WorldWideScience

Sample records for cambodia

  1. Cambodia's economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2008-01-01

    "This presentation is adapted from a Harvard KSG workshop held earlier this year on the Political Economy of "Binding Constraints to Growth" Cambodia Pilot for which I served as an External Panelist/Resource Person."

  2. Cambodia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper for Cambodia explores the implications for long-term sustainable growth from cross-country analysis of the sources of growth. Cambodia’s low labor productivity, inadequate and expensive infrastructure, and a cumbersome regulatory environment do not bode well for future sustainable growth. Favorable external conditions, including foreign aid flows and trade agreements, have helped propel growth. As with other transition economies, Cambodia lags in institutional and...

  3. China-Cambodia Friendship Association Delegation Visits Cambodia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Yan

    2014-01-01

    <正>To celebrate the 55th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations and the China-Cambodia Friendship Year,a delegation headed by Madame Gu Xiulian,President of the China-Cambodia Friendship Association(CCFA),visited Cambodia from 3-7 December 2013 at the invitation of Mr.Ek Sam O1,President of the Cambodia-China Friendship Association and Chairman of the Constitutional Council of Cambodia.

  4. Cambodia Sanitation Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This report synthesizes the technical assistance (TA) “Cambodia Sanitation Marketing” carried out by the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) from July 2011 to February 2015 in support of developing the rural sanitation market in Cambodia. It documents the results and lessons learned and makes recommendations to government on how - with support of development partners – the effe...

  5. Cambodia rehabilitates Kirirom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The China Electric Power Technology Import & Export Corporation (CETIC) has signed a US$ 26M contract with Cambodia's Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy (MIME) to rehabilitate the Kirirom 1 hydro project.

  6. Cambodia : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices within the corporate sector in Cambodia with reference to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), and the International Standards on Auditing (ISA) issued by the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). This assessment is positioned wi...

  7. CDM Country Guide for Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on Cambodia

  8. Preventing undernutrition in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick

    ). This complementary food diet is low in energy, nutrient-density, has poor vitamin and low mineral bioavailability. To better understand the consequences or impact of nutrition interventions on growth more reliable measurement techniques are required. Researchers have argued that measuring body composition...... is an ideal means for studying the long-term consequences of growth and nutrition in early age. The aim of the this thesis was therefore to assess the nutritional impact of formulated and locally produced complementary food products on body composition and linear growth in 6-15 months old Cambodian children......; to assess nutritional status in association to body composition in 6 and 15 months old Cambodian children; and the ability of local food items to prevent undernutrition and highlight the challenges in preventing undernutrition in Cambodia. In Paper I, we evaluated the efficacy of two new, rice...

  9. ALIS deployment in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2012-06-01

    Dual sensor is one of the most promising sensors for humanitarian demining operations. Conventional landmine detection depends on highly trained and focused human operators manually sweeping 1m2 plots with a metal detector and listening for characteristic audio signals indicating the presence of AP (Anti-personnel) landmines. In order to reduce the time of plodding detected objects, metal detectors need to be combined with a complimentary subsurface imaging sensor. i.e., GPR(Ground Penetrating Radar). The demining application requires real-time imaging results with centimetre resolution in a highly portable package. We are currently testing a dual sensor ALIS which is a real-time sensor tracking system based on a CCD camera and image processing. In this paper we introduce ALIS systems which we have developed for detection of buried antipersonnel mines and small size explosives. The performance of ALIS has been tested in Cambodia since 2009. More than 80 anti-personnel mines have been detected and removed from local agricultural area. ALIS has cleared more than 70,000 m2 area and returned it to local farmers.

  10. Sanitation Finance in Rural Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Andy

    2012-01-01

    This document presents the findings of a study on sanitation finance in Cambodia conducted for the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) with support from the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The overall objective of the assignment was to consider sustainable sanitation financing options with a focus on promoting access for the poorest. This guidance note contains an introduction on sanitation f...

  11. Introduction to "Mediating Chineseness in Cambodia"

    OpenAIRE

    Addendum by Penny Edwards; Lorraine Paterson

    2012-01-01

    In 1981, social anthropologist William Willmott declared, “Today, no-one identifies themselves as Chinese in Kampuchea [Cambodia]” (1981:45). He certainly had the authority to publish such a statement. Having conducted sustained fieldwork on Chinese community formation in Cambodia from 1962 to 1963, Willmott offered an unprecedented examination of social structures, political organization, and patterns of identification among urban Chinese in his monographs, The Chinese in Cambodia (1967) and...

  12. Burkholderia pseudomallei Antibodies in Children, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Pheaktra, Ngoun; Putchhat, Hor; Sin, Lina; Sen, Bun; Kumar, Varun; Langla, Sayan; Peacock, Sharon J.; Nicholas P. Day

    2008-01-01

    Antibodies to Burkholderia pseudomallei were detected in 16% of children in Siem Reap, Cambodia. This organism was isolated from 30% of rice paddies in the surrounding vicinity. Despite the lack of reported indigenous cases, melioidosis is likely to occur in Cambodia.

  13. Critical Literacy in Elementary Education in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Vichea

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on a quest for insights into the introduction and negotiation of critical literacy in elementary education in Cambodia, whose recent past was scarred by devastating conflicts and wars. In this study, critical education is seen as a key to avoiding the reproduction of an unwanted past and minimizing social injustice in Cambodia.…

  14. Revisiting Primary School Dropout in Rural Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, Fata; Sam, Chanphirun; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on school dropout in Cambodia often used data from subjects after they already dropped out or statistics from education-related institutions. Using data from children in two rural provinces before they dropped out, this study examines four main factors in order to identify their influence on primary school dropout in Cambodia.…

  15. Cambodia: Country Poverty Analysis 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    Cambodia’s new national poverty lines show higher historical poverty rates and a dramatic decline in poverty during the 2007–2009 global financial crisis. With 18.9% of the population being poor in 2012, Cambodia now counts among the countries with the most rapid poverty reduction in the world. However, many people moved only slightly above the poverty line—remaining highly vulnerable—and poverty is increasing both in urban areas and according to the international poverty line of $2 per day. ...

  16. Otter Training Workshop Phnomh Penh, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Ahmad Khan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available International Otter Survival Fund (IOSF, Conservation International (CI and IUCN Otter Specialist Group (OSG jointly organized an 8-day International Workshop on Asian Otter Conservation in Phnom Penh, Cambodia from February 24 to March 03, 2009. The main objective of the workshop was to raise the interest and awareness about otters and their conservation in Cambodia and to train Cambodian University students in otter research. However, a few international students and researchers were also invited to share their experiences.

  17. Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2011-01-01

    The use of quality seed is a major component of increased yields in crop production. Quality seed and seed programs in a country does not emerge by happenstance; it is created by a combination of many factors that include variety development, seed production, quality control, processing, marketing, and governmental oversight. As the seed sector in a country matures, each of these factors b...

  18. Molecular Surveillance for Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Naman K; Alker, Alisa P.; Sem, Rithy; Susanti, Agustina Ika; Muth, Sinuon; Maguire, Jason D.; Duong, Socheat; Ariey, Frederic; Meshnick, Steven R.; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2008-01-01

    We conducted surveillance for multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia during 2004–2006 by assessing molecular changes in pfmdr1. The high prevalence of isolates with multiple pfmdr1 copies found in western Cambodia near the Thai border, where artesunate–mefloquine therapy failures occur, contrasts with isolates from eastern Cambodia, where this combination therapy remains highly effective.

  19. Introduction to "Mediating Chineseness in Cambodia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addendum by Penny Edwards

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1981, social anthropologist William Willmott declared, “Today, no-one identifies themselves as Chinese in Kampuchea [Cambodia]” (1981:45. He certainly had the authority to publish such a statement. Having conducted sustained fieldwork on Chinese community formation in Cambodia from 1962 to 1963, Willmott offered an unprecedented examination of social structures, political organization, and patterns of identification among urban Chinese in his monographs, The Chinese in Cambodia (1967 and The Political Structure of the Chinese Community in Cambodia (1970. However, subsequent to his research, Chinese communities suffered terribly during the repression of the Lon Nol government between 1970 and 1975 and the atrocities of the Democratic Kampuchea regime. Willmott thus declared Chinese communities—and a willingness to identify as Chinese—destroyed. This understandably pessimistic vision turned out to be unfounded; the next extensive research done on Chinese in Cambodia by Penny Edwards and Chan Sambath in 1995 showed Chinese communities rebuilding. However, the descriptions of these communities showed a complexity of identity formation—from recent immigrants, “the raw Chinese,” to the five “traditional” Chinese dialect groups—that differed markedly from the indexes of identity applied by Willmott in his initial analysis. Academic ideas of how Chineseness should be configured had shifted and complicated; ascribing identity had become increasingly problematic...

  20. Marxist Educational Theory: Reflections in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, James S.

    1985-01-01

    It is proposed that Cambodia's recent government actions toward education and the educated are incongruous with the humanism of Marxist theory, and that Marxist educational theories fail because they are based on a general failure of knowledge demonstrated in Marxist ideology. (MSE)

  1. English in Cambodia: Changes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephen H.; Bounchan, Suksiri

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports research undertaken at a prestigious university in Phnom Penh in late 2007. The views of lecturers who teach the BEd (TEFL) degree and their students were canvassed in relation to the status of English in Cambodia. The students completed a questionnaire probing their views on the notion of a Cambodian English, as well as their…

  2. Consumer Loans in Cambodia: Implications on Banking Stability

    OpenAIRE

    MENG, Channarith

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the fast development of consumer loans including housing loans in Cambodia to check whether or not such a development posts any stability risk to banking system in Cambodia. Using stress-testing method, the paper finds that current level of consumer loans provided by banks does yet creates a big threat to the banking stability in Cambodia. Rather, the surge reflects consequences of positive development in the banking system and economy as a whole, including the rise of mid...

  3. Pollution Prevention Pays: Pollution Charges in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Sideth Muong

    2006-01-01

    Across the developing world, governments are grappling with the problem of industrial pollution. A new report from Cambodia looks into a system of pollution levies that would encourage polluting firms to clean up their emissions. This study sets out a series of charges that are projected to produce pollution reductions of up to 85%. It recommends a number of regulatory and administrative changes that would help bring about such an outcome.

  4. Economy and Environment: Case Studies in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce McKenney

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of four research projects that apply economic analysis to Cambodia's environmental problems. They assess the importance of income from forest products; impacts of agricultural chemical use; impacts from the proliferation of the Mimosa pigra weed; and conversion of flooded forests for rice production. The projects were carried out by teams of Cambodian researchers from government and non-government organizations.

  5. A Multimedia Approach to ODL for Agricultural Training in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunfeld, Helena; Ng, Maria Lee Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Open distance learning (ODL) has long been an important option for formal and non-formal education (NFE) in most developed and developing countries, but less so in post-conflict countries, including Cambodia. However, in Cambodia there is now greater awareness that ODL can complement traditional face-to-face educational approaches, particularly as…

  6. Review of the subfamily Aganainae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) from Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Ulziijargal Bayarsaikhan; Sol-Moon Na; Yang-Seop Bae

    2016-01-01

    The subfamily Aganainae is reviewed for the first time from Cambodia. Fifteen species of five genera are recognized from Cambodia. Key and diagnoses for the genera and all species are provided. The adults and genitalia are illustrated for all examined species.

  7. Cambodia - Sharing growth : Equity and Development in Cambodia, Equity Report 2007

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Cambodia's changing distribution of income-related outcomes is consistent with the process of transition from a planned to an open market economy, and the accompanying growth of incomes. This transformation has promoted better resource reallocation, expanded the spectrum of gainful activities, and widened the distribution of earnings. Aided by robust economic growth and improved capacity f...

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Hemoglobinopathies in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkongdee, Thongperm; Tanakulmas, Jatuporn; Butthep, Punnee; Winichagoon, Pranee; Main, Barbara; Yiannakis, Miriam; George, Joby; Devenish, Robyn; Fucharoen, Suthat; Svasti, Saovaros

    2016-06-01

    Determining the magnitude of the thalassemia problem in a country is important for implementing a national prevention and control program. In order to acquire accurate thalassemia prevalence data, the gene frequency of α- and β-thalassemia (α- and β-thal) in different regions of a country should be determined. The molecular basis of thalassemia in Cambodia was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques in a community-based cross-sectional survey of 1631 unrelated individuals from three regions, Battambang, Preah Vihear and Phnom Penh. Thalassemia mutations were detected in 62.7% of the three studied population of Cambodia. Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A) was the most common β-globin gene mutation with a frequency ranging from 0.139 to 0.331, while the most frequent α-globin gene mutation was the -α(3.7) (rightward) deletion (0.098-0.255). The other frequencies were 0.001-0.003 for β-thal, 0.008-0.011 for α-thal-1 (- -(SEA)), 0.003-0.008 for α-thal-2 [-α(4.2) (leftward deletion)], 0.021-0.044 for Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, HBA2: c.427T > C) and 0.009-0.036 for Hb Paksé (HBA2: c.429A > T). A regional specific thalassemia gene frequency was observed. Preah Vihear had the highest prevalence of Hb E (55.9%), α-thal-2 (24.0%) and nondeletional α-thal (15.1%), whereas Phnom Penh had the lowest frequency of thalassemia genes. Interestingly, in Preah Vihear, the frequency of Hb Paksé was extremely high (0.036), almost equivalent to that of Hb CS (0.044). Our results indicate the importance of micromapping and epidemiology studies of thalassemia, which will assist in establishing the national prevention and control program in Cambodia. PMID:27117566

  9. Drought Monitoring for Rice Production in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Nyda Chhinh; Andrew Millington

    2015-01-01

    Rice production underpins the national economy and the most rural livelihoods in Cambodia, but it is negatively impacted by repeated droughts. The research reported on in this paper focuses on relationships between drought occurrences in Cambodia’s most drought-prone province (Kampong Speu) and (i) damage to the annual rice harvest between 1994 and 2011, and (ii) the Niño 3.4 index. Droughts were identified using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI). In seven of the years between 1994 ...

  10. Caring for the Dead Ritually in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Clifford Holt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Buddhist conceptions of the after-life, and prescribed rites in relation to the dead, were modified adaptations of brahman ical patterns of religious culture in ancient India. In this article, I demonstrate how Buddhist conceptions, rites and dispositions have been sustained and transformed in a contemporary annual ritual of rising importance in Cambodia, pchum ben. I analyze phcum ben to determine its fundamental importance to the sustenance and coherence of the Khmer family and national identity. Pchum ben is a 15-day ritual celebrated toward the end of the three-month monastic rain retreat season each year. During these 15 days, Buddhist laity attend ritually to the dead, providing special care for their immediately departed kin and other more recently deceased ancestors. The basic aim of pchum ben involves making a successful transaction of karma transfer to one’s dead kin, in order to help assuage their experiences of suffering. The proximate catalyst for pchum ben’s current popularity is recent social and political history in Southeast Asia, especially the traumatic events that occurred nationally in Cambodia during the early 1970s through the 1980s when the country experienced a series of convulsions. Transformations in religious culture often stand in reflexive relationship to social and political change.

  11. Khmeriosicyos, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.; Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new monotypic genus from Cambodia is described. The genus is defined by a unique combination of characters and has distinct pollen features. The only species is Khmeriosicyos harmandii W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes.

  12. Gender Equality in the Labor Market in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    Based on an analysis of gender inequalities, strategies and promising initiatives to counter gender discrimination and promote equality between men and women in Cambodia, Kazakhstan, and the Philippines, as well as an inventory of global good legal, economic, and social practices, this report summarizes the findings and recommendations for Cambodia. It shows how to improve equitable employment opportunities, remuneration and treatment for women and men at work to support the development of de...

  13. New Media and Political Participation of Cambodia Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Chan Sovannara

    2015-01-01

    The project conducts in close scope of using new media for political participation within Cambodia. Cambodia is a developing country in Southeast East, and its latest National Assembly election is done in July 2013 in the circumstance that new media are well used for political involvements among young citizens. The goal of this project is to contribute the powerful keynotes to understand the interaction of media in politics for democratic development. With the rational background on the integ...

  14. Cambodia: Diversifying Beyond Garments and Tourism: Country Diagnostic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    Cambodia has enjoyed over 2 decades of robust growth, with rising foreign investment and deepening integration into global and regional value chains. The country—once riven by civil war and conflict—is now politically stable and increasingly making its mark as the world’s eighth-largest rice producer, Asia’s 10thlargest garment exporter, and a rising tourist destination. Yet Cambodia faces considerable challenges. It suffers from major infrastructure deficits; limited skills development and e...

  15. Cross-border labour migration in Cambodia considerations for the national employment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Tunon, Max; Rim, Khleang

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on existing research and materials, particularly the MOLVT's policy on labour migration for Cambodia, and an assessment of Cambodia's labour migration policies, legal framework and institutions, commissioned by the GMS TRIANGLE project in 2011.

  16. A Bibliographic Foray into Documents and Publications Relating to Peacekeeping in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, MacGregor

    1996-01-01

    Examines the publications, documents, and other materials relating to peacekeeping in Cambodia. Focuses on the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia as a part in the development of the United Nations peacekeeping missions. Evaluates sources concerning operations within Cambodia. Identifies resources of international government…

  17. Collaborative Development of Anatomy Workshops for Medical and Dental Students in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jennifer A.; Ivanusic, Jason J.; le Roux, Cara M.; Hatzopoulos, Kate; Gonsalvez, David; Hong, Someth; Durward, Callum

    2011-01-01

    After Phnom Penh was liberated from the Khmer Rouge in 1979, health science education in Cambodia had to be completely rebuilt. In this article, the authors report the results of a teaching collaboration between the University of Melbourne (Australia), the International University (Cambodia), and the University of Health Sciences (Cambodia). The…

  18. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations. PMID:22702421

  19. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations.

  20. "Research in Cambodia, Half a Century Ago: An Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Group"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Willmott

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Association at the Association for Asian Studies Annual Conference in Toronto, March 16, 2012This event has given me the opportunity to return to almost the beginning of my academic career: my doctoral fieldwork in Cambodia fifty years ago. (It was preceded by fieldwork in an Inuit community in the Ungava, Northern Canada; not relevant here. Rereading my publications from that research has allowed me to relive the excitement of my Cambodian year, living with my wife and child in Phnom Penh apart from a month in Siem Reap, where I could hire a cyclo for ten riels and visit the various ruins of Angkor every afternoon. Research on overseas Chinese was informed by different paradigms in those days. Bill Skinner was a leading thinker in the field, and Maurice Freedman, my mentor and supervisor, was another. Our issues focused on community social structure and nationalism—many of us were supporters of the national liberation movements in Southeast Asian countries. For most of us, Chinese identity was simply a methodological issue...

  1. Cambodia: From Dependency to Sovereignty - Emerging National Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Mcnamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the millennium leading up to its days of glory and regional leadership under the iconic Angkor empire, and even in the centuries of dependence since, Cambodia has often benefited significantly from the influence of its patrons, starting with traders from India who sailed up the Mekong at the beginning of a magnificent water transport system including an inland sea. Most recently such benefits have been from global and multilateral sources. Equally, due to its pivotal strategic location at the centre of the South-East corner of Asia, Cambodia has also suffered, at times enormously, from the competing influences of a plethora of well-intentioned but radically different influences: religious, cultural, linguistic, imperial, political, ideological and educational. This article will review the educational system of Cambodia and the issues that come with achieving political and now psychological freedom from dependence on foreign dominance and tutelage.

  2. Drought Monitoring for Rice Production in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyda Chhinh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice production underpins the national economy and the most rural livelihoods in Cambodia, but it is negatively impacted by repeated droughts. The research reported on in this paper focuses on relationships between drought occurrences in Cambodia’s most drought-prone province (Kampong Speu and (i damage to the annual rice harvest between 1994 and 2011, and (ii the Niño 3.4 index. Droughts were identified using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI. In seven of the years between 1994 and 2006 droughts damaged >1000 ha of rice in the Kampong Speu province. Furthermore, in 11 years >200 ha of rice were damaged. A critical success index of 0.66 obtained for an analysis of SPI-defined drought and area rice damage in the province indicates a strong statistical relationship. A statistically significant correlation (r = −0.455 was achieved between Niño 3.4 and 12-month SPI values lagged by three months, this indicates the importance of ENSO linkages in explaining drought in this region. Late season droughts lead to greater rice damage than early- and mid-season droughts.

  3. Soils under conservation agriculture with vegetables in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallholder vegetable farmers in Siem Reap, Cambodia experienced declining crop productivity. It could be a result of a mixture of factors such as nutrient and pest problems and extreme weather events such as droughts and/or heavy rains. The no-till, continuous mulch and diverse species principles o...

  4. The Rice Industry in Cambodia: Production, Marketing Systems, and Impediments to Improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Surendra P.; Ekanem, Enefiok; Tegegne, Fisseha; Muhammad, Safdar

    2007-01-01

    Rice is not only the staple food crop in Cambodia , but its production and marketing play a major activity in the Cambo­dian economy. This paper discusses the current status of the rice industry, rice marketing systems, and constraints that must be removed as Cambodia attempts to develop its rice industry. The rice market in Cambodia is characterized by a high degree of fragmentation and inefficiency. The costs associated with constraints and problems add to consumer costs, reduce farmer pri...

  5. Characteristics of youth sexual and reproductive health and risky behaviors in two rural provinces of Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Jaime R; Mukaire, Pamela E; Mataya, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    Background The global number of youths has risen with a majority living in Southeast Asia. In Cambodia, rural youths often face difficult barriers to health, which include lack of sexual and reproductive health knowledge, information, and services. Risky behaviors are a threat to the health of many young people in Cambodia. Methods We studied a sample of 300 youths to describe sexual and reproductive health characteristics and risky behaviors in two rural provinces of Cambodia. Using a multi-...

  6. The Political Economy of Pro-Poor Livestock Policy in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of how livestock policies are made and implemented in a national context, and how they can be improved to better serve the interests of the poor in Cambodia. Opportunities exist for improving rural livelihoods in Cambodia through the export of livestock. While Cambodia claims little of the official export market for cattle, huge demand exists within the region and beyond. Three strategic entry points are recommended that can both improve the performance of the...

  7. An Empirical Investigation of Purchasing Power Parity for a Transition Economy - Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Venus Khim-Sen Liew; Tuck Cheong Tang

    2009-01-01

    This study has found an empirical support of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) theory for an East Asia transition economy – Cambodia. It is based on the results of cointegration among KHR/USD, Cambodia CPI, and world CPI over the monthly period May 2001-February 2009. This finding is useful for policy implications i.e. de-dollarization (and exchange rates) policy designs in Cambodia.

  8. Chinese Autos' Debut in Cambodia--Let more Cambodians know high-quality Chinese products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xiong; Phnom Penh

    2005-01-01

    @@ The 3rd Mudan Cup China International Auto Exhibition (Vietnam & Cambodia) was held in January 28, 2005 in Phnom Penh Hotel. This is the first debut of Chinese autos in Cambodia. 11 buses, 12 seats tourism vans, cargo vans and trucks and 9 motorcycles of different brands showed Cambodians the real Chinese famous brands and high-quality automobiles. The 3rd "Mudan Cup"China International Auto Exhibition Tour was organized by the Society of Automotive Engineers of China, Department of Media and Press of CCPIT, Cambodia Tang Ren International Co., Ltd.,Cambodia Kaide Trade Co., Ltd. andChina Grand River Group.

  9. Chinese Autos' Debut in Cambodia--Let more Cambodians know high-quality Chinese products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; Xiong; Phnom; Penh

    2005-01-01

      The 3rd Mudan Cup China International Auto Exhibition (Vietnam & Cambodia) was held in January 28, 2005 in Phnom Penh Hotel. This is the first debut of Chinese autos in Cambodia. 11 buses, 12 seats tourism vans, cargo vans and trucks and 9 motorcycles of different brands showed Cambodians the real Chinese famous brands and high-quality automobiles. The 3rd "Mudan Cup"China International Auto Exhibition Tour was organized by the Society of Automotive Engineers of China, Department of Media and Press of CCPIT, Cambodia Tang Ren International Co., Ltd.,Cambodia Kaide Trade Co., Ltd. andChina Grand River Group.……

  10. Book Reviews : International Democracy Assistance for Peacebuilding: Cambodia and Beyond, by Sorpong Peou. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007 and Dancing in Shadows: Sihanouk, The Khmer Rouge, and the United Nations in Cambodia. By Benny Widyono. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008.

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2008-01-01

    Book review of "International democracy assistance for peacebuilding: Cambodia and beyond" by Sorpong Peou and "Dancing in the shadows: Sihanouk, the Khmer Rouge, and the United Nations in Cambodia" by Benny Widyono.

  11. "Almost a role model of what we would like to do everywhere": British American Tobacco in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie, R.; Collin, J.; Sopharo, C; Sopheap, Y

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To examine British American Tobacco's (BAT's) renewed interest in Cambodia from the early 1990s, reviewing negotiations to establish a joint venture and the subsequent conduct of BAT Cambodia (BATC).

  12. Prodasineura hoffmanni sp. nov. (Odonata, Platycnemididae, Disparoneurinae) from eastern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterin, Oleg E

    2015-01-01

    Prodasineura hoffmanni sp. nov. is described from Annamense Mountains in eastern Cambodia (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, 4.2 km SE of Dak Dam village, 12°23'10-18'' N 107°19'22-30'' E, 877-878 m asl, 14. VI. 2014, RMNH). The species has a blue pattern, and the male is characterised by medium-broad blue stripes on synthorax and blue colour at the end of the abdomen confined to a tiny spot on S9, dorsum of S10 and cerci. A female of P. doisuthepensis Hoess, 2007 is described. Based on original descriptions, the following synonymy is proposed: Prodasineura fujianensis Xu, 2006 = Prodasineura huai Zhou et Zhou, 2007, syn. n.

  13. Microgomphus alani (Odonata, Gomphidae) sp. nov. from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterin, Oleg E

    2016-01-01

    Microgomphus alani sp. nov. is described from two males from the coastal southwestern foothills of the Cardamom Mts. in southwestern Cambodia (type locality: Cambodia, Koh Kong Province, 17 km ENE of Koh Kong, 'Macromia Rivulet', 11°40'17'' N, 103°07'28'' E, 296 m a.s.l., 3 vi 2014, RMNH). The species is characterised by its small size (hindwing 21-23 mm), cerci with outer angulations, truncated apices and crescent-shaped inner arms sprouting from their middle and not reaching their apices, synthorax with two parallel black lateral stripes and dorsal and collar yellow stripes fused in 7-like manner. Probably females of the same species were earlier reported from Phrae Province in northern Thailand. PMID:27395135

  14. Prodasineura hoffmanni sp. nov. (Odonata, Platycnemididae, Disparoneurinae) from eastern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterin, Oleg E

    2015-01-01

    Prodasineura hoffmanni sp. nov. is described from Annamense Mountains in eastern Cambodia (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, 4.2 km SE of Dak Dam village, 12°23'10-18'' N 107°19'22-30'' E, 877-878 m asl, 14. VI. 2014, RMNH). The species has a blue pattern, and the male is characterised by medium-broad blue stripes on synthorax and blue colour at the end of the abdomen confined to a tiny spot on S9, dorsum of S10 and cerci. A female of P. doisuthepensis Hoess, 2007 is described. Based on original descriptions, the following synonymy is proposed: Prodasineura fujianensis Xu, 2006 = Prodasineura huai Zhou et Zhou, 2007, syn. n. PMID:26624197

  15. Rural household incomes and land grabbing in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Theilade, Ida

    2015-01-01

    local livelihoods are highly reliant on access to land and natural resources, supported by qualitative data from focus group discussions. Gini coefficient decomposition, multiple regression models, and propensity score matching (PSM) models were employed to analyze the composition of income portfolios......This paper empirically quantifies environmentally augmented rural household incomes in Cambodia and analyzes how economic land concessions (ELCs) affect such incomes. Data is derived from a structured survey of 600 randomly selected households in 15 villages in three study sites in Cambodia, where......, determinants of major income sources, and the impacts of land grabbing on incomes. Results documented high reliance on environmental income (32–35% of total household income) and farm income (51–53%) across income quartiles; demonstrated the variation in product composition across quartiles...

  16. Evaluation test of ALIS in Cambodia for humanitarian demining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Motoyuki

    2010-04-01

    ALIS is a hand-held dual sensor developed by Tohoku University, Japan since 2002. Dual sensor is a general name of sensor for humanitarian demining, which are equipped with metal detector and GPR. ALIS is only one hand-held dual sensor, which can record the sensor position with sensor signals. Therefore, the data can be processed after data acquisition, and can increase the imaging capability. ALIS has been tested in some mine affected courtiers including Afghanistan (2004), Egypt(2005), Croatia(2006-) and Cambodia(2007-). Mine fields at each country has different conditions and soil types. Therefore testes at the real mine fields are very important. ALIS has detected more than 30 AP-Mines in evaluation test in Cambodia held in 2009.

  17. Characteristics of the Rice Marketing System in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Hang, Chuon Chamrong; Suzuki, Nobuhiko

    2005-01-01

    Although Cambodia achieved an overall self-sufficiency in rice supply in 1995, many obstacles such as poor roads and illigal fee collections by government officials increase the marketing costs and create distribution barriers to deficit areas. Farmers' income remains very low because they have poor bargaining power for rice price formation due to limited chances to meet buyers and not much information of agro-product prices anailale. Some collections dominate the marketing by lending money, ...

  18. Cambodia: Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Assessment, Strategy and Roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2012-01-01

    Access to improved water supply, sanitation, and hygiene results in economic development and poverty reduction; ensures food safety and better livelihoods; preserves the environment; reduces health burden; improves school enrollment and retention rates, especially for girls; and empowers communities and provides opportunities for women. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has prepared a sector assessment, strategy, and road map for the water supply and sanitation sector in Cambodia. Aside from a...

  19. Irregular Migration from Cambodia: Characteristics, Challenges, and Regulatory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hing, Vutha; Lun, Pide; Phann, Dalis

    2011-01-01

    The study examines the characteristics, root causes, and challenges of irregular migration from Cambodia and then discusses the regulatory approaches and policy options to manage it. It employed mixed approaches, including a survey of 507 households in six high-migration villages, focus group discussions with returned and intending migrant workers, and in-depth interviews with government officers, migration experts, and local community chiefs. The study found that irregular migration has been...

  20. A Multimedia Approach to ODL for Agricultural Training in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Grunfeld

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Open distance learning (ODL has long been an important option for formal and non-formal education (NFE in most developed and developing countries, but less so in post-conflict countries, including Cambodia. However, in Cambodia there is now greater awareness that ODL can complement traditional face-to-face educational approaches, particularly as there is a shortage of teachers in the country. Thus, understanding how ODL can achieve learning and other objectives has important implications for both formal education and NFE. If it can be found to be effective, ODL has the potential of reaching a large number of people at comparatively lower average costs. This paper reports on a project where the same content was taught to farmers in Cambodia via traditional face-to-face and via ODL and compares outcomes between the different training methods. Exploring the extent to which farmers had adopted new farm practices taught in the course, our results indicate that the outcomes did not vary considerably between those trained using the different approaches.

  1. Potential for rural electrification based on biomass gasification in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hitofumi [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Katayama, Akio [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Nippon Koei Co. Ltd., Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Sah, Bhuwneshwar P. [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Pasco Corporation, Tokyo 153-0043 (Japan); Toriu, Tsuyoshi [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Sojitz Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo 107-0052 (Japan); Samy, Sat; Pheach, Phon [Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy, Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Adams, Mark A. [School of Biological Earth and Environmental Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Grierson, Pauline F. [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2007-09-15

    Around 76% of the 10,452 villages of Cambodia will still be without electricity in the year 2010. We examined the potential of biomass gasification fuelled by alternative resources of agricultural residues and woody biomass to increase rural power supply, using geographic and social economic databases provided by the Royal Government of Cambodia. About 77% of villages currently without electricity have sufficient land available for tree planting for electricity generation based on a requirement of 0.02 ha per household. Among 8008 villages with sufficient land, we assumed that those villages that had greater than 10% of households owning a television (powered by a battery or a generator) would have both a high electricity demand and a capacity to pay for electricity generation. Those 6418 villages were considered appropriate candidates for mini-grid installation by biomass gasification. This study demonstrated that while agricultural residues such as rice husks or cashew nut shells may have high energy potential, only tree farming or plantations would provide sufficient sustainable resources to supply a biomass gasification system. Cost per unit electricity generation by biomass gasification is less than diesel generation when the plant capacity factor exceeds 13%. In order to ensure long-term ecological sustainability as well as appropriate tree-farming technology for farmers, there is an urgent need for studies aimed at quantifying biomass production across multiple rotations and with different species across Cambodia. (author)

  2. The Investment Climate Assessment 2014 : Creating Opportunities for Firms in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; Asian Development Bank

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, Cambodia has more than halved its rate of poverty thanks to economic growth averaging 8 percent per annum, strong export performance, and positive changes to the investment climate. Cambodia is an attractive investment destination as it is strategically located at the center of Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), creating significant opportunities for int...

  3. "A Frog in a Well": The Exclusion of Disabled People from Work in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Based on ethnographic research conducted in north-west Cambodia in 2000-2001, this paper examines why disabled people experience systematic marginalisation in the labour market. Although there are no official data on the relationship between disability and employment status in Cambodia, this research suggests that disabled people are more likely…

  4. What lessons for peacekeeping can be drawn from the UN experience in Cambodia?

    OpenAIRE

    Hinze, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    Contents: Introduction; Background of the Conflict in Cambodia; The Paris Agreement – a Roadmap for UNTAC; 'Mission Impossible?' - The Situation in Cambodia before UNTAC; Difficulties to evaluate Peacekeeping Operations; The Analysis of the Mission; The Involvement and Performance of the UN Headquarter; Success and Failure of UNTAC; Conclusions.

  5. Unsystematic Technology Adoption in Cambodia: Students' Perceptions of Computer and Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jayson W.; Nash, John B.; Flora, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to understand how upper secondary school students in Cambodia perceive the use of computers and the Internet. Data were collected from students in three urban upper secondary schools (n = 1,137) in Cambodia using questionnaires. The data indicate that the more exposure a Cambodian student had to computers and the Internet…

  6. Two Views of Education: Promoting Civic and Moral Values in Cambodia Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the Cambodian government's attempt to promote civic and moral values in Cambodia schools through the subject "Civics and Morals". The paper argues that the tensions and challenges associated with civic and moral education are linked to a fundamental difference between the traditional view of education in Cambodia, and the…

  7. The Problem of "Choice" and the Construction of the Demand for English in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses Cambodia as a case study to problematise the notion of choice in the spread of English. I explore specific historical contexts which were central to the construction of the demand for English and English language teaching (ELT) in Cambodia. The actions of a range of external agencies resulted in the close discursive articulation of…

  8. Enhancing Aid Effectiveness in Education through a Sector-Wide Approach in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Since 2001 the government of Cambodia has striven to advance policy-led education reform based on a sector-wide approach. This paper critically reviews the status and progress of Cambodia's education reform from the perspective of the aid's effectiveness. The paper looks at the performance of the sector reform in the three priority areas…

  9. Is Something Better than Nothing? An Evaluation of Early Childhood Programs in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Pearson, Veronica; Pearson, Emma; Liu, Hongyun; Constas, Mark A.; Engle, Patrice L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of home-based, community-based, and state-run early childhood programs across Cambodia. A total of 880 five-year-olds (55% girls) from 6 rural provinces in Cambodia attending State Preschools, Community Preschools, Home-Based Programs, or no programs were assessed twice using the Cambodian…

  10. Educational Policy Trajectories in an Era of Globalization: Singapore and Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically discusses the educational policy trajectories of Singapore and Cambodia in an era of globalization. Drawing upon David Johnson's five metaphors to describe the historical and political forces that shape educational policy trajectories, the paper argues that Cambodia's current educational policy trajectory is characterized by…

  11. Time to unsuccessful tuberculosis treatment outcome, Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoa, N B; Sokun, C; Wei, C;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and characteristics of patients with unsuccessful tuberculosis (TB) treatment. METHODS: Random selection of TB case registers among all treatment units in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam. The data of two calendar years were analyzed to assess...... unsuccessful outcomes and their time of occurrence. RESULTS: Among the 33 309 TB patients, treatment was unsuccessful in respectively 10.1%, 3.0% and 9.1% of patients in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam. The risk of death was highest in Cambodia, higher among males than females, increased with age, and was more...... common among retreatment cases than new cases, and among patients with a high than a low sputum smear microscopy grade. Half of all deaths occurred in the first 2 months in Cambodia and within 11 weeks in China and Viet Nam. Median time to default was 3 months in Cambodia and Viet Nam, and about 2 months...

  12. Using wood residues as biomass for cooking energy in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sophanarith; Koike, Masao (Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan)); Nophea Sasaki (Graduate School of Applied Informatics, University of Hyogo, Kobe (Japan))

    2007-07-01

    Due to rapid deforestation and fast growing population over the last three decades, a future shortfall of wood supply (wood and firewood) is expected in Cambodia. Therefore, alternative source of wood supply for cooking energy are needed. This alternative could potentially come from wood residues such as onsite and offsite residues. The aim of this report is to develop a modeling tool that can be used to estimate wood residues from logging (onsite) and wood processing (offsite), and to explore an appropriate system for distributing the wood residues in Cambodia. We analyze potential wood residues in evergreen, mixed and deciduous forests in Cambodia. For comparison, total wood residues are analyzed under three forest management scenarios: Business as usual (BAUSU), long-term economic gains (LEGA) and climate beneficial option (CLIBO). Under the BAUSU, LEGA and CLIBO the potential onsite biomass is totally estimated at 1.67, 1.00, and 0.35 million Mg year' (1 Mg = 106 g = 1 ton), respectively. Total offsite (SW and VW) biomass per year is estimated at 1.00, 0.60, and 0.20 million Mg under the BAUSU, LEGA and CLIBO, respectively. Total potential forest biomasses (onsite and offsite) are estimated at 2.68, 1.61 and 0.53 million Mg year' under BAUSU, LEGA and CLIBO, respectively. Our results suggested that, regardless of management scenarios forest biomasses are potentially available. Due to the fact that approximately 95% of Cambodian population depend mainly on fuel wood for daily cooking energy, effective system for distributing forest biomasses to the needed local population could greatly reduce the pressure on natural forest, which has been deforested and overexploited since the last few decades. (orig.)

  13. Water cycle observations in forest watersheds of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, A.; Tamai, K.; Kabeya, N.; Shimizu, T.; Iida, S. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Mekong River flows through Cambodia, where forests cover ~60% of the country and are believed to have a marked effect on the water cycle. These tropical seasonal forests in the Cambodian flat lands are very precious in the Indochinese Peninsula as few forests of this type remain. However, few hydrological observations have been conducted in these areas. In Cambodia, deciduous and evergreen forests make up 42% and 33% of the total forest area, respectively. We established experimental watersheds both in deciduous and evergreen forests containing meteorological observation towers in Cambodia and collected various observational data since 2003 (O'Krieng, deciduous forest watershed including a 30-m-high observation tower, 2,245 km2; Stung Chinit, evergreen forest watershed including a 60-m-high observation tower, 3,700 km2 including three small watersheds). The basic data from these sites included various kinds of information related to the composition of vegetation, soil characteristics, etc. Hydrologic data was collected and linked to the above data; the main hydrologic research results follow. The water budget for each watershed was determined using an observational rainfall and runoff dataset. The evapotranspiration rate in an evergreen forest was obtained using various observational methods including the Bowen energy-balance ratio and the bandpass eddy covariance method. The annual evapotranspiration of evergreen forests, estimated using the Bowen energy-balance ratio method and water balance, was about 1100-1200 mm, corresponding to 70-80% of annual rainfall. While considering the importance of the presence of evergreen forest, we conducted sap flow measurements to analyze the transpiration process that maintains water uptake through root systems that reach to depths exceeding 8 m. Characteristics of the evaporation from the forest floor that form an important element of the evaporation system were estimated in both evergreen and deciduous forests.

  14. Calming the mind: Healing after mass atrocity in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Inger

    2015-08-01

    After catastrophic events in which people's survival has been threatened, as happened during the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia 1975-1979, some continue to suffer from painful mental symptoms. Surveys carried out in Cambodia based on Western diagnostic categories have found a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms in the population. This study explored Cambodian approaches to healing trauma, examining the ways in which Cambodians appeal to elements of Buddhism in their efforts to calm their minds, situating this mode of coping in the context of broader Khmer Buddhist practice and understandings. Western psychology may have much to learn from local, contextualised methods of dealing with the aftermath of trauma, including Khmer understandings of distress and approaches to relief. Methods of assessment and treatment of distress cannot be transposed wholesale from one cultural setting to another but require considerable cultural adaptation. This kind of cultural interchange may give rise to innovative, hybrid discourses and methods that may have much to offer in the support of victims of organised violence. PMID:25653141

  15. Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients: a longitudinal study in Cambodia.

    OpenAIRE

    Espié, Emmanuelle; Pinoges, Loretxu; Balkan, Suna; Chanchhaya, Ngeth; Molfino, Lucas; Narom, Prak; Pujades-Rodríguez, Mar

    2010-01-01

    To describe the frequency of diagnosis of cryptococcosis among HIV-infected patients in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, at programme entry, to investigate associated risk factors, and to determine the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis.

  16. Carry Forward China-Cambodia Friendship and Console Our Great Friend with Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Norodom Sihanouk, the former king of Cambodia,passed away in Beijing on October 15, 2012-an event that caused particular grief to the people of Changyang Township. It was in Changyang that the China-Cambodia Friendship People’s Commune was established 41 years ago and much historical evidence of the profound friendship between the Chinese and Cambodian people remains.In 1971, the Cambodian people led by Prince Sihanouk were

  17. Factors Influencing Teaching Skills of Urban Primary School Teachers in Cambodia 【Article】

    OpenAIRE

    Sitha, Chhinh

    2002-01-01

    Currently, efforts to improve the quality of teachers in Cambodia are underway. To contribute infor-mation that can be used in the design of interventions, this study was conducted. Focus was on deter-mining the factors that influence teaching skills. Participants were 40 urban primary school teachers inCambodia. Data were gathered by questionnaire and classroom observations. Results of the correlationanalysis showed that teacher enthusiasm, teacher punctuality, pupil behavior, relation betwe...

  18. ABUSED AND ALONE : How to Meet the Challenge of Child Sexual Abuse in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to identify what special challenges the local communities in Cambodia meet concerning child sexual abuse and to find strategies to meet these challenges. Background: Since 1998 and the end of the civil war, IOM’s “Childhood Mental Health & Counter Trafficking Project” has worked to prevent child mental health problems in the Rattanak/Mondul District of Cambodia. In the year of 2004 it was stated by the Program Director Dr. Eng Samnang that one of their ...

  19. Access Denied: Structural Violence, Disability and Education : A Case Study on Cambodia's Invisible Children

    OpenAIRE

    Nordenrot, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Education is one of the main priorities for both past and present global development goals, and making sure access is granted to all children is vital. However, when looking at education for children with disabilities, access is not as easily provided as for their non-disabled peers. In Cambodia, children with disabilities have a strong legislative protection despite low enrolment rates. This thesis looks further into how, and why children with disabilities in Cambodia are not in school. The ...

  20. The long-term educational cost of war: evidence from landmine contamination in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Ouarda Merrouche

    2006-01-01

    The economic impact of war may be visible in the long run and particularly its impact on human capital. I use unique district level data on landmine contamination intensity in Cambodia combined with individual survey data to evaluate the long run cost of Cambodia's 30 years war (1970-1998) on education levels and earnings. These effects are identified using difference-in-differences (DD) and instrumental variables (IV) estimators. In the DD framework I exploit two sources of variation in an i...

  1. Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ilin; Samon, Nou; Uthaimongkol, Nichapat; Klungthong, Chonticha; Manasatienkij, Wudtichai; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Tyner, Stuart D.; Rith, Sareth; Horm, Viseth Srey; Jarman, Richard G.; Bethell, Delia; Chanarat, Nitima; Pavlin, Julie; Wongstitwilairoong, Tippa; Saingam, Piyaporn; El, But Sam; Fukuda, Mark M.; Touch, Sok; Sovann, Ly; Fernandez, Stefan; Buchy, Philippe; Chanthap, Lon; Saunders, David

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1–77) presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI) at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT) PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV) and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29%) and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in light of an increasingly important role of permissive mutations in influenza virus evolution. Further research about the burden of adenovirus and non-polio enteroviruses as etiologic agents in acute respiratory infections in Cambodia is also needed. PMID:27028323

  2. A review of the genus Cyana Walker, 1854 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) from Cambodia, with description of new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayarsaikhan, Ulziijargal; Bae, Yang-Seop

    2016-01-01

    Genus Cyana Walker, 1854, with 17 species in Cambodia, is reviewed. Among them, Cyana angkorensis Bayarsaikhan & Bae, sp. n. is described as new to science and 7 species are newly recorded from Cambodia. A key to the Cambodian species of the genus Cyana with illustrations of adults and genitalia is presented. PMID:27395140

  3. Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Susan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%, HCV (6.5%, and HIV (2.6% infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted. Methods We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines. Results Among the general population sample (n = 500, the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85% of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60 reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60, 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53% of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe

  4. Observed and projected changes in temperature and rainfall in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Chan Thoeun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and rainfall patterns in Cambodia are governed by monsoons and characterized by two major wet and dry seasons. The average annual rainfall is 1400 mm in the central low land regions and may reach 4000 mm in certain coastal zones or in highland areas. The annual average temperature is 28 °C, with an average maximum temperature of 38 °C in April and an average minimum temperature of 17 °C in January. This paper presents the climate change scenarios using MAGICC–SCENGEN program, which links emissions scenarios with global and regional climate change and has adopted the regional climate model (PRECIS in combination with a number of GCM models with resolution of 50×50 km, using observation data and two historical and future climate data sets generated by RCM model downscaling under the two emission scenarios SRES A2 and SRES B2. Projections of maximum and minimum temperatures and rainfall patterns from 2008 to 2099 are described. For future studies, daily data are required perform vulnerability and adaptation assessments.

  5. Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J.; Curtis, Jason H.; Kenney, William F.; Kolata, Alan L.; Peterson, Larry C.

    2012-01-01

    Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, 14C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change.

  6. Management of Mixed Deciduous Forest in Central Cambodia-A Case Study in Sandan District

    OpenAIRE

    Phat, Nophea Kim; Ouk, Syphan; Uozumi, Yuji; Ueki, Tatsuhito; Kim, Sophanarith

    2002-01-01

    Cambodia was one of the most heavily forested countries in the world, but a large proportion of forest has been destroyed as a result of wars and political instability over the past 30 years. Forest management in Cambodia has been difficult due to the lack of information on scientific research. It is believed that one of the key points to ensure the sustainable management of the forests is to understand their population dynamics. The aim of this paper is to provide useful information on the p...

