already existing nonparametric hypothesis test to the bootstrap framework. The test utilizes the nonparametric kernel regression method to estimate a measure of distance between the models stated under the null hypothesis. The bootstraped version of the test allows to approximate errors involved in the asymptotic hypothesis test. The paper also develops a Mathematica Code for the test algorithm.

  12. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaag, A A; Grunnet, L G; Arora, G P


    Twenty years ago, Hales and Barker along with their co-workers published some of their pioneering papers proposing the 'thrifty phenotype hypothesis' in Diabetologia (4;35:595-601 and 3;36:62-67). Their postulate that fetal programming could represent an important player in the origin of type 2...... of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Type 2 diabetes is a multiple-organ disease, and developmental programming, with its idea of organ plasticity, is a plausible hypothesis for a common basis for the widespread organ dysfunctions in type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Only two among the 45 known type 2...

  13. Error probabilities in default Bayesian hypothesis testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Xin; Hoijtink, Herbert; Mulder, J,


    This paper investigates the classical type I and type II error probabilities of default Bayes factors for a Bayesian t test. Default Bayes factors quantify the relative evidence between the null hypothesis and the unrestricted alternative hypothesis without needing to specify prior distributions for

  14. Aminoglycoside antibiotics and autism: a speculative hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manev Hari


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, it has been suspected that there is a relationship between therapy with some antibiotics and the onset of autism; but even more curious, some children benefited transiently from a subsequent treatment with a different antibiotic. Here, we speculate how aminoglycoside antibiotics might be associated with autism. Presentation We hypothesize that aminoglycoside antibiotics could a trigger the autism syndrome in susceptible infants by causing the stop codon readthrough, i.e., a misreading of the genetic code of a hypothetical critical gene, and/or b improve autism symptoms by correcting the premature stop codon mutation in a hypothetical polymorphic gene linked to autism. Testing Investigate, retrospectively, whether a link exists between aminoglycoside use (which is not extensive in children and the onset of autism symptoms (hypothesis "a", or between amino glycoside use and improvement of these symptoms (hypothesis "b". Whereas a prospective study to test hypothesis "a" is not ethically justifiable, a study could be designed to test hypothesis "b". Implications It should be stressed that at this stage no direct evidence supports our speculative hypothesis and that its main purpose is to initiate development of new ideas that, eventually, would improve our understanding of the pathobiology of autism.

  15. Midichlorians - the biomeme hypothesis: is there a microbial component to religious rituals? (United States)


    Background Cutting edge research of human microbiome diversity has led to the development of the microbiome-gut-brain axis concept, based on the idea that gut microbes may have an impact on the behavior of their human hosts. Many examples of behavior-altering parasites are known to affect members of the animal kingdom. Some prominent examples include Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (fungi), Toxoplasma gondii (protista), Wolbachia (bacteria), Glyptapanteles sp. (arthropoda), Spinochordodes tellinii (nematomorpha) and Dicrocoelium dendriticum (flat worm). These organisms belong to a very diverse set of taxonomic groups suggesting that the phenomena of parasitic host control might be more common in nature than currently established and possibly overlooked in humans. Presentation of the hypothesis Some microorganisms would gain an evolutionary advantage by encouraging human hosts to perform certain rituals that favor microbial transmission. We hypothesize that certain aspects of religious behavior observed in the human society could be influenced by microbial host control and that the transmission of some religious rituals could be regarded as the simultaneous transmission of both ideas (memes) and parasitic organisms. Testing the hypothesis We predict that next-generation microbiome sequencing of samples obtained from gut or brain tissues of control subjects and subjects with a history of voluntary active participation in certain religious rituals that promote microbial transmission will lead to the discovery of microbes, whose presence has a consistent and positive association with religious behavior. Our hypothesis also predicts a decline of participation in religious rituals in societies with improved sanitation. Implications of the hypothesis If proven true, our hypothesis may provide insights on the origin and pervasiveness of certain religious practices and provide an alternative explanation for recently published positive associations between parasite-stress and

  16. Biostatistics series module 2: Overview of hypothesis testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Hazra


    Full Text Available Hypothesis testing (or statistical inference is one of the major applications of biostatistics. Much of medical research begins with a research question that can be framed as a hypothesis. Inferential statistics begins with a null hypothesis that reflects the conservative position of no change or no difference in comparison to baseline or between groups. Usually, the researcher has reason to believe that there is some effect or some difference which is the alternative hypothesis. The researcher therefore proceeds to study samples and measure outcomes in the hope of generating evidence strong enough for the statistician to be able to reject the null hypothesis. The concept of the P value is almost universally used in hypothesis testing. It denotes the probability of obtaining by chance a result at least as extreme as that observed, even when the null hypothesis is true and no real difference exists. Usually, if P is < 0.05 the null hypothesis is rejected and sample results are deemed statistically significant. With the increasing availability of computers and access to specialized statistical software, the drudgery involved in statistical calculations is now a thing of the past, once the learning curve of the software has been traversed. The life sciences researcher is therefore free to devote oneself to optimally designing the study, carefully selecting the hypothesis tests to be applied, and taking care in conducting the study well. Unfortunately, selecting the right test seems difficult initially. Thinking of the research hypothesis as addressing one of five generic research questions helps in selection of the right hypothesis test. In addition, it is important to be clear about the nature of the variables (e.g., numerical vs. categorical; parametric vs. nonparametric and the number of groups or data sets being compared (e.g., two or more than two at a time. The same research question may be explored by more than one type of hypothesis test

  17. Mastery Learning and the Decreasing Variability Hypothesis. (United States)

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Gentile, J. Ronald


    This report results from studies that tested two variations of Bloom's decreasing variability hypothesis using performance on successive units of achievement in four graduate classrooms that used mastery learning procedures. Data do not support the decreasing variability hypothesis; rather, they show no change over time. (SM)

  18. The linear hypothesis and radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.


    An assumption central to most estimations of the carcinogenic potential of low levels of ionising radiation is that the risk always increases in direct proportion to the dose received. This assumption (the linear hypothesis) has been both strongly defended and attacked on several counts. It appears unlikely that conclusive, direct evidence on the validity of the hypothesis will be forthcoming. We review the major indirect arguments used in the debate. All of them are subject to objections that can seriously weaken their case. In the present situation, retention of the linear hypothesis as the basis of extrapolations from high to low dose levels can lead to excessive fears, over-regulation and unnecessarily expensive protection measures. To offset these possibilities, support is given to suggestions urging a cut-off dose, probably some fraction of natural background, below which risks can be deemed acceptable

  19. Is PMI the Hypothesis or the Null Hypothesis? (United States)

    Tarone, Aaron M; Sanford, Michelle R


    Over the past several decades, there have been several strident exchanges regarding whether forensic entomologists estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), minimum PMI, or something else. During that time, there has been a proliferation of terminology reflecting this concern regarding "what we do." This has been a frustrating conversation for some in the community because much of this debate appears to be centered on what assumptions are acknowledged directly and which are embedded within a list of assumptions (or ignored altogether) in the literature and in case reports. An additional component of the conversation centers on a concern that moving away from the use of certain terminology like PMI acknowledges limitations and problems that would make the application of entomology appear less useful in court-a problem for lawyers, but one that should not be problematic for scientists in the forensic entomology community, as uncertainty is part of science that should and can be presented effectively in the courtroom (e.g., population genetic concepts in forensics). Unfortunately, a consequence of the way this conversation is conducted is that even as all involved in the debate acknowledge the concerns of their colleagues, parties continue to talk past one another advocating their preferred terminology. Progress will not be made until the community recognizes that all of the terms under consideration take the form of null hypothesis statements and that thinking about "what we do" as a null hypothesis has useful legal and scientific ramifications that transcend arguments over the usage of preferred terminology. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  20. The Lehman Sisters Hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article explores the Lehman Sisters Hypothesis. It reviews empirical literature about gender differences in behavioral, experimental, and neuro-economics as well as in other fields of behavioral research. It discusses gender differences along three dimensions of

  1. Money growth volatility and the demand for money in Germany: Friedman's volatility hypothesis revisited


    Brüggemann, Imke; Nautz, Dieter


    Recently, the Bundesbank claimed that monetary targeting has become considerably more diffcult by the increased volatility of short-term money growth. The present paper investigates the impact of German money growth volatility on income velocity and money demand in view of Friedman's money growth volatility hypothesis. Granger-causality tests provide some evidence for a velocity-volatility linkage. However the estimation of volatility-augmented money demand functions reveals that - in contras...

  2. Whiplash and the compensation hypothesis. (United States)

    Spearing, Natalie M; Connelly, Luke B


    Review article. To explain why the evidence that compensation-related factors lead to worse health outcomes is not compelling, either in general, or in the specific case of whiplash. There is a common view that compensation-related factors lead to worse health outcomes ("the compensation hypothesis"), despite the presence of important, and unresolved sources of bias. The empirical evidence on this question has ramifications for the design of compensation schemes. Using studies on whiplash, this article outlines the methodological problems that impede attempts to confirm or refute the compensation hypothesis. Compensation studies are prone to measurement bias, reverse causation bias, and selection bias. Errors in measurement are largely due to the latent nature of whiplash injuries and health itself, a lack of clarity over the unit of measurement (specific factors, or "compensation"), and a lack of appreciation for the heterogeneous qualities of compensation-related factors and schemes. There has been a failure to acknowledge and empirically address reverse causation bias, or the likelihood that poor health influences the decision to pursue compensation: it is unclear if compensation is a cause or a consequence of poor health, or both. Finally, unresolved selection bias (and hence, confounding) is evident in longitudinal studies and natural experiments. In both cases, between-group differences have not been addressed convincingly. The nature of the relationship between compensation-related factors and health is unclear. Current approaches to testing the compensation hypothesis are prone to several important sources of bias, which compromise the validity of their results. Methods that explicitly test the hypothesis and establish whether or not a causal relationship exists between compensation factors and prolonged whiplash symptoms are needed in future studies.

  3. Geochemical interpretation of the Precambrian basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone on Bornholm, Denmark: Implications for the weathering history (United States)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Yang, Tian; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj


    A geochemical study of the Precambrian basement granites from the Borggård borehole on Bornholm, Denmark, suggests that the granites were moderately weathered (Chemical Index of Alteration-CIA = 66-71) during subaerial exposure in a humid climate. The microcline is well preserved, whereas plagioclase was thoroughly altered to clay minerals (Plagioclase Index of Alteration-PIA = 93-99) which is likely due to its original Ca-rich composition. The primary Fe-Ti accessory minerals were oxidized to hematite and anatase. Evidence from REE distribution patterns and immobile element ratios, e.g. Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta, between the weathered basement granite from the Borggård borehole and regional granitoids on Bornholm, constrains the Svaneke Granite as the original basement lithology. A tau (τ) mass transport model (assuming immobile Ti) was applied to quantify the mass transfer during weathering of the basement granite. The results show a depletion of major elements in the following order: Na > Ca > Mg > Si; Al and Ti are immobile and stay constant; K shows sample dependent enrichment or depletion; Fe is slightly enriched. The Cambrian sandstone overlying the basement in the Borggård borehole, assigned to the Gadeby Member of the Nexø Formation, is feldspathic litharenite-litharenite in composition. Provenance indicators including (Gd/Yb)N, Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios and petrological features indicate that source material was derived from both weathered and fresh basement granite of intermediate composition. The Gadeby Member equivalents in Germany, the basal lower Cambrian Adlergrund Konglomerat Member (AKM) in the offshore G-14 well north of Rügen, and the approximately coeval Lubmin Sandstein Formation (LSF) from the Loissin-1 borehole, mainland Germany, must have been sourced from a basement with compositions comparable to the intermediate group of the regional granitoids on Bornholm. The source materials for the AKM (CIA = 71-72, PIA = 94-96), the Gadeby Member in the

  4. The Hypothesis-Driven Physical Examination. (United States)

    Garibaldi, Brian T; Olson, Andrew P J


    The physical examination remains a vital part of the clinical encounter. However, physical examination skills have declined in recent years, in part because of decreased time at the bedside. Many clinicians question the relevance of physical examinations in the age of technology. A hypothesis-driven approach to teaching and practicing the physical examination emphasizes the performance of maneuvers that can alter the likelihood of disease. Likelihood ratios are diagnostic weights that allow clinicians to estimate the post-probability of disease. This hypothesis-driven approach to the physical examination increases its value and efficiency, while preserving its cultural role in the patient-physician relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Discussion of the Porter hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In the reaction to the long-range vision of RMNO, published in 1996, The Dutch government posed the question whether a far-going and progressive modernization policy will lead to competitive advantages of high-quality products on partly new markets. Such a question is connected to the so-called Porter hypothesis: 'By stimulating innovation, strict environmental regulations can actually enhance competitiveness', from which statement it can be concluded that environment and economy can work together quite well. A literature study has been carried out in order to determine under which conditions that hypothesis is endorsed in the scientific literature and policy documents. Recommendations are given for further studies. refs

  6. A Review of Multiple Hypothesis Testing in Otolaryngology Literature (United States)

    Kirkham, Erin M.; Weaver, Edward M.


    Objective Multiple hypothesis testing (or multiple testing) refers to testing more than one hypothesis within a single analysis, and can inflate the Type I error rate (false positives) within a study. The aim of this review was to quantify multiple testing in recent large clinical studies in the otolaryngology literature and to discuss strategies to address this potential problem. Data sources Original clinical research articles with >100 subjects published in 2012 in the four general otolaryngology journals with the highest Journal Citation Reports 5-year impact factors. Review methods Articles were reviewed to determine whether the authors tested greater than five hypotheses in at least one family of inferences. For the articles meeting this criterion for multiple testing, Type I error rates were calculated and statistical correction was applied to the reported results. Results Of the 195 original clinical research articles reviewed, 72% met the criterion for multiple testing. Within these studies, there was a mean 41% chance of a Type I error and, on average, 18% of significant results were likely to be false positives. After the Bonferroni correction was applied, only 57% of significant results reported within the articles remained significant. Conclusion Multiple testing is common in recent large clinical studies in otolaryngology and deserves closer attention from researchers, reviewers and editors. Strategies for adjusting for multiple testing are discussed. PMID:25111574

  7. Understanding drivers of peatland extracellular enzyme activity in the PEATcosm experiment: mixed evidence for enzymic latch hypothesis (United States)

    Karl J. Romanowicz; Evan S. Kane; Lynette R. Potvin; Aleta L. Daniels; Randy Kolka; Erik A. Lilleskov


    Aims. Our objective was to assess the impacts of water table position and plant functional groups on peatland extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) framed within the context of the enzymic latch hypothesis. Methods. We utilized a full factorial experiment with 2 water table (WT) treatments (high and low) and 3 plant functional...

  8. The (not so) Immortal Strand Hypothesis


    Tomasetti, Cristian; Bozic, Ivana


    Background: Non-random segregation of DNA strands during stem cell replication has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize accumulated genetic errors in stem cells of rapidly dividing tissues. According to this hypothesis, an “immortal” DNA strand is passed to the stem cell daughter and not the more differentiated cell, keeping the stem cell lineage replication error-free. After it was introduced, experimental evidence both in favor and against the hypothesis has been presented. Principal...

  9. Revisiting the Dutch hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Dirkje S.; Weiss, Scott T.; van den Berge, Maarten; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.

    The Dutch hypothesis was first articulated in 1961, when many novel and advanced scientific techniques were not available, such as genomics techniques for pinpointing genes, gene expression, lipid and protein profiles, and the microbiome. In addition, computed tomographic scans and advanced analysis

  10. Testing the hypothesis that treatment can eliminate HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okano, Justin T; Robbins, Danielle; Palk, Laurence


    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, approximately 35 million individuals are infected with HIV; about 25 million of these live in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO proposes using treatment as prevention (TasP) to eliminate HIV. Treatment suppresses viral load, decreasing the probability an individual transmits HIV....... The elimination threshold is one new HIV infection per 1000 individuals. Here, we test the hypothesis that TasP can substantially reduce epidemics and eliminate HIV. We estimate the impact of TasP, between 1996 and 2013, on the Danish HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men (MSM), an epidemic UNAIDS has...... identified as a priority for elimination. METHODS: We use a CD4-staged Bayesian back-calculation approach to estimate incidence, and the hidden epidemic (the number of HIV-infected undiagnosed MSM). To develop the back-calculation model, we use data from an ongoing nationwide population-based study...

  11. Depositional Architecture of Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician Siliciclastic Barik Formation; Al Huqf Area, Oman (United States)

    Abbasi, Iftikhar Ahmed


    Early Paleozoic siliciclastics sediments of the Haima Supergroup are subdivided into a number of formations and members based on lithological characteristics of various rock sequences. One of the distinct sandstone sequence, the Barik Formation (Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician) of the Andam Group is a major deep gas reservoir in central Oman. The sandstone bodies are prospective reservoir rocks while thick shale and clay interbeds act as effective seal. Part of the Barik Formation (lower and middle part) is exposed in isolated outcrops in Al Huqf area as interbedded multistoried sandstone, and green and red shale. The sandstone bodies are up to 2 meters thick and can be traced laterally for 300 m to over 1 km. Most of sandstone bodies show both lateral and vertical stacking. Two types of sandstone lithofacies are identified on the basis of field characteristics; a plane-bedded sandstone lithofacies capping thick red and green color shale beds, and a cross-bedded sandstone lithofacies overlying the plane-bedded sandstone defining coarsening upward sequences. The plane-bedded sandstone at places contains Cruziana ichnofacies and bivalve fragments indicating deposition by shoreface processes. Thick cross-bedded sandstone is interpreted to be deposited by the fluvial dominated deltaic processes. Load-casts, climbing ripples and flaser-bedding in siltstone and red shale indicate influence of tidal processes at times during the deposition of the formation. This paper summarizes results of a study carried out in Al Huqf area outcrops to analyze the characteristics of the sandstone-body geometry, internal architecture, provenance and diagenetic changes in the lower and middle part of the formation. The study shows build-up of a delta complex and its progradation over a broad, low-angle shelf where fluvial processes operate beside shoreface processes in a vegetation free setting. Keywords: Andam Group, Barik Formation, Ordovician sandstone, Al Huqf, Central Oman,


    Madigan, Sheri; Hawkins, Erinn; Plamondon, Andre; Moran, Greg; Benoit, Diane


    The prototype hypothesis suggests that attachment representations derived in infancy continue to influence subsequent relationships over the life span, including those formed with one's own children. In the current study, we test the prototype hypothesis by exploring (a) whether child-specific representations following actual experience in interaction with a specific child impacts caregiver-child attachment over and above the prenatal forecast of that representation and (b) whether maternal attachment representations exert their influence on infant attachment via the more child-specific representation of that relationship. In a longitudinal study of 84 mother-infant dyads, mothers' representations of their attachment history were obtained prenatally with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; M. Main, R. Goldwyn, & E. Hesse, 2002), representations of relationship with a specific child were assessed with the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI; C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, & L. Barton, 1986), collected both prenatally and again at infant age 11 months, and infant attachment was assessed in the Strange Situation Procedure (M.D.S. Ainsworth, M.C. Blehar, E. Walters, & S. Wall, 1978) when infants were 11 months of age. Consistent with the prototype hypothesis, considerable correspondence was found between mothers' AAI and WMCI classifications. A mediation analysis showed that WMCI fully accounted for the association between AAI and infant attachment. Postnatal WMCI measured at 11 months' postpartum did not add to the prediction of infant attachment, over and above that explained by the prenatal WMCI. Implications for these findings are discussed. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  13. The Effect of Retention Interval Task Difficulty on Young Children's Prospective Memory: Testing the Intention Monitoring Hypothesis (United States)

    Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Moses, Louis J.


    The current study examined the impact of retention interval task difficulty on 4- and 5-year-olds' prospective memory (PM) to test the hypothesis that children periodically monitor their intentions during the retention interval and that disrupting this monitoring may result in poorer PM performance. In addition, relations among PM, working memory,…

  14. The linear hypothesis - an idea whose time has passed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschaeche, A.N.


    The linear no-threshold hypothesis is the basis for radiation protection standards in the United States. In the words of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), the hypothesis is: open-quotes In the interest of estimating effects in humans conservatively, it is not unreasonable to follow the assumption of a linear relationship between dose and effect in the low dose regions for which direct observational data are not available.close quotes The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) stated the hypothesis in a slightly different manner: open-quotes One such basic assumption ... is that ... there is ... a linear relationship without threshold between dose and the probability of an effect. The hypothesis was necessary 50 yr ago when it was first enunciated because the dose-effect curve for ionizing radiation for effects in humans was not known. The ICRP and NCRP needed a model to extrapolate high-dose effects to low-dose effects. So the linear no-threshold hypothesis was born. Certain details of the history of the development and use of the linear hypothesis are presented. In particular, use of the hypothesis by the U.S. regulatory agencies is examined. Over time, the sense of the hypothesis has been corrupted. The corruption of the hypothesis into the current paradigm of open-quote a little radiation, no matter how small, can and will harm youclose quotes is presented. The reasons the corruption occurred are proposed. The effects of the corruption are enumerated, specifically, the use of the corruption by the antinuclear forces in the United States and some of the huge costs to U.S. taxpayers due to the corruption. An alternative basis for radiation protection standards to assure public safety, based on the weight of scientific evidence on radiation health effects, is proposed

  15. Depositional and diagenetic variability within the Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone: Implications for carbon dioxide sequestration (United States)

    Bowen, B.B.; Ochoa, R.I.; Wilkens, N.D.; Brophy, J.; Lovell, T.R.; Fischietto, N.; Medina, C.R.; Rupp, J.A.


    The Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone is the major target reservoir for ongoing geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations throughout the midwest United States. The potential CO2 reservoir capacity, reactivity, and ultimate fate of injected CO2 depend on textural and compositional properties determined by depositional and diagenetic histories that vary vertically and laterally across the formation. Effective and efficient prediction and use of the available pore space requires detailed knowledge of the depositional and diagenetic textures and mineralogy, how these variables control the petrophysical character of the reservoir, and how they vary spatially. Here, we summarize the reservoir characteristics of the Mount Simon Sandstone based on examination of geophysical logs, cores, cuttings, and analysis of more than 150 thin sections. These samples represent different parts of the formation and depth ranges of more than 9000 ft (>2743 m) across the Illinois Basin and surrounding areas. This work demonstrates that overall reservoir quality and, specifically, porosity do not exhibit a simple relationship with depth, but vary both laterally and with depth because of changes in the primary depositional facies, framework composition (i.e., feldspar concentration), and diverse diagenetic modifications. Diagenetic processes that have been significant in modifying the reservoir include formation of iron oxide grain coatings, chemical compaction, feldspar precipitation and dissolution, multiple generations of quartz overgrowth cementation, clay mineral precipitation, and iron oxide cementation. These variables provide important inputs for calculating CO2 capacity potential, modeling reactivity, and are also an important baseline for comparisons after CO2 injection. Copyright ??2011. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiple hypothesis tracking for the cyber domain (United States)

    Schwoegler, Stefan; Blackman, Sam; Holsopple, Jared; Hirsch, Michael J.


    This paper discusses how methods used for conventional multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) can be extended to domain-agnostic tracking of entities from non-kinematic constraints such as those imposed by cyber attacks in a potentially dense false alarm background. MHT is widely recognized as the premier method to avoid corrupting tracks with spurious data in the kinematic domain but it has not been extensively applied to other problem domains. The traditional approach is to tightly couple track maintenance (prediction, gating, filtering, probabilistic pruning, and target confirmation) with hypothesis management (clustering, incompatibility maintenance, hypothesis formation, and Nassociation pruning). However, by separating the domain specific track maintenance portion from the domain agnostic hypothesis management piece, we can begin to apply the wealth of knowledge gained from ground and air tracking solutions to the cyber (and other) domains. These realizations led to the creation of Raytheon's Multiple Hypothesis Extensible Tracking Architecture (MHETA). In this paper, we showcase MHETA for the cyber domain, plugging in a well established method, CUBRC's INFormation Engine for Real-time Decision making, (INFERD), for the association portion of the MHT. The result is a CyberMHT. We demonstrate the power of MHETA-INFERD using simulated data. Using metrics from both the tracking and cyber domains, we show that while no tracker is perfect, by applying MHETA-INFERD, advanced nonkinematic tracks can be captured in an automated way, perform better than non-MHT approaches, and decrease analyst response time to cyber threats.

  17. Universality hypothesis breakdown at one-loop order (United States)

    Carvalho, P. R. S.


    We probe the universality hypothesis by analytically computing the at least two-loop corrections to the critical exponents for q -deformed O (N ) self-interacting λ ϕ4 scalar field theories through six distinct and independent field-theoretic renormalization group methods and ɛ -expansion techniques. We show that the effect of q deformation on the one-loop corrections to the q -deformed critical exponents is null, so the universality hypothesis is broken down at this loop order. Such an effect emerges only at the two-loop and higher levels, and the validity of the universality hypothesis is restored. The q -deformed critical exponents obtained through the six methods are the same and, furthermore, reduce to their nondeformed values in the appropriated limit.

  18. Null but not void: considerations for hypothesis testing. (United States)

    Shaw, Pamela A; Proschan, Michael A


    Standard statistical theory teaches us that once the null and alternative hypotheses have been defined for a parameter, the choice of the statistical test is clear. Standard theory does not teach us how to choose the null or alternative hypothesis appropriate to the scientific question of interest. Neither does it tell us that in some cases, depending on which alternatives are realistic, we may want to define our null hypothesis differently. Problems in statistical practice are frequently not as pristinely summarized as the classic theory in our textbooks. In this article, we present examples in statistical hypothesis testing in which seemingly simple choices are in fact rich with nuance that, when given full consideration, make the choice of the right hypothesis test much less straightforward. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Le graben de l'Anti-Atlas occidental (Maroc) : contrôle tectonique de la paléogéographie et des séquences au Cambrien inférieurThe Lower-Cambrian western Anti-Atlasic graben: tectonic control of palaeogeography and sequential organisation (United States)

    Benssaou, Mohammed; Hamoumi, Naı̈ma


    In the Moroccan western Anti-Atlas, the combined extensive tectonic events with a long-term sea-level rise is the main factor on building vertical stacking transgressive-regressive sequences. In the Ait Abdallah-Boussafene axis, the subsidence processes, relayed by a brutal platform tilting generated an elongated NE-SW graben. This is an evidence of the persistence of the Anti-Atlasic rifting process during the last part of the Lower-Cambrian succession.

  20. Questioning the social intelligence hypothesis. (United States)

    Holekamp, Kay E


    The social intelligence hypothesis posits that complex cognition and enlarged "executive brains" evolved in response to challenges that are associated with social complexity. This hypothesis has been well supported, but some recent data are inconsistent with its predictions. It is becoming increasingly clear that multiple selective agents, and non-selective constraints, must have acted to shape cognitive abilities in humans and other animals. The task now is to develop a larger theoretical framework that takes into account both inter-specific differences and similarities in cognition. This new framework should facilitate consideration of how selection pressures that are associated with sociality interact with those that are imposed by non-social forms of environmental complexity, and how both types of functional demands interact with phylogenetic and developmental constraints.

  1. The self: Your own worst enemy? A test of the self-invoking trigger hypothesis. (United States)

    McKay, Brad; Wulf, Gabriele; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Nordin, Andrew


    The self-invoking trigger hypothesis was proposed by Wulf and Lewthwaite [Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2010). Effortless motor learning? An external focus of attention enhances movement effectiveness and efficiency. In B. Bruya (Ed.), Effortless attention: A new perspective in attention and action (pp. 75-101). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press] as a mechanism underlying the robust effect of attentional focus on motor learning and performance. One component of this hypothesis, relevant beyond the attentional focus effect, suggests that causing individuals to access their self-schema will negatively impact their learning and performance of a motor skill. The purpose of the present two studies was to provide an initial test of the performance and learning aspects of the self-invoking trigger hypothesis by asking participants in one group to think about themselves between trial blocks-presumably activating their self-schema-to compare their performance and learning to that of a control group. In Experiment 1, participants performed 2 blocks of 10 trials on a throwing task. In one condition, participants were asked between blocks to think about their past throwing experience. While a control group maintained their performance across blocks, the self group's performance was degraded on the second block. In Experiment 2, participants were asked to practice a wiffleball hitting task on two separate days. Participants returned on a third day to perform retention and transfer tests without the self-activating manipulation. Results indicated that the self group learned the hitting task less effectively than the control group. The findings reported here provide initial support for the self-invoking trigger hypothesis.

  2. Analisis Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) di Bursa Saham Syariah, 2005:1 – 2008:11


    Cahyadin, Malik; Milandari, Devi Oktaviana


    Study on sharia stocks exchange takes an important place and consideration since transactions and financial activities within a stocks exchange market will determine the mode of market itself and will have impact on economic activities in a country where the market is established. This paper is mainly focused to oversee sharia stocks exchanges in Indonesia, United States, Saudi Arabia, and Malaysia using efficient market hypothesis (EHM) method. Data used in this study were collected from mon...

  3. Analisis Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) Di Bursa Saham Syariah, 2005:1 – 2008:11


    Cahyadin, Malik; Milandari, Devi Oktaviana


    Study on sharia stocks exchange takes an important place and consideration since transactions and financial activities within a stocks exchange market will determine the mode of market itself and will have impact on economic activities in a country where the market is established. This paper is mainly focused to oversee sharia stocks exchanges in Indonesia, United States, Saudi Arabia, and Malaysia using efficient market hypothesis (EHM) method. Data used in this study were collected from mon...

  4. Revisiting the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in a tourism development context. (United States)

    de Vita, Glauco; Katircioglu, Salih; Altinay, Levent; Fethi, Sami; Mercan, Mehmet


    This study investigates empirically an extended version of the Environmental Kuznets Curve model that controls for tourism development. We find that international tourist arrivals into Turkey alongside income, squared income and energy consumption, cointegrate with CO2 emissions. Tourist arrivals, growth, and energy consumption exert a positive and significant impact on CO2 emissions in the long-run. Our results provide empirical support to EKC hypothesis showing that at exponential levels of growth, CO2 emissions decline. The findings suggest that despite the environmental degradation stemming from tourism development, policies aimed at environmental protection should not be pursued at the expense of tourism-led growth.

  5. A Dopamine Hypothesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. (United States)

    Pavăl, Denis


    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits and stereotyped behaviors. While several theories have emerged, the pathogenesis of ASD remains unknown. Although studies report dopamine signaling abnormalities in autistic patients, a coherent dopamine hypothesis which could link neurobiology to behavior in ASD is currently lacking. In this paper, we present such a hypothesis by proposing that autistic behavior arises from dysfunctions in the midbrain dopaminergic system. We hypothesize that a dysfunction of the mesocorticolimbic circuit leads to social deficits, while a dysfunction of the nigrostriatal circuit leads to stereotyped behaviors. Furthermore, we discuss 2 key predictions of our hypothesis, with emphasis on clinical and therapeutic aspects. First, we argue that dopaminergic dysfunctions in the same circuits should associate with autistic-like behavior in nonautistic subjects. Concerning this, we discuss the case of PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections) which displays behaviors similar to those of ASD, presumed to arise from dopaminergic dysfunctions. Second, we argue that providing dopamine modulators to autistic subjects should lead to a behavioral improvement. Regarding this, we present clinical studies of dopamine antagonists which seem to have improving effects on autistic behavior. Furthermore, we explore the means of testing our hypothesis by using neuroreceptor imaging, which could provide comprehensive evidence for dopamine signaling dysfunctions in autistic subjects. Lastly, we discuss the limitations of our hypothesis. Along these lines, we aim to provide a dopaminergic model of ASD which might lead to a better understanding of the ASD pathogenesis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Economic Theory


    Tshilidzi Marwala


    Artificial intelligence has impacted many aspects of human life. This paper studies the impact of artificial intelligence on economic theory. In particular we study the impact of artificial intelligence on the theory of bounded rationality, efficient market hypothesis and prospect theory.

  7. Testing competing forms of the Milankovitch hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Juselius, Katarina


    We test competing forms of the Milankovitch hypothesis by estimating the coefficients and diagnostic statistics for a cointegrated vector autoregressive model that includes 10 climate variables and four exogenous variables for solar insolation. The estimates are consistent with the physical...... ice volume and solar insolation. The estimated adjustment dynamics show that solar insolation affects an array of climate variables other than ice volume, each at a unique rate. This implies that previous efforts to test the strong form of the Milankovitch hypothesis by examining the relationship...... that the latter is consistent with a weak form of the Milankovitch hypothesis and that it should be restated as follows: Internal climate dynamics impose perturbations on glacial cycles that are driven by solar insolation. Our results show that these perturbations are likely caused by slow adjustment between land...