  7. Asiagomphus reinhardti sp. nov. (Odonata, Gomphidae) from eastern Cambodia and southern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterin, Oleg E; Yokoi, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Asiagomphus reinhardti sp. nov. is described by two males from Annamense Mountains in eastern Cambodia (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, the left tributary of the main river downstream from Buu Sraa Waterfall, 12°34'01-19'' N 107°24'50''-25'03'' E, ca 450 m a.s.l., 15 vi 2014, RMNH) and southern Laos. The species is characterised by a large caudal lobe on S10 in males and a blunt medial lateroventral projection at cercus. PMID:27394611

  8. Climate Change Risks – Methodological Framework and Case Study of Damages from Extreme Events in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2016-01-01

    framework is applied to a case study of severe storms in Cambodia based on statistical information on past storm events including information about buildings damaged and victims. Despite there is limited data available on the probability of severe storm events under climate change as well on the actual...... damage costs associated with the events in the case of Cambodia, we are using the past storm events as proxy data in a sensitivity analysis. It is here demonstrated how key assumptions on future climate change, income levels of victims, and income distribution over time, reflected in discount rates...

  9. Challenges of Adopting the Use of Technology in Less Developed Countries: The Case of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jayson W.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Everett Rogers's theory of the diffusion of innovations, this article identifies the barriers, challenges, and successes in the adoption of technology training by teacher trainers in Cambodia. The analysis was based on data collected from an open-ended survey, face-to-face interviews, and document analysis. Findings reveal that the…

  10. Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

  11. Perinatal consumption of thiamine-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia. A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, is a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. The objective wa...

  12. Cambodia: Summary Report. The Impact of Informal School Fees. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    A prior study of costs of education in Cambodia was undertaken by Mark Bray in 1999. In his study he suggests that: "... the scale of dropout from Cambodian primary schools has been demonstrated to be high. Costs appear to be an important factor for many households when making decisions to withdraw their children from school." In that study,…

  13. Pneumococcal Infection among Children before Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Paul; Turner, Claudia; Suy, Kuong; Soeng, Sona; Ly, Sokeng; Miliya, Thyl; Goldblatt, David; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was initiated in Cambodia in 2015. To determine baseline data, we collected samples from children in 2013 and 2014. PCV13 serotypes accounted for 62.7% of colonizing organisms in outpatients and 88.4% of invasive pneumococci overall; multidrug resistance was common. Thus, effectiveness of vaccination should be high.

  14. Double inequity? The social dimensions of deforestation and forest protection in local communities in Northern Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya; Chea, Lily

    2013-01-01

    In Cambodia, numerous powerful drivers of land-use change threaten the remaining natural for-est and the livelihoods of local communities living on the forest periphery. In an attempt to protect remaining forests, Community Forestry (CF) and Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degrada...

  15. Multidrug-Resistant Shigella Infections in Patients with Diarrhea, Cambodia, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poramathikul, Kamonporn; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Chiek, Sivhour; Oransathid, Wilawan; Ruekit, Sirigade; Nobthai, Panida; Lurchachaiwong, Woradee; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Lon, Chanthap; Swierczewski, Brett

    2016-09-01

    We observed multidrug resistance in 10 (91%) of 11 Shigella isolates from a diarrheal surveillance study in Cambodia. One isolate was resistant to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins and showed decreased susceptibility to azithromycin. We found mutations in gyrA, parC, β-lactamase, and mphA genes. Multidrug resistance increases concern about shigellosis treatment options. PMID:27532684

  16. Multidrug-Resistant Shigella Infections in Patients with Diarrhea, Cambodia, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poramathikul, Kamonporn; Chiek, Sivhour; Oransathid, Wilawan; Ruekit, Sirigade; Nobthai, Panida; Lurchachaiwong, Woradee; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Lon, Chanthap; Swierczewski, Brett

    2016-01-01

    We observed multidrug resistance in 10 (91%) of 11 Shigella isolates from a diarrheal surveillance study in Cambodia. One isolate was resistant to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins and showed decreased susceptibility to azithromycin. We found mutations in gyrA, parC, β-lactamase, and mphA genes. Multidrug resistance increases concern about shigellosis treatment options. PMID:27532684

  17. Pneumococcal Infection among Children before Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul; Turner, Claudia; Suy, Kuong; Soeng, Sona; Ly, Sokeng; Miliya, Thyl; Goldblatt, David; Day, Nicholas P J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccination of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was initiated in Cambodia in 2015. To determine baseline data, we collected samples from children in 2013 and 2014. PCV13 serotypes accounted for 62.7% of colonizing organisms in outpatients and 88.4% of invasive pneumococci overall; multidrug resistance was common. Thus, effectiveness of vaccination should be high. PMID:26488597

  18. 78 FR 56832 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological Material From Cambodia From the Bronze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... Department of State made under the terms of the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act in... Cultural Property. CBP Dec. 08-40 contains the Designated List of archaeological material from Cambodia to.... law as the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act (Pub. L. 97-446, 19 U.S.C. 2601 et...

  19. Voice, Choice, and Decision 2 : A Study of Local Basic Service Delivery in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; The Asia Foundation

    2013-01-01

    The Voice, Choice and Decision (VCD): a study of local governance processes in Cambodia (VCD1) study, conducted in 2011, led to a set of useful insights into the channels through which citizens are heard in commune level decision-making. It presented the formal and informal framework for, and constraints to, citizens' voicing issues, and the overall downward accountability framework of com...

  20. Total and free available fluoride in toothpastes in Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, the Netherlands and Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Benzian; C.J. Holmgren; M. Buijs; C. van Loveren; F. van der Weijden; W.H. van Palenstein Helderman

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed total and free fluoride concentrations in samples of toothpaste from Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, the Netherlands and Suriname, and investigated the labelling practices of the respective manufacturers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Convenience samples were bought in the five coun

  1. Height, Zinc and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren: A Study in Cuba and Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brechje de Gier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia or hair (Cuba. We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001, while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029, but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051. Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  2. The Ethics of Survival: Teaching the Traditional Arts to Disadvantaged Children in Post-Conflict Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Alexis A.; Westerlund, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Cambodia's recent history of conflict and political instability has resulted in a recognized need to recover, regenerate, preserve and protect the nation's cultural heritage. Many education programmes catering for disadvantaged youth have implemented traditional Khmer music and dance lessons, suggesting that these programmes share the…

  3. Impact of School Readiness Program Interventions on Children's Learning in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Bredenberg, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the high repetition rates in early years of primary school, the government of Cambodia piloted a school readiness program (SRP) in the first two months of Grade 1 of primary school. This study examines whether such intervention has effects on students' immediate acquisition of school readiness skills as well as students' longer term…

  4. Distance Education Policy and Public Awareness in Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuth, Doung; Than, Chhuon Chan; Phanousith, Somphone; Phissamay, Phonpasit; Tai, Tran Thi

    2007-01-01

    The current project brings together academic and governmental specialists from Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam (CLV), in a collaborative study of the prospects for distance education (DE) in those countries. The study's overall objectives are to: (1) survey and take stock of existing educational scenarios and problems in CLV; (2) document the…

  5. Perinatal consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia: a randomized controlled efficacy trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Importance: Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamin deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where B-vitamin poor, polished white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamin intake reduces breast milk thiamin concentrations, placing breastfed infa...

  6. 柬埔寨IT业现状%On the Present IT Sector in Cambodia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the IT sector in Cambodia, covering INTERNE'T, ofiqce automation and telecommunication with facts showing that Cambodian IT sector is developing very rapidly in recent yeats and has great potential in the coming yeats. Therefore, it concludes that Chinese IT products should seize this opportunity.

  7. Reviewing the Role of Teachers in Achieving Education for All in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae-Young; Rouse, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 20 years education policies in Cambodia have been driven by the global Education for All (EFA) campaign and have resulted in a rapid increase in the rates of primary education enrolment. However, the increasing number of children enrolling in schools has not always translated into high rates of primary education completion. Against…

  8. Learning to Read in Ratanakiri: A Case Study from Northeastern Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregerson, Marilyn J.

    2009-01-01

    In Ratanakiri province, northeastern Cambodia, the majority of the local people are native speakers of ethnic minority languages. Primarily subsistence farmers, they use their own language to communicate with others in their villages, and as they work in their rice fields. A baseline survey taken between 1996 and 1998 in five such villages showed…

  9. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for uranium deposits appears to be poor in Cambodia. It is largely alluvium. Uranium may occur in discordant deposits in metamorphics and intrusives in the Cardamon and Elephant Hills in the south, and in placers of U/TH minerals in the delta or banks of the Mekong River. The potential is in category 1 (less than 1000 tonnes U ). (author)

  10. Student Achievement and Education Policy in a Period of Rapid Expansion: Assessment Data Evidence from Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Nessay, Puth; Hok, Ung Ngo; Savoeun, Va; Tinon, Soeur; Veasna, Meung

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses student achievement and school quality in large samples of schools in Cambodia. Descriptive summaries of student proficiency levels in language and mathematics reveal large gaps between average performance in grades three and six. Given the near universal completion rates for grade three--and lower access to grade six--these…

  11. KESIAPAN NEGARA-NEGARA CLMV (CAMBODIA, LAOS, MYANMAR, VIETNAM) DALAM MENGHADAPI ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    SULAEMAN, AJI AKBAR SULAEMAN

    2016-01-01

    2016 Aji Akbar Sulaeman, E131 11 273, skripsi yang berjudul : Kesiapan Negaranegara CLMV (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam) Dalam Menghadapi ASEAN Economic Community, di bawah bimbingan H. Adi Suryadi B. selaku pembimbing I dan Muh. Ashry Sallatu sebagai pembimbing II, Jurusan Ilmu Hubungan Internasional, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, Universitas Hasanuddin. Penulisan skripsi ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan bagaimana kondisi kesiap...

  12. Student Transition from Primary to Lower Secondary School in Cambodia: Narrative Insights into Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Zimmermann, Thomas; Sitha, Chhinh; Williams, James H.; Kitamura, Yuto

    2014-01-01

    This article has three purposes. First, it presents findings from a study of student retention and dropout in Cambodia, as pupils transition from primary to lower secondary school. Second, it aims to understand from an in-depth, emic perspective the dynamics of this process and the challenges that individual families and their students face around…

  13. Japanese encephalitis in a Danish short-term traveler to Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlinrud, Anne M; Christiansen, Claus B; Koch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We present a recent case of Japanese encephalitis in a Danish male traveler to Cambodia, who we believe is the second Danish case within the last 15 years. Although both this and a number of other travel-related cases occurred in short-term travelers, change in vaccination recommendations...

  14. Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ans Timmermans

    Full Text Available Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1-77 presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29% and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (<20%. Western Cambodian H1N1(2009 isolate genomes were more closely related to 10 earlier Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation, despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7% and parainfluenza virus (3.8%, while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3% were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in

  15. Characteristics of tuberculosis patients at intake in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauritsen Jens M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis register is a critical data source for the information system of national tuberculosis control programs. From the information in the tuberculosis case register, it is possible to extend the standard analysis of age and sex characteristics among sputum smear-positive cases to all tuberculosis case categories. National tuberculosis programs might utilize such information to identify problems related to referral and access to diagnosis and treatment. Objectives Based on the electronic database we created, our objectives were to provide a detailed description of age and sex characteristics of tuberculosis patients at registration and to provide a comparison of age-specific sex characteristics among incident and prevalent sputum smear-positive cases. Methods A representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2005 was selected in Cambodia, two provinces in China and Viet Nam. Age and sex characteristics of cases in the three separate prevalence surveys in the three jurisdictions (Cambodia: year 2002; China: year 2000; and Viet Nam: year 2006-2007 were obtained for comparison. Results A total 37,635 patients had been registered during the period in the selected units in the three countries. Cases were more frequently male in all three countries with 53%, 71%, and 69% in Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam, respectively. The ratios of the female-to-male odds in the notification system to that in the prevalence survey in smear-positive cases in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam were 2.1, 0.9, and 1.8, respectively. Because of the small proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis registered in China, we limited the analysis on age and sex distribution for extrapulmonary cases to Cambodia and Viet Nam. The proportion with extrapulmonary tuberculosis among all cases was 18.5% in Cambodia and 15.7% in Viet Nam, decreasing in frequency with increasing age. Conclusions Characteristics of patients

  16. The Political Ecology of Chinese Large Dams in Cambodia: Implications, Challenges and Lessons Learnt from the Kamchay Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Siciliano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the opportunities offered by foreign investment in energy infrastructure mostly by Chinese firms, the Government of Cambodia is giving high priority to developing hydropower resources for reducing energy poverty and powering economic growth. Using a “Political ecology of the Asian drivers” framework, this paper assesses China’s involvement in the development of large dams’ in Cambodia and its impacts on the access of natural resources such as water and energy by dam builders, local communities and the government. This analysis is based on 61 interviews and 10 focus group discussions with affected communities, institutional actors, Chinese dam builders and financiers in relation to the first large Chinese dam built in Cambodia: the Kamchay dam. Based on the results of the analysis this paper makes recommendations on how to improve the planning, implementation and governance of future large dams in Cambodia.

  17. Transpiration characteristics of a rubber plantation in central Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Tateishi, Makiko; Lim, Tiva K; Mudd, Ryan G; Ziegler, Alan D; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Yin, Song

    2014-03-01

    The rapid and widespread expansion of rubber plantations in Southeast Asia necessitates a greater understanding of tree physiology and the impacts of water consumption on local hydrology. Sap flow measurements were used to study the intra- and inter-annual variations in transpiration rate (Et) in a rubber stand in the low-elevation plain of central Cambodia. Mean stand sap flux density (JS) indicates that rubber trees actively transpire in the rainy season, but become inactive in the dry season. A sharp, brief drop in JS occurred simultaneously with leaf shedding in the middle of the dry season in January. Although the annual maxima of JS were approximately the same in the two study years, the maximum daily stand Et of ∼2.0 mm day(-1) in 2010 increased to ∼2.4 mm day(-1) in 2011. Canopy-level stomatal response was well explained by changes in solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture availability, leaf area, and stem diameter. Rubber trees had a relatively small potential to transpire at the beginning of the study period, compared with average diffuse-porous species. After 2 years of growth in stem diameter, transpiration potential was comparable to other species. The sensitivity of canopy conductance (gc) to atmospheric drought indicates isohydric behavior of rubber trees. Modeling also predicted a relatively small sensitivity of gc to the soil moisture deficit and a rapid decrease in gc under extreme drought conditions. However, annual observations suggest the possibility of a change in leaf characteristics with tree maturity and/or initiation of latex tapping. The estimated annual stand Et was 469 mm year(-1) in 2010, increasing to 658 mm year(-1) in 2011. Diagnostic analysis using the derived gc model showed that inter-annual change in stand Et in the rapidly growing young rubber stand was determined mainly by tree growth rate, not by differences in air and soil variables in the surrounding environment. Future research should focus on the

  18. Survey of Rice Cropping Systems in Kampong Chhnang Province, Cambodia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Volker KLEINHENZ; Sophon CHEA; Ngin HUN

    2013-01-01

    Although Cambodia might have achieved self-sufficiency and an exported surplus in rice production,its rice-based farming systems are widely associated with low productivity,low farmer income and rural poverty.The study is based on a questionnaire village survey in 14 communes containing 97 villages of Kampong Chhnang Province from March to June,2011.It analyzes the prevailing rice-based cropping systems and evaluates options for their improvement.Differences in cropping systems depend on the distance from the Tonle Sap water bodies.At distances greater than 10 km,transplanted wet-season rice cropping system with low productivity of about 1.6 t/hm2 prevails.This deficiency can be primarily attributed to soils with high coarse sand fractions and low pH (< 4.0),use of ‘late' cultivars,and exclusive use of self-propagated seeds.To improve this cropping system,commercial ‘medium' cultivars help prevent crop failure by shortening the cultivation period by one month and complementation of wet-season rice with non-rice crops should be expanded.Areas adjacent (≤ 1 km) to the water bodies become inundated for up to seven months between July until January of each year.In this area,soils contain more fine sand,silt and clay,and their pH is higher (> 4.0).Farmers predominantly cultivate dry-season recession rice between January and April.Seventy-nine percent of the area is sown directly and harvested by combines.Adoption ratio of commercial rice seeds is 59%and yields average 3.2 t/hm2.Introduction of the second dry-season rice between April and July may double annual yields in this rice cropping system.Besides upgrading other cultivation technologies,using seeds from commercial sources will improve yield and rice quality.Along with rice,farmers grow non-rice crops at different intensities ranging from single annual crops to intensive sequences at low yields.

  19. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in a national referral hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Walls, Genevieve; Bulifon, Sophie; Breysse, Serge; Daneth, Thol; Bonnet, Maryline; Hurtado, Northan; Molfino, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: There are no recent data on the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB) in Cambodia. We aim to describe TB drug resistance amongst adults with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection in a national referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.Design: Between 22 November 2007 and 30 November 2009, clinical specimens from HIV-infected patients suspected of having TB underwent routine microscopy,Mycobacterium tuberculos...

  20. Infant and Young Child Feces Management and Enabling Products for Their Hygienic Collection, Transport, and Disposal in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Miller-Petrie, MK; Voigt, L.; McLennan, L; Cairncross, S; Jenkins, MW

    2016-01-01

    In Cambodia, children's feces are rarely disposed of in an improved sanitation facility. This study examines current practices and the role that enabling products may play in increasing hygienic management of infant and young children's (IYC) feces in households with access to improved sanitation. A survey was conducted with the primary caregiver of a child under 5 years of age in 130 homes with an improved latrine in 21 villages across two provinces in Cambodia. Two focus group discussions p...

  1. Water-borne diseases and extreme weather events in Cambodia: review of impacts and implications of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Grace I; McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Yoonhee; Hashizume, Masahiro; Iddings, Steven; Chan, Vibol

    2014-12-23

    Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.

  2. Water-Borne Diseases and Extreme Weather Events in Cambodia: Review of Impacts and Implications of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace I. Davies

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.

  3. A survey for potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs and pigs in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch;

    2015-01-01

    common zoonotic parasite (30.0%) followed by Ascaris suum (13.3%). This study provides baseline data on gastrointestinal parasites in dogs and pigs from Cambodia and underscores the importance of domestic animals as reservoir hosts for human parasites for Cambodian veterinary and public health agencies....... Follow-up studies are required to further taxonomically characterize these dog and pig parasites and to determine their role in human parasites in this community.......There is little information available on parasites of zoonotic significance in Cambodia. In 2011, in an effort to obtain data on potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals, 50 dogs and 30 pigs residing in 38 households located in Ang Svay Check village, Takeo province...

  4. Community and school-based health education for dengue control in rural Cambodia: a process evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokrin Khun

    Full Text Available Dengue fever continues to be a major public health problem in Cambodia, with significant impact on children. Health education is a major means for prevention and control of the National Dengue Control Program (NDCP, and is delivered to communities and in schools. Drawing on data collected in 2003-2004 as part of an ethnographic study conducted in eastern Cambodia, we explore the approaches used in health education and their effectiveness to control dengue. Community health education is provided through health centre outreach activities and campaigns of the NDCP, but is not systematically evaluated, is under-funded and delivered irregularly; school-based education is restricted in terms of time and lacks follow-up in terms of practical activities for prevention and control. As a result, adherence is partial. We suggest the need for sustained routine education for dengue prevention and control, and the need for approaches to ensure the translation of knowledge into practice.

  5. Resistance, rupture and repetition: Civil society strategies against intimate partner violence in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, Mona; Baaz, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a new interpretation of the 'resistance' carried out by local civil society organisations in Cambodia against intimate partner violence (IPV). In this, the paper explores the nexus between 'rupture', 'resistance' and 'repetition' and concludes that different 'repetitions' can contribute to acts of violence while simultaneously creating possibilities for resisting IPV. In regard to the latter, the concept of 'rupture' is investigated as a performative politics through which organisations try to disrupt the 'repetitions' of violent masculinities. Furthermore, it is argued that the importance of 'repetitions' and the concept of time should be acknowledged. The French criminal defence lawyer Jacques Vergès' understanding of 'rupture' and the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze's notions of 'repetition' inform the analysis. To exemplify our discussion and findings, the paper embraces stories of a number of civil society workers who facilitate various men's groups in Cambodia in order to negotiate the practice of IPV. PMID:25599422

  6. HIV Prevalence and Risks Associated with HIV Infection among Transgender Individuals in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Amy; Ngak, Song; Srean, Chhim; Sansothy, Neth; Mills, Stephen; Ferradini, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recognizing transgender individuals have a high risk of HIV acquisition, and to inform policies and programming, we conducted an HIV prevalence and risk behaviors survey among transgender individuals in Cambodia. Methods Cross-sectional survey using a respondent driven sampling method with self-administered audio-computer assisted interviews. HIV testing was performed prior to the questionnaire with results available immediately after. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, identi...

  7. Foreign Direct Investment in Cambodia: The case of G.E.

    OpenAIRE

    Mongay, Jorge; Bohlander, Anne; Lin, Tai-Chun Vicky; Nygren, Phoebe

    2012-01-01

    Cambodia, a country located on the Southern tip of Asia between Vietnam and Thailand, has been subject to incredible controversy and strife in the past century. However, in the past decade the nation has made incredible strides in their efforts to become an attractive option for foreign direct investment.General Electric Company is an American multinational company that operates through four segments—Energy, Technology Infrastructure, Capital Finance, and the Consumer and Industrial segment—i...

  8. Urinary antibiotic activity in paediatric patients attending an outpatient department in north-western Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Emary, KR; Carter, MJ; Pol, S; Sona, S; V. Kumar; Day, NP; Parry, CM; Moore, CE

    2014-01-01

    Objective Antibiotic resistance is a prominent public and global health concern. We investigated antibiotic use in children by determining the proportion of unselected children with antibacterial activity in their urine attending a paediatric outpatient department in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Methods Caregiver reports of medication history and presence of possible infection symptoms were collected in addition to urine samples. Urine antibiotic activity was estimated by exposing bacteria to urine s...

  9. A prospective study of the causes of febrile illness requiring hospitalization in children in Cambodia.

    OpenAIRE

    Chheng, K; Carter, MJ; Emary, K; Chanpheaktra, N; Moore, CE; Stoesser, N.; Putchhat, H.; Sona, S; Reaksmey, S; Kitsutani, P; Sar, B.; van Doorn, HR; Uyen, NH; Tan, L.; Paris, D.

    2013-01-01

    Febrile illnesses are pre-eminent contributors to morbidity and mortality among children in South-East Asia but the causes are poorly understood. We determined the causes of fever in children hospitalised in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. A one-year prospective study of febrile children admitted to Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and outcome data were comprehensively analysed. Between October 12(th) 2009 and October 12(th) 2010 there were 1225 e...

  10. Role of risk and protective factors in risky sexual behavior among high school students in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Siyan; Poudel Krishna C; Yasuoka Junko; Palmer Paula H; Yi Songky; Jimba Masamine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In many developing countries, adolescents have become increasingly prone to engage in habitual risky sexual behavior such as early sexual initiation and unprotected sex. The objective of this study was to identify the operation of risk and protective factors in individual, family, peer, school, and community domains in predicting risky sexual behavior among male and female adolescents in Cambodia. Methods From October 2007 to January 2008, we collected data from 1,049 stud...

  11. Social cost of land mines in four countries: Afghanistan, Bosnia, Cambodia, and Mozambique.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, N.; da Sousa, C. P.; Paredes, S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To document the effects of land mines on the health and social conditions of communities in four affected countries. DESIGN--A cross design of cluster survey and rapid appraisal methods including a household questionnaire and qualitative data from key informants, institutional reviews, and focus groups of survivors of land mines from the same communities. SETTING--206 communities, 37 in Afghanistan, 66 in Bosnia, 38 in Cambodia, and 65 in Mozambique. SUBJECTS--174,489 people livin...

  12. Political Psychology, Identity Politics, and Social Reconciliation in Post-Genocidal Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Shireen

    2015-01-01

    Various factors besides culture and religion assist in defining the identity of a community. In the case of Cambodia, the tragic genocide of the Khmer Rouge and its aftermath forged a Cambodian identity suffering from severe psychological trauma. The lack of essential reconciliation and rehabilitation efforts by the government has played a role in the transgenerational passage of the trauma and needs to be addressed for the stable progression of Cambodian society. Political Psycho...

  13. Parental styles in second generation effects of genocide stemming from the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Nigel P; Om, Chariya; Kim, Thida; Vorn, Sin

    2011-11-01

    This study examined the impact of parental styles on second generation effects of trauma among adolescent offspring of survivors of the Khmer Rouge (KR) genocide in Cambodia. Two hundred high school students completed measures addressing their parents' trauma stemming from the KR regime, parental styles (role reversing, overprotective), depression and anxiety. Parents' role reversing parental style and mothers' overprotective parenting were shown to mediate the impact of their trauma symptoms on the child's depression and anxiety. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  14. Catalyzing collective action to address natural resource conflict: Lessons from Cambodia's Tonle Sap Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Ratner, Blake D.; Halpern, Guy; Kosal; Mam

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on outcomes and lessons learned from a 15-month initiative aimed at strengthening collective action to address natural resource conflict in Cambodia’s Tonle Sap Lake. Employing the Appreciation-Influence-Control (AIC) model of participatory stakeholder engagement, the initiative aimed in particular to build collective understanding of the sources of vulnerability in fisheries livelihoods and to catalyze efforts to support resilience in this valuable and productive sociale...

  15. Distribution of selected healthcare resources for influenza pandemic response in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Khilji, SaraUSchwanke; Rudge, JamesW; Drake, Tom; Chavez, Irwin; Borin, Khieu; Touch, Sok; Coker, Richard; Camflu Project, Collaborators

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Human influenza infection poses a serious public health threat in Cambodia, a country at risk for the emergence and spread of novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Prior pandemics demonstrated the adverse impact of influenza on poor communities in developing countries. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution can inform decisions regarding resource mobilization and investment for pandemic mitigation. METHODS A health facility survey performed across Cambo...

  16. Strengthening Sustainable Water Supply Services through Domestic Private Sector Providers in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    With the exception of Myanmar, Cambodia has the lowest access to piped water supply in the South East Asia region, which was estimated to be 21 percent in 2015. Less than one in ten rural households (7 percent) have access to piped water services on their premises, while for urban households, three out of four households enjoy these services (75 percent) (WHO and UNICEF, 2015). Against this ...

  17. Psychological determinants of motorcycle helmet use among young adults in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Brijs, Kris; Brijs, Tom; Socheata, Sann; TRINH, Tu Anh; Wets, Geert; RUITER, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Cambodian accident statistics show that motivating motorcyclists to make proper use of a safety helmet is a top priority for road safety policy makers. Yet, currently there is no insight whatsoever in the psychological precursors of helmet use in Cambodia. As such, it remains unclear which variables to target by interventions aimed at promoting the use of safety helmets. Therefore, this study adopted a socio-cognitive perspective towards the examination of helmet use in a sample of Cambodian ...

  18. Persistent Inequalities in Child Undernutrition in Cambodia from 2000 until Today

    OpenAIRE

    Valérie Greffeuille; Prak Sophonneary; Arnaud Laillou; Ludovic Gauthier; Rathmony Hong; Rathavuth Hong; Etienne Poirot; Marjoleine Dijkhuizen; Frank Wieringa; Jacques Berger

    2016-01-01

    The study assessed the trends of nutritional status of children under age five in Cambodia over four DHS surveys from 2000 to 2014 and the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic factors to its changes. Undernutrition was a public health problem in all surveys. Despite consistent improvement over the years, stunting still affected 32.5% of children in 2014. Wasting prevalence did not improve since 2005 and affected 9.6% of children under five in 2014. Low wealth and mother education; an...

  19. ‘Striving to negotiate… dying to escape’ : suicidal expressions among young people in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide among young people is a global public health problem, but information on determinants and understanding of suicidal expressions are lacking in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Though school-based interventions are common in many parts of the world, evidence for efficacy is less reported, particularly from post-conflict countries. Aim To explore suicidal expressions and their determinants with psychosocial and gender perspective in Cambodia and Nicaragua and to evalua...

  20. Gender Equality and the Labor Market: Cambodia, Kazakhstan and the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2013-01-01

    Based on an analysis of gender inequalities, strategies and promising initiatives to countergender discrimination and promote equality between men and women in Cambodia, Kazakhstan, and the Philippines, as well as an inventory of global good legal, economic, and social practices, this report summarizes the findings and recommendations for these countries. It shows how to improve equitable employment opportunities, remuneration, and treatment for women and men at work to support the developmen...

  1. THE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC RICE CONTRACT FARMING IN CAMBODIA: A LESSON LEARNED FOR INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Betti Rosita Sari

    2015-01-01

     This study examines organic rice contract farming inCambodiaand its impact on farmers’ livelihood. The study’s objective is to gain a better insight of the terms and conditions of rice contract farming scheme inCambodia, and determine under what conditions contract farming could bring improvements to farmers’ livelihoods. This study contributes new research findings on contract farming practices and farmers’ livelihood due to organic-rice contract farming with a case study in Kampong Speu pr...

  2. Female wages in the apparel industry post-MFA : the cases of Cambodia and Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Savchenko, Yevgeniya; Lopez Acevedo, Gladys

    2012-01-01

    The end of the Multi-fiber Arrangement/Agreement on Textiles and Clothing in 2005 was a major policy change that affected the allocation of global apparel productions well as the lives of workers involved in this sector. Since the apparel industry is often the major female employer in developing countries, this policy change was expected to have major implications for women. This paper analyzes the wages and working conditions of women in the apparel sector in Cambodia and Sri Lanka following...

  3. Towards understanding household-level forest reliance in Cambodia - study sites, methods, and preliminary findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ra, Koy; Pichdara, Lonn; Dararath, Yem;

    There is growing international interest in the role of forests in poverty prevention and reduction. In consequence, this broad area of investigation has been subject to increased research; one major international research project is that facilitated by the Poverty Environment Network (PEN). This...... project covers a large number of sites in 26 countries throughout the tropics. The present report contains contextual details, methodological information and preliminary findings for the PEN sites in Cambodia....

  4. Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in a Transition Economy - Cambodia: Empirical Evidence from Bilateral Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck Cheong Tang; Venus Khim-Sen Liew

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the existing literature by examining the validity of PPP hypothesis for Cambodia. The standard unit root tests (ADF and PP) and the panel unit root tests fail to support PPP hypothesis for the nine Cambodia’s trading partners. The unit root tests with structural break support the PPP hypothesis for the bilateral real exchange rates of Euro, Indonesia rupiah, Malaysia ringgit, and Singapore dollar. This finding is found to be relevant for ‘de-dollarization’ strategy i...

  5. Meet Cambodia's Needs——The 3rd China Auto International Exhibition Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 3rd China Auto International Exhibition Tour in 2005 gathered 39 well-known Chinese home brands,traveled across the Indo-China Peninsula and finally arrived at Phnom Penh,the capital of Cambodia.The Chinese automobiles got warm welcome from the local people due to the low price and good quality of the Chinese automobiles and living standard of this developing country.

  6. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khun, Vuthy, E-mail: vuthy.khun@gmail.com; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-01-22

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  7. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, Vuthy; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-01

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  8. Mental health services in Cambodia, challenges and opportunities in a post-conflict setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar; Kullgren, Gunnar; Deva, Parameshvara

    2015-02-01

    Cambodia had suffered enormously due to war and internecine conflict during the latter half of the twentieth century, more so during the Vietnam War. Total collapse of education and health systems during the Pol Pot era continues to be a challenge for developing the necessary infrastructure and human resources to provide basic minimum mental health care which is compounded by the prevailing cultural belief and stigma over mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders (MNSDs). The mental health research and services in Cambodia had been predominantly 'trauma focused', a legacy of war, and there is a need to move toward epidemiologically sound public health oriented mental health policy and service development. Integrating mental health program with primary health care services with specifically stated minimum package of activities at primary level and complementary package of activities at secondary level is an opportunity to meet the needs and rights of persons with mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders (PWMNSDs) in Cambodia, provided there is mental health leadership, government commitment and political will. PMID:25563073

  9. The Molecular and Spatial Epidemiology of Typhoid Fever in Rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham Thanh, Duy; Thompson, Corinne N; Rabaa, Maia A; Sona, Soeng; Sopheary, Sun; Kumar, Varun; Moore, Catrin; Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Wijedoru, Lalith; Holt, Kathryn E; Wong, Vanessa; Pickard, Derek; Thwaites, Guy E; Day, Nicholas; Dougan, Gordon; Turner, Paul; Parry, Christopher M; Baker, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi, is an endemic cause of febrile disease in Cambodia. The aim of this study was to better understand the epidemiology of pediatric typhoid fever in Cambodia. We accessed routine blood culture data from Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC) in Siem Reap province between 2007 and 2014, and performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) on the isolated bacteria to characterize the S. Typhi population. The resulting phylogenetic information was combined with conventional epidemiological approaches to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of S. Typhi and population-level risk factors for reported disease. During the study period, there were 262 cases of typhoid within a 100 km radius of AHC, with a median patient age of 8.2 years (IQR: 5.1-11.5 years). The majority of infections occurred during the rainy season, and commune incidences as high as 11.36/1,000 in children aged typhoid fever in rural communes in Cambodia. Our data provide a platform for additional population-based typhoid fever studies in this location, and suggest that this would be a suitable setting in which to introduce a school-based vaccination programme with Vi conjugate vaccines.

  10. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia

  11. Assessing arsenic intake from groundwater and rice by residents in Prey Veng province, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated total daily intake of As by residents in Prey Veng province in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Groundwater (n = 11), rice (n = 11) and fingernail (n = 23) samples were randomly collected from the households and analyzed for total As by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Calculation indicated that daily dose of inorganic As was greater than the lower limits on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5 equals to 3.0 μg d−1 kg−1bodywt.). Moreover, positive correlation between As in fingernail and daily dose of As from groundwater and rice and total daily dose of As were found. These results suggest that the Prey Veng residents are exposed to As in groundwater. As in rice is an additional source which is attributable to high As accumulation in human bodies in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. -- Highlights: • We investigated total daily intake of As in Prey Veng province of Cambodia. • Residents in Prey Veng study area are at risk of As in groundwater. • As in rice is an additional source for high As accumulation in human bodies. -- Calculation of total daily intake indicated that Prey Veng residents are at risk of As in groundwater while As in rice is an additional source for high As accumulation in human bodies

  12. Prevalence of intestinal helminths among inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia. PMID:25548418

  13. The Molecular and Spatial Epidemiology of Typhoid Fever in Rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham Thanh, Duy; Thompson, Corinne N; Rabaa, Maia A; Sona, Soeng; Sopheary, Sun; Kumar, Varun; Moore, Catrin; Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Wijedoru, Lalith; Holt, Kathryn E; Wong, Vanessa; Pickard, Derek; Thwaites, Guy E; Day, Nicholas; Dougan, Gordon; Turner, Paul; Parry, Christopher M; Baker, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi, is an endemic cause of febrile disease in Cambodia. The aim of this study was to better understand the epidemiology of pediatric typhoid fever in Cambodia. We accessed routine blood culture data from Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC) in Siem Reap province between 2007 and 2014, and performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) on the isolated bacteria to characterize the S. Typhi population. The resulting phylogenetic information was combined with conventional epidemiological approaches to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of S. Typhi and population-level risk factors for reported disease. During the study period, there were 262 cases of typhoid within a 100 km radius of AHC, with a median patient age of 8.2 years (IQR: 5.1-11.5 years). The majority of infections occurred during the rainy season, and commune incidences as high as 11.36/1,000 in children aged fever in rural communes in Cambodia. Our data provide a platform for additional population-based typhoid fever studies in this location, and suggest that this would be a suitable setting in which to introduce a school-based vaccination programme with Vi conjugate vaccines. PMID:27331909

  14. A survey for potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs and pigs in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Murrell, K Darwin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chhoun, Chamnan; Khov, Kuong; Sem, Tharin; Sorn, San; Muth, Sinuon; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-12-01

    There is little information available on parasites of zoonotic significance in Cambodia. In 2011, in an effort to obtain data on potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals, 50 dogs and 30 pigs residing in 38 households located in Ang Svay Check village, Takeo province, Cambodia were examined for parasites from faecal samples. The samples were processed using the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT). Hookworms were the most common zoonotic parasite found in dogs (80.0%) followed by Echinostomes (18.0%). While, in pigs, Fasciolopsis buski was the most common zoonotic parasite (30.0%) followed by Ascaris suum (13.3%). This study provides baseline data on gastrointestinal parasites in dogs and pigs from Cambodia and underscores the importance of domestic animals as reservoir hosts for human parasites for Cambodian veterinary and public health agencies. Follow-up studies are required to further taxonomically characterize these dog and pig parasites and to determine their role in human parasites in this community.

  15. Magnitude of arsenic pollution in the Mekong and Red River Deltas - Cambodia and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), CH-8600 Dubendorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: michael.berg@eawag.ch; Stengel, Caroline [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), CH-8600 Dubendorf (Switzerland); Trang, Pham Thi Kim [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hung Viet, Pham [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sampson, Mickey L. [Resource Development International-Cambodia (RDIC), P.O. Box 494, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Leng, Moniphea [Resource Development International-Cambodia (RDIC), P.O. Box 494, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Samreth, Sopheap [Resource Development International-Cambodia (RDIC), P.O. Box 494, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Fredericks, David [Phnom Penh (Cambodia)

    2007-01-01

    Large alluvial deltas of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and Cambodia and the Red River in northern Vietnam have groundwaters that are exploited for drinking water by private tube-wells, which are of increasing demand since the mid-1990s. This paper presents an overview of groundwater arsenic pollution in the Mekong delta: arsenic concentrations ranged from 1-1610 {mu}g/L in Cambodia (average 217 {mu}g/L) and 1-845 {mu}g/L in southern Vietnam (average 39 {mu}g/L), respectively. It also evaluates the situation in Red River delta where groundwater arsenic concentrations vary from 1-3050 {mu}g/L (average 159 {mu}g/L). In addition to rural areas, the drinking water supply of the city of Hanoi has elevated arsenic concentrations. The sediments of 12-40 m deep cores from the Red River delta contain arsenic levels of 2-33 {mu}g/g (average 7 {mu}g/g, dry weight) and show a remarkable correlation with sediment-bound iron. In all three areas, the groundwater arsenic pollution seem to be of natural origin and caused by reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron phases buried in aquifers. The population at risk of chronic arsenic poisoning is estimated to be 10 million in the Red River delta and 0.5-1 million in the Mekong delta. A subset of hair samples collected in Vietnam and Cambodia from residents drinking groundwater with arsenic levels > 50 {mu}g/L have a significantly higher arsenic content than control groups (< 50 {mu}g/L). Few cases of arsenic related health problems are recognized in the study areas compared to Bangladesh and West Bengal. This difference probably relates to arsenic contaminated tube-well water only being used substantially over the past 7 to 10 years in Vietnam and Cambodia. Because symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning usually take more than 10 years to develop, the number of future arsenic related ailments in Cambodia and Vietnam is likely to increase. Early mitigation measures should be a high priority.

  16. Magnitude of arsenic pollution in the Mekong and Red River Deltas - Cambodia and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large alluvial deltas of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and Cambodia and the Red River in northern Vietnam have groundwaters that are exploited for drinking water by private tube-wells, which are of increasing demand since the mid-1990s. This paper presents an overview of groundwater arsenic pollution in the Mekong delta: arsenic concentrations ranged from 1-1610 μg/L in Cambodia (average 217 μg/L) and 1-845 μg/L in southern Vietnam (average 39 μg/L), respectively. It also evaluates the situation in Red River delta where groundwater arsenic concentrations vary from 1-3050 μg/L (average 159 μg/L). In addition to rural areas, the drinking water supply of the city of Hanoi has elevated arsenic concentrations. The sediments of 12-40 m deep cores from the Red River delta contain arsenic levels of 2-33 μg/g (average 7 μg/g, dry weight) and show a remarkable correlation with sediment-bound iron. In all three areas, the groundwater arsenic pollution seem to be of natural origin and caused by reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron phases buried in aquifers. The population at risk of chronic arsenic poisoning is estimated to be 10 million in the Red River delta and 0.5-1 million in the Mekong delta. A subset of hair samples collected in Vietnam and Cambodia from residents drinking groundwater with arsenic levels > 50 μg/L have a significantly higher arsenic content than control groups (< 50 μg/L). Few cases of arsenic related health problems are recognized in the study areas compared to Bangladesh and West Bengal. This difference probably relates to arsenic contaminated tube-well water only being used substantially over the past 7 to 10 years in Vietnam and Cambodia. Because symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning usually take more than 10 years to develop, the number of future arsenic related ailments in Cambodia and Vietnam is likely to increase. Early mitigation measures should be a high priority

  17. What Are Effective Components of In-Service Teacher Training? A Study Examining Teacher Trainers' Perceptions of the Components of a Training Programme in Mathematics Education in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses an in-service education project, financed by the Belgium Technical Cooperation, to improve the quality of mathematics teaching in 138 primary and lower secondary schools in Cambodia. The project design drew on recent research in developing countries and prior experience of training programmes in Cambodia. The…

  18. Cambodia's mineral detection status and prospect%柬埔寨矿物检测现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐海明; 江景诗

    2014-01-01

    对柬埔寨矿物资源的检测现状进行了研究,研究发现:柬埔寨矿物资源比较丰富,而其矿物检测技术相对薄弱,实验室建设很是缺乏,因此,展望未来,柬埔寨在矿物检测的实验室建设和技术支持上都有很大的发展空间。%This article conducted research on the detection of Cambodia's mineral resources, the study found: Cambodia's rich mineral resources and mineral detection technology is relatively weak, laboratory is lacking, therefore, look to the future, Cambodia in mineral testing laboratory and technical support have a broad development space.

  19. Acute undifferentiated febrile illness in rural Cambodia: a 3-year prospective observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara C Mueller

    Full Text Available In the past decade, malaria control has been successfully implemented in Cambodia, leading to a substantial decrease in reported cases. Wide-spread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs has revealed a large burden of malaria-negative fever cases, for which no clinical management guidelines exist at peripheral level health facilities. As a first step towards developing such guidelines, a 3-year cross-sectional prospective observational study was designed to investigate the causes of acute malaria-negative febrile illness in Cambodia. From January 2008 to December 2010, 1193 febrile patients and 282 non-febrile individuals were recruited from three health centers in eastern and western Cambodia. Malaria RDTs and routine clinical examination were performed on site by health center staff. Venous samples and nasopharyngeal throat swabs were collected and analysed by molecular diagnostic tests. Blood cultures and blood smears were also taken from all febrile individuals. Molecular testing was applied for malaria parasites, Leptospira, Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi, Dengue- and Influenza virus. At least one pathogen was identified in 73.3% (874/1193 of febrile patient samples. Most frequent pathogens detected were P. vivax (33.4%, P. falciparum (26.5%, pathogenic Leptospira (9.4%, Influenza viruses (8.9%, Dengue viruses (6.3%, O. tsutsugamushi (3.9%, Rickettsia (0.2%, and P. knowlesi (0.1%. In the control group, a potential pathogen was identified in 40.4%, most commonly malaria parasites and Leptospira. Clinic-based diagnosis of malaria RDT-negative cases was poorly predictive for pathogen and appropriate treatment. Additional investigations are needed to understand their impact on clinical disease and epidemiology, and the possible role of therapies such as doxycycline, since many of these pathogens were seen in non-febrile subjects.

  20. Dietary exposure and human risk assessment of phthalate esters based on total diet study in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Li, Han-Han; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-10-01

    Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of human to phthalates are limited. In this study, to assess the daily intakes of phthalate esters and the possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ∑phthalate ester concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 0.05 to 2.34 (median 0.88) μgg(-1), 0.19-1.65 (median 0.86) μgg(-1) and 0.24-3.05 (median 0.59) μgg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the predominant compounds among all foodstuffs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of phthalate esters for the general population in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal was 34.3, 35.6 and 35.8μgkg(-1) bw d(-1), respectively. The dietary daily intake of DEHP, benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal were below the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) imposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and reference doses (RfD) imposed by The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Rice contributed the greatest quantity of DEHP to the daily intake in Cambodia so may deserve further exploration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the occurrence and the daily intakes of phthalate esters in Cambodia. PMID:27372065

  1. The Molecular and Spatial Epidemiology of Typhoid Fever in Rural Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy Pham Thanh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever, caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi, is an endemic cause of febrile disease in Cambodia. The aim of this study was to better understand the epidemiology of pediatric typhoid fever in Cambodia. We accessed routine blood culture data from Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC in Siem Reap province between 2007 and 2014, and performed whole genome sequencing (WGS on the isolated bacteria to characterize the S. Typhi population. The resulting phylogenetic information was combined with conventional epidemiological approaches to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of S. Typhi and population-level risk factors for reported disease. During the study period, there were 262 cases of typhoid within a 100 km radius of AHC, with a median patient age of 8.2 years (IQR: 5.1-11.5 years. The majority of infections occurred during the rainy season, and commune incidences as high as 11.36/1,000 in children aged <15 years were observed over the study period. A population-based risk factor analysis found that access to water within households and increasing distance from Tonle Sap Lake were protective. Spatial mapping and WGS provided additional resolution for these findings, and confirmed that proximity to the lake was associated with discrete spatiotemporal disease clusters. We confirmed the dominance of MDR H58 S. Typhi in this population, and found substantial evidence of diversification (at least seven sublineages within this single lineage. We conclude that there is a substantial burden of pediatric typhoid fever in rural communes in Cambodia. Our data provide a platform for additional population-based typhoid fever studies in this location, and suggest that this would be a suitable setting in which to introduce a school-based vaccination programme with Vi conjugate vaccines.

  2. Mercury contamination in human hair and fish from Cambodia: levels, specific accumulation and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Monirith, In [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tana, Touch Seang [Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES) of the Cabinet of the Council of Ministers, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Subramanian, Annamalai [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2005-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in human hair and fish samples from Phnom Penh, Kien Svay, Tomnup Rolork and Batrong, Cambodia, collected in November 1999 and December 2000 were determined to understand the status of contamination, and age- and sex-dependent accumulation in humans and to assess the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Mercury concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.54 to 190 {mu}g/g dry wt. About 3% of the samples contained Hg levels exceeding the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of WHO (50 {mu}g/g) and the levels in some hair samples of women also exceeded the NOAEL (10 {mu}g/g) associated with fetus neurotoxicity. A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between age and Hg levels in hair of residents. Mercury concentrations in muscle of marine and freshwater fish from Cambodia ranged from <0.01 to 0.96 {mu}g/g wet wt. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption. Three samples of marine fish including sharp-tooth snapper and obtuse barracuda, and one sample of sharp-tooth snapper exceeded the guidelines by US EPA and by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), respectively, which indicates that some fish specimens examined (9% and 3% for US EPA and JECFA guidelines, respectively) were hazardous for consumption at the ingestion rate of Cambodian people (32.6 g/day). It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Cambodian people. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals and could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Cambodia. - A source other than fish may be responsible for high Hg in some Cambodians.