  8. Dynamical agents' strategies and the fractal market hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Vošvrda, Miloslav


    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2005), s. 172-179 ISSN 1210-0455 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 454/2004/A EK/FSV Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : efficient market hypothesis * fractal market hypothesis * agent's investment horizons Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  9. Investigating the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mulali, Usama; Saboori, Behnaz; Ozturk, Ilhan


    This study investigates the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Vietnam during the period 1981–2011. To realize the goals of this study, a pollution model was established applying the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology. The results revealed that the pollution haven hypothesis does exist in Vietnam because capital increases pollution. In addition, imports also increase pollution which indicates that most of Vietnam's imported products are energy intensive and highly polluted. However, exports have no effect on pollution which indicates that the level of exports is not significant enough to affect pollution. Moreover, fossil fuel energy consumption increases pollution while renewable energy consumption has no significant effect in reducing pollution. Furthermore, labor force reduces pollution since most of Vietnam's labor force is in the agricultural and services sectors which are less energy intensive than the industrial sector. Based on the obtained results, the EKC hypothesis does not exist because the relationship between GDP and pollution is positive in both the short and long run. - Highlights: • The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Vietnam is investigated. • The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology was utilized. • The EKC hypothesis does not exist

  10. Social learning and evolution: the cultural intelligence hypothesis (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P.; Burkart, Judith M.


    If social learning is more efficient than independent individual exploration, animals should learn vital cultural skills exclusively, and routine skills faster, through social learning, provided they actually use social learning preferentially. Animals with opportunities for social learning indeed do so. Moreover, more frequent opportunities for social learning should boost an individual's repertoire of learned skills. This prediction is confirmed by comparisons among wild great ape populations and by social deprivation and enculturation experiments. These findings shaped the cultural intelligence hypothesis, which complements the traditional benefit hypotheses for the evolution of intelligence by specifying the conditions in which these benefits can be reaped. The evolutionary version of the hypothesis argues that species with frequent opportunities for social learning should more readily respond to selection for a greater number of learned skills. Because improved social learning also improves asocial learning, the hypothesis predicts a positive interspecific correlation between social-learning performance and individual learning ability. Variation among primates supports this prediction. The hypothesis also predicts that more heavily cultural species should be more intelligent. Preliminary tests involving birds and mammals support this prediction too. The cultural intelligence hypothesis can also account for the unusual cognitive abilities of humans, as well as our unique mechanisms of skill transfer. PMID:21357223

  11. Social learning and evolution: the cultural intelligence hypothesis. (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P; Burkart, Judith M


    If social learning is more efficient than independent individual exploration, animals should learn vital cultural skills exclusively, and routine skills faster, through social learning, provided they actually use social learning preferentially. Animals with opportunities for social learning indeed do so. Moreover, more frequent opportunities for social learning should boost an individual's repertoire of learned skills. This prediction is confirmed by comparisons among wild great ape populations and by social deprivation and enculturation experiments. These findings shaped the cultural intelligence hypothesis, which complements the traditional benefit hypotheses for the evolution of intelligence by specifying the conditions in which these benefits can be reaped. The evolutionary version of the hypothesis argues that species with frequent opportunities for social learning should more readily respond to selection for a greater number of learned skills. Because improved social learning also improves asocial learning, the hypothesis predicts a positive interspecific correlation between social-learning performance and individual learning ability. Variation among primates supports this prediction. The hypothesis also predicts that more heavily cultural species should be more intelligent. Preliminary tests involving birds and mammals support this prediction too. The cultural intelligence hypothesis can also account for the unusual cognitive abilities of humans, as well as our unique mechanisms of skill transfer.

  12. Personal Hypothesis Testing: The Role of Consistency and Self-Schema. (United States)

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others


    Studied how individuals test hypotheses about themselves. Examined extent to which Snyder's bias toward confirmation persists when negative or nonconsistent personal hypothesis is tested. Found negativity or positivity did not affect hypothesis testing directly, though hypothesis consistency did. Found cognitive schematic variable (vulnerability…

  13. Evaluating the Stage Learning Hypothesis. (United States)

    Thomas, Hoben


    A procedure for evaluating the Genevan stage learning hypothesis is illustrated by analyzing Inhelder, Sinclair, and Bovet's guided learning experiments (in "Learning and the Development of Cognition." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974). (Author/MP)

  14. Multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Kwang-Ki K.


    This paper considers multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing and presents a framework for strategic learning in sequential games with explicit consideration of both temporal and spatial coordination. The associated Bayes risk functions explicitly incorporate costs of taking private/public measurements, costs of time-difference and disagreement in actions of agents, and costs of false declaration/choices in the sequential hypothesis testing. The corresponding sequential decision processes have well-defined value functions with respect to (a) the belief states for the case of conditional independent private noisy measurements that are also assumed to be independent identically distributed over time, and (b) the information states for the case of correlated private noisy measurements. A sequential investment game of strategic coordination and delay is also discussed as an application of the proposed strategic learning rules.

  15. A default Bayesian hypothesis test for ANOVA designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, R.; Grasman, R.P.P.P.; Wagenmakers, E.J.


    This article presents a Bayesian hypothesis test for analysis of variance (ANOVA) designs. The test is an application of standard Bayesian methods for variable selection in regression models. We illustrate the effect of various g-priors on the ANOVA hypothesis test. The Bayesian test for ANOVA

  16. Multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Kwang-Ki K.; Shamma, Jeff S.


    incorporate costs of taking private/public measurements, costs of time-difference and disagreement in actions of agents, and costs of false declaration/choices in the sequential hypothesis testing. The corresponding sequential decision processes have well

  17. Bayesian Hypothesis Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Stephen A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sigeti, David E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    These are a set of slides about Bayesian hypothesis testing, where many hypotheses are tested. The conclusions are the following: The value of the Bayes factor obtained when using the median of the posterior marginal is almost the minimum value of the Bayes factor. The value of τ2 which minimizes the Bayes factor is a reasonable choice for this parameter. This allows a likelihood ratio to be computed with is the least favorable to H0.

  18. Cambrian origin of the CYP27C1-mediated vitamin A1-to-A2 switch, a key mechanism of vertebrate sensory plasticity (United States)

    Morshedian, Ala; Toomery, Matthew B.; Pollock, Gabriel E.; Frederiksen, Rikard; Enright, Jennifer; McCormick, Stephen; Cornwall, M. Carter; Fain, Gordon L.; Corbo, Joseph C.


    The spectral composition of ambient light varies across both space and time. Many species of jawed vertebrates adapt to this variation by tuning the sensitivity of their photoreceptors via the expression of CYP27C1, an enzyme that converts vitamin A1 into vitamin A2, thereby shifting the ratio of vitamin A1-based rhodopsin to red-shifted vitamin A2-based porphyropsin in the eye. Here, we show that the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a jawless vertebrate that diverged from jawed vertebrates during the Cambrian period (approx. 500 Ma), dynamically shifts its photoreceptor spectral sensitivity via vitamin A1-to-A2 chromophore exchange as it transitions between photically divergent aquatic habitats. We further show that this shift correlates with high-level expression of the lamprey orthologue of CYP27C1, specifically in the retinal pigment epithelium as in jawed vertebrates. Our results suggest that the CYP27C1-mediated vitamin A1-to-A2 switch is an evolutionarily ancient mechanism of sensory plasticity that appeared not long after the origin of vertebrates.

  19. The Impact of Family Control on Dividend Policy: Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Setia Atmaja


    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between family control and dividend policy in Indonesia. There are three possible explanations for the relationship. The expropriation hypothesis predicts that family control has a negative impact on dividend payouts. Meanwhile the reputation hypothesis and the family income hypothesis predict that family control has a positive impact on dividend payouts. Using a panel data of Indonesian publicly listed firms in the period of 2003-2009, the results shows that family control has a significant negative impact on dividend payouts, dividend yields and likelyhood to pay dividends. The results control for other variables that may potentially affect dividend payments such as growth opportunity, debt, profitability, firm size and firm age. From agency theory perspective, the finding is consistent with the argument that family controlling shareholders prefer lower dividends, in order to preserve cash flows that they can potentially expropriate (the expropriation hypothesis.

  20. New Hypothesis for SOFC Ceramic Oxygen Electrode Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Graves, Christopher R.


    A new hypothesis for the electrochemical reaction mechanism in solid oxide cell ceramic oxygen electrodes is proposed based on literature including our own results. The hypothesis postulates that the observed thin layers of SrO-La2O3 on top of ceramic perovskite and other Ruddlesden-Popper...

  1. The Purchasing Power Parity Hypothesis:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 2, 2011 ... reject the unit root hypothesis in real exchange rates may simply be due to the shortness ..... Violations of Purchasing Power Parity and Their Implications for Efficient ... Official Intervention in the Foreign Exchange Market:.

  2. The long-term impact of magnesium in seawater on foraminiferal mineralogy: Mechanism and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, I.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Hart, M.B.; Reichart, G.-J.


    Foraminifera are unicellular protists, primarily known for their calcium carbonate shells thatprovide an extensive fossil record. This record, ranging from Cambrian to present shows both major shiftsand gradual changes in the relative occurrence of taxa producing different polymorphs of carbonate.

  3. Adaptation hypothesis of biological efficiency of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudritskij, Yu.K.; Georgievskij, A.B.; Karpov, V.I.


    Adaptation hypothesis of biological efficiency of ionizing radiation is based on acknowledgement of invariance of fundamental laws and principles of biology related to unity of biota and media, evolution and adaptation for radiobiology. The basic arguments for adaptation hypothesis validity, its correspondence to the requirements imposed on scientific hypothes are presented

  4. New methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator (United States)

    Mahaboob, B.; Venkateswarlu, B.; Mokeshrayalu, G.; Balasiddamuni, P.


    This research paper discusses the method of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative Nonlinear Least Squares (NLLS) estimator. Takeshi Amemiya [1] explained this method. However in the present research paper, a modified Wald test statistic due to Engle, Robert [6] is proposed to test the nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator. An alternative method for testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear studentized residuals has been proposed. In this research article an innovative method of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative restricted NLLS estimator is derived. Pesaran and Deaton [10] explained the methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis. This paper uses asymptotic properties of nonlinear least squares estimator proposed by Jenrich [8]. The main purpose of this paper is to provide very innovative methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator, iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear studentized residuals and iterative restricted NLLS estimator. Eakambaram et al. [12] discussed least absolute deviation estimations versus nonlinear regression model with heteroscedastic errors and also they studied the problem of heteroscedasticity with reference to nonlinear regression models with suitable illustration. William Grene [13] examined the interaction effect in nonlinear models disused by Ai and Norton [14] and suggested ways to examine the effects that do not involve statistical testing. Peter [15] provided guidelines for identifying composite hypothesis and addressing the probability of false rejection for multiple hypotheses.

  5. On the origin of optics (United States)

    Parker, Andrew R.


    The first optical devices in animals evolved in the Cambrian period. The first reflector known dates from around 508 million years ago (Ma); the first eyes with lenses evolved at around 521 Ma. Consideration of the introduction of vision leads to a hypothesis for the cause of evolution's Big Bang—the Cambrian explosion. Suddenly, and for no obvious reason, the range and variety of life-forms erupted somewhere between 520 and 515 Ma (as limited by of our dating techniques). At no other time in Earth's history there has been such a profusion, such an exuberance, and such an overwhelming diversity in so short time, within one million years. Prior to this Cambrian explosion event, all animals were soft-bodied and mainly worm-like, as they had been for millions of years before that. But during the Cambrian explosion many of the major animal groups on Earth today independently evolved their hard body parts for the first time. Following the appearance of the first trilobites, some animals evolved shells and spines, some with bright colours, to visually warn of their new armour. Others evolved streamlined appearances and swimming oars to advise trilobites that they could not be caught. The Light Switch Theory provides an explanation for what triggered this event—that it was the development of vision (in trilobites); the introduction of optics. Once visual capability arose, it allowed predators to identify prey, triggering an arms race. From here on, vision became a dominant force of evolution and resulted in the eyes and reflecting optics that we have in nature today. This paper provides a summary of the first optical devices to evolve in animals, along with the implications of these in their relevance to the Big Bang of evolution, written for the physical sciences.

  6. A large scale test of the gaming-enhancement hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Przybylski


    Full Text Available A growing research literature suggests that regular electronic game play and game-based training programs may confer practically significant benefits to cognitive functioning. Most evidence supporting this idea, the gaming-enhancement hypothesis, has been collected in small-scale studies of university students and older adults. This research investigated the hypothesis in a general way with a large sample of 1,847 school-aged children. Our aim was to examine the relations between young people’s gaming experiences and an objective test of reasoning performance. Using a Bayesian hypothesis testing approach, evidence for the gaming-enhancement and null hypotheses were compared. Results provided no substantive evidence supporting the idea that having preference for or regularly playing commercially available games was positively associated with reasoning ability. Evidence ranged from equivocal to very strong in support for the null hypothesis over what was predicted. The discussion focuses on the value of Bayesian hypothesis testing for investigating electronic gaming effects, the importance of open science practices, and pre-registered designs to improve the quality of future work.

  7. A large scale test of the gaming-enhancement hypothesis. (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K; Wang, John C


    A growing research literature suggests that regular electronic game play and game-based training programs may confer practically significant benefits to cognitive functioning. Most evidence supporting this idea, the gaming-enhancement hypothesis , has been collected in small-scale studies of university students and older adults. This research investigated the hypothesis in a general way with a large sample of 1,847 school-aged children. Our aim was to examine the relations between young people's gaming experiences and an objective test of reasoning performance. Using a Bayesian hypothesis testing approach, evidence for the gaming-enhancement and null hypotheses were compared. Results provided no substantive evidence supporting the idea that having preference for or regularly playing commercially available games was positively associated with reasoning ability. Evidence ranged from equivocal to very strong in support for the null hypothesis over what was predicted. The discussion focuses on the value of Bayesian hypothesis testing for investigating electronic gaming effects, the importance of open science practices, and pre-registered designs to improve the quality of future work.

  8. A Hypothesis-Driven Approach to Site Investigation (United States)

    Nowak, W.


    Variability of subsurface formations and the scarcity of data lead to the notion of aquifer parameters as geostatistical random variables. Given an information need and limited resources for field campaigns, site investigation is often put into the context of optimal design. In optimal design, the types, numbers and positions of samples are optimized under case-specific objectives to meet the information needs. Past studies feature optimal data worth (balancing maximum financial profit in an engineering task versus the cost of additional sampling), or aim at a minimum prediction uncertainty of stochastic models for a prescribed investigation budget. Recent studies also account for other sources of uncertainty outside the hydrogeological range, such as uncertain toxicity, ingestion and behavioral parameters of the affected population when predicting the human health risk from groundwater contaminations. The current study looks at optimal site investigation from a new angle. Answering a yes/no question under uncertainty directly requires recasting the original question as a hypothesis test. Otherwise, false confidence in the resulting answer would be pretended. A straightforward example is whether a recent contaminant spill will cause contaminant concentrations in excess of a legal limit at a nearby drinking water well. This question can only be answered down to a specified chance of error, i.e., based on the significance level used in hypothesis tests. Optimal design is placed into the hypothesis-driven context by using the chance of providing a false yes/no answer as new criterion to be minimized. Different configurations apply for one-sided and two-sided hypothesis tests. If a false answer entails financial liability, the hypothesis-driven context can be re-cast in the context of data worth. The remaining difference is that failure is a hard constraint in the data worth context versus a monetary punishment term in the hypothesis-driven context. The basic principle

  9. The (not so) immortal strand hypothesis. (United States)

    Tomasetti, Cristian; Bozic, Ivana


    Non-random segregation of DNA strands during stem cell replication has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize accumulated genetic errors in stem cells of rapidly dividing tissues. According to this hypothesis, an "immortal" DNA strand is passed to the stem cell daughter and not the more differentiated cell, keeping the stem cell lineage replication error-free. After it was introduced, experimental evidence both in favor and against the hypothesis has been presented. Using a novel methodology that utilizes cancer sequencing data we are able to estimate the rate of accumulation of mutations in healthy stem cells of the colon, blood and head and neck tissues. We find that in these tissues mutations in stem cells accumulate at rates strikingly similar to those expected without the protection from the immortal strand mechanism. Utilizing an approach that is fundamentally different from previous efforts to confirm or refute the immortal strand hypothesis, we provide evidence against non-random segregation of DNA during stem cell replication. Our results strongly suggest that parental DNA is passed randomly to stem cell daughters and provides new insight into the mechanism of DNA replication in stem cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Rayleigh's hypothesis and the geometrical optics limit. (United States)

    Elfouhaily, Tanos; Hahn, Thomas


    The Rayleigh hypothesis (RH) is often invoked in the theoretical and numerical treatment of rough surface scattering in order to decouple the analytical form of the scattered field. The hypothesis stipulates that the scattered field away from the surface can be extended down onto the rough surface even though it is formed by solely up-going waves. Traditionally this hypothesis is systematically used to derive the Volterra series under the small perturbation method which is equivalent to the low-frequency limit. In this Letter we demonstrate that the RH also carries the high-frequency or the geometrical optics limit, at least to first order. This finding has never been explicitly derived in the literature. Our result comforts the idea that the RH might be an exact solution under some constraints in the general case of random rough surfaces and not only in the case of small-slope deterministic periodic gratings.

  11. A test of the reward-value hypothesis. (United States)

    Smith, Alexandra E; Dalecki, Stefan J; Crystal, Jonathon D


    Rats retain source memory (memory for the origin of information) over a retention interval of at least 1 week, whereas their spatial working memory (radial maze locations) decays within approximately 1 day. We have argued that different forgetting functions dissociate memory systems. However, the two tasks, in our previous work, used different reward values. The source memory task used multiple pellets of a preferred food flavor (chocolate), whereas the spatial working memory task provided access to a single pellet of standard chow-flavored food at each location. Thus, according to the reward-value hypothesis, enhanced performance in the source memory task stems from enhanced encoding/memory of a preferred reward. We tested the reward-value hypothesis by using a standard 8-arm radial maze task to compare spatial working memory accuracy of rats rewarded with either multiple chocolate or chow pellets at each location using a between-subjects design. The reward-value hypothesis predicts superior accuracy for high-valued rewards. We documented equivalent spatial memory accuracy for high- and low-value rewards. Importantly, a 24-h retention interval produced equivalent spatial working memory accuracy for both flavors. These data are inconsistent with the reward-value hypothesis and suggest that reward value does not explain our earlier findings that source memory survives unusually long retention intervals.

  12. SHRIMP chronology of the Magallanes Basin basement, Tierra del Fuego: Cambrian plutonism and Permian high-grade metamorphism Geocronología SHRIMP del basamento de la Cuenca de Magallanes, Tierra del Fuego: plutonismo Cámbrico y metamorfismo Pérmico de alto grado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hervé


    Full Text Available Five new SHRTMP U-Pb zircon ages are reported for gneisses and foliated plutonic rocks belonging to the Tierra del Fuego igneous and metamorphic basement complex (TFIMC, obtained from the bottom of borehole cores through the Magallanes Basin. Three of the samples yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages (523±7 Ma, 522±6 Ma and 538±6 Ma, interpreted as indicating Early Cambrian igneous crystallization of the host rocks. A migmatitic gneiss shows peaks at ca. 950-1,100 Ma and 560-650 Ma from inherited zircon grains in addition to two grains with ages of ca. 525 Ma, suggesting involvement of Grenvillian and Brasiliano material in the protolith of a Cambrian migmatite. A cordierite-sillimanite-garnet gneiss contains igneous zircons of Cambrian age and a population of U-rich metamorphic Permian zircons, indicating that a Permian high-grade metamorphic and anatectic (P=2-3 kbar, T=730-770°C event affected the Cambrian igneous rocks or sedimentary rocks derived from them. Cambrian/Ediacaran plutonic rocks are known from the basement of NW Argentina, the Sierra de la Ventana, the Cape Fold Belt in South Africa, and the Ross Orogen in Antarctica. The Permian metamorphic event is coeval with the deformation and low-grade metamorphism of the sedimentary successions that overlie the basement in many of these areas. In Tierra del Fuego at least 8 to 12 km of cover rocks were removed following the high-grade Permian metamorphic episode and the unconformable deposition of the Tobífera Formation volcanic rocks in the Middle to Late Jurassic. This eroded cover could nave been an important source of detritus for the conglomeratic Permian and Triassic? Successions of neighboring regions in South America, Africa and Antarctica.Cinco nuevas edades radiométricas logradas mediante análisis U-Pb en circón utilizando el SHRIMP, fueron determinadas en gneises y rocas plutónicas foliadas obtenidas desde el fondo de pozos de sondajes en la Cuenca de Magallanes y

  13. Motor synergies and the equilibrium-point hypothesis. (United States)

    Latash, Mark L


    The article offers a way to unite three recent developments in the field of motor control and coordination: (1) The notion of synergies is introduced based on the principle of motor abundance; (2) The uncontrolled manifold hypothesis is described as offering a computational framework to identify and quantify synergies; and (3) The equilibrium-point hypothesis is described for a single muscle, single joint, and multijoint systems. Merging these concepts into a single coherent scheme requires focusing on control variables rather than performance variables. The principle of minimal final action is formulated as the guiding principle within the referent configuration hypothesis. Motor actions are associated with setting two types of variables by a controller, those that ultimately define average performance patterns and those that define associated synergies. Predictions of the suggested scheme are reviewed, such as the phenomenon of anticipatory synergy adjustments, quick actions without changes in synergies, atypical synergies, and changes in synergies with practice. A few models are briefly reviewed.

  14. The rigid Andean sliver hypothesis challenged : impact on interseismic coupling on the Chilean subduction zone (United States)

    Metois, M.


    Convergence partitioning between subduction zones and crustal active structures has been widely evidenced. For instance, the convergence between the Indian and Sunda plates is accommodated both by the Sumatra subduction zone and the Great Sumatran strike-slip fault, that defines a narrow sliver. In Cascadia, small-scale rotating rigid blocks bounded by active faults have been proposed (e.g. McCaffrey et al. 2007). Recent advances in geodetic measurements along the South-American margin especially in Ecuador, Peru and Chile and the need for precise determination of the coupling amount on the megathrust interface in particular for seismic hazard assessment, led several authors to propose the existence of large-scale Andean slivers rotating clockwise and counter-clockwise South and North of the Arica bend, respectively (e.g. Chlieh et al. 2011, Nocquet et al. 2014, Métois et al. 2013). In Chile, one single large Andean sliver bounded to the west by the subduction thrust and to the east by the subandean fold-an-thrust belt active front is used to mimic the velocities observed in the middle to far field that are misfitted by elastic coupling models on the megathrust interface alone (Métois et al. 2016). This rigid sliver is supposed to rotate clockwise around a Euler pole located in the South Atlantic ocean, consistently with long-term observed rotations detected by paleomagnetism (e.g. Arriagada et al. 2008). However, recent GPS data acquired in the Taltal area ( 26°S, Klein et al. submitted) show higher than expected middle-field eastward velocities and question the first-order assumption of a rigid Andean sliver. Mis-modeling the fore-arc deformation has a direct impact on the inverted coupling amount and distribution, and could therefore bias significantly the megathrust rupture scenarios. Correctly estimating the current-day deformation of the Andes is therefore required to properly assess for coupling on the plate interface and is challenging since crustal

  15. Testing the null hypothesis: the forgotten legacy of Karl Popper? (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mick


    Testing of the null hypothesis is a fundamental aspect of the scientific method and has its basis in the falsification theory of Karl Popper. Null hypothesis testing makes use of deductive reasoning to ensure that the truth of conclusions is irrefutable. In contrast, attempting to demonstrate the new facts on the basis of testing the experimental or research hypothesis makes use of inductive reasoning and is prone to the problem of the Uniformity of Nature assumption described by David Hume in the eighteenth century. Despite this issue and the well documented solution provided by Popper's falsification theory, the majority of publications are still written such that they suggest the research hypothesis is being tested. This is contrary to accepted scientific convention and possibly highlights a poor understanding of the application of conventional significance-based data analysis approaches. Our work should remain driven by conjecture and attempted falsification such that it is always the null hypothesis that is tested. The write up of our studies should make it clear that we are indeed testing the null hypothesis and conforming to the established and accepted philosophical conventions of the scientific method.

  16. Mismatch or cumulative stress : Toward an integrated hypothesis of programming effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Schmidt, Mathias V.


    This paper integrates the cumulative stress hypothesis with the mismatch hypothesis, taking into account individual differences in sensitivity to programming. According to the cumulative stress hypothesis, individuals are more likely to suffer from disease as adversity accumulates. According to the

  17. Environmental policy without costs? A review of the Porter hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, Runar; Lundgren, Tommy. e-mail:


    This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature connected to the so called Porter Hypothesis. That is, to review the literature connected to the discussion about the relation between environmental policy and competitiveness. According to the conventional wisdom environmental policy, aiming for improving the environment through for example emission reductions, do imply costs since scarce resources must be diverted from somewhere else. However, this conventional wisdom has been challenged and questioned recently through what has been denoted the 'Porter hypothesis'. Those in the forefront of the Porter hypothesis challenge the conventional wisdom basically on the ground that resources are used inefficiently in the absence of the right kind of environmental regulations, and that the conventional neo-classical view is too static to take inefficiencies into account. The conclusions that can be made from this review is (1) that the theoretical literature can identify the circumstances and mechanisms that must exist for a Porter effect to occur, (2) that these circumstances are rather non-general, hence rejecting the Porter hypothesis in general, (3) that the empirical literature give no general support for the Porter hypothesis. Furthermore, a closer look at the 'Swedish case' reveals no support for the Porter hypothesis in spite of the fact that Swedish environmental policy the last 15-20 years seems to be in line the prerequisites stated by the Porter hypothesis concerning environmental policy

  18. Sequence stratigraphy of the Upper Cambrian (Furongian; Jiangshanian and Sunwaptan) Tunnel City Group, Upper Mississippi Valley: Transgressing assumptions of cratonic flooding (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D.


    New data from detailed measured sections permit comprehensive analysis of the sequence framework of the Furongian (Upper Cambrian; Jiangshanian and Sunwaptan stages) Tunnel City Group (Lone Rock Formation and Mazomanie Formation) of Wisconsin and Minnesota. The sequence-stratigraphic architecture of the lower part of the Sunwaptan Stage at the base of the Tunnel City Group, at the contact between the Wonewoc Formation and Lone Rock Formation, records the first part of complex polyphase flooding (Sauk III) of the Laurentian craton, at a scale smaller than most events recorded by global sea-level curves. Flat-pebble conglomerate and glauconite document transgressive ravinement and development of a condensed section when creation of accommodation exceeded its consumption by sedimentation. Thinly-bedded, fossiliferous sandstone represents the most distal setting during earliest highstand. Subsequent deposition of sandstone characterized by hummocky or trough cross-stratification records progradational pulses of shallower, storm- and wave-dominated environments across the craton before final flooding of Sauk III commenced with carbonate deposition during the middle part of the Sunwaptan Stage. Comparison of early Sunwaptan flooding of the inner Laurentian craton to published interpretations from other parts of North America suggests that Sauk III was not a single, long-term accommodation event as previously proposed.

  19. New Au-U deposit type in the weathering crust in tectonicmetasomatite zones of Pre-Cambrian shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkhanov, A.


    Au-U mineralization is widely distributed in the tectonic-metasomatite zones of Pre-Cambrian shields (Aldan Shield, Ukraine Shield and others). The industrial ores are located only in several areas at depths of more than 150-300 m. Uranium mineralization is represented by uranotitnates and the gold mineralization by auriferous pyrite. The zone of weathering is present to the depth of 100-150 m. The feldspars are replaced by the clay minerals, carbonates are dissovled, sulfides are oxidized and the secondary minerals of uranium replace uranotitanates.The golden mineralization in the envelope of weathering is represented by the fine-grained native gold. The particle size is 40-50 nm. Uranium mineralization is in the form of relict brannerite, tuyamunite, torbernite, carnotite. The gold content is 1-2 g/t, and uranium content 0.01- 0.05% U. Ore bodies of gold and uranium are located inside the tectonic-metasomatite zones. The zones of maximum concentration of these metals may not coincide. The gold ore bodies have the length of hundreds meters and a thickness of 1-5 m. The vertical extent of the secondary Au-U mineralization is 100-150 m. 20 laboratory samples of ore from the weathered zone were tested by the method of heap leaching. The first stage is the uranium leach by diluted sulfuric acid. The second stage is the cyanation of gold and silver. The experimental data indicates leach rate of uranium 75%, gold 80-97%, silver 50-60%. Gold resources in the continous zone is estimated to be 80 t. Gold resources of the several other zones inside the area of 100 km 2 are estimated as 220 t. The heap leach process can be used for profitable development of the low-grade deposits. This method helps to increase the resources of gold and uranium. (author)

  20. Implications of the Bohm-Aharonov hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Rimini, A.; Weber, T.


    It is proved that the Bohm-Aharonov hypothesis concerning largerly separated subsystems of composite quantum systems implies that it is impossible to express the dynamical evolution in terms of the density operator

  1. Sedimentary facies of the upper Cambrian (Furongian; Jiangshanian and Sunwaptan) Tunnel City Group, Upper Mississippi Valley: new insight on the old stormy debate (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D.


    New data from detailed measured sections permit a comprehensive revision of the sedimentary facies of the Furongian (upper Cambrian; Jiangshanian and Sunwaptan stages) Tunnel City Group (Lone Rock Formation and Mazomanie Formation) of Wisconsin and Minnesota. Heterogeneous sandstones, comprising seven lithofacies along a depositional transect from shoreface to transitional-offshore environments, record sedimentation in a storm-dominated, shallow-marine epicontinental sea. The origin of glauconite in the Birkmose Member and Reno Member of the Lone Rock Formation was unclear, but its formation and preserved distribution are linked to inferred depositional energy rather than just net sedimentation rate. Flat-pebble conglomerate, abundant in lower Paleozoic strata, was associated with the formation of a condensed section during cratonic flooding. Hummocky cross-stratification was a valuable tool used to infer depositional settings and relative paleobathymetry, and the model describing formation of this bedform is expanded to address flow types dominant during its genesis, in particular the importance of an early unidirectional component of combined flow. The depositional model developed here for the Lone Rock Formation and Mazomanie Formation is broadly applicable to other strata common to the early Paleozoic that document sedimentation along flooded cratonic interiors or shallow shelves.

  2. The Impact of Training and Development on Job Satisfaction: A Case Study of Private Banks in Erbil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govand Anwar


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find out the impact of training and development on job satisfaction in private banks in Erbil. Many businesses have found that investing employees through training and development in order to enhance employees‘ efficiency extremely important. The study was carried out in private banks in Erbil. A quantitative method was used to analyze the current study, 89 participants were involved in this study. The researcher set two separate research hypothesis, the first research hypothesis which states that the training will have positive impact on job satisfaction in private banks in Erbil and the second research hypothesis which states that the development will have positive impact on job satisfaction in private banks in Erbil. According to multiple regression analysis, the researcher found out that the B value for Training =. .367> 0.01, which means that training will have positive impact on job satisfaction; therefore the first research hypothesis was supported and the B value of development is = .251> 0.01, which means that the development will have positive impact on job satisfaction, therefore; the second research hypothesis was supported as well.

  3. Almost-Quantum Correlations Violate the No-Restriction Hypothesis. (United States)

    Sainz, Ana Belén; Guryanova, Yelena; Acín, Antonio; Navascués, Miguel


    To identify which principles characterize quantum correlations, it is essential to understand in which sense this set of correlations differs from that of almost-quantum correlations. We solve this problem by invoking the so-called no-restriction hypothesis, an explicit and natural axiom in many reconstructions of quantum theory stating that the set of possible measurements is the dual of the set of states. We prove that, contrary to quantum correlations, no generalized probabilistic theory satisfying the no-restriction hypothesis is able to reproduce the set of almost-quantum correlations. Therefore, any theory whose correlations are exactly, or very close to, the almost-quantum correlations necessarily requires a rule limiting the possible measurements. Our results suggest that the no-restriction hypothesis may play a fundamental role in singling out the set of quantum correlations among other nonsignaling ones.