  3. Current status of arsenic exposure and social implication in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kongkea; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Huoy, Laingshun; Phan, Samrach; Se, Soknim; Capon, Anthony Guy; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the current status of arsenic exposure in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia, field interview along with urine sample collection was conducted in the arsenic-affected area of Kandal Province, Cambodia. Urine samples were analyzed for total arsenic concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. As a result, arsenicosis patients (n = 127) had As in urine (UAs) ranging from 3.76 to 373 µg L(-1) (mean = 78.7 ± 69.8 µg L(-1); median = 60.2 µg L(-1)). Asymptomatic villagers (n = 108) had UAs ranging from 5.93 to 312 µg L(-1) (mean = 73.0 ± 52.2 µg L(-1); median = 60.5 µg L(-1)). About 24.7 % of all participants had UAs greater than 100 µg L(-1) which indicated a recent arsenic exposure. A survey found that females and adults were more likely to be diagnosed with skin sign of arsenicosis than males and children, respectively. Education level, age, gender, groundwater drinking period, residence time in the village and amount of water drunk per day may influence the incidence of skin signs of arsenicosis. This study suggests that residents in Kandal study area are currently at risk of arsenic although some mitigation has been implemented. More commitment should be made to address this public health concern in rural Cambodia. PMID:26298061

  4. Mercury contamination in human hair and fish from Cambodia: levels, specific accumulation and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in human hair and fish samples from Phnom Penh, Kien Svay, Tomnup Rolork and Batrong, Cambodia, collected in November 1999 and December 2000 were determined to understand the status of contamination, and age- and sex-dependent accumulation in humans and to assess the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Mercury concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.54 to 190 μg/g dry wt. About 3% of the samples contained Hg levels exceeding the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of WHO (50 μg/g) and the levels in some hair samples of women also exceeded the NOAEL (10 μg/g) associated with fetus neurotoxicity. A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between age and Hg levels in hair of residents. Mercury concentrations in muscle of marine and freshwater fish from Cambodia ranged from <0.01 to 0.96 μg/g wet wt. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption. Three samples of marine fish including sharp-tooth snapper and obtuse barracuda, and one sample of sharp-tooth snapper exceeded the guidelines by US EPA and by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), respectively, which indicates that some fish specimens examined (9% and 3% for US EPA and JECFA guidelines, respectively) were hazardous for consumption at the ingestion rate of Cambodian people (32.6 g/day). It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Cambodian people. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals and could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Cambodia. - A source other than fish may be responsible for high Hg in some Cambodians

  5. Market-based biogas sector development in least developed countries —The case of Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many of the least developed countries the energy security conundrum is how to provide affordable, safe and clean energy to a low income rural population. Household level generation of biogas from animal waste for both cooking and lighting, while producing high quality organic fertiliser, is increasingly proposed as a viable part of the solution for farming households. Since the early 1990s international development organisations – often in cooperation with the national government – have attempted to introduce biogas technologies in many least developed countries, but most initiatives failed. In this landscape of failed biogas development programmes the National Biodigester Programme (NBP) Cambodia started in 2006, with the aim to establish a permanent market oriented and self-financed biogas sector. The results show the development of a sustainable domestic biodigester sector, a rapid diffusion of biodigesters among poor rural households, but still ambivalences on financial independency from external funding and carbon finance. The conclusion is that a pure market model for biogas development in the rural area of the least developed countries will not easily work. Governmental regulation and coordination will remain needed, and carbon finance will not easily fully replace ODA and governmental financial support. - Highlights: • The National Biodigester Programme has successfully introduced domestic biogas in Cambodia. • The development of a market based biogas sector is crucial in ensuring a healthy and continuous development after donor funding. • Domestic biogas is of crucial importance to meet rural Cambodia’s energy challenges and to boost the rural economy by providing employment opportunities. • Domestic biogas helps Cambodia to reduce deforestation and to shift to climate-smart agriculture. • Financing of a market-based biogas model remain problematic in the near future

  6. Reference values of hematology, biochemistry, and blood type in cynomolgus monkeys from cambodia origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kangmoo; Chang, Jaejin; Lee, Min-Jae; Wang, Seungsu; In, Kimhong; Galano-Tan, Wilhelm C; Jun, Sanghun; Cho, Kahee; Hwang, Yong-Hwa; Kim, Sung-Ju; Park, Wanje

    2016-03-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys as nonhuman primates are valuable animal models because they have a high level of human gene homology. There are many reference values for hematology and biochemistry of Cynomolgus monkeys that are needed for proper clinical diagnosis and biomedical research conduct. The body weight information and blood type are also key success factors in allogeneic or xenogeneic models. Moreover, the biological parameters could be different according to the origin of the Cynomolgus monkey. However, there are limited references provided, especially of Cambodia origin. In this study, we measured average body weight of 2,518 Cynomolgus monkeys and analyzed hematology and serum biochemistry using 119 males, and determined blood types in 642 monkeys with Cambodia origin. The average body weight of male Cynomolgus monkeys were 2.56±0.345 kg and female group was 2.43±0.330 kg at the age from 2 to 3 years. The male group showed relatively sharp increased average body weight from the 3 to 4 age period compared to the female group. In hematology and biochemistry, it was found that most of the data was similar when compared to other references even though some results showed differences. The ABO blood type result showed that type A, B, AB, and O was approximately 15.6, 33.3, 44.2, and 6.9%, respectively. The main blood type in this facility was B and AB. These biological background references of Cambodia origin could be used to provide important information to researchers who are using them in their biomedical research.

  7. The epidemiology of pediatric bone and joint infections in Cambodia, 2007-11.

    OpenAIRE

    Stoesser, N; Pocock, J.; Moore, CE; Soeng, S.; Hor, P; Sar, P.; Limmathurotsakul, D; Day, N; Kumar, V; Khan, S.; Sar, V.; Parry, CM

    2013-01-01

    There are limited data on osteoarticular infections from resource-limited settings in Asia. A retrospective study of patients presenting to the Angkor Hospital for Children, Cambodia, January 2007–July 2011, identified 81 cases (28% monoarticular septic arthritis, 51% single-limb osteomyelitis and 15% multisite infections). The incidence was 13.8/100 000 hospital attendances. The median age was 7.3 years, with a male/female ratio of 1.9:1; 35% presented within 5 days of symptom onset (median ...

  8. Estimation of solar radiation over Cambodia from long-term satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, S.; Pankaew, P.; Laksanaboonsong, J. [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Kitichantaropas, P. [Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency, Ministry of Energy, 17 Rama 1 Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2011-04-15

    In this work, monthly average daily global solar irradiation over Cambodia was estimated from a long-term satellite data. A 14-year period (1995-2008) of visible channel data from GMS5, GOES9 and MTSAT-1R satellites were used to provide earth-atmospheric reflectivity. A satellite-based solar radiation model developed for a tropical environment was used to estimate surface solar radiation. The model relates the satellite-derived earth-atmospheric reflectivity to absorption and scattering coefficients of various atmospheric constituents. The absorption of solar radiation due to water vapour was calculated from precipitable water derived from ambient relative humidity and temperature. Ozone data from the TOMS and OMI satellite data were employed to compute the solar radiation absorption by ozone. The depletion of radiation due to aerosols was estimated from the visibility data. Five new solar radiation measuring stations were established at Cambodian cities, namely Siem Reap (13.87 N, 103.85 E), Kompong Thom (12.68 N, 104.88 E), Phnom Penh (11.55 N, 104.83 E), Sihanouke Ville (10.67 N, 103.63 E) and Kampot (10.70 N, 104.28 E). Global solar radiation measured at these stations was used to validate the model. The validation was also carried out by using solar radiation measured at four Thai meteorological stations. These stations are situated near the Cambodian border. Monthly average daily global irradiation from these stations was compared with that calculated from the model. The measured and calculated irradiation is in good agreement, with the root mean square difference of 6.3%, with respect to the mean values. After the validation, the model was used to calculate monthly average daily global solar irradiation over Cambodia. Based on this satellite-derived irradiation, solar radiation maps for Cambodia were generated. These maps show that solar radiation climate of this country is strongly influenced by the monsoons. A solar radiation database was also generated

  9. The Question of Land in Cambodia: Perceptions, Access, and Use since De-collectivization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Y. Guillou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cambodia is one of the countries in the world which experienced the most radical disruption of its land tenure. Almost its entire present adult population has been forced at one time or another to leave its lands and houses, whether because of the American bombings (1969-1973 which were particularly murderous in the south-eastern part of the country (the bombs’ holes are still visible from an airplane; or on a far greater scale, during the Democratic Kampuchea regime, called th...

  10. Achieving universal access and moving towards elimination of new HIV infections in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mean Chhi Vun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the mid-1990s, Cambodia faced one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in Asia. For its achievement in reversing this trend, and achieving universal access to HIV treatment, the country received a United Nations millennium development goal award in 2010. This article reviews Cambodia's response to HIV over the past two decades and discusses its current efforts towards elimination of new HIV infections. Methods: A literature review of published and unpublished documents, including programme data and presentations, was conducted. Results and discussion: Cambodia classifies its response to one of the most serious HIV epidemics in Asia into three phases. In Phase I (1991–2000, when adult HIV prevalence peaked at 1.7% and incidence exceeded 20,000 cases, a nationwide HIV prevention programme targeted brothel-based sex work. Voluntary confidential counselling and testing and home-based care were introduced, and peer support groups of people living with HIV emerged. Phase II (2001–2011 observed a steady decline in adult prevalence to 0.8% and incidence to 1600 cases by 2011, and was characterized by: expanding antiretroviral treatment (coverage reaching more than 80% and continuum of care; linking with tuberculosis and maternal and child health services; accelerated prevention among key populations, including entertainment establishment-based sex workers, men having sex with men, transgender persons, and people who inject drugs; engagement of health workers to deliver quality services; and strengthening health service delivery systems. The third phase (2012–2020 aims to attain zero new infections by 2020 through: sharpening responses to key populations at higher risk; maximizing access to community and facility-based testing and retention in prevention and care; and accelerating the transition from vertical approaches to linked/integrated approaches. Conclusions: Cambodia has tailored its prevention strategy to its own epidemic

  11. The long-term educational cost of war: Evidence from landmine contamination in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Merrouche, Quarda

    2006-01-01

    The economic impact of war may be visible in the long run and particularly its impact on human capital. I use unique district level data on landmine contamination intensity in Cambodia combined with individual survey data to evaluate the long run cost of Cambodia’s 30 years war (1970-1998) on education levels and earnings. These effects are identified using difference-in-differences (DD) and instrumental variables (IV) estimators. In the DD framework I exploit two sources of variation in an i...

  12. Parental styles in second generation effects of genocide stemming from the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Nigel P; Om, Chariya; Kim, Thida; Vorn, Sin

    2011-11-01

    This study examined the impact of parental styles on second generation effects of trauma among adolescent offspring of survivors of the Khmer Rouge (KR) genocide in Cambodia. Two hundred high school students completed measures addressing their parents' trauma stemming from the KR regime, parental styles (role reversing, overprotective), depression and anxiety. Parents' role reversing parental style and mothers' overprotective parenting were shown to mediate the impact of their trauma symptoms on the child's depression and anxiety. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22011103

  13. Towards Sustainable Development in Angkor, Cambodia: Social, Environmental and Financial Aspects of Conseving Cultural Heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Thanakvaro De Lopez

    2007-01-01

    Founded in the ninth century, the city of Angkor lies at the heart of Khmer cultural heritage. Since 1995, the number of foreign visitors to the temples of Angkor has jumped from a few thousand a year to nearly a million. The neighbouring city of Siem Reap has experienced rapid growth in recent years and local infrastructure and services have struggled to keep up with the demands of international mass tourism. While it represents a significant source of foreign currency for Cambodia, mass tou...

  14. Poverty Environment Nexus : Sustainable Approaches to Poverty Reduction in Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    This is a draft edition of the Poverty Environment Nexus (PEN) report for Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam. The purpose of this conference edition is to present the findings from the studies that have been undertaken in each country over the last three years as well as to obtain relevant comments and feedback from the conference participants that could be included in the final edition of the report. The material presented in this report is based upon comprehensive case studies as well as nationa...

  15. The sale of tarantulas in Cambodia for food or medicine: is it sustainable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sale of tarantulas for either human consumption or for preparation of medicines has become more widespread in Cambodia over the last 10-20 years. With increased media exposure, the trade seems to be increasing, but there are serious questions as to its sustainability because of possible over-collecting of the spiders and also loss of habitats. This note outlines some of the fundamental questions that need to be addressed if this spider trade is to be sustainable or else we could see the loss of an important link in the forest food chain.

  16. Towards eliminating the worst forms of child labour in Cambodia by 2016: an assessment of resource requirements - Report on child labour

    OpenAIRE

    UCW

    2009-01-01

    The current report was developed under the aegis of the Understanding Children’s Work (UCW) program. UCW research efforts in Cambodia have shaped the development of a two-volume Inter-Agency Report on child labour. Volume I of the Inter-Agency Report - Children's Work in Cambodia: A Challenge for Growth and Poverty Reduction - was released on 12 June 2006. It analyses the current child labour situation in Cambodia - the extent and nature of child labour, the causes and consequences of child l...

  17. IFP/Dialogue : social dialogue and the poverty reduction strategy paper (PRSP) process in Cambodia: an assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Graeme J.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of ILO technical assistance in strengthening social dialogue and integrating decent work into the poverty reduction process in Cambodia. Assesses the current participatory process among the social partners and proposes strategies for the promotion of decent work, improving working conditions, skills development and social protection.

  18. Injections, Cocktails and Diviners: Therapeutic Flexibility in the Context of Malaria Elimination and Drug Resistance in Northeast Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Gryseels; S. Uk; A. Erhart; R. Gerrets; V. Sluydts; L. Durnez; J. Muela Ribera; S. Hausmann Muela; D. Menard; S. Heng; T. Sochantha; U. D'Alessandro; M. Coosemans; K. Peeters Grietens

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adherence to effective malaria medication is extremely important in the context of Cambodia’s elimination targets and drug resistance containment. Although the public sector health facilities are accessible to the local ethnic minorities of Ratanakiri province (Northeast Cambodia), their

  19. Injections, cocktails and diviners: therapeutic flexibility in the context of malaria elimination and drug resistance in Northeast Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Gryseels; S. Uk; A. Erhart; R. Gerrets; V. Sluydts; L. Durnez; J. Muela Ribera; S. Hausmann Muela; D. Menard; S. Heng; T. Sochantha; U. D'Alessandro; M. Coosemans; K. Peeters Grietens

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to effective malaria medication is extremely important in the context of Cambodia’s elimination targets and drug resistance containment. Although the public sector health facilities are accessible to the local ethnic minorities of Ratanakiri province (Northeast Cambodia), their illness iti

  20. The Killing Fields on TV: A Critical Analysis of Network Coverage of Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ted J., III; Grassmick, David E.

    In an effort to determine the nature of American network television news coverage of the Khmer Rouge rule in Cambodia, a study examined the television evening news from April 16, 1975, the date on which the Lon Nol government first offered to capitulate to the Khmer Rouge, through January 8, 1979, when news of the fall of Phnom Penh to the…

  1. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of changes in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission patterns over the rainy season in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Jackie; Speybroeck, Nico; Sochanta, Tho;

    2012-01-01

    In Cambodia, malaria transmission is low and most cases occur in forested areas. Sero-epidemiological techniques can be used to identify both areas of ongoing transmission and high-risk groups to be targeted by control interventions. This study utilizes repeated cross-sectional data to assess...

  2. Distortions and Dichotomies in Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Cambodia in the Context of Globalisation and International Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanpur, Maya

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of transferring technical information on disability and inclusive education from the North to the South within the context of international development. Based on data from the author's experiences as a US-trained Indian international consultant in Cambodia, it analyses how problems with translation and…

  3. Issues and Techniques in Translating Scientific Terms from English to Khmer for a University-Level Text in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie; Oliviera, Alandeom W.; Curry, Alastair; Buck, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Teachers and students spend much time interacting with written resources such as textbooks, tests, or worksheets during classroom instruction. What if no text is available, however, in the language of the learners? This case study describes the processes and techniques adopted by two university lecturers in Cambodia, as they translated an L1…

  4. Private Tutoring and Mass Schooling in East Asia: Reflections of Inequality in Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Walter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines private tutoring systems in three East Asian countries (Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia) with the purpose of examining the relationship between those systems and formal education systems. The study of private tutoring systems in each nation can be used to reveal the inadequacies of the formal education system in meeting the…

  5. Trauma and Poor Mental Health in Relation to Economic Status: The Case of Cambodia 35 Years Later.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Jarl

    Full Text Available Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in south-east Asia and is still emerging from the events of the Khmer Rouge reign. It has been suggested that the atrocities experienced by the Cambodian population can explain why Cambodia continues to lag behind its neighbours in economic outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between exposure to past trauma and/or current poor mental health and current economic status in Cambodia.A newly conducted survey performed in two regions (north-west and south-east Cambodia collected information on trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, self-rated health outcomes and socio-economic information for 3200 persons aged 18-60. Economic outcomes were measured as household debt and poverty status and whether the respondent was economically inactive. All models were analysed using logistic regression.No association was found between high exposure to conflict-related or civilian trauma and any economic outcomes save for a negative association between civilian trauma and poverty in the south-east. Current post-traumatic stress was related solely to poverty status. All other measures of current mental health status, however, were found to be strongly negatively associated with all measures of economic status. Thus, mental health interventions could potentially be utilised in poverty reduction strategies, but greater efficacy is likely to be achieved by targeting current mental health status rather than previous trauma exposure.

  6. ARSENIC REMOVAL AND ECOLOGICALLY SAFE CONTAINMENT OF ARSENIC-WASTE: A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION FOR ARSENIC CRISIS IN CAMBODIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    An appalling degree of arsenic contamination in groundwater has affected more than a million people in wide region of Mekong delta flood plain in Cambodia. Arsenic is by far the most toxic species of all naturally occurring groundwater contaminants and disposal of removed arse...

  7. What Makes the Difference? An Analysis of a Reading Intervention Programme Implemented in Rural Schools in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jane; Gravelle, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the existing single-strategy approach towards the teaching of early literacy in schools in rural Cambodia with a multiple-strategy approach introduced as part of a reading intervention programme. Classroom observations, questionnaires and in-depth interviews with teachers were used to explore teachers' practices and…

  8. Report of the Training Workshop on the Evaluation of Asian Educational Credentials (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, Korea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremuk, Richard, Ed.

    This report was planned to facilitate the task of college admissions officers of American educational institutions in the evaluation of foreign credentials. The educational systems of Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Indonesia, Korea, and Thailand are examined in depth and include discussions of each country's educational history and educational…

  9. Dynamics of soil carbon, nitrogen and soil respiration in farmer’s field with conservation agriculture Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The years of intensive tillage in many countries, including Cambodia, have caused significant decline in agriculture’s natural resources that could threaten the future of agricultural production and sustainability worldwide. Long-term tillage system and site-specific crop management can affect chang...

  10. Shifting Contexts and Performances: The Brao-Kavet and Their Sacred Mountains in Northeast Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G Baird

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brao-Kavet are an indigenous ethnic group in northeastern Cambodia and southern Laos. Although in recent decades most have been forced to resettle in the lowlands, many maintain close livelihood and spiritual links with forested mountainous areas. I discuss the shifting Brao-Kavet understandings and performances associated with sacred spaces and, in particular, the Haling-Halang, a pair of high mountains located on the Laos-Cambodia border. The Brao-Kavet do not hunt for wildlife on these mountains, and dare not cut down trees. A particular kind of thin bamboo that grows there is, however, especially useful for sucking jar beer. People are allowed to harvest it in small quantities, provided appropriate offerings are made to the powerful mountain spirits prior to cutting. Brao-Kavet identity politics are closely linked to religious practices associated with these mountains, as demonstrated by Brao-Kavet claims that only Brao-Kavet should be spoken there because the spirits do not understand Lao, Khmer, French, English, or other languages, and would be offended if anything but their own tongue was uttered. I argue that the performative nature of Brao-Kavet sacred mountains has considerable political potential for facilitating indigenous supported biodiversity conservation, and for supporting the recognition of Brao-Kavet indigenous rights over land and other resources in Virachey National Park, where the mountains are located.

  11. Improving immunization coverage through budgeted microplans and sub-national performance agreements: early experience from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeung, S C; Grundy, B M J; Ly, C K; Samnang, C; Boreland, M; Brooks, A; Maynard, J; Biggs, B A

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, Cambodia has demonstrated significant success in specific aspects of immunization with gains through campaign efforts in measles control and polio eradication. In contrast, routine immunization rates have failed to improve over the last five years. In response, the National Immunization Program of the Ministry of Health developed a coverage improvement planning (CIP) process. This paper describes the CIP process in Cambodia, including identified barriers to and strategies for improving coverage. Immunization coverage rose in 8 of 10 pilot districts in the year following the introduction of CIP in 2003. The mean increase in DPT3 coverage across pilot districts on an annual basis was 16%, which provides encouraging early evidence for the effectiveness of the intervention. Factors associated with success in coverage improvement included: (1) development of a needs-based micro-plan, (2) application of performance-based contracting between levels of management, (3) investment in social mobilization, (4) securing finance for health outreach programs and (5) strengthened monitoring systems. Lessons learned will guide program expansion to improve immunization coverage nationally.

  12. Arsenic concentration in rice, fish, meat and vegetables in Cambodia: a preliminary risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Man, Yu-Bon; Du, Jun; Xing, Guang-Hua; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-12-01

    To assess arsenic contaminations and its possible adverse health effects, food samples were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham in Cambodia. The highest and the lowest concentrations were observed in fish (mean 2,832 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kandal province and cattle stomach (1.86 ± 1.10 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kratie, respectively. The daily intake of arsenic via food consumption was 604, 9.70 and 136 μg day(-1) in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. The arsenic dietary intake in Kandal ranked No. 1 among all the 17 compared countries or regions. Fish consumption contributed the greatest proportion of total arsenic daily intake in Kandal (about 63.0 %) and Kampong Cham (about 69.8 %). It is revealed to be a much more important exposure pathway than drinking water for residents in Kampong Cham. The results of risk assessment suggested that the residents in Cambodia, particularly for people in Kandal province, suffer high public health risks due to consuming arsenic-contaminated food.

  13. Diversity of Monogononta rotifer species among standing waterbodies in northern Cambodia

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    Ratha Sor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and abundance of Monogononta rotifer species were recorded from lakes and reservoirs in the upper part of the Cambodian Mekong River basin in April and November 2010. One hundred and seven species are reported, 25 of which are new records to Cambodia and 8 taxa were unidentifiable to species level. Species richness at the regional and local scale was not significantly different between habitat types or between seasons, whether it was estimated using incidence or abundance data. Comparison of incidence data also revealed no significant difference from species richness of ponds concurrently sampled in the same region. There appeared to be a high level of diversity among sites that could not be attributed to nestedness or to the 5 environmental variables measured. Each habitat type and season offered substantially different rotifer communities, with the proportion of unshared species between sample sets ranging from 14-49%. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and PERMANOVA analyses also revealed clustering and significant differences among sample sets based on habitat type and season. Therefore, each habitat type and season contributed to the overall rotifer biodiversity. When the incidence data from this study are combined with those in previously reported studies, the overall species richness estimate for Cambodia is 403 species (95% CI = 386-432 and the number of species records has reached 306. 

  14. Preliminary study of river water in gold mining areas of Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Cambodia, artisanal mining has recently come to a social concern because of the possibility to cause environmental degradation and human health problems. The General Department of Mineral Resources of Cambodia is collecting environmental specimens in mining sites to watch the situation. This time, four water samples from Sampov Loon and one from Memong mining site were sent from the Department to Hiroshima University, Japan, and the samples were analyzed by means of PIXE at the University. A volume of 10 μl from each sample was separated and dropped onto 4 μm polypropylene backing foil. The measurement was carried out by using 2.5 MV single-ended Vande Graaff accelerator. A Si(Li) detector (active area, 80mm2; sensitive depth, 5 mm; Be-window's thickness, 25 μm; resolution, 167 eV fwhm at 5.9 keV) was used for both of in vacuo PIXE and non-vacuum external beam PIXE measurement. A computer code PIXS was used for the quantification. The result indicates that there are at least two kinds of water in Sampov Loon and one of them possibly represents polluted condition. (author)

  15. Accelerated deforestation driven by large-scale land acquisitions in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Yu, Kailiang; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Pichdara, Lonn; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    Investment in agricultural land in the developing world has rapidly increased in the past two decades. In Cambodia, there has been a surge in economic land concessions, in which long-term leases are provided to foreign and domestic investors for economic development. More than two million hectares have been leased so far, sparking debate over the consequences for local communities and the environment. Here we combined official records of concession locations with a high-resolution data set of changes in forest cover to quantify the contribution of land concessions to deforestation between 2000 and 2012. We used covariate matching to control for variables other than classification as a concession that may influence forest loss. Nearly half of the area where concessions were granted between 2000 and 2012 was forested in 2000; this area then represented 12.4% of forest land cover in Cambodia. Within concessions, the annual rate of forest loss was between 29% and 105% higher than in comparable land areas outside concessions. Most of the deforestation within concessions occurred after the contract date, and whether an investor was domestic or foreign had no effect on deforestation rates. We conclude that land acquisitions can act as powerful drivers of deforestation.

  16. Closing the irrigation deficit in Cambodia: Implications for transboundary impacts on groundwater and Mekong River flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erban, Laura E.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2016-04-01

    Rice production in Cambodia, essential to food security and exports, is largely limited to the wet season. The vast majority (96%) of land planted with rice during the wet season remains fallow during the dry season. This is in large part due to lack of irrigation capacity, increases in which would entail significant consequences for Cambodia and Vietnam, located downstream on the Mekong River. Here we quantify the extent of the dry season "deficit" area in the Cambodian Mekong River catchment, using a recent agricultural survey and our analysis of MODIS satellite data. Irrigation of this land for rice production would require a volume of water up to 31% of dry season Mekong River flow to Vietnam. However, the two countries share an aquifer system in the Mekong Delta, where irrigation demand is increasingly met by groundwater. We estimate expansion rates of groundwater-irrigated land to be >10% per year in the Cambodian Delta using LANDSAT satellite data and simulate the effects of future expansion on groundwater levels over a 25-year period. If groundwater irrigation continues to expand at current rates, the water table will drop below the lift limit of suction pump wells, used for domestic supply by >1.5 million people, throughout much of the area within 15 years. Extensive groundwater irrigation jeopardizes access for shallow domestic water supply wells, raises the costs of pumping for all groundwater users, and may exacerbate arsenic contamination and land subsidence that are already widespread hazards in the region.

  17. Deployment of dual-sensor ALIS for humanitarian demining in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-06-01

    We are in the process of developing a high-resolution landmine scanning system "ALIS" which produces horizontal slices of the shallow subsurface for visualization of buried explosives and inert clutter. As many AP mines contain minimum amounts of metal, metal detectors need to be combined with a complimentary subsurface imaging sensor. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is widely accepted for subsurface sensing in the fields of geology, archaeology and utility detection. The demining application requires real-time imaging results with centimetre resolution in a highly portable package. The key requirement for sharp images of the subsurface is the precise tracking of the geophysical sensor(s) during data collection. We should also notice that GPR system is a very wide band radar system, and equivalent to UWB radar, which has recently been developed for short-range high-accuracy radar. We are testing simplified but effective signal processing for imaging mines. We are currently testing a dual sensor ALIS which is a realtime sensor tracking system based on a CCD camera and image processing. In this paper we introduce the GPR systems which we have developed for detection of buried antipersonnel mines and small size explosives. ALIS has been deployed in Cambodia since 2009 and detected more than 70 mines in mine fields, and returned more than 13ha cleaned fields to local farmers. We also report the current status of ALIS in Cambodia.

  18. Subsurface Imaging by UWB Radar: Application to Humanitarian Demining in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Motoyuki

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been widely used applications which include detection of subsurface facilities, concrete inspection and archaeology. Among these applications, humanitarian demining is still difficult task. Since 2002, we have developed a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor ALIS. ALIS is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR, and it has a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. ALIS can process the data and is used for image re-construction by migration processing. ALIS is the only one mine detection system in the world which can visualize the GPR image by hand scanning. We found that the migration processing can reduce the clutter and gives us clear images of buried mines. After several tests of ALIS in mine affected courtiers, operation of ALIS in mine fields in Cambodia started in summer 2009. Two sets of ALIS have been operated in Cambodia and more than 77 antipersonnel mines have been detected and 137,000m2 farmland was cleaned.

  19. 27 October 2014 - H.E. Mr Ney Samol Ambassador Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Cambodia to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Ney Samol Ambassador Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Cambodia to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva signing the Guest Book with Deputy Head of International Relations E. Tsesmelis

  20. A prospective study of the causes of febrile illness requiring hospitalization in children in Cambodia.

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    Kheng Chheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Febrile illnesses are pre-eminent contributors to morbidity and mortality among children in South-East Asia but the causes are poorly understood. We determined the causes of fever in children hospitalised in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A one-year prospective study of febrile children admitted to Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and outcome data were comprehensively analysed. Between October 12(th 2009 and October 12(th 2010 there were 1225 episodes of febrile illness in 1180 children. Median (IQR age was 2.0 (0.8-6.4 years, with 850 (69% episodes in children <5 years. Common microbiological diagnoses were dengue virus (16.2%, scrub typhus (7.8%, and Japanese encephalitis virus (5.8%. 76 (6.3% episodes had culture-proven bloodstream infection, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (22 isolates, 1.8%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (13, 1.1%, Escherichia coli (8, 0.7%, Haemophilus influenzae (7, 0.6%, Staphylococcus aureus (6, 0.5% and Burkholderia pseudomallei (6, 0.5%. There were 69 deaths (5.6%, including those due to clinically diagnosed pneumonia (19, dengue virus (5, and melioidosis (4. 10 of 69 (14.5% deaths were associated with culture-proven bloodstream infection in logistic regression analyses (odds ratio for mortality 3.4, 95% CI 1.6-6.9. Antimicrobial resistance was prevalent, particularly in S. enterica Typhi, (where 90% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 86% were multi-drug resistant. Comorbid undernutrition was present in 44% of episodes and a major risk factor for acute mortality (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.2, as were HIV infection and cardiac disease. CONCLUSION: We identified a microbiological cause of fever in almost 50% of episodes in this large study of community-acquired febrile illness in hospitalized children in Cambodia. The range of pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility, and co-morbidities associated with mortality described will be of

  1. Access to artemisinin combination therapy for malaria in remote areas of Cambodia

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    Socheat Doung

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria-endemic countries are switching antimalarial drug policy to artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs and the global community are considering the setting up of a global subsidy mechanism in order to make them accessible and affordable. However, specific interventions may be needed to reach remote at-risk communities and to ensure that they are used appropriately. This analysis documents the coverage with ACTs versus artemisinin monotherapies, and the effectiveness of malaria outreach teams (MOTs and Village Malaria Workers (VMWs in increasing access to appropriate diagnosis and treatment with ACTs in Cambodia, the first country to switch national antimalarial drug policy to an ACT of artesunate and mefloquine (A+M in 2000. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in three different types of intervention area: with VMWs, MOTs and no specific interventions. Individuals with a history of fever in the last three weeks were included in the study and completed a questionnaire on their treatment seeking and drug usage behaviour. Blood was taken for a rapid diagnostic test (RDT and data on the household socio-economic status were also obtained. Results In areas without specific interventions, only 17% (42/251 of respondents received a biological diagnosis, 8% (17/206 of respondents who received modern drug did so from a public health facility, and only 8% of them (17/210 received A+M. Worryingly, 78% (102/131 of all artemisinin use in these areas was as a monotherapy. However, both the VMW scheme and MOT scheme significantly increased the likelihood of being seen by a trained provider (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR of 148 and 4 respectively and of receiving A+M (AORs of 2.7 and 7.7 respectively. Conclusion The coverage rates of appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria were disappointingly low and the use of artemisinin monotherapy alarmingly high. This reflects the fragmented nature of Cambodia's health system in

  2. Pfmdr1 copy number and arteminisin derivatives combination therapy failure in falciparum malaria in Cambodia

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    Wongsrichanalai Chansuda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of artesunate and mefloquine was introduced as the national first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cambodia in 2000. However, recent clinical trials performed at the Thai-Cambodian border have pointed to the declining efficacy of both artesunate-mefloquine and artemether-lumefantrine. Since pfmdr1 modulates susceptibility to mefloquine and artemisinin derivatives, the aim of this study was to assess the link between pfmdr1 copy number, in vitro susceptibility to individual drugs and treatment failure to combination therapy. Methods Blood samples were collected from P. falciparum-infected patients enrolled in two in vivo efficacy studies in north-western Cambodia: 135 patients were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (AL group in Sampovloun in 2002 and 2003, and 140 patients with artesunate-mefloquine (AM group in Sampovloun and Veal Veng in 2003 and 2004. At enrollment, the in vitro IC50 was tested and the strains were genotyped for pfmdr1 copy number by real-time PCR. Results The pfmdr1 copy number was analysed for 115 isolates in the AM group, and for 109 isolates in the AL group. Parasites with increased pfmdr1 copy number had significantly reduced in vitro susceptibility to mefloquine, lumefantrine and artesunate. There was no association between pfmdr1 polymorphisms and in vitro susceptibilities. In the patients treated with AM, the mean pfmdr1copy number was lower in subjects with adequate clinical and parasitological response compared to those who experienced late treatment failure (n = 112, p p = 0.364. The presence of three or more copies of pfmdr1 were associated with recrudescence in artesunate-mefloquine treated patients (hazard ratio (HR = 7.80 [95%CI: 2.09–29.10], N = 115, p = 0.002 but not with recrudescence in artemether-lumefantrine treated patients (HR = 1.03 [95%CI: 0.24–4.44], N = 109, p = 0.969. Conclusion This study shows that pfmdr1 copy number is a molecular

  3. Determinants of Child Malnutrition and Infant and Young Child Feeding Approaches in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbott, Anika; Jordan, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    Women's diets often decrease with regard to amounts per meal and day as well as diversity if a household's access to food is limited. The result is a monotonous diet that, in particular, negatively affects women's nutritional status during pregnancy and lactation and, thus, the infant. The infant's diet is of utmost importance, as it needs to meet the nutrient requirements especially during the first 2 years of life, a critical window for the child's healthy development. In Cambodia, infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are poor. Preparation of a special complementary meal in addition to breast milk feeds for children aged 6-23 months is often not a common habit. Instead, children eat watery, plain rice porridges that do not meet the nutrient requirements at this young age. A lack of adequate caring practices such as responsive feeding exacerbates the risk of malnutrition. Caregivers are often unaware of the importance of nutrition during the first 2 years of life regarding its effects on children's growth. In 2012, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) was started in two provinces of northern Cambodia: Oddar Meanchey and Preah Vihear. To contribute to reducing child mortality by addressing malnutrition among children 6-23 months of age, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) implemented a nutrition-sensitive agriculture project with nutrition-specific actions, i.e. a nutrition education intervention was embedded in a food security project. Wealth, a child's age, and maternal education were identified as determinants of a child's dietary diversity. The older the child and/or the wealthier the household, the more diverse the child's diet. Maternal education was positively associated with the child's dietary diversity. Household dietary diversity was significantly associated with child dietary diversity in a model including group, child's age, maternal education, and wealth as confounders. The RCT also showed that a 2- to 3-month

  4. Low risk for transmission of zoonotic Giardia duodenalis from dogs to humans in rural Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Odermatt, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated Giardia as prevalent in both humans and dogs worldwide and have postulated the occurrence of anthroponotic, zoonotic and animal-specific cycles of transmission, which may be geographically and regionally unique in its epidemiology....... The aim of this study was to utilise molecular tools to determine the prevalence and compare genotypes of Giardia duodenalis infecting humans and dogs living in a previously identified Giardia-endemic village in rural Cambodia in order to ascertain zoonotic transmission risk. FINDINGS: The prevalence of G....... duodenalis in humans and dogs was 18.3% (40/218) and 10.6% (10/94) by PCR, respectively. Molecular characterisation of the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) gene and sub-assemblage characterisation of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene placed 27.5% (11...

  5. Characterizing HIV epidemiology in stable couples in Cambodia, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemaitelly, H; Abu-Raddad, L J

    2016-01-01

    Using a set of statistical methods and HIV mathematical models applied on nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey data, we characterized HIV serodiscordancy patterns and HIV transmission dynamics in stable couples (SCs) in four countries: Cambodia, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and India. The majority of SCs affected by HIV were serodiscordant, and about a third of HIV-infected persons had uninfected partners. Overall, nearly two-thirds of HIV infections occurred in individuals in SCs, but only about half of these infections were due to transmissions within serodiscordant couples. The majority of HIV incidence in the population occurred through extra-partner encounters in SCs. There is similarity in HIV epidemiology in SCs between these countries and countries in sub-Saharan Africa, despite the difference in scale of epidemics. It appears that HIV epidemiology in SCs may share similar patterns globally, possibly because it is a natural 'spillover' effect of HIV dynamics in high-risk populations.

  6. Effects of Rice Variety and Growth Location in Cambodia on Grain Composition and Starch Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seila SAR; Morgan J.TIZZOTTI; Jovin HASJIM; Robert G.GILBERT

    2014-01-01

    The effects of variety and growth location on grain composition and starch structures were investigated using three rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars (Phka Romduol, Sen Pidao and IR66) with different amylose contents. All the three cultivars were planted in three different agro-climatic zones (Phnom Penh, Coastal and Plateau) of Cambodia. The protein content of polished grains increased when rice was planted at a location with higher average temperature, but their lipid content decreased. The amylose content and degree of branching were not greatly affected by the minor temperature differences among the growing locations. Starch fine structures characterized by the chain-length distribution were significantly different among the cultivars, but not significantly among different locations. The results suggested that protein and lipid biosyntheses were more sensitive to the environmental temperature than that of starch in rice grains.

  7. Stakeholder management for conservation projects: a case study of Ream National Park, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lopez, T T

    2001-07-01

    The paper gives an account of the development and implementation of a stakeholder management framework at Ream National Park, Cambodia. Firstly, the concept of stakeholder is reviewed in management and in conservation literatures. Secondly, the context in which the stakeholder framework was implemented is described. Thirdly, a five-step methodological framework is suggested: (1) stakeholder analysis, (2) stakeholder mapping, (3) development of generic strategies and workplan, (4) presentation of the workplan to stakeholders, and (5) implementation of the workplan. This framework classifies stakeholders according to their level of influence on the project and their potential for the conservation of natural resources. In a situation characterized by conflicting claims on natural resources, park authorities were able to successfully develop specific strategies for the management of stakeholders. The conclusion discusses the implications of the Ream experience and the generalization of the framework to other protected areas.

  8. Becoming and being academic women in Cambodia: Cultural and other understandings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TW Maxwell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cambodia’s higher education is under development. This is the first study of the role of women teaching in a university in Cambodia. There has been many studies of academic women in western countries and these guided the 16 interviews in Khmer that were carried out by young female researchers, translated by them and then analysed with the assistance of NVivo. Becoming an academic for many Cambodian women meant support from their parents and others close to them. Receipt of an international scholarship may have been critical. Perhaps the most important issue for these academic women was the need to balance demands on their time. Teaching hours could be negotiated, potentially at least, but only where the student numbers warranted it. An affirmative action approach appears to have developed at one of the two universities. Areas for future research are identified.

  9. [Marine envenomation by box-jellyfish in a tourist in Cambodia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaud, G; Epelboin, L; Henn, A; Perignon, A; Bricaire, F; Caumes, E

    2013-10-01

    We report a case of box-jellyfish related envenomation in a 40 year old tourist that occurred in Sihanoukville, Cambodia, in the Gulf of Thailand. Symptoms that appeared within a few minutes associated intense pain, hand edema and large edematous and erythematous flagellations in the stung skin areas. Antibiotics and corticosteroids were delivered. Inflammatory signs and skin lesions disappeared within 15 days followed by crusts then scars. Jellyfish at risk for humans are generally found in tropical seas and their geographic distribution seems to spread. As it is difficult to prevent this kind of accident, travelers should be aware of the first acts to perform, such as appropriate cleaning of the wound, the interest of vinegar usage, the administration of analgesics and corticosteroids in case of significant inflammatory signs. PMID:24072422

  10. Emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with pediatric infection in Cambodia.

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    Kheng Chheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA infection is rising in the developed world but appears to be rare in developing countries. One explanation for this difference is that resource poor countries lack the diagnostic microbiology facilities necessary to detect the presence of CA-MRSA carriage and infection. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed diagnostic microbiology capabilities at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, western Cambodia in January 2006 and in the same month identified a child with severe community-acquired impetigo caused by CA-MRSA. A study was undertaken to identify and describe additional cases presenting between January 2006 and December 2007. Bacterial isolates underwent molecular characterization using multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec typing, and PCR for the presence of the genes encoding Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL. Seventeen children were identified with CA-MRSA infection, of which 11 had skin and soft tissue infection and 6 had invasive disease. The majority of cases were unrelated in time or place. Molecular characterization identified two independent MRSA clones; fifteen isolates were sequence type (ST 834, SCCmec type IV, PVL gene-negative, and two isolates were ST 121, SCCmec type V, PVL gene-positive. CONCLUSIONS: This represents the first ever report of MRSA in Cambodia, spread of which would pose a significant threat to public health. The finding that cases were mostly unrelated in time or place suggests that these were sporadic infections in persons who were CA-MRSA carriers or contacts of carriers, rather than arising in the context of an outbreak.

  11. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin E Moore

    Full Text Available Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia.In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected.We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2 years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3% children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6% and Giardia lamblia (11.2%. Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia.This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  12. Tropical tree water use under seasonal waterlogging and drought in central Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Tateishi, Makiko; Komatsu, Hikaru; Ma, Vuthy; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Sokh, Heng; Mizoue, Nobuya; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

    2014-07-01

    In central Cambodia, rapid growing non-endemic species are planted for future timber production. However, less is understood about the impact of the introduction of non-endemic species on the transpiration characteristics of the forest, which has been composed of native species that adapted to the highly seasonal environments. Sap flux of two native and one non-endemic tree species in central Cambodia was measured to reveal its seasonal trends and variability in the Monsoon Asia region. Measurements were carried out in a 10- to 15-year-old forest in the dry and rainy seasons that were defined by differing rainfall patterns. The seasonal trend in depth to water table differed from that of rainfall; groundwater table depth reached zero late in the rainy season and increased gradually after the onset of the dry season. The ratio of sap flux to an equilibrium evaporation condition of the native species, Popel (Shorea roxburghii), showed a sharp decline at the end of the dry season, whereas that of a non-endemic species, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), decreased in the mid rainy season while Tbeng (Dipterocarpus obtusifolius) did not show a clear trend. The ratio of sap flux to an equilibrium evaporation was negatively correlated with the depth to water table in Popel, but was positively correlated in eucalyptus, possibly because of the negative effects of flooding. In addition to the large seasonal variation, intra-species variation in sap flux was also large and was a major controlling factor for tree-level water uptake at this young forest site in both dry and rainy seasons. In conclusion, the transpiration characteristics of this forest were species-specific and were controlled more by the fluctuating depths to groundwater rather than the onset of the rainy/dry seasons defined by rainfall events.

  13. Assessment of hand hygiene compliance after hand hygiene education among health care workers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansam, Sim; Yamamoto, Eiko; Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Moniborin, Mey; Bun Sim, Kheang; Reyer, Joshua A; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year≧1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 yearsex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia. PMID:27303102

  14. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia. PMID:26055891

  15. Geochemistry of aquifer sediments and arsenic-rich groundwaters from Kandal Province, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated As is well known to be present in aquifers utilised for drinking water and irrigation in West Bengal and Bangladesh. This problem has also more recently been discovered in other parts of Asia, including Vietnam, Cambodia, Inner Mongolia and the Middle Ganges Plain. Analysis of groundwaters in Kandal Province of Cambodia found waters with comparable geochemistry to the As-rich groundwaters of the West Bengali Delta. Similarities included high but heterogeneous As distributions, predominantly in the form As(III), high Fe, moderate to high HCO3-, circumneutral pH, low SO42- and geochemical components indicative of reducing conditions. Good positive correlations between As, Fe, HCO3- and NH4+, and dissolved organic C is consistent with As release predominantly via microbially mediated reductive dissolution of As bearing Fe(III) oxides. Further evidence for such a process is found from correlations between As, Fe and organic matter from analysis of aquifer sediments, by the presence of goethite in the finer fractions and from the association of As with amorphous, poorly crystalline and well crystallised hydrous Fe oxides. The presence of several high As, but low Fe, wells implies that microbes could have a more direct role in mediating As release via the direct utilisation of Fe(III) or As(V) as electron acceptors. The presence of elevated As in waters with short aquifer residence times (as indicated by their geochemical signature) highlights the possible vulnerability of these aquifers to the influx of surface derived waters, providing an additional source of labile organic C that could exacerbate As release by stimulating microbial activity

  16. Large-scale malaria survey in Cambodia: Novel insights on species distribution and risk factors

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    Doung Socheat

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Cambodia, estimates of the malaria burden rely on a public health information system that does not record cases occurring among remote populations, neither malaria cases treated in the private sector nor asymptomatic carriers. A global estimate of the current malaria situation and associated risk factors is, therefore, still lacking. Methods A large cross-sectional survey was carried out in three areas of multidrug resistant malaria in Cambodia, enrolling 11,652 individuals. Fever and splenomegaly were recorded. Malaria prevalence, parasite densities and spatial distribution of infection were determined to identify parasitological profiles and the associated risk factors useful for improving malaria control programmes in the country. Results Malaria prevalence was 3.0%, 7.0% and 12.3% in Sampovloun, Koh Kong and Preah Vihear areas. Prevalences and Plasmodium species were heterogeneously distributed, with higher Plasmodium vivax rates in areas of low transmission. Malaria-attributable fevers accounted only for 10–33% of malaria cases, and 23–33% of parasite carriers were febrile. Multivariate multilevel regression analysis identified adults and males, mostly involved in forest activities, as high risk groups in Sampovloun, with additional risks for children in forest-fringe villages in the other areas along with an increased risk with distance from health facilities. Conclusion These observations point to a more complex malaria situation than suspected from official reports. A large asymptomatic reservoir was observed. The rates of P. vivax infections were higher than recorded in several areas. In remote areas, malaria prevalence was high. This indicates that additional health facilities should be implemented in areas at higher risk, such as remote rural and forested parts of the country, which are not adequately served by health services. Precise malaria risk mapping all over the country is needed to assess the

  17. Optimising strategies for Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination in Cambodia: primaquine, mass drug administration and artemisinin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Maude

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination requires a variety of approaches individually optimized for different transmission settings. A recent field study in an area of low seasonal transmission in South West Cambodia demonstrated dramatic reductions in malaria parasite prevalence following both mass drug administration (MDA and high treatment coverage of symptomatic patients with artemisinin-piperaquine plus primaquine. This study employed multiple combined strategies and it was unclear what contribution each made to the reductions in malaria. METHOD AND FINDINGS: A mathematical model fitted to the trial results was used to assess the effects of the various components of these interventions, design optimal elimination strategies, and explore their interactions with artemisinin resistance, which has recently been discovered in Western Cambodia. The modelling indicated that most of the initial reduction of P. falciparum malaria resulted from MDA with artemisinin-piperaquine. The subsequent continued decline and near elimination resulted mainly from high coverage with artemisinin-piperaquine treatment. Both these strategies were more effective with the addition of primaquine. MDA with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT increased the proportion of artemisinin resistant infections, although much less than treatment of symptomatic cases with ACT, and this increase was slowed by adding primaquine. Artemisinin resistance reduced the effectiveness of interventions using ACT when the prevalence of resistance was very high. The main results were robust to assumptions about primaquine action, and immunity. CONCLUSIONS: The key messages of these modelling results for policy makers were: high coverage with ACT treatment can produce a long-term reduction in malaria whereas the impact of MDA is generally only short-term; primaquine enhances the effect of ACT in eliminating malaria and reduces the increase in proportion of artemisinin resistant infections; parasite

  18. Carbon-based Payments for Tropical Forest Conservation – A Case Study for Evergreen Forest in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Nophea

    2010-01-01

    As negotiations to include reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) in the post-Kyoto agreements are underway, study on carbon payments for the REDD projects become urgently important. Having experienced rapid degradation and deforestation, Cambodia’s highly stocked evergreen forest is the first priority forest to be conserved if carbon payments are available. Using inventory data and timber royalties in Cambodia, we analyze the costs for and revenues from timber harvesting...