  4. Assess the Critical Period Hypothesis in Second Language Acquisition (United States)

    Du, Lihong


    The Critical Period Hypothesis aims to investigate the reason for significant difference between first language acquisition and second language acquisition. Over the past few decades, researchers carried out a series of studies to test the validity of the hypothesis. Although there were certain limitations in these studies, most of their results…



    Anastasios KONSTANTINIDIS; Androniki KATARACHIA; George BOROVAS; Maria Eleni VOUTSA


    The present paper reviews two fundamental investing paradigms, which have had a substantial impact on the manner investors tend to develop their own strategies. specifically, the study elaborates on efficient market hypothesis (emh), which, despite remaining most prominent and popular until the 1990s, is considered rather controversial and often disputed, and the theory of behavioural finance, which has increasingly been implemented in financial institutions. based on an extensive survey of b...

  6. Romanticism and schizophrenia. First part: The recency hypothesis and the core Gestalt of the disease. (United States)

    López-Ibor, Juan J; López-Ibor, María I


    Descriptions of irrational, incomprehensible, or unconstrained behavior such as is common nowadays in patients suffering from severe mental disorders can be found in the Bible, in Mesopotamian scripts, in classical Greek and Roman literature, and in the writings of many non-Western cultures. However, the presence of full-blown features of schizophrenia as seen today in psychiatric settings is controversial. Typical symptoms, the expected onset, duration and outcome, the impact of the disease on psychic functioning and the associated disability of the disease are mostly absent in those texts. Torrey (1980) and Hare (1988) have claimed that the disease did not exist before the year 1800 (this is known as the recency hypothesis). This would be the consequence of biological factors such as viruses, genetic or dietary factors or environmental contaminants associated to civilization. Others have put the emphasis on industrialization and its repercussions on social conditions such as family structure and migration. After analyzing the many manifestations of insanity in literary characters, in medical texts and in key historical figures, the arguments presented in this paper tend to support the recency hypothesis. A review of the core characteristics of schizophrenia and its impact on selfhood, intersubjetivity and ipseity, topics relatively neglected in recent psychiatric literature, opens the doors to consider in a second part the relationship between the features of Romanticism, starting by the “discovery of intimacy”, and its articulation with the disturbance of ipseity and selfhood characteristic of the disease.

  7. Maximal Repetitions in Written Texts: Finite Energy Hypothesis vs. Strong Hilberg Conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Dębowski


    Full Text Available The article discusses two mutually-incompatible hypotheses about the stochastic mechanism of the generation of texts in natural language, which could be related to entropy. The first hypothesis, the finite energy hypothesis, assumes that texts are generated by a process with exponentially-decaying probabilities. This hypothesis implies a logarithmic upper bound for maximal repetition, as a function of the text length. The second hypothesis, the strong Hilberg conjecture, assumes that the topological entropy grows as a power law. This hypothesis leads to a hyperlogarithmic lower bound for maximal repetition. By a study of 35 written texts in German, English and French, it is found that the hyperlogarithmic growth of maximal repetition holds for natural language. In this way, the finite energy hypothesis is rejected, and the strong Hilberg conjecture is partly corroborated.

  8. The Stoichiometric Divisome: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar eVollmer


    Full Text Available Dividing Escherichia coli cells simultaneously constrict the inner membrane, peptidoglycan layer and outer membrane to synthesize the new poles of the daughter cells. For this, more than 30 proteins localize to mid-cell where they form a large, ring-like assembly, the divisome, facilitating division. Although the precise function of most divisome proteins is unknown, it became apparent in recent years that dynamic protein-protein interactions are essential for divisome assembly and function. However, little is known about the nature of the interactions involved and the stoichiometry of the proteins within the divisome. A recent study (Li et al., 2014 used ribosome profiling to measure the absolute protein synthesis rates in E. coli. Interestingly, they observed that most proteins which participate in known multiprotein complexes are synthesized proportional to their stoichiometry. Based on this principle we present a hypothesis for the stoichiometry of the core of the divisome, taking into account known protein-protein interactions. From this hypothesis we infer a possible mechanism for PG synthesis during division.

  9. The Fractal Market Hypothesis: Applications to Financial Forecasting


    Blackledge, Jonathan


    Most financial modelling systems rely on an underlying hypothesis known as the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) including the famous Black-Scholes formula for placing an option. However, the EMH has a fundamental flaw: it is based on the assumption that economic processes are normally distributed and it has long been known that this is not the case. This fundamental assumption leads to a number of shortcomings associated with using the EMH to analyse financial data which includes failure to ...

  10. [Working memory, phonological awareness and spelling hypothesis]. (United States)

    Gindri, Gigiane; Keske-Soares, Márcia; Mota, Helena Bolli


    Working memory, phonological awareness and spelling hypothesis. To verify the relationship between working memory, phonological awareness and spelling hypothesis in pre-school children and first graders. Participants of this study were 90 students, belonging to state schools, who presented typical linguistic development. Forty students were preschoolers, with the average age of six and 50 students were first graders, with the average age of seven. Participants were submitted to an evaluation of the working memory abilities based on the Working Memory Model (Baddeley, 2000), involving phonological loop. Phonological loop was evaluated using the Auditory Sequential Test, subtest 5 of Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), Brazilian version (Bogossian & Santos, 1977), and the Meaningless Words Memory Test (Kessler, 1997). Phonological awareness abilities were investigated using the Phonological Awareness: Instrument of Sequential Assessment (CONFIAS - Moojen et al., 2003), involving syllabic and phonemic awareness tasks. Writing was characterized according to Ferreiro & Teberosky (1999). Preschoolers presented the ability of repeating sequences of 4.80 digits and 4.30 syllables. Regarding phonological awareness, the performance in the syllabic level was of 19.68 and in the phonemic level was of 8.58. Most of the preschoolers demonstrated to have a pre-syllabic writing hypothesis. First graders repeated, in average, sequences of 5.06 digits and 4.56 syllables. These children presented a phonological awareness of 31.12 in the syllabic level and of 16.18 in the phonemic level, and demonstrated to have an alphabetic writing hypothesis. The performance of working memory, phonological awareness and spelling level are inter-related, as well as being related to chronological age, development and scholarity.

  11. On Using Taylor's Hypothesis for Three-Dimensional Mixing Layers (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Richard L.; Mehta, Rabindra D.


    In the present study, errors in using Taylor's hypothesis to transform measurements obtained in a temporal (or phase) frame onto a spatial one were evaluated. For the first time, phase-averaged ('real') spanwise and streamwise vorticity data measured on a three-dimensional grid were compared directly to those obtained using Taylor's hypothesis. The results show that even the qualitative features of the spanwise and streamwise vorticity distributions given by the two techniques can be very different. This is particularly true in the region of the spanwise roller pairing. The phase-averaged spanwise and streamwise peak vorticity levels given by Taylor's hypothesis are typically lower (by up to 40%) compared to the real measurements.

  12. A test of the reward-contrast hypothesis. (United States)

    Dalecki, Stefan J; Panoz-Brown, Danielle E; Crystal, Jonathon D


    Source memory, a facet of episodic memory, is the memory of the origin of information. Whereas source memory in rats is sustained for at least a week, spatial memory degraded after approximately a day. Different forgetting functions may suggest that two memory systems (source memory and spatial memory) are dissociated. However, in previous work, the two tasks used baiting conditions consisting of chocolate and chow flavors; notably, the source memory task used the relatively better flavor. Thus, according to the reward-contrast hypothesis, when chocolate and chow were presented within the same context (i.e., within a single radial maze trial), the chocolate location was more memorable than the chow location because of contrast. We tested the reward-contrast hypothesis using baiting configurations designed to produce reward-contrast. The reward-contrast hypothesis predicts that under these conditions, spatial memory will survive a 24-h retention interval. We documented elimination of spatial memory performance after a 24-h retention interval using a reward-contrast baiting pattern. These data suggest that reward contrast does not explain our earlier findings that source memory survives unusually long retention intervals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An Exercise for Illustrating the Logic of Hypothesis Testing (United States)

    Lawton, Leigh


    Hypothesis testing is one of the more difficult concepts for students to master in a basic, undergraduate statistics course. Students often are puzzled as to why statisticians simply don't calculate the probability that a hypothesis is true. This article presents an exercise that forces students to lay out on their own a procedure for testing a…

  14. The Drift Burst Hypothesis


    Christensen, Kim; Oomen, Roel; Renò, Roberto


    The Drift Burst Hypothesis postulates the existence of short-lived locally explosive trends in the price paths of financial assets. The recent US equity and Treasury flash crashes can be viewed as two high profile manifestations of such dynamics, but we argue that drift bursts of varying magnitude are an expected and regular occurrence in financial markets that can arise through established mechanisms such as feedback trading. At a theoretical level, we show how to build drift bursts into the...

  15. P value and the theory of hypothesis testing: an explanation for new researchers. (United States)

    Biau, David Jean; Jolles, Brigitte M; Porcher, Raphaël


    In the 1920s, Ronald Fisher developed the theory behind the p value and Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson developed the theory of hypothesis testing. These distinct theories have provided researchers important quantitative tools to confirm or refute their hypotheses. The p value is the probability to obtain an effect equal to or more extreme than the one observed presuming the null hypothesis of no effect is true; it gives researchers a measure of the strength of evidence against the null hypothesis. As commonly used, investigators will select a threshold p value below which they will reject the null hypothesis. The theory of hypothesis testing allows researchers to reject a null hypothesis in favor of an alternative hypothesis of some effect. As commonly used, investigators choose Type I error (rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true) and Type II error (accepting the null hypothesis when it is false) levels and determine some critical region. If the test statistic falls into that critical region, the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis. Despite similarities between the two, the p value and the theory of hypothesis testing are different theories that often are misunderstood and confused, leading researchers to improper conclusions. Perhaps the most common misconception is to consider the p value as the probability that the null hypothesis is true rather than the probability of obtaining the difference observed, or one that is more extreme, considering the null is true. Another concern is the risk that an important proportion of statistically significant results are falsely significant. Researchers should have a minimum understanding of these two theories so that they are better able to plan, conduct, interpret, and report scientific experiments.

  16. MOLIERE: Automatic Biomedical Hypothesis Generation System. (United States)

    Sybrandt, Justin; Shtutman, Michael; Safro, Ilya


    Hypothesis generation is becoming a crucial time-saving technique which allows biomedical researchers to quickly discover implicit connections between important concepts. Typically, these systems operate on domain-specific fractions of public medical data. MOLIERE, in contrast, utilizes information from over 24.5 million documents. At the heart of our approach lies a multi-modal and multi-relational network of biomedical objects extracted from several heterogeneous datasets from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). These objects include but are not limited to scientific papers, keywords, genes, proteins, diseases, and diagnoses. We model hypotheses using Latent Dirichlet Allocation applied on abstracts found near shortest paths discovered within this network, and demonstrate the effectiveness of MOLIERE by performing hypothesis generation on historical data. Our network, implementation, and resulting data are all publicly available for the broad scientific community.

  17. Debates—Hypothesis testing in hydrology: Introduction (United States)

    Blöschl, Günter


    This paper introduces the papers in the "Debates—Hypothesis testing in hydrology" series. The four articles in the series discuss whether and how the process of testing hypotheses leads to progress in hydrology. Repeated experiments with controlled boundary conditions are rarely feasible in hydrology. Research is therefore not easily aligned with the classical scientific method of testing hypotheses. Hypotheses in hydrology are often enshrined in computer models which are tested against observed data. Testability may be limited due to model complexity and data uncertainty. All four articles suggest that hypothesis testing has contributed to progress in hydrology and is needed in the future. However, the procedure is usually not as systematic as the philosophy of science suggests. A greater emphasis on a creative reasoning process on the basis of clues and explorative analyses is therefore needed.

  18. The impact of event vividness, event severity, and prior paranormal belief on attributions towards a depicted remarkable coincidence experience: Two studies examining the misattribution hypothesis. (United States)

    Rogers, Paul; Qualter, Pamela; Wood, Dave


    Two studies examine the impact event vividness, event severity, and prior paranormal belief has on causal attributions for a depicted remarkable coincidence experience. In Study 1, respondents (n = 179) read a hypothetical vignette in which a fictional character accurately predicts a plane crash 1 day before it occurs. The crash was described in either vivid or pallid terms with the final outcome being either severe (fatal) or non-severe (non-fatal). Respondents completed 29 causal attribution items, one attribution confidence item, nine scenario perception items, a popular paranormal belief scale, and a standard demographics questionnaire. Principal axis factoring reduced the 29 attribution items to four attribution factors which were then subjected to a 2 (event vividness) × 2 (event severity) × 2 (paranormal belief) MANCOVA controlling for respondent gender. As expected, paranormal believers attributed the accurate crash prediction less to coincidence and more to both paranormal and transcendental knowing than did paranormal sceptics. Furthermore, paranormal (psychokinesis) believers deemed the prediction more reflective of paranormal knowing to both (1) a vivid/non-fatal and (2) a pallid/fatal crash depiction. Vividness, severity, and paranormal belief types had no impact on attribution confidence. In Study 2, respondents (also n = 179) generated data that were a moderately good fit to the previous factor structure and replicated several differences across attributional pairings albeit for paranormal non-believers only. Corresponding effects for event severity and paranormal belief were not replicated. Findings are discussed in terms of their support for the paranormal misattribution hypothesis and the impact of availability biases in the form of both vividness and severity effects. Methodological issues and future research ideas are also discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Antiaging therapy: a prospective hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidi Bonjar MR


    Full Text Available Mohammad Rashid Shahidi Bonjar,1 Leyla Shahidi Bonjar2 1School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman Iran; 2Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Abstract: This hypothesis proposes a new prospective approach to slow the aging process in older humans. The hypothesis could lead to developing new treatments for age-related illnesses and help humans to live longer. This hypothesis has no previous documentation in scientific media and has no protocol. Scientists have presented evidence that systemic aging is influenced by peculiar molecules in the blood. Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, and Harvard University in Cambridge discovered elevated titer of aging-related molecules (ARMs in blood, which trigger cascade of aging process in mice; they also indicated that the process can be reduced or even reversed. By inhibiting the production of ARMs, they could reduce age-related cognitive and physical declines. The present hypothesis offers a new approach to translate these findings into medical treatment: extracorporeal adjustment of ARMs would lead to slower rates of aging. A prospective “antiaging blood filtration column” (AABFC is a nanotechnological device that would fulfill the central role in this approach. An AABFC would set a near-youth homeostatic titer of ARMs in the blood. In this regard, the AABFC immobilizes ARMs from the blood while blood passes through the column. The AABFC harbors antibodies against ARMs. ARM antibodies would be conjugated irreversibly to ARMs on contact surfaces of the reaction platforms inside the AABFC till near-youth homeostasis is attained. The treatment is performed with the aid of a blood-circulating pump. Similar to a renal dialysis machine, blood would circulate from the body to the AABFC and from there back to the body in a closed circuit until ARMs were sufficiently depleted from the blood. The

  20. Evidence of syn tectonic tephrites with nepheline in the Sidi Said Maachou Cambrian basin (coastal Meseta, Morocco); geo dynamic implications; Mise en evidence de tephrites a nepheline syntectoniques dans le bassin cambrien de Sidi Said Maachou (Meseta cotiere, Maroc); signification geodynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remmal, T.; Mohsine, A.; El Hatimi, N.


    Based on a combined structural, petrographic, and geochemical analysis, a new interpretation of the basic magmatism of Sidi Said Maachou (coastal Meseta) in two stages of emplacement is proposed. The first stage is characterized by transitional pyroclastic flows that have accompanied the opening of the West-Mesetian basin, during the Cambrian; the second stage is made of dykes of basalts, dolerites, and tephrites bearing nepheline. The emplacement of this undersaturated alkaline magma is associated to a sinistral sub meridian shear zone which has been activated at the end of the Caledonian orogenesis, by a mantellic advection. (Author) 32 refs.

  1. A comparator-hypothesis account of biased contingency detection. (United States)

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Barberia, Itxaso


    Our ability to detect statistical dependencies between different events in the environment is strongly biased by the number of coincidences between them. Even when there is no true covariation between a cue and an outcome, if the marginal probability of either of them is high, people tend to perceive some degree of statistical contingency between both events. The present paper explores the ability of the Comparator Hypothesis to explain the general pattern of results observed in this literature. Our simulations show that this model can account for the biasing effects of the marginal probabilities of cues and outcomes. Furthermore, the overall fit of the Comparator Hypothesis to a sample of experimental conditions from previous studies is comparable to that of the popular Rescorla-Wagner model. These results should encourage researchers to further explore and put to the test the predictions of the Comparator Hypothesis in the domain of biased contingency detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of cycle stacking patterns to define third-order depositional sequences: Middle to Late Cambrian Bonanza King Formation, southern Great basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanez, I.P.; Droser, M.L. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))


    The Middle to Late Cambrian Bonanza King Formation (CA, NV) is characterized by superimposed scales of cyclicity. Small-scale cycles (0.5 to 10m) occur as shallowing-upward peritidal and subtidal cycles that repeat at high frequencies (10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5}). Systematic changes in stacking patterns of meter-scale cycles define several large-scale (50-250 m) third-order depositional sequences in the Bonanza King Formation. Third-order depositional sequences can be traced within ranges and correlated regionally across the platform. Peritidal cycles in the Bonanza King Formation are both subtidal- and tidal flat-dominated. Tidal flat-dominated cycles consist of muddy bases grading upward into thrombolites or columnar stromatolites all capped by planar stromatolites. Subtidal cycles in the Bonanza King Formation consist of grainstone bases that commonly fine upward and contain stacked hardgrounds. These are overlain by digitate-algal bioherms with grainstone channel fills and/or bioturbated ribbon carbonates with grainstone lenses. Transgressive depositional facies of third-order depositional sequences consist primarily of stacks of subtidal-dominated pertidial cycles and subtidal cycles, whereas regressive depositional facies are dominated by stacks of tidal flat-dominated peritidal cycles and regoliths developed over laminite cycle caps. The use of high frequency cycles in the Bonanza King Formation to delineate regionally developed third-order depositional sequences thus provides a link between cycle stratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy.

  3. Counselor Hypothesis Testing Strategies: The Role of Initial Impressions and Self-Schema. (United States)

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; Chiodo, Anthony L.


    Presents two experiments concerning confirmatory bias in the way counselors collect data to test their hypotheses. Counselors were asked either to develop their own clinical hypothesis or were given a hypothesis to test. Confirmatory bias in hypothesis testing was not supported in either experiment. (JAC)

  4. A Molecular–Structure Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C. A. Boeyens


    Full Text Available The self-similar symmetry that occurs between atomic nuclei, biological growth structures, the solar system, globular clusters and spiral galaxies suggests that a similar pattern should characterize atomic and molecular structures. This possibility is explored in terms of the current molecular structure-hypothesis and its extension into four-dimensional space-time. It is concluded that a quantum molecule only has structure in four dimensions and that classical (Newtonian structure, which occurs in three dimensions, cannot be simulated by quantum-chemical computation.

  5. Search and the Aging Mind: The Promise and Limits of the Cognitive Control Hypothesis of Age Differences in Search. (United States)

    Mata, Rui; von Helversen, Bettina


    Search is a prerequisite for successful performance in a broad range of tasks ranging from making decisions between consumer goods to memory retrieval. How does aging impact search processes in such disparate situations? Aging is associated with structural and neuromodulatory brain changes that underlie cognitive control processes, which in turn have been proposed as a domain-general mechanism controlling search in external environments as well as memory. We review the aging literature to evaluate the cognitive control hypothesis that suggests that age-related change in cognitive control underlies age differences in both external and internal search. We also consider the limits of the cognitive control hypothesis and propose additional mechanisms such as changes in strategy use and affect that may be necessary to understand how aging affects search. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Alzheimer's disease: the amyloid hypothesis and the Inverse Warburg effect

    KAUST Repository

    Demetrius, Lloyd A.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Pellerin, Luc


    Epidemiological and biochemical studies show that the sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by the following hallmarks: (a) An exponential increase with age; (b) Selective neuronal vulnerability; (c) Inverse cancer comorbidity. The present article appeals to these hallmarks to evaluate and contrast two competing models of AD: the amyloid hypothesis (a neuron-centric mechanism) and the Inverse Warburg hypothesis (a neuron-astrocytic mechanism). We show that these three hallmarks of AD conflict with the amyloid hypothesis, but are consistent with the Inverse Warburg hypothesis, a bioenergetic model which postulates that AD is the result of a cascade of three events—mitochondrial dysregulation, metabolic reprogramming (the Inverse Warburg effect), and natural selection. We also provide an explanation for the failures of the clinical trials based on amyloid immunization, and we propose a new class of therapeutic strategies consistent with the neuroenergetic selection model.

  7. Alzheimer's disease: the amyloid hypothesis and the Inverse Warburg effect

    KAUST Repository

    Demetrius, Lloyd A.


    Epidemiological and biochemical studies show that the sporadic forms of Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) are characterized by the following hallmarks: (a) An exponential increase with age; (b) Selective neuronal vulnerability; (c) Inverse cancer comorbidity. The present article appeals to these hallmarks to evaluate and contrast two competing models of AD: the amyloid hypothesis (a neuron-centric mechanism) and the Inverse Warburg hypothesis (a neuron-astrocytic mechanism). We show that these three hallmarks of AD conflict with the amyloid hypothesis, but are consistent with the Inverse Warburg hypothesis, a bioenergetic model which postulates that AD is the result of a cascade of three events—mitochondrial dysregulation, metabolic reprogramming (the Inverse Warburg effect), and natural selection. We also provide an explanation for the failures of the clinical trials based on amyloid immunization, and we propose a new class of therapeutic strategies consistent with the neuroenergetic selection model.

  8. The catecholaminergic-cholinergic balance hypothesis of bipolar disorder revisited (United States)

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Janowsky, David S; Olivier, Berend; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Young, Jared W; Geyer, Mark A


    Bipolar disorder is a unique illness characterized by fluctuations between mood states of depression and mania. Originally, an adrenergic-cholinergic balance hypothesis was postulated to underlie these different affective states. In this review, we update this hypothesis with recent findings from human and animal studies, suggesting that a catecholaminergic-cholinergic hypothesis may be more relevant. Evidence from neuroimaging studies, neuropharmacological interventions, and genetic associations support the notion that increased cholinergic functioning underlies depression, whereas increased activations of the catecholamines (dopamine and norepinephrine) underlie mania. Elevated functional acetylcholine during depression may affect both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in a compensatory fashion. Increased functional dopamine and norepinephrine during mania on the other hand may affect receptor expression and functioning of dopamine reuptake transporters. Despite increasing evidence supporting this hypothesis, a relationship between these two neurotransmitter systems that could explain cycling between states of depression and mania is missing. Future studies should focus on the influence of environmental stimuli and genetic susceptibilities that may affect the catecholaminergic-cholinergic balance underlying cycling between the affective states. Overall, observations from recent studies add important data to this revised balance theory of bipolar disorder, renewing interest in this field of research. PMID:25107282

  9. The Method of Hypothesis in Plato's Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Aboie Mehrizi


    Full Text Available The article deals with the examination of method of hypothesis in Plato's philosophy. This method, respectively, will be examined in three dialogues of Meno, Phaedon and Republic in which it is explicitly indicated. It will be shown the process of change of Plato’s attitude towards the position and usage of the method of hypothesis in his realm of philosophy. In Meno, considering the geometry, Plato attempts to introduce a method that can be used in the realm of philosophy. But, ultimately in Republic, Plato’s special attention to the method and its importance in the philosophical investigations, leads him to revise it. Here, finally Plato introduces the particular method of philosophy, i.e., the dialectic

  10. Exploring heterogeneous market hypothesis using realized volatility (United States)

    Chin, Wen Cheong; Isa, Zaidi; Mohd Nor, Abu Hassan Shaari


    This study investigates the heterogeneous market hypothesis using high frequency data. The cascaded heterogeneous trading activities with different time durations are modelled by the heterogeneous autoregressive framework. The empirical study indicated the presence of long memory behaviour and predictability elements in the financial time series which supported heterogeneous market hypothesis. Besides the common sum-of-square intraday realized volatility, we also advocated two power variation realized volatilities in forecast evaluation and risk measurement in order to overcome the possible abrupt jumps during the credit crisis. Finally, the empirical results are used in determining the market risk using the value-at-risk approach. The findings of this study have implications for informationally market efficiency analysis, portfolio strategies and risk managements.

  11. Simultaneity modeling analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Youssef, Adel; Hammoudeh, Shawkat; Omri, Anis


    The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis has been recognized in the environmental economics literature since the 1990's. Various statistical tests have been used on time series, cross section and panel data related to single and groups of countries to validate this hypothesis. In the literature, the validation has always been conducted by using a single equation. However, since both the environment and income variables are endogenous, the estimation of a single equation model when simultaneity exists produces inconsistent and biased estimates. Therefore, we formulate simultaneous two-equation models to investigate the EKC hypothesis for fifty-six countries, using annual panel data from 1990 to 2012, with the end year is determined by data availability for the panel. To make the panel data analysis more homogeneous, we investigate this issue for a three income-based panels (namely, high-, middle-, and low-income panels) given several explanatory variables. Our results indicate that there exists a bidirectional causality between economic growth and pollution emissions in the overall panels. We also find that the relationship is nonlinear and has an inverted U-shape for all the considered panels. Policy implications are provided. - Highlights: • We have given a new look for the validity of the EKC hypothesis. • We formulate two-simultaneous equation models to validate this hypothesis for fifty-six countries. • We find a bidirectional causality between economic growth and pollution emissions. • We also discover an inverted U-shaped between environmental degradation and economic growth. • This relationship varies at different stages of economic development.

  12. A test of the orthographic recoding hypothesis (United States)

    Gaygen, Daniel E.


    The Orthographic Recoding Hypothesis [D. E. Gaygen and P. A. Luce, Percept. Psychophys. 60, 465-483 (1998)] was tested. According to this hypothesis, listeners recognize spoken words heard for the first time by mapping them onto stored representations of the orthographic forms of the words. Listeners have a stable orthographic representation of words, but no phonological representation, when those words have been read frequently but never heard or spoken. Such may be the case for low frequency words such as jargon. Three experiments using visually and auditorily presented nonword stimuli tested this hypothesis. The first two experiments were explicit tests of memory (old-new tests) for words presented visually. In the first experiment, the recognition of auditorily presented nonwords was facilitated when they previously appeared on a visually presented list. The second experiment was similar, but included a concurrent articulation task during a visual word list presentation, thus preventing covert rehearsal of the nonwords. The results were similar to the first experiment. The third experiment was an indirect test of memory (auditory lexical decision task) for visually presented nonwords. Auditorily presented nonwords were identified as nonwords significantly more slowly if they had previously appeared on the visually presented list accompanied by a concurrent articulation task.

  13. Diagnostic Hypothesis Generation and Human Judgment (United States)

    Thomas, Rick P.; Dougherty, Michael R.; Sprenger, Amber M.; Harbison, J. Isaiah


    Diagnostic hypothesis-generation processes are ubiquitous in human reasoning. For example, clinicians generate disease hypotheses to explain symptoms and help guide treatment, auditors generate hypotheses for identifying sources of accounting errors, and laypeople generate hypotheses to explain patterns of information (i.e., data) in the…

  14. Biological fingerprint of high LET radiation. Brenner hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Yoshiaki; Awa, Akio; Nakamura, Nori


    Hypothesis by Brenner et al. (1994) that in chromosome aberrations in human peripheral lymphocytes induced by radiation exposure, F value (dicentrics/rings) differs dependently on the LET and can be a biomarker of high LET radiation like neutron and α-ray was reviewed and evaluated as follows. Radiation and chromosome aberrations; in this section, unstable aberrations like dicentric and rings (r) and stable ones like translocation and pericentric inversions were described. F value. Brenner hypothesis. Bauchinger's refutation. F value determined by FISH method; here, FISH is fluorescence in situ hybridization. F value in studies by author's Radiation Effect Research Facility. Frequency of chromosome aberration in A-bomb survivors and ESR (ESR: electron spin resonance). The cause for fluctuation of F values. The Brenner hypothesis could not be supported by studies by author's facility, suggesting that the rate of inter-chromosomal and intra-chromosomal exchange abnormalities can not be distinguishable by the radiation LET. This might be derived from the difference in detection technology of r rather than in LET. (K.H.)

  15. The discovered preference hypothesis - an empirical test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Using stated preference methods for valuation of non-market goods is known to be vulnerable to a range of biases. Some authors claim that these so-called anomalies in effect render the methods useless for the purpose. However, the Discovered Preference Hypothesis, as put forth by Plott [31], offers...... an nterpretation and explanation of biases which entails that the stated preference methods need not to be completely written off. In this paper we conduct a test for the validity and relevance of the DPH interpretation of biases. In a choice experiment concerning preferences for protection of Danish nature areas...... as respondents evaluate more and more choice sets. This finding supports the Discovered Preference Hypothesis interpretation and explanation of starting point bias....

  16. Hypothesis testing of scientific Monte Carlo calculations (United States)

    Wallerberger, Markus; Gull, Emanuel


    The steadily increasing size of scientific Monte Carlo simulations and the desire for robust, correct, and reproducible results necessitates rigorous testing procedures for scientific simulations in order to detect numerical problems and programming bugs. However, the testing paradigms developed for deterministic algorithms have proven to be ill suited for stochastic algorithms. In this paper we demonstrate explicitly how the technique of statistical hypothesis testing, which is in wide use in other fields of science, can be used to devise automatic and reliable tests for Monte Carlo methods, and we show that these tests are able to detect some of the common problems encountered in stochastic scientific simulations. We argue that hypothesis testing should become part of the standard testing toolkit for scientific simulations.

  17. The Twin Deficits Hypothesis: An Empirical Analysis for Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manamba Epaphra


    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between current account and government budget deficits in Tanzania. The paper tests the validity of the twin deficits hypothesis, using annual time series data for the 1966-2015 period. The paper is thought to be significant because the concept of the twin deficit hypothesis is fraught with controversy. Some researches support the hypothesis that there is a positive relationship between current account deficits and fiscal deficits in the economy while others do not. In this paper, the empirical tests fail to reject the twin deficits hypothesis, indicating that rising budget deficits put more strain on the current account deficits in Tanzania. Specifically, the Vector Error Correction Model results support the conventional theory of a positive relationship between fiscal and external balances, with a relatively high speed of adjustment toward the equilibrium position. This evidence is consistent with a small open economy. To address the problem that may result from this kind of relationship, appropriate policy variables for reducing budget deficits such as reduction in non-development expenditure, enhancement of domestic revenue collection and actively fight corruption and tax evasion should be adopted. The government should also target export oriented firms and encourage an import substitution industry by creating favorable business environments.

  18. Ediacaran to Cambrian magmatic suites in the Rio Grande do Norte domain, extreme Northeastern Borborema Province (NE of Brazil): Current knowledge (United States)

    do Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Leite; Galindo, Antonio Carlos; de Medeiros, Vladimir Cruz


    The Ediacaran-Cambrian plutonic activity is one of the most important geological features of the Rio Grande do Norte Domain (Borborema Province, NE Brazil). It is represented by several batholiths, stocks and dykes. Based on the petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristic of different rocks, this plutonic activity can be grouped in six separate suites: shoshonitic (Shos), porphyritic high-K calc-alkaline (PHKCalcAlk), equigranular high K calc-alkaline (EHKCalcAlk), calc-alkaline (CalcAlk), alkaline (Alk) and charnockitic alkaline (ChAlk). Geochemically, the Shos, CalcAlk and Alk suites are differentiated from the others, while ChAlc can be distinguished from the others in some diagrams. The greatest difficulty lies in distinguishing between the chemically similar PHKCalcAlk and EHKCalcAlk. To this end, existing geochronological data as well as related petrographic and textural field aspects may be used to distinguish the two mentioned suites (PHKCalcAlk and EHKCalcAlk). Petrographically, the Shos suite has composition between gabbro/diorite and quartz monzonite. Monzogranites (with subordinate granodiorites and quartz monzonites) predominate in both PHKCalcAlk and EHKCalcAlk. Calc is composed of granodiorites to tonalites. Alc is formed by alkali feldspar granites (with subordinate alkali feldspar quartz syenites and syenogranites), whereas ChAlc has quartz mangerites and charnockites. The suites were emplaced between the Ediacaran (635-541 Ma) and Cambrian (541-485 Ma), predominantly in the Ediacaran, based on 34 U-Pb datings (zircon, titanite, monazite and columbite-tantalite), 17 Rb-Sr (whole rock) and 1 Sm-Nd (total rock and mineral) internal isochrons. The Shos suite has U-Pb ages varying from 599 ± 16 (Poço Verde pluton) to 579 ± 7 (Acari and São João do Sabugi plutons), slightly older than those of the PHKCalcAlk suite, which ranges between 591 ± 4 Ma (Totoró pluton) and 544 ± 7 Ma (São José de Espinharas pluton). The Calc

  19. Evolution of Motor Control: From Reflexes and Motor Programs to the Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis. (United States)

    Latash, Mark L


    This brief review analyzes the evolution of motor control theories along two lines that emphasize active (motor programs) and reactive (reflexes) features of voluntary movements. It suggests that the only contemporary hypothesis that integrates both approaches in a fruitful way is the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Physical, physiological, and behavioral foundations of the EP-hypothesis are considered as well as relations between the EP-hypothesis and the recent developments of the notion of motor synergies. The paper ends with a brief review of the criticisms of the EP-hypothesis and challenges that the hypothesis faces at this time.