  19. An Asean-Eu FTA, regional production sharing, and regional cohesion: focus on Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lurong; 20844840 - Cuyvers, Ludo; Kusumaningtias, Wahyu Mukti; De Lombaerde, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the potential effects of an Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)–European Union (EU) Free Trade Agreement (FTA) for Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar (C-L-M), the least developed economies of ASEAN. The authors explore how the particular structure of the ASEAN production sharing network might shed light on the transmission of effects. Gravity models for intra-regional trade are estimated for that purpose. Whereas the existing computable general equilibrium (CGE) an...

  20. Hepatitis E Virus in Cambodia: Prevalence among the General Population and Complete Genome Sequence of Genotype 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Yamada

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a growing public health problem in many countries. In this study, we investigated HEV seroprevalence among the general population in the Siem Reap province, Cambodia, and performed HEV genetic analysis with the aim to develop an HEV prevention strategy. This seroepidemiological cross-sectional study conducted from 2010 to 2014 included 868 participants from four different locations in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. They answered questionnaires and provided blood samples for the analysis of hepatitis virus infections. Among the participants (360 men and 508 women; age range, 7-90 years, the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 18.4% (95% confidence interval: 15.9-21.0; HEV RNA was detected in two participants (0.23% and was classified as genotype 3 and 4. Full-length genome of the genotype 4 isolate, CVS-Sie10, was sequenced; it contained 7,222 nucleotides and three ORFs and demonstrated high sequence identity with the swine China isolates swGX40 (95.57%, SS19 (94.37%, and swDQ (91.94%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that men, elderly people, and house workers were risk groups significantly associated with the positivity for anti-HEV IgG. This is the first report on the detection of HEV genotype 4 in humans in Cambodia and on the complete genome sequence of HEV genotype 4 from this country. Our study demonstrates that new HEV infection cases occur frequently among the general population in Cambodia, and effective preventive measures are required.

  1. Assuring access to topical mosquito repellents within an intensive distribution scheme: a case study in a remote province of Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Somony; Durnez, Lies; Gryseels, Charlotte; Van Roey, Karel; Mean, Vanna; Uk, Sambunny; Siv, Sovannaroth; Grietens, Koen Peeters; Sochantha, Tho; COOSEMANS Marc; Sluydts, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Background The public health value of a vector control tool depends on its epidemiological efficacy, but also on its ease of implementation. This study describes an intensive distribution scheme of a topical repellent implemented in 2012 and 2013 for the purpose of a cluster-randomized trial using the existing public health system. The trial aimed to assess the effectiveness of repellents in addition to long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and occurred in a province of Cambodia. Determinants...

  2. Assuring access to topical mosquito repellents within an intensive distribution scheme: a case study in a remote province of Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Somony; Durnez, Lies; Gryseels, Charlotte; Van Roey, Karel; Mean, Vanna; Uk, Sambunny; Siv, Sovannaroth; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Sochantha, Tho; COOSEMANS Marc; Sluydts, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Background The public health value of a vector control tool depends on its epidemiological efficacy, but also on its ease of implementation. This study describes an intensive distribution scheme of a topical repellent implemented in 2012 and 2013 for the purpose of a cluster-randomized trial using the existing public health system. The trial aimed to assess the effectiveness of repellents in addition to long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and occurred in a province of Cambodia. Determina...

  3. Gender differences in suicidal expressions and their determinants among young people in Cambodia, a post-conflict country*

    OpenAIRE

    Kullgren Gunnar; Jegannathan Bhoomikumar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Suicide among young people is a global public health problem, but adequate information on determinants of suicidal expression is lacking in middle and low income countries. Young people in transitional economies are vulnerable to psychosocial stressors and suicidal expressions. This study explores the suicidal expressions and their determinants among high school students in Cambodia, with specific focus on gender differences. Methods A sample of 320 young people, consistin...

  4. Condom negotiation across different relationship types by young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Kien, Serey Phal; Stein, Ellen; Bates, Anna Juong; Sansothy, Neth; Page, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation acr...

  5. Progress and constraints on professional development of university academic staff in Cambodia : a case of a university

    OpenAIRE

    Ros, Vutha

    2014-01-01

    Professional development is pivotal for academic staff (Akiba, & LeTendre, 2009; Brew, 1995; Day & Sachs, 2004; Kahn & Walsh, 2006; Richards & Farrell, 2005). However, little is known about professional development of the academic staff in Cambodia. To fill this gap, this study aims at investigating the progress and constraints on the Cambodian academic staff’s professional development. This qualitative research study involves semi-structured interviews with eight academic staff, three heads ...

  6. Point-of-sale promotion of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods in Cambodia, Nepal, Senegal and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champeny, Mary; Pereira, Catherine; Sweet, Lara; Khin, Mengkheang; Ndiaye Coly, Aminata; Sy Gueye, Ndeye Yaga; Adhikary, Indu; Dhungel, Shrid; Makafu, Cecilia; Zehner, Elizabeth; Huffman, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    In order to assess the prevalence of point-of-sale promotions of infant and young child feeding products in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; Dakar Department, Senegal; and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, approximately 30 retail stores per site, 121 in total, were visited. Promotional activity for breastmilk substitutes (BMS) and commercially produced complementary foods in each site were recorded. Point-of-sale promotion of BMS occurred in approximately one-third of sampled stores in Phnom Penh and Dakar Department but in 3.2% and 6.7% of stores in Kathmandu Valley and Dar es Salaam, respectively. Promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was highly prevalent in Dakar Department with half of stores having at least one promotion, while promotions for these products occurred in 10% or less of stores in the other three sites. While promotion of BMS in stores is legal in Senegal, it is prohibited in Cambodia without prior permission of the Ministry of Health/Ministry of Information and prohibited in both Nepal and Tanzania. Strengthening legislation in Senegal and enforcing regulations in Cambodia could help to prevent such promotion that can negatively affect breastfeeding practices. Key messages Even in countries such as Cambodia, Nepal and Tanzania where point-of-sale promotion is restricted, promotions of BMS were observed (in nearly one-third of stores in Phnom Penh and less than 10% in Dar es Salaam and Kathmandu). Limited promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was evident (less than 10% of stores had a promotion for such foods), except in Dakar Department, where promotions were found in half of stores. Efforts are needed to strengthen monitoring, regulation and enforcement of restrictions on the promotion of BMS. Manufacturers and distributors should take responsibility for compliance with national regulations and global policies pertaining to the promotion of breastmilk substitutes. PMID:27061961

  7. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Tom; E J Milner-Gulland

    2014-01-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel ...

  8. Organic crops or energy crops? Options for rural development in Cambodia and the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Markandya, Anil; Setboonsarng, Sununtar

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the prospects for organic agriculture (OA) and the production of biofuels as strategies for rural development in Cambodia and the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). Both agricultural activities are growing worldwide, although there are some questions as to how effective they are, environmentally and socially. These questions are discussed in the first part of the paper. The second part looks in detail at the potential for OA and biofuels in the two countries. The ...

  9. Qualitative understanding of an international learning experience: what Australian undergraduate nurses and midwives said about a Cambodia placement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckett, Anthony; Crompton, Peta

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to report the experiences of three groups of Australian undergraduate nursing and midwifery students undertaking an international learning experience in Cambodia. Relying on an interpretative research design using qualitative content analysis, data were drawn from a sub-group of undergraduate third-year bachelor and dual degree nursing/midwifery students at a Queensland university, Australia. Students from a clinical placement in Siem Reap, Cambodia for a 4-week period in the January of 2010-2012 completed a formal expression of interest, and at three time intervals a questionnaire comprising open-ended questions. The evaluation by the undergraduate nursing/midwifery students of the clinical experience in Cambodia is understood through two core themes: global citizen/better citizen, personal/professional development. The findings have implications for university curriculum developers interested in the internationalization of nursing and midwifery programmes to ensure students are well equipped to practice in diverse multicultural and global health systems. PMID:24713009

  10. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  11. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal D. Karakochuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420 were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30 were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L and pregnant women (157 μg/L were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively. We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  12. Infant and Young Child Feces Management and Enabling Products for Their Hygienic Collection, Transport, and Disposal in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Petrie, Molly K; Voigt, Lindsay; McLennan, Lyn; Cairncross, Sandy; Jenkins, Marion W

    2016-02-01

    In Cambodia, children's feces are rarely disposed of in an improved sanitation facility. This study examines current practices and the role that enabling products may play in increasing hygienic management of infant and young child (IYC) feces in households with access to improved sanitation. A survey was conducted with the primary caregiver of a child under 5 years of age in 130 homes with an improved latrine in 21 villages across two provinces in Cambodia. Two focus group discussions per province were conducted after the survey to obtain caregiver feedback on new enabling products for hygienic management. Among caregivers, 63% reported child feces disposal in an improved latrine but only 36% reported doing so consistently. Besides child age, years of latrine ownership, caregiver age, consistency of adult latrine use, and presence of child feces management tools in the latrine were associated with hygienic disposal. The youngest caretakers with the newest latrines and youngest children were least likely to dispose of IYC feces hygienically, representing a key target group for interventions to improve hygienic disposal in Cambodia. Reusable diapers, child-friendly potties, and possibly latrine seats, that offer child safety, time and cost savings, and easy disposal and cleaning could potentially facilitate hygienic disposal for these ages. PMID:26598568

  13. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  14. Is importing second-hand products a good thing? The cases of computers and tires in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Is importing second-hand products (SHPs) good for Cambodia? To answer this question, one must seriously consider environmental and social effects. The main objective of this study is to identify and assess the economic, social, and environmental impacts of imported SHPs to determine whether or not Cambodia benefits. Imported second-hand computers (SHPCs) and second-hand tires (SHTs) were selected as cases for the study. The study used a scaling checklist to identify significant impacts of these two imported items. Significant impacts were ranked and rated into a single value (score) for integration. Integrated impact assessment showed that imported SHPCs create a very small positive impact (+ 0.1 of + 5) and imported SHTs generate a large negative impact (- 2.83 of - 5). These scores are mainly the result of environmental impact, predominantly waste issues. Thus, current imports of SHPCs and SHTs do not really benefit Cambodia, but instead cause serious environmental problems from their waste issues. The import serves as a channel to transfer waste into developing countries.

  15. Indiscriminate Fisheries: Understanding the Foodweb of the Great Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, L.; Kaufman, L.

    2014-12-01

    Indiscriminate fisheries target multiple species with multiple gear types. In contrast to well-studied, industrialized single-species, single-gear fisheries, little theory and little but growing literature on practice exists for indiscriminate fisheries. Indiscriminate fisheries are disproportionately important in low-income countries, providing most of the animal protein intake in countries such as Cambodia and Bangladesh. Indiscriminate fisheries may be either freshwater or marine, but here we focus on what may be the largest freshwater indiscriminate fishery in the world. Cambodia's freshwater fishery stands out because it provides the majority of animal protein to over 3 million people living in poverty. The fishery of the Tonle Sap lake is one of the largest, if not the largest contributor to this freshwater fish take, and is perhaps the largest freshwater fishery in the world. In contrast to its importance, very little is known about the foodweb ecology of this system, or how community management which now governs the entire fishery, interacts with biological and physical factors such as climate change.The foodweb of the Tonle Sap has changed dramatically due to high fishing pressure. A system that once harbored giant catfish, barbs and stingrays is now dominated by fish under 20cm in length. The simplification of the system may not have reduced its productivity. Theory of indiscriminate fisheries suggests that r-selected species may be favored and that biomass available for harvest may be maximized, while being more sensitive to environmental fluctuations such as climate change due to food web simplification. The r-selection and size predictions of theory have been confirmed by observations of the Tonle Sap. Early model results suggest sensitivity to environmental stochasticity. The interaction of these ecological changes with social systems will be tested in the Tonle Sap. Fisheries management across the lake has been transferred to community management

  16. Selling sex in unsafe spaces: sex work risk environments in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Lisa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk environment framework provides a valuable but under-utilised heuristic for understanding environmental vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers. Brothels have been shown to be safer than street-based sex work, with higher rates of consistent condom use and lower HIV prevalence. While entertainment venues are also assumed to be safer than street-based sex work, few studies have examined environmental influences on vulnerability to HIV in this context. Methods As part of the Young Women's Health Study, a prospective observational study of young women (15-29 years engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 33 to explore vulnerability to HIV/STI and related harms. Interviews were conducted in Khmer by trained interviewers, transcribed and translated into English and analysed for thematic content. Results The intensification of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking efforts in Cambodia has increased the number of women working in entertainment venues and on the street. Our results confirm that street-based sex work places women at risk of HIV/STI infection and identify significant environmental risks related to entertainment-based sex work, including limited access to condoms and alcohol-related intoxication. Our data also indicate that exposure to violence and interactions with the police are mediated by the settings in which sex is sold. In particular, transacting sex in environments such as guest houses where there is little or no oversight in the form of peer or managerial support or protection, may increase vulnerability to HIV/STI. Conclusions Entertainment venues may also provide a high risk environment for sex work. Our results indicate that strategies designed to address HIV prevention among brothel-based FSWs in Cambodia have not translated well to street and entertainment-based sex work venues in which increasing numbers of women are

  17. THE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC RICE CONTRACT FARMING IN CAMBODIA: A LESSON LEARNED FOR INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betti Rosita Sari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  This study examines organic rice contract farming inCambodiaand its impact on farmers’ livelihood. The study’s objective is to gain a better insight of the terms and conditions of rice contract farming scheme inCambodia, and determine under what conditions contract farming could bring improvements to farmers’ livelihoods. This study contributes new research findings on contract farming practices and farmers’ livelihood due to organic-rice contract farming with a case study in Kampong Speu province,Cambodia.Rice contract farming is not widespread inCambodiaat present, but is expected to expand significantly in the near future. Contract farming can increase investment into agricultural and infrastructure in rural areas. Contract farming can also enable farmers to access credit, inputs, technical advice and information about market condition and pricing trends. Yet, the disadvantages of contract farming include loss of farmer bargaining power and a potential reduction in profit margins, increased emphasis on improving production quality, land consolidation in favor of participating contract farmers, and less secure livelihoods.In this study, the contract farming arrangements of Angkor Kasekam Rongroeung (AKR Company is studied. A survey of 16 contract farmers and 20 non-contract farmers in Kampong Speu province has been undertaken to examine the AKR contract farming scheme arrangements and to identify farmer’s motivations to participate in contract farming and its impact on farmers’ livelihood.AKR rice contract farming improves farmers’ livelihood because they get a higher income and rice yields. Higher price, good rice seed, and access to market are the main reasons for farmers to participate in AKR contract farming. However, strict requirements, heavy penalties, poor extension services, and lack of information about the contract terms and conditions reduce farmers’ long-term participation in contract farming. In addition

  18. Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300–500 μg/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50–300 μg/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93 μg/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22 μg/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08 μg/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57–4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93 µg/g among those from the highly

  19. Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vibol, Sao [United Nations University – International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Faculty of Agricultural Technology and Management, Royal University of Agriculture, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Hashim, Jamal Hisham, E-mail: jamalhas@hotmail.com [United Nations University – International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Community Health, National University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sarmani, Sukiman [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia)

    2015-02-15

    The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300–500 μg/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50–300 μg/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93 μg/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22 μg/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08 μg/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57–4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93 µg/g among those from the highly

  20. World Malaria Day 2016 in the Kingdom of Cambodia: high-level governmental support embodies the WHO call for "political will to end malaria".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavati, Sara E; Quintero, Cesia E; Bou, Thavrin; Khieu, Virak; Leang, Rithea; Lek, Dysoley; Ly, Po; Muth, Sinuon; Lim, Kim Seng; Tuseo, Luciano; Yok, Sovann; Yung, Kunthearith; Richards, Jack S; Rekol, Huy

    2016-01-01

    On World Malaria Day 2016, The Kingdom of Cambodia's National celebrations served as a prime of example of how political will is currently being exercised in Cambodia through high-level governmental support for malaria elimination. The main country event was well-planned and coordinated by the National Programme for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control (CNM), and included key contributions from high-ranking political figures, such as His Excellency (H.E) Mam Bun Heng (Minister of Health), and H.E. Keut Sothea (Governor of Pailin Province). There were more than 1000 attendees, ranging from Village Malaria Workers and high school students to CNM's director and other officials in Pailin Province, Western Cambodia. A strong inter-sectoral participation included attendances from the Ministry of Education and high-level representatives of the Cambodian Armed Forces, as well as Malaria Partners like the World Health Organization. PMID:27251357

  1. SLIPTA e-Tool improves laboratory audit process in Vietnam and Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuong T. Nguyen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA checklist is used worldwide to drive quality improvement in laboratories in developing countries and to assess the effectiveness of interventions such as the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme. However, the paperbased format of the checklist makes administration cumbersome and limits timely analysis and communication of results.Development of e-Tool: In early 2012, the SLMTA team in Vietnam developed an electronic SLIPTA checklist tool. The e-Tool was pilot tested in Vietnam in mid-2012 and revised. It was used during SLMTA implementation in Vietnam and Cambodia in 2012 and 2013 and further revised based on auditors’ feedback about usability.Outcomes: The SLIPTA e-Tool enabled rapid turn-around of audit results, reduced workload and language barriers and facilitated analysis of national results. Benefits of the e-Tool will be magnified with in-country scale-up of laboratory quality improvement efforts and potential expansion to other countries.

  2. Parental styles in the intergenerational transmission of trauma stemming from the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Nigel P; Muong, Sophear; Sochanvimean, Vannavuth

    2013-10-01

    The impact of parental styles in intergenerational transmission of trauma among mothers who survived the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia, in power from 1975 to 1979, and their teenaged children was examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 46 Cambodian female high school students and their mothers were recruited. Each daughter completed anxiety and depression measures as well as assessment of her mother's role-reversing, overprotective, and rejecting parental styles, whereas the mothers completed measures of their trauma exposure during the Khmer Rouge regime and PTSD symptoms. In support of trauma transmission, the mother's PTSD symptoms were predictive of her daughter's anxiety. Moreover, the mother's role-reversing parental style was shown to mediate the relationship between her own and her daughter's symptoms. In support of their generalizability, the results were replicated in Study 2 in a Cambodian-American refugee sample comparing 15 mental health treatment-seeking mothers and their teenaged children with 17 nontreatment-seeking mother-child pairs. The implications of the findings within the larger literature on intergenerational trauma transmission stemming from genocide are discussed. PMID:24164520

  3. The Epidemiology of Pediatric Bone and Joint Infections in Cambodia, 2007–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Joanna; Moore, Catrin E.; Soeng, Sona; Hor, PutChhat; Sar, Poda; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas; Kumar, Varun; Khan, Sophy; Sar, Vuthy; Parry, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    There are limited data on osteoarticular infections from resource-limited settings in Asia. A retrospective study of patients presenting to the Angkor Hospital for Children, Cambodia, January 2007–July 2011, identified 81 cases (28% monoarticular septic arthritis, 51% single-limb osteomyelitis and 15% multisite infections). The incidence was 13.8/100 000 hospital attendances. The median age was 7.3 years, with a male/female ratio of 1.9:1; 35% presented within 5 days of symptom onset (median 7 days). Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in 29 (36%) cases (52% of culture-positive cases); one isolate was methicillin-resistant (MRSA). Median duration of antimicrobial treatment was 29 days (interquartile range 21–43); rates of surgical intervention were 96%, and 46% of children had sequelae, with one fatality. In this setting osteoarticular infections are relatively common with high rates of surgical intervention and sequelae. Staphylococcus aureus is the commonest culturable cause, but methicillin-resistant S. aureus is not a major problem, unlike in other Asian centers. PMID:22977206

  4. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Health-Related Adaptation Decision-Making in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Bowen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change adaptation in the health sector requires decisions across sectors, levels of government, and organisations. The networks that link these different institutions, and the relationships among people within these networks, are therefore critical influences on the nature of adaptive responses to climate change in the health sector. This study uses social network research to identify key organisational players engaged in developing health-related adaptation activities in Cambodia. It finds that strong partnerships are reported as developing across sectors and different types of organisations in relation to the health risks from climate change. Government ministries are influential organisations, whereas donors, development banks and non-government organisations do not appear to be as influential in the development of adaptation policy in the health sector. Finally, the study highlights the importance of informal partnerships (or ‘shadow networks’ in the context of climate change adaptation policy and activities. The health governance ‘map’ in relation to health and climate change adaptation that is developed in this paper is a novel way of identifying organisations that are perceived as key agents in the decision-making process, and it holds substantial benefits for both understanding and intervening in a broad range of climate change-related policy problems where collaboration is paramount for successful outcomes.

  5. Collaborating for resilience: conflict, collective action, and transformation on Cambodia's Tonle Sap Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake D. Ratner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on outcomes and lessons learned from a 15-month initiative in Cambodia's Tonle Sap Lake. Employing the appreciation-influence-control (AIC model of participatory stakeholder engagement, the initiative built shared understanding of the sources of vulnerability in fisheries livelihoods and catalyzed collective action to support resilience in this valuable and productive social-ecological system. Outcomes include the transfer of a large, commercial fishing concession to community access, and resolution of a boundary dispute involving community fishery organizations in neighboring provinces. Motivated by these successes, the main national grassroots network representing fishing communities also modified its internal governance and strategy of engagement to emphasize constructive links with government and the formal NGO sector. The AIC approach, we argue, provides an effective route to enable collective action in ways that strengthen dialogue and collaboration across scales, fostering the conditions for local-level transformations that can contribute to improvement in governance. We conclude with a discussion of the broader implications for resilience practice.

  6. The Linked Response: Lessons Emerging from Integration of HIV and Reproductive Health Services in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna White

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative assessment was made of service provider and user perceptions of the quality of integrated reproductive health services established through a pilot intervention in Cambodia. The intervention aimed to promote pregnant women's HIV testing and general utilization of reproductive health facilities as well as improve the follow-up of HIV-positive women and exposed infants through strengthened referral and operational linkages amongst health facilities/services and community-based support interventions for PLHIV. The study was conducted in one operational district where the intervention was piloted and for comparative purposes in a district where integrated services had yet to be implemented. Service providers in the pilot district reported improved collaboration and coordination of services, more effective referral, and the positive impact of improved proximity of HIV testing through integrated local level facilities. Community-based support teams for PLHIV embraced their expanded role, were valued by families receiving their assistance, and were understood to have had an important role in referral, PMTCT follow-up and countering PLHIV stigmatization; findings which underscore the potential role of community support in integrated service provision. Challenges identified included stigmatization of PLHIV by health staff at district hospital level and a lack of confidence amongst non-specialized health staff when managing deliveries by HIV-positive women, partly due to fear of HIV transmission.

  7. Poverty, economic growth, deprivation, and water: the cases of Cambodia and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varis, Olli

    2008-05-01

    Poverty reduction decorates all development agendas, but the complexity of the poverty issue is too often hidden behind simplistic indicators and development goals. Here, a closer look is taken at the concepts of "deprivation" and "vulnerability" as outcomes of poverty. Deprivation leads typically to social exclusion and marginalization; such groups are particularly weak in getting themselves out of poverty by "self-help," and economic growth does not trickle down to these people. When looking at the connections between poverty reduction and economic growth, special emphasis should be put on the differences between modern and more traditional sectors: development of the modern sector should not marginalize and exclude those dependent on more traditional livelihoods. Two case studies--The Tonle Sap area, Cambodia, and the Mekong Delta, Vietnam--reveal that investment in education, empowerment of small-scale entrepreneurship and other means of microeconomic environment, along with good governance, infrastructure, and income distribution can ensure that economic growth includes the poorer echelons of society.

  8. Municipal solid waste management in Phnom Penh, capital city of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Bunrith; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) for both technical and regulatory arrangements in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia. Problems with the current MSWM are identified, and challenges and recommendations for future improvement are also given in this paper. MPP is a small city with a total area of approximately 374 km(2) and an urban population of about 1.3 million in 2008. For the last 14 years, average annual municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in MPP has increased rapidly from 0.136 million tons in 1995 to 0.361 million tons in 2008. The gross generation rate of MSW per capita was 0.74 kg day(-1). However, the per capita household waste generation was 0.487 kg day(- 1). At 63.3%, food waste is the predominant portion of generated waste, followed by plastics (15.5%), grass and wood (6.8%), and paper and cardboard (6.4%). The remaining waste, including metals, glass, rubber/leather, textiles, and ceramic/ stone, accounted for less than 3%. Waste recycling through informal sectors is very active; recycled waste accounted for about 9.3% of all waste generated in 2003. Currently, the overall technical arrangement, including storage and discharge, collection and transport, and disposal, is still in poor condition, which leads to environmental and health risks. These problems should be solved by improving legislation, environmental education, solid waste management facilities, and management of the waste scavengers.

  9. Arsenic Concentrations in Rice and Associated Health Risks Along the Upper Mekong Delta, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, L.; Seyfferth, A.; Fendorf, S.

    2011-12-01

    The consumption of arsenic contaminated food, such as rice, can be a significant portion of daily arsenic exposure, even for populations already exposed through drinking water. While arsenic contamination of rice grains has been documented in parts of Southern Asia, (e.g. Bangladesh), little research has been conducted on arsenic contamination of Cambodian-grown rice. We collected rice plant samples at various locations within the upper Mekong River Delta near Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and we analyzed total arsenic concentrations in plant digests of grains, husk, and straw. In addition, we used CaCl2-, DTPA-, and oxalate-extractable arsenic to define plant-available soil pools. We found variability of arsenic concentration in the plants, with grain arsenic ranging from 0.046 to 0.214 μg g-1; other researchers have shown that concentrations higher than 0.1 μg g-1 could be a concern for human health. Although more extensive sampling is needed to assess the risk of arsenic exposure from rice consumption on a country-wide basis, our work clearly illustrates the risk within regions of the Mekong Delta.

  10. Ritual works and practices: a case study from a Muslim community in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Britt Trankell

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of the ritual is to assert a transcendental power over everyday experience and rituals therefore tend to be formalized, repetitive and conservative events. The purpose of this paper is to show the importance for ritual studies of ritualised strategies for the negotiation of power and influence. Here, research on a spirit possession cult among the Muslim Cham in Cambodia will serve as an empirical basis for a discussion of the open-ended and unbounded features of ritual in contemporary society, since the performances of this cult may be seen both as a kind of "state ritual" and as exorcism. Through the cult, the Cham tend to take refuge in their memories of the distant past rather than in their more immediate memories of terror and political violence, during the civil war and the Khmer Rouge regime. Rephrased as songs of the spirits, the present and the past intermingle in narrating the difficulties, the conflicts and the struggle in the world of the spirits who live next to, and mingle in, the world of ordinary human beings.

  11. Community Reaction to Older-age Parental AIDS Caregivers and their Families: Evidence from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodel, John; Williams, Nathalie; Kim, Sovan Kiry; Puch, Sina; Saengtienchai, Chanpen

    2010-01-01

    Accounts of community reaction to persons with HIV/AIDS and their families typically focus only on negative reactions stemming from stigmatization with little acknowledgement of variation over time and across settings. To usefully guide local interventions, a broader view is needed that also encompasses attitudes and actions stemming from sympathy and friendship. We examine community reaction in Cambodia to families from the perspective of parents of adults who died of AIDS or currently receive antiretroviral therapy. Survey evidence and open-ended interviews reveal a mixture of reactions with respect to social relations, interactions with local officials, gossip, business patronage, funeral participation, and orphaned grandchildren. Positive support is often dominant and reactions typically improve substantially over time. Misplaced fears of contagion through casual contact underlie most negative reactions. Moral condemnation or blame is not evident as a source of negative reactions. Overall a sufficiently supportive atmosphere likely exists in many localities to facilitate community based efforts to mitigate the epidemic's impact on affected families. PMID:20161630

  12. Building the capacity of nursing professionals in Cambodia: Insights from a bridging programme for faculty development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koto-Shimada, Kyoko; Yanagisawa, Satoko; Boonyanurak, Puangrat; Fujita, Noriko

    2016-04-01

    To upgrade nursing instruction capacity in Cambodia, two bridging programmes were opened for the Bachelor of Science in Nursing simultaneously in-country and out-of-country (Thailand). A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to assess effectiveness of both programmes jointly and to explore needs concerning the further development of nursing education. This study included interviews with 34 current or previous programme participants (nursing instructors or hospital preceptors) and 10 managers of collaborating institutions. New learning content, personal outcomes, challenges and obstacles and future needs were qualitatively coded to create categories and subcategories of data. Findings show that programme participants were most influenced by the new content areas (e.g. nursing theory and professionalism), active teaching-learning strategies and the full-time educational immersion afforded by the out-of-country programme. Programme participants who had returned to their workplaces also identified on-going needs for employing new active teaching-learning approaches, curriculum revision, national standardization of nursing curricula and improvements in the teaching-learning infrastructure. Another outcome of this study is the development of a theoretical model for Nursing Capacity Building in Developing Countries that describes the need for intermediate and long-term planning as well as using both Bottom-Up and Edge-Pulling strategies. PMID:27184699

  13. Distribution of Otters in the Tropeang Roung, Koh Kong Province, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevy Chrin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two species of otters are found along Tropeang Roung River, the smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspecillata and the hairy-nosed otter (Lutra sumatrana. The distribution of these species was studied along a stretch of the Tropeang Roung River in Koh Kong province, Cambodia, between May and June 2009. Their main habitat appears to be both small and big estuary surrounded by Melaleuca, Mangrove and evergreen forest with shoreline vegetation followed by sand (24%, clay (13%, rocky (10% and bank with vegetation (53%, where is rich of food sources, particularly fish. The sprainting sites were found more under open sky then canopy cover, and situated their spraint in average of 4.33 m from water edge and 2.73 m of water depth. Diet compositions in spraint consisted of fish 64%, frog 5%, crab 2%, shrimp 1% and unidentified debris 28%. The study revealed that the distribution of otters along the river has diminished. Hunting for skin to trade, traditional medicine, meat and habitat disturbance such as sand mining and fishing activities might be putting pressure on the population. Conservation measures such as monitoring of the otter population and interviewing locals should be done regularly and restrictions on sand mining, oil spills from shipping and snaring should be imposed along Tropeang Roung River.

  14. A Comparative Study of Dihydroartemisinin Compounds in Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Kampong of Cambodia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jian-ping(宋建平); Duong Socheat; Suou Seila

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the safety and efficacy of two compounds of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) Artekin and Artekin (T) in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Methods: The regimen of 8-tablet for 2 days of Artekin and Artekin (T) were applied to 100 patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria, who were randomly divided into two groups. Each group contained 50 cases. The cure rate, the mean parasites clearance time, the mean fever clearance and side-effects were observed to assess the safety and efficacy of the compounds used. Results: The mean parasites clearance time was 31.7±9.0 hours in the Artekin group and 32.8±8.8 hours in Artekin (T) group respectively;the mean fever clearance time was 12.7±7.2 hours in Artekin group and 16.5±7.9 hours in Artekin (T) group; there were no recrudescence case in both groups within the 28 days of follow-up,the cure rates in Artekin group and Artekin (T) groups were 100%. It indicated that the tolerability of both compounds were very good, the side-effects such as nausea, abdominal pain were mild and self-limited. Conclusion: The study preliminarily indicated that the DHA and PQ compounds were of high efficacy, rapid acting and low toxicity. Artekin is very promising as a cheap, simple, effective treatment for multi-resistance malaria in Cambodia.

  15. The Socioeconomic Impacts of Clinically Diagnosed Haemorrhagic Septicaemia on Smallholder Large Ruminant Farmers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, M; Young, J R; Suon, S; Bush, R D; Windsor, P A

    2015-10-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute fatal infectious disease of mainly cattle and buffalo and outbreaks occur commonly in Cambodia. Disease outbreak reports were examined to select five villages from three provinces for a retrospective investigation of HS epidemiology and socioeconomic impact on smallholders, with an aim of identifying potential benefits from improving disease prevention through biosecurity and vaccination. The Village Animal Health Worker (VAHW) or Chief in each village and 66 affected smallholders were surveyed. At the village level, 24% of all households were affected with an estimated mean village herd morbidity of 10.1% and mortality of 28.8%. Affected farmers reported HS disease morbidity and mortality at 42.7% and 63.6% respectively. Buffalo had a higher morbidity (OR = 2.3; P = 0.003) and mortality (OR = 6.9; P smallholders and remains a critical constraint to improving large ruminant productivity and profitability. Addressing HS disease control requires a focus on improving smallholder farmer knowledge of biosecurity and vaccination and should be priority to stakeholders interested in addressing regional food insecurity and poverty reduction. PMID:24750574

  16. Mixed impact of Xpert® MTB/RIF on tuberculosis diagnosis in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B. K.; Kyle, R. P.; Eng, B.; Nong, K.; Pevzner, E. S.; Eam, K. K.; Eang, M. T.; Killam, W. P.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: National Tuberculosis (TB) Program sites in northwest Cambodia. Objective: To evaluate the impact of Xpert® MTB/RIF at point of care (POC) as compared to non-POC sites on the diagnostic evaluation of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) with TB symptoms and patients with possible multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. Design: Observational cohort of patients undergoing routine diagnostic evaluation for TB following the rollout of Xpert. Results: Between October 2011 and June 2013, 431 of 822 (52%) PLHIV with TB symptoms and 240/493 (49%) patients with possible MDR-TB underwent Xpert. Xpert was more likely to be performed when available as POC. A smaller proportion of PLHIV at POC sites were diagnosed with TB than at non-POC sites; however, at POC sites, a higher proportion of those diagnosed with TB were bacteriologically positive. There was poor agreement between Xpert and other tests such as smear microscopy and culture. Overall, the evaluation of patients with possible MDR-TB increased following Xpert rollout, yet for patients confirmed as having drug resistance on drug susceptibility testing, only 46% had rifampin resistance that would be identified with Xpert. Conclusion: Although utilization of Xpert was low, it may have contributed to an increase in evaluations for possible MDR-TB and a decline in empiric treatment for PLHIV when available as POC. PMID:27358807

  17. Social network analysis of cattle movement in Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu and Takeo, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolkhet, C; Kasemsuwan, S; Seng, S; Keartha, C; Sokmao, C; Shin, M; Kalpravidh, W; Hinrichs, J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to provide insight the network of cattle movement in Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu and Takeo, Cambodia. A cross-sectional study was carried out from July 2014 to August 2014, using questionnaires. It was implemented with 435 interviewees (24.4%, 24.6% and 51.0% from Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu and Takeo, respectively) using one-step snowball sampling. The findings suggest that the key players in all three provinces are producers who raise their cattle as backyard animals. In all three provinces the key players in spreading disease are probably the middlemen, collectors, brokers or traders. The network of cattle movement is presented as a strong component of varying size in each location. In this network we found three cut-points in both Kampong Cham and Kampong Speu. The network in each province indicates a random pattern of node distribution. The results of our study are useful to relevant authorities and researchers to understand the spread of infectious diseases into different areas. The middlemen, collectors, brokers and traders need to be controlled as first priority in order to reduce the magnitude of the spread of disease. PMID:27012718

  18. Improvement of buried radioactive source situation at a hospital in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the successful outcome and completion of improvement works at the buried radioactive source site at a hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, by the ANSTO Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) Project. We describe the background of the situation and the efforts made since 2005 by the RSRS Project in collaboration with international partners, the New Zealand National Radiation Laboratory (NRL), as part of the New Zealand contribution to the Global Initiative to Combat Global Terrorism (GICNT), and the United States National Nuclear Security Administration represented by the Pacific North West National Laboratory (PNNL) who provided security upgrades as part of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GIRD. We describe the objectives related to characterising the buried source and improving the site's safety, security and area amenity. The potential options available to meet these objectives, justification for the strategy chosen, and the preparation and conduct of the works involved are discussed. Shielding calculations, dose rate criteria, and occupational health and safety considerations from a radiation protection and construction perspective are presented.

  19. Persistent Inequalities in Child Undernutrition in Cambodia from 2000 until Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greffeuille, Valérie; Sophonneary, Prak; Laillou, Arnaud; Gauthier, Ludovic; Hong, Rathmony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine; Wieringa, Frank; Berger, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The study assessed the trends of nutritional status of children under age five in Cambodia over four DHS surveys from 2000 to 2014 and the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic factors to its changes. Undernutrition was a public health problem in all surveys. Despite consistent improvement over the years, stunting still affected 32.5% of children in 2014. Wasting prevalence did not improve since 2005 and affected 9.6% of children under five in 2014. Low wealth and mother education; and rural residence contributed to undernutrition. In 2014; wealth status was the main socioeconomic factor associated with undernutrition and the nutritional status of children was strongly related to that of their mothers. Anemia prevalence was high and after a decrease between 2000 and 2005 remained at 45%. The prevalence of overweight was less than 10% and did not change over the years despite an increasing trend in the richest households of urban areas. Persistent inequalities in child undernutrition call for action, giving priority to the most vulnerable households to ensure availability and access to nutrient-rich foods for women and children through nutrition-sensitive and nutrition-specific programs. The recent increase of overweight in the richest populations must also be considered in Cambodian health policies. PMID:27196924

  20. Municipal solid waste management in Phnom Penh, capital city of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Bunrith; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) for both technical and regulatory arrangements in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia. Problems with the current MSWM are identified, and challenges and recommendations for future improvement are also given in this paper. MPP is a small city with a total area of approximately 374 km(2) and an urban population of about 1.3 million in 2008. For the last 14 years, average annual municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in MPP has increased rapidly from 0.136 million tons in 1995 to 0.361 million tons in 2008. The gross generation rate of MSW per capita was 0.74 kg day(-1). However, the per capita household waste generation was 0.487 kg day(- 1). At 63.3%, food waste is the predominant portion of generated waste, followed by plastics (15.5%), grass and wood (6.8%), and paper and cardboard (6.4%). The remaining waste, including metals, glass, rubber/leather, textiles, and ceramic/ stone, accounted for less than 3%. Waste recycling through informal sectors is very active; recycled waste accounted for about 9.3% of all waste generated in 2003. Currently, the overall technical arrangement, including storage and discharge, collection and transport, and disposal, is still in poor condition, which leads to environmental and health risks. These problems should be solved by improving legislation, environmental education, solid waste management facilities, and management of the waste scavengers. PMID:20813763

  1. Using social network analysis to evaluate health-related adaptation decision-making in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Alexander, Damon; Miller, Fiona; Dany, Va

    2014-02-01

    Climate change adaptation in the health sector requires decisions across sectors, levels of government, and organisations. The networks that link these different institutions, and the relationships among people within these networks, are therefore critical influences on the nature of adaptive responses to climate change in the health sector. This study uses social network research to identify key organisational players engaged in developing health-related adaptation activities in Cambodia. It finds that strong partnerships are reported as developing across sectors and different types of organisations in relation to the health risks from climate change. Government ministries are influential organisations, whereas donors, development banks and non-government organisations do not appear to be as influential in the development of adaptation policy in the health sector. Finally, the study highlights the importance of informal partnerships (or 'shadow networks') in the context of climate change adaptation policy and activities. The health governance 'map' in relation to health and climate change adaptation that is developed in this paper is a novel way of identifying organisations that are perceived as key agents in the decision-making process, and it holds substantial benefits for both understanding and intervening in a broad range of climate change-related policy problems where collaboration is paramount for successful outcomes. PMID:24487452

  2. Persistent Inequalities in Child Undernutrition in Cambodia from 2000 until Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Greffeuille

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the trends of nutritional status of children under age five in Cambodia over four DHS surveys from 2000 to 2014 and the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic factors to its changes. Undernutrition was a public health problem in all surveys. Despite consistent improvement over the years, stunting still affected 32.5% of children in 2014. Wasting prevalence did not improve since 2005 and affected 9.6% of children under five in 2014. Low wealth and mother education; and rural residence contributed to undernutrition. In 2014; wealth status was the main socioeconomic factor associated with undernutrition and the nutritional status of children was strongly related to that of their mothers. Anemia prevalence was high and after a decrease between 2000 and 2005 remained at 45%. The prevalence of overweight was less than 10% and did not change over the years despite an increasing trend in the richest households of urban areas. Persistent inequalities in child undernutrition call for action, giving priority to the most vulnerable households to ensure availability and access to nutrient-rich foods for women and children through nutrition-sensitive and nutrition-specific programs. The recent increase of overweight in the richest populations must also be considered in Cambodian health policies.

  3. Respondent-driven sampling on the Thailand-Cambodia border. II. Knowledge, perception, practice and treatment-seeking behaviour of migrants in malaria endemic zones

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    Kaewkungwal Jaranit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population movements along the Thailand-Cambodia border, particularly among highly mobile and hard-to-access migrant groups from Cambodia and Myanmar, are assumed to play a key role in the spread of artemisinin resistance. Data on treatment-seeking behaviours, knowledge and perceptions about malaria, and use of preventive measures is lacking as characteristics of this population prevent them from being represented in routine surveillance and the lack of a sampling frame makes reliable surveys challenging. Methods A survey of migrant populations from Cambodia and Myanmar was implemented in five selected rural locations in Thailand along the Thai-Cambodian border using respondent driven sampling (RDS to determine demographic characteristics of the population, migratory patterns, knowledge about malaria, and health-care -seeking behaviours. Results The majority of migrants from Myanmar are long-term residents (98% with no plans to move back to Myanmar, understand spoken Thai (77% and can therefore benefit from health messages in Thai, have Thai health insurance (99% and accessed public health services in Thailand (63% for their last illness. In comparison, the majority of Cambodian migrants are short-term (72%. Of the short-term Cambodian migrants, 92% work in agriculture, 18% speak Thai, 3.4% have Thai health insurance, and the majority returned to Cambodia for treatment (45%, self-treated (11%, or did not seek treatment for their last illness (27%. Conclusion Most highly mobile migrants along the Thai-Cambodia border are not accessing health messages or health treatment in Thailand, increasing their risk of malaria and facilitating the spread of potentially resistant Plasmodium falciparum as they return to Cambodia to seek treatment. Reaching out to highly mobile migrants with health messaging they can understand and malaria diagnosis and treatment services they can access is imperative in the effort to contain the spread of

  4. Access to Treatment for Diabetes and Hypertension in Rural Cambodia: Performance of Existing Social Health Protection Schemes.

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    Maryam Bigdeli

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCD pose challenges to Cambodia's health system. Medicines for NCD are on the National Essential Medicines List but no clinical guidelines support their utilization. Two social health protection schemes aimed at the informal sector population exist (Health Equity Funds and Insurance together with two disease-specific interventions (a Peer Educator Network and Chronic Diseases Clinics targeted at NCD patients. This study examines performance of these various schemes in relation to NCD.Cross-sectional household survey among 709 individuals self-reporting diabetes and/or hypertension in three geographical locations in rural Cambodia using a structured questionnaire investigating diagnostic and treatment pathways, health seeking behaviour, health expenditures, and financial coping mechanisms.Two third of respondents with NCD were female and 55% did not belong to any scheme. The majority (59% were diagnosed in the private sector and only 56% were on allopathic treatment that was mainly sought in the private sector (49%. Outpatient treatment cost was higher in the private sector and when using multiple providers of care. The majority were indebted, 11% due to health-related expenses. Contrary to social health protection schemes, disease-specific interventions offered better access to allopathic treatment and provided medicines in accordance with NEML.The benefit packages of existing social health protection schemes and services in the public health sector should be adjusted to cater for the needs of people living with NCD in rural Cambodia. Initiatives that offer active disease management strategies and promote patients and community participation appear more successful in increasing treatment adherence and decreasing the risk of financial hardship.

  5. DETECTION OF PUTATIVE ANTIMALARIAL-RESISTANT PLASMODIUM VIVAX IN ANOPHELES VECTORS AT THAILAND-CAMBODIA AND THAILAND-MYANMAR BORDERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattaprasert, Pongruj; Chaksangchaichot, Panee; Wihokhoen, Benchawan; Suparach, Nutjaree; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring of multidrug-resistant (MDR)falciparum and vivax malaria has recently been included in the Global Plan for Artemisinin Resistance Containment (GPARC) of the Greater Mekong Sub-region, particularly at the Thailand-Cambodia and Thailand-Myanmar borders. In parallel to GPARC, monitoring MDR malaria parasites in anopheline vectors is an ideal augment to entomological surveillance. Employing Plasmodium- and species-specific nested PCR techniques, only P. vivax was detected in 3/109 salivary gland DNA extracts of anopheline vectors collected during a rainy season between 24-26 August 2009 and 22-24 September 2009 and a dry season between 29-31 December 2009 and 16-18 January 2010. Indoor and out- door resting mosquitoes were collected in Thong Pha Phum District, Kanchanaburi Province (border of Thailand-Myanmar) and Bo Rai District, Trat Province (border of Thailand-Cambodia): one sample from Anopheles dirus at the Thailand-Cambodia border and two samples from An. aconitus from Thailand-Myanmar border isolate. Nucleotide sequencing of dihydrofolate reductase gene revealed the presence in all three samples of four mutations known to cause high resistance to antifolate pyrimethamine, but no mutations were found in multidrug resistance transporter 1 gene that are associated with (falciparum) resistance to quinoline antimalarials. Such findings indicate the potential usefulness of this approach in monitoring the prevalence of drug-resistant malaria parasites in geographically regions prone to the development of drug resistance and where screening of human population at risk poses logistical and ethical problems. Keywords: Anopheles spp, Plasmodium vivax, antimalarial resistance, Greater Mekong Sub-region, nested PCR, vector surveillance PMID:27244954

  6. The Cambodia Research Consortium: expediting research for malaria elimination with the emergency response to artemisinin resistance framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavati, Sara E; Lawford, Harriet L S; Fatunmbi, Bayo S; Lek, Dysoley; Leang, Rithea; Top Samphor, Narann; Dondorp, Arjen M; Huy, Rekol; Kazadi, Walter M

    2016-01-04

    This commentary offers insight into how to best address barriers that may hinder the translation of malaria research findings into policy. It also proposes viable methods of implementing these policies in Cambodia. Currently, a wide range of malaria research is being conducted by in-country stakeholders, including Cambodia's National Programme for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control's (CNM), non-governmental organizations, and academic institutions. Coordinating research amongst these partners, as well as within the Ministry of Health, is a challenge. Results are rarely disseminated widely and seldom inform programme and policy decisions. CNM and its research partners have severely limited access to each other's databases. This lack of accessibility, timeliness, engagement and cooperation between CNM and its partners greatly impacts overall research efficiency in this field, and is stifling innovation both within and beyond CNM. Cambodia has set a goal to eradicate all forms of malaria by 2030. As countries approach the elimination phase, there is a greater need for sharing research-generated evidence amongst partners, in order to ensure that appropriate and impactful activities are conducted. The Cambodian Research Consortium was established to serve as a framework for partners, stakeholders and researchers to share research projects, information and results, and to promote the goals of CNM. The sharing of malaria research results will help to inform prevention, control and elimination activities in the country. It will also determine and address the country's operational research needs, and could potentially become a framework model to be used in other countries aiming to transition from malaria control to elimination.