  20. A Hypothesis: Life Initiated from Two Genes, as Deduced from the RNA World Hypothesis and the Characteristics of Life-Like Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Kawamura


    Full Text Available RNA played a central role in the emergence of the first life-like system on primitive Earth since RNA molecules contain both genetic information and catalytic activity. However, there are several drawbacks regarding the RNA world hypothesis. Here, I briefly discuss the feasibility of the RNA world hypothesis to deduce the RNA functions that are essential for forming a life-like system. At the same time, I have conducted a conceptual analysis of the characteristics of biosystems as a useful approach to deduce a realistic life-like system in relation to the definition of life. For instance, an RNA-based life-like system should possess enough stability to resist environmental perturbations, by developing a cell-like compartment, for instance. Here, a conceptual viewpoint is summarized to provide a realistic life-like system that is compatible with the primitive Earth environment and the capabilities of RNA molecules. According to the empirical and conceptual analysis, I propose the hypothesis that the first life-like system could have initiated from only two genes.

  1. Dopamine and Reward: The Anhedonia Hypothesis 30 years on


    Wise, Roy A.


    The anhedonia hypothesis – that brain dopamine plays a critical role in the subjective pleasure associated with positive rewards – was intended to draw the attention of psychiatrists to the growing evidence that dopamine plays a critical role in the objective reinforcement and incentive motivation associated with food and water, brain stimulation reward, and psychomotor stimulant and opiate reward. The hypothesis called to attention the apparent paradox that neuroleptics, drugs used to treat ...

  2. Review series on helminths, immune modulation and the hygiene hypothesis: the broader implications of the hygiene hypothesis. (United States)

    Rook, Graham A W


    Man has moved rapidly from the hunter-gatherer environment to the living conditions of the rich industrialized countries. The hygiene hypothesis suggests that the resulting changed and reduced pattern of exposure to microorganisms has led to disordered regulation of the immune system, and hence to increases in certain inflammatory disorders. The concept began with the allergic disorders, but there are now good reasons for extending it to autoimmunity, inflammatory bowel disease, neuroinflammatory disorders, atherosclerosis, depression associated with raised inflammatory cytokines, and some cancers. This review discusses these possibilities in the context of Darwinian medicine, which uses knowledge of evolution to cast light on human diseases. The Darwinian approach enables one to correctly identify some of the organisms that are important for the 'Hygiene' or 'Old Friends' hypothesis, and to point to the potential exploitation of these organisms or their components in novel types of prophylaxis with applications in several branches of medicine.

  3. Examination of the embargo hypothesis as an explanation for the Great Silence (United States)

    Deardorff, J. W.


    The embargo or quarantine hypothesis for explaining the 'Great Silence' is reviewed and found to be more plausible than the view that, at most, earth might expect to receive radio messages from some distant star. The latter hypothesis is shown to be compatible with extraterrestrial technologies only a few hundred years in advance of those on earth, whereas the embargo hypothesis more reasonably infers that they should be tens of thousands of years in advance and in control of any contact with humanity. Reasons why the embargo hypothesis has received insufficient attention are presented; they involve failure to allow for the application of both greatly advanced technology and high ethical values by maturing societies of extraterrestrial intelligence. The implication of the embargo hypothesis for space development is that planets already harboring diverse biota are ethically off-limits for exploitive colonization.

  4. The equilibrium-point hypothesis--past, present and future. (United States)

    Feldman, Anatol G; Levin, Mindy F


    This chapter is a brief account of fundamentals of the equilibrium-point hypothesis or more adequately called the threshold control theory (TCT). It also compares the TCT with other approaches to motor control. The basic notions of the TCT are reviewed with a major focus on solutions to the problems of multi-muscle and multi-degrees of freedom redundancy. The TCT incorporates cognitive aspects by explaining how neurons recognize that internal (neural) and external (environmental) events match each other. These aspects as well as how motor learning occurs are subjects of further development of the TCT hypothesis.

  5. Morbidity and Infant Development: A Hypothesis. (United States)

    Pollitt, Ernesto


    Results of a study conducted in 14 villages of Sui Lin Township, Taiwan, suggest the hypothesis that, under conditions of extreme economic impoverishment and among children within populations where energy protein malnutrition is endemic, there is an inverse relationship between incidence of morbidity in infancy and measures of motor and mental…

  6. A Critique of One-Tailed Hypothesis Test Procedures in Business and Economics Statistics Textbooks. (United States)

    Liu, Tung; Stone, Courtenay C.


    Surveys introductory business and economics statistics textbooks and finds that they differ over the best way to explain one-tailed hypothesis tests: the simple null-hypothesis approach or the composite null-hypothesis approach. Argues that the composite null-hypothesis approach contains methodological shortcomings that make it more difficult for…

  7. Extraction of airway trees using multiple hypothesis tracking and template matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavendra, Selvan; Petersen, Jens; Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst


    used in constructing a multiple hypothesis tree, which is then traversed to reach decisions. The proposed modifications remove the need for local thresholding of hypotheses as decisions are made entirely based on statistical comparisons involving the hypothesis tree. The results show improvements......Knowledge of airway tree morphology has important clinical applications in diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We present an automatic tree extraction method based on multiple hypothesis tracking and template matching for this purpose and evaluate its performance on chest CT images...

  8. On the validity of Taylor's hypothesis for wall-bounded flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piomelli, U.; Balint, J.; Wallace, J.M.


    The results of large eddy simulation (LES) of the Navier--Stokes equations are used to evaluate the validity of Taylor's hypothesis of frozen turbulence, which states that the time derivative of some instantaneous quantity is proportional to its derivative in the streamwise direction, for incompressible plane channel flow. Time and space derivatives in the streamwise direction of the velocity components are, in fact, found to be well correlated. Root-mean-square fluctuations of the terms in Taylor's hypothesis also support the validity of this hypothesis above the buffer layer. The good agreement between LES and experimental results indicates that errors in the evaluation of derivatives in the streamwise direction are due mostly to insufficient resolution

  9. A critique of statistical hypothesis testing in clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somik Raha


    Full Text Available Many have documented the difficulty of using the current paradigm of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs to test and validate the effectiveness of alternative medical systems such as Ayurveda. This paper critiques the applicability of RCTs for all clinical knowledge-seeking endeavors, of which Ayurveda research is a part. This is done by examining statistical hypothesis testing, the underlying foundation of RCTs, from a practical and philosophical perspective. In the philosophical critique, the two main worldviews of probability are that of the Bayesian and the frequentist. The frequentist worldview is a special case of the Bayesian worldview requiring the unrealistic assumptions of knowing nothing about the universe and believing that all observations are unrelated to each other. Many have claimed that the first belief is necessary for science, and this claim is debunked by comparing variations in learning with different prior beliefs. Moving beyond the Bayesian and frequentist worldviews, the notion of hypothesis testing itself is challenged on the grounds that a hypothesis is an unclear distinction, and assigning a probability on an unclear distinction is an exercise that does not lead to clarity of action. This critique is of the theory itself and not any particular application of statistical hypothesis testing. A decision-making frame is proposed as a way of both addressing this critique and transcending ideological debates on probability. An example of a Bayesian decision-making approach is shown as an alternative to statistical hypothesis testing, utilizing data from a past clinical trial that studied the effect of Aspirin on heart attacks in a sample population of doctors. As a big reason for the prevalence of RCTs in academia is legislation requiring it, the ethics of legislating the use of statistical methods for clinical research is also examined.

  10. Geographic variation in chin shape challenges the universal facial attractiveness hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaneta M Thayer

    Full Text Available The universal facial attractiveness (UFA hypothesis proposes that some facial features are universally preferred because they are reliable signals of mate quality. The primary evidence for this hypothesis comes from cross-cultural studies of perceived attractiveness. However, these studies do not directly address patterns of morphological variation at the population level. An unanswered question is therefore: Are universally preferred facial phenotypes geographically invariant, as the UFA hypothesis implies? The purpose of our study is to evaluate this often overlooked aspect of the UFA hypothesis by examining patterns of geographic variation in chin shape. We collected symphyseal outlines from 180 recent human mandibles (90 male, 90 female representing nine geographic regions. Elliptical Fourier functions analysis was used to quantify chin shape, and principle components analysis was used to compute shape descriptors. In contrast to the expectations of the UFA hypothesis, we found significant geographic differences in male and female chin shape. These findings are consistent with region-specific sexual selection and/or random genetic drift, but not universal sexual selection. We recommend that future studies of facial attractiveness take into consideration patterns of morphological variation within and between diverse human populations.

  11. Palaeoenvironmental and geochemical approach of Archaeocyath-rich facies from Lower Cambrian of Western Gondwana margin at Central Iberian Zone (Urda, Toledo Mountains, Spain) (United States)

    Menéndez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Martínez, Marta; Moreno-Eris, Elena; Perejón, Antonio; Reitner, Joachim


    Archaeocyath-rich facies are located in a quarry close to Urda village, at Toledo Mountains, Spain. The outcrops belong to the Caliza de los Navalucillos Formation and they record a considerably high diverse archaeocyath assemblage in the Lower Cambrian successions from the Central Iberian Zone (Julivert et al. 1972 [1974]). In fact, it is first time recorded the presence of Agyrekocyathus, Dokidocyathus, and Plicocyathus in the Central Iberian Zone. Therefore Plicocyathus is no longer exclusive to biozone VI in Spain. The presence of Anthomorpha is characteristic for the early Botomian, presently early Stage 4 (ICS, 2009), and the assemblage corresponds to the biozone VII (late Ovetian, following the biozonation of Perejón & Moreno-Eiris, 2006). The fossiliferous part of the succession is formed by seven lithofacies, all of them tectonically folded and with a low grade metamorphic overprint. They are comprised by two main groups of facies: (a) mound-shaped to massive lithofacies (A1, A2, A3, A4) and (b) massive to bedded and nodular lithofacies (B1, B2, B3). Archaeocyaths occur in several facies: (A1) mound-shaped white marble with irregular to stromatactoid cavities; (A2) massive mottled white to grey limestone; (A3) massive grey limestone with slumps levels; (A4) massive archaeocyath-rich orange limestone; as well as in carbonate nodules embedded in siltstones and cherts (B1, B2 and B3). The best preserved assemblage comes from the nodule record, where fossils are partially pyritized. This type of preservation is exceptional and has never been described before. XRD and wavelength-dispersive electron microprobe analyses reveal the presence of pyrite and pyrrotine partially altered to iron oxides and hydroxides (hematite and goethite) surrounding the archaeocyath cups. In Central Iberian Zone, the development of mounds and nodular facies like those described here is unusual, although the Botomian marks the peak for Early Cambrian archaeocyathan-microbial mounds

  12. The Beaverhead impact structure, SW Montana and Idaho: Implications for the regional geology of the western U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiske, P.S.; Hargaves, R.B.


    The Beaverhead impact structure in SW Montana and Idaho is an allochthonous fragment of a large impact structure ({approximately} 100 km diameter) that was transported some distance eastward during the Cretaceous Sevier orogeny. It is the first tectonic fragment of a large impact structure identified in the geologic record. The present evidence for impact consists of shatter cones, pseudotachylites, and planar deformation features in quartz. The age of the impact is not well constrained but is estimated to be Neoproterozoic to Cambrian (1000-500 Ma). The Beaverhead impact event must have created other features that may be preserved, elsewhere in western Montana and Idaho. These include proximal and distal ejecta (which may be misinterpreted as diamictites and/or tuff horizons) and other fragments of the crater floor containing shatter cones and pseudotachylite. A large circular gravity, magnetic and topographic anomaly, which could be the root of the impact structure, has been identified near Challis, Idaho. An enigmatic lithic tuff, identified in drill cores from the Challis area and an intraformational quartzite breccia in the Leaton Gulch area may be impact-related deposits, but no definitive evidence of shock metamorphism has been observed in these materials. The discovery of more pieces of the Beaverhead puzzle, as well as the recognition of other large impacts in the geologic record, are likely once the regional geologic community grows to accept the incidence of such events and becomes more familiar with the features of shock metamorphism in the field. To that end, the community of geologists in this area should integrate the Beaverhead structure into their research and teaching curriculum.

  13. The Random-Walk Hypothesis on the Indian Stock Market


    Ankita Mishra; Vinod Mishra; Russell Smyth


    This study tests the random walk hypothesis for the Indian stock market. Using 19 years of monthly data on six indices from the National Stock Exchange (NSE) and the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), this study applies three different unit root tests with two structural breaks to analyse the random walk hypothesis. We find that unit root tests that allow for two structural breaks alone are not able to reject the unit root null; however, a recently developed unit root test that simultaneously accou...

  14. Zircon provenance of SW Caledonian phyllites reveals a distant Timanian sediment source

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Jiří; Pedersen, R. B.


    Roč. 172, č. 4 (2015), s. 465-478 ISSN 0016-7649 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : East-European-Craton * LA-ICP-MS * Norwegian Caledonides * detrial zircon * U-PB * Scandinavian Caledonides * LU-HF * Cambrian papaeogeography * South Norwey * Oslo region Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2015

  15. The Cognitive Mediation Hypothesis Revisited: An Empirical Response to Methodological and Theoretical Criticism. (United States)

    Romero, Anna A.; And Others


    In order to address criticisms raised against the cognitive mediation hypothesis, three experiments were conducted to develop a more direct test of the hypothesis. Taken together, the three experiments provide converging support for the cognitive mediation hypothesis, reconfirming the central role of cognition in the persuasion process.…

  16. Consumer health information seeking as hypothesis testing. (United States)

    Keselman, Alla; Browne, Allen C; Kaufman, David R


    Despite the proliferation of consumer health sites, lay individuals often experience difficulty finding health information online. The present study attempts to understand users' information seeking difficulties by drawing on a hypothesis testing explanatory framework. It also addresses the role of user competencies and their interaction with internet resources. Twenty participants were interviewed about their understanding of a hypothetical scenario about a family member suffering from stable angina and then searched MedlinePlus consumer health information portal for information on the problem presented in the scenario. Participants' understanding of heart disease was analyzed via semantic analysis. Thematic coding was used to describe information seeking trajectories in terms of three key strategies: verification of the primary hypothesis, narrowing search within the general hypothesis area and bottom-up search. Compared to an expert model, participants' understanding of heart disease involved different key concepts, which were also differently grouped and defined. This understanding provided the framework for search-guiding hypotheses and results interpretation. Incorrect or imprecise domain knowledge led individuals to search for information on irrelevant sites, often seeking out data to confirm their incorrect initial hypotheses. Online search skills enhanced search efficiency, but did not eliminate these difficulties. Regardless of their web experience and general search skills, lay individuals may experience difficulty with health information searches. These difficulties may be related to formulating and evaluating hypotheses that are rooted in their domain knowledge. Informatics can provide support at the levels of health information portals, individual websites, and consumer education tools.

  17. A normalised seawater strontium isotope curve. Possible implications for Neoproterozoic-Cambrian weathering rates and the further oxygenation of the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G.A.


    The strontium isotope composition of seawater is strongly influenced on geological time scales by changes in the rates of continental weathering relative to ocean crust alteration. However, the potential of the seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curve to trace globally integrated chemical weathering rates has not been fully realised because ocean 87 Sr/ 86 Sr is also influenced by the isotopic evolution of Sr sources to the ocean. A preliminary attempt is made here to normalise the seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curve to plausible trends in the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of the three major Sr sources: carbonate dissolution, silicate weathering and submarine hydrothermal exchange. The normalised curve highlights the Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic transition as a period of exceptionally high continental influence, indicating that this interval was characterised by a transient increase in global weathering rates and/or by the weathering of unusually radiogenic crustal rocks. Close correlation between the normalised 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curve, a published seawater δ 34 S curve and atmospheric pCO 2 models is used here to argue that elevated chemical weathering rates were a major contributing factor to the steep rise in seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr from 650 Ma to 500 Ma. Elevated weathering rates during the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian interval led to increased nutrient availability, organic burial and to the further oxygenation of Earth's surface environment. Use of normalised seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curves will, it is hoped, help to improve future geochemical models of Earth System dynamics. (orig.)

  18. On the generalized gravi-magnetic hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, C.


    According to a generalization of the gravi-magnetic hypothesis (GMH) any neutral mass moving in a curvilinear path with respect to an inertial frame creates a magnetic field, dependent on the curvature radius of the path. A simple astrophysical consequence of the generalized GMH is suggested considering the special cases of binary pulsars and binary neutron stars

  19. The (not so immortal strand hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Tomasetti


    Significance: Utilizing an approach that is fundamentally different from previous efforts to confirm or refute the immortal strand hypothesis, we provide evidence against non-random segregation of DNA during stem cell replication. Our results strongly suggest that parental DNA is passed randomly to stem cell daughters and provides new insight into the mechanism of DNA replication in stem cells.

  20. Biodiversity, productivity, and the spatial insurance hypothesis revisited (United States)

    Shanafelt, David W.; Dieckmann, Ulf; Jonas, Matthias; Franklin, Oskar; Loreau, Michel; Perrings, Charles


    Accelerating rates of biodiversity loss have led ecologists to explore the effects of species richness on ecosystem functioning and the flow of ecosystem services. One explanation of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning lies in the spatial insurance hypothesis, which centers on the idea that productivity and stability increase with biodiversity in a temporally varying, spatially heterogeneous environment. However, there has been little work on the impact of dispersal where environmental risks are more or less spatially correlated, or where dispersal rates are variable. In this paper, we extend the original Loreau model to consider stochastic temporal variation in resource availability, which we refer to as “environmental risk,” and heterogeneity in species dispersal rates. We find that asynchronies across communities and species provide community-level stabilizing effects on productivity, despite varying levels of species richness. Although intermediate dispersal rates play a role in mitigating risk, they are less effective in insuring productivity against global (metacommunity-level) than local (individual community-level) risks. These results are particularly interesting given the emergence of global sources of risk such as climate change or the closer integration of world markets. Our results offer deeper insights into the Loreau model and new perspectives on the effectiveness of spatial insurance in the face of environmental risks. PMID:26100182

  1. Mechanisms of eyewitness suggestibility: tests of the explanatory role hypothesis. (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J; Chrobak, Quin M; Zaragoza, Maria S; Weihing, Caitlin A


    In a recent paper, Chrobak and Zaragoza (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 827-844, 2013) proposed the explanatory role hypothesis, which posits that the likelihood of developing false memories for post-event suggestions is a function of the explanatory function the suggestion serves. In support of this hypothesis, they provided evidence that participant-witnesses were especially likely to develop false memories for their forced fabrications when their fabrications helped to explain outcomes they had witnessed. In three experiments, we test the generality of the explanatory role hypothesis as a mechanism of eyewitness suggestibility by assessing whether this hypothesis can predict suggestibility errors in (a) situations where the post-event suggestions are provided by the experimenter (as opposed to fabricated by the participant), and (b) across a variety of memory measures and measures of recollective experience. In support of the explanatory role hypothesis, participants were more likely to subsequently freely report (E1) and recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (E2, source test) when the post-event suggestion helped to provide a causal explanation for a witnessed outcome than when it did not serve this explanatory role. Participants were also less likely to recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (on measures of subjective experience) when their explanatory strength had been reduced by the presence of an alternative explanation that could explain the same outcome (E3, source test + warning). Collectively, the results provide strong evidence that the search for explanatory coherence influences people's tendency to misremember witnessing events that were only suggested to them.

  2. Viral Impact in Autoimmune Diseases: Expanding the “X Chromosome–Nucleolus Nexus” Hypothesis (United States)

    Brooks, Wesley H.


    Viruses are suspected of significant roles in autoimmune diseases but the mechanisms are unclear. We get some insight by considering demands a virus places on host cells. Viruses not only require production of their own proteins, RNA and/or DNA, but also production of additional cellular machinery, such as ribosomes, to handle the increased demands. Since the nucleolus is a major site of RNA processing and ribonucleoprotein assembly, nucleoli are targeted by viruses, directly when viral RNA and proteins enter the nucleolus and indirectly when viruses induce increased expression of cellular polyamine genes. Polyamines are at high levels in nucleoli to assist in RNA folding. The size and activity of nucleoli increase directly with increases in polyamines. Nucleolar expansion due to abnormal increases in polyamines could disrupt nearby chromatin, such as the inactive X chromosome, leading to expression of previously sequestered DNA. Sudden expression of a large concentration of Alu elements from the disrupted inactive X can compete with RNA transcripts containing intronic Alu sequences that normally maintain nucleolar structural integrity. Such disruption of nucleolar activity can lead to misfolded RNAs, misassembled ribonucleoprotein complexes, and fragmentation of the nucleolus. Many autoantigens in lupus are, at least transiently, components of the nucleolus. Considering these effects of viruses, the “X chromosome–nucleolus nexus” hypothesis, which proposed disruption of the inactive X by the nucleolus during stress, is now expanded here to propose subsequent disruption of the nucleolus by previously sequestered Alu elements, which can fragment the nucleolus, leading to generation of autoantigens. PMID:29234321

  3. Visual perception and imagery: a new molecular hypothesis. (United States)

    Bókkon, I


    Here, we put forward a redox molecular hypothesis about the natural biophysical substrate of visual perception and visual imagery. This hypothesis is based on the redox and bioluminescent processes of neuronal cells in retinotopically organized cytochrome oxidase-rich visual areas. Our hypothesis is in line with the functional roles of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in living cells that are not part of haphazard process, but rather a very strict mechanism used in signaling pathways. We point out that there is a direct relationship between neuronal activity and the biophoton emission process in the brain. Electrical and biochemical processes in the brain represent sensory information from the external world. During encoding or retrieval of information, electrical signals of neurons can be converted into synchronized biophoton signals by bioluminescent radical and non-radical processes. Therefore, information in the brain appears not only as an electrical (chemical) signal but also as a regulated biophoton (weak optical) signal inside neurons. During visual perception, the topological distribution of photon stimuli on the retina is represented by electrical neuronal activity in retinotopically organized visual areas. These retinotopic electrical signals in visual neurons can be converted into synchronized biophoton signals by radical and non-radical processes in retinotopically organized mitochondria-rich areas. As a result, regulated bioluminescent biophotons can create intrinsic pictures (depictive representation) in retinotopically organized cytochrome oxidase-rich visual areas during visual imagery and visual perception. The long-term visual memory is interpreted as epigenetic information regulated by free radicals and redox processes. This hypothesis does not claim to solve the secret of consciousness, but proposes that the evolution of higher levels of complexity made the intrinsic picture representation of the external visual world possible by regulated

  4. Streamlined islands and the English Channel megaflood hypothesis (United States)

    Collier, J. S.; Oggioni, F.; Gupta, S.; García-Moreno, D.; Trentesaux, A.; De Batist, M.


    Recognising ice-age catastrophic megafloods is important because they had significant impact on large-scale drainage evolution and patterns of water and sediment movement to the oceans, and likely induced very rapid, short-term effects on climate. It has been previously proposed that a drainage system on the floor of the English Channel was initiated by catastrophic flooding in the Pleistocene but this suggestion has remained controversial. Here we examine this hypothesis through an analysis of key landform features. We use a new compilation of multi- and single-beam bathymetry together with sub-bottom profiler data to establish the internal structure, planform geometry and hence origin of a set of 36 mid-channel islands. Whilst there is evidence of modern-day surficial sediment processes, the majority of the islands can be clearly demonstrated to be formed of bedrock, and are hence erosional remnants rather than depositional features. The islands display classic lemniscate or tear-drop outlines, with elongated tips pointing downstream, typical of streamlined islands formed during high-magnitude water flow. The length-to-width ratio for the entire island population is 3.4 ± 1.3 and the degree-of-elongation or k-value is 3.7 ± 1.4. These values are comparable to streamlined islands in other proven Pleistocene catastrophic flood terrains and are distinctly different to values found in modern-day rivers. The island geometries show a correlation with bedrock type: with those carved from Upper Cretaceous chalk having larger length-to-width ratios (3.2 ± 1.3) than those carved into more mixed Paleogene terrigenous sandstones, siltstones and mudstones (3.0 ± 1.5). We attribute these differences to the former rock unit having a lower skin friction which allowed longer island growth to achieve minimum drag. The Paleogene islands, although less numerous than the Chalk islands, also assume more perfect lemniscate shapes. These lithologies therefore reached island

  5. Some consequences of using the Horsfall-Barratt scale for hypothesis testing (United States)

    Comparing treatment effects by hypothesis testing is a common practice in plant pathology. Nearest percent estimates (NPEs) of disease severity were compared to Horsfall-Barratt (H-B) scale data to explore whether there was an effect of assessment method on hypothesis testing. A simulation model ba...

  6. Prospective detection of large prediction errors: a hypothesis testing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Dan


    Real-time motion management is important in radiotherapy. In addition to effective monitoring schemes, prediction is required to compensate for system latency, so that treatment can be synchronized with tumor motion. However, it is difficult to predict tumor motion at all times, and it is critical to determine when large prediction errors may occur. Such information can be used to pause the treatment beam or adjust monitoring/prediction schemes. In this study, we propose a hypothesis testing approach for detecting instants corresponding to potentially large prediction errors in real time. We treat the future tumor location as a random variable, and obtain its empirical probability distribution with the kernel density estimation-based method. Under the null hypothesis, the model probability is assumed to be a concentrated Gaussian centered at the prediction output. Under the alternative hypothesis, the model distribution is assumed to be non-informative uniform, which reflects the situation that the future position cannot be inferred reliably. We derive the likelihood ratio test (LRT) for this hypothesis testing problem and show that with the method of moments for estimating the null hypothesis Gaussian parameters, the LRT reduces to a simple test on the empirical variance of the predictive random variable. This conforms to the intuition to expect a (potentially) large prediction error when the estimate is associated with high uncertainty, and to expect an accurate prediction when the uncertainty level is low. We tested the proposed method on patient-derived respiratory traces. The 'ground-truth' prediction error was evaluated by comparing the prediction values with retrospective observations, and the large prediction regions were subsequently delineated by thresholding the prediction errors. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to describe the performance of the proposed hypothesis testing method. Clinical implication was represented by miss

  7. Late Eocene impact events recorded in deep-sea sediments (United States)

    Glass, B. P.


    Raup and Sepkoski proposed that mass extinctions have occurred every 26 Myr during the last 250 Myr. In order to explain this 26 Myr periodicity, it was proposed that the mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in cometary impacts. One method to test this hypothesis is to determine if there were periodic increases in impact events (based on crater ages) that correlate with mass extinctions. A way to test the hypothesis that mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in impact cratering is to look for evidence of impact events in deep-sea deposits. This method allows direct observation of the temporal relationship between impact events and extinctions as recorded in the sedimentary record. There is evidence in the deep-sea record for two (possibly three) impact events in the late Eocene. The younger event, represented by the North American microtektite layer, is not associated with an Ir anomaly. The older event, defined by the cpx spherule layer, is associated with an Ir anomaly. However, neither of the two impact events recorded in late Eocene deposits appears to be associated with an unusual number of extinctions. Thus there is little evidence in the deep-sea record for an impact-related mass extinction in the late Eocene.

  8. The large numbers hypothesis and a relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Y.K.; Prokhovnik, S.J.


    A way to reconcile Dirac's large numbers hypothesis and Einstein's theory of gravitation was recently suggested by Lau (1985). It is characterized by the conjecture of a time-dependent cosmological term and gravitational term in Einstein's field equations. Motivated by this conjecture and the large numbers hypothesis, we formulate here a scalar-tensor theory in terms of an action principle. The cosmological term is required to be spatially dependent as well as time dependent in general. The theory developed is appled to a cosmological model compatible with the large numbers hypothesis. The time-dependent form of the cosmological term and the scalar potential are then deduced. A possible explanation of the smallness of the cosmological term is also given and the possible significance of the scalar field is speculated

  9. Enrolment in Conocoryphe heberti Munier-Chalmas and Bergeron, 1889 (Middle Cambrian, Iberian Chain, NE Spain) and coaptive structures within family Conocoryphidae; Enrollamiento en Conocoryphe heberti Munier-Chalmas and Bergeron, 1889 (Cambrico Medio, Cadena Iberica, NE de Espana) y estructuras coaptativas en la familia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, J.


    Enrolled Conocoryphe heberti is described with detail and compared with the conocoryphid Occatharia sdzuyi, both very abundant in the middle Cambrian from the Mediterranean subprovince. Both show different morphological novelties very useful to enrol and interlock the trilobite body. The morphological study allows us to recognize coaptative devices that show the possibility of a tight encapsulation enrolment. The coaptative devices are analyzed in cephalons, pigidia and almost completed outstretched trilobites of Bailiella levyi, Bailiaspis souchoni and Parabailiella languedocensis belonging to the same family. The coaptative structures analyzed show enough variability in cephalons and pigidia that allow suggesting several enrolment types within conocoryphids. (Author) 54 refs.

  10. Remarks about the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.T.; Yang, C.N.


    Remarks are made about the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation. In particular, the concept of favored and disfavored fragment distribution is introduced. Also, a sum rule is proved leading to a useful quantity called energy-fragmentation fraction. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. Vacuum counterexamples to the cosmic censorship hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.D.


    In cylindrically symmetric vacuum spacetimes it is possible to specify nonsingular initial conditions such that timelike singularities will (necessarily) evolve from these conditions. Examples are given; the spacetimes are somewhat analogous to one of the spherically symmetric counterexamples to the cosmic censorship hypothesis

  12. Reverse hypothesis machine learning a practitioner's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Parag


    This book introduces a paradigm of reverse hypothesis machines (RHM), focusing on knowledge innovation and machine learning. Knowledge- acquisition -based learning is constrained by large volumes of data and is time consuming. Hence Knowledge innovation based learning is the need of time. Since under-learning results in cognitive inabilities and over-learning compromises freedom, there is need for optimal machine learning. All existing learning techniques rely on mapping input and output and establishing mathematical relationships between them. Though methods change the paradigm remains the same—the forward hypothesis machine paradigm, which tries to minimize uncertainty. The RHM, on the other hand, makes use of uncertainty for creative learning. The approach uses limited data to help identify new and surprising solutions. It focuses on improving learnability, unlike traditional approaches, which focus on accuracy. The book is useful as a reference book for machine learning researchers and professionals as ...

  13. The Effectiveness of the Comprehension Hypothesis: A Review on the Current Research on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition (United States)

    Ponniah, Joseph


    The Comprehension Hypothesis (CH) is the most powerful hypothesis in the field of Second Language Acquisition despite the presence of the rivals the skill-building hypothesis, the output hypothesis, and the interaction hypothesis. The competing hypotheses state that consciously learned linguistic knowledge is a necessary step for the development…

  14. From heresy to dogma in accounts of opposition to Howard Temin's DNA provirus hypothesis. (United States)

    Marcum, James A


    In 1964 the Wisconsin virologist Howard Temin proposed the DNA provirus hypothesis to explain the mechanism by which a cancer-producing virus containing only RNA infects and transforms cells. His hypothesis reversed the flow of genetic information, as ordained by the central dogma of molecular biology. Although there was initial opposition to his hypothesis it was widely accepted, after the discovery of reverse transcriptase in 1970. Most accounts of Temin's hypothesis after the discovery portray the hypothesis as heretical, because it challenged the central dogma. Temin himself in his Nobel Prize speech of 1975 narrates a similar story about its reception. But are these accounts warranted? I argue that members of the virology community opposed Temin's provirus hypothesis not simply because it was a counterexample to the central dogma, but more importantly because his experimental evidence for supporting it was inconclusive. Furthermore, I propose that these accounts of opposition to the DNA provirus hypothesis as heretical, written by Temin and others after the discovery of reverse transcriptase, played a significant role in establishing retrovirology as a specialized field.

  15. The limits to pride: A test of the pro-anorexia hypothesis. (United States)

    Cornelius, Talea; Blanton, Hart


    Many social psychological models propose that positive self-conceptions promote self-esteem. An extreme version of this hypothesis is advanced in "pro-anorexia" communities: identifying with anorexia, in conjunction with disordered eating, can lead to higher self-esteem. The current study empirically tested this hypothesis. Results challenge the pro-anorexia hypothesis. Although those with higher levels of pro-anorexia identification trended towards higher self-esteem with increased disordered eating, this did not overcome the strong negative main effect of pro-anorexia identification. These data suggest a more effective strategy for promoting self-esteem is to encourage rejection of disordered eating and an anorexic identity.

  16. Evolution of Motor Control: From Reflexes and Motor Programs to the Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis


    Latash, Mark L.


    This brief review analyzes the evolution of motor control theories along two lines that emphasize active (motor programs) and reactive (reflexes) features of voluntary movements. It suggests that the only contemporary hypothesis that integrates both approaches in a fruitful way is the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Physical, physiological, and behavioral foundations of the EP-hypothesis are considered as well as relations between the EP-hypothesis and the recent developments of the notion of m...

  17. Testing hypotheses and the advancement of science: recent attempts to falsify the equilibrium point hypothesis. (United States)

    Feldman, Anatol G; Latash, Mark L


    Criticisms of the equilibrium point (EP) hypothesis have recently appeared that are based on misunderstandings of some of its central notions. Starting from such interpretations of the hypothesis, incorrect predictions are made and tested. When the incorrect predictions prove false, the hypothesis is claimed to be falsified. In particular, the hypothesis has been rejected based on the wrong assumptions that it conflicts with empirically defined joint stiffness values or that it is incompatible with violations of equifinality under certain velocity-dependent perturbations. Typically, such attempts use notions describing the control of movements of artificial systems in place of physiologically relevant ones. While appreciating constructive criticisms of the EP hypothesis, we feel that incorrect interpretations have to be clarified by reiterating what the EP hypothesis does and does not predict. We conclude that the recent claims of falsifying the EP hypothesis and the calls for its replacement by EMG-force control hypothesis are unsubstantiated. The EP hypothesis goes far beyond the EMG-force control view. In particular, the former offers a resolution for the famous posture-movement paradox while the latter fails to resolve it.

  18. Multiple hypothesis clustering in radar plot extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.; Dorp, Ph. van; Ligthart, L.P.


    False plots and plots with inaccurate range and Doppler estimates may severely degrade the performance of tracking algorithms in radar systems. This paper describes how a multiple hypothesis clustering technique can be applied to mitigate the problems involved in plot extraction. The measures of

  19. Unicorns do exist: a tutorial on "proving" the null hypothesis. (United States)

    Streiner, David L


    Introductory statistics classes teach us that we can never prove the null hypothesis; all we can do is reject or fail to reject it. However, there are times when it is necessary to try to prove the nonexistence of a difference between groups. This most often happens within the context of comparing a new treatment against an established one and showing that the new intervention is not inferior to the standard. This article first outlines the logic of "noninferiority" testing by differentiating between the null hypothesis (that which we are trying to nullify) and the "nill" hypothesis (there is no difference), reversing the role of the null and alternate hypotheses, and defining an interval within which groups are said to be equivalent. We then work through an example and show how to calculate sample sizes for noninferiority studies.

  20. Testing the Cross-Racial Generality of Spearman's Hypothesis in Two Samples (United States)

    Hartmann, Peter; Kruuse, Nanna Hye Sun; Nyborg, Helmuth


    Spearman's hypothesis states that racial differences in IQ between Blacks (B) and Whites (W) are due primarily to differences in the "g" factor. This hypothesis is often confirmed, but it is less certain whether it generalizes to other races. We therefore tested its cross-racial generality by comparing American subjects of European…

  1. A test of the hypothesis that impact-induced fractures are preferred sites for later tectonic activity (United States)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Duxbury, Elizabeth D.


    Impact cratering has been an important process in the solar system. The cratering event is generally accompanied by faulting in adjacent terrain. Impact-induced faults are nearly ubiquitous over large areas on the terrestrial planets. The suggestion is made that these fault systems, particularly those associated with the largest impact features are preferred sites for later deformation in response to lithospheric stresses generated by other processes. The evidence is a perceived clustering of orientations of tectonic features either radial or concentric to the crater or basin in question. An opportunity exists to test this suggestion more directly on Earth. The terrestrial continents contain more than 100 known or probable impact craters, with associated geological structures mapped to varying levels of detail. Prime facie evidence for reactivation of crater-induced faults would be the occurrence of earthquakes on these faults in response to the intraplate stress field. Either an alignment of epicenters with mapped fault traces or fault plane solutions indicating slip on a plane approximately coincident with that inferred for a crater-induced fault would be sufficient to demonstrate such an association.

  2. Comments on "The "Elevated Heat Pump" Hypothesis for the Aerosol-Monsoon Hydroclimate Link: "Grounded" in Observations?" by S. Nigam and M. Bollasina (United States)

    Lau, K. M.; Kim, K. M.


    In their recent paper Nigam and Bollasina [2010, hereafter NB] claimed to have found observational evidences that are at variance with the Elevated Heat Pump (EHP) hypothesis regarding the possible impacts of absorbing aerosols on the South Asian summer monsoon [Lau et al., 2006; Lau and Km 2006). We found NB's arguments and inferences against the EHP hypothesis flawed, stemming from a lack of understanding and an out-of-context interpretation of the hypothesis. It was argued that the simultaneous negative correlation of aerosol with rainfall, and correlations with other quantities in May as evidences against the EHP hypothesis. They cannot be more wrong in that argument. First, Lau and Kim [2006, hereafter, LKO6] never stated that the main rainfall response to EHP is in May. Second, the EHP is about responses of the entire Indian monsoon system that are non-local in space and time with respect to the aerosol forcing. Third, the correlation maps shown in NB, including the increased convection over the Bay of Bengal is not the response to EHP but rather represents the large-scale circulation that provides the build-up of the aerosols, before the onset of the monsoon rainfall over India. Because aerosol can only accumulate where there is little or no wash-out by rain, the negative correlation is a necessary condition for increased atmospheric loading of aerosols.

  3. Raison d’être of insulin resistance: the adjustable threshold hypothesis


    Wang, Guanyu


    The epidemics of obesity and diabetes demand a deeper understanding of insulin resistance, for which the adjustable threshold hypothesis is formed in this paper. To test the hypothesis, mathematical modelling was used to analyse clinical data and to simulate biological processes at both molecular and organismal levels. I found that insulin resistance roots in the thresholds of the cell's bistable response. By assuming heterogeneity of the thresholds, single cells' all-or-none response can col...

  4. Applicability of Taylor's hypothesis in thermally driven turbulence (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Verma, Mahendra K.


    In this paper, we show that, in the presence of large-scale circulation (LSC), Taylor's hypothesis can be invoked to deduce the energy spectrum in thermal convection using real-space probes, a popular experimental tool. We perform numerical simulation of turbulent convection in a cube and observe that the velocity field follows Kolmogorov's spectrum (k-5/3). We also record the velocity time series using real-space probes near the lateral walls. The corresponding frequency spectrum exhibits Kolmogorov's spectrum (f-5/3), thus validating Taylor's hypothesis with the steady LSC playing the role of a mean velocity field. The aforementioned findings based on real-space probes provide valuable inputs for experimental measurements used for studying the spectrum of convective turbulence.

  5. Hypothesis-driven physical examination curriculum. (United States)

    Allen, Sharon; Olson, Andrew; Menk, Jeremiah; Nixon, James


    Medical students traditionally learn physical examination skills as a rote list of manoeuvres. Alternatives like hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE) may promote students' understanding of the contribution of physical examination to diagnostic reasoning. We sought to determine whether first-year medical students can effectively learn to perform a physical examination using an HDPE approach, and then tailor the examination to specific clinical scenarios. Medical students traditionally learn physical examination skills as a rote list of manoeuvres CONTEXT: First-year medical students at the University of Minnesota were taught both traditional and HDPE approaches during a required 17-week clinical skills course in their first semester. The end-of-course evaluation assessed HDPE skills: students were assigned one of two cardiopulmonary cases. Each case included two diagnostic hypotheses. During an interaction with a standardised patient, students were asked to select physical examination manoeuvres in order to make a final diagnosis. Items were weighted and selection order was recorded. First-year students with minimal pathophysiology performed well. All students selected the correct diagnosis. Importantly, students varied the order when selecting examination manoeuvres depending on the diagnoses under consideration, demonstrating early clinical decision-making skills. An early introduction to HDPE may reinforce physical examination skills for hypothesis generation and testing, and can foster early clinical decision-making skills. This has important implications for further research in physical examination instruction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  6. A default Bayesian hypothesis test for mediation. (United States)

    Nuijten, Michèle B; Wetzels, Ruud; Matzke, Dora; Dolan, Conor V; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan


    In order to quantify the relationship between multiple variables, researchers often carry out a mediation analysis. In such an analysis, a mediator (e.g., knowledge of a healthy diet) transmits the effect from an independent variable (e.g., classroom instruction on a healthy diet) to a dependent variable (e.g., consumption of fruits and vegetables). Almost all mediation analyses in psychology use frequentist estimation and hypothesis-testing techniques. A recent exception is Yuan and MacKinnon (Psychological Methods, 14, 301-322, 2009), who outlined a Bayesian parameter estimation procedure for mediation analysis. Here we complete the Bayesian alternative to frequentist mediation analysis by specifying a default Bayesian hypothesis test based on the Jeffreys-Zellner-Siow approach. We further extend this default Bayesian test by allowing a comparison to directional or one-sided alternatives, using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques implemented in JAGS. All Bayesian tests are implemented in the R package BayesMed (Nuijten, Wetzels, Matzke, Dolan, & Wagenmakers, 2014).

  7. Thermalization without eigenstate thermalization hypothesis after a quantum quench. (United States)

    Mori, Takashi; Shiraishi, Naoto


    Nonequilibrium dynamics of a nonintegrable system without the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis is studied. It is shown that, in the thermodynamic limit, this model thermalizes after an arbitrary quantum quench at finite temperature, although it does not satisfy the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis. In contrast, when the system size is finite and the temperature is low enough, the system may not thermalize. In this case, the steady state is well described by the generalized Gibbs ensemble constructed by using highly nonlocal conserved quantities. We also show that this model exhibits prethermalization, in which the prethermalized state is characterized by nonthermal energy eigenstates.

  8. Eat dirt and avoid atopy: the hygiene hypothesis revisited. (United States)

    Patki, Anil


    The explosive rise in the incidence of atopic diseases in the Western developed countries can be explained on the basis of the so-called "hygiene hypothesis". In short, it attributes the rising incidence of atopic dermatitis to reduced exposure to various childhood infections and bacterial endotoxins. Reduced exposure to dirt in the clean environment results in a skewed development of the immune system which results in an abnormal allergic response to various environmental allergens which are otherwise innocuous. This article reviews the historical aspects, epidemiological and immunological basis of the hygiene hypothesis and implications for Indian conditions.

  9. Early Microbes Modify Immune System Development and Metabolic Homeostasis-The "Restaurant" Hypothesis Revisited. (United States)

    Nash, Michael J; Frank, Daniel N; Friedman, Jacob E


    The developing infant gut microbiome affects metabolism, maturation of the gastrointestinal tract, immune system function, and brain development. Initial seeding of the neonatal microbiota occurs through maternal and environmental contact. Maternal diet, antibiotic use, and cesarean section alter the offspring microbiota composition, at least temporarily. Nutrients are thought to regulate initial perinatal microbial colonization, a paradigm known as the "Restaurant" hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that early nutritional stresses alter both the initial colonizing bacteria and the development of signaling pathways controlled by microbial mediators. These stresses fine-tune the immune system and metabolic homeostasis in early life, potentially setting the stage for long-term metabolic and immune health. Dysbiosis, an imbalance or a maladaptation in the microbiota, can be caused by several factors including dietary alterations and antibiotics. Dysbiosis can alter biological processes in the gut and in tissues and organs throughout the body. Misregulated development and activity of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, driven by early dysbiosis, could have long-lasting pathologic consequences such as increased autoimmunity, increased adiposity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This review will focus on factors during pregnancy and the neonatal period that impact a neonate's gut microbiome, as well as the mechanisms and possible links from early infancy that can drive increased risk for diseases including obesity and NAFLD. The complex pathways that connect diet, the microbiota, immune system development, and metabolism, particularly in early life, present exciting new frontiers for biomedical research.

  10. Sexual selection on land snail shell ornamentation: a hypothesis that may explain shell diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilthuizen Menno


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many groups of land snails show great interspecific diversity in shell ornamentation, which may include spines on the shell and flanges on the aperture. Such structures have been explained as camouflage or defence, but the possibility that they might be under sexual selection has not previously been explored. Presentation of the hypothesis The hypothesis that is presented consists of two parts. First, that shell ornamentation is the result of sexual selection. Second, that such sexual selection has caused the divergence in shell shape in different species. Testing the hypothesis The first part of the hypothesis may be tested by searching for sexual dimorphism in shell ornamentation in gonochoristic snails, by searching for increased variance in shell ornamentation relative to other shell traits, and by mate choice experiments using individuals with experimentally enhanced ornamentation. The second part of the hypothesis may be tested by comparing sister groups and correlating shell diversity with degree of polygamy. Implications of the hypothesis If the hypothesis were true, it would provide an explanation for the many cases of allopatric evolutionary radiation in snails, where shell diversity cannot be related to any niche differentiation or environmental differences.

  11. Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: the cultural intelligence hypothesis. (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Call, Josep; Hernàndez-Lloreda, Maráa Victoria; Hare, Brian; Tomasello, Michael


    Humans have many cognitive skills not possessed by their nearest primate relatives. The cultural intelligence hypothesis argues that this is mainly due to a species-specific set of social-cognitive skills, emerging early in ontogeny, for participating and exchanging knowledge in cultural groups. We tested this hypothesis by giving a comprehensive battery of cognitive tests to large numbers of two of humans' closest primate relatives, chimpanzees and orangutans, as well as to 2.5-year-old human children before literacy and schooling. Supporting the cultural intelligence hypothesis and contradicting the hypothesis that humans simply have more "general intelligence," we found that the children and chimpanzees had very similar cognitive skills for dealing with the physical world but that the children had more sophisticated cognitive skills than either of the ape species for dealing with the social world.

  12. Early life exposure to antibiotics and the risk of childhood allergic diseases: an update from the perspective of the hygiene hypothesis. (United States)

    Kuo, Chang-Hung; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Huang, Ching-Hua; Yang, San-Nan; Lee, Min-Sheng; Hung, Chih-Hsing


    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been growing rapidly in industrial countries during recent decades. It is postulated that growing up with less microbial exposure may render the immune system susceptible to a T helper type 2 (Th2)-predominant allergic response-also known as the hygiene hypothesis. This review delineates recent epidemiological and experimental evidence for the hygiene hypothesis, and integrates this hypothesis into the association between early life exposure to antibiotics and the development of allergic diseases and asthma. Several retrospective or prospective epidemiological studies reveal that early exposure to antibiotics may be positively associated with the development of allergic diseases and asthma. However, the conclusion is inconsistent. Experimental studies show that antibiotics may induce the Th2-skewed response by suppressing the T helper type 1 (Th1) response through inhibition of Th1 cytokines and disruption of the natural course of infection, or by disturbing the microflora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and therefore jeopardizing the establishment of oral tolerance and regulatory T cell immune responses. The hygiene hypothesis may not be the only explanation for the rapid increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases and asthma. Further epidemiological and experimental studies addressing the issue of the impact of environmental factors on the development of allergic diseases and the underlying mechanisms may unveil novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases in the future. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. In silico model-based inference: a contemporary approach for hypothesis testing in network biology. (United States)

    Klinke, David J


    Inductive inference plays a central role in the study of biological systems where one aims to increase their understanding of the system by reasoning backwards from uncertain observations to identify causal relationships among components of the system. These causal relationships are postulated from prior knowledge as a hypothesis or simply a model. Experiments are designed to test the model. Inferential statistics are used to establish a level of confidence in how well our postulated model explains the acquired data. This iterative process, commonly referred to as the scientific method, either improves our confidence in a model or suggests that we revisit our prior knowledge to develop a new model. Advances in technology impact how we use prior knowledge and data to formulate models of biological networks and how we observe cellular behavior. However, the approach for model-based inference has remained largely unchanged since Fisher, Neyman and Pearson developed the ideas in the early 1900s that gave rise to what is now known as classical statistical hypothesis (model) testing. Here, I will summarize conventional methods for model-based inference and suggest a contemporary approach to aid in our quest to discover how cells dynamically interpret and transmit information for therapeutic aims that integrates ideas drawn from high performance computing, Bayesian statistics, and chemical kinetics. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Different meaning of the p-value in exploratory and confirmatory hypothesis testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Vach, Werner


    The outcome of clinical studies is often reduced to the statistical significance of results by indicating a p-value below the 5% significance level. Hypothesis testing and, through that, the p-value is commonly used, but their meaning is frequently misinterpreted in clinical research. The concept...... of hypothesis testing is explained and some pitfalls including those of multiple testing are given. The conceptual difference between exploratory and confirmatory hypothesis testing is discussed, and a better use of p-values, which includes presenting p-values with two or three decimals, is suggested....

  15. The Public Goods Hypothesis for the evolution of life on Earth. (United States)

    McInerney, James O; Pisani, Davide; Bapteste, Eric; O'Connell, Mary J


    It is becoming increasingly difficult to reconcile the observed extent of horizontal gene transfers with the central metaphor of a great tree uniting all evolving entities on the planet. In this manuscript we describe the Public Goods Hypothesis and show that it is appropriate in order to describe biological evolution on the planet. According to this hypothesis, nucleotide sequences (genes, promoters, exons, etc.) are simply seen as goods, passed from organism to organism through both vertical and horizontal transfer. Public goods sequences are defined by having the properties of being largely non-excludable (no organism can be effectively prevented from accessing these sequences) and non-rival (while such a sequence is being used by one organism it is also available for use by another organism). The universal nature of genetic systems ensures that such non-excludable sequences exist and non-excludability explains why we see a myriad of genes in different combinations in sequenced genomes. There are three features of the public goods hypothesis. Firstly, segments of DNA are seen as public goods, available for all organisms to integrate into their genomes. Secondly, we expect the evolution of mechanisms for DNA sharing and of defense mechanisms against DNA intrusion in genomes. Thirdly, we expect that we do not see a global tree-like pattern. Instead, we expect local tree-like patterns to emerge from the combination of a commonage of genes and vertical inheritance of genomes by cell division. Indeed, while genes are theoretically public goods, in reality, some genes are excludable, particularly, though not only, when they have variant genetic codes or behave as coalition or club goods, available for all organisms of a coalition to integrate into their genomes, and non-rival within the club. We view the Tree of Life hypothesis as a regionalized instance of the Public Goods hypothesis, just like classical mechanics and euclidean geometry are seen as regionalized

  16. The public goods hypothesis for the evolution of life on Earth

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McInerney, James O


    Abstract It is becoming increasingly difficult to reconcile the observed extent of horizontal gene transfers with the central metaphor of a great tree uniting all evolving entities on the planet. In this manuscript we describe the Public Goods Hypothesis and show that it is appropriate in order to describe biological evolution on the planet. According to this hypothesis, nucleotide sequences (genes, promoters, exons, etc.) are simply seen as goods, passed from organism to organism through both vertical and horizontal transfer. Public goods sequences are defined by having the properties of being largely non-excludable (no organism can be effectively prevented from accessing these sequences) and non-rival (while such a sequence is being used by one organism it is also available for use by another organism). The universal nature of genetic systems ensures that such non-excludable sequences exist and non-excludability explains why we see a myriad of genes in different combinations in sequenced genomes. There are three features of the public goods hypothesis. Firstly, segments of DNA are seen as public goods, available for all organisms to integrate into their genomes. Secondly, we expect the evolution of mechanisms for DNA sharing and of defense mechanisms against DNA intrusion in genomes. Thirdly, we expect that we do not see a global tree-like pattern. Instead, we expect local tree-like patterns to emerge from the combination of a commonage of genes and vertical inheritance of genomes by cell division. Indeed, while genes are theoretically public goods, in reality, some genes are excludable, particularly, though not only, when they have variant genetic codes or behave as coalition or club goods, available for all organisms of a coalition to integrate into their genomes, and non-rival within the club. We view the Tree of Life hypothesis as a regionalized instance of the Public Goods hypothesis, just like classical mechanics and euclidean geometry are seen as

  17. A Developmental Study of the Infrahumanization Hypothesis (United States)

    Martin, John; Bennett, Mark; Murray, Wayne S.


    Intergroup attitudes in children were examined based on Leyen's "infrahumanization hypothesis". This suggests that some uniquely human emotions, such as shame and guilt (secondary emotions), are reserved for the in-group, whilst other emotions that are not uniquely human and shared with animals, such as anger and pleasure (primary…

  18. Empathy and universal values explicated by the empathy-altruism hypothesis. (United States)

    Persson, Björn N; Kajonius, Petri J


    Research reports that empathy is on the decline in present-day society, together with an increasing trend in self-enhancing values. Based on the empathy-altruism hypothesis, we investigated whether these constructs are interlinked by analyzing the relationships between emotional and cognitive empathy and 10 universal values. In the first study, using a middle-aged U.S. sample, the results showed that empathy was strongly and positively related to altruistic values and negatively to self-enhancing values in a pattern that aligned with the empathy-altruism hypothesis. In a second confirmation study, these findings were replicated and extended, while also controlling for the Big Five personality traits, to discount that empathy is only captured by basic personality. Only emotional empathy, not cognitive empathy, accounted for up to 18% additional variance in altruistic values, which further confirmed the emphasis on feelings, as postulated by the empathy-altruism hypothesis.

  19. Perceived message sensation value and psychological reactance: a test of the dominant thought disruption hypothesis. (United States)

    Quick, Brian L


    The present study tests to see whether perceived message sensation value reduces psychological reactance within the context of anti-marijuana ads for television. After controlling for sensation seeking, biological sex, and marijuana use, the results indicate that message novelty is negatively associated with a freedom threat, whereas dramatic impact and emotional arousal were not associated with the antecedent to reactance. Results support the use of novel messages in future ads while at the same time offer an explanation to the challenges involved in creating effective anti-marijuana ads. Overall, the results provide partial support for the dominant thought disruption hypothesis and are discussed with an emphasis on the theoretical and practical implications for health communication researchers and practitioners.

  20. Deep mantle roots and continental hypsometry: implications for whole-Earth elemental cycling, long-term climate, and the Cambrian explosion (United States)

    Lee, C. T.


    Cambrian explosion, the largest biological diversification event in Earth's history.

  1. The Double-Deficit Hypothesis in Spanish Developmental Dyslexia (United States)

    Jimenez, Juan E.; Hernandez-Valle, Isabel; Rodriguez, Cristina; Guzman, Remedios; Diaz, Alicia; Ortiz, Rosario


    The double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) of developmental dyslexia was investigated in seven to twelve year old Spanish children. It was observed that the double deficit (DD) group had the greatest difficulty with reading.

  2. Hypothesis Testing as an Act of Rationality (United States)

    Nearing, Grey


    Statistical hypothesis testing is ad hoc in two ways. First, setting probabilistic rejection criteria is, as Neyman (1957) put it, an act of will rather than an act of rationality. Second, physical theories like conservation laws do not inherently admit probabilistic predictions, and so we must use what are called epistemic bridge principles to connect model predictions with the actual methods of hypothesis testing. In practice, these bridge principles are likelihood functions, error functions, or performance metrics. I propose that the reason we are faced with these problems is because we have historically failed to account for a fundamental component of basic logic - namely the portion of logic that explains how epistemic states evolve in the presence of empirical data. This component of Cox' (1946) calculitic logic is called information theory (Knuth, 2005), and adding information theory our hypothetico-deductive account of science yields straightforward solutions to both of the above problems. This also yields a straightforward method for dealing with Popper's (1963) problem of verisimilitude by facilitating a quantitative approach to measuring process isomorphism. In practice, this involves data assimilation. Finally, information theory allows us to reliably bound measures of epistemic uncertainty, thereby avoiding the problem of Bayesian incoherency under misspecified priors (Grünwald, 2006). I therefore propose solutions to four of the fundamental problems inherent in both hypothetico-deductive and/or Bayesian hypothesis testing. - Neyman (1957) Inductive Behavior as a Basic Concept of Philosophy of Science. - Cox (1946) Probability, Frequency and Reasonable Expectation. - Knuth (2005) Lattice Duality: The Origin of Probability and Entropy. - Grünwald (2006). Bayesian Inconsistency under Misspecification. - Popper (1963) Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge.

  3. The Variability Hypothesis: The History of a Biological Model of Sex Differences in Intelligence. (United States)

    Shields, Stephanie A.


    Describes the origin and development of the variability hypothesis as applied to the study of social and psychological sex differences. Explores changes in the hypothesis over time, social and scientific factors that fostered its acceptance, and possible parallels between the variability hypothesis and contemporary theories of sex differences.…

  4. Studying Basin Water Balance Variations at Inter- and Intra-annual Time Scales Based On the Budyko Hypothesis and GRACE Gravimetry Satellite Observations (United States)

    Shen, H.


    Increasing intensity in global warming and anthropogenic activities has triggered significant changes over regional climates and landscapes, which, in turn, drive the basin water cycle and hydrological balance into a complex and unstable state. Budyko hypothesis is a powerful tool to characterize basin water balance and hydrological variations at long-term average scale. However, due to the absence of basin water storage change, applications of Budyko theory to the inter-annual and intra-annual time scales has been prohibited. The launch of GRACE gavimetry satellites provides a great opportunity to quantify terrestrial water storage change, which can be further introduced into the Budyko hypothesis to reveal the inter- and intra-annual response of basin water components under impacts of climate variability and/or human activities. This research targeted Hai River Basin (in China) and Murray-Darling Basin (in Australia), which have been identified with a continuous groundwater depletion trend as well as impacts by extreme climates in the past decade. This can help us to explore how annual or seasonal precipitation were redistributed to evapotranspiration and runoff via changing basin water storage. Moreover, the impacts of vegetation on annual basin water balance will be re-examined. Our results are expected to provide deep insights about the water cycle and hydrological behaviors for the targeted basins, as well as a proof for a consideration of basin water storage change into the Budyko model at inter- or intra-annual time steps.

  5. The Bio-Inspired Optimization of Trading Strategies and Its Impact on the Efficient Market Hypothesis and Sustainable Development Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Dreżewski


    Full Text Available In this paper, the evolutionary algorithm for the optimization of Forex market trading strategies is proposed. The introduction to issues related to the financial markets and the evolutionary algorithms precedes the main part of the paper, in which the proposed trading system is presented. The system uses the evolutionary algorithm for optimization of a parameterized greedy strategy, which is then used as an investment strategy on the Forex market. In the proposed system, a model of the Forex market was developed, including all elements that are necessary for simulating realistic trading processes. The proposed evolutionary algorithm contains several novel mechanisms that were introduced to optimize the greedy strategy. The most important of the proposed techniques are the mechanisms for maintaining the population diversity, a mechanism for protecting the best individuals in the population, the mechanisms preventing the excessive growth of the population, the mechanisms of the initialization of the population after moving the time window and a mechanism of choosing the best strategies used for trading. The experiments, conducted with the use of real-world Forex market data, were aimed at testing the quality of the results obtained using the proposed algorithm and comparing them with the results obtained by the buy-and-hold strategy. By comparing our results with the results of the buy-and-hold strategy, we attempted to verify the validity of the efficient market hypothesis. The credibility of the hypothesis would have more general implications for many different areas of our lives, including future sustainable development policies.

  6. Cross-system log file analysis for hypothesis testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian


    Glahn, C. (2008). Cross-system log file analysis for hypothesis testing. Presented at Empowering Learners for Lifelong Competence Development: pedagogical, organisational and technological issues. 4th TENCompetence Open Workshop. April, 10, 2008, Madrid, Spain.

  7. A Bayesian Decision-Theoretic Approach to Logically-Consistent Hypothesis Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Miranda da Silva


    Full Text Available This work addresses an important issue regarding the performance of simultaneous test procedures: the construction of multiple tests that at the same time are optimal from a statistical perspective and that also yield logically-consistent results that are easy to communicate to practitioners of statistical methods. For instance, if hypothesis A implies hypothesis B, is it possible to create optimal testing procedures that reject A whenever they reject B? Unfortunately, several standard testing procedures fail in having such logical consistency. Although this has been deeply investigated under a frequentist perspective, the literature lacks analyses under a Bayesian paradigm. In this work, we contribute to the discussion by investigating three rational relationships under a Bayesian decision-theoretic standpoint: coherence, invertibility and union consonance. We characterize and illustrate through simple examples optimal Bayes tests that fulfill each of these requisites separately. We also explore how far one can go by putting these requirements together. We show that although fairly intuitive tests satisfy both coherence and invertibility, no Bayesian testing scheme meets the desiderata as a whole, strengthening the understanding that logical consistency cannot be combined with statistical optimality in general. Finally, we associate Bayesian hypothesis testing with Bayes point estimation procedures. We prove the performance of logically-consistent hypothesis testing by means of a Bayes point estimator to be optimal only under very restrictive conditions.

  8. The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia implicates glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Hansen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Klaus D


    expression studies have indicated an equally large set of candidate genes that only partially overlap linkage genes. A thorough assessment, beyond the resolution of current GWA studies, of the disease risk conferred by the numerous schizophrenia candidate genes is a daunting and presently not feasible task....... We undertook these challenges by using an established clinical paradigm, the estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia, as the criterion to select candidates among the numerous genes experimentally implicated in schizophrenia. Bioinformatic tools were used to build and priorities the signaling networks...... implicated by the candidate genes resulting from the estrogen selection. We identified ten candidate genes using this approach that are all active in glucose metabolism and particularly in the glycolysis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that variants of the glycolytic genes are associated with schizophrenia...

  9. The Chinese-born immigrant infant feeding and growth hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy A. Bolton


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid growth in the first six months of life is a well-established risk factor for childhood obesity, and child feeding practices (supplementation or substitution of breast milk with formula and early introduction of solids have been reported to predict this. The third largest immigrant group in Australia originate from China. Case-studies reported from Victorian Maternal and Child Health nurses suggest that rapid growth trajectories in the infants of Chinese parents is common place. Furthermore, these nurses report that high value is placed by this client group on rapid growth and a fatter child; that rates of breastfeeding are low and overfeeding of infant formula is high. There are currently no studies which describe infant growth or its correlates among this immigrant group. Presentation of hypothesis We postulate that in Australia, Chinese-born immigrant mothers will have different infant feeding practices compared to non-immigrant mothers and this will result in different growth trajectories and risk of overweight. We present the Chinese-born immigrant infant feeding and growth hypothesis - that less breastfeeding, high formula feeding and early introduction of solids in infants of Chinese-born immigrant mothers living in Australia will result in a high protein intake and subsequent rapid growth trajectory and increased risk of overweight and obesity. Testing the hypothesis Three related studies will be conducted to investigate the hypothesis. These will include two quantitative studies (one cross-sectional, one longitudinal and a qualitative study. The quantitative studies will investigate differences in feeding practices in Chinese-born immigrant compared to non-immigrant mothers and infants; and the growth trajectories over the first 3.5 years of life. The qualitative study will provide more in-depth understanding of the influencing factors on feeding practices in Chinese-born immigrant mothers. Implications of the

  10. A checklist to facilitate objective hypothesis testing in social psychology research. (United States)

    Washburn, Anthony N; Morgan, G Scott; Skitka, Linda J


    Social psychology is not a very politically diverse area of inquiry, something that could negatively affect the objectivity of social psychological theory and research, as Duarte et al. argue in the target article. This commentary offers a number of checks to help researchers uncover possible biases and identify when they are engaging in hypothesis confirmation and advocacy instead of hypothesis testing.

  11. Discovery of the truth against credo. Greenhouse hypothesis cannot escape falsification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roersch, A.; Thoenes, D.; Labohm, H.