  7. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in a national referral hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia

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    Genevieve Walls

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: There are no recent data on the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB in Cambodia. We aim to describe TB drug resistance amongst adults with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV co-infection in a national referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Design: Between 22 November 2007 and 30 November 2009, clinical specimens from HIV-infected patients suspected of having TB underwent routine microscopy, Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture, and drug susceptibility testing. Laboratory and clinical data were collected for patients with positive M. tuberculosis cultures. Results: M. tuberculosis was cultured from 236 HIV-infected patients. Resistance to any first-line TB drug occurred in 34.7% of patients; 8.1% had multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB. The proportion of MDR TB amongst new patients and previously treated patients was 3.7 and 28.9%, respectively (p<0.001. The diagnosis of MDR TB was made after death in 15.8% of patients; in total 26.3% of patients with MDR TB died. The diagnosis of TB was established by culture of extra-pulmonary specimens in 23.6% of cases. Conclusions: There is significant resistance to first-line TB drugs amongst new and previously treated TB–HIV co-infected patients in Phnom Penh. These data suggest that the prevalence of DR TB in Cambodia may be higher than previously recognised, particularly amongst HIV-infected patients. Additional prevalence studies are needed. This study also illustrates the feasibility and utility of analysis of non-respiratory specimens in the diagnosis of TB, even in low-resource settings, and suggests that extra-pulmonary specimens should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms.

  8. Combining Statistical Tools and Ecological Assessments in the Study of Biodeterioration Patterns of Stone Temples in Angkor (Cambodia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneva, G.; Bartoli, F.; Savo, V.; Futagami, Y.; Strona, G.

    2016-01-01

    Biodeterioration is a major problem for the conservation of cultural heritage materials. We provide a new and original approach to analyzing changes in patterns of colonization (Biodeterioration patterns, BPs) by biological agents responsible for the deterioration of outdoor stone materials. Here we analyzed BPs of four Khmer temples in Angkor (Cambodia) exposed to variable environmental conditions, using qualitative ecological assessments and statistical approaches. The statistical analyses supported the findings obtained with the qualitative approach. Both approaches provided additional information not otherwise available using one single method. Our results indicate that studies on biodeterioration can benefit from integrating diverse methods so that conservation efforts might become more precise and effective. PMID:27597658

  9. Pesticide use and self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among aquatic farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming; Jørs, Erik;

    2011-01-01

    in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly...... associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide...

  10. Combining Statistical Tools and Ecological Assessments in the Study of Biodeterioration Patterns of Stone Temples in Angkor (Cambodia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneva, G; Bartoli, F; Savo, V; Futagami, Y; Strona, G

    2016-01-01

    Biodeterioration is a major problem for the conservation of cultural heritage materials. We provide a new and original approach to analyzing changes in patterns of colonization (Biodeterioration patterns, BPs) by biological agents responsible for the deterioration of outdoor stone materials. Here we analyzed BPs of four Khmer temples in Angkor (Cambodia) exposed to variable environmental conditions, using qualitative ecological assessments and statistical approaches. The statistical analyses supported the findings obtained with the qualitative approach. Both approaches provided additional information not otherwise available using one single method. Our results indicate that studies on biodeterioration can benefit from integrating diverse methods so that conservation efforts might become more precise and effective. PMID:27597658

  11. AIDS-Related Stigma and Mental Disorders among People Living with HIV: A Cross-Sectional Study in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Siyan Yi; Pheak Chhoun; Samedy Suong; Kouland Thin; Carinne Brody; Sovannary Tuot

    2015-01-01

    Background AIDS-related stigma and mental disorders are the most common conditions in people living with HIV (PLHIV). We therefore conducted this study to examine the association of AIDS-related stigma and discrimination with mental disorders among PLHIV in Cambodia. Methods A two-stage cluster sampling method was used to select 1,003 adult PLHIV from six provinces. The People Living with HIV Stigma Index was used to measure stigma and discrimination, and a short version of general health que...

  12. Scenario analysis of the benefit of municipal organic-waste composting over landfill, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Bunrith; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Ochiai, Satoru; Kaneko, Hidehiro

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents insight into the benefits of organic waste recycling through composting over landfill, in terms of landfill life extension, compost product, and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Future waste generation from 2003 to 2020 was forecast, and five scenarios of organic waste recycling in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia, were carried out. Organic waste-specifically food and garden waste-was used for composting, and the remaining waste was landfilled. The recycling scenarios were set based on organic waste generated from difference sources: households, restaurants, shops, markets, schools, hotels, offices, and street sweeping. Through the five scenarios, the minimum volume reductions of waste disposal were about 56, 123, and 219 m(3) d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, whereas the maximum volume reductions in these years were about 325, 643, and 1025 m(3) d(-1). These volume reductions reflect a landfill life extension of a minimum of half a year and a maximum of about four years. Compost product could be produced at a minimum of 14, 30, and 54 tons d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, and at a maximum in those years of about 80, 158, and 252 tons d(-1). At the same time benefit is gained in compost product, GHG emissions could be reduced by a minimum of 12.8% and a maximum of 65.0% from 2003 to 2020. This means about 3.23 (minimum) and 5.79 million tons CO(2)eq (maximum) contributed to GHG mitigation. In this regard, it is strongly recommended that MPP should try to initiate an organic-waste recycling strategy in a best fit scenario.

  13. First Direct Dating for the Construction and Modification of the Baphuon Temple Mountain in Angkor, Cambodia.

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    Stéphanie Leroy

    Full Text Available Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010-1050 AD for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India. Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies

  14. Water-supply options in arsenic-affected regions in Cambodia: targeting the bottom income quintiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Jim F; Sabatini, David A

    2014-08-01

    In arsenic-affected regions of Cambodia, rural water committees and planners can choose to promote various arsenic-avoidance and/or arsenic-removal water supply systems. Each of these has different costs of providing water, subsequently born by the consumer in order to be sustainable. On a volumetric basis ($/m3-yr) and of the arsenic-avoidance options considered, small-scale public water supply - e.g., treated water provided to a central tap stand - is the most expensive option on a life-cycle cost basis. Rainwater harvesting, protected hand dug wells, and vendor-supplied water are the cheapest with a normalized present worth value, ranging from $2 to $10 per cubic meter per year of water delivered. Subsidization of capital costs is needed to make even these options affordable to the lowest (Q5) quintile. The range of arsenic-removal systems considered here, using adsorptive media, is competitive with large-scale public water supply and deep tube well systems. Both community level and household-scale systems are in a range that is affordable to the Q4 quintile, though more research and field trials are needed. At a target cost of $5.00/m3, arsenic removal systems will compete with the OpEx costs for most of the arsenic-safe water systems that are currently available. The life-cycle cost approach is a valuable method for comparing alternatives and for assessing current water supply practices as these relate to equity and the ability to pay.

  15. Entrenched geographical and socioeconomic disparities in child mortality: trends in absolute and relative inequalities in Cambodia.

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    Eliana Jimenez-Soto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cambodia has made considerable improvements in mortality rates for children under the age of five and neonates. These improvements may, however, mask considerable disparities between subnational populations. In this paper, we examine the extent of the country's child mortality inequalities. METHODS: Mortality rates for children under-five and neonates were directly estimated using the 2000, 2005 and 2010 waves of the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey. Disparities were measured on both absolute and relative scales using rate differences and ratios, and where applicable, slope and relative indices of inequality by levels of rural/urban location, regions and household wealth. FINDINGS: Since 2000, considerable reductions in under-five and to a lesser extent in neonatal mortality rates have been observed. This mortality decline has, however, been accompanied by an increase in relative inequality in both rates of child mortality for geography-related stratifying markers. For absolute inequality amongst regions, most trends are increasing, particularly for neonatal mortality, but are not statistically significant. The only exception to this general pattern is the statistically significant positive trend in absolute inequality for under-five mortality in the Coastal region. For wealth, some evidence for increases in both relative and absolute inequality for neonates is observed. CONCLUSION: Despite considerable gains in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality at a national level, entrenched and increased geographical and wealth-based inequality in mortality, at least on a relative scale, remain. As expected, national progress seems to be associated with the period of political and macroeconomic stability that started in the early 2000s. However, issues of quality of care and potential non-inclusive economic growth might explain remaining disparities, particularly across wealth and geography markers. A focus on further addressing key

  16. Assessment of Flood Disaster Impacts in Cambodia: Implications for Rapid Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Aakash; Bolten, John; Doyle, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Disaster monitoring systems can provide near real time estimates of population and infrastructure affected by sudden onset natural hazards. This information is useful to decision makers allocating lifesaving resources following disaster events. Floods are the world's most common and devastating disasters (UN, 2004; Doocy et al., 2013), and are particularly frequent and severe in the developing countries of Southeast Asia (Long and Trong, 2001; Jonkman, 2005; Kahn, 2005; Stromberg, 2007; Kirsch et al., 2012). Climate change, a strong regional monsoon, and widespread hydropower construction contribute to a complex and unpredictable regional hydrodynamic regime. As such, there is a critical need for novel techniques to assess flood impacts to population and infrastructure with haste during and following flood events in order to enable governments and agencies to optimize response efforts following disasters. Here, we build on methods to determine regional flood extent in near real time and develop systems that automatically quantify the socioeconomic impacts of flooding in Cambodia. Software developed on cloud based, distributed processing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is used to demonstrate spatial and numerical estimates of population, households, roadways, schools, hospitals, airports, agriculture and fish catch affected by severe monsoon flooding occurring in the Cambodian portion of Lower Mekong River Basin in 2011. Results show modest agreement with government and agency estimates. Maps and statistics generated from the system are intended to complement on the ground efforts and bridge information gaps to decision makers. The system is open source, flexible, and can be applied to other disasters (e.g. earthquakes, droughts, landslides) in various geographic regions.

  17. Improving the Effectiveness of the Bio-slurry Extension Component of National Biodigester Program in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M. F.

    2009-10-15

    This report deals with the escalating challenge Cambodia faces in its agricultural sector for providing sufficient feeding to an increasing population, while also having improper soil management. Based on field visits, interviews, regular meetings, training workshops, and joint analysis it was revealed that farmers used both organic (bio-slurry) and inorganic fertilisers but were unaware of the balance needed and required doses of fertiliser. Further, it appeared that farmers have limited access to improve crop management practices, specifically to fertiliser management. In a response to the problem, the current weaknesses, and further scope of improvement of present organisational setup of slurry extension component of NBP and subsidy system have been analysed in depth. Extensive recommendations are offered on an organisational setup level (e.g. strengthen the linkage between Provincial Biogas Program Office-PBPO and Cambodian Centre for Study and Development in Agriculture-CEDAC by involving CEDAC in the planning process), subsidy (e.g. provide subsidy to attract farmers for construction of standard compost hut, boundaries and shade), planning (e.g. bottom up planning approach is suggested where a seasonal planning meeting should be organized at province by the project director involving CEDAC provincial coordinator), development of training materials (e.g. a national consultant should be hired for developing a training manual on bio-slurry systems), training (e.g. strengthen user training by increasing its number, frequency, topics), farmers participatory action research (e.g. the participatory approach should be replaced by a demonstration one), monitoring and reporting (e.g. monitoring system should be established as desk and field monitoring)

  18. An Efficient Acoustic Density Estimation Method with Human Detectors Applied to Gibbons in Cambodia.

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    Darren Kidney

    Full Text Available Some animal species are hard to see but easy to hear. Standard visual methods for estimating population density for such species are often ineffective or inefficient, but methods based on passive acoustics show more promise. We develop spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR methods for territorial vocalising species, in which humans act as an acoustic detector array. We use SECR and estimated bearing data from a single-occasion acoustic survey of a gibbon population in northeastern Cambodia to estimate the density of calling groups. The properties of the estimator are assessed using a simulation study, in which a variety of survey designs are also investigated. We then present a new form of the SECR likelihood for multi-occasion data which accounts for the stochastic availability of animals. In the context of gibbon surveys this allows model-based estimation of the proportion of groups that produce territorial vocalisations on a given day, thereby enabling the density of groups, instead of the density of calling groups, to be estimated. We illustrate the performance of this new estimator by simulation. We show that it is possible to estimate density reliably from human acoustic detections of visually cryptic species using SECR methods. For gibbon surveys we also show that incorporating observers' estimates of bearings to detected groups substantially improves estimator performance. Using the new form of the SECR likelihood we demonstrate that estimates of availability, in addition to population density and detection function parameters, can be obtained from multi-occasion data, and that the detection function parameters are not confounded with the availability parameter. This acoustic SECR method provides a means of obtaining reliable density estimates for territorial vocalising species. It is also efficient in terms of data requirements since since it only requires routine survey data. We anticipate that the low-tech field requirements will

  19. Nesting phenology and clutch characteristics of captive Siamese crocodiles (Crocodylus siamensis) in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Steven G; Monyrath, Vuthy; Sovannara, Heng; Kheng, Long; Rainwater, Thomas R

    2012-01-01

    The Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) is considered one of the least studied and most critically endangered crocodilians in the world. Although few wild populations remain, more than 700,000 C. siamensis are held on commercial crocodile farms in Southeast Asia. Despite conservation concerns, many aspects of C. siamensis life history remain poorly known, particularly with regards to its reproductive biology. We studied nesting phenology, clutch characteristics, and other aspects of C. siamensis reproductive biology on crocodile farms in Cambodia during 2000 and 2001. Oviposition among captive crocodiles began in February and continued into early June. The mean (±1 SD) oviposition date based on pooled data from 2000 and 2001 was 5 April ± 24 days. Mean oviposition date differed significantly between 2000 and 2001, possibly as a result of annual variability among nesting cues. The mean incubation period was 72 ± 3 days and eggs hatched from 5 May to 18 August. Mean clutch size (25.0 ± 8.8 eggs; n = 183) differed significantly between years, possibly resulting from the >2.5-fold increase in sample size during 2001. There was no correlation between clutch size and oviposition date during either 2000 or 2001. A single female produced two clutches during 2001, complimenting previous reports of double-clutching among C. siamensis. The mean length and width of 515 eggs were 78.2 ± 4.9 and 48.1 ± 2.5 mm, respectively; mean egg mass was 90.8 ± 16.5 g (n = 471). One unpipped egg contained a set of twins. PMID:23027550

  20. Re-assessment of woodfuel supply and demand relationships in Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study re-examined a previously published relationship between supply and demand for woodfuel at different spatial scales within Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia. We considered three different scales: The first was the whole area of the province. The second scale calculated village-scale data in zones of 1, 3, and 5km from each village and then aggregated for all villages of the province. The third scale also calculated data for the three zones at the village-scale, but the data were then aggregated according to three regional groupings based on population density and forest availability. When evaluating woodfuel supply, we excluded biomass increment of trees with diameter larger than 30cm because it was found that local people rarely collect trees larger than 30cm for fuel. On the demand side, dead wood, which was included in the previous assessment, and woodfuel obtained from non-forest sources were excluded to enable comparison of supply and demand that related only to living trees originating from forests. The re-assessment revealed large decreases in both supply and demand at each scale as compared with our previous assessment; supply reduced by 46% and demand by 36% at the whole province scale. However, the ratios of supply to demand at each scale examined were very similar for both assessments. This re-assessment therefore supports our previous findings: there is a deficiency in woodfuel resources in areas of high population density along the main road due to high woodfuel demand and a predominance of agricultural land and regrowth forest in close proximity to villages. This study underscores the usefulness of taking detailed woodfuel consumption patterns into account when assessing the impact of woodfuel demand on forests. For a more accurate assessment on the sustainability of woodfuel resources and utilization, further research is needed to project future woodfuel demand, not only for green wood from forested sources, but also for dead wood and

  1. The Establishment of the National Language in Twentieth-Century Cambodia: Debates on Orthography and Coinage

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    Sasagawa Hideo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the process in which an ethnic Khmer language became the national one in Cambodia, through a discussion of activities and debates concerned with orthography and coinage of the modern vocabulary. The committee for editing a Khmer dictionary established in 1915 consisted of both members who insisted on an etymological style of orthography and those who favored a phonemic style. A Buddhist monk Chuon Nath took the initiative from 1926 on and published the first Khmer-language dictionary in 1938. After the perfection of orthography based on an etymological style in the dictionary, the “Cultural Committee” began to create new vocabularies in 1947. Here again Chuon Nath assumed leadership with his best friend Huot Tat. The Cultural Committee rejected Sanskrit-originated words created in Siam and preferred the Pali language as elements of the modern vocabulary. Keng Vannsak objected strongly to these activities and claimed that the Khmer language had to exclude as many Sanskrit/Pali-originated words as possible in order to expand primary education. In 1967 the National Assembly recognized Khmer as the teaching language in schools, and a new educational magazine Khemarayeanakam [Khmerization] was launched. In the process of editing this magazine, the followers of Keng Vannsak presented another way of coinage that they alleged was much easier, and advocated a new orthography. Even after the civil war, their new orthography continued to be used in education and media. In 2009, however, orthography recurred to the dictionary. Through a study of the vicissitudes of language policies, we can understand the formation and development of Cambodian cultural nationalism. By the early 1960s, Buddhist monks were attempting to differentiate Cambodian modern vocabulary from Thai. Thereafter advocates of Khmerization, who no longer learned the Thai language, aimed at the “purification” and “simplification” of the Khmer language.

  2. Dyslipidemias and Elevated Cardiovascular Risk on Lopinavir-Based Antiretroviral Therapy in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Sowath; Ouk, Vara; Chanroeurn, Hak; Thavary, Saem; Boroath, Ban; Canestri, Ana; Viretto, Gérald; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Ségéral, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Background Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is widely used in Cambodia with high efficacy but scarce data exist on long-term metabolic toxicity. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional and retrospective study evaluating metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in Cambodian patients on LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) for > 1 year followed in Calmette Hospital, Phnom Penh. Data collected included cardiovascular risk factors, fasting blood lipids and glucose, and retrospective collection of bioclinical data. We estimated the 10-year risks of coronary heart disease with the Framingham, Ramathibodi-Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (Rama-EGAT), and the Data Collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) risk equations. We identified patients with LDL above targets defined by the French expert group on HIV and by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Disease Society of America and the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (IDSA-AACTG). Results Of 115 patients enrolled—mean age 40.9 years, 69.2% male, mean time on LPV/r 3.8 years—40 (34.8%) had hypercholesterolemia (> 2.40 g/L), and 69 (60.0%) had low HDL cholesterol (< 0.40 g/L). Twelve (10.5%), 28 (24%) and 9 (7.7%) patients had a 10-year risk of coronary heart disease ≥ 10% according to the Framingham, D:A:D, and Rama-EGAT score, respectively. Fifty one (44.4%) and 36 (31.3%) patients had not reached their LDL target according to IDSA-AACTG and French recommendations, respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of dyslipidemia was high in this cohort of HIV-infected Cambodian patients on LPV/r. Roughly one third had high LDL levels requiring specific intervention. PMID:27579612

  3. A Comparative Study of Dihydroartemisinin Compounds in Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Kampong of Cambodia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONGJian-ping; DuongSocheattffu

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To compare the safety and efficacy of two compounds of dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-Artekin and Artekin(T)in the treatement of uncomplicated falciparum malaria.Methods:The regiment of 8-tablet for 2 days of Artekin and Artekin(T) were applied to 100 patients with uncompli-cated falciparum malaria,who were radomly divided into two groups.Each group contained 50 cases.The cure rate ,the mean parasites clearance time,the mean fever clearance and side-effects were observed to assess the safety and efficacy of the compunds used.Results:The mean parasites clearance time was 31.7±9.0 hours in the Artekin group and 32.8±8.8 hours in Artekin(T) group respectively; the mean fever clearance time was 12.7±7.2 hours in Artekin group and 16.5±7.9 hours in Artekin(T) group; there were no recrudescence case in both groups within the 28 days of follow-up ,the cure rates in Artekin group and Artekin(T)groups were 100%.It indicated that the tolerability of both compunds were very good,the side-effects such as nausea,abdominal pain were mild and self-limited.Conclusion:The study preliminarily indicated that the DHA and PQ compounds were of high efficacy,rapid acting and low toxici-ty.Artekin is very promising as a cheap,simple,effective treatment for multi-resistance malaria in Cam-bodia.

  4. Linking Hydrologic Drivers to Arsenic Contamination in Asia, Results From a Field Site in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, S. G.; Polizzotto, M. L.; Kocar, B. D.; Sampson, M.; Fendorf, S.

    2008-12-01

    Attempts to resolve the specific release mechanisms associated with arsenic contamination on the deltas of Asia have been hampered, especially in Bangladesh, by the difficulty of linking geochemical mechanisms with hydrologic drivers. At an arsenic-contaminated (100-1200 ug/L) aquifer in Cambodia, where pumping for irrigation is limited and the hydrologic system is much less complex than in Bangladesh, we have developed a conceptual model of arsenic behavior that integrates the system hydrology and depositional history, providing strong evidence that arsenic release is sensitive to human activities. Specifically, the hydrogeologic regime is dominated by seasonally-variable head gradients between the river and adjacent wetland basins but the net annual flow is from the wetlands downwards into the aquifer (0.04-0.4 m/a) followed by discharge to the river (1-13 m/a). These flow rates produce aquifer residence times on the order of 100-1000 years. When coupled with elevated concentrations throughout the aquifer, this indicates that arsenic contamination predates recent human activities. Within this flow regime, it is possible to track spatial changes in arsenic concentrations along specific flow lines: The greatest increases in dissolved arsenic concentrations (150 ug/L/m) occur in shallow sediments along the first 2-10 m of the flow path, consistent with the depth at which reducing conditions are no longer seasonally disrupted by fluctuating water levels. Estimates of arsenic delivery to the wetlands by flood deposition (1,300,000 kg/a) are of a similar magnitude to the estimated flux, via groundwater, out of the aquifer (1,000,000 kg/a), indicating that arsenic delivery, release, and transport are in approximate steady-state. Given the dependency of arsenic release and transport on hydrologic drivers, human activities that alter the hydrology (inclusive of pumping for irrigation, soil excavation, and upstream river damming) will likely also alter arsenic behavior.

  5. Intravaginal Practices in Female Sex Workers in Cambodia: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly Thi-Hai; Hor, Leng Bun; Scheurer, Michael E; Vidrine, Damon J; Markham, Christine M

    2016-05-01

    Intravaginal practices (IVPs) are associated with several adverse health outcomes, including HIV infection. However, few studies have examined this topic in Asian cultures, particularly in female sex workers (FSWs). This theory-based qualitative study aimed to describe the IVPs and to identify salient determinants of these practices in FSWs in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We conducted in-depth interviews using open-ended questions with 30 FSWs in July-August 2014. We analyzed data using thematic content analysis, with thematic codes based on the constructs of the theory of planned behavior. The results showed that the most common IVP was a combination of intravaginal washing and wiping, to which we refer as intravaginal cleansing. There was a clear and close connection between IVP and sex work. Perceived benefits of intravaginal cleansing were numerous, while the perceived risks were few. As a result, the attitude toward intravaginal cleansing was favorable. A common misperception of benefit was that intravaginal cleansing could prevent sexually transmitted infections. Local physicians considerably influenced the subjective norm related to IVP. Intention to quit IVPs was suboptimal. In conclusion, the psychological factors associated with IVPs in FSWs were somewhat different from those in the general population of Cambodian women and women in other countries. Behavioral beliefs, attitude, and subjective norms appeared salient and important factors in IVPs. Interventions aimed at reducing IVPs should target these constructs as well as the sex-work-associated economic motives. Local physicians may be an agent to change IVP and an effective channel to deliver interventions. PMID:26742508

  6. Electromagnetic soil properties variability in a minefield trial site in Cambodia and its effect on the detection of mine-like targets with a dual-sensor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranada Shaw, A.; Gorriti, A.; Schoolderman, A.J.; Rhebergen, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper results are presented of a study on the performance of a dual-sensor landmine detector and its dependency on soil moisture. The detector was used on a trial site in the K5 mine belt in Cambodia. Soil samples were taken from the trial lane, as well as GPR measurements. The data obtained

  7. Whose Education Policies in Aid-Receiving Countries? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Quality and Normative Transfer through Cambodia and Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…

  8. Injections, cocktails and diviners: therapeutic flexibility in the context of malaria elimination and drug resistance in Northeast Cambodia.

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    Charlotte Gryseels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adherence to effective malaria medication is extremely important in the context of Cambodia's elimination targets and drug resistance containment. Although the public sector health facilities are accessible to the local ethnic minorities of Ratanakiri province (Northeast Cambodia, their illness itineraries often lead them to private pharmacies selling "cocktails" and artemether injections, or to local diviners prescribing animal sacrifices to appease the spirits. METHODS: The research design consisted of a mixed methods study, combining qualitative (in-depth interviews and participant observation and quantitative methods (household and cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: Three broad options for malaria treatment were identified: i the public sector; ii the private sector; iii traditional treatment based on divination and ceremonial sacrifice. Treatment choice was influenced by the availability of treatment and provider, perceived side effects and efficacy of treatments, perceived etiology of symptoms, and patient-health provider encounters. Moreover, treatment paths proved to be highly flexible, changing mostly in relation to the perceived efficacy of a chosen treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Despite good availability of anti-malarial treatment in the public health sector, attendance remained low due to both structural and human behavioral factors. The common use and under-dosage of anti-malaria monotherapy in the private sector (single-dose injections, single-day drug cocktails represents a threat not only for individual case management, but also for the regional plan of drug resistance containment and malaria elimination.

  9. The Economic Burden of Malnutrition in Pregnant Women and Children under 5 Years of Age in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Silo, Sok; Laillou, Arnaud; Wieringa, Frank; Hong, Rathamony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Bagriansky, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is locked in a vicious cycle of increased mortality, poor health, impaired cognitive development, slow physical growth, reduced learning capacity, inferior performance, and ultimately lower adult work performance and productivity. The consensus of global scientific evidence indicates that lowering the rates of malnutrition will be an indispensable component of any successful program to raise the quality of human capital and resources. This study used a "consequence model" to apply the coefficient risk-deficit on economic losses, established in the global scientific literature, to Cambodian health, demographic, and economic data to develop a national estimate of the value of economic losses due to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analyzed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at 266 million USD annually (1.7% of GDP). Stunting is reducing the Cambodian economic output by more than 120 million USD, and iodine deficiency disorders alone by 57 million USD. This economic burden is too high in view of Cambodia's efforts to drive economic development. The government should rapidly expand a range of low-cost effective nutrition interventions to break the current cycle of increased mortality, poor health and ultimately lower work performance, productivity, and earnings. PMID:27187462

  10. Issues in access to safe drinking water and basic hygiene for persons with physical disabilities in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Marin; Pann, Mala; Cantwell, Ray; Moore, Spencer

    2014-12-01

    An estimated 1.6 million people die from diarrheal diseases each year due to lack of access to safe water and sanitation, and persons with physical disabilities face additional barriers. In Cambodia, approximately 5% of the population is disabled, presenting substantial obstacles in accessing these basic services. The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to identify the challenges facing persons with physical disabilities in accessing safe household water and basic hygiene in rural Cambodia; and, second, to use these results to generate policy and practice recommendations for the water and sanitation hygiene sector implementing water treatment system interventions in rural settings. Fifteen field interviews were conducted with persons with physical disabilities. Thematic analysis was used to identify six main themes. The results indicated that environmental barriers to access were greater in the workplace than household settings and those persons with disabilities had greater awareness about safe drinking water compared to basic hygiene. Additionally, lack of physical strength, distance to water, and lack of financial means were noted as common access barriers. The findings support ongoing research and offer insight into the particular challenges facing persons with physical disabilities in rural areas in accessing safe drinking water and basic hygiene. PMID:25473998

  11. For the verification of National Biodigester Programme Cambodia. Monitoring period I (24/5/2009 - 31/08/2010)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buysman, E.

    2011-11-15

    The National Biodigester Programme (NBP) Cambodia has executed a monitoring survey for her Voluntary Gold Standard (VGS) project. The VGS project is located in South-East Cambodia and covers 8 provinces. The monitoring activities are executed according to the monitoring plan in the PDD and the Gold Standard Passport, both document are approved by the DOE. The monitoring period I runs from 24-5-2009 to 31-08-2010. The survey population is 8571 biodigesters built as of 31-08-2010. The survey strategy is a stratified sampling approach, where first 12 districts were randomly selected and 120 households were randomly selected of the survey population in these 12 districts. The survey sample of 120 households is based on a confidence interval of 95% and a sampling error of 10%. The survey sample is twice as high as dictated by the used methodology in the PDD. The main findings of the monitoring survey are: (1) The project has an annual per household project emission of 0.512 tCO2 from physical leakage, incomplete combustion and wood fuel for thermal energy; (2) All the biodigester surveyed were in operation, a figure of 99% is adopted to be on the safe side; (3) The annual per household emission reductions are 4.18 tCO2; (4) The total emission reduction for the monitoring period I are 34,112 tCO2.

  12. System-level factors as predictors of adherence to clinical appointment schedules in antiretroviral therapy in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Gary T; Jolly, Pauline E; Chamot, Eric A M; Ehiri, John; Zhang, Kui; Khan, Edward; Sou, Sanith

    2015-01-01

    Adherence to clinical appointment schedules by patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is necessary for the prevention of medication interruptions, viral rebound, and the development of drug resistance. An observational study conducted in 2010, Enablers and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Cambodia, sought to identify factors that predict on-time clinical appointment attendance by patients on ART. Clinical data, including appointment attendance across five consecutive visits, were collected from hospital records on a random sample of ART patients at government referral hospitals (RHs) in Battambang Province, Cambodia. Interviews were conducted to obtain quantitative information from patients on their experiences of support services provided by local NGOs and RHs. This information was used to identify ART patient care and support system factors that could potentially enable patients to adhere to clinical appointment schedules. These factors included adherence counseling, support groups, home-based care (HBC) services, and support provided for transportation to ART appointments. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to assess relationships between system variables and the ART appointment adherence outcome. Of the 289 study participants, 20.4% had missed at least one of the five appointments in the study period. The hospital source of ART services, participation in a hospital-based support group, receiving a loan from a microfinance institution, and the frequency of adherence counseling were found to be associated with ART appointment adherence. No significant associations were found between other support system factors such as HBC, transportation support, food/monetary support, and appointment adherence. PMID:25803006

  13. Studies on the Development of Microfinance in Cambodia%柬埔寨小额信贷发展探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝淼

    2011-01-01

    柬埔寨小额信贷起步于上世纪90年代,历经20年,已经实现了产业的可持续发展。经济学人信息部(EIU)发布《小额信贷业务综合商业环境报告》对54个发展中国家展开调查,柬埔寨小额信贷业务商业环境排名第16位,在东南亚地区位居次席。%Since the appearance in 20th century 90's, microfinance has achieved sustainable development in Cambodia within the past two decades. Global Microscope on the Microfinance Business Environment, published by Economist Intelligence Unit, evaluates microfinance of 54 developing countries around the world. This report depicts that in the year 2010 Cambodia was ranked 16th overall, and took the second position in Southeast Asia.

  14. Breastfeeding Trends in Cambodia, and the Increased Use of Breast-Milk Substitute—Why Is It a Danger?

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    Sophonneary Prak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional analysis of the Cambodia Demographic Health Surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010 was conducted to observe the national trends in infant and young child feeding practices. The results showed that rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged 0–5.9 months have increased substantially since 2000, concurrent with an increase in the rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and a reduction in the giving of pre-lacteal feeds. However, the proportion of infants being fed with breast-milk substitutes (BMS during 0–5.9 months doubled in 5 years (3.4% to 7.0% from 2000 to 2005, but then did not increase from 2005, likely due to extensive public health campaigns on exclusive breastfeeding. BMS use increased among children aged 6–23.9 months from 2000 to 2010 (4.8% to 9.3%. 26.1% of women delivering in a private clinic provided their child with breast-milk substitute at 0–5.9 months, which is five times more than women delivering in the public sector (5.1%, and the greatest increase in bottle use happened among the urban poor (5.8% to 21.7%. These findings are discussed with reference to the increased supply and marketing of BMS that is occurring in Cambodia.

  15. Effects of logging and recruitment on community phylogenetic structure in 32 permanent forest plots of Kampong Thom, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Hironori; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Tagane, Shuichiro; Mase, Keiko; Chhang, Phourin; Samreth, Vanna; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Onoda, Yusuke; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2015-02-19

    Ecological communities including tropical rainforest are rapidly changing under various disturbances caused by increasing human activities. Recently in Cambodia, illegal logging and clear-felling for agriculture have been increasing. Here, we study the effects of logging, mortality and recruitment of plot trees on phylogenetic community structure in 32 plots in Kampong Thom, Cambodia. Each plot was 0.25 ha; 28 plots were established in primary evergreen forests and four were established in secondary dry deciduous forests. Measurements were made in 1998, 2000, 2004 and 2010, and logging, recruitment and mortality of each tree were recorded. We estimated phylogeny using rbcL and matK gene sequences and quantified phylogenetic α and β diversity. Within communities, logging decreased phylogenetic diversity, and increased overall phylogenetic clustering and terminal phylogenetic evenness. Between communities, logging increased phylogenetic similarity between evergreen and deciduous plots. On the other hand, recruitment had opposite effects both within and between communities. The observed patterns can be explained by environmental homogenization under logging. Logging is biased to particular species and larger diameter at breast height, and forest patrol has been effective in decreasing logging. PMID:25561669

  16. Arsenic concentrations in paddy soil and rice and health implications for major rice-growing regions of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; McCurdy, Sarah; Schaefer, Michael V; Fendorf, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Despite the global importance of As in rice, research has primarily focused on Bangladesh, India, China, and the United States with limited attention given to other countries. Owing to both indigenous As within the soil and the possible increases arising from the onset of irrigation with groundwater, an assessment of As in rice within Cambodia is needed, which offers a "base-case" comparison against sediments of similar origin that comprise rice paddy soils where As-contaminated water is used for irrigation (e.g., Bangladesh). Here, we evaluated the As content of rice from five provinces (Kandal, Prey Veng, Battambang, Banteay Meanchey, and Kampong Thom) in the rice-growing regions of Cambodia and coupled that data to soil-chemical factors based on extractions of paddy soil collected and processed under anoxic conditions. At total soil As concentrations ranging 0.8 to 18 μg g(-1), total grain As concentrations averaged 0.2 μg g(-1) and ranged from 0.1 to 0.37 with Banteay Meanchey rice having significantly higher values than Prey Veng rice. Overall, soil-extractable concentrations of As, Fe, P, and Si and total As were poor predictors of grain As concentrations. While biogeochemical factors leading to reduction of As(V)-bearing Fe(III) oxides are likely most important for predicting plant-available As, husk and straw As concentrations were the most significant predictors of grain-As levels among our measured parameters. PMID:24712677

  17. Tetanus Immunity among Women Aged 15 to 39 Years in Cambodia: a National Population-Based Serosurvey, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobie, Heather M; Mao, Bunsoth; Buth, Sokhal; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Sørensen, Charlotte; Kannarath, Chheng; Jenks, M Harley; Moss, Delynn M; Priest, Jeffrey W; Soeung, Sann Chan; Deming, Michael S; Lammie, Patrick J; Gregory, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    To monitor progress toward maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination (MNTE) in Cambodia, we conducted a nationwide serosurvey of tetanus immunity in 2012. Multistage cluster sampling was used to select 2,154 women aged 15 to 39 years. Tetanus toxoid antibodies in serum samples were measured by gold-standard double-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAE) and a novel multiplex bead assay (MBA). Antibody concentrations of ≥0.01 IU/ml by DAE or the equivalent for MBA were considered seroprotective. Estimated tetanus seroprotection was 88% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86 to 89%); 64% (95% CI, 61 to 67%) of women had antibody levels of ≥1.0 IU/ml. Seroprotection was significantly lower (P Cambodia (≥80% protection). Tetanus immunity gaps should be addressed through strengthened routine immunization and targeted vaccination campaigns. Incorporating tetanus testing in national serosurveys using MBAs, which can measure immunity to multiple pathogens simultaneously, may be beneficial for monitoring MNTE. PMID:27053629

  18. How Land Concessions Affect Places Elsewhere: Telecoupling, Political Ecology, and Large-Scale Plantations in Southern Laos and Northeastern Cambodia

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    Ian G. Baird

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade considerable research has been conducted on the development and the impacts of large-scale economic land concessions for plantations in Laos and Cambodia. These studies have variously illustrated that concessions frequently result in serious negative impacts on local people and the environment, often leading to dramatic transformations of landscapes and livelihoods. As important as this research has been, these studies have largely focused on the immediate impacts of the “enclosure” process associated with gaining access to land by investors. In this study we take a different approach, investigating the implications of large-scale land concessions in southern Laos and northeastern Cambodia with regard to places outside of actual concession areas, both within the countries where the concessions are located and beyond. These links have been referred to as “teleconnections” or “telecoupling”, and adopting a “telecoupling” approach allows us to focus on particular relations between land-use change in one location and land-use change elsewhere, either nearby or distant, as the result of large-scale plantation development, both during the early plantation development period, and later when plantations are productive. It also provides opportunities to engage with Land Change Science (LCS through Political Ecology (PE.

  19. The relevance of a coproductive capacity framework to climate change adaptation: investigating the health and water sectors in Cambodia

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    Kathryn J. Bowen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple active partnerships in the health and water sectors in Cambodia exist to address climate change adaptation, operating beyond typical sectoral and organizational divides. Decisions around national adaptation policy are made predominantly by the relevant lead ministry, contrasting with where funding originates from (i.e., major donors, multilaterals, United Nation agencies. Adaptation policy is thus the result of a process of coproduction by state and nonstate actors. The research we present sought to understand the relationships that exist between knowledge- and decision-makers with respect to climate change adaptation in the health and water sectors in Cambodia, and the factors that enabled or constrained these relationships. Forty-four interviews were conducted with representatives of 32 organizations. We found that coproductive relationships were most effective when there were clearly defined roles and responsibilities, coordination of technical and financial resources, and trust. The two key factors of coproductive capacity that enabled and supported these partnerships were scientific resources and governance capability. Ultimately, the roles and responsibilities given to various actors requires commensurate funding and greater consideration of existing relationships and power dynamics. The reliance on international scientific expertise also needs to be challenged so that local research capabilities can be developed and locally relevant, problem-specific information can be provided. The ongoing funding, codevelopment, and sharing of such knowledge would significantly enhance trust and cooperation.

  20. The Economic Burden of Malnutrition in Pregnant Women and Children under 5 Years of Age in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Silo, Sok; Laillou, Arnaud; Wieringa, Frank; Hong, Rathamony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Bagriansky, Jack

    2016-05-14

    Malnutrition is locked in a vicious cycle of increased mortality, poor health, impaired cognitive development, slow physical growth, reduced learning capacity, inferior performance, and ultimately lower adult work performance and productivity. The consensus of global scientific evidence indicates that lowering the rates of malnutrition will be an indispensable component of any successful program to raise the quality of human capital and resources. This study used a "consequence model" to apply the coefficient risk-deficit on economic losses, established in the global scientific literature, to Cambodian health, demographic, and economic data to develop a national estimate of the value of economic losses due to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analyzed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at 266 million USD annually (1.7% of GDP). Stunting is reducing the Cambodian economic output by more than 120 million USD, and iodine deficiency disorders alone by 57 million USD. This economic burden is too high in view of Cambodia's efforts to drive economic development. The government should rapidly expand a range of low-cost effective nutrition interventions to break the current cycle of increased mortality, poor health and ultimately lower work performance, productivity, and earnings.

  1. Factors Associated with Inconsistent Condom Use among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Cambodia.

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    Siyan Yi

    Full Text Available Compared to the general population, men who have sex with men (MSM are at greater risk for HIV and less understood due to their more hidden and stigmatized nature. Moreover, the discrepancy in findings in the literature merits further investigations in MSM populations from different cultures and settings. We therefore conducted this study to explore factors associated with inconsistent condom use among high-risk MSM in Cambodia.This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 367 MSM randomly selected from Battembang and Siem Reap using a two-stage cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire was used for face-to-face interviews to collect information on characteristics of respondents, HIV testing history, self-perception of HIV risk, substance use, sexual behaviors, mental disorders, and HIV knowledge. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with inconsistent condom use.On average, 62.3% of respondents reported that they always used condoms over the past three months. The rates varied with types of sexual partners; the proportion of respondents who reported always using condoms was 55.1%, 64.2%, 75.9%, 73.0%, 78.1%, and 70.3%, for sexual partners who were girlfriends, boyfriends, female sex workers, male sex workers, female clients, or male clients, respectively. After adjustment, inconsistent condom use was significantly associated with age of ≥25 (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.09-2.86, self-rated quality of life as good or very good (AOR = 4.37, 95% CI = 1.79-5.67, self-perception of higher HIV risk compared to the general population (AOR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.35-4.17, illicit drug use in the past three months (AOR = 5.76, 95% CI = 1.65-10.09, and reported consistent lubricant use when selling anal sex to men in the past three months (AOR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.07-8.12.We found risky sexual behaviors to be considerably high among MSM in this study, especially among those who used

  2. Ivermectin Treatment and Sanitation Effectively Reduce Strongyloides stercoralis Infection Risk in Rural Communities in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schindler, Christian; Schär, Fabian; Marti, Hanspeter; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis is the only soil-transmitted helminth with the ability to replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and its worldwide prevalence has recently been estimated to be at least half that of hookworm. Information on the epidemiology of S. stercoralis remains scarce and modalities for its large-scale control are yet to be determined. Methodology/Principal Findings A community-based two-year cohort study was conducted among the general population in a rural province in North Cambodia. At each survey, participants infected with S. stercoralis were treated with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW). Diagnosis was performed using a combination of the Baermann method and Koga agar plate culture on two stool samples. The cohort included participants from eight villages who were either positive or negative for S. stercoralis at baseline. Mixed logistic regression models were employed to assess risk factors for S. stercoralis infection at baseline and re-infection at follow-up. A total of 3,096 participants were examined at baseline, revealing a S. stercoralis prevalence of 33.1%. Of these participants, 1,269 were followed-up over two years. Re-infection and infection rates among positive and negative participants at baseline were 14.4% and 9.6% at the first and 11.0% and 11.5% at the second follow-up, respectively. At follow-up, all age groups were at similar risk of acquiring an infection, while infection risk significantly decreased with increasing village sanitation coverage. Conclusions/Significance Chemotherapy-based control of S. stercoralis is feasible and highly beneficial, particularly in combination with improved sanitation. The impact of community-based ivermectin treatment on S. stercoralis was high, with over 85% of villagers remaining negative one year after treatment. The integration of S. stercoralis into existing STH control programs should be considered

  3. Role of risk and protective factors in risky sexual behavior among high school students in Cambodia

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    Yi Siyan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, adolescents have become increasingly prone to engage in habitual risky sexual behavior such as early sexual initiation and unprotected sex. The objective of this study was to identify the operation of risk and protective factors in individual, family, peer, school, and community domains in predicting risky sexual behavior among male and female adolescents in Cambodia. Methods From October 2007 to January 2008, we collected data from 1,049 students aged 14 to 20 years. Risky sexual behavior was measured using a scale consisting of four items: sexual intercourse during the past three months, number of sex partners during the past three months, age at first experience of sexual intercourse, and use of condom in last sexual intercourse. The risk factors examined included substance use, depression, peer delinquency, family violence, and community violence. Studied protective factors included family support function, frequency of family dinner, and school attachment. Results Of the 1,049 students surveyed, 12.7% reported sexual intercourse during the past three months. Out of those sexually active students, 34.6% reported having two or more sex partners over the same period, and 52.6% did not use a condom during their last sexual intercourse. After controlling for other covariates, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated among male participants with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of peer delinquency, and higher family income. In contrast, risky sexual behavior did not retain its associations with any of the measured protective factors among male participants. Among female participants, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of community-violence witnessing, and lower levels of family support. Conclusions The findings suggest the importance of considering

  4. Little evidence of subclinical avian influenza virus infections among rural villagers in Cambodia.

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    Gregory C Gray

    Full Text Available In 2008, 800 adults living within rural Kampong Cham Province, Cambodia were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. After enrollment, participants were contacted weekly for 24 months to identify acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI. Follow-up sera were collected at 12 and 24 months. A transmission substudy was also conducted among the family contacts of cohort members reporting ILI who were influenza A positive. Samples were assessed using serological or molecular techniques looking for evidence of infection with human and avian influenza viruses. Over 24 months, 438 ILI investigations among 284 cohort members were conducted. One cohort member was hospitalized with a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus infection and withdrew from the study. Ninety-seven ILI cases (22.1% were identified as influenza A virus infections by real-time RT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV. During the 2 years of follow-up, 21 participants (3.0% had detectable antibody titers (≥ 1:10 against the studied AIVs: 1 against an avian-like A/Migratory duck/Hong Kong/MPS180/2003(H4N6, 3 against an avian-like A/Teal/Hong Kong/w312/97(H6N1, 9 (3 of which had detectible antibody titers at both 12- and 24-month follow-up against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2, 6 (1 detected at both 12- and 24-month follow-up against an avian-like A/Duck/Memphis/546/74(H11N9, and 2 against an avian-like A/Duck/Alberta/60/76(H12N5. With the exception of the one hospitalized cohort member with H5N1 infection, no other symptomatic avian influenza infections were detected among the cohort. Serological evidence for subclinical infections was sparse with only one subject showing a 4-fold rise in microneutralization titer over time against AvH12N5. In summary, despite conducting this closely monitored cohort study in a region enzootic for H5N1 HPAI, we were unable to detect subclinical avian influenza infections, suggesting either that these

  5. Diagnosis, treatment and risk factors of Strongyloides stercoralis in schoolchildren in Cambodia.

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    Virak Khieu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Worldwide, an estimated 30 to 100 million people are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis, a soil-transmitted helminth. Information on the parasite is scarce in most settings. In semi-rural Cambodia, we determined infection rates and risk factors; compared two diagnostic methods (Koga agar plate [KAP] culture and Baermann technique for detecting S. stercoralis infections, using a multiple stool examination approach; and assessed efficacy of ivermectin treatment. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a cross-sectional study in 458 children from four primary schools in semi-rural villages in Kandal province, using three diagnostic procedures (Kato-Katz, KAP culture and Baermann technique on three stool samples. Infected children were treated with ivermectin (100 µg/kg/day for two days and re-examined three weeks after treatment. Hookworm, S. stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, and small trematode eggs were most prevalent, with 24.4% of children being infected with S. stercoralis. The sensitivity of KAP culture and Baermann technique was 88.4% and 75.0%, respectively and their negative predictive values were 96.4% and 92.5%, respectively. The cumulative prevalence of S. stercoralis increased from 18.6% to 24.4%, after analyzing three stool samples, which was close to the modeled 'true' prevalence of 24.8%. Children who reported defecating in latrines were significantly less infected with S. stercoralis than those who did not use latrines (p<0.001. Itchy skin and diarrhea were significantly associated with S. stercoralis infection. The cure rate of ivermectin was 98.3%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: S. stercoralis infection is highly prevalent among semi-rural Cambodian schoolchildren. The sensitivity of KAP culture is higher than that of the Baermann technique. In the absence of a "gold standard", analysis of multiple stool samples by different diagnostic methods is required to achieve a satisfactory level of sensitivity. Almost three

  6. Seasonal Influences on Ground-Surface Water Interactions in an Arsenic-Affected Aquifer in Cambodia

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    Richards, L. A.; Magnone, D.; Van Dongen, B.; Bryant, C.; Boyce, A.; Ballentine, C. J.; Polya, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Millions of people in South and Southeast Asia consume drinking water daily which contains dangerous levels of arsenic exceeding health-based recommendations [1]. A key control on arsenic mobilization in aquifers in these areas has been controversially identified as the interaction of 'labile' organic matter contained in surface waters with groundwaters and sediments at depth [2-4], which may trigger the release of arsenic from the solid- to aqueous-phase via reductive dissolution of iron-(hyr)oxide minerals [5]. In a field site in Kandal Province, Cambodia, which is an arsenic-affected area typical to others in the region, there are strong seasonal patterns in groundwater flow direction, which are closely related to monsoonal rains [6] and may contribute to arsenic release in this aquifer. The aim of this study is to explore the implications of the high susceptibility of this aquifer system to seasonal changes on potential ground-surface water interactions. The main objectives are to (i) identify key zones where there are likely ground-surface water interactions, (ii) assess the seasonal impact of such interactions and (iii) quantify the influence of interactions using geochemical parameters (such as As, Fe, NO3, NH4, 14C, 3T/3He, δ18O, δ2H). Identifying the zones, magnitude and seasonal influence of ground-surface water interactions elucidates new information regarding potential locations/pathways of arsenic mobilization and/or transport in affected aquifers and may be important for water management strategies in affected areas. This research is supported by NERC (NE/J023833/1) to DP, BvD and CJB and a NERC PhD studentship (NE/L501591/1) to DM. References: [1] World Health Organization, 2008. [2] Charlet & Polya (2006), Elements, 2, 91-96. [3] Harvey et al. (2002), Science, 298, 1602-1606. [4] Lawson et al. (2013), Env. Sci. Technol. 47, 7085 - 7094. [5] Islam et al. (2004), Nature, 430, 68-71. [6] Benner et al. (2008) Appl. Geochem. 23(11), 3072 - 3087.