    In this issue of Spil (pp 30-33) Vellinga, van Dorland and Kabat respond to the criticism on prevailing climate research expressed in this magazine. The authors of this article are the main addressees, but they feel that their statements are not effectively contradicted. In his critical comments, Vellinga focuses once more on the AGW hypothesis (anthropogenic global warming), the human greenhouse gas hypothesis. This theory explains current climate changes as results of AGW. The announcement of this hypothesis has held the characteristics of credo for a long time already, being propagated with a small catechism of questions and answers. The questions that are used as starting point are selected based on the desirability of their answers according to the authors of this article. [mk] [nl

  12. Test of the Brink-Axel Hypothesis for the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (United States)

    Martin, D.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Tamii, A.; Aoi, N.; Bassauer, S.; Bertulani, C. A.; Carter, J.; Donaldson, L.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Ito, T.; Krugmann, A.; Liu, B.; Maeda, Y.; Miki, K.; Neveling, R.; Pietralla, N.; Poltoratska, I.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Shima, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Zweidinger, M.


    The gamma strength function and level density of 1- states in 96Mo have been extracted from a high-resolution study of the (p → , p→ ' ) reaction at 295 MeV and extreme forward angles. By comparison with compound nucleus γ decay experiments, this allows a test of the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance. The Brink-Axel hypothesis is commonly assumed in astrophysical reaction network calculations and states that the gamma strength function in nuclei is independent of the structure of the initial and final state. The present results validate the Brink-Axel hypothesis for 96Mo and provide independent confirmation of the methods used to separate gamma strength function and level density in γ decay experiments.

  13. Tunguska, 1908: the gas pouch and soil fluidization hypothesis (United States)

    Nistor, I.


    The Siberian taiga explosion of 30 June 1908 remains one of the great mysteries of the 20th century: millions of trees put down over an area of 2200 km2 without trace of a crater or meteorite fragments. Hundred years of failed searches have followed, resulting in as many flawed hypothesis which could not offer satisfactory explanations: meteorite, comet, UFO, etc. In the author's opinion, the cause is that the energy the explorers looked for was simply not there! The author's hypothesis is that a meteoroid encountered a gas pouch in the atmosphere, producing a devastating explosion, its effects being amplified by soil fluidization.

  14. The cosmic censorship hypothesis and the positive energy conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, P.S.; Wald, R.W.


    The position so far is summarized. Penrose derived an inequality; if a data set was found to violate this then the assumptions deriving the inequality must be false. In this case it could show a counter example to the cosmic censorship hypothesis. The authors have shown elsewhere that a positive energy argument of Geroch can be modified to rule out a violation of Penrose's inequality with any time-symmetric initial data set whose apparent horizon consists of a single component. This increases confidence in the hypothesis and also indicates there may be a close relationship between this conjecture and the positive energy conjecture. (UK)

  15. Nodding syndrome—a new hypothesis and new direction for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colebunders


    Full Text Available Nodding syndrome (NS is an unexplained neurological illness that mainly affects children aged between 5 and 15 years. NS has so far been reported from South Sudan, northern Uganda, and Tanzania, but in spite of extensive investigations, the aetiology remains unknown. We hypothesize that blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae infected with Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae may also transmit another pathogen. This may be a novel neurotropic virus or an endosymbiont of the microfilariae, which causes not only NS, but also epilepsy without nodding. This hypothesis addresses many of the questions about NS that researchers have previously been unable to answer. An argument in favour of the hypothesis is the fact that in Uganda, the number of new NS cases decreased (with no new cases reported since 2013 after ivermectin coverage was increased and with the implementation of a programme of aerial spraying and larviciding of the large rivers where blackflies were breeding. If confirmed, our hypothesis will enable new strategies to control NS outbreaks.

  16. The "Discouraged-Business-Major" Hypothesis: Policy Implications (United States)

    Marangos, John


    This paper uses a relatively large dataset of the stated academic major preferences of economics majors at a relatively large, not highly selective, public university in the USA to identify the "discouraged-business-majors" (DBMs). The DBM hypothesis addresses the phenomenon where students who are screened out of the business curriculum often…

  17. Giant Panda Maternal Care: A Test of the Experience Constraint Hypothesis (United States)

    Snyder, Rebecca J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Zhang, Zhihe; Maple, Terry L.; Charlton, Benjamin D.


    The body condition constraint and the experience condition constraint hypotheses have both been proposed to account for differences in reproductive success between multiparous (experienced) and primiparous (first-time) mothers. However, because primiparous mothers are typically characterized by both inferior body condition and lack of experience when compared to multiparous mothers, interpreting experience related differences in maternal care as support for either the body condition constraint hypothesis or the experience constraint hypothesis is extremely difficult. Here, we examined maternal behaviour in captive giant pandas, allowing us to simultaneously control for body condition and provide a rigorous test of the experience constraint hypothesis in this endangered animal. We found that multiparous mothers spent more time engaged in key maternal behaviours (nursing, grooming, and holding cubs) and had significantly less vocal cubs than primiparous mothers. This study provides the first evidence supporting the experience constraint hypothesis in the order Carnivora, and may have utility for captive breeding programs in which it is important to monitor the welfare of this species’ highly altricial cubs, whose survival is almost entirely dependent on receiving adequate maternal care during the first few weeks of life. PMID:27272352

  18. Quantifying the impact of model inaccuracy in climate change impact assessment studies using an agro-hydrological model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogers, P.; Loon, van A.F.; Immerzeel, W.W.


    Numerical simulation models are frequently applied to assess the impact of climate change on hydrology and agriculture. A common hypothesis is that unavoidable model errors are reflected in the reference situation as well as in the climate change situation so that by comparing reference to scenario

  19. Preliminary Assessment McGhee - Tyson ANGB, McGhee - Tyson Municipal Airport, Knoxville, Tennessee (United States)


    shales and siltstones are 700.2000 .0 brown, brownish gray, medium to dark gray. lossililerous. calcareous: limestones are argillaceous to pure , gray...shale. PUMPKIN Shale and siltstone, reddish-brown to qsoyish-red. gteenish~gtary and 100-750 VALLEY SHALE oliv*egray: with thin sandstones. limestones...Rogersville shale Wrt..............Cambrian Rutledge limestone Ipv ..............Cambrian Pumpkin Valley ................... Cambrian Rome Figure 111.2

  20. Box-particle probability hypothesis density filtering


    Schikora, M.; Gning, A.; Mihaylova, L.; Cremers, D.; Koch, W.


    This paper develops a novel approach for multitarget tracking, called box-particle probability hypothesis density filter (box-PHD filter). The approach is able to track multiple targets and estimates the unknown number of targets. Furthermore, it is capable of dealing with three sources of uncertainty: stochastic, set-theoretic, and data association uncertainty. The box-PHD filter reduces the number of particles significantly, which improves the runtime considerably. The small number of box-p...

  1. Otolith shape lends support to the sensory drive hypothesis in rockfishes. (United States)

    Tuset, V M; Otero-Ferrer, J L; Gómez-Zurita, J; Venerus, L A; Stransky, C; Imondi, R; Orlov, A M; Ye, Z; Santschi, L; Afanasiev, P K; Zhuang, L; Farré, M; Love, M S; Lombarte, A


    The sensory drive hypothesis proposes that environmental factors affect both signalling dynamics and the evolution of signals and receivers. Sound detection and equilibrium in marine fishes are senses dependent on the sagittae otoliths, whose morphological variability appears intrinsically linked to the environment. The aim of this study was to understand if and which environmental factors could be conditioning the evolution of this sensory structure, therefore lending support to the sensory drive hypothesis. Thus, we analysed the otolith shape of 42 rockfish species (Sebastes spp.) to test the potential associations with the phylogeny, biological (age), ecological (feeding habit and depth distribution) and biogeographical factors. The results showed strong differences in the otolith shapes of some species, noticeably influenced by ecological and biogeographical factors. Moreover, otolith shape was clearly conditioned by phylogeny, but with a strong environmental effect, cautioning about the use of this structure for the systematics of rockfishes or other marine fishes. However, our most relevant finding is that the data supported the sensory drive hypothesis as a force promoting the radiation of the genus Sebastes. This hypothesis holds that adaptive divergence in communication has significant influence relative to other life history traits. It has already been established in Sebastes for visual characters and organs; our results showed that it applies to otolith transformations as well (despite the clear influence of feeding and depth), expanding the scope of the hypothesis to other sensory structures. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Impact parameter analysis and soft QCD dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, P.A.S.; Martini, A.F.; Menon, M.J.


    In a recent paper, based on the hypothesis of light-cone dipole representation for gluon Bremsstrahlung, Kopeliovich et al. developed a dynamical model for the elastic hadronic amplitude. The model has been applied to pp and p (bar) p scattering and the effects of unitarity and peripheral interactions have been investigated in the impact parameter representation. In this communication, making use of a model independent extraction of the scattering amplitude in the impact parameter space (early developed), we represent a comparative study between the predictions from the dynamical model and the impact parameter analysis. (author)

  3. Concerns regarding a call for pluralism of information theory and hypothesis testing (United States)

    Lukacs, P.M.; Thompson, W.L.; Kendall, W.L.; Gould, W.R.; Doherty, P.F.; Burnham, K.P.; Anderson, D.R.


    1. Stephens et al . (2005) argue for `pluralism? in statistical analysis, combining null hypothesis testing and information-theoretic (I-T) methods. We show that I-T methods are more informative even in single variable problems and we provide an ecological example. 2. I-T methods allow inferences to be made from multiple models simultaneously. We believe multimodel inference is the future of data analysis, which cannot be achieved with null hypothesis-testing approaches. 3. We argue for a stronger emphasis on critical thinking in science in general and less reliance on exploratory data analysis and data dredging. Deriving alternative hypotheses is central to science; deriving a single interesting science hypothesis and then comparing it to a default null hypothesis (e.g. `no difference?) is not an efficient strategy for gaining knowledge. We think this single-hypothesis strategy has been relied upon too often in the past. 4. We clarify misconceptions presented by Stephens et al . (2005). 5. We think inference should be made about models, directly linked to scientific hypotheses, and their parameters conditioned on data, Prob(Hj| data). I-T methods provide a basis for this inference. Null hypothesis testing merely provides a probability statement about the data conditioned on a null model, Prob(data |H0). 6. Synthesis and applications. I-T methods provide a more informative approach to inference. I-T methods provide a direct measure of evidence for or against hypotheses and a means to consider simultaneously multiple hypotheses as a basis for rigorous inference. Progress in our science can be accelerated if modern methods can be used intelligently; this includes various I-T and Bayesian methods.

  4. Autosomal STRs provide genetic evidence for the hypothesis that Tai people originate from southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    Full Text Available Tai people are widely distributed in Thailand, Laos and southwestern China and are a large population of Southeast Asia. Although most anthropologists and historians agree that modern Tai people are from southwestern China and northern Thailand, the place from which they historically migrated remains controversial. Three popular hypotheses have been proposed: northern origin hypothesis, southern origin hypothesis or an indigenous origin. We compared the genetic relationships between the Tai in China and their "siblings" to test different hypotheses by analyzing 10 autosomal microsatellites. The genetic data of 916 samples from 19 populations were analyzed in this survey. The autosomal STR data from 15 of the 19 populations came from our previous study (Lin et al., 2010. 194 samples from four additional populations were genotyped in this study: Han (Yunnan, Dai (Dehong, Dai (Yuxi and Mongolian. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses and admixture analyses all indicate that populations from northern origin hypothesis have large genetic distances and are clearly differentiated from the Tai. The simulation-based ABC analysis also indicates this. The posterior probability of the northern origin hypothesis is just 0.04 [95%CI: (0.01-0.06]. Conversely, genetic relationships were very close between the Tai and populations from southern origin or an indigenous origin hypothesis. Simulation-based ABC analyses were also used to distinguish the southern origin hypothesis from the indigenous origin hypothesis. The results indicate that the posterior probability of the southern origin hypothesis [0.640, 95%CI: (0.524-0.757] is greater than that of the indigenous origin hypothesis [0.324, 95%CI: (0.211-0.438]. Therefore, we propose that the genetic evidence does not support the hypothesis of northern origin. Our genetic data indicate that the southern origin hypothesis has higher probability than the other two hypotheses

  5. Tests of the planetary hypothesis for PTFO 8-8695b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liang; Winn, Joshua N.; Gillon, Michaël


    The T Tauri star PTFO 8-8695 exhibits periodic fading events that have been interpreted as the transits of a giant planet on a precessing orbit. Here we present three tests of the planet hypothesis. First, we sought evidence for the secular changes in light-curve morphology that are predicted...... planetary orbit. Our spectroscopy also revealed strong, time-variable, high-velocity H{\\alpha} and Ca H & K emission features. All these observations cast doubt on the planetary hypothesis, and suggest instead that the fading events represent starspots, eclipses by circumstellar dust, or occultations...

  6. [Resonance hypothesis of heart rate variability origin]. (United States)

    Sheĭkh-Zade, Iu R; Mukhambetaliev, G Kh; Cherednik, I L


    A hypothesis is advanced of the heart rate variability being subjected to beat-to-beat regulation of cardiac cycle duration in order to ensure the resonance interaction between respiratory and own fluctuation of the arterial system volume for minimization of power expenses of cardiorespiratory system. Myogenic, parasympathetic and sympathetic machanisms of heart rate variability are described.

  7. In Defense of Chi's Ontological Incompatibility Hypothesis (United States)

    Slotta, James D.


    This article responds to an article by A. Gupta, D. Hammer, and E. F. Redish (2010) that asserts that M. T. H. Chi's (1992, 2005) hypothesis of an "ontological commitment" in conceptual development is fundamentally flawed. In this article, I argue that Chi's theoretical perspective is still very much intact and that the critique offered by Gupta…

  8. The Nebular Hypothesis - A False Paradigm Misleading Scientists (United States)

    Myers, L. S.


    Science has reached a turning point in history after being misled for 250 years by Immanuel Kant's nebular hypothesis, the most fundamental assumption in science. The nebular hypothesis assumes all nine planets were created 4.5 billion years ago (Ga) as molten bodies that cooled with the same size and chemical composition they have today. Reevaluation of the nebular hypothesis proves it has been wrong since its inception. The proof has lain in plain sight for centuries-coal beds that could not have existed at the assumed time of creation because they formed on Earth's surface after creation of the planet when forests and swamps were exposed to solar energy. The coal beds were subsequently buried under overburden accreted in later millennia, steadily increasing Earth's mass and diameter. The coal beds and layers of overburden are proof Earth was not created 4.5 Ga but is growing and expanding by accretion of extraterrestrial mass and core expansion-a process termed "Accreation" (creation by accretion). Each process accelerates over time, but internal expansion exceeds the rate of external accretion. Because the nebular hypothesis is erroneous researchers assumed Earth's diameter never changes, and, faced with the possibility the Earth might be expanding after the Atlantic basin was discovered to be widening, this assumption led to the unworkable concept of subduction to maintain a constant diameter Earth. Subduction will prove to be one of the greatest errors in the history of science. Nullification of the nebular hypothesis also nullifies subduction and rejuvenates Carey's earth expansion theory. Accreation provides Carey's missing energy source and mechanism of expansion. Expansion is proved by morphologic evidence today's continents were once a single planetary landmass on a smaller Earth when today's oceans, covering 70% of the planet, did not exist 200-250 Ma. Despite hundreds of tons of meteorites and dust known to accrete daily, its cumulative effect has been

  9. Semanticized autobiographical memory and the default - executive coupling hypothesis of aging. (United States)

    Spreng, R Nathan; Lockrow, Amber W; DuPre, Elizabeth; Setton, Roni; Spreng, Karen A P; Turner, Gary R


    As we age, the architecture of cognition undergoes a fundamental transition. Fluid intellectual abilities decline while crystalized abilities remain stable or increase. This shift has a profound impact across myriad cognitive and functional domains, yet the neural mechanisms remain under-specified. We have proposed that greater connectivity between the default network and executive control regions in lateral prefrontal cortex may underlie this shift, as older adults increasingly rely upon accumulated knowledge to support goal-directed behavior. Here we provide direct evidence for this mechanism within the domain of autobiographical memory. In a large sample of healthy adult participants (n = 103 Young; n = 80 Old) the strength of default - executive coupling reliably predicted more semanticized, or knowledge-based, recollection of autobiographical memories in the older adult cohort. The findings are consistent with the default - executive coupling hypothesis of aging and identify this shift in network dynamics as a candidate neural mechanism associated with crystalized cognition in later life that may signal adaptive capacity in the context of declining fluid cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Local hypothesis testing between a pure bipartite state and the white noise state


    Owari, Masaki; Hayashi, Masahito


    In this paper, we treat a local discrimination problem in the framework of asymmetric hypothesis testing. We choose a known bipartite pure state $\\ket{\\Psi}$ as an alternative hypothesis, and the completely mixed state as a null hypothesis. As a result, we analytically derive an optimal type 2 error and an optimal POVM for one-way LOCC POVM and Separable POVM. For two-way LOCC POVM, we study a family of simple three-step LOCC protocols, and show that the best protocol in this family has stric...

  11. A test of the substitution-habitat hypothesis in amphibians. (United States)

    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro; Galán, Pedro


    Most examples that support the substitution-habitat hypothesis (human-made habitats act as substitutes of original habitat) deal with birds and mammals. We tested this hypothesis in 14 amphibians by using percentage occupancy as a proxy of habitat quality (i.e., higher occupancy percentages indicate higher quality). We classified water body types as original habitat (no or little human influence) depending on anatomical, behavioral, or physiological adaptations of each amphibian species. Ten species had relatively high probabilities (0.16-0.28) of occurrence in original habitat, moderate probability of occurrence in substitution habitats (0.11-0.14), and low probability of occurrence in refuge habitats (0.05-0.08). Thus, the substitution-habitat hypothesis only partially applies to amphibians because the low occupancy of refuges could be due to the negligible human persecution of this group (indicating good conservation status). However, low occupancy of refuges could also be due to low tolerance of refuge conditions, which could have led to selective extinction or colonization problems due to poor dispersal capabilities. That original habitats had the highest probabilities of occupancy suggests amphibians have a good conservation status in the region. They also appeared highly adaptable to anthropogenic substitution habitats. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Noachian and more recent phyllosilicates in impact craters on Mars. (United States)

    Fairén, Alberto G; Chevrier, Vincent; Abramov, Oleg; Marzo, Giuseppe A; Gavin, Patricia; Davila, Alfonso F; Tornabene, Livio L; Bishop, Janice L; Roush, Ted L; Gross, Christoph; Kneissl, Thomas; Uceda, Esther R; Dohm, James M; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Rodríguez, J Alexis P; Amils, Ricardo; McKay, Christopher P


    Hundreds of impact craters on Mars contain diverse phyllosilicates, interpreted as excavation products of preexisting subsurface deposits following impact and crater formation. This has been used to argue that the conditions conducive to phyllosilicate synthesis, which require the presence of abundant and long-lasting liquid water, were only met early in the history of the planet, during the Noachian period (> 3.6 Gy ago), and that aqueous environments were widespread then. Here we test this hypothesis by examining the excavation process of hydrated minerals by impact events on Mars and analyzing the stability of phyllosilicates against the impact-induced thermal shock. To do so, we first compare the infrared spectra of thermally altered phyllosilicates with those of hydrated minerals known to occur in craters on Mars and then analyze the postshock temperatures reached during impact crater excavation. Our results show that phyllosilicates can resist the postshock temperatures almost everywhere in the crater, except under particular conditions in a central area in and near the point of impact. We conclude that most phyllosilicates detected inside impact craters on Mars are consistent with excavated preexisting sediments, supporting the hypothesis of a primeval and long-lasting global aqueous environment. When our analyses are applied to specific impact craters on Mars, we are able to identify both pre- and postimpact phyllosilicates, therefore extending the time of local phyllosilicate synthesis to post-Noachian times.

  13. Assessing Environmental Impact on Aquatic Macrophyte Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of environmental variables on distribution and composition of aquatic macrophyte community in a tropical river was assessed for one year (March 2009 to February 2010). Hypothesis tested was that the spatial variation in environmental variables on the river's longitudinal gradient affects macrophyte species ...

  14. Should the Equilibrium Point Hypothesis (EPH) be Considered a Scientific Theory? (United States)

    Sainburg, Robert L


    The purpose of this commentary is to discuss factors that limit consideration of the equilibrium point hypothesis as a scientific theory. The EPH describes control of motor neuron threshold through the variable lambda, which corresponds to a unique referent configuration for a muscle, joint, or combination of joints. One of the most compelling features of the equilibrium point hypothesis is the integration of posture and movement control into a single mechanism. While the essential core of the hypothesis is based upon spinal circuitry interacting with peripheral mechanics, the proponents have extended the theory to include the higher-level processes that generate lambda, and in doing so, imposed an injunction against the supraspinal nervous system modeling, computing, or predicting dynamics. This limitation contradicts evidence that humans take account of body and environmental dynamics in motor selection, motor control, and motor adaptation processes. A number of unresolved limitations to the EPH have been debated in the literature for many years, including whether muscle resistance to displacement, measured during movement, is adequate to support this form of control, violations in equifinality predictions, spinal circuits that alter the proposed invariant characteristic for muscles, and limitations in the description of how the complexity of spinal circuitry might be integrated to yield a unique and stable equilibrium position for a given motor neuron threshold. In addition, an important empirical limitation of EPH is the measurement of the invariant characteristic, which needs to be done under a constant central state. While there is no question that the EPH is an elegant and generative hypothesis for motor control research, the claim that this hypothesis has reached the status of a scientific theory is premature.

  15. The equilibrium point hypothesis and its application to speech motor control. (United States)

    Perrier, P; Ostry, D J; Laboissière, R


    In this paper, we address a number of issues in speech research in the context of the equilibrium point hypothesis of motor control. The hypothesis suggests that movements arise from shifts in the equilibrium position of the limb or the speech articulator. The equilibrium is a consequence of the interaction of central neural commands, reflex mechanisms, muscle properties, and external loads, but it is under the control of central neural commands. These commands act to shift the equilibrium via centrally specified signals acting at the level of the motoneurone (MN) pool. In the context of a model of sagittal plane jaw and hyoid motion based on the lambda version of the equilibrium point hypothesis, we consider the implications of this hypothesis for the notion of articulatory targets. We suggest that simple linear control signals may underlie smooth articulatory trajectories. We explore as well the phenomenon of intraarticulator coarticulation in jaw movement. We suggest that even when no account is taken of upcoming context, that apparent anticipatory changes in movement amplitude and duration may arise due to dynamics. We also present a number of simulations that show in different ways how variability in measured kinematics can arise in spite of constant magnitude speech control signals.

  16. The evolution of bacterial cell size: the internal diffusion-constraint hypothesis. (United States)

    Gallet, Romain; Violle, Cyrille; Fromin, Nathalie; Jabbour-Zahab, Roula; Enquist, Brian J; Lenormand, Thomas


    Size is one of the most important biological traits influencing organismal ecology and evolution. However, we know little about the drivers of body size evolution in unicellulars. A long-term evolution experiment (Lenski's LTEE) in which Escherichia coli adapts to a simple glucose medium has shown that not only the growth rate and the fitness of the bacterium increase over time but also its cell size. This increase in size contradicts prominent 'external diffusion' theory (EDC) predicting that cell size should have evolved toward smaller cells. Among several scenarios, we propose and test an alternative 'internal diffusion-constraint' (IDC) hypothesis for cell size evolution. A change in cell volume affects metabolite concentrations in the cytoplasm. The IDC states that a higher metabolism can be achieved by a reduction in the molecular traffic time inside of the cell, by increasing its volume. To test this hypothesis, we studied a population from the LTEE. We show that bigger cells with greater growth and CO 2 production rates and lower mass-to-volume ratio were selected over time in the LTEE. These results are consistent with the IDC hypothesis. This novel hypothesis offers a promising approach for understanding the evolutionary constraints on cell size.

  17. Early Microbes Modify Immune System Development and Metabolic Homeostasis—The “Restaurant” Hypothesis Revisited (United States)

    Nash, Michael J.; Frank, Daniel N.; Friedman, Jacob E.


    The developing infant gut microbiome affects metabolism, maturation of the gastrointestinal tract, immune system function, and brain development. Initial seeding of the neonatal microbiota occurs through maternal and environmental contact. Maternal diet, antibiotic use, and cesarean section alter the offspring microbiota composition, at least temporarily. Nutrients are thought to regulate initial perinatal microbial colonization, a paradigm known as the “Restaurant” hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that early nutritional stresses alter both the initial colonizing bacteria and the development of signaling pathways controlled by microbial mediators. These stresses fine-tune the immune system and metabolic homeostasis in early life, potentially setting the stage for long-term metabolic and immune health. Dysbiosis, an imbalance or a maladaptation in the microbiota, can be caused by several factors including dietary alterations and antibiotics. Dysbiosis can alter biological processes in the gut and in tissues and organs throughout the body. Misregulated development and activity of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, driven by early dysbiosis, could have long-lasting pathologic consequences such as increased autoimmunity, increased adiposity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This review will focus on factors during pregnancy and the neonatal period that impact a neonate’s gut microbiome, as well as the mechanisms and possible links from early infancy that can drive increased risk for diseases including obesity and NAFLD. The complex pathways that connect diet, the microbiota, immune system development, and metabolism, particularly in early life, present exciting new frontiers for biomedical research. PMID:29326657

  18. Prediction of critical heat flux by a new local condition hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, J. H.; Jun, K. D.; Sim, J. W.; Deng, Zhijian


    Critical Heat Flux(CHF) was predicted for uniformly heated vertical round tube by a new local condition hypothesis which incorporates a local true steam quality. This model successfully overcame the difficulties in predicted the subcooled and quality CHF by the thermodynamic equilibrium quality. The local true steam quality is a dependent variable of the thermodynamic equilibrium quality at the exit and the quality at the Onset of Significant Vaporization(OSV). The exit thermodynamic equilibrium quality was obtained from the heat balance, and the quality at OSV was obtained from the Saha-Zuber correlation. In the past CHF has been predicted by the experimental correlation based on local or non-local condition hypothesis. This preliminary study showed that all the available world data on uniform CHF could be predicted by the model based on the local condition hypothesis

  19. Inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment. (United States)

    Crofton, Elizabeth J; Zhang, Yafang; Green, Thomas A


    One hallmark of psychiatric conditions is the vast continuum of individual differences in susceptibility vs. resilience resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The environmental enrichment paradigm is an animal model that is useful for studying a range of psychiatric conditions, including protective phenotypes in addiction and depression models. The major question is how environmental enrichment, a non-drug and non-surgical manipulation, can produce such robust individual differences in such a wide range of behaviors. This paper draws from a variety of published sources to outline a coherent hypothesis of inoculation stress as a factor producing the protective enrichment phenotypes. The basic tenet suggests that chronic mild stress from living in a complex environment and interacting non-aggressively with conspecifics can inoculate enriched rats against subsequent stressors and/or drugs of abuse. This paper reviews the enrichment phenotypes, mulls the fundamental nature of environmental enrichment vs. isolation, discusses the most appropriate control for environmental enrichment, and challenges the idea that cortisol/corticosterone equals stress. The intent of the inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment is to provide a scaffold with which to build testable hypotheses for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these protective phenotypes and thus provide new therapeutic targets to treat psychiatric/neurological conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gaussian Hypothesis Testing and Quantum Illumination. (United States)

    Wilde, Mark M; Tomamichel, Marco; Lloyd, Seth; Berta, Mario


    Quantum hypothesis testing is one of the most basic tasks in quantum information theory and has fundamental links with quantum communication and estimation theory. In this paper, we establish a formula that characterizes the decay rate of the minimal type-II error probability in a quantum hypothesis test of two Gaussian states given a fixed constraint on the type-I error probability. This formula is a direct function of the mean vectors and covariance matrices of the quantum Gaussian states in question. We give an application to quantum illumination, which is the task of determining whether there is a low-reflectivity object embedded in a target region with a bright thermal-noise bath. For the asymmetric-error setting, we find that a quantum illumination transmitter can achieve an error probability exponent stronger than a coherent-state transmitter of the same mean photon number, and furthermore, that it requires far fewer trials to do so. This occurs when the background thermal noise is either low or bright, which means that a quantum advantage is even easier to witness than in the symmetric-error setting because it occurs for a larger range of parameters. Going forward from here, we expect our formula to have applications in settings well beyond those considered in this paper, especially to quantum communication tasks involving quantum Gaussian channels.

  1. Urbanization and the more-individuals hypothesis. (United States)

    Chiari, Claudia; Dinetti, Marco; Licciardello, Cinzia; Licitra, Gaetano; Pautasso, Marco


    1. Urbanization is a landscape process affecting biodiversity world-wide. Despite many urban-rural studies of bird assemblages, it is still unclear whether more species-rich communities have more individuals, regardless of the level of urbanization. The more-individuals hypothesis assumes that species-rich communities have larger populations, thus reducing the chance of local extinctions. 2. Using newly collated avian distribution data for 1 km(2) grid cells across Florence, Italy, we show a significantly positive relationship between species richness and assemblage abundance for the whole urban area. This richness-abundance relationship persists for the 1 km(2) grid cells with less than 50% of urbanized territory, as well as for the remaining grid cells, with no significant difference in the slope of the relationship. These results support the more-individuals hypothesis as an explanation of patterns in species richness, also in human modified and fragmented habitats. 3. However, the intercept of the species richness-abundance relationship is significantly lower for highly urbanized grid cells. Our study confirms that urban communities have lower species richness but counters the common notion that assemblages in densely urbanized ecosystems have more individuals. In Florence, highly inhabited areas show fewer species and lower assemblage abundance. 4. Urbanized ecosystems are an ongoing large-scale natural experiment which can be used to test ecological theories empirically.

  2. An Efficient Implementation of Track-Oriented Multiple Hypothesis Tracker Using Graphical Model Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Sun


    Full Text Available The multiple hypothesis tracker (MHT is currently the preferred method for addressing data association problem in multitarget tracking (MTT application. MHT seeks the most likely global hypothesis by enumerating all possible associations over time, which is equal to calculating maximum a posteriori (MAP estimate over the report data. Despite being a well-studied method, MHT remains challenging mostly because of the computational complexity of data association. In this paper, we describe an efficient method for solving the data association problem using graphical model approaches. The proposed method uses the graph representation to model the global hypothesis formation and subsequently applies an efficient message passing algorithm to obtain the MAP solution. Specifically, the graph representation of data association problem is formulated as a maximum weight independent set problem (MWISP, which translates the best global hypothesis formation into finding the maximum weight independent set on the graph. Then, a max-product belief propagation (MPBP inference algorithm is applied to seek the most likely global hypotheses with the purpose of avoiding a brute force hypothesis enumeration procedure. The simulation results show that the proposed MPBP-MHT method can achieve better tracking performance than other algorithms in challenging tracking situations.

  3. Using modern human cortical bone distribution to test the systemic robusticity hypothesis. (United States)

    Baab, Karen L; Copes, Lynn E; Ward, Devin L; Wells, Nora; Grine, Frederick E


    The systemic robusticity hypothesis links the thickness of cortical bone in both the cranium and limb bones. This hypothesis posits that thick cortical bone is in part a systemic response to circulating hormones, such as growth hormone and thyroid hormone, possibly related to physical activity or cold climates. Although this hypothesis has gained popular traction, only rarely has robusticity of the cranium and postcranial skeleton been considered jointly. We acquired computed tomographic scans from associated crania, femora and humeri from single individuals representing 11 populations in Africa and North America (n = 228). Cortical thickness in the parietal, frontal and occipital bones and cortical bone area in limb bone diaphyses were analyzed using correlation, multiple regression and general linear models to test the hypothesis. Absolute thickness values from the crania were not correlated with cortical bone area of the femur or humerus, which is at odds with the systemic robusticity hypothesis. However, measures of cortical bone scaled by total vault thickness and limb cross-sectional area were positively correlated between the cranium and postcranium. When accounting for a range of potential confounding variables, including sex, age and body mass, variation in relative postcranial cortical bone area explained ∼20% of variation in the proportion of cortical cranial bone thickness. While these findings provide limited support for the systemic robusticity hypothesis, cranial cortical thickness did not track climate or physical activity across populations. Thus, some of the variation in cranial cortical bone thickness in modern humans is attributable to systemic effects, but the driving force behind this effect remains obscure. Moreover, neither absolute nor proportional measures of cranial cortical bone thickness are positively correlated with total cranial bone thickness, complicating the extrapolation of these findings to extinct species where only cranial

  4. Testing the Münch hypothesis of long distance phloem transport in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoblauch, Michael; Knoblauch, Jan; Mullendore, Daniel L.