  7. Validation of satellite precipitation product GSMaP/NRT with ground rain gauges in Cambodia

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    Tsujimoto, Kumiko; Ohta, Tetsu; Koike, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    The Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation Near Real Time data (GSMaP/NRT) is one of the satellite precipitation datasets which is produced by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency with time resolution of 1 hour and spatial resolution of 0.1 degrees. Since it is published approximately 4 hours after the observation, it is expected to contribute to the early warning of floods and water resource management in developing countries as well which have poor ground observation network. Our target area, Cambodia in the Indochina Peninsula, is one of such countries. However, there had been few ground rain gauges so that it had been impossible to validate GSMaP/NRT. Thus, the accuracy of GSMaP/NRT in this area had been unclear. One of the major characteristics of this area is that it has a vast lake area with water surface temperature of more than 30 degrees all year round. With this lake surface, it has been relieved that a unique local atmospheric circulation and its associated precipitation occur in this area. In order to validate the rainfall amount in this area, we rehabilitated and newly installed rain gauges. As a result, we have 34 automatic rain-gauges now and data is available from September 2009. Using this data as well as hourly rainfall amount from GSMaP/NRT and brightness temperature (TB) from Multi-functional Transport Satellite Infrared 1 channel (MTSAT/IR1), we analyzed the error tendency of the GSMaP/NRT product. The analysis showed that the relationship between rain gauges and GSMaP/NRT were very poor. Especially, strong rainfall events in full-monsoon season over land with 208K 208K, sometimes even TB > 273K, but rainfalls with TB > 253K were poorly captured by GSMaP/NRT. When we take 720-hour (~1-month) -moving-average, post-monsoon rainfall with 253K < TB < 273K over and around the lake has almost linear relationship between the two and the slope is about 1. This tendency can be used to assess the available water resources and grasp the climatological

  8. Patterns of ecosystem metabolism in the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia with links to capture fisheries.

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    Gordon W Holtgrieve

    Full Text Available The Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia is a dynamic flood-pulsed ecosystem that annually increases its surface area from roughly 2,500 km(2 to over 12,500 km(2 driven by seasonal flooding from the Mekong River. This flooding is thought to structure many of the critical ecological processes, including aquatic primary and secondary productivity. The lake also has a large fishery that supports the livelihoods of nearly 2 million people. We used a state-space oxygen mass balance model and continuous dissolved oxygen measurements from four locations to provide the first estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP and ecosystem respiration (ER for the Tonle Sap. GPP averaged 4.1±2.3 g O2 m(-3 d(-1 with minimal differences among sites. There was a negative correlation between monthly GPP and lake level (r = 0.45 and positive correlation with turbidity (r = 0.65. ER averaged 24.9±20.0 g O2 m(-3 d(-1 but had greater than six-fold variation among sites and minimal seasonal change. Repeated hypoxia was observed at most sampling sites along with persistent net heterotrophy (GPP

  9. Case management of malaria fever in Cambodia: results from national anti-malarial outlet and household surveys

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    Littrell Megan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continued progress towards global reduction in morbidity and mortality due to malaria requires scale-up of effective case management with artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT. The first case of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum was documented in western Cambodia. Spread of artemisinin resistance would threaten recent gains in global malaria control. As such, the anti-malarial market and malaria case management practices in Cambodia have global significance. Methods Nationally-representative household and outlet surveys were conducted in 2009 among areas in Cambodia with malaria risk. An anti-malarial audit was conducted among all public and private outlets with the potential to sell anti-malarials. Indicators on availability, price and relative volumes sold/distributed were calculated across types of anti-malarials and outlets. The household survey collected information about management of recent "malaria fevers." Case management in the public versus private sector, and anti-malarial treatment based on malaria diagnostic testing were examined. Results Most public outlets (85% and nearly half of private pharmacies, clinics and drug stores stock ACT. Oral artemisinin monotherapy was found in pharmacies/clinics (9%, drug stores (14%, mobile providers (4% and grocery stores (2%. Among total anti-malarial volumes sold/distributed nationally, 6% are artemisinin monotherapies and 72% are ACT. Only 45% of people with recent "malaria fever" reportedly receive a diagnostic test, and the most common treatment acquired is a drug cocktail containing no identifiable anti-malarial. A self-reported positive diagnostic test, particularly when received in the public sector, improves likelihood of receiving anti-malarial treatment. Nonetheless, anti-malarial treatment of reportedly positive cases is low among people who seek treatment exclusively in the public (61% and private (42% sectors. Conclusions While data on the anti

  10. Factors associated with sex work among at-risk female youth in Cambodia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Brody, Carinne; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhea, Chhorvann; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Yi, Siyan

    2016-01-01

    In Cambodia, despite great achievements in reducing the prevalence of HIV in the general population, reducing new HIV infections among young at-risk women remains a challenge. This study was designed to examine the prevalence of risky behaviors of sexually active female youth in Cambodia and to explore risk factors associated with engagement in transactional sex. We surveyed sexually active female youth aged 10-24 enrolled at risk "hotspots" in eight provinces in Cambodia. We collected data on demographic factors, sexual behavior, and factors hypothesized to be associated with transactional sex. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations between demographic and sexual behavior and transactional sex. Of the 280 respondents, the mean age was 21.2, and 48.1% had been paid for sex in the past year. After adjustment, at-risk females who were never have been married (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.65-6.97), have completed less than 6 years of school (AOR 3.26, 95% CI = 1.60-6.66), have 1 or more parents who had died (AOR 4.34, 95% CI = 2.00-9.38), be a heavy alcohol drinker (AOR 3.58, 95% CI = 1.78-7.18), have used a condom with their boyfriend during last sexual encounter (AOR 3.50, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32), and have ever had an HIV test (AOR 3.51, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32) were more likely to engage in sex work. Our findings suggest that prevention strategies for female youth at risk of engagement in sex work should include upstream structural interventions that aim to encourage girls' education and empowerment. In addition, tailored sex education and behavior change messaging about the risks of heavy drinking, condom use with romantic partners, and the importance of frequent HIV testing for at-risk youth and sex workers should be designed and delivered to youth currently engaging in sex work. PMID:26477781

  11. Factors associated with sex work among at-risk female youth in Cambodia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Carinne; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhea, Chhorvann; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Yi, Siyan

    2016-01-01

    In Cambodia, despite great achievements in reducing the prevalence of HIV in the general population, reducing new HIV infections among young at-risk women remains a challenge. This study was designed to examine the prevalence of risky behaviors of sexually active female youth in Cambodia and to explore risk factors associated with engagement in transactional sex. We surveyed sexually active female youth aged 10-24 enrolled at risk "hotspots" in eight provinces in Cambodia. We collected data on demographic factors, sexual behavior, and factors hypothesized to be associated with transactional sex. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations between demographic and sexual behavior and transactional sex. Of the 280 respondents, the mean age was 21.2, and 48.1% had been paid for sex in the past year. After adjustment, at-risk females who were never have been married (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.65-6.97), have completed less than 6 years of school (AOR 3.26, 95% CI = 1.60-6.66), have 1 or more parents who had died (AOR 4.34, 95% CI = 2.00-9.38), be a heavy alcohol drinker (AOR 3.58, 95% CI = 1.78-7.18), have used a condom with their boyfriend during last sexual encounter (AOR 3.50, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32), and have ever had an HIV test (AOR 3.51, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32) were more likely to engage in sex work. Our findings suggest that prevention strategies for female youth at risk of engagement in sex work should include upstream structural interventions that aim to encourage girls' education and empowerment. In addition, tailored sex education and behavior change messaging about the risks of heavy drinking, condom use with romantic partners, and the importance of frequent HIV testing for at-risk youth and sex workers should be designed and delivered to youth currently engaging in sex work.

  12. Gender differences in suicidal expressions and their determinants among young people in Cambodia, a post-conflict country*

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    Kullgren Gunnar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide among young people is a global public health problem, but adequate information on determinants of suicidal expression is lacking in middle and low income countries. Young people in transitional economies are vulnerable to psychosocial stressors and suicidal expressions. This study explores the suicidal expressions and their determinants among high school students in Cambodia, with specific focus on gender differences. Methods A sample of 320 young people, consisting of 153 boys and 167 girls between 15-18 years of age, was randomly selected from two high schools in Cambodia. Their self-reported suicidal expressions, mental health problems, life-skills dimensions, and exposure to suicidal behavior in others were measured using the Youth Self-Report (YSR, Life-Skills Development Scale (LSDS-Adolescent Form, and Attitude Towards Suicide (ATTS questionnaires. Results Suicidal plans were reported more often by teenage boys than teenage girls (M = 17.3%, F = 5.6%, p = 0.001, whereas girls reported more attempts (M = 0.6%, F = 7.8%, p = 0.012. Young men scored significantly higher on rule-breaking behavior than young women (p = 0.001, whereas young women scored higher on anxious/depression (p = 0.000, withdrawn/depression (p = 0.002, somatic complaints (p = 0.034, social problems (p = 0.006, and internalizing syndrome (p = 0.000. Young men exposed to suicide had significantly higher scores for internalizing syndrome compared to those unexposed (p = 0.001, while young women exposed to suicide scored significantly higher on both internalizing (p = 0.001 and externalizing syndromes (p = 0.012. Any type of exposure to suicidal expressions increased the risk for own suicidal expressions in both genders (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.06-3.91; among young women, however, those exposed to suicide among friends and partners were at greater risk for the serious suicidal expressions (OR = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.00-7.74. Life skills dimension scores

  13. Dengue incidence in urban and rural Cambodia: results from population-based active fever surveillance, 2006-2008.

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    Sirenda Vong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue vaccines are now in late-stage development, and evaluation and robust estimates of dengue disease burden are needed to facilitate further development and introduction. In Cambodia, the national dengue case-definition only allows reporting of children less than 16 years of age, and little is known about dengue burden in rural areas and among older persons. To estimate the true burden of dengue in the largest province of Cambodia, Kampong Cham, we conducted community-based active dengue fever surveillance among the 0-to-19-year age group in rural villages and urban areas during 2006-2008. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Active surveillance for febrile illness was conducted in 32 villages and 10 urban areas by mothers trained to use digital thermometers combined with weekly home visits to identify persons with fever. An investigation team visited families with febrile persons to obtain informed consent for participation in the follow-up study, which included collection of personal data and blood specimens. Dengue-related febrile illness was defined using molecular and serological testing of paired acute and convalescent blood samples. Over the three years of surveillance, 6,121 fever episodes were identified with 736 laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV infections for incidences of 13.4-57.8/1,000 person-seasons. Average incidence was highest among children less than 7 years of age (41.1/1,000 person-seasons and lowest among the 16-to-19-year age group (11.3/1,000 person-seasons. The distribution of dengue was highly focal, with incidence rates in villages and urban areas ranging from 1.5-211.5/1,000 person-seasons (median 36.5. During a DENV-3 outbreak in 2007, rural areas were affected more than urban areas (incidence 71 vs. 17/1,000 person-seasons, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The large-scale active surveillance study for dengue fever in Cambodia found a higher disease incidence than reported to the national surveillance system, particularly

  14. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of changes in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission patterns over the rainy season in Cambodia

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    Cook Jackie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Cambodia, malaria transmission is low and most cases occur in forested areas. Sero-epidemiological techniques can be used to identify both areas of ongoing transmission and high-risk groups to be targeted by control interventions. This study utilizes repeated cross-sectional data to assess the risk of being malaria sero-positive at two consecutive time points during the rainy season and investigates who is most likely to sero-convert over the transmission season. Methods In 2005, two cross-sectional surveys, one in the middle and the other at the end of the malaria transmission season, were carried out in two ecologically distinct regions in Cambodia. Parasitological and serological data were collected in four districts. Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum Glutamate Rich Protein (GLURP and Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-119 (MSP-119 were detected using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The force of infection was estimated using a simple catalytic model fitted using maximum likelihood methods. Risks for sero-converting during the rainy season were analysed using the Classification and Regression Tree (CART method. Results A total of 804 individuals participating in both surveys were analysed. The overall parasite prevalence was low (4.6% and 2.0% for P. falciparum and 7.9% and 6.0% for P. vivax in August and November respectively. P. falciparum force of infection was higher in the eastern region and increased between August and November, whilst P. vivax force of infection was higher in the western region and remained similar in both surveys. In the western region, malaria transmission changed very little across the season (for both species. CART analysis for P. falciparum in the east highlighted age, ethnicity, village of residence and forest work as important predictors for malaria exposure during the rainy season. Adults were more likely to increase their antibody responses to P. falciparum during the

  15. Migrant beer promoters' experiences accessing reproductive health care in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam: lessons for planners and providers.

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    Webber, Gail C; Spitzer, Denise L; Somrongthong, Ratana; Dat, Truong Cong; Kounnavongsa, Somphone

    2015-03-01

    Migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam were surveyed to determine their experiences in accessing reproductive health care services in the cities of Phnom Penh, Vientiane, Bangkok, and Hanoi. A total of 7 health care institutions were chosen as popular with migrant beer promoters. Staff at these institutions provided information on the institution, and 390 beer promoters were surveyed about their experiences while accessing services. There were discrepancies between findings from the staff interviews and the experiences of the beer promoters. In general, the migrant women were satisfied with the cost, location, friendliness of the health care providers, and knowledge and skills of the providers. They were less positive about confidentiality and waiting times, though many still agreed that these were not an issue. Health care planners and providers should take note of the issues affecting access to reproductive health care services for migrant women when they design and implement services.

  16. From subjects to relations: Bioethics and the articulation of postcolonial politics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial.

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    Grant, Jenna M

    2016-04-01

    Controversies about global clinical trials, particularly HIV trials, tend to be framed in terms of ethics. In this article, I explore debates about ethics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial, which was designed to test the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as a prevention for HIV infection. Bringing together studies of public participation in science with studies of bioethics, I show how activists around the Cambodian Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial circulated and provoked debates about standards of research ethics, as opposed to research methodology. This postcolonial bioethics was configured through the circulation of and debate about ethics guidelines, and historically and culturally specific relations of vulnerability and responsibility between foreigners and Cambodians and between Cambodian leaders and Cambodian subjects. I argue that this shift in the object of ethical concern, from the experimental human subject to the relation between subjects and researchers, illustrates how a postcolonial field of articulation reformulates classical bioethics.

  17. Pervasive promotion of breastmilk substitutes in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and high usage by mothers for infant and young child feeding.

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    Pries, Alissa M; Huffman, Sandra L; Mengkheang, Khin; Kroeun, Hou; Champeny, Mary; Roberts, Margarette; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    In 2005, Cambodia passed the Sub-Decree on Marketing of Products for Infant and Young Child Feeding (no. 133) to regulate promotion of commercial infant and young child food products, including breastmilk substitutes. Helen Keller International assessed mothers' exposure to commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes and use of these products through a cross-sectional survey among 294 mothers of children less than 24 months of age. Eighty-six per cent of mothers reported observing commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes, 19.0% reported observing infant and young child food product brands/logos on health facility equipment and 18.4% reported receiving a recommendation from a health professional to use a breastmilk substitute. Consumption of breastmilk substitutes was high, occurring among 43.1% of children 0-5 months and 29.3% of children 6-23 months of age. Findings also indicated a need to improve breastfeeding practices among Phnom Penh mothers. Only 36.1% of infants 0-5 months of age were exclusively breastfed, and 12.5% of children 20-23 months of age were still breastfed. Children that received a breastmilk substitute as a prelacteal feed were 3.9 times more likely to be currently consuming a breastmilk substitute than those who did not. Despite restriction of commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes without government approval, occurrence of promotions is high and use is common among Phnom Penh mothers. In a country with high rates of child malnutrition and pervasive promotions in spite of restrictive national law, full implementation of Cambodia's Sub-Decree 133 is necessary, as are policies and interventions to support exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Key messages Despite prohibition without specific approval by the national government, companies are pervasively promoting breast-milk substitutes in Phnom Penh, particularly on television and at points of sale. Strengthened implementation and enforcement of Cambodia's subdecree 133

  18. Estimating Suicide Rates in Developing Nations: A Low-Cost Newspaper Capture-Recapture Approach in Cambodia.

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    Harris, Keith M; Thandrayen, Joanne; Samphoas, Chien; Se, Pros; Lewchalermwongse, Boontriga; Ratanashevorn, Rattanakorn; Perry, Megan L; Britts, Choloe

    2016-04-01

    This study tested a low-cost method for estimating suicide rates in developing nations that lack adequate statistics. Data comprised reported suicides from Cambodia's 2 largest newspapers. Capture-recapture modeling estimated a suicide rate of 3.8/100 000 (95% CI = 2.5-6.7) for 2012. That compares to World Health Organization estimates of 1.3 to 9.4/100 000 and a Cambodian government estimate of 3.5/100 000. Suicide rates of males were twice that of females, and rates of those cost and can be applied to regions with at least 2 newspapers with overlapping reports. Means to further improve this approach are discussed. These methods are applicable to both recent and historical data, which can benefit epidemiological work, and may also be applicable to homicides and other statistics.

  19. Genetic diversity of human rhinoviruses in Cambodia during a three-year period reveals novel genetic types.

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    Naughtin, Monica; Sareth, Rith; Sentilhes, Anne-Charlotte; Vong, Sirenda; Joffret, Marie-Line; Cornillot, Emmanuel; Deubel, Vincent; Delpeyroux, Francis; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Acute respiratory viral infections are a major cause of morbidity during early childhood in developing countries. Human rhinoviruses are the most frequent cause of upper respiratory tract infections in humans, which can range in severity from asymptomatic to clinically severe disease. In this study we collected 4170 nasopharyngeal swabs from patients hospitalised with influenza-like illness in two Cambodian provincial hospitals between 2007 and 2010. Samples were screened for 18 respiratory viruses using 5 multiplex PCRs. A total of 11.2% of samples tested positive for human rhinoviruses (HRV). VP4/2 and VP1 regions were amplified and sequenced to study the distribution of rhinoviruses genotypes and species in Cambodia during this three-year period. Five novel genotypes, 2 species A, 2 species B and 1 species C were identified based on VP1 sequences. Co-infections with other viruses were demonstrated. PMID:26231720

  20. Pervasive promotion of breastmilk substitutes in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and high usage by mothers for infant and young child feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L.; Mengkheang, Khin; Kroeun, Hou; Champeny, Mary; Roberts, Margarette; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In 2005, Cambodia passed the Sub‐Decree on Marketing of Products for Infant and Young Child Feeding (no. 133) to regulate promotion of commercial infant and young child food products, including breastmilk substitutes. Helen Keller International assessed mothers' exposure to commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes and use of these products through a cross‐sectional survey among 294 mothers of children less than 24 months of age. Eighty‐six per cent of mothers reported observing commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes, 19.0% reported observing infant and young child food product brands/logos on health facility equipment and 18.4% reported receiving a recommendation from a health professional to use a breastmilk substitute. Consumption of breastmilk substitutes was high, occurring among 43.1% of children 0–5 months and 29.3% of children 6–23 months of age. Findings also indicated a need to improve breastfeeding practices among Phnom Penh mothers. Only 36.1% of infants 0–5 months of age were exclusively breastfed, and 12.5% of children 20–23 months of age were still breastfed. Children that received a breastmilk substitute as a prelacteal feed were 3.9 times more likely to be currently consuming a breastmilk substitute than those who did not. Despite restriction of commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes without government approval, occurrence of promotions is high and use is common among Phnom Penh mothers. In a country with high rates of child malnutrition and pervasive promotions in spite of restrictive national law, full implementation of Cambodia's Sub‐Decree 133 is necessary, as are policies and interventions to support exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Key messages Despite prohibition without specific approval by the national government, companies are pervasively promoting breast‐milk substitutes in Phnom Penh, particularly on television and at points of sale.Strengthened implementation and enforcement

  1. The prevalence and psychological costs of household violence by family members against women with disabilities in Cambodia.

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    Astbury, Jill; Walji, Fareen

    2014-11-01

    Women with disabilities (WWDs) are at triple jeopardy due to the combined risks associated with gender, disability, and violence. Not only are WWDs marginalized socially but the violence against them in their own homes is largely neglected in domestic violence research. Evidence from developing countries is particularly sparse. A cross-sectional survey conducted in Cambodia found rates of violence by household members besides intimate partners were significantly higher among WWDs than non-disabled women. This violence engendered increased levels of psychological distress and higher rates of physical injury but low rates of disclosure to health workers and other formal sources of potential support. Community-based strategies are recommended to radically change social and cultural attitudes, beliefs, and responses to WWDs who are victims of household violence to reduce negative social reactions toward them and to make it safer for them to disclose and receive psychosocial, legal, and other necessary support for this underreported type of violence.

  2. [Multiple and successive treatment failures in a patient infected by Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia and treated by dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine].

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    Witkowski, B; Khim, N; Kim, S; Domergue, A; Duru, V; Menard, D

    2016-05-01

    Cases of treatment failures following administration of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) remain rare in malaria endemic areas. In Cambodia, however, failures of these treatments are now commonly observed. Usually, these post-treatment recurrences occur only once and a second course of the same treatment is sufficient to cure patients.We describe here an atypical case of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected patient manifesting several malaria recrudescence episodes following dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (Eurartesim®) treatment. This case report illustrates the current issue of resistance to the latest generation of antimalarial drugs in Southeast Asia and highlights the difficulty in efficaciously fighting malaria in this region if new therapy remains unimplemented. PMID:27100863

  3. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

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    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world’s most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.

  4. Identifying conservation successes, failures and future opportunities; assessing recovery potential of wild ungulates and tigers in Eastern Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah J O'Kelly

    Full Text Available Conservation investment, particularly for charismatic and wide-ranging large mammal species, needs to be evidence-based. Despite the prevalence of this theme within the literature, examples of robust data being generated to guide conservation policy and funding decisions are rare. We present the first published case-study of tiger conservation in Indochina, from a site where an evidence-based approach has been implemented for this iconic predator and its prey. Despite the persistence of extensive areas of habitat, Indochina's tiger and ungulate prey populations are widely supposed to have precipitously declined in recent decades. The Seima Protection Forest (SPF, and broader Eastern Plains Landscape, was identified in 2000 as representing Cambodia's best hope for tiger recovery; reflected in its designation as a Global Priority Tiger Conservation Landscape. Since 2005 distance sampling, camera-trapping and detection-dog surveys have been employed to assess the recovery potential of ungulate and tiger populations in SPF. Our results show that while conservation efforts have ensured that small but regionally significant populations of larger ungulates persist, and density trends in smaller ungulates are stable, overall ungulate populations remain well below theoretical carrying capacity. Extensive field surveys failed to yield any evidence of tiger, and we contend that there is no longer a resident population within the SPF. This local extirpation is believed to be primarily attributable to two decades of intensive hunting; but importantly, prey densities are also currently below the level necessary to support a viable tiger population. Based on these results and similar findings from neighbouring sites, Eastern Cambodia does not currently constitute a Tiger Source Site nor meet the criteria of a Global Priority Tiger Landscape. However, SPF retains global importance for many other elements of biodiversity. It retains high regional importance for

  5. Molecular detection of fluoroquinolone-resistance in multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Cambodia suggests low association with XDR phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Alan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug susceptibility testing (DST remains an important concern for implementing treatment of MDR tuberculosis patients. Implementation of molecular tests for drug resistance identification would facilitate DST particularly in developing countries where culturing is difficult to perform. We have characterized multidrug resistant strains in Cambodia using MDTDRsl tests, drug target sequencing and phenotypic tests. Methods A total of 65 non-MDR and 101 MDR TB isolates collected between May 2007 and June 2009 were tested for resistance to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides/cyclic peptides using the GenoType® MTBDRsl assay and gene sequencing. Rifampicin resistance (RMP-R was tested using gene sequencing and genotyping was assessed by spoligotyping. Results A total of 95 of the 101 MDR strains were confirmed to be RMP-R by rpoB gene sequencing. Fourteen of the 101 MDR isolates (14% carried a gyrA mutation associated with fluoroquinolone-resistance (FQ-R (detected by the MTBDRsl assay and sequencing compared with only 1 (1.5% of the 65 non-MDR strains. Only 1 (1% of the MDR isolates was found to be XDR TB. The MDR group contained a higher proportion of Beijing or Beijing like strains (58% than the non MDR group (28%. This percentage is higher in MDR FQ-R strains (71%. Conclusions The new GenoType® MTBDRsl assay combined with molecular tests to detect RMP-R and isoniazid resistance (INH-R represents a valuable tool for the detection of XDR TB. In Cambodia there is a low rate of XDR amongst MDR TB including MDR FQ-R TB. This suggests a low association between FQ-R and XDR TB. Strain spoligotyping confirms Beijing strains to be more prone to accumulate antibiotic resistance.

  6. Estimating the Burden of Leptospirosis among Febrile Subjects Aged below 20 Years in Kampong Cham Communities, Cambodia, 2007-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopheak Hem

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an emerging but neglected public health challenge in the Asia/Pacific Region with an annual incidence estimated at 10-100 per 100,000 population. No accurate data, however, are available for at-risk rural Cambodian communities.We conducted anonymous, unlinked testing for IgM antibodies to Leptospira spp. on paired sera of Cambodian patients <20 years of age between 2007-2009 collected through active, community-based surveillance for febrile illnesses in a convenience sample of 27 rural and semi-rural villages in four districts of Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. Leptospirosis testing was done on paired serological samples negative for Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya viruses after random selection. Convalescent samples found positive while initial samples were negative were considered as proof of acute infection. We then applied a mathematical model to estimate the risk of fever caused by leptospirosis, dengue or other causes in rural Cambodia.A total of 630 samples are coming from a randomly selected subset of 2358 samples. IgM positive were found on the convalescent serum sample, among which 100 (15.8% samples were IgM negative on an earlier sample. Seventeen of these 100 seroconversions were confirmed using a Microagglutination Test. We estimated the probability of having a fever due to leptospirosis at 1. 03% (95% Credible Interval CI: 0. 95%-1. 22% per semester. In comparison, this probability was 2. 61% (95% CI: 2. 55%, 2. 83% for dengue and 17. 65% (95% CI: 17. 49%, 18. 08% for other causes.Our data from febrile cases aged below 20 years suggest that the burden of leptospirosis is high in rural Cambodian communities. This is especially true during the rainy season, even in the absence of identified epidemics.

  7. Arsenic contamination in the food chain and its risk assessment of populations residing in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Heng, Savoeun; Phan, Samrach; Huoy, Laingshun; Wong, Ming Hung; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2013-11-15

    In the present study, we investigated the potential arsenic exposure of Cambodian residents from their daily food consumption. Environmental and ecological samples such as paddy soils, paddy rice (unhusked), staple rice (uncooked and cooked), fish and vegetables were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. After acid-digestion, digestates were chemically analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results revealed that the means of total arsenic concentration ([As]tot) in paddy soils and paddy rice from Kandal were significantly higher than those from Kampong Cham province (t-test, psoils and paddy rice was found (r(14) = 0.826, parsenic intake from food consumption indicated that the upper end of the range of the daily dose of inorganic arsenic for Kandal residents (0.089-8.386 μg d(-1) kg(-1) body wt.) was greater than the lower limits on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5 is equal to 3.0 μg d(-1) kg(-1) body wt.). The present study suggests that the residents in Kandal are at risk of arsenic intake from their daily food consumption. However, the residents in Kratie and Kampong Cham provinces are less likely to be exposed to arsenic through their daily dietary intake. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report estimating the daily intake and daily dose of inorganic arsenic from food consumption in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. PMID:22818591

  8. Determining barriers to creating an enabling environment in Cambodia: results from a baseline study with key populations and police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Mira L; Weissman, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cambodian law enforcement's limited acceptance of harm reduction has hindered HIV program effectiveness. With funding from the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, FHI 360 supported the Ministry of Interior to implement the Police Community Partnership Initiative (PCPI) in Cambodia's capital Phnom Penh. To guide this, FHI 360 conducted a baseline study examining police and key populations’ attitudes and practices towards one another, including fear and occurrence of arrest. Methods Between December 2012 and January 2013, a cross-sectional survey of 199 police post officers, 199 people who use drugs (PWUD) including people who inject drugs (PWID), 199 men who have sex with men (MSM), 200 transgender women (TGW) and 200 female entertainment workers (FEW) was conducted in five Phnom Penh districts. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, members of a key population from selected hotspots or police officers, deputy chiefs or chiefs. Results Key populations’ median age was 25 years (IQR: 22–30); 40% had completed only primary school. Police were male (99.5%), with median age 43 years (IQR: 30 to 47), and 45 and 25% high school and university completion rates, respectively. Key populations feared arrest for carrying needles and syringes (67%), condoms (23%) and 19% felt afraid to access health services. Close to 75% of police reported body searching and 58% arresting key populations in the past six months for using drugs (64%), selling or distributing drugs (36%) or being violent (13%). Self-reported arrests (23% PWUD, 6% MSM, 6% TGW, 12% FEW; pCambodia. To create an enabling environment and ensure police are allies in the Cambodian HIV response, interventions should tackle underlying negative attitudes among police towards key populations and vice versa. PMID:27435713

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Pyronaridine-Artesunate for Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Western Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leang, Rithea; Canavati, Sara E; Khim, Nimol; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Borghini Fuhrer, Isabelle; Kim, Saorin; Denis, Mey Bouth; Heng, Pisal; Tol, Bunkea; Huy, Rekol; Duparc, Stephan; Dondorp, Arjen M; Menard, Didier; Ringwald, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    Pyronaridine-artesunate efficacy for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria was assessed in an area of artemisinin resistance in western Cambodia. This nonrandomized, single-arm, observational study was conducted between 2014 and 2015. Eligible patients were adults or children with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum infection and fever. Patients received pyronaridine-artesunate once daily for 3 days, dosed according to body weight. The primary outcome was an adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) on day 42, estimated by using Kaplan-Meier analysis, PCR adjusted to exclude reinfection. One hundred twenty-three patients were enrolled. Day 42 PCR-crude ACPRs were 87.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79.7 to 92.6%) for the overall study, 89.8% (95% CI, 78.8 to 95.3%) for Pursat, and 82.1% (95% CI, 68.4 to 90.2%) for Pailin. Day 42 PCR-adjusted ACPRs were 87.9% (95% CI, 80.6 to 93.2%) for the overall study, 89.8% (95% CI, 78.8 to 95.3%) for Pursat, and 84.0% (95% CI, 70.6 to 91.7%) for Pailin (P = 0.353 by a log rank test). Day 28 PCR-crude and -adjusted ACPRs were 93.2% (95% CI, 82.9 to 97.4%) and 88.1% (95% CI, 75.3 to 94.5%) for Pursat and Pailin, respectively. A significantly lower proportion of patients achieved day 3 parasite clearance in Pailin (56.4% [95% CI, 43.9 to 69.6%]) than in Pursat (86.7% [95% CI, 76.8 to 93.8%]; P = 0.0019). Fever clearance was also extended at Pailin versus Pursat (P Cambodia despite high efficacy elsewhere in Asia and Africa. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT02389439.). PMID:26926629

  10. Determination of total arsenic in soil and arsenic-resistant bacteria from selected ground water in Kandal Province, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambodia has geological environments conducive to generation of high-arsenic groundwater and people are at high risk of chronic arsenic exposure. The aims of this study are to investigate the concentration of total arsenic and to isolate and identify arsenic-resistant bacteria from selected locations in Kandal Province, Cambodia. The INAA technique was used to measure the concentration of total arsenic in soils. The arsenic concentrations in soils were above permissible 5 mg/kg, ranging from 5.34 to 27.81 mg/kg. Bacteria resistant to arsenic from two arsenic-contaminated wells in Preak Russey were isolated by enrichment method in nutrient broth (NB). Colonies isolated from NB was then grown on minimal salt media (MSM) added with arsenic at increasing concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 50, 100 and 250 ppm. Two isolates that can tolerate 750 ppm of arsenic were identified as Enterobacter agglomerans and Acinetobacter lwoffii based on a series of biochemical, physiological and morphological analysis. Optimum growth of both isolates ranged from pH 6.6 to 7.0 and 30-35 deg C. E. agglomerans and A. lwoffii were able to remove 66.4 and 64.1 % of arsenic, respectively at the initial concentration of 750 ppm, within 72 h of incubation. Using energy dispersive X-ray technique, the percentage of arsenic absorbed by E. agglomerans and A. lwoffii was 0.09 and 0.15 %, respectively. This study suggested that arsenic-resistant E. agglomerans and A. lwoffii removed arsenic from media due to their ability to absorb arsenic. (author)

  11. Unsafe abortion as a birth control method: maternal mortality risks among unmarried cambodian migrant women on the Thai-Cambodia border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Shalika; Hoban, Elizabeth; Nevill, Annemarie

    2012-11-01

    Reproductive health research and policies in Cambodia focus on safe motherhood programs particularly for married women, ignoring comprehensive fertility regulation programs for unmarried migrant women of reproductive age. Maternal mortality risks arising due to unsafe abortion methods practiced by unmarried Cambodian women, across the Thai-Cambodia border, can be considered as a public health emergency. Since Thailand has restrictive abortion laws, Cambodian migrant women who have irregular migration status in Thailand experimented with unsafe abortion methods that allowed them to terminate their pregnancies surreptitiously. Unmarried migrant women choose abortion as a preferred birth control method seeking repeat "unsafe" abortions instead of preventing conception. Drawing on the data collected through surveys, in-depth interviews, and document analysis in Chup Commune (pseudonym), Phnom Penh, and Bangkok, the authors describe the public health dimensions of maternal mortality risks faced by unmarried Cambodian migrant women due to various unsafe abortion methods employed as birth control methods.

  12. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis Broadly Overlap in Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar: A Molecular Survey of Larvae in Land Snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodpai, Rutchanee; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Laymanivong, Sakhone; Aung, Win Papa; Phosuk, Issarapong; Laummaunwai, Porntip

    2016-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode parasite causing human eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) worldwide. A closely related species, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, might also be a human pathogen. Larvae were obtained from land snails in Lao PDR, Cambodia, Myanmar and Thailand. We sequenced two nuclear gene regions (nuclear ribosomal ITS2 and SSU rRNA) and a portion of one mitochondrial gene (COI) from these larvae. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis were identified. This is the first report of the molecular identification of the two Angiostrongylus species in Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar. The regional distributions of the two species broadly overlap. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred including data from Angiostrongylus species deposited in public databases. All the gene regions we sequenced have potential value in distinguishing between species of Angiostrongylus. The COI gene exhibited the greatest intraspecific variation in the study region (five haplotypes in A. cantonensis and four in A. malaysiensis) and might be suitable for more detailed phylogeographic studies. PMID:27513930

  13. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the system of rice intensification (SRI) under a rain-fed lowland rice ecosystem in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ly, Proyuth; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Bruun, Thilde Bech;

    2013-01-01

    The present field study investigated the effects of the system of rice intensification (SRI) on greenhouse gas emissions and rice yield, in the first field trial of its kind in Cambodia. The study was a 2 × 4 factorial design, including SRI and conventional management practices (CMP) with the fol......The present field study investigated the effects of the system of rice intensification (SRI) on greenhouse gas emissions and rice yield, in the first field trial of its kind in Cambodia. The study was a 2 × 4 factorial design, including SRI and conventional management practices (CMP...... SRI practices was reduced by 22 % in the FYM treatment, 17 % in the MF treatment and 24 % in the FYM + MF treatment compared to CMP. There was no effect of water management on CH emission in the non-fertilized treatment. Grain yields were not significantly affected by the production system. Thus...

  14. The impact of improved access to market information through mobile phones usage on selling prices: Evidence from rural areas in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Daichi Shimamoto; Hiroyuki Yamada; Martin Gummert

    2014-01-01

    Monopsony is often observed in local agricultural markets in developing countries because of the high entry cost to buyers; farmers in such markets therefore sell their agricultural products at a lower price. However, this situation seems to be changing with the diffusion of mobile phones. This paper investigates how access to market information through mobile phone usage impacts the selling price of rice in rural areas in Cambodia. We conducted a survey of farmers f households concerning agr...

  15. Health of men, women, and children in post-trafficking services in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam: an observational cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Ligia Kiss, PhD; Nicola S Pocock, MSc; Varaporn Naisanguansri; Soksreymom Suos, MA; Brett Dickson, BA; Doan Thuy, MA; Jobst Koehler; Kittiphan Sirisup; Nisakorn Pongrungsee; Van Anh Nguyen, MA; Rosilyne Borland, MA; Poonam Dhavan, MPH; Cathy Zimmerman, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trafficking is a crime of global proportions involving extreme forms of exploitation and abuse. Yet little research has been done of the health risks and morbidity patterns for men, women, and children trafficked for various forms of forced labour. Methods: We carried out face-to-face interviews with a consecutive sample of individuals entering 15 post-trafficking services in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam. We asked participants about living and working conditions, experience ...

  16. World Malaria Day 2016 in the Kingdom of Cambodia: high-level governmental support embodies the WHO call for “political will to end malaria”

    OpenAIRE

    Canavati, Sara E; Quintero, Cesia E.; Bou, Thavrin; Khieu, Virak; Leang, Rithea; Lek, Dysoley; Ly, Po; Muth, Sinuon; Lim, Kim Seng; Tuseo, Luciano; Yok, Sovann; Yung, Kunthearith; Richards, Jack S.; Rekol, Huy

    2016-01-01

    On World Malaria Day 2016, The Kingdom of Cambodia’s National celebrations served as a prime of example of how political will is currently being exercised in Cambodia through high-level governmental support for malaria elimination. The main country event was well-planned and coordinated by the National Programme for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control (CNM), and included key contributions from high-ranking political figures, such as His Excellency (H.E) Mam Bun Heng (Minister of Heal...

  17. Frequency and patterns of contact with domestic poultry and potential risk of H5N1 transmission to humans living in rural Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Ly, Sowath; Holl, Davun; Guitian, Javier; Mangtani, Punam; Ghani, Azra C.; Vong, Sirenda

    2008-01-01

    Background  Since 2004, H5N1 outbreaks have been recurrent in domestic poultry and humans in Cambodia. To date, seven human cases (100% CFR) and 22 outbreaks in poultry have been confirmed. Household ownership of backyard poultry (FAO Sector 4 poultry production) in rural Cambodia is high. An understanding of the extent and frequency of poultry handing behaviors in these settings is necessary to assess the risk associated with different practices and to formulate sensible recommendations to mitigate this risk. We collected new data from six geographic regions to examine patterns of human contact with poultry among rural farmers in Cambodia and identify populations with the highest potential exposure to H5N1. Methods and Findings  A cross‐sectional survey was undertaken in which 3,600 backyard poultry owners from 115 randomly selected villages in six provinces throughout Cambodia were interviewed. Using risk assessment methods, patterns of contact with poultry as surrogate measures of exposure to H5N1 were used to generate risk indices of potential H5N1 transmission to different populations in contact with poultry. Estimates of human exposure risk for each study participant (n = 3600) were obtained by multiplying each reported practice with a transmission risk‐weighting factor and summing these over all practices reported by each individual. Exposure risk estimates were then examined stratified by age and gender. Subjects reported high contact with domestic poultry (chickens and ducks) through the daily care and food preparation practices, however contact patterns varied by gender and age. Males between the ages of 26‐40 reported practices of contact with poultry that give rise to the highest H5N1 transmission risk potential, followed closely by males between the ages of 16‐25. Overall, males had a higher exposure risk potential than females across all age groups (p age and gender even amongst populations living in close proximity to poultry. PMID

  18. Scale-up of community-based malaria control can be achieved without degrading community health workers' service quality: the Village Malaria Worker project in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuoka Junko; Poudel Krishna C; Ly Po; Nguon Chea; Socheat Duong; Jimba Masamine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria control has been scaled up in many developing countries in their efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Cambodia recently scaled up their Village Malaria Worker (VMW) project by substantially increasing the number of VMWs and expanding the project's health services to include treatment of fever, diarrhoea, and Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) in children under five. This study examined if the scale-up interfered with VMWs' service quality, actions, ...

  19. Elusive retributive justice in post-Khmer Rouge Cambodia: Challenges of using ECCC Victim Information Forms as a victim participatory rights mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nou, Leakhena

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the procedural challenges of using the Victim Information Forms (VIFs) to analyze survivors' experiences with the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC), commonly known as the Khmer Rouge Tribunal. The paper takes a systematic public/medical sociology approach to examining the VIF as a participatory rights mechanism for victims wishing to pursue justice for themselves and their loved ones who experienced the Khmer Rouge atrocities, torture, forced relocation, starvation, forced labor, rape, robbery, and other physical and psychological torment, firsthand. It provides the first comparative, critical analysis of both the original VIF and the revised form issued midway through the submission period; both forms appear as appendices to the paper. Conclusions are drawn and suggestions made by the researcher based on the firsthand collection and submission of the largest group of VIFs from any single source around the world (outside of Cambodia itself), as well as on support work with victims/survivors during the ECCC proceedings in Phnom Penh, Cambodia in 2013.