    Long distance transport in plants occurs in sieve tubes of the phloem. The pressure flow hypothesis introduced by Ernst Münch in 1930 describes a mechanism of osmotically generated pressure differentials that are supposed to drive the movement of sugars and other solutes in the phloem, but this h......Long distance transport in plants occurs in sieve tubes of the phloem. The pressure flow hypothesis introduced by Ernst Münch in 1930 describes a mechanism of osmotically generated pressure differentials that are supposed to drive the movement of sugars and other solutes in the phloem......, but this hypothesis has long faced major challenges. The key issue is whether the conductance of sieve tubes, including sieve plate pores, is sufficient to allow pressure flow. We show that with increasing distance between source and sink, sieve tube conductivity and turgor increases dramatically in Ipomoea nil. Our...... results provide strong support for the Münch hypothesis, while providing new tools for the investigation of one of the least understood plant tissues....

  5. The Impact of Corruption on GDP Per Capita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar Mustapha


    Full Text Available The paper studies the impact of corruption on the GDP per capita. A panel data covers the period between 2003 and 2011. The objective is to test the hypothesis that there is a strong negative impact of corruption on the GDP per capita. Three tests were conducted, the pool OLS, The Fixed Effect and the Random effect estimations. The main result of this study is that all three tests had shown strong statistically significant negative impact of corruption on the GDP per capita.

  6. [Dr James Lovelock and story about GAIA hypothesis]. (United States)

    Gajić, Vladimir


    Gaia is the Anglo-Saxon term for the Hellenic term Gea or Ge, which means Earth. The GAIA hypothesis was launched almost 40 years ago by the famous chemist James Lovelock, who was engaged by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to create a sensitive instrument for searching forms of extraterrestrial life on other planets. Then he published the book The ages of GAIA, which perturbed the world's scientific public of those days. Lovelock struck upon this idea in the late sixties of the past century, during the space race with Russians, when he was hired hy the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to conduct a series of experiments to find and explore life forms on the planet Mars. Experiments executed by the American module Viking failed to trace any life form, as Lovelock had predicted. He called it a dead equilibrium. Then he turned to Earth, whose perspective is totally different from its first neighbors. Venus and Mars, and is far from a dead equilibrium. DAISYWORLD: In this hypothesis. Lovelock represents Earth as one living, giant super organism, composed of all living creatures and its material environnent. In that super organisnm, the level of oxygen, weather conditions, ocean salinity and so on are under constant influence of physical, chemical and biological processes, which provide the existence for such life forms on Earth. Dr James Lovelock represents a pioneer of climatology, and his hypothesis gives a unique insight into the correlation of dynamic processes on our planet, no matter whether they are of physical or biological nature.

  7. The impact of owner age on companionship with virtual pets


    Lawson, Shaun W.; Chesney, Thomas


    This paper focuses on issues of interaction with a particular type of mobile information system – virtual pets. It examines the impact of owner age on companionship with virtual pets, and tests the hypothesis that younger virtual pet owners will experience closer companionship with their virtual pet than older owners. This is in response to the marketing stance adopted by virtual pet manufacturers who clearly target younger people as the main consumers of their products. The hypothesis was te...

  8. Formation of phreatomagmatic pipes in the Tunguska Basin (Siberia, Russia) during the end-Permian (United States)

    Polozov, Alexander; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre


    We recently proposed that numerous pipes piercing sedimentary rocks of Tunguska Basin triggered the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (Svensen et al., 2009). Large amounts of greenhouse and poisonous gases were released through the pipes and into P-Tr atmosphere, partly formed by heating of petroleum-bearing evaporites. The sub-volcanic part of the Siberian Traps was emplaced in the Tunguska Basin sedimentary sequences, which includes Pre-Cambrian source rocks, Early Cambrian evaporites, and Paleozoic terrigenous and coal-bearing rocks. Spectacular breccia pipes are numerous in the evaporate-parts of the basin, and are filled with volcaniclastic rocks and commercial magnetite mineralization. Although these pipes have been intensively studied in order to understand the iron ore formation, the origin and formation of the pipes is poorly understood. Many researchers emphasize that magma-sediments interaction as a key reason of pipe formation, whereas phreatomagmatic hypothesis are also proposed. In order to improve the understanding of pipe formation and ore-deposition, we have studied a basalt-rich breccia pipe piercing Cambrian evaporates at the Nepa locality in East Siberia. Textural features of the volcanic fragments in the breccias include lapilli, Pele's hear, glassy basalt and dolerite clasts, blocks of tuffs in addition to sedimentary rocks. Calcite and halite are the most common types of cement. We have studied minerals from the breccia cement and from reaction rims around clasts in order to understand the hydrothermal system that developed after the pipe formed. Calcite and dolomite are the dominating carbonates, and two types of anhydrite is present. Biotite, Cl-Fe-bearing amphibole (hastingsite), and Cl-F-apatite are amongst early hydrothermal minerals covering magmatic clast and lapillies. Our new data confirm (i) the phreatomagmatic nature of breccia filling in the Tunguska Basin pipes and (ii) the key role of sedimentary brine and petroleum involved in

  9. Adolescents' Body Image Trajectories: A Further Test of the Self-Equilibrium Hypothesis (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Maïano, Christophe; Scalas, L. Francesca; Janosz, Michel; Litalien, David


    The self-equilibrium hypothesis underlines the importance of having a strong core self, which is defined as a high and developmentally stable self-concept. This study tested this hypothesis in relation to body image (BI) trajectories in a sample of 1,006 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 12.6, including 541 males and 465 females) across a 4-year…

  10. Revisiting Hudson’s (1992) OO = O2 hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibuya, Yoshikata; Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard


    In an important paper on the English “double-object”, or ditransitive, construction, Richard Hudson proposes a hypothesis that conflates the ditransitive direct object, or O2, and the monotransitive direct object, or OO, into the same syntactic functional category. While making important departures...

  11. Neuromuscular deficits after peripheral joint injury: a neurophysiological hypothesis. (United States)

    Ward, Sarah; Pearce, Alan J; Pietrosimone, Brian; Bennell, Kim; Clark, Ross; Bryant, Adam L


    In addition to biomechanical disturbances, peripheral joint injuries (PJIs) can also result in chronic neuromuscular alterations due in part to loss of mechanoreceptor-mediated afferent feedback. An emerging perspective is that PJI should be viewed as a neurophysiological dysfunction, not simply a local injury. Neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have provided some evidence for central nervous system (CNS) reorganization at both the cortical and spinal levels after PJI. The novel hypothesis proposed is that CNS reorganization is the underlying mechanism for persisting neuromuscular deficits after injury, particularly muscle weakness. There is a lack of direct evidence to support this hypothesis, but future studies utilizing force-matching tasks with superimposed transcranial magnetic stimulation may be help clarify this notion. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Is conscious stimulus identification dependent on knowledge of the perceptual modality? Testing the "source misidentification hypothesis"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Lindeløv, Jonas Kristoffer; Svejstrup, Stinna


    This paper reports an experiment intended to test a particular hypothesis derived from blindsight research, which we name the “source misidentification hypothesis.” According to this hypothesis, a subject may be correct about a stimulus without being correct about how she had access...... to this knowledge (whether the stimulus was visual, auditory, or something else). We test this hypothesis in healthy subjects, asking them to report whether a masked stimulus was presented auditorily or visually, what the stimulus was, and how clearly they experienced the stimulus using the Perceptual Awareness...... experience of the stimulus. To demonstrate that particular levels of reporting accuracy are obtained, we employ a statistical strategy, which operationally tests the hypothesis of non-equality, such that the usual rejection of the null-hypothesis admits the conclusion of equivalence....

  13. Proform-Antecedent Linking in Individuals with Agrammatic Aphasia: A Test of the Intervener Hypothesis. (United States)

    Engel, Samantha; Shapiro, Lewis P; Love, Tracy


    To evaluate processing and comprehension of pronouns and reflexives in individuals with agrammatic (Broca's) aphasia and age-matched control participants. Specifically, we evaluate processing and comprehension patterns in terms of a specific hypothesis -- the Intervener Hypothesis - that posits that the difficulty of individuals with agrammatic (Broca's) aphasia results from similarity-based interference caused by the presence of an intervening NP between two elements of a dependency chain. We used an eye tracking-while-listening paradigm to investigate real-time processing (Experiment 1) and a sentence-picture matching task to investigate final interpretive comprehension (Experiment 2) of sentences containing proforms in complement phrase and subject relative constructions. Individuals with agrammatic aphasia demonstrated a greater proportion of gazes to the correct referent of reflexives relative to pronouns and significantly greater comprehension accuracy of reflexives relative to pronouns. These results provide support for the Intervener Hypothesis, previous support for which comes from studies of Wh- questions and unaccusative verbs, and we argue that this account provides an explanation for the deficits of individuals with agrammatic aphasia across a growing set of sentence constructions. The current study extends this hypothesis beyond filler-gap dependencies to referential dependencies and allows us to refine the hypothesis in terms of the structural constraints that meet the description of the Intervener Hypothesis.

  14. Should the Equilibrium Point Hypothesis (EPH) be Considered a Scientific Theory?


    Sainburg, Robert L.


    The purpose of this commentary is to discuss factors that limit consideration of the equilibrium point hypothesis as a scientific theory. The EPH describes control of motor neuron threshold through the variable lambda, which corresponds to a unique referent configuration for a muscle, joint, or combination of joints. One of the most compelling features of the equilibrium point hypothesis is the integration of posture and movement control into a single mechanism. While the essential core of th...

  15. Evidence for gill slits and a pharynx in Cambrian vetulicolians: implications for the early evolution of deuterostomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Qiang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vetulicolians are a group of Cambrian metazoans whose distinctive bodyplan continues to present a major phylogenetic challenge. Thus, we see vetulicolians assigned to groups as disparate as deuterostomes and ecdysozoans. This divergence of opinions revolves around a strikingly arthropod-like body, but one that also bears complex lateral structures on its anterior section interpreted as pharyngeal openings. Establishing the homology of these structures is central to resolving where vetulicolians sit in metazoan phylogeny. Results New material from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte helps to resolve this issue. Here, we demonstrate that these controversial structures comprise grooves with a series of openings. The latter are oval in shape and associated with a complex anatomy consistent with control of their opening and closure. Remains of what we interpret to be a musculature, combined with the capacity for the grooves to contract, indicate vetulicolians possessed a pumping mechanism that could process considerable volumes of seawater. Our observations suggest that food captured in the anterior cavity was transported to dorsal and ventral gutters, which then channeled material to the intestine. This arrangement appears to find no counterpart in any known fossil or extant arthropod (or any other ecdysozoan. Anterior lateral perforations, however, are diagnostic of deuterostomes. Conclusions If the evidence is against vetulicolians belonging to one or other group of ecdysozoan, then two phylogenetic options seem to remain. The first is that such features as vetulicolians possess are indicative of either a position among the bilaterians or deuterostomes but apart from the observation that they themselves form a distinctive and recognizable clade current evidence can permit no greater precision as to their phylogenetic placement. We argue that this is too pessimistic a view, and conclude that evidence points towards vetulicolians being

  16. Contextual effects on the perceived health benefits of exercise: the exercise rank hypothesis. (United States)

    Maltby, John; Wood, Alex M; Vlaev, Ivo; Taylor, Michael J; Brown, Gordon D A


    Many accounts of social influences on exercise participation describe how people compare their behaviors to those of others. We develop and test a novel hypothesis, the exercise rank hypothesis, of how this comparison can occur. The exercise rank hypothesis, derived from evolutionary theory and the decision by sampling model of judgment, suggests that individuals' perceptions of the health benefits of exercise are influenced by how individuals believe the amount of exercise ranks in comparison with other people's amounts of exercise. Study 1 demonstrated that individuals' perceptions of the health benefits of their own current exercise amounts were as predicted by the exercise rank hypothesis. Study 2 demonstrated that the perceptions of the health benefits of an amount of exercise can be manipulated by experimentally changing the ranked position of the amount within a comparison context. The discussion focuses on how social norm-based interventions could benefit from using rank information.

  17. Beyond the hypothesis: Theory's role in the genesis, opposition, and pursuit of the Higgs boson (United States)

    Wells, James D.


    The centrally recognized theoretical achievement that enabled the Higgs boson discovery in 2012 was the hypothesis of its existence, made by Peter Higgs in 1964. Nevertheless, there is a significant body of comparably important theoretical work prior to and after the Higgs boson hypothesis. In this article we present an additional perspective of how crucial theory work was to the genesis of the Higgs boson hypothesis, especially emphasizing its roots in Landau's theory of phase transitions and subsequent theoretical work on superconductivity. A detailed description is then given of the opposition to the Higgs boson hypothesis by many researchers, giving evidence to its speculative nature. And finally, it is discussed the importance of theory work in the decades after the hypothesis in order to make possible the experimental discovery of the Higgs boson.

  18. Trends in hypothesis testing and related variables in nursing research: a retrospective exploratory study. (United States)

    Lash, Ayhan Aytekin; Plonczynski, Donna J; Sehdev, Amikar


    To compare the inclusion and the influences of selected variables on hypothesis testing during the 1980s and 1990s. In spite of the emphasis on conducting inquiry consistent with the tenets of logical positivism, there have been no studies investigating the frequency and patterns of hypothesis testing in nursing research The sample was obtained from the journal Nursing Research which was the research journal with the highest circulation during the study period under study. All quantitative studies published during the two decades including briefs and historical studies were included in the analyses A retrospective design was used to select the sample. Five years from the 1980s and 1990s each were randomly selected from the journal, Nursing Research. Of the 582 studies, 517 met inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that there has been a decline in the use of hypothesis testing in the last decades of the 20th century. Further research is needed to identify the factors that influence the conduction of research with hypothesis testing. Hypothesis testing in nursing research showed a steady decline from the 1980s to 1990s. Research purposes of explanation, and prediction/ control increased the likelihood of hypothesis testing. Hypothesis testing strengthens the quality of the quantitative studies, increases the generality of findings and provides dependable knowledge. This is particularly true for quantitative studies that aim to explore, explain and predict/control phenomena and/or test theories. The findings also have implications for doctoral programmes, research preparation of nurse-investigators, and theory testing.

  19. Carpal tunnel syndrome and the "double crush" hypothesis: a review and implications for chiropractic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Brent S


    Full Text Available Abstract Upton and McComas claimed that most patients with carpal tunnel syndrome not only have compressive lesions at the wrist, but also show evidence of damage to cervical nerve roots. This "double crush" hypothesis has gained some popularity among chiropractors because it seems to provide a rationale for adjusting the cervical spine in treating carpal tunnel syndrome. Here I examine use of the concept by chiropractors, summarize findings from the literature, and critique several studies aimed at supporting or refuting the hypothesis. Although the hypothesis also has been applied to nerve compressions other than those leading to carpal tunnel syndrome, this discussion mainly examines the original application – "double crush" involving both cervical spinal nerve roots and the carpal tunnel. I consider several categories: experiments to create double crush syndrome in animals, case reports, literature reviews, and alternatives to the original hypothesis. A significant percentage of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome also have neck pain or cervical nerve root compression, but the relationship has not been definitively explained. The original hypothesis remains controversial and is probably not valid, at least for sensory disturbances, in carpal tunnel syndrome. However, even if the original hypothesis is importantly flawed, evaluation of multiple sites still may be valuable. The chiropractic profession should develop theoretical models to relate cervical dysfunction to carpal tunnel syndrome, and might incorporate some alternatives to the original hypothesis. I intend this review as a starting point for practitioners, educators, and students wishing to advance chiropractic concepts in this area.

  20. Cross-system log file analysis for hypothesis testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus; Schoonenboom, Judith; Sligte, Henk; Moghnieh, Ayman; Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Stefanov, Krassen; Lemmers, Ruud; Koper, Rob


    Glahn, C., Specht, M., Schoonenboom, J., Sligte, H., Moghnieh, A., Hernández-Leo, D. Stefanov, K., Lemmers, R., & Koper, R. (2008). Cross-system log file analysis for hypothesis testing. In H. Sligte & R. Koper (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th TENCompetence Open Workshop. Empowering Learners for

  1. A "Projective" Test of the Golden Section Hypothesis. (United States)

    Lee, Chris; Adams-Webber, Jack


    In a projective test of the golden section hypothesis, 24 high school students rated themselves and 10 comic strip characters on basis of 12 bipolar constructs. Overall proportion of cartoon figures which subjects assigned to positive poles of constructs was very close to golden section. (Author/NB)

  2. Animal Models for Testing the DOHaD Hypothesis (United States)

    Since the seminal work in human populations by David Barker and colleagues, several species of animals have been used in the laboratory to test the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis. Rats, mice, guinea pigs, sheep, pigs and non-human primates have bee...

  3. An omnibus test for the global null hypothesis. (United States)

    Futschik, Andreas; Taus, Thomas; Zehetmayer, Sonja


    Global hypothesis tests are a useful tool in the context of clinical trials, genetic studies, or meta-analyses, when researchers are not interested in testing individual hypotheses, but in testing whether none of the hypotheses is false. There are several possibilities how to test the global null hypothesis when the individual null hypotheses are independent. If it is assumed that many of the individual null hypotheses are false, combination tests have been recommended to maximize power. If, however, it is assumed that only one or a few null hypotheses are false, global tests based on individual test statistics are more powerful (e.g. Bonferroni or Simes test). However, usually there is no a priori knowledge on the number of false individual null hypotheses. We therefore propose an omnibus test based on cumulative sums of the transformed p-values. We show that this test yields an impressive overall performance. The proposed method is implemented in an R-package called omnibus.

  4. Towards the proof of the cosmic censorship hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krolak, Andrzej


    An attempt is made to formulate the cosmic censorship hypothesis put forward by Penrose (1969, Riv. Nuovo Cimento Ser. 1 Num. Spec. 1 252) as a theorem which could be subject to mathematical proof. It is proved that a weakly asymptotically simple and empty spacetime must be future asymptotically predictable if the energy and the strong causality conditions hold and either all singularities are of Tipler's strong curvature type and once singularity occurs there exists a marginally outgoing null geodesic or each singularity is preceded by the occurrence of a closed trapped surface. The marginally outgoing null geodesics may not be admitted by general naked singularities. However, it is shown that they occur if on the Cauchy horizon the global hyperbolicity in violated is such a way that causal simplicity does not hold. This means that a wide class of nakedly singular spacetimes is considered. This result gives some support to the validity of Penrose's hypothesis.

  5. Towards the proof of the cosmic censorship hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, Andrzej


    An attempt is made to formulate the cosmic censorship hypothesis put forward by Penrose [1969, Riv. Nuovo Cimento Ser. 1 Num. Spec. 1 252] as a theorem which could be subject to mathematical proof. It is proved that a weakly asymptotically simple and empty spacetime must be future asymptotically predictable if the energy and the strong causality conditions hold and either all singularities are of Tipler's strong curvature type and once singularity occurs there exists a marginally outgoing null geodesic or each singularity is preceded by the occurrence of a closed trapped surface. The marginally outgoing null geodesics may not be admitted by general naked singularities. However, it is shown that they occur if on the Cauchy horizon the global hyperbolicity in violated is such a way that causal simplicity does not hold. This means that a wide class of nakedly singular spacetimes is considered. This result gives some support to the validity of Penrose's hypothesis. (author)

  6. The Younger Dryas climate change: was it caused by an extraterrestrial impact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, A.


    The Younger Dryas is an abrupt cooling event at the end of the last Glacial associated to a change in ocean circulation. According to the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis, however, one or more extraterrestrial airbursts or impacts occuring around 12.8 ka caused the Younger Dryas cooling, extensive

  7. The Guarda structure (Portugal): Impact structure or not? Microstructural studies of Quartz, Zircon and Monazite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalinge, M.E. van; Hamers, M.F.; Drury, M.R.


    The Guarda Structure in north-eastern Portugal has been proposed as a potential impact structure. We have studied the structure in detail, but no field or microscopic evidence has been found to support the impact hypothesis

  8. Hypothesis testing of a change point during cognitive decline among Alzheimer's disease patients. (United States)

    Ji, Ming; Xiong, Chengjie; Grundman, Michael


    In this paper, we present a statistical hypothesis test for detecting a change point over the course of cognitive decline among Alzheimer's disease patients. The model under the null hypothesis assumes a constant rate of cognitive decline over time and the model under the alternative hypothesis is a general bilinear model with an unknown change point. When the change point is unknown, however, the null distribution of the test statistics is not analytically tractable and has to be simulated by parametric bootstrap. When the alternative hypothesis that a change point exists is accepted, we propose an estimate of its location based on the Akaike's Information Criterion. We applied our method to a data set from the Neuropsychological Database Initiative by implementing our hypothesis testing method to analyze Mini Mental Status Exam scores based on a random-slope and random-intercept model with a bilinear fixed effect. Our result shows that despite large amount of missing data, accelerated decline did occur for MMSE among AD patients. Our finding supports the clinical belief of the existence of a change point during cognitive decline among AD patients and suggests the use of change point models for the longitudinal modeling of cognitive decline in AD research.

  9. Pressure from particle image velocimetry for convective flows: a Taylor’s hypothesis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Kat, R; Ganapathisubramani, B


    Taylor’s hypothesis is often applied in turbulent flow analysis to map temporal information into spatial information. Recent efforts in deriving pressure from particle image velocimetry (PIV) have proposed multiple approaches, each with its own weakness and strength. Application of Taylor’s hypothesis allows us to counter the weakness of an Eulerian approach that is described by de Kat and van Oudheusden (2012 Exp. Fluids 52 1089–106). Two different approaches of using Taylor’s hypothesis in determining planar pressure are investigated: one where pressure is determined from volumetric PIV data and one where pressure is determined from time-resolved stereoscopic PIV data. A performance assessment on synthetic data shows that application of Taylor’s hypothesis can improve determination of pressure from PIV data significantly compared with a time-resolved volumetric approach. The technique is then applied to time-resolved PIV data taken in a cross-flow plane of a turbulent jet (Ganapathisubramani et al 2007 Exp. Fluids 42 923–39). Results appear to indicate that pressure can indeed be obtained from PIV data in turbulent convective flows using the Taylor’s hypothesis approach, where there are no other methods to determine pressure. The role of convection velocity in determination of pressure is also discussed. (paper)

  10. Atopic dermatitis and the hygiene hypothesis revisited. (United States)

    Flohr, Carsten; Yeo, Lindsey


    We published a systematic review on atopic dermatitis (AD) and the hygiene hypothesis in 2005. Since then, the body of literature has grown significantly. We therefore repeated our systematic review to examine the evidence from population-based studies for an association between AD risk and specific infections, childhood immunizations, the use of antibiotics and environmental exposures that lead to a change in microbial burden. Medline was searched from 1966 until June 2010 to identify relevant studies. We found an additional 49 papers suitable for inclusion. There is evidence to support an inverse relationship between AD and endotoxin, early day care, farm animal and dog exposure in early life. Cat exposure in the presence of skin barrier impairment is positively associated with AD. Helminth infection at least partially protects against AD. This is not the case for viral and bacterial infections, but consumption of unpasteurized farm milk seems protective. Routine childhood vaccinations have no effect on AD risk. The positive association between viral infections and AD found in some studies appears confounded by antibiotic prescription, which has been consistently associated with an increase in AD risk. There is convincing evidence for an inverse relationship between helminth infections and AD but no other pathogens. The protective effect seen with early day care, endotoxin, unpasteurized farm milk and animal exposure is likely to be due to a general increase in exposure to non-pathogenic microbes. This would also explain the risk increase associated with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Future studies should assess skin barrier gene mutation carriage and phenotypic skin barrier impairment, as gene-environment interactions are likely to impact on AD risk. Copyright © 041_ S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Multiple hypothesis tracking based extraction of airway trees from CT data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavendra, Selvan; Petersen, Jens; de Bruijne, Marleen

    Segmentation of airway trees from CT scans of lungs has important clinical applications, in relation to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here we present a method based on multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) and template matching, originally devised for vessel...... segmentation, to extract airway trees. Idealized tubular templates are constructed and ranked using scores assigned based on the image data. Several such regularly spaced hypotheses are used in constructing a hypothesis tree, which is then traversed to obtain improved segmentation results....

  12. The Literal Translation Hypothesis in ESP Teaching/Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Fuertes-Olivera


    Full Text Available Research on the characteristics of specialized vocabulary usually replicates studies that deal with general words, e.g. they typically describe frequent terms and focus on their linguistic characteristics to aid in the learning and acquisition of the terms. We dispute this practise, as we believe that the basic characteristic of terms is that they are coined to restrict meaning, i.e. to be as precise and as specific as possible in a particular context. For instance, around 70% of English and Spanish accounting terms are multi-word terms, most of which contain more than three orthographic words that syntactically behave in a way that is very different from the syntactic behaviour of the node on which they are formed (Fuertes-Olivera and Tarp, forthcoming. This has prompted us to propose a research framework that investigates whether or not the literal translation hypothesis, which has been addressed in several areas of translation studies, can also be applied in ESP teaching/learning environments. If plausible, the assumptions on which this hypothesis is based can shed light on how learners disambiguate terms they encounter. Within this framework, this paper presents evidence that the literal translation hypothesis is possible in ESP; it offers the results of a pilot study that sheds light on how this hypothesis may work, and also discusses its usability in the context of ESP learning. In particular, this paper presents strategies for teaching multi-word terms that are different from those currently based on corpus data. We believe that exercises such as “cloze”, “fill in” and similar “guessing” exercises must be abandoned in ESP teaching/learning environments. Instead, we propose exercises that reproduce L1 teaching and learning activities, i.e., exercises that are typically used when acquiring specialised knowledge and skills in any domain, e.g. taking part in meetings and giving presentations in a business context.

  13. Sex and Class Differences in Parent-Child Interaction: A Test of Kohn's Hypothesis (United States)

    Gecas, Viktor; Nye, F. Ivan


    This paper focuses on Melvin Kohn's suggestive hypothesis that white-collar parents stress the development of internal standards of conduct in their children while blue-collar parents are more likely to react on the basis of the consequences of the child's behavior. This hypothesis was supported. (Author)

  14. Incidence of allergy and atopic disorders and hygiene hypothesis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bencko, V.; Šíma, Petr


    Roč. 2, 6 March (2017), č. článku 1244. ISSN 2474-1663 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : allergy disorders * atopic disorders * hygiene hypothesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology

  15. Contradicting the twin deficits hypothesis: The role of tax revenues composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obadić Alka


    Full Text Available The general theory of twin deficits hypothesis does not consider specific characteristics of domestic tax systems, i.e. whether the revenue side of the budget is dominated by indirect or by direct taxes. The main hypothesis of the paper is that in countries with fiscal systems dominated by indirect taxes, the deterioration of the current account balance would imply higher fiscal revenues due to larger imports and consumption. The hypothesis is based on the characteristics of domestic tax systems of Bulgaria, Croatia, Poland and Romania in which indirect tax revenues account for the majority of total budget tax revenues. Results suggest that the co-movements of the current account and the fiscal balance cannot be explained by the twin deficit theory in countries with indirect tax-oriented systems. These results imply that only the structural economic transformation and export orientation of the economy may reverse the causality direction between two deficits.

  16. Validity of the Generalized Brink-Axel Hypothesis in (238)Np. (United States)

    Guttormsen, M; Larsen, A C; Görgen, A; Renstrøm, T; Siem, S; Tornyi, T G; Tveten, G M


    We analyze primary γ-ray spectra of the odd-odd (238)Np nucleus extracted from (237)Np(d,pγ)(238)Np coincidence data measured at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The primary γ spectra cover an excitation-energy region of 0≤E(I)≤5.4  MeV, and allow us to perform a detailed study of the γ-ray strength as a function of excitation energy. Hence, we can test the validity of the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis, which, in its strictest form, claims no excitation-energy dependence on the γ strength. In this work, using the available high-quality (238)Np data, we show that the γ-ray strength function is to a very large extent independent of the initial and final states. Thus, for the first time, the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis is experimentally verified for γ transitions between states in the quasicontinuum region, not only for specific collective resonances, but also for the full strength below the neutron separation energy. Based on our findings, the necessary criteria for the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis to be fulfilled are outlined.

  17. Autoimmunity and asthma: The dirt on the hygiene hypothesis. (United States)

    Mannie, Mark D


    Self peptides shape T-cell development through selectional processes in the thymus and secondary lymphoid organs to promote a diverse and balanced repertoire of conventional and regulatory T cells. Foreign proteins and their derivative peptides permeate our mucosal tissues to constitute another diverse array of peptides that may specify and diversify the mucosal T-cell repertoire. Indeed, the distinction between self peptides and environmental foreign peptides may be academic if both are present constantly within the body. The premise here is that the plethora of foreign peptides, present ubiquitously in our environment and body, form homeostatic niches to foster highly diversified repertoires of conventional and regulatory T cells that recognize persistent environmental peptides as self. Highly diversified repertoires that recognize myriads of self and environmental foreign peptides as homeostatic ligands may be critical for adaptive distinctions of friend or foe in mucosal tissues. The change from our agrarian past to the highly sterile environments of today may adversely impact the diversity and concentrations of foreign peptides that shape the mucosal T-cell repertoire. Various hygiene hypotheses postulate that the lack of factors such as infectious pathogens, innate receptor engagement or Th1 bias is key to the marked increase in immunological disease in modern society. In this version of the hygiene hypothesis, highly diverse constellations of innocuous environmental peptides are postulated to be the critical factor for immune balance and homeostasis.

  18. The Wells Creek Meteorite Impact Site and Changing Views on Impact Cratering (United States)

    Ford, J. R. H.; Orchiston, Wayne; Clendening, Ron


    Wells Creek is a confirmed meteorite impact site in Tennessee, USA. The Wells Creek structure was first noticed by railroad surveyors around 1855 and brought to the attention of J.M. Safford, Tennessee's State Geologist. He included an insert in the 1869 Geologic Map of Tennessee, which is the first known map to include the structure. The origin of the Wells Creek structure was controversial, and was interpreted as being either the result of volcanic steam explosion or meteorite impact. It was only in the 1960s that Wilson and Stearns were able to state that the impact hypothesis was preferred. Evidence for a Wells Creek meteorite impact includes drill core results, extreme brecciation and shatter cones, while a local lack of volcanic material is telling. Just to the north of the Wells Creek Basin are three small basins that Wilson concluded were associated with the Wells Creek impact event, but evidence regarding the origin of the Austin, Indian Mound and Cave Spring Hollow sites is not conclusive.

  19. Confluence Model or Resource Dilution Hypothesis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads

    have a negative effect on educational attainment most studies cannot distinguish empirically between the CM and the RDH. In this paper, I use the different theoretical predictions in the CM and the RDH on the role of cognitive ability as a partial or complete mediator of the sibship size effect......Studies on family background often explain the negative effect of sibship size on educational attainment by one of two theories: the Confluence Model (CM) or the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH). However, as both theories – for substantively different reasons – predict that sibship size should...

  20. A Life-Course Perspective on the "Gateway Hypothesis" (United States)

    Van Gundy, Karen; Rebellon, Cesar J.


    Drawing on stress and life-course perspectives and using panel data from 1,286 south Florida young adults, we assess three critical questions regarding the role of marijuana in the "gateway hypothesis." First, does teen marijuana use independently (causally) affect subsequent use of more dangerous substances? Second, if so, does that…

  1. Equilibrium-point control hypothesis examined by measured arm stiffness during multijoint movement. (United States)

    Gomi, H; Kawato


    For the last 20 years, it has been hypothesized that well-coordinated, multijoint movements are executed without complex computation by the brain, with the use of springlike muscle properties and peripheral neural feedback loops. However, it has been technically and conceptually difficult to examine this "equilibrium-point control" hypothesis directly in physiological or behavioral experiments. A high-performance manipulandum was developed and used here to measure human arm stiffness, the magnitude of which during multijoint movement is important for this hypothesis. Here, the equilibrium-point trajectory was estimated from the measured stiffness, the actual trajectory, and the generated torque. Its velocity profile differed from that of the actual trajectory. These results argue against the hypothesis that the brain sends as a motor command only an equilibrium-point trajectory similar to the actual trajectory.