  20. Gamma-rays attenuation of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa at different energies: A new technique for identifying the origin of gemstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the gamma-rays interaction properties of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa have been studied. The densities of Cambodian and South African’s zircons are 4.6716±0.0040 g/cm3 and 4.5505±0.0018 g/cm3, respectively. The mass attenuation coefficient and the effective atomic number of gemstones were measured with the gamma-ray in energies range 223–662 keV using the Compton scattering technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of both zircons decreased with the increasing of gamma-rays energies. The different mass attenuation coefficients between the two zircons observed at gamma-ray energies below 400 keV are attributed to the differences in the photoelectric interaction. The effective atomic number of zircons was decreased with the increasing of gamma-ray energies and showed totally different values between the Cambodia and South Africa sources. The origins of the two zircons could be successfully identified by the method based on gamma-rays interaction with matter with advantage of being a non-destructive testing. - Highlights: • Gamma-rays interaction of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa studied. • Measured energy is during 223–662 keV. • Different μm between the two zircons observed at gamma-ray energies below 400 keV. • The origins the two zircons could be successfully identified

  1. Management and Protection on Water Environment of Rivers and Lakes in Cambodia%柬埔寨河湖水环境保护与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿清格; 李贵宝; 王圣瑞

    2015-01-01

    As one of ASEAN members, Cambodia, is one of the least developed countries in the world. But its natural resources are considerable, especially water. Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia is the largest freshwater lake in southeast Asia. This paper focused on the environment and resources of water and their management in Cambodia. And in the case of Lake Tonle Sap, on the basis of introducing the lake, analyzed the management department and laws of Tonle Sap.%东盟成员国———柬埔寨,是世界最不发达的国家之一。但其自然资源十分丰富,尤其是水资源,境内的洞里萨湖是东南亚地区最大的淡水湖。论文主要论述了柬埔寨水环境资源及其管理情况,并以洞里萨湖为例,在介绍该湖基本概况基础上,分析了针对该湖的管理机构及法案。

  2. Quantitative assessment of a spatial multicriteria model for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Thailand, and application in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mathilde C; Goutard, Flavie L; Roulleau, Floriane; Holl, Davun; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Roger, François L; Tran, Annelise

    2016-01-01

    The Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 (HPAI) virus is now considered endemic in several Asian countries. In Cambodia, the virus has been circulating in the poultry population since 2004, with a dramatic effect on farmers' livelihoods and public health. In Thailand, surveillance and control are still important to prevent any new H5N1 incursion. Risk mapping can contribute effectively to disease surveillance and control systems, but is a very challenging task in the absence of reliable disease data. In this work, we used spatial multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) to produce risk maps for HPAI H5N1 in poultry. We aimed to i) evaluate the performance of the MCDA approach to predict areas suitable for H5N1 based on a dataset from Thailand, comparing the predictive capacities of two sources of a priori knowledge (literature and experts), and ii) apply the best method to produce a risk map for H5N1 in poultry in Cambodia. Our results showed that the expert-based model had a very high predictive capacity in Thailand (AUC = 0.97). Applied in Cambodia, MCDA mapping made it possible to identify hotspots suitable for HPAI H5N1 in the Tonlé Sap watershed, around the cities of Battambang and Kampong Cham, and along the Vietnamese border. PMID:27489997

  3. 冷战以来柬埔寨地缘政治变动研究%Research on Geopolitical Changes in Cambodia Since the Cold War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方天建; 何跃

    2014-01-01

    Since the cold war, the geopolitical of Cambodia has experienced the changes from fragmentation to restructuring. It is not only one of the forefront to the United States and the Soviet union camps for cold and hot war games during the cold war , and one of the southeast Asian countries has been actively strive for the outside political forces on the geopolitical strategy after the cold war. In cause changes in the Cambodian geopolitical factors, external factors are dominant factors. Moreover, the differentiation and com-bination of domestic political parties to conflict that are the important fac-tors. Therefore, since the cold war, the geopolitical of Cambodia has geopo-litical chessboard and geostrategic wedge characteristics significantly. And to discuss the trend , the causes and characteristics of Cambodia geopolitical changes since the cold war to our country's geopolitical research in Cambodia and China's geopolitical strategic positioning in Cambodia has very important academic significance and practical significance.%冷战以来,柬埔寨地缘政治经历了从碎片化到重组的变动。其既是冷战期间美苏两大阵营进行冷战与热战博弈的最前沿阵地之一,也是冷战后各域外政治力量在地缘战略上积极争取的东南亚国家之一。在导致柬埔寨地缘政治变动的诸多因素中,外部因素是决定其地缘政治变动的主导性因素,国内政治派别斗争的分化与组合是导致其地缘政治变动的重要因素。因此,在双重因素作用下,冷战以来的柬埔寨地缘政治具有地缘政治棋盘和地缘战略楔子的显著特点。而对冷战以来柬埔寨地缘政治变动的趋势、成因和特征的探讨,对我国的柬埔寨地缘政治研究和我国对柬埔寨地缘政治的战略定位具有十分重要的学术意义和现实意义。

  4. Determining barriers to creating an enabling environment in Cambodia: results from a baseline study with key populations and police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira L Schneiders

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cambodian law enforcement's limited acceptance of harm reduction has hindered HIV program effectiveness. With funding from the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, FHI 360 supported the Ministry of Interior to implement the Police Community Partnership Initiative (PCPI in Cambodia's capital Phnom Penh. To guide this, FHI 360 conducted a baseline study examining police and key populations’ attitudes and practices towards one another, including fear and occurrence of arrest. Methods: Between December 2012 and January 2013, a cross-sectional survey of 199 police post officers, 199 people who use drugs (PWUD including people who inject drugs (PWID, 199 men who have sex with men (MSM, 200 transgender women (TGW and 200 female entertainment workers (FEW was conducted in five Phnom Penh districts. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, members of a key population from selected hotspots or police officers, deputy chiefs or chiefs. Results: Key populations’ median age was 25 years (IQR: 22–30; 40% had completed only primary school. Police were male (99.5%, with median age 43 years (IQR: 30 to 47, and 45 and 25% high school and university completion rates, respectively. Key populations feared arrest for carrying needles and syringes (67%, condoms (23% and 19% felt afraid to access health services. Close to 75% of police reported body searching and 58% arresting key populations in the past six months for using drugs (64%, selling or distributing drugs (36% or being violent (13%. Self-reported arrests (23% PWUD, 6% MSM, 6% TGW, 12% FEW; p<0.05, being verbally threatened (45% PWUD, 21% MSM, 25% TGW, 27% FEW; p<0.001 and body searched (44% PWUD, 28% MSM, 23% TGW, 8% FEW; p<0.001 was significantly higher among PWUD than other key populations. The majority (94% of police believed arrest was an appropriate solution to reduce HIV and drug use and reported selling sex (88% and carrying needles and syringes (55% as valid reasons

  5. AIDS-related stigma and mental disorders among people living with HIV: a cross-sectional study in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyan Yi

    Full Text Available AIDS-related stigma and mental disorders are the most common conditions in people living with HIV (PLHIV. We therefore conducted this study to examine the association of AIDS-related stigma and discrimination with mental disorders among PLHIV in Cambodia.A two-stage cluster sampling method was used to select 1,003 adult PLHIV from six provinces. The People Living with HIV Stigma Index was used to measure stigma and discrimination, and a short version of general health questionnaire (GHQ-12 was used to measure mental disorders. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted.The reported experiences of discrimination in communities in the past 12 months ranged from 0.8% for reports of being denied health services to 42.3% for being aware of being gossiped about. Internal stigma was also common ranging from 2.8% for avoiding going to a local clinic and/or hospital to 59.6% for deciding not to have (more children. The proportions of PLHIV who reported fear of stigma and discrimination ranged from 13.9% for fear of being physically assaulted to 34.5% for fear of being gossiped about. The mean score of GHQ-12 was 3.2 (SD = 2.4. After controlling for several potential confounders, higher levels of mental disorders (GHQ-12≥ 4 remained significantly associated with higher levels of experiences of stigma and discrimination in family and communities (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4-2.6, higher levels of internal stigma (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.3, and higher levels of fear of stigma and discrimination in family and communities (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.2.AIDS-related stigma and discrimination among PLHIV in Cambodia are common and may have potential impacts on their mental health conditions. These findings indicate a need for community-based interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination in the general public and to help PLHIV to cope with this situation.

  6. Socially-marketed rapid diagnostic tests and ACT in the private sector: ten years of experience in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Henrietta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Whilst some populations have recently experienced dramatic declines in malaria, the majority of those most at risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria still lack access to effective treatment with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT and others are already facing parasites resistant to artemisinins. In this context, there is a crucial need to improve both access to and targeting of ACT through greater availability of good quality ACT and parasitological diagnosis. This is an issue of increasing urgency notably in the private commercial sector, which, in many countries, plays an important role in the provision of malaria treatment. The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm is a recent initiative that aims to increase the provision of affordable ACT in public, private and NGO sectors through a manufacturer-level subsidy. However, to date, there is little documented experience in the programmatic implementation of subsidized ACT in the private sector. Cambodia is in the unique position of having more than 10 years of experience not only in implementing subsidized ACT, but also rapid diagnostic tests (RDT as part of a nationwide social marketing programme. The programme includes behaviour change communication and the training of private providers as well as the sale and distribution of Malarine, the recommended ACT, and Malacheck, the RDT. This paper describes and evaluates this experience by drawing on the results of household and provider surveys conducted since the start of the programme. The available evidence suggests that providers' and consumers' awareness of Malarine increased rapidly, but that of Malacheck much less so. In addition, improvements in ACT and RDT availability and uptake were relatively slow, particularly in more remote areas. The lack of standardization in the survey methods and the gaps in the data highlight the importance of establishing a clear system for monitoring and evaluation for similar initiatives

  7. Intergenerational Land Transfer in Rural Cambodia since the Late 1980s: Special Attention to the Effect of Labor Migration

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    Yagura Kenjiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Using primary data collected from three villages in Prey Veng and Pousat provinces, this study describes how land has been transferred from parents to children in rural Cambodia since the late 1980s. While equal division among all children is the most favored practice—thus further farm fragmentation is anticipated in the near future—parents with very small land endowment are unable to divide land equally among all their children and some children are unable to receive land from their parents. The expansion of migration opportunity has not caused fundamental changes in land transfer practices, but the premarital migration experience of children is negatively associated with land transfer, especially when children settle in the migration destination or marry a person from another province whom they met at the migration destination and move to their partner’s place of origin. The data indicate that, ­taking advantage of labor migration experience, children of land-poor parents choose to leave their home province and make a living without land. However, landless children are in a disadvantaged economic situation because they are also less likely to receive non-land assets from their parents and farmland from their spouse’s parents.

  8. Impact of Performance-Based Financing in a Low-Resource Setting: A Decade of Experience in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Poel, Ellen; Flores, Gabriela; Ir, Por; O'Donnell, Owen

    2016-06-01

    This paper exploits the geographic expansion of performance-based financing (PBF) in Cambodia over a decade to estimate its effect on the utilization of maternal and child health services. PBF is estimated to raise the proportion of births occurring in incentivized public health facilities by 7.5 percentage points (25%). A substantial part of this effect arises from switching the location of institutional births from private to public facilities; there is no significant impact on deliveries supervised by a skilled birth attendant, nor is there any significant effect on neonatal mortality, antenatal care and vaccination rates. The impact on births in public facilities is much greater if PBF is accompanied by maternity vouchers that cover user fees, but there is no significant effect among the poorest women. Heterogeneous effects across schemes differing in design suggest that maintaining management authority within a health district while giving explicit service targets to facilities is more effective in raising utilization than contracting management to a non-governmental organization while denying it full autonomy and leaving financial penalties vague. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Impact of Performance-Based Financing in a Low-Resource Setting: A Decade of Experience in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Poel, Ellen; Flores, Gabriela; Ir, Por; O'Donnell, Owen

    2016-06-01

    This paper exploits the geographic expansion of performance-based financing (PBF) in Cambodia over a decade to estimate its effect on the utilization of maternal and child health services. PBF is estimated to raise the proportion of births occurring in incentivized public health facilities by 7.5 percentage points (25%). A substantial part of this effect arises from switching the location of institutional births from private to public facilities; there is no significant impact on deliveries supervised by a skilled birth attendant, nor is there any significant effect on neonatal mortality, antenatal care and vaccination rates. The impact on births in public facilities is much greater if PBF is accompanied by maternity vouchers that cover user fees, but there is no significant effect among the poorest women. Heterogeneous effects across schemes differing in design suggest that maintaining management authority within a health district while giving explicit service targets to facilities is more effective in raising utilization than contracting management to a non-governmental organization while denying it full autonomy and leaving financial penalties vague. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26224021

  10. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

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    Hanne Klith Jensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88% had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02–1.28. The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22–0.91. These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

  11. Condom negotiation across different relationship types by young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Kien, Serey Phal; Stein, Ellen; Bates, Anna Juong; Sansothy, Neth; Page, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation across different types of relationships. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with young (15 to 29 years) women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh. There was an important interplay between the meanings of condom use and the meanings of women's relationships. Commercial relationships were characterised as inherently risky and necessitated condom use. Despite a similar lack of sexual fidelity, sweetheart relationships were rarely construed as risky and typically did not involve condom use. Husbands and wives constructed their sexual interactions with each other differently, making agreement on condom use difficult. The lack of improvement in condom use in FSWs' non-commercial sexual relationships needs to be understood in relation to both sex work and the broader Cambodian sexual culture within which these relationships are embedded. PMID:23432108

  12. Frequent infection of Hylobates pileatus (pileated gibbon) with species-associated variants of hepatitis B virus in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, A A; Starkman, S; Reynes, J M; Lay, S; Nhim, T; Hunt, M; Marx, N; Simmonds, P

    2005-02-01

    As well as being distributed widely in human populations, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections occur frequently in chimpanzee, gibbon and other ape populations in sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia. To investigate the frequency and genetic relationships of HBV infecting gibbons in Cambodia, pileated gibbons (Hylobates pileatus) that were originally wild-caught were screened for surface antigen. Twelve of 26 (46 %) were positive, of which 11 were positive for HBV DNA. Phylogenetic analysis of complete genome sequences revealed two distinct genetic groups in the gibbon/orangutan clade. Three were similar to previously described variants infecting H. pileatus in Thailand and eight formed a distinct clade, potentially representing distinct strains of HBV circulating in geographically separated populations in South-East Asia. Because of the ability of HBV to cross species barriers, large reservoirs of infection in gibbons may hamper ongoing attempts at permanent eradication of HBV infection from human populations in South-East Asia through immunization. PMID:15659752

  13. Effects of the spatial repellent metofluthrin on landing rates of outdoor biting anophelines in Cambodia, Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlwood, J D; Nenhep, S; Protopopoff, N; Sovannaroth, S; Morgan, J C; Hemingway, J

    2016-06-01

    The emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria in Southeast Asia is a major problem. The fact that many people become infected with malaria when they are outside has prompted the development of 'spatial' rather than topical repellents. The respective effects of one or four slow-release emanators of metofluthrin, a pyrethroid, were tested in Pailin, Pursat and Koh Kong, Cambodia. Numbers of mosquitoes counted in outdoor landing catches when one or four emanators were suspended close to the collector were compared with control collections. In Pailin, the effects of emanators on catches in Furvela tent traps and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps suspended underneath houses were also investigated. Rate ratios were used to determine differences. A total of 29 255 mosquitoes were collected over 2934 h of landing collections, 87 nights of tent trapping and 81 nights of light trap capture. In Pailin, landing rates were reduced by 48% by a single emanator and by 67% by four emanators (P  0.05). These findings suggest that although the product can produce a significant effect, it requires further improvement. PMID:26991881

  14. Introduction of ELISA techniques for the Diagnosis and epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in the Kingdom of Cambodia and causes major problems to farmers as well as losses in overall terms to the national economy. Losses are due to treatment of sick animal, impact on rice cultivation through the loss of ploughing capabilities, death of animals and finally, through effects on animal trade. The disease affects cattle, buffalo and pig throughout the year. In 1998, 22 cattle actually died whilst 35,000 showed clinical signs of FMD. 1,400 buffaloes and 102 pigs also showed signs of FMD. Virus sero-types Asia I and O were identified from cattle and virus sero-type O was found from infected pig. Tested epithelium and vesicle fluid samples from sick animals for antigen type has shown that 78% were FMD sero-type O among cattle and pigs and 21% FMD sero-type Asia I from cattle. Titration of sera from vaccinated animal against FMD after second vaccination has shown high levels of immunity. All sera tested were positive at a dilution of 1:125 for sero-types O, Asia I and A. (author)

  15. Investors, Managers, Brokers, and Culture Workers: How the "New" Chinese are Changing the Meaning of Chineseness in Cambodia

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    Pál Nyíri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available China has become the largest source of capital in Cambodia. Managers of state enterprises that construct hydropower plants and roads—as well as private investors and managers in mining, agricultural land concessions, and garment manufacturing—wield increasing influence and are beginning to shape labor practices. In this situation, mainland Chinese migrants are no longer seen by the Sino-Khmer as the marginal and suspect outsiders that they were twenty years ago. Rather, for both the increasingly entrenched Sino-Khmer elite and the struggling Sino-Khmer middle classes, they are a source of business opportunities or jobs. The Sino-Khmer have emerged as middlemen both between Chinese capital and the neopatrimonial Cambodian state and between Chinese managers and Khmer labor. This role is predicated upon a display of Chineseness whose form and content is itself rapidly changing under the influence of an increasing number of teachers and journalists who come from the mainland to run Cambodia’s Chinese-language press and schools. This paper will attempt to makes sense of the facets of this change.

  16. Assessing mixed trace elements in groundwater and their health risk of residents living in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the potential contamination of trace elements in shallow Cambodian groundwater. Groundwater and hair samples were collected from three provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia and analyzed by ICP-MS. Groundwater from Kandal (n = 46) and Kraite (n = 12) were enriched in As, Mn, Ba and Fe whereas none of tube wells in Kampong Cham (n = 18) had trace elements higher than Cambodian permissible limits. Risk computations indicated that 98.7% and 12.4% of residents in the study areas of Kandal (n = 297) and Kratie (n = 89) were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects from exposure to multiple elements, yet none were at risk in Kampong Cham (n = 184). Arsenic contributed 99.5%, 60.3% and 84.2% of the aggregate risk in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. Sustainable and appropriate treatment technologies must therefore be implemented in order for Cambodian groundwater to be used as potable water. -- Highlights: •We investigated the potential contamination of trace elements in Cambodian groundwater. •Residents of Kandal (98.7%) and Kratie (12.4%) were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects. •Significant positive correlation between As, Mn and Ba in groundwater and hair were found. -- Risk assessment indicated that 98.7% of residents in Kandal and 12.4% of Kratie study areas were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects of multiple elements in groundwater

  17. Using high-resolution in situ radon measurements to determine groundwater discharge at a remote location: Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonle Sap Lake (Cambodia) is the largest freshwater lake in SE Asia, and is reported to have one of the highest freshwater fish productions anywhere. During the dry season (November-April) the lake drains through a tributary to the Mekong River. The flow in the connecting tributary completely reverses during the wet monsoon (May-October), adding huge volumes of water back to the lake, increasing its area about fourfold. We hypothesize that nutrients are at least partially delivered via groundwater discharge, especially during the draining portion of the annual flood cycle. We surveyed over 200 km in the northern section of the lake using a customized system that measures natural 222Rn (radon), temperature, conductivity, GPS coordinates and water depth while underway. Results showed that there were portions of the lake with significant enrichments in radon, indicating likely groundwater inputs. These same areas were generally characterized by lower electrical conductivities. Samples collected from nearby wells also showed a general inverse relationship between radon and conductivity. Our data suggest that groundwater pathways are important, accounting for roughly 10-20 % of the freshwater flow of the Tonle Sap tributary (connection to the Mekong River), the largest single source of fresh water to the lake. Nutrient inputs from these inputs, because of higher concentrations in groundwater, will be correspondingly higher. (author)

  18. The Economic Burden of Malnutrition in Pregnant Women and Children under 5 Years of Age in Cambodia

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    Regina Moench-Pfanner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is locked in a vicious cycle of increased mortality, poor health, impaired cognitive development, slow physical growth, reduced learning capacity, inferior performance, and ultimately lower adult work performance and productivity. The consensus of global scientific evidence indicates that lowering the rates of malnutrition will be an indispensable component of any successful program to raise the quality of human capital and resources. This study used a “consequence model” to apply the coefficient risk-deficit on economic losses, established in the global scientific literature, to Cambodian health, demographic, and economic data to develop a national estimate of the value of economic losses due to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analyzed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at 266 million USD annually (1.7% of GDP. Stunting is reducing the Cambodian economic output by more than 120 million USD, and iodine deficiency disorders alone by 57 million USD. This economic burden is too high in view of Cambodia’s efforts to drive economic development. The government should rapidly expand a range of low-cost effective nutrition interventions to break the current cycle of increased mortality, poor health and ultimately lower work performance, productivity, and earnings.

  19. Bacterial communities in pigmented biofilms formed on the sandstone bas-relief walls of the Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumi, Asako; Li, Xianshu; Osuga, Yu; Kawashima, Arata; Gu, Ji-Dong; Nasu, Masao; Katayama, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    The Bayon temple in Angkor Thom, Cambodia has shown serious deterioration and is subject to the formation of various pigmented biofilms. Because biofilms are damaging the bas-reliefs, low reliefs engraved on the surface of sandstone, information about the microbial community within them is indispensable to control biofilm colonization. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of biofilm samples from the pigmented sandstone surfaces showed that the bacterial community members in the biofilms differed clearly from those in the air and had low sequence similarity to database sequences. Non-destructive sampling of biofilm revealed novel bacterial groups of predominantly Rubrobacter in salmon pink biofilm, Cyanobacteria in chrome green biofilm, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in signal violet biofilm, Chloroflexi in black gray biofilm, and Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Rubrobacter in blue green biofilm. Serial peeling-off of a thick biofilm by layers with adhesive sheets revealed a stratified structure: the blue-green biofilm, around which there was serious deterioration, was very rich in Cyanobacteria near the surface and Chloroflexi in deep layer below. Nitrate ion concentrations were high in the blue-green biofilm. The characteristic distribution of bacteria at different biofilm depths provides valuable information on not only the biofilm formation process but also the sandstone weathering process in the tropics.

  20. Microbial community analysis of fresh and old microbial biofilms on Bayon temple sandstone of Angkor Thom, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Wensheng; Li, Hui; Wang, Wei-Dong; Katayama, Yoko; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2010-07-01

    The temples of Angkor monuments including Angkor Thom and Bayon in Cambodia and surrounding countries were exclusively constructed using sandstone. They are severely threatened by biodeterioration caused by active growth of different microorganisms on the sandstone surfaces, but knowledge on the microbial community and composition of the biofilms on the sandstone is not available from this region. This study investigated the microbial community diversity by examining the fresh and old biofilms of the biodeteriorated bas-relief wall surfaces of the Bayon Temple by analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that the retrieved sequences were clustered in 11 bacterial, 11 eukaryotic and two archaeal divisions with disparate communities (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria; Alveolata, Fungi, Metazoa, Viridiplantae; Crenarchaeote, and Euyarchaeota). A comparison of the microbial communities between the fresh and old biofilms revealed that the bacterial community of old biofilm was very similar to the newly formed fresh biofilm in terms of bacterial composition, but the eukaryotic communities were distinctly different between these two. This information has important implications for understanding the formation process and development of the microbial diversity on the sandstone surfaces, and furthermore to the relationship between the extent of biodeterioration and succession of microbial communities on sandstone in tropic region.

  1. Ex Vivo Drug Susceptibility Testing and Molecular Profiling of Clinical Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia from 2008 to 2013 Suggest Emerging Piperaquine Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Saunders, David L; Sea, Darapiseth; Chanarat, Nitima; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Saingam, Piyaporn; Buathong, Nillawan; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chann, Soklyda; Se, Youry; Yom, You; Heng, Thay Kheng; Kong, Nareth; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Tangthongchaiwiriya, Kuntida; Jacob, Christopher; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Plowe, Christopher; Lin, Jessica T; Chuor, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Tyner, Stuart D; Gosi, Panita; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Lon, Chanthap; Lanteri, Charlotte A

    2015-08-01

    Cambodia's first-line artemisinin combination therapy, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), is no longer sufficiently curative against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria at some Thai-Cambodian border regions. We report recent (2008 to 2013) drug resistance trends in 753 isolates from northern, western, and southern Cambodia by surveying for ex vivo drug susceptibility and molecular drug resistance markers to guide the selection of an effective alternative to DHA-PPQ. Over the last 3 study years, PPQ susceptibility declined dramatically (geomean 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] increased from 12.8 to 29.6 nM), while mefloquine (MQ) sensitivity doubled (67.1 to 26 nM) in northern Cambodia. These changes in drug susceptibility were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene (Pfmdr1) multiple copy isolates and coincided with the timing of replacing artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ) with DHA-PPQ as the first-line therapy. Widespread chloroquine resistance was suggested by all isolates being of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVIET haplotype. Nearly all isolates collected from the most recent years had P. falciparum kelch13 mutations, indicative of artemisinin resistance. Ex vivo bioassay measurements of antimalarial activity in plasma indicated 20% of patients recently took antimalarials, and their plasma had activity (median of 49.8 nM DHA equivalents) suggestive of substantial in vivo drug pressure. Overall, our findings suggest DHA-PPQ failures are associated with emerging PPQ resistance in a background of artemisinin resistance. The observed connection between drug policy changes and significant reduction in PPQ susceptibility with mitigation of MQ resistance supports reintroduction of AS-MQ, in conjunction with monitoring of the P. falciparum mdr1 copy number, as a stop-gap measure in areas of DHA-PPQ failure.

  2. Hydrographic survey of Chaktomuk, the confluence of the Mekong, Tonlé Sap, and Bassac Rivers near Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Densmore, Brenda K.; Wilson, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of State, Mekong River Commission, Phnom Penh Autonomous Port, and the Cambodian Ministry of Water Resources and Meteorology, completed a hydrographic survey of Chaktomuk, which is the confluence of the Mekong, Tonlé Sap (also spelled Tônlé Sab), and Bassac Rivers near Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The hydrographic survey used a high-resolution multibeam echosounder mapping system to map the riverbed during April 21–May 2, 2012.

  3. Description and DNA barcoding of Crematogaster fraxatrix Forel, 1911 and two new closely related species from Cambodia and Indonesia (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Shingo Hosoishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crematogaster fraxatrix Forel, 1911 and two new species, C. chhangi sp. n. and C. simboloni sp. n., are described from Cambodia and Indonesia, respectively. DNA sequences were generated for C. fraxarix and the two newly described species using 3 amplications of two regions of the mitochondrial gene COI with a total of 1129 bp. The mean interspecific divergences are 9.4 % and 23.5 % for C. fraxatrix vs. C. chhangi, C. simboloni, respectively. DNA sequences reveal that C. simboloni is found to be genetically distinct from the other two species, but C. chhangi is not distinct from C. fraxatrix.

  4. Cost of dengue and other febrile illnesses to households in rural Cambodia: a prospective community-based case-control study

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    Margolis Harold S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The average annual reported dengue incidence in Cambodia is 3.3/1,000 among children Methods In 2006, active fever surveillance was conducted among a cohort of 6,694 children aged ≤ 15 years in 16 villages in Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. Subsequently, a case-control study was performed by individually assigning one non-dengue febrile control from the cohort to each laboratory-confirmed dengue case. Parents of cases and controls were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to determine household-level, illness-related expenditures for medical and non-medical costs, and estimated income loss (see Additional file 1. The household socio-economic status was determined and its possible association with health seeking behaviour and the ability to pay for the costs of a febrile illness. Additional File 1 2006 cost study survey questionnaire, Cambodia. the questionnaire represents the data collection instrument that was developed and used during the present study. Click here for file Results Between September and November 2006, a total of 60 household heads were interviewed: 30 with dengue-positive and 30 with dengue-negative febrile children. Mean total dengue-related costs did not differ from those of other febrile illnesses (31.5 vs. 27.2 US$, p = 0.44. Hospitalization almost tripled the costs of dengue (from 14.3 to 40.1 US$ and doubled the costs of other febrile illnesses (from 17.0 to 36.2 US$. To finance the cost of a febrile illness, 67% of households incurred an average debt of 23.5 US$ and higher debt was associated with hospitalization compared to outpatient treatment (US$ 23.1 vs. US$ 4.5, p Conclusion In Cambodia, dengue and other febrile illnesses pose a financial burden to households. A possible reason for a lower rate of hospitalization among children from poor households could be the burden of higher illness-related costs and debts.

  5. A study of glass beads from Phum Snay Iron Age archaeological site and settlement, Cambodia Data from excavation in 2001 and 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Sophy SONG

    2010-01-01

    The study of beads in Phum Snay Iron Age Site and Settlement which is in danger since 2000 because it was looted the site and sold out its artifacts. There are 349 beads were analysis received from the archaeological data in both years excavation in 2001 and 2003. All of beads were analyzed macroscopic but only 100 beads were brought from Cambodia to Paris for the chemical analysis.Among them 75 glass beads were done with the compositional analysis by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma...

  6. 柬埔寨劳务市场及中柬合作现状%Cambodia:The Present Situation of Labor Service Cooperation with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉明

    2004-01-01

    国家概况 柬埔寨王国(Kingdom of Cambodia)面积181035平方公里,人口约1230万。80%以上的人口信仰佛教。高棉族占全国人口的80%,其他主要有占族,普农族,老族、泰族,斯丁族。货币名称瑞尔,1美元兑换3940瑞尔,美元可在市面上自由流通。

  7. Vibrio parahaemolyticus enteritis outbreak following a wedding banquet in a rural village – Kampong Speu, Cambodia, April 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concepcion Roces

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foodborne outbreaks are common in Cambodia, but only a few investigations documenting the etiology and source have been conducted. In April, we learnt of 49 acute diarrhoea cases in a village following a wedding banquet. We undertook an investigation to identify the pathogen, source and mode of transmission.Methods: We interviewed banquet hosts and food handlers to obtain the menu and guest list. Guests were asked about signs and symptoms and onset of illness, time of meal and food or drinks consumed. Rectal swabs were taken from 13 cases for culture. A case-control study was undertaken; cases were guests who had acute diarrhoea within three days after the wedding and controls were guests who remained well during the same time period.Results: There were 256 guests. Of 69 interviewees, 52 got sick (attack rate 75%. Aside from diarrhoea, cases had abdominal pain (94%, vomiting (48%, nausea (42% and fever (25%. Incubation periods ranged from seven to 51 hours (median 16.5. Rectal swabs from three cases grew Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Among the food and drinks served, vegetable salad with raw octopus was the only one associated with illness (odds ratio: 6.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.3–36.1, P = 0.01.Discussion: Vegetable salad with raw octopus was the suspected vehicle for transmission of this Vibrio parahaemolyticus enteritis outbreak. Messages regarding the risks from eating raw seafood were disseminated, and food handlers were advised to cook seafood to high temperatures. Efforts to improve foodborne disease surveillance and food safety are being undertaken.

  8. How to reach the poor? Surveillance in low-income countries, lessons from experiences in Cambodia and Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutard, F L; Binot, A; Duboz, R; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Pedrono, M; Holl, D; Peyre, M I; Cappelle, J; Chevalier, V; Figuié, M; Molia, S; Roger, F L

    2015-06-01

    Surveillance of animal diseases in developing countries faces many constraints. Innovative tools and methods to enhance surveillance in remote and neglected areas should be defined, assessed and applied in close connection with local farmers, national stakeholders and international agencies. The authors performed a narrative synthesis of their own publications about surveillance in Madagascar and Cambodia. They analysed the data in light of their fieldwork experiences in the two countries' very challenging environments. The burden of animal and zoonotic diseases (e.g. avian influenza, African swine fever, Newcastle disease, Rift Valley fever) is huge in both countries which are among the poorest in the world. Being poor countries implies a lack of human and financial means to ensure effective surveillance of emerging and endemic diseases. Several recent projects have shown that new approaches can be proposed and tested in the field. Several advanced participatory approaches are promising and could be part of an innovative method for improving the dialogue among different actors in a surveillance system. Thus, participatory modelling, developed for natural resources management involving local stakeholders, could be applied to health management, including surveillance. Data transmission could benefit from the large mobile-phone coverage in these countries. Ecological studies and advances in the field of livestock surveillance should guide methods for enhancing wildlife monitoring and surveillance. Under the umbrella of the One Health paradigm, and in the framework of a risk-based surveillance concept, a combination of participatory methods and modern technologies could help to overcome the constraints present in low-income countries. These unconventional approaches should be merged in order to optimise surveillance of emerging and endemic diseases in challenging environments. PMID:25842000

  9. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-02-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households' ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. PMID:25492724

  10. Assessing the quality of service of village malaria workers to strengthen community-based malaria control in Cambodia

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    Ly Po

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria continues to be a major public health problem in remote forested areas in Cambodia. As a national strategy to strengthen community-based malaria control, the Cambodian government has been running the Village Malaria Worker (VMW project since 2001. This study sought to examine the nature and quality of the VMWs' services. Methods Data collection was carried out in February and March 2008 through interviews with one of the two VMWs who takes the lead in malaria control activities in each of the 315 VMW villages (n = 251. The questionnaire addressed 1 the sociodemographic characteristics of VMWs, 2 service quality, 3 actions for malaria prevention and vector control, and 4 knowledge of malaria epidemiology and vector ecology. Results VMWs were effective in conducting diagnosis with Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs and prescribing anti-malarials to those who had positive RDT results, skills that they had acquired through their training programmes. However, most other services, such as active detection, explanations about compliance, and follow-up of patients, were carried out by only a small proportion of VMWs. The variety of actions that VMWs took for malaria prevention and vector control was small (average action index score 12.8/23, and their knowledge was very limited with less than 20% of the VMWs giving correct answers to six out of seven questions on malaria epidemiology and vector ecology. Knowledge of vector breeding places and malaria transmission were significant determinants of both the quality of VMWs' services and the variety of their actions for malaria prevention and vector control. Conclusions VMWs' services focused primarily on diagnosis and treatment. Their focus needs to be broadened to cover other aspects of malaria control in order to further strengthen community-based malaria control. VMWs' actions and knowledge also need substantial improvement. Strengthening training programmes can help achieve better

  11. Mid- to Late Holocene (5-3 ka) Origin of the Modern Tonle Sap Lake System, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Brenner, M.; Curtis, J. H.; Kamenov, G. D.; Peterson, L. C.; Guilderson, T. P.; Kolata, A. L.

    2008-12-01

    As Southeast Asia's largest lake, Tonle Sap plays a crucial role in Cambodia's culture and ecology. The lake provides a habitat for >500 fish species and is one of the most productive inland fisheries in the world. It is a vital protein source that nourishes Cambodians today and helped to sustain the ancient Angkorian Empire. The Mekong River plays a key role in driving the productivity of Tonle Sap by injecting nutrients into the lake during the annual flood pulse. The Mekong is linked to the lake today by the Tonle Sap River, which provides a pathway for monsoon floodwaters to flow into the lake during the region's rainy monsoon season. During the dry season, flow through the Tonle Sap River reverses, and the lake drains back into the Mekong. The history of the connection between the Tonle Sap and Mekong River remains uncertain. In order to determine the provenance of sediments in the Tonle Sap lake basin, we measured Sr and Nd isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr and ɛNd respectively) of a sediment core taken from the southeastern end of the lake. An upcore increase in 87Sr/86Sr and decrease in ɛNd towards isotopic values indicative of sediment input from the Mekong River suggests that the link between Tonle Sap and the Mekong River was established ~5-3 14C yr BP. The paleolimnological record may provide insight into the environmental conditions of Lake Tonle Sap Lake prior to its connection with the Mekong. The ancient lake may serve as an analog for a future Tonle Sap ecosystem in which the annual flood pulse, and associated nutrient input, is dampened or eliminated by damming of the Mekong River.

  12. Precise Visualization Method for Cultural Heritage-The Case of High-Resolution Read Relief Image Map Used for Study of Royal City of Angkor Thom, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, T.; Shimoda, I.; Haraguchi, T.; Shimoda, M.

    2016-06-01

    To precisely visualize the Royal City of Angkor Thom, Cambodia, we used a new method in field of cultural heritage study. Read Relief Image Map (RRIM, Chiba et al., 2008) is a powerful method which has been used for geomorphological studies. In this study, using the LiDAR data conducted at the Angkor Archaeological Park in Cambodia in April 2012 (Evans et al., 2013), we visualized the Royal City of Angkor Thom and its vicinity (Shimoda et al., 2016). The RRIM provided a new visualization method of localizing, minute topographical changes in regions with large undulations over a wide area. It has proved to be effective in mapping, on a single wide-area map, the numerous buried remains that exist as comparable height differences or minute undulations measuring less than 1 meter in height, and provides a unique aerial view of their widespread distribution. Based on the RRIM map, past archaeological studies were referenced to reconstruct the layout of the water channel network system. Past studies revealed that a large number of ponds had been dug inside Angkor Thom. The RRIM expanded the investigation and revealed the existence of many ponds outside the royal capital indicating that a residential community had flourished outside the moat surrounded capital city.

  13. Conflicting Rights: How the Prohibition of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation Infringes the Right to Health of Female Sex Workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Lisa; Dixon, Thomas; Phlong, Pisith; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Stein, Ellen; Page, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    While repressive laws and policies in relation to sex work have the potential to undermine HIV prevention efforts, empirical research on their interface has been lacking. In 2008, Cambodia introduced antitrafficking legislation ostensibly designed to suppress human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Based on empirical research with female sex workers, this article examines the impact of the new law on vulnerability to HIV and other adverse health outcomes. Following the introduction of the law, sex workers reported being displaced to streets and guesthouses, impacting their ability to negotiate safe sex and increasing exposure to violence. Disruption of peer networks and associated mobility also reduced access to outreach, condoms, and health care. Our results are consistent with a growing body of research which associates the violation of sex workers' human rights with adverse public health outcomes. Despite the successes of the last decade, Cambodia's AIDS epidemic remains volatile and the current legal environment has the potential to undermine prevention efforts by promoting stigma and discrimination, impeding prevention uptake and coverage, and increasing infections. Legal and policy responses which seek to protect the rights of the sexually exploited should not infringe the right to health of sex workers. PMID:26204575

  14. Considering the Practical Rationality of Experimental Operation in Developing Countries: Reality and Challenges under a Rigid Community Forestry System in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Kurashima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Influential stakeholders have highlighted many constraints inherent in conventional scientific forest management plans for community forestry (CF and presented simpler alternatives. Nevertheless, some developing countries continue to use rigid, complex and high-cost plans and regulations. This article considers two issues: (1 why heavily-regulated or rigid CF systems were originally introduced and why they continue to be used in developing countries despite critiques and counterproposals; and (2 under what circumstances will such CF systems face an impasse, and what can be done to resolve the situation. Using Cambodia as a case study, we examine the development of a rigid CF system, review negative factors influencing the upland forested area, clarify the unfavorable situations arising from these factors and discuss likely problems associated with the CF management system. International organizations played a key role in the introduction and maintenance of rigid, complex and high-cost CF systems in Cambodia. Conflicts and crises arise when the administration prosecutes local farmers for illegal cultivation or deprives communities of CF management rights because of the expansion of commercial crop cultivation and the lack of adequate community management in response to unprecedented changes. A likely practical solution to the probable impasse is the development and funding of a functional network of CF management committees, rather than the adoption of an entirely new, alternative system.

  15. High compliance randomized controlled field trial of solar disinfection of drinking water and its impact on childhood diarrhea in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Kevin G; Samaiyar, Priyajit; du Preez, Martella; Conroy, Ronán M

    2011-09-15

    Recent solar disinfection (SODIS) studies in Bolivia and South Africa have reported compliance rates below 35% resulting in no overall statistically significant benefit associated with disease rates. In this study, we report the results of a 1 year randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of SODIS of drinking water on the incidence of dysentery and nondysentery diarrhea among children of age 6 months to 5 years living in rural communities in Cambodia. We compared 426 children in 375 households using SODIS with 502 children in 407 households with no intervention. Study compliance was greater than 90% with only 5% of children having less than 10 months of follow-up and 2.3% having less than 6 months. Adjusted for water source type, children in the SODIS group had a reduced incidence of dysentery, with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.50 (95% CI 0.27-0.93, p = 0.029). SODIS also had a protective effect against nondysentery diarrhea, with an IRR of 0.37 (95% CI 0.29-0.48, p SODIS is an effective and culturally acceptable point-of-use water treatment method in the culture of rural Cambodia and may be of benefit among similar communities in neighboring South East Asian countries.

  16. Gamma-rays attenuation of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa at different energies: A new technique for identifying the origin of gemstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limkitjaroenporn, P.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, the gamma-rays interaction properties of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa have been studied. The densities of Cambodian and South African's zircons are 4.6716±0.0040 g/cm3 and 4.5505±0.0018 g/cm3, respectively. The mass attenuation coefficient and the effective atomic number of gemstones were measured with the gamma-ray in energies range 223-662 keV using the Compton scattering technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of both zircons decreased with the increasing of gamma-rays energies. The different mass attenuation coefficients between the two zircons observed at gamma-ray energies below 400 keV are attributed to the differences in the photoelectric interaction. The effective atomic number of zircons was decreased with the increasing of gamma-ray energies and showed totally different values between the Cambodia and South Africa sources. The origins of the two zircons could be successfully identified by the method based on gamma-rays interaction with matter with advantage of being a non-destructive testing.

  17. [Do reproductive health care practices create a risk of HIV, HVB, and HVC transmission? Case studies in Cambodia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitet, Pascale Hancart

    2010-01-01

    The processes involved in nosocomial transmission of HIV, HBV, and HCV nosocomial transmission have not been studied at a global level; little is known about them or about the underlying social and cultural logic that contributes to this transmission. Hospital hygiene has mainly been studied from a biological perspective until now. However, hospital hygiene is shaped by norms and sociocultural representations, and the increase or limitation of disease transmission always takes place within social relations. We need to analyse the practices related to hygiene from a cultural perspective, especially since norms are interpreted at the local level according to social and symbolic logic. Our paper aims to investigate these issues in the context of reproductive health care practices in Cambodia. We describe various perceptions, attitudes and roles of both medical and non-medical caregivers and show how they determine practices, as well as how sanitary, social and institutional contexts shape practices. Since 1995, public health institutions have provided contraceptive methods (condoms, oral or injectable contraceptives, contraceptive implants, intrauterine devices, and emergency contraception). Except for the free distribution of condoms, particularly by NGOs as part of HIV prevention programs, access to contraception is not free. Private clinics and local and international NGOs provide many of these services. Many women in both urban and rural areas seek reproductive health care in the informal sector, from caregivers who may or may not be trained. We thus wonder if these practices, as implemented in the formal and informal care sectors, create a risk for the transmission of HIV, HVB, and HVC. We analyse those issues in considering especially the injection of Depo-Provera, insertion of intrauterine devices, vaginal cleaning practices, and surgical abortion. This investigation of the sociocultural dimension of hygiene in the field of reproductive health care underlines

  18. Community-based active tuberculosis case finding in poor urban settlements of Phnom Penh, Cambodia: a feasible and effective strategy.

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    Natalie Lorent

    Full Text Available In light of the limitations of the current case finding strategies and the global urgency to improve tuberculosis (TB case-detection, a renewed interest in active case finding (ACF has risen. The WHO calls for more evidence on innovative ways of TB screening, especially from low-income countries, to inform global guideline development. We aimed to assess the feasibility of community-based ACF for TB among the urban poor in Cambodia and determine its impact on case detection, treatment uptake and outcome.Between 9/2/2012-31/3/2013 the Sihanouk Hospital Center of HOPE conducted a door-to-door survey for TB in deprived communities of Phnom Penh. TB workers and community health volunteers performed symptom screening, collected sputum and facilitated specimen transport to the laboratories. Fluorescence microscopy was introduced at three referral hospitals. The GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert was performed at tertiary level for individuals at increased risk of HIV-associated, drug-resistant or smear-negative TB. Mobile phone/short message system (SMS was used for same-day issuing of positive results. TB workers contacted diagnosed patients and referred them for care at their local health centre.In 14 months, we screened 315.874 individuals; we identified 12.201 aged ≥ 15 years with symptoms suggestive of TB; 84% provided sputum. We diagnosed 783, including 737 bacteriologically confirmed, TB cases. Xpert testing yielded 41% and 48% additional diagnoses among presumptive HIV-associated and multidrug-resistant TB cases, respectively. The median time from sputum collection to notification (by SMS of the first positive (microscopy or Xpert result was 3 days (IQR 2-6. Over 94% commenced TB treatment and 81% successfully completed it.Our findings suggest that among the urban poor ACF for TB, using a sensitive symptom screen followed by smear-microscopy and targeted Xpert, contributed to improved case detection of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB

  19. Appropriate body mass index and waist circumference cutoff for overweight and central obesity among adults in Cambodia.

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    Yom An

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC are used in risk assessment for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs worldwide. Within a Cambodian population, this study aimed to identify an appropriate BMI and WC cutoff to capture those individuals that are overweight and have an elevated risk of vascular disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the STEP survey conducted by the Department of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Cambodia in 2010. In total, 5,015 subjects between age 25 and 64 years were included in the analyses. Chi-square, Fisher's Exact test and Student t-test, and multiple logistic regression were performed. Of total, 35.6% (n = 1,786 were men, and 64.4% (n = 3,229 were women. Mean age was 43.0 years (SD = 11.2 years and 43.6 years (SD = 10.9 years for men and women, respectively. Significant association of subjects with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was found in those with BMI ≥ 23.0 kg/m(2 and with WC >80.0 cm in both sexes. The Area Under the Curve (AUC from Receiver Operating Characteristic curves was significantly greater in both sexes (all p-values <0.001 when BMI of 23.0 kg/m(2 was used as the cutoff point for overweight compared to that using WHO BMI classification for overweight (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m(2 for detecting the three cardiovascular risk factors. Similarly, AUC was also significantly higher in men (p-value <0.001 when using WC of 80.0 cm as the cutoff point for central obesity compared to that recommended by WHO (WC ≥ 94.0 cm in men. CONCLUSION: Lower cutoffs for BMI and WC should be used to identify of risks of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia for Cambodian aged between 25 and 64 years.

  20. Cervical human papillomavirus infection among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: prevalence, genotypes, risk factors and association with HIV infection

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    Couture Marie-Claude

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cervical cancer is the leading cancer in Cambodia, most women receive no routine screening for cervical cancer and few treatment options exist. Moreover, nothing is known regarding the prevalence of cervical HPV or the genotypes present among women in the country. Young sexually active women, especially those with multiple sex partners are at highest risk of HPV infection. We examine the prevalence and genotypes of cervical HPV, as well as the associated risk factors among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 220 young women (15–29 years engaged in sex work in different venues including brothels or entertainment establishments, and on a freelance basis in streets, parks and private apartments. Cervical specimens were collected using standard cytobrush technique. HPV DNA was tested for by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and genotyping using type-specific probes for 29 individual HPV types, as well as for a mixture of 10 less common HPV types. All participants were also screened for HIV status using blood samples. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess risk factors for any or multiple HPV infection. Results The prevalence of cervical HPV 41.1%. HPV 51 and 70 were the most common (5.0%, followed by 16 (4.6%, 71 (4.1% and 81 (3.7%. Thirty-six women (16.4% were infected with multiple genotypes and 23.3% were infected with at least one oncogenic HPV type. In multivariate analyses, having HIV infection and a higher number of sexual partners were associated with cervical HPV infection. Risk factors for infection with multiple genotypes included working as freelance female sex workers (FSW or in brothels, recent binge use of drugs, high number of sexual partners, and HIV infection. Conclusions This is the first Cambodian study on cervical HPV prevalence and genotypes. We found that HPV infection was common among young FSW

  1. “Souls of the ancestor that knock us out” and other tales. A qualitative study to identify demand-side factors influencing malaria case management in Cambodia

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    O’Connell Kathryn A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate case management of suspected malaria in Cambodia is critical given anti-malarial drug resistance in the region. Improving diagnosis and the use of recommended malarial treatments is a challenge in Cambodia where self-treatment and usage of drug cocktails is widespread, a notable difference from malaria treatment seeking in other countries. This qualitative study adds to the limited evidence base on Cambodian practices, aiming to understand the demand-side factors influencing treatment-seeking behaviour, including the types of home treatments, perceptions of cocktail medicines and reasons for diagnostic testing. The findings may help guide intervention design. Methods The study used in-depth interviews (IDIs (N = 16 and focus group discussions (FGDs (N = 12 with Cambodian adults from malaria-endemic areas who had experienced malaria fever in the previous two weeks. Data were analysed using NVivo software. Results Findings suggest that Cambodians initially treat suspected malaria at home with home remedies and traditional medicines. When seeking treatment outside the home, respondents frequently reported receiving a cocktail of medicines from trusted providers. Cocktails are perceived as less expensive and more effective than full-course, pre-packaged medicines. Barriers to diagnostic testing include a belief in the ability to self-diagnose based on symptoms, cost and reliance on providers to recommend a test. Factors that facilitate testing include recommendation by trusted providers and a belief that anti-malarial treatment for illnesses other than malaria can be harmful. Conclusions Treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria in Cambodia is complex, driven by cultural norms, practicalities and episode-related factors. Effective malaria treatment programmes will benefit from interventions and communication materials that leverage these demand-side factors, promoting prompt visits to facilities for suspected

  2. Current MUAC Cut-Offs to Screen for Acute Malnutrition Need to Be Adapted to Gender and Age: The Example of Cambodia.

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    Marion Fiorentino

    Full Text Available Early identification of children 5 yrs. Therefore, this study aimed at defining gender and age-specific cut-offs to improve sensitivity of MUAC as an indicator of acute malnutrition.To establish new age and gender-specific MUAC cut-offs, pooled data was obtained for 14,173 children from 5 surveys in Cambodia (2011-2013. Sensitivity, false positive rates, and areas under receiver-operator characteristic curves (AUC were calculated using wasting for children 80% with the new cut-offs in comparison with the current WHO cut-offs.Gender and age specific MUAC cut-offs drastically increased sensitivity to identify children with WHZ-score <-2 z-scores. International reference of MUAC cut-offs by age group and gender should be established to screen for acute malnutrition at the community level.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 at the origin of an epidemic of fatal hand, foot and mouth disease cases in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Mey, Channa; Eloit, Marc; Zhu, Huachen; Danet, Lucie; Huang, Zhong; Zou, Gang; Tarantola, Arnaud; Cheval, Justine; Perot, Philippe; Laurent, Denis; Richner, Beat; Ky, Santy; Heng, Sothy; Touch, Sok; Sovann, Ly; van Doorn, Rogier; Tan Tran, Thanh; Farrar, Jeremy J; Wentworth, David E; Das, Suman R; Stockwell, Timothy B; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Delpeyroux, Francis; Guan, Yi; Altmeyer, Ralf; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). EV-A71 circulates in many countries and has caused large epidemics, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, since 1997. In April 2012, an undiagnosed fatal disease with neurological involvement and respiratory distress occurred in young children admitted to the Kantha Bopha Children's Hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Most died within a day of hospital admission, causing public panic and international concern. In this study, we describe the enterovirus (EV) genotypes that were isolated during the outbreak in 2012 and the following year. From June 2012 to November 2013, 312 specimens were collected from hospitalized and ambulatory patients and tested by generic EV and specific EV-A71 reverse transcription PCR. EV-A71 was detected in 208 clinical specimens while other EVs were found in 32 patients. The VP1 gene and/or the complete genome were generated. Our phylogenetic sequencing analysis demonstrated that 80 EV-A71 strains belonged to the C4a subgenotype and 3 EV-A71 strains belonged to the B5 genotype. Furthermore, some lineages of EV-A71 were found to have appeared in Cambodia following separate introductions from neighboring countries. Nineteen EV A (CV-A6 and CV-A16), 9 EV B (EV-B83, CV-B3, CV-B2, CV-A9, E-31, E-2 and EV-B80) and 4 EV C (EV-C116, EV-C96, CV-A20 and Vaccine-related PV-3) strains were also detected. We found no molecular markers of disease severity. We report here that EV-A71 genotype C4 was the main etiological agent of a large outbreak of HFMD and particularly of severe forms associated with central nervous system infections. The role played by other EVs in the epidemic could not be clearly established. PMID:27651091

  4. Population-based study of epilepsy in Cambodia associated factors, measures of impact, stigma, quality of life, knowledge-attitude-practice, and treatment gap.

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    Devender Bhalla

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Identify epilepsy-associated factors and calculate measures of impact, stigma, quality of life (QOL, knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP and treatment gap in Prey Veng, Cambodia. METHODS: This first Cambodian population-based case-control study had 96 epileptologist-confirmed epilepsy cases and 192 randomly selected matched healthy controls. Standard questionnaires, which have been used in similar settings, were used for collecting data on various parameters. Univariate and multivariate regression was done to determine odds ratios. Jacoby stigma, 31-item QOL, KAP etc were determined and so were the factors associated with them using STATA software. Treatment gap was measured using direct method. KEY FINDINGS: Multivariate analyses yielded family history of epilepsy, difficult or long delivery, other problems beside seizures (mainly mental retardation, hyperthermia, and eventful pregnancy of the subject's mother as factors associated with epilepsy. There was high frequency of seizure precipitants esp. those related to sleep. Population attributable risk (% was: family history (15.0, eventful pregnancy of subject's mother (14.5, long/difficult birth (6.5, and other problem beside seizures (20.0. Mean stigma (1.9±1.1, on a scale of 3 was mainly related to treatment efficacy. Mean QOL (5.0±1.4 on a scale of 10 was mainly related to treatment regularity. Cause or risk factor could be determined in 56% of cases. Treatment gap was 65.8%. SIGNIFICANCE: Factors in pre- and perinatal period were found to be most crucial for epilepsy risk in Cambodia which inturn provides major prevention opportunities. A global action plan for treatment, stigma reduction and improvement of QOL should be set-up in this country.

  5. Agreement between the Kingdom of Cambodia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) concluded between the Kingdom of Cambodia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty. The Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 November 1999, signed in Vienna on 17 December 1999, and entered into force on the same date

  6. 柬埔寨76号公路施工控制坐标系的建立%Establishment of Construction Control Coordinate System for Road No. 76 in Cambodia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段文生; 王夺; 张国华

    2011-01-01

    Combined with control survey engineering of Road No. 76 in Cambodia, this paper illustrated how to establish control coordinate system and what to be considered in the strip surveying engineering.%结合柬埔寨76号公路的建设,阐述在带状测量工程中建立施工控制坐标系统的方法和注意事项.

  7. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-01-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households’ ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. El Impacto de los Pagos por Servicios Ambientales y Áreas Protegidas sobre la Subsistencia Local y la Conservación del Bosque en el Norte de Camboya Resumen Los impactos

  8. How labour intensive is a doctor-based delivery model for antiretroviral treatment (ART? Evidence from an observational study in Siem Reap, Cambodia

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    Janssens Bart

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Funding for scaling-up antiretroviral treatment (ART in low-income countries has increased substantially, but the lack of human resources for health (HRH is increasingly being identified as an important constraint for scaling-up ART. Methods In a clinic run by Médecins Sans Frontières in Siem Reap, Cambodia, we documented the use of doctor-time for ART in September 2004 and in August 2005, for different phases in ART (pre-ART, ART initiation, ART follow-up Year 1, & ART follow-up Year 2. Based on these observations and using a variety of assumptions for survival of patients on ART (between 90 and 95% annually and for further reductions in doctor-time per patient (between 0 and 10% annually, we estimated the need for doctors for the period 2004 till 2013 in the Siem Reap clinic, and in a hypothetical district in sub-Saharan Africa. Results In the Siem Reap clinic, we found that from 2004 to 2005 the doctor-time needed per patient was reduced by between 14% and 33%, thanks to a reduction in number of visits per patient and shorter consultation times. In 2004, 2.06 full-time equivalent (FTE doctors were needed for 522 patients on ART, and in 2005 this was slightly reduced to 1.97 FTE doctors for 911 patients on ART. By 2013, Siem Reap clinic will need between 2 and 5 FTE doctors for ART. In a district in sub-Saharan Africa with 200,000 inhabitants and 20% adult HIV prevalence, using a similar doctor-based ART delivery model, between 4 and 11 FTE doctors would be needed to cover 50% of ART needs. Conclusion ART is labour intensive. Important reductions in doctor-time per patient can be realized during scaling-up. The doctor-based ART delivery model analysed seems adequate for Cambodia. However, for many districts in sub-Saharan Africa a doctor-based ART delivery model may be incompatible with their HRH constraints.

  9. Novel phenotypic assays for the detection of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cambodia: in-vitro and ex-vivo drug-response studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Benoit; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Khim, Nimol; Sreng, Sokunthea; Chim, Pheaktra; Kim, Saorin; Lim, Pharath; Mao, Sivanna; Sopha, Chantha; Sam, Baramey; Anderson, Jennifer M; Duong, Socheat; Chuor, Char Meng; Taylor, Walter R J; Suon, Seila; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Fairhurst, Rick M; Menard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum lengthens parasite clearance half-life during artemisinin monotherapy or artemisinin-based combination therapy. Absence of in-vitro and ex-vivo correlates of artemisinin resistance hinders study of this phenotype. We aimed to assess whether an in-vitro ring-stage survival assay (RSA) can identify culture-adapted P falciparum isolates from patients with slow-clearing or fast-clearing infections, to investigate the stage-dependent susceptibility of parasites to dihydroartemisinin in the in-vitro RSA, and to assess whether an ex-vivo RSA can identify artemisinin-resistant P falciparum infections. Methods We culture-adapted parasites from patients with long and short parasite clearance half-lives from a study done in Pursat, Cambodia, in 2010 (registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00341003) and used novel in-vitro survival assays to explore the stage-dependent susceptibility of slow-clearing and fast-clearing parasites to dihydroartemisinin. In 2012, we implemented the RSA in prospective parasite clearance studies in Pursat, Preah Vihear, and Ratanakiri, Cambodia (NCT01736319), to measure the ex-vivo responses of parasites from patients with malaria. Continuous variables were compared with the Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations were analysed with the Spearman correlation test. Findings In-vitro survival rates of culture-adapted parasites from 13 slow-clearing and 13 fast-clearing infections differed significantly when assays were done on 0–3 h ring-stage parasites (10·88% vs 0·23%; p=0·007). Ex-vivo survival rates significantly correlated with in-vivo parasite clearance half-lives (n=30, r=0·74, 95% CI 0·50–0·87; p<0·0001). Interpretation The in-vitro RSA of 0–3 h ring-stage parasites provides a platform for the molecular characterisation of artemisinin resistance. The ex-vivo RSA can be easily implemented where surveillance for artemisinin resistance is needed. Funding Institut

  10. Virological failure and HIV-1 drug resistance mutations among naive and antiretroviral pre-treated patients entering the ESTHER program of Calmette Hospital in Cambodia.

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    Hubert Barennes

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In resource limited settings, patients entering an antiretroviral therapy (ART program comprise ART naive and ART pre-treated patients who may show differential virological outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective study, conducted in 2010-2012 in the HIV clinic of Calmette Hospital located in Phnom Penh (Cambodia assessed virological failure (VF rates and patterns of drug resistance of naive and pre-treated patients. Naive and ART pre-treated patients were included when a Viral Load (VL was performed during the first year of ART for naive subjects or at the first consultation for pre-treated individuals. Patients showing Virological failure (VF (>1,000 copies/ml underwent HIV DR genotyping testing. Interpretation of drug resistance mutations was done according to 2013 version 23 ANRS algorithms. RESULTS: On a total of 209 patients, 164 (78.4% were naive and 45 (21.5% were ART pre-treated. Their median initial CD4 counts were 74 cells/mm3 (IQR: 30-194 and 279 cells/mm3 (IQR: 103-455 (p<0.001, respectively. Twenty seven patients (12.9% exhibited VF (95% CI: 8.6-18.2%, including 10 naive (10/164, 6.0% and 17 pre-treated (17/45, 37.8% patients (p<0.001. Among these viremic patients, twenty-two (81.4% were sequenced in reverse transcriptase and protease coding regions. Overall, 19 (86.3% harbored ≥1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs whereas 3 (all belonging to pre-treated patients harbored wild-types viruses. The most frequent DRMs were M184V (86.3%, K103N (45.5% and thymidine analog mutations (TAMs (40.9%. Two (13.3% pre-treated patients harbored viruses that showed a multi-nucleos(tide resistance including Q151M, K65R, E33A/D, E44A/D mutations. CONCLUSION: In Cambodia, VF rates were low for naive patients but the emergence of DRMs to NNRTI and 3TC occurred relatively quickly in this subgroup. In pre-treated patients, VF rates were much higher and TAMs were relatively common. HIV genotypic assays before ART initiation and for ART pre

  11. Integration of Multiplex Bead Assays for Parasitic Diseases into a National, Population-Based Serosurvey of Women 15-39 Years of Age in Cambodia.

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    Priest, Jeffrey W; Jenks, M Harley; Moss, Delynn M; Mao, Bunsoth; Buth, Sokhal; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Soeung, Sann Chan; Lucchi, Naomi W; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Gregory, Christopher J; Huy, Rekol; Muth, Sinuon; Lammie, Patrick J

    2016-05-01

    Collection of surveillance data is essential for monitoring and evaluation of public health programs. Integrated collection of household-based health data, now routinely carried out in many countries through demographic health surveys and multiple indicator surveys, provides critical measures of progress in health delivery. In contrast, biomarker surveys typically focus on single or related measures of malaria infection, HIV status, vaccination coverage, or immunity status for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD). Here we describe an integrated biomarker survey based on use of a multiplex bead assay (MBA) to simultaneously measure antibody responses to multiple parasitic diseases of public health importance as part of a VPD serological survey in Cambodia. A nationally-representative cluster-based survey was used to collect serum samples from women of child-bearing age. Samples were tested by MBA for immunoglobulin G antibodies recognizing recombinant antigens from Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, Wuchereria bancrofti, Toxoplasma gondii, Taenia solium, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Serologic IgG antibody results were useful both for generating national prevalence estimates for the parasitic diseases of interest and for confirming the highly focal distributions of some of these infections. Integrated surveys offer an opportunity to systematically assess the status of multiple public health programs and measure progress toward Millennium Development Goals. PMID:27136913

  12. Poverty does not limit tobacco consumption in Cambodia: quantitative estimate of tobacco use under conditions of no income and adult malnutrition.

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    Singh, Pramil N; Washburn, Dawn; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Job, Jayakaran S

    2013-09-01

    Current data indicate that under conditions of poverty, tobacco is consumed at the expense of basic needs. In a large national sample from Cambodia, we sought to determine whether tobacco consumption declines under extreme conditions of no income and malnutrition. Our major findings are as follows: (1) Among men, there was no significant difference in the number of cigarettes smoked for no income (425, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 395-456) versus >US$2 per day (442, 95% CI = 407-477); (2) among women, there was no significant difference in the amount of loose tobacco (ie, betel quid) consumed for no income (539 g, 95% CI = 441-637) versus >US$2 per day (558 g, 95% CI = 143-973); (3) for the contrast of no income + malnutrition versus >US$2 per day + no malnutrition in a linear model, there was no significant difference for men who smoked (462 vs 517 cigarettes/month, P = .82) or women who chewed (316 vs 404 g tobacco/month, P = .34), adjusting for confounders. Among the poorest and malnourished Cambodian adults, lack of resources did not appear to prevent them from obtaining smoked or smokeless tobacco.

  13. Eight new species, a new record, and redescription of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904: The first record of termitophilous rove beetles in Cambodia (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanao, Taisuke; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2015-11-18

    As the first record of the Cambodian termitophilous rove beetles, eight new species of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904 (Aleocharini: Compactopediina) are described, along with a redescription of the genus. Discoxenus katayamai Kanao & Maruyama, 2010, which was originally known from Thailand, is newly recorded from Cambodia and redescribed. Discoxenus species are morphologically divided into two species groups, namely the latiabdominalis and the assmuthi. The latiabdominalis species group includes D. latiabdominalis n. sp. and D. cambodiensis n. sp., and both species are associated with Odontotermes maesodensis Ahmad, 1965. The assmuthi species group comprises 11 species: D. assmuthi Wasmann, 1904, D. lepisma Wasmann, 1904, D. indicus Kistner, 1982, D. malaysiensis Kistner, 1982, D. phourini n. sp., D. kohkongensis n. sp., D. hirsutus n. sp., D. minutus n. sp., D. lucidus n. sp., D. kakizoei n. sp., and D. katayamai. The members in the assmuthi species group are associated with Odontotermes or Hypotermes termites. One of the unique morphological features of the assmuthi species group is the strongly developed distal crest of the male aedeagal median lobe while that observed in the latiabdominalis species group is not produced, which is general character state in the tribe Aleocharini. The character state of distal crest and several other morphological features such as mouthparts are considered to support the monophyly of respective species groups in Discoxenus.

  14. Validity of measures of pain and symptoms in HIV/AIDS infected households in resources poor settings: results from the Dominican Republic and Cambodia

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    Morineau Guy

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS treatment programs are currently being mounted in many developing nations that include palliative care services. While measures of palliative care have been developed and validated for resource rich settings, very little work exists to support an understanding of measurement for Africa, Latin America or Asia. Methods This study investigates the construct validity of measures of reported pain, pain control, symptoms and symptom control in areas with high HIV-infected prevalence in Dominican Republic and Cambodia Measures were adapted from the POS (Palliative Outcome Scale. Households were selected through purposive sampling from networks of people living with HIV/AIDS. Consistencies in patterns in the data were tested used Chi Square and Mantel Haenszel tests. Results The sample persons who reported chronic illness were much more likely to report pain and symptoms compared to those not chronically ill. When controlling for the degrees of pain, pain control did not differ between the chronically ill and non-chronically ill using a Mantel Haenszel test in both countries. Similar results were found for reported symptoms and symptom control for the Dominican Republic. These findings broadly support the construct validity of an adapted version of the POS in these two less developed countries. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that the selected measures can usefully be incorporated into population-based surveys and evaluation tools needed to monitor palliative care and used in settings with high HIV/AIDS prevalence.

  15. Pre-packing of cost effective antibiotic cement beads for the treatment of traumatic osteomyelitis in the developing world - an in-vitro study based in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, S; Gilson, A; Kennedy, K; Swanson, A; Vanny, V; Mony, K; Chaudhry, T; Gollogly, J

    2016-04-01

    The developing world often lacks the resources to effectively treat the most serious injuries including osteomyelitis following open fractures or surgical fracture treatment. Antibiotic cement beads are a widely accepted method of delivering antibiotics locally to the infected area following trauma. This study is based in Cambodia, a low income country struggling to recover from a recent genocide. The study aims to test the effectiveness of locally made antibiotic beads and analyse their effectiveness after being gas sterilised, packaged and kept in storage Different antibiotic beads were manufactured locally using bone cement and tested against MRSA bacteria grown from a case of osteomyelitis. Each antibiotic was tested before and after a process of gas sterilisation as well as later being tested after storage in packaging up to 42 days. The gentamicin, vancomycin, amikacin and ceftriaxone beads all inhibited growth of the MRSA on the TSB and agar plates, both before and after gas sterilisation. All four antibiotics continued to show similar zones of inhibition after 42 days of storage. The results show significant promise to produce beads with locally obtainable ingredients in an austere environment and improve cost effectiveness by storing them in a sterilised condition. PMID:26899719

  16. Integration of Multiplex Bead Assays for Parasitic Diseases into a National, Population-Based Serosurvey of Women 15-39 Years of Age in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Jeffrey W.; Jenks, M. Harley; Moss, Delynn M.; Mao, Bunsoth; Buth, Sokhal; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Soeung, Sann Chan; Lucchi, Naomi W.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Gregory, Christopher J.; Huy, Rekol; Muth, Sinuon; Lammie, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Collection of surveillance data is essential for monitoring and evaluation of public health programs. Integrated collection of household-based health data, now routinely carried out in many countries through demographic health surveys and multiple indicator surveys, provides critical measures of progress in health delivery. In contrast, biomarker surveys typically focus on single or related measures of malaria infection, HIV status, vaccination coverage, or immunity status for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD). Here we describe an integrated biomarker survey based on use of a multiplex bead assay (MBA) to simultaneously measure antibody responses to multiple parasitic diseases of public health importance as part of a VPD serological survey in Cambodia. A nationally-representative cluster-based survey was used to collect serum samples from women of child-bearing age. Samples were tested by MBA for immunoglobulin G antibodies recognizing recombinant antigens from Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, Wuchereria bancrofti, Toxoplasma gondii, Taenia solium, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Serologic IgG antibody results were useful both for generating national prevalence estimates for the parasitic diseases of interest and for confirming the highly focal distributions of some of these infections. Integrated surveys offer an opportunity to systematically assess the status of multiple public health programs and measure progress toward Millennium Development Goals. PMID:27136913

  17. An Uneven Playing Field: Regulatory Barriers to Communities Making a Living from the Timber from Their Forests–Examples from Cambodia, Nepal and Vietnam

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    David Gritten

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Community forestry (CF is widely viewed as the solution to many of the challenges facing forest management and governance in the Asia-Pacific region. However, it is often felt that CF is not delivering on its potential. This paper focuses on one possible limitation: the role of regulations in curbing communities’ ability to make a living from their timber resources. The work covers Cambodia, Nepal and Vietnam, using policy analyses, national level experts’ workshops, and focus group discussions in two CF sites in each country. The results highlight the fact that there are numerous, often prohibitive, regulations in place. One challenge is the regulations’ complexity, often requiring a level of capacity far beyond the ability of community members and local government staff. The paper puts forward various recommendations including simplifying regulations and making them more outcome-based, and facilitating key stakeholders, including government and community based organizations, working together on the design and piloting of forest monitoring based on mutually agreed forest management outcomes. The recommendations reflect the belief that for CF to succeed, communities must be allowed to make a meaningful living from their forests, a result of which would be increased investment in sustainable forest management.

  18. Assessment of corporate compliance with guidance and regulations on labels of commercially produced complementary foods sold in Cambodia, Nepal, Senegal and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Lara; Pereira, Catherine; Ford, Rosalyn; Feeley, Alison B; Mengkheang, Khin; Adhikary, Indu; Gueye, Ndèye Yaga Sy; Coly, Aminata Ndiaye; Makafu, Cecilia; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract National legislation and global guidance address labelling of complementary foods to ensure that labels support optimal infant and young child feeding practices. This cross‐sectional study assessed the labels of commercially produced complementary foods (CPCF) sold in Phnom Penh (n = 70), Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley (n = 22), Nepal; Dakar Department (n = 84), Senegal; and Dar es Salaam (n = 26), Tanzania. Between 3.6% and 30% of products did not provide any age recommendation and 8.6−20.2% of products, from all sites, recommended an age of introduction of language encouraging exclusive breastfeeding, and almost none (0.0−2.9%) provided accurate and complete messages regarding the appropriate introduction of complementary foods together with continued breastfeeding. Between 34.3% and 70.2% of CPCF manufacturers also produced breastmilk substitutes and 41.7−78.0% of relevant CPCF products cross‐promoted their breastmilk substitutes products. Labelling practices of CPCF included in this study do not fully comply with international guidance on their promotion and selected aspects of national legislation, and there is a need for more detailed normative guidance on certain promotion practices in order to protect and promote optimal infant and young child feeding. PMID:27061960

  19. Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Tomo' omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

    2013-09-10

    We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

  20. Alleviating dam impacts along the transboundary Se San River in northeast Cambodia : a review of the rapid environmental impact assessment on the Cambodian part of the Se San River due to hydropower development in Vietnam (July 2007 version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    Probe International has reviewed 2 reports regarding the environmental impact assessment (EIA) on the Cambodian part of the Se San River resulting from hydropower development in Vietnam. Both reports were prepared for Electricity of Vietnam (EVN), the project owner and developer. The operation of 3 large hydro dams on the upper Se San River has disrupted flow in downstream Cambodia where more than 28,000 people depend on the river for drinking water, irrigation, fishing, livestock watering and transportation. Probe International's focus is on mitigating and compensating for affected communities in downstream Cambodia. Their review of the EIAs recommends that Electricity of Vietnam consider switching from peaking to base load operations at its upper Se San hydro dams to mitigate the impacts in downstream Cambodia. The downstream impacts of EVN dams on the Se San River include loss of life, property, livelihood and habitat; malnutrition; loss of wet season rice production; reduced fish catches; food security at risk; loss of fish protein; loss of river bank agriculture; reduced availability of plants for food and medicine; river bank erosion; reservoir erosion and downstream turbidity; increased transportation risks; loss of fisheries habitat; increased pressure on upland forests; disrupted riverine ecosystem; and disrupted fish migration. The EIA recommendations include the re-regulation of the Se San 4A reservoir; operational changes to reduce downstream fluctuations and erosion; monitoring impact of operations on water quantity and quality downstream; algal monitoring; establishment of early warning system for spillway release; prolonging the wet season filling of the reservoir; reducing nutrient inputs to the rivers and reservoirs and a fish stocking program. 6 figs., 1 appendix.

  1. The social determinants of health and health service access: an in depth study in four poor communities in Phnom Penh Cambodia

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    Soeung Sann

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing urbanization and population density, and persisting inequities in health outcomes across socioeconomic groupings have raised concerns internationally regarding the health of the urban poor. These concerns are also evident in Cambodia, which prompted the design of a study to identify and describe the main barriers to access to health services by the poor in the capital city, Phnom Penh. Sources and Methods Main sources of data were through a household survey, followed by in-depth qualitative interviews with mothers, local authorities and health centre workers in four very poor communities in Phnom Penh. Main findings Despite low incomes and education levels, the study communities have moderate levels of access to services for curative and preventive care. However, qualitative findings demonstrate that households contextualize poor health and health access in terms of their daily living conditions, particularly in relation to environmental conditions and social insecurity. The interactions of low education, poor living conditions and high food costs in the context of low and irregular incomes reinforce a pattern of “living from moment to moment” and results in a cycle of disadvantage and ill health in these communities. There were three main factors that put poor communities at a health disadvantage; these are the everyday living conditions of communities, social and economic inequality and the extent to which a society assesses and acts on inequities in their health care access. Conclusions In order to improve access to health and health services for the urban poor, expansion of public health functions and capacities will be required, including building partnerships between health providers, municipal authorities and civil society.

  2. Bacterial Larvicide, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Strain AM 65-52 Water Dispersible Granule Formulation Impacts Both Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) Population Density and Disease Transmission in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socheat, Doung

    2016-01-01

    A multi-phased study was conducted in Cambodia from 2005–2011 to measure the impact of larviciding with the bacterial larvicide, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), a water dispersible granule (WG) formulation on the vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) and the epidemiology. In our studies, all in-use containers were treated at 8 g/1000 L, including smaller containers and animal feeders which were found to contribute 23% of Ae aegypti pupae. The treated waters were subjected to routine water exchange activities. Pupal production was suppressed by an average 91% for 8 weeks. Pupal numbers continued to remain significantly lower than the untreated commune (UTC) for 13 weeks post treatment in the peak dengue vector season (p50% of the household in the UTC harbored ≥11 mosquitoes per home. The adult population continued to remain at significantly much lower numbers in the Bti treated commune than in the UTC for 10–12 weeks post treatment (p<0.05). In 2011, a pilot operational program was evaluated in Kandal Province, a temephos resistant site. It was concluded that 2 cycles of Bti treatment in the 6 months monsoon season with complete coverage of the target districts achieved an overall dengue case reduction of 48% in the 6 treated districts compared to the previous year, 2010. Five untreated districts in the same province had an overwhelming increase of 352% of dengue cases during the same period of time. The larvicide efficacy, treatment of all in-use containers at the start of the monsoon season, together with treatment coverage of entire districts interrupted disease transmission in the temephos resistant province. PMID:27627758

  3. Climate change adaptation options in rainfed upland cropping systems in the wet tropics: A case study of smallholder farms in North-West Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touch, Van; Martin, Robert John; Scott, Jeannette Fiona; Cowie, Annette; Liu, De Li

    2016-11-01

    While climate change is confirmed to have serious impacts on agricultural production in many regions worldwide, researchers have proposed various measures that farmers can apply to cope with and adapt to those changes. However, it is often the case that not every adaptation measure would be practical and adoptable in a specific region. Farmers may have their own ways of managing and adapting to climate change that need to be taken into account when considering interventions. This study aimed to engage with farmers to: (1) better understand small-holder knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to perceived or expected climate change; and (2) document cropping practices, climate change perceptions, constraints to crop production, and coping and adaptation options with existing climate variability and expected climate change. This study was conducted in 2015 in Sala Krau village near Pailin (12°52'N, 102°45'E) and Samlout (12°39'N, 102°36'E) of North-West Cambodia. The methods used were a combination of focus group discussions and one-on-one interviews where 132 farming households were randomly selected. We found that farmers were conscious of changes in climate over recent years, and had a good understanding of likely future changes. While farmers are aware of some practices that can be modified to minimize risk and cope with anticipated changes, they are reluctant to apply them. Furthermore; there are no government agricultural extension services provided at the village level and farmers have relied on each other and other actors in the value chain network for information to support their decision-making. There is a lack of knowledge of the principles of conservation agriculture that urgently require agricultural extension services in the region to build farmer ability to better cope and adapt to climate change.

  4. An Assessment of the Knowledge and Demand of Young Residents regarding the Ecological Services of Urban Green Spaces in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

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    Yat Yen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fast and steady economic growth and social changes in recent years in Cambodia have brought rapid expansion and restructuring to its cities. These phenomena have brought numerous challenges including threats to urban green spaces (UGS’s. This study addresses problems of UGS’s by investigating the knowledge and perceptions of young residents of Phnom Penh (YRPPs toward UGS’s in relation to the following: (1 basic knowledge of YRPPs on ecological services (KES of UGS’s; (2 perceptions of YRPPs on the current state of UGS’s (PUGS’s in Phnom Penh; (3 demand of YRPPs for UGS’s in the city (DUGS; and (4 associations between KES, PUGS’s, social profiles (SoPs, and DUGS. A questionnaire was designed to solicit knowledge from 554 respondents randomly selected from the study area. The findings revealed that 83.1% of total respondents strongly recognized ecological services of UGS’s. Four subgroups of ecological services, namely microclimate (89.7%, environmental quality and functions (83.8%, recreational and public health services (88.5%, and economic benefits (70.4% were all rated highly. Because the current state of UGS’s was very poor (68.4%, demand for UGS’s was high (94.43%. Public toilets (84.7% and rubbish bins (75.6% were both rated the poorest. The PUGS’s were significantly associated with KES (r = 0.307, F (3, 543 = 18.83, p < 0.001. This study offers a deep understanding about knowledge and demand of YRPPs for UGS’s.

  5. Efficacy of two versus three-day regimens of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for uncomplicated malaria in military personnel in northern Cambodia: an open-label randomized trial.

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    Chanthap Lon

    Full Text Available Emerging antimalarial drug resistance in mobile populations remains a significant public health concern. We compared two regimens of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in military and civilians on the Thai-Cambodian border to evaluate national treatment policy.Efficacy and safety of two and three-day regimens of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine were compared as a nested open-label evaluation within a malaria cohort study in 222 otherwise healthy volunteers (18% malaria-infected at baseline. The first 80 volunteers with slide-confirmed Plasmodium falciparum or vivax malaria were randomized 1:1 to receive either regimen (total dose 360 mg dihydroartemisinin and 2880 mg piperaquine and followed weekly for up to 6 months. The primary endpoint was malaria recurrence by day 42. Volunteers with vivax infection received primaquine at study discharge with six months follow-up.Eighty patients (60 vivax, 15 falciparum, and 5 mixed were randomized to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. Intention-to-treat all-species efficacy at Day 42 was 85% for the two-day regimen (95% CI 69-94 and 90% for the three-day regimen (95% CI 75-97. PCR-adjusted falciparum efficacy was 75% in both groups with nearly half (45% still parasitemic at Day 3. Plasma piperaquine levels were comparable to prior published reports, but on the day of recrudescence were below measurable in vitro piperaquine IC50 levels in all falciparum treatment failures.In the brief period since introduction of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, there is early evidence suggesting declining efficacy relative to previous reports. Parasite IC50 levels in excess of plasma piperaquine levels seen only in treatment failures raises concern for clinically significant piperaquine resistance in Cambodia. These findings warrant improved monitoring of clinical outcomes and follow-up, given few available alternative drugs.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01280162.

  6. Bacterial Larvicide, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Strain AM 65-52 Water Dispersible Granule Formulation Impacts Both Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) Population Density and Disease Transmission in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setha, To; Chantha, Ngan; Benjamin, Seleena; Socheat, Doung

    2016-09-01

    A multi-phased study was conducted in Cambodia from 2005-2011 to measure the impact of larviciding with the bacterial larvicide, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), a water dispersible granule (WG) formulation on the vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) and the epidemiology. In our studies, all in-use containers were treated at 8 g/1000 L, including smaller containers and animal feeders which were found to contribute 23% of Ae aegypti pupae. The treated waters were subjected to routine water exchange activities. Pupal production was suppressed by an average 91% for 8 weeks. Pupal numbers continued to remain significantly lower than the untreated commune (UTC) for 13 weeks post treatment in the peak dengue vector season (p50% of the household in the UTC harbored ≥11 mosquitoes per home. The adult population continued to remain at significantly much lower numbers in the Bti treated commune than in the UTC for 10-12 weeks post treatment (p<0.05). In 2011, a pilot operational program was evaluated in Kandal Province, a temephos resistant site. It was concluded that 2 cycles of Bti treatment in the 6 months monsoon season with complete coverage of the target districts achieved an overall dengue case reduction of 48% in the 6 treated districts compared to the previous year, 2010. Five untreated districts in the same province had an overwhelming increase of 352% of dengue cases during the same period of time. The larvicide efficacy, treatment of all in-use containers at the start of the monsoon season, together with treatment coverage of entire districts interrupted disease transmission in the temephos resistant province.

  7. Climate change adaptation options in rainfed upland cropping systems in the wet tropics: A case study of smallholder farms in North-West Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touch, Van; Martin, Robert John; Scott, Jeannette Fiona; Cowie, Annette; Liu, De Li

    2016-11-01

    While climate change is confirmed to have serious impacts on agricultural production in many regions worldwide, researchers have proposed various measures that farmers can apply to cope with and adapt to those changes. However, it is often the case that not every adaptation measure would be practical and adoptable in a specific region. Farmers may have their own ways of managing and adapting to climate change that need to be taken into account when considering interventions. This study aimed to engage with farmers to: (1) better understand small-holder knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to perceived or expected climate change; and (2) document cropping practices, climate change perceptions, constraints to crop production, and coping and adaptation options with existing climate variability and expected climate change. This study was conducted in 2015 in Sala Krau village near Pailin (12°52'N, 102°45'E) and Samlout (12°39'N, 102°36'E) of North-West Cambodia. The methods used were a combination of focus group discussions and one-on-one interviews where 132 farming households were randomly selected. We found that farmers were conscious of changes in climate over recent years, and had a good understanding of likely future changes. While farmers are aware of some practices that can be modified to minimize risk and cope with anticipated changes, they are reluctant to apply them. Furthermore; there are no government agricultural extension services provided at the village level and farmers have relied on each other and other actors in the value chain network for information to support their decision-making. There is a lack of knowledge of the principles of conservation agriculture that urgently require agricultural extension services in the region to build farmer ability to better cope and adapt to climate change. PMID:27479240

  8. Sustainable gasification–biochar systems? A case-study of rice-husk gasification in Cambodia, Part I: Context, chemical properties, environmental and health and safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochar is a carbon- and energy-rich porous material produced through slow pyrolysis of biomass, which has been proposed as a way of storing carbon in soils for the long-term (centurial to millennial timescales) but its production incurs an energy penalty. Gasification of rice husks at paddy mills combines the benefits of reasonably efficient delivery of energy with a reasonably high carbon char and ash mixture. The ca. 35% carbon content of the rice husk char is possibly a consequence of the protective shield of silica, preventing full exposure of the biomass to oxidation in the gasifier. In this paper we undertake an evaluation of the sustainability of this ‘gasification–biochar system’ (GBS) in Cambodia, where a rapid deployment of gasifiers is underway. In Part I, we describe the context and analyse (some of) the physical and chemical properties of the biochar. While there are some potential health, safety and environmental issues that require further analysis, they are problems that could be readily addressed in further research and appear to be resolvable. In Part II, we present results from field trials, summarise the data on the carbon abatement of the gasification–biochar system and present some preliminary economic data. - Highlights: ▶ Rice husk char (RHC) is a biochar produced from gasification of rice husk for power production. ▶ RHC contains ca. 33% stable carbon and overall conservation of carbon in feedstock of ca. 32%. ▶ Gasification combines benefits of renewable energy generation and carbon abatement via biochar. ▶ Pollution and contamination from adding RHC to agricultural soils can be avoided. ▶ Avoiding contamination requires dry discharge or careful separation of RHC from waste water.

  9. Paleomagnetism of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red beds from the Cardamom Mountains, southwestern Cambodia: Tectonic deformation of the Indochina Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, Yukiho; Zaman, Haider; Sotham, Sieng; Samuth, Yos; Sato, Eiichi; Ahn, Hyeon-Seon; Uno, Koji; Tsumura, Kosuke; Miki, Masako; Otofuji, Yo-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red beds of the Phuquoc Formation were sampled at 33 sites from the Sihanoukville and Koah Kong areas of the Phuquoc-Kampot Som Basin, southwestern Cambodia. Two high-temperature remanent components with unblocking temperature ranging 650°-670 °C and 670-690 °C were identified. The magnetization direction for the former component (D = 5.2 °, I = 18.5 ° with α95 = 3.1 ° in situ) reveals a negative fold test that indicates a post-folding secondary nature. However, the latter component, carried by specular hematite, is recognized as a primary remanent magnetization. A tilt-corrected mean direction of D = 43.4 °, I = 31.9 ° (α95 = 3.6 °) was calculated for the primary component at 11 sites, corresponding to a paleopole of 47.7°N, 178.9°E (A95 = 3.6 °). When compared with the 130 Ma East Asian pole, a southward displacement of 6.0 ° ± 3.5 ° and a clockwise rotation of 33.1 ° ± 4.0 ° of the Phuquoc-Kampot Som Basin (as a part of the Indochina Block) with respect to East Asia were estimated. This estimate of the clockwise rotation is ∼15° larger than that of the Khorat Basin, which we attribute to dextral motion along the Wang Chao Fault since the mid-Oligocene. The comparison of the herein estimated clockwise rotation with the counter-clockwise rotation reported from the Da Lat area in Vietnam suggests the occurrence of a differential tectonic rotation in the southern tip of the Indochina Block. During the southward displacement of the Indochina Block, the non-rigid lithosphere under its southern tip moved heterogeneously, while the rigid lithosphere under the Khorat Basin moved homogeneously.

  10. Scale-up of community-based malaria control can be achieved without degrading community health workers' service quality: the Village Malaria Worker project in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuoka Junko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria control has been scaled up in many developing countries in their efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Cambodia recently scaled up their Village Malaria Worker (VMW project by substantially increasing the number of VMWs and expanding the project's health services to include treatment of fever, diarrhoea, and Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI in children under five. This study examined if the scale-up interfered with VMWs' service quality, actions, and knowledge of malaria control, and analysed VMWs' overall achievements and perceptions of the newly added health services. Methods Structured interviews were conducted pre scale-up in February-March 2008 with 251 VMWs and post scale-up in July-August 2010 with 252 VMWs. Comparing the pre and post scale-up survey results (n = 195, changes were examined in terms of VMWs' 1 service quality, 2 malaria prevention and vector control actions, and 3 knowledge of malaria epidemiology and vector ecology. In addition, VMWs' newly added health services were descriptively analysed based on the post scale-up survey (n = 252. Results VMWs' service quality and actions significantly improved overall during the scale-up of the VMW project (mean index score: +0.805, p p p Conclusions The Cambodian experience clearly demonstrated that a nationwide scale-up of community-based malaria control can be achieved without degrading community health workers' service quality. The government's strategy to expand VMWs' health services, while providing sufficient training to maintain the quality of their original malaria control services, could have contributed to the improvement of VMW's service quality, actions, and knowledge in spite of the rapid scale-up of the project.

  11. Bacterial Larvicide, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Strain AM 65-52 Water Dispersible Granule Formulation Impacts Both Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) Population Density and Disease Transmission in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setha, To; Chantha, Ngan; Benjamin, Seleena; Socheat, Doung

    2016-09-01

    A multi-phased study was conducted in Cambodia from 2005-2011 to measure the impact of larviciding with the bacterial larvicide, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), a water dispersible granule (WG) formulation on the vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) and the epidemiology. In our studies, all in-use containers were treated at 8 g/1000 L, including smaller containers and animal feeders which were found to contribute 23% of Ae aegypti pupae. The treated waters were subjected to routine water exchange activities. Pupal production was suppressed by an average 91% for 8 weeks. Pupal numbers continued to remain significantly lower than the untreated commune (UTC) for 13 weeks post treatment in the peak dengue vector season (paegypti mosquitoes per home for 8 weeks post treatment, but in the same period of time >50% of the household in the UTC harbored ≥11 mosquitoes per home. The adult population continued to remain at significantly much lower numbers in the Bti treated commune than in the UTC for 10-12 weeks post treatment (p<0.05). In 2011, a pilot operational program was evaluated in Kandal Province, a temephos resistant site. It was concluded that 2 cycles of Bti treatment in the 6 months monsoon season with complete coverage of the target districts achieved an overall dengue case reduction of 48% in the 6 treated districts compared to the previous year, 2010. Five untreated districts in the same province had an overwhelming increase of 352% of dengue cases during the same period of time. The larvicide efficacy, treatment of all in-use containers at the start of the monsoon season, together with treatment coverage of entire districts interrupted disease transmission in the temephos resistant province. PMID:27627758

  12. Analysis of the Characteristics, Tendency and Performance of Chinese Enterprises' Direct Investment in Cambodia%中国企业对柬埔寨直接投资特点、趋势与绩效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈隆伟; 洪初日

    2012-01-01

    自中国-东盟自由贸易区启动以来,资本要素的国际移动日益频繁,中国企业对东盟国家的直接投资增长迅速,利用外资投资对全球经济的影响和作用日显突出,在各国经济活动中已经占重要的地位。%Since the Sino-ASEAN trade zone was established, capital factors moved more and more fre- quently around the world. The direct investment in Cambodia of Chinese enterprises grew sharply, and by using foreign investment, Chinese enterprises' influence on global economy became increasingly outstanding. By now, Chinese enterprises have been playing a role in many countries economic activity. In this paper, the characteris- tics, tendency and performance of Chinese enterprises direct investment in Cambodia were analyzed, and on this basis, policy suggestions were given.

  13. Simplified clinical prediction scores to target viral load testing in adults with suspected first line treatment failure in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan van Griensven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For settings with limited laboratory capacity, 2013 World Health Organization (WHO guidelines recommend targeted HIV-1 viral load (VL testing to identify virological failure. We previously developed and validated a clinical prediction score (CPS for targeted VL testing, relying on clinical, adherence and laboratory data. While outperforming the WHO failure criteria, it required substantial calculation and review of all previous laboratory tests. In response, we developed four simplified, less error-prone and broadly applicable CPS versions that can be done 'on the spot'. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL: Findings From May 2010 to June 2011, we validated the original CPS in a non-governmental hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia applying the CPS to adults on first-line treatment >1 year. Virological failure was defined as a single VL >1000 copies/ml. The four CPSs included CPS1 with 'current CD4 count' instead of %-decline-from-peak CD4; CPS2 with hemoglobin measurements removed; CPS3 having 'decrease in CD4 count below baseline value' removed; CPS4 was purely clinical. Score development relied on the Spiegelhalter/Knill-Jones method. Variables independently associated with virological failure with a likelihood ratio ≥ 1.5 or ≤ 0.67 were retained. CPS performance was evaluated based on the area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUROC and 95% confidence intervals (CI. The CPSs were validated in an independent dataset. A total of 1490 individuals (56.6% female, median age: 38 years (interquartile range (IQR 33-44; median baseline CD4 count: 94 cells/µL (IQR 28-205, median time on antiretroviral therapy 3.6 years (IQR 2.1-5.1, were included. Forty-five 45 (3.0% individuals had virological failure. CPS1 yielded an AUROC of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.62-0.75 in validation, CPS2 an AUROC of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.62-0.74, and CPS3, an AUROC of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.61-0.73. The purely clinical CPS4 performed poorly (AUROC-0.59; 95% CI: 0.53-0.65. CONCLUSIONS: Simplified CPSs retained

  14. Facilitators and barriers to accessing reproductive health care for migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam: A mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webber Gail

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the research was to assess access to sexual and reproductive health services for migrant women who work as beer promoters. This mixed methods research was conducted in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Bangkok, Thailand, Vientiane, Laos, and Hanoi, Vietnam during 2010 to 2011. Methods Focus groups were held with beer promoters and separate focus groups or interviews with key informants to explore the factors affecting beer promoters’ access to health care institutions for reproductive health care. The findings of the focus groups were used to develop a survey for beer promoters. This survey was conducted in popular health institutions for these women in each of the four Asian cities. Results Several common themes were evident. Work demands prevented beer promoters from accessing health care. Institutional factors affecting care included cost, location, environmental factors (e.g. waiting times, cleanliness and confidentiality and service factors (e.g. staff attitudes, clinic hours, and availability of medications. Personal factors affecting access were shyness and fear, lack of knowledge, and support from family and friends. The survey of the beer promoters confirmed that cost, location and both environmental and service factors impact on access to health care services for beer promoters. Many beer promoters are sexually active, and a significant proportion of those surveyed rely on sex work to supplement their income. Many also drink with their clients. Despite a few differences amongst the surveyed population, the findings were remarkably similar across the four research sites. Conclusions Recommendations from the research include the provision of evening and weekend clinic hours to facilitate access, free or low cost clinics, and health insurance through employer or government plans which are easy to access for migrants. Other improvements that would facilitate the access of beer promoters to these services include

  15. 组合式打桩船在柬埔寨优联码头中的应用%Application of modular piling ship in the Cambodia Union Port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁昆; 时永杰; 尹德龙; 程强

    2014-01-01

    介绍组合式打桩船在柬埔寨优联码头钢管桩施工中的应用,重点介绍打桩船设计、组装及工程应用效果。经对钢管桩实际桩位测量后发现桩位偏差全部合格,组合式打桩船可以适应类似水域的施工要求。%This paper describes the application of modular piling ship in the Cambodia Union Port, focuses on ship design, assembling and project using effects. Through the practical steel pipe pile location measurement, the results show that the pile position deviations are all qualified, and the modular piling ship can meet the construct requirements of similar water.

  16. 广西水稻品种在柬埔寨种植后产量构成因素的变化%Yield component variations of Guangxi rice lines planted in Cambodia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高国庆; 刘开强; 郭嗣斌; 兰光焰

    2013-01-01

    [目的]比较广西水稻品种在柬埔寨生产条件下产量构成因子的变化,从而为柬埔寨引种广西水稻品种提供参考依据,促进柬埔寨水稻产量的提高.[方法]在金边水稻试验基地,选用6个广西优良水稻新品系,分别采用常规移栽和直播两种方式种植,调查不同水稻品种的生育期及产量构成因子.[结果]无论是感光还是感温品种,均可在柬埔寨的气侯条件下完成正常的生育进程.在高密度直播栽培条件下,结实率保持基本不变,但千粒重明显降低;在常规移栽处理中,由于施肥水平较低,导致结实率明显降低.大粒型水稻品种在柬埔寨种植时,产量构成因子比小粒型品种变化更明显.广西水稻品种在柬埔寨种植后,稻米的食味品质无明显变化.[结论]广西小粒型水稻品种在柬埔寨用直播和移栽的方式种植,产量表现稳定;种植大粒型品种(千粒重大于22.0 g)时,需要施用较多的肥料,尤其要注重穗肥的补充,以提高结实率.%[Objective]The objective of this study is to test the yield component changes to give some suggestions when Guangxi rice cultivars were transferred to Cambodia.[Method]Guangxi rice cultivars were grown under transplanted and direct seeding conditions.Their duration and yield componets were investigated.[Result]All rice lines including photoperiod-and temperature-sensitive materials could complete development cycle normally.Seed setting rate remained almost unchanged and the grain weight decreased when growing under high dense,i.e.,direct seeding conditions; but in transplanted,low nutrient application field,the number of filled grains decreased significantly.The yield component indexes of rice lines with larger grain size was affected more under conditions of Cambodia.No sensible difference of eating quality was perceived in different Guangxi rice cultivars under planting conditions of Cambodia.[Conclusion