  2. Quantum effects and hypothesis of cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parnovskij, S.L.


    It is shown that filamentary characteristics with linear mass of less than 10 25 g/cm distort slightly the space-time at distances, exceeding Planck ones. Their formation doesn't change vacuum energy and doesn't lead to strong quantum radiation. Therefore, the problem of their occurrence can be considered within the framework of classical collapse. Quantum effects can be ignored when considering the problem of validity of cosmic censorship hypothesis

  3. Hypothesis: Impregnated school uniforms reduce the incidence of dengue infections in school children. (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, A; Lover, A; Kittayapong, P; Burnham, G


    Dengue infection causes a significant economic, social and medical burden in affected populations in over 100 countries in the tropics and sub-tropics. Current dengue control efforts have generally focused on vector control but have not shown major impact. School-aged children are especially vulnerable to infection, due to sustained human-vector-human transmission in the close proximity environments of schools. Infection in children has a higher rate of complications, including dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndromes, than infections in adults. There is an urgent need for integrated and complementary population-based strategies to protect vulnerable children. We hypothesize that insecticide-treated school uniforms will reduce the incidence of dengue in school-aged children. The hypothesis would need to be tested in a community based randomized trial. If proven to be true, insecticide-treated school uniforms would be a cost-effective and scalable community based strategy to reduce the burden of dengue in children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Toward Joint Hypothesis-Tests Seismic Event Screening Analysis: Ms|mb and Event Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Selby, Neil [AWE Blacknest


    Well established theory can be used to combine single-phenomenology hypothesis tests into a multi-phenomenology event screening hypothesis test (Fisher's and Tippett's tests). Commonly used standard error in Ms:mb event screening hypothesis test is not fully consistent with physical basis. Improved standard error - Better agreement with physical basis, and correctly partitions error to include Model Error as a component of variance, correctly reduces station noise variance through network averaging. For 2009 DPRK test - Commonly used standard error 'rejects' H0 even with better scaling slope ({beta} = 1, Selby et al.), improved standard error 'fails to rejects' H0.

  5. Precambrian tholeiitic-dacitic rock-suites and Cambrian ultramafic rocks in the Pennine nappe system of the Alps: Evidence from Sm-Nd isotopes and rare earth elements (United States)

    Stille, P.; Tatsumoto, M.


    Major element, trace element and Sm-Nd isotope analyses were made of polymetamorphic hornblendefelses, plagioclase amphibolites and banded amphibolites from the Berisal complex in the Simplon area (Italy, Switzerland) to determine their age, origin and genetic relationships. In light of major and rare earth element data, the hornblendefelses are inferred to have originally been pyroxene-rich cumulates, the plagioclase amphibolites and the dark layers of the banded amphibolites to have been tholeiitic basalts and the light layers dacites. The Sm-Nd isotope data yield isochron ages of 475±81 Ma for the hornblendefelses, 1,018±59 Ma for the plagioclase amphibolites and 1,071±43 Ma for the banded amphibolites. The 1 Ga magmatic event is the oldest one ever found in the crystalline basement of the Pennine nappes. The Sm -Nd isotope data support the consanguinity of the tholeiitic dark layers and the dacitic light layers of the banded amphibolites with the tholeiitic plagioclase amphibolites and the ultramafic hornblendefelses. The initial ɛ Nd values indicate that all three rock types originated from sources depleted in light rare earth elements. We suggest that plagioclase and banded amphibolites were a Proterozoic tholeiite-dacite sequence that was strongly deformed and flattened during subsequent folding. The hornblendefelses are thought to be Cambrian intrusions of pyroxene-rich material.

  6. Early Microbes Modify Immune System Development and Metabolic Homeostasis—The “Restaurant” Hypothesis Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Nash


    Full Text Available The developing infant gut microbiome affects metabolism, maturation of the gastrointestinal tract, immune system function, and brain development. Initial seeding of the neonatal microbiota occurs through maternal and environmental contact. Maternal diet, antibiotic use, and cesarean section alter the offspring microbiota composition, at least temporarily. Nutrients are thought to regulate initial perinatal microbial colonization, a paradigm known as the “Restaurant” hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that early nutritional stresses alter both the initial colonizing bacteria and the development of signaling pathways controlled by microbial mediators. These stresses fine-tune the immune system and metabolic homeostasis in early life, potentially setting the stage for long-term metabolic and immune health. Dysbiosis, an imbalance or a maladaptation in the microbiota, can be caused by several factors including dietary alterations and antibiotics. Dysbiosis can alter biological processes in the gut and in tissues and organs throughout the body. Misregulated development and activity of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, driven by early dysbiosis, could have long-lasting pathologic consequences such as increased autoimmunity, increased adiposity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. This review will focus on factors during pregnancy and the neonatal period that impact a neonate’s gut microbiome, as well as the mechanisms and possible links from early infancy that can drive increased risk for diseases including obesity and NAFLD. The complex pathways that connect diet, the microbiota, immune system development, and metabolism, particularly in early life, present exciting new frontiers for biomedical research.

  7. Judging the Probability of Hypotheses Versus the Impact of Evidence: Which Form of Inductive Inference Is More Accurate and Time-Consistent? (United States)

    Tentori, Katya; Chater, Nick; Crupi, Vincenzo


    Inductive reasoning requires exploiting links between evidence and hypotheses. This can be done focusing either on the posterior probability of the hypothesis when updated on the new evidence or on the impact of the new evidence on the credibility of the hypothesis. But are these two cognitive representations equally reliable? This study investigates this question by comparing probability and impact judgments on the same experimental materials. The results indicate that impact judgments are more consistent in time and more accurate than probability judgments. Impact judgments also predict the direction of errors in probability judgments. These findings suggest that human inductive reasoning relies more on estimating evidential impact than on posterior probability. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. A junk-food hypothesis for gannets feeding on fishery waste (United States)

    Grémillet, David; Pichegru, Lorien; Kuntz, Grégoire; Woakes, Anthony G; Wilkinson, Sarah; Crawford, Robert J.M; Ryan, Peter G


    Worldwide fisheries generate large volumes of fishery waste and it is often assumed that this additional food is beneficial to populations of marine top-predators. We challenge this concept via a detailed study of foraging Cape gannets Morus capensis and of their feeding environment in the Benguela upwelling zone. The natural prey of Cape gannets (pelagic fishes) is depleted and birds now feed extensively on fishery wastes. These are beneficial to non-breeding birds, which show reduced feeding effort and high survival. By contrast, breeding gannets double their diving effort in an attempt to provision their chicks predominantly with high-quality, live pelagic fishes. Owing to a scarcity of this resource, they fail and most chicks die. Our study supports the junk-food hypothesis for Cape gannets since it shows that non-breeding birds can survive when complementing their diet with fishery wastes, but that they struggle to reproduce if live prey is scarce. This is due to the negative impact of low-quality fishery wastes on the growth patterns of gannet chicks. Marine management policies should not assume that fishery waste is generally beneficial to scavenging seabirds and that an abundance of this artificial resource will automatically inflate their populations. PMID:18270155

  9. Sparse Representation Based Binary Hypothesis Model for Hyperspectral Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Tang


    Full Text Available The sparse representation based classifier (SRC and its kernel version (KSRC have been employed for hyperspectral image (HSI classification. However, the state-of-the-art SRC often aims at extended surface objects with linear mixture in smooth scene and assumes that the number of classes is given. Considering the small target with complex background, a sparse representation based binary hypothesis (SRBBH model is established in this paper. In this model, a query pixel is represented in two ways, which are, respectively, by background dictionary and by union dictionary. The background dictionary is composed of samples selected from the local dual concentric window centered at the query pixel. Thus, for each pixel the classification issue becomes an adaptive multiclass classification problem, where only the number of desired classes is required. Furthermore, the kernel method is employed to improve the interclass separability. In kernel space, the coding vector is obtained by using kernel-based orthogonal matching pursuit (KOMP algorithm. Then the query pixel can be labeled by the characteristics of the coding vectors. Instead of directly using the reconstruction residuals, the different impacts the background dictionary and union dictionary have on reconstruction are used for validation and classification. It enhances the discrimination and hence improves the performance.

  10. Testing the hypothesis of the natural suicide rates: Further evidence from OECD data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Antonio Rodriguez; Halicioglu, Ferda


    This paper provides further evidence on the hypothesis of the natural rate of suicide using the time series data for 15 OECD countries over the period 1970–2004. This hypothesis suggests that the suicide rate of a society could never be zero even if both the economic and the social conditions wer...

  11. Experimental analysis of specification language impact on NPP software diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chang Sik; Seong, Poong Hyun


    When redundancy and diversity is applied in NPP digital computer system, diversification of system software may be a critical point for the entire system dependability. As the means of enhancing software diversity, specification language diversity is suggested in this study. We set up a simple hypothesis for the specification language impact on common errors, and an experiment based on NPP protection system application was performed. Experiment result showed that this hypothesis could be justified and specification language diversity is effective in overcoming software common mode failure problem

  12. Fractal Markets Hypothesis and the Global Financial Crisis: Wavelet Power Evidence (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav


    We analyze whether the prediction of the fractal markets hypothesis about a dominance of specific investment horizons during turbulent times holds. To do so, we utilize the continuous wavelet transform analysis and obtained wavelet power spectra which give the crucial information about the variance distribution across scales and its evolution in time. We show that the most turbulent times of the Global Financial Crisis can be very well characterized by the dominance of short investment horizons which is in hand with the assertions of the fractal markets hypothesis.

  13. Local Extrema of the $\\Xi(t)$ Function and The Riemann Hypothesis


    Kobayashi, Hisashi


    In the present paper we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition to prove the Riemann hypothesis in terms of certain properties of local extrema of the function $\\Xi(t)=\\xi(\\tfrac{1}{2}+it)$. First, we prove that positivity of all local maxima and negativity of all local minima of $\\Xi(t)$ form a necessary condition for the Riemann hypothesis to be true. After showing that any extremum point of $\\Xi(t)$ is a saddle point of the function $\\Re\\{\\xi(s)\\}$, we prove that the above properties o...

  14. A test of the domain-specific acculturation strategy hypothesis. (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J; Yang, Minji; Lim, Robert H; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Fan, Xiaoyan; Lin, Li-Ling; Grome, Rebekah E; Farrell, Jerome A; Blackmon, Sha'kema


    Acculturation literature has evolved over the past several decades and has highlighted the dynamic ways in which individuals negotiate experiences in multiple cultural contexts. The present study extends this literature by testing M. J. Miller and R. H. Lim's (2010) domain-specific acculturation strategy hypothesis-that individuals might use different acculturation strategies (i.e., assimilated, bicultural, separated, and marginalized strategies; J. W. Berry, 2003) across behavioral and values domains-in 3 independent cluster analyses with Asian American participants. Present findings supported the domain-specific acculturation strategy hypothesis as 67% to 72% of participants from 3 independent samples using different strategies across behavioral and values domains. Consistent with theory, a number of acculturation strategy cluster group differences emerged across generational status, acculturative stress, mental health symptoms, and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Study limitations and future directions for research are discussed.

  15. Energy prices, multiple structural breaks, and efficient market hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chien-Chiang; Lee, Jun-De [Department of Applied Economics, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung (China)


    This paper investigates the efficient market hypothesis using total energy price and four kinds of various disaggregated energy prices - coal, oil, gas, and electricity - for OECD countries over the period 1978-2006. We employ a highly flexible panel data stationarity test of Carrion-i-Silvestre et al. [Carrion-i-Silvestre JL, Del Barrio-Castro T, Lopez-Bazo E. Breaking the panels: an application to GDP per capita. J Econometrics 2005;8:159-75], which incorporates multiple shifts in level and slope, thereby controlling for cross-sectional dependence through bootstrap methods. Overwhelming evidence in favor of the broken stationarity hypothesis is found, implying that energy prices are not characterized by an efficient market. Thus, it shows the presence of profitable arbitrage opportunities among energy prices. The estimated breaks are meaningful and coincide with the most critical events which affected the energy prices. (author)

  16. Energy prices, multiple structural breaks, and efficient market hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chien-Chiang; Lee, Jun-De


    This paper investigates the efficient market hypothesis using total energy price and four kinds of various disaggregated energy prices - coal, oil, gas, and electricity - for OECD countries over the period 1978-2006. We employ a highly flexible panel data stationarity test of Carrion-i-Silvestre et al. [Carrion-i-Silvestre JL, Del Barrio-Castro T, Lopez-Bazo E. Breaking the panels: an application to GDP per capita. J Econometrics 2005;8:159-75], which incorporates multiple shifts in level and slope, thereby controlling for cross-sectional dependence through bootstrap methods. Overwhelming evidence in favor of the broken stationarity hypothesis is found, implying that energy prices are not characterized by an efficient market. Thus, it shows the presence of profitable arbitrage opportunities among energy prices. The estimated breaks are meaningful and coincide with the most critical events which affected the energy prices. (author)

  17. The impact of workplaces and self-management practices on the productivity of knowledge workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palvalin, M.O.; van der Voordt, Theo; Jylhä, T.E.


    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the impact of workplaces, which support concentration and communication, and self-management practices on individual and team productivity. The underlying hypothesis is that the impact of these variables on the two levels of productivity (individual and team)

  18. A Modified Version of Taylor’s Hypothesis for Solar Probe Plus Observations (United States)

    Klein, Kristopher G.; Perez, Jean C.; Verscharen, Daniel; Mallet, Alfred; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.


    The Solar Probe Plus (SPP) spacecraft will explore the near-Sun environment, reaching heliocentric distances less than 10 {{R}⊙ }. Near Earth, spacecraft measurements of fluctuating velocities and magnetic fields taken in the time domain are translated into information about the spatial structure of the solar wind via Taylor’s “frozen turbulence” hypothesis. Near the perihelion of SPP, however, the solar-wind speed is comparable to the Alfvén speed, and Taylor’s hypothesis in its usual form does not apply. In this paper, we show that under certain assumptions, a modified version of Taylor’s hypothesis can be recovered in the near-Sun region. We consider only the transverse, non-compressive component of the fluctuations at length scales exceeding the proton gyroradius, and we describe these fluctuations using an approximate theoretical framework developed by Heinemann and Olbert. We show that fluctuations propagating away from the Sun in the plasma frame obey a relation analogous to Taylor’s hypothesis when {{V}sc,\\bot }\\gg {{z}-} and {{z}+}\\gg {{z}-}, where {{V}sc,\\bot } is the component of the spacecraft velocity perpendicular to the mean magnetic field and {{{\\boldsymbol{z}} }+} ({{{\\boldsymbol{z}} }-}) is the Elsasser variable corresponding to transverse, non-compressive fluctuations propagating away from (toward) the Sun in the plasma frame. Observations and simulations suggest that, in the near-Sun solar wind, the above inequalities are satisfied and {{{\\boldsymbol{z}} }+} fluctuations account for most of the fluctuation energy. The modified form of Taylor’s hypothesis that we derive may thus make it possible to characterize the spatial structure of the energetically dominant component of the turbulence encountered by SPP.

  19. Hygiene Hypothesis: Is the Evidence the Same All Over the World? (United States)

    Leong, Rupert W; Mitrev, Nikola; Ko, Yanna


    The hygiene hypothesis refers to where modern living conditions are responsible for the increasing incidences of immune-related diseases including the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Improved hygiene may result in decreased enteric microbiota diversity and dysbiosis, which may be responsible for the development of IBD. The rising incidence of IBD is well documented in developing regions of the world, in accordance with the hygiene hypothesis. What is unknown, however, is whether the hygiene hypothesis is applicable all over the world. Hygiene cannot be easily measured and proxy markers need to be used. These include regional data such as a country's gross domestic product or an individual's affluence or exposure to infection risk factors. A comparative case-control study of Caucasian Australian IBD subjects versus migrants from the Middle East to Australia identified that environmental risk factors are different in the 2 populations. Among Australian Caucasians, hygiene-related environmental risk factors are no longer relevant in the development of IBD. Given the country's high affluence, there has been high hygienic standard for several generations. However, migrants from less affluent countries exposed to hygiene-related environmental factors are at increased risks of developing IBD, especially in the second generation migrants born in the affluent country. Divergent risk factors include the use of antibiotics in childhood increasing the risk of IBD in developed societies but being a risk factor for developing IBD in migrants. In India, risk factors associated with infections were found to be positively associated with the development of ulcerative colitis, rather than protective. The hygiene hypothesis is not applicable to all populations worldwide, being most relevant in societies undergoing increasing affluence or following migration from less to more affluent countries. This review examines data from around the world that link the hygiene

  20. Hypothesis Testing Using the Films of the Three Stooges (United States)

    Gardner, Robert; Davidson, Robert


    The use of The Three Stooges' films as a source of data in an introductory statistics class is described. The Stooges' films are separated into three populations. Using these populations, students may conduct hypothesis tests with data they collect.

  1. Developmental Dyslexia: The Visual Attention Span Deficit Hypothesis (United States)

    Bosse, Marie-Line; Tainturier, Marie Josephe; Valdois, Sylviane


    The visual attention (VA) span is defined as the amount of distinct visual elements which can be processed in parallel in a multi-element array. Both recent empirical data and theoretical accounts suggest that a VA span deficit might contribute to developmental dyslexia, independently of a phonological disorder. In this study, this hypothesis was…

  2. Fecundity of trees and the colonization-competition hypothesis (United States)

    James S. Clark; Shannon LaDeau; Ines Ibanez


    Colonization-competition trade-offs represent a stabilizing mechanism that is thought to maintain diversity of forest trees. If so, then early-successional species should benefit from high capacity to colonize new sites, and late-successional species should be good competitors. Tests of this hypothesis in forests have been precluded by an inability to estimate...

  3. The Impact of Social Media on Economic Growth


    Dell'Anno, Roberto; Rayna, Thierry; Solomon, O. Helen


    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. This article attempts to investigate the impact of social media (SM) on economic growth. Using information obtained from memberships to social networks, we find that SM has a negative and significant impact on economic growth. This provides evidence in favour of our hypothesis that SM increases the search costs for information and also increase...

  4. Sex ratios in the two Germanies: a test of the economic stress hypothesis. (United States)

    Catalano, Ralph A


    Literature describing temporal variation in the secondary sex ratio among humans reports an association between population stressors and declines in the odds of male birth. Explanations of this phenomenon draw on reports that stressed females spontaneously abort male more than female fetuses, and that stressed males exhibit reduced sperm motility. This work has led to the argument that population stress induced by a declining economy reduces the human sex ratio. No direct test of this hypothesis appears in the literature. Here, a test is offered based on a comparison of the sex ratio in East and West Germany for the years 1946 to 1999. The theory suggests that the East German sex ratio should be lower in 1991, when East Germany's economy collapsed, than expected from its own history and from the sex ratio in West Germany. The hypothesis is tested using time-series modelling methods. The data support the hypothesis. The sex ratio in East Germany was at its lowest in 1991. This first direct test supports the hypothesis that economic decline reduces the human sex ratio.

  5. Testing for Marshall-Lerner hypothesis: A panel approach (United States)

    Azizan, Nur Najwa; Sek, Siok Kun


    The relationship between real exchange rate and trade balances are documented in many theories. One of the theories is the so-called Marshall-Lerner condition. In this study, we seek to test for the validity of Marshall-Lerner hypothesis, i.e. to reveal if the depreciation of real exchange rate leads to the improvement in trade balances. We focus our study in ASEAN-5 countries and their main trade partners of U.S., Japan and China. The dynamic panel data of pooled mean group (PMG) approach is used to detect the Marshall-Lerner hypothesis among ASEAN-5, between ASEAN-5 and U.S., between ASEAN-5 and Japan and between ASEAN-5 and China respectively. The estimation is based on the autoregressive Distributed Lag or ARDL model for the period of 1970-2012. The paper concludes that Marshal Lerner theory does not hold in bilateral trades in four groups of countries. The trade balances of ASEAN5 are mainly determined by the domestic income level and foreign production cost.

  6. Revisiting the hygiene hypothesis for allergy and asthma. (United States)

    Liu, Andrew H


    The hygiene hypothesis, which describes the protective influence of microbial exposures in early life on the development of allergy and asthma, has continued its swell of academic interest, investigation, and evolution. This article is focused on studies published in the past 3 years that have furthered the substance and shape of hygiene theory, primarily as it relates to allergic airways and asthma. Recent investigations have furthered an overarching "microbiome hypothesis" to home features, medical practices, and cleanliness behaviors that are suspects in the hygiene effect. Relatively crude markers of the protective microbial environment have been supplanted by culture-independent microbiome science, distinguishing the characteristics of potentially protective microbiomes from pathologic features. Understanding how the microbiome is shaped and affects healthful versus harmful outcomes in the human host is relatively nascent. Good clues are emerging that give mechanistic substance to the theory and could help guide microbe-based therapeutics to fill the allergy and asthma management gap in prevention and disease modification. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Direct evidence for impact winter following the Cretaceous-Paleogene bolide impact (United States)

    Vellekoop, J.; Sluijs, A.; Smit, J.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Brinkhuis, H.


    The Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary, ~65.5 Ma, marks a mass-extinction event related the impact of a large asteroid on the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. Model scenarios predict that the explosive injection of dust and sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere blocked incoming solar radiation, resulting in a cooling pulse of months to several decades, a so-called 'impact winter', but thus far, proxy records lack sufficient resolution to evaluate this hypothesis. We report on a major, short-lived drop in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) recorded in an unusually well preserved and stratigraphically expanded K/Pg boundary site in Texas, USA, based on TEX86 paleothermometry. Critically, the cooling directly post-dates impact-related tsunami deposits, and coincides with the deposition of extraterrestrial iridium representing aerosol fall out, restricting the age of the cooling to the first months to decades after impact. We interpret this cooling to reflect the first direct evidence for the "impact winter" at the K/Pg boundary. The combination of darkness and cooling must have been a key contributory element in the extinctions of many biological clades, including the dinosaurs, flying reptiles and marine reptiles.

  8. Impacts of Flooding on Road Transport Infrastructure In Enugu Metropolitan City, Nigeria.


    Iloeje, A. F; Aniagolu, C. O


    An assessment of the impact of flooding on the road transport infrastructure in Enugu Metropolis was carried out using survey research method. Thirty impact indicators were rated by the respondents against six impact dimensions of population, vulnerability of activities, frequency, intensity, extent and risk. Three null hypotheses were postulated and tested. One sample t-test was used for testing hypothesis one which stated that damages to the road transport infrastructure resulti...

  9. [A test of the focusing hypothesis for category judgment: an explanation using the mental-box model]. (United States)

    Hatori, Tsuyoshi; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Fujii, Satoshi; Ideno, Takashi


    This paper presents a new model of category judgment. The model hypothesizes that, when more attention is focused on a category, the psychological range of the category gets narrower (category-focusing hypothesis). We explain this hypothesis by using the metaphor of a "mental-box" model: the more attention that is focused on a mental box (i.e., a category set), the smaller the size of the box becomes (i.e., a cardinal number of the category set). The hypothesis was tested in an experiment (N = 40), where the focus of attention on prescribed verbal categories was manipulated. The obtained data gave support to the hypothesis: category-focusing effects were found in three experimental tasks (regarding the category of "food", "height", and "income"). The validity of the hypothesis was discussed based on the results.

  10. The slavery hypothesis for hypertension among African Americans: the historical evidence. (United States)

    Curtin, P D


    The slavery hypothesis for hypertension has stated that the high blood pressures sometimes measured in African Americans are caused by one or more of these conditions: first, salt deficiency in the parts of Africa that supplied slaves for the Americas; second, the trauma of the slave trade itself; third, conditions of slavery in the United States. A review of the historical evidence shows that there was no salt deficiency in those parts of Africa, nor do present-day West Africans have a high incidence of hypertension. Historical evidence does not support the hypothesis that deaths aboard slave ships were caused mainly by conditions that might be conductive to hypertension, such as salt-depleting diseases. Finally, the hypothesis has depended heavily on evidence from the West Indies, which is not relevant for the United States. There is no evidence that diet or the resulting patterns of disease and demography among slaves in the American South were significantly different from those of other poor southerners. Images p1682-a p1684-a PMID:1456349

  11. Interstellar colonization and the zoo hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.


    Michael Hart and others have pointed out that current estimates of the number of technological civilizations arisen in the Galaxy since its formation is in fundamental conflict with the expectation that such a civilization could colonize and utilize the entire Galaxy in 10 to 20 million years. This dilemma can be called Hart's paradox. Resolution of the paradox requires that one or more of the following are true: we are the Galaxy's first technical civilization; interstellar travel is immensely impractical or simply impossible; technological civilizations are very short-lived; or we inhabit a wildnerness preserve. The latter is the zoo hypothesis

  12. Set theory and the continuum hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Paul J


    This exploration of a notorious mathematical problem is the work of the man who discovered the solution. The independence of the continuum hypothesis is the focus of this study by Paul J. Cohen. It presents not only an accessible technical explanation of the author's landmark proof but also a fine introduction to mathematical logic. An emeritus professor of mathematics at Stanford University, Dr. Cohen won two of the most prestigious awards in mathematics: in 1964, he was awarded the American Mathematical Society's Bôcher Prize for analysis; and in 1966, he received the Fields Medal for Logic.

  13. Explorations in Statistics: Hypothesis Tests and P Values (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas


    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This second installment of "Explorations in Statistics" delves into test statistics and P values, two concepts fundamental to the test of a scientific null hypothesis. The essence of a test statistic is that it compares what…

  14. Experimental constraints on impact-induced winds (United States)

    Quintana, Stephanie N.; Schultz, Peter H.; Horowitz, Seth S.


    A new class of wind streaks on Mars uniquely associated with impact craters is most clearly detected in nighttime thermal infrared imaging. Thermally bright streaks radiate from some well-preserved impact craters and are related to the impact process. Using laboratory experiments performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range, we test the hypothesis that these streaks are formed from either the winds within an air-blast or winds set up by expanding impact vapor interacting with the atmosphere. The experiments use a variety of tracers and instruments to document three interrelated processes occurring in the impact of a Pyrex projectile into an easily vaporized powdered dolomite target: (1) a surface roughening spreading outward from the impact point, (2) an expanding vapor plume, and (3) outward winds made visible by dust trails from vertically placed, dusty pipe cleaners. The clear connection between the surface roughening, vapor expansion, and outward winds implicate an expanding vapor interacting with the atmosphere as the controlling process.

  15. Tax Evasion, Information Reporting, and the Regressive Bias Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boserup, Simon Halphen; Pinje, Jori Veng

    A robust prediction from the tax evasion literature is that optimal auditing induces a regressive bias in effective tax rates compared to statutory rates. If correct, this will have important distributional consequences. Nevertheless, the regressive bias hypothesis has never been tested empirically...

  16. The functional matrix hypothesis revisited. 3. The genomic thesis. (United States)

    Moss, M L


    Although the initial versions of the functional matrix hypothesis (FMH) theoretically posited the ontogenetic primacy of "function," it is only in recent years that advances in the morphogenetic, engineering, and computer sciences provided an integrated experimental and numerical data base that permitted recent significant revisions of the FMH--revisions that strongly support the primary role of function in craniofacial growth and development. Acknowledging that the currently dominant scientific paradigm suggests that genomic, instead of epigenetic (functional) factors, regulate (cause, control) such growth, an analysis of this continuing controversy was deemed useful. Accordingly the method of dialectical analysis, is employed, stating a thesis, an antithesis, and a resolving synthesis based primarily on an extensive review of the pertinent current literature. This article extensively reviews the genomic hypothesis and offers a critique intended to remove some of the unintentional conceptual obscurantism that has recently come to surround it.

  17. Hypothesis testing in students: Sequences, stages, and instructional strategies (United States)

    Moshman, David; Thompson, Pat A.

    Six sequences in the development of hypothesis-testing conceptions are proposed, involving (a) interpretation of the hypothesis; (b) the distinction between using theories and testing theories; (c) the consideration of multiple possibilities; (d) the relation of theory and data; (e) the nature of verification and falsification; and (f) the relation of truth and falsity. An alternative account is then provided involving three global stages: concrete operations, formal operations, and a postformal metaconstructivestage. Relative advantages and difficulties of the stage and sequence conceptualizations are discussed. Finally, three families of teaching strategy are distinguished, which emphasize, respectively: (a) social transmission of knowledge; (b) carefully sequenced empirical experience by the student; and (c) self-regulated cognitive activity of the student. It is argued on the basis of Piaget's theory that the last of these plays a crucial role in the construction of such logical reasoning strategies as those involved in testing hypotheses.

  18. The Matter-Gravity Entanglement Hypothesis (United States)

    Kay, Bernard S.


    I outline some of my work and results (some dating back to 1998, some more recent) on my matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis, according to which the entropy of a closed quantum gravitational system is equal to the system's matter-gravity entanglement entropy. The main arguments presented are: (1) that this hypothesis is capable of resolving what I call the second-law puzzle, i.e. the puzzle as to how the entropy increase of a closed system can be reconciled with the asssumption of unitary time-evolution; (2) that the black hole information loss puzzle may be regarded as a special case of this second law puzzle and that therefore the same resolution applies to it; (3) that the black hole thermal atmosphere puzzle (which I recall) can be resolved by adopting a radically different-from-usual description of quantum black hole equilibrium states, according to which they are total pure states, entangled between matter and gravity in such a way that the partial states of matter and gravity are each approximately thermal equilibrium states (at the Hawking temperature); (4) that the Susskind-Horowitz-Polchinski string-theoretic understanding of black hole entropy as the logarithm of the degeneracy of a long string (which is the weak string coupling limit of a black hole) cannot be quite correct but should be replaced by a modified understanding according to which it is the entanglement entropy between a long string and its stringy atmosphere, when in a total pure equilibrium state in a suitable box, which (in line with (3)) goes over, at strong-coupling, to a black hole in equilibrium with its thermal atmosphere. The modified understanding in (4) is based on a general result, which I also describe, which concerns the likely state of a quantum system when it is weakly coupled to an energy-bath and the total state is a random pure state with a given energy. This result generalizes Goldstein et al.'s `canonical typicality' result to systems which are not necessarily small.

  19. The Matter-Gravity Entanglement Hypothesis (United States)

    Kay, Bernard S.


    I outline some of my work and results (some dating back to 1998, some more recent) on my matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis, according to which the entropy of a closed quantum gravitational system is equal to the system's matter-gravity entanglement entropy. The main arguments presented are: (1) that this hypothesis is capable of resolving what I call the second-law puzzle, i.e. the puzzle as to how the entropy increase of a closed system can be reconciled with the asssumption of unitary time-evolution; (2) that the black hole information loss puzzle may be regarded as a special case of this second law puzzle and that therefore the same resolution applies to it; (3) that the black hole thermal atmosphere puzzle (which I recall) can be resolved by adopting a radically different-from-usual description of quantum black hole equilibrium states, according to which they are total pure states, entangled between matter and gravity in such a way that the partial states of matter and gravity are each approximately thermal equilibrium states (at the Hawking temperature); (4) that the Susskind-Horowitz-Polchinski string-theoretic understanding of black hole entropy as the logarithm of the degeneracy of a long string (which is the weak string coupling limit of a black hole) cannot be quite correct but should be replaced by a modified understanding according to which it is the entanglement entropy between a long string and its stringy atmosphere, when in a total pure equilibrium state in a suitable box, which (in line with (3)) goes over, at strong-coupling, to a black hole in equilibrium with its thermal atmosphere. The modified understanding in (4) is based on a general result, which I also describe, which concerns the likely state of a quantum system when it is weakly coupled to an energy-bath and the total state is a random pure state with a given energy. This result generalizes Goldstein et al.'s `canonical typicality' result to systems which are not necessarily small.

  20. Multi-Hypothesis Modelling Capabilities for Robust Data-Model Integration (United States)

    Walker, A. P.; De Kauwe, M. G.; Lu, D.; Medlyn, B.; Norby, R. J.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.; Weston, D. J.; Ye, M.; Zaehle, S.


    Large uncertainty is often inherent in model predictions due to imperfect knowledge of how to describe the mechanistic processes (hypotheses) that a model is intended to represent. Yet this model hypothesis uncertainty (MHU) is often overlooked or informally evaluated, as methods to quantify and evaluate MHU are limited. MHU is increased as models become more complex because each additional processes added to a model comes with inherent MHU as well as parametric unceratinty. With the current trend of adding more processes to Earth System Models (ESMs), we are adding uncertainty, which can be quantified for parameters but not MHU. Model inter-comparison projects do allow for some consideration of hypothesis uncertainty but in an ad hoc and non-independent fashion. This has stymied efforts to evaluate ecosystem models against data and intepret the results mechanistically because it is not simple to interpret exactly why a model is producing the results it does and identify which model assumptions are key as they combine models of many sub-systems and processes, each of which may be conceptualised and represented mathematically in various ways. We present a novel modelling framework—the multi-assumption architecture and testbed (MAAT)—that automates the combination, generation, and execution of a model ensemble built with different representations of process. We will present the argument that multi-hypothesis modelling needs to be considered in conjunction with other capabilities (e.g. the Predictive Ecosystem Analyser; PecAn) and statistical methods (e.g. sensitivity anaylsis, data assimilation) to aid efforts in robust data model integration to enhance our predictive understanding of biological systems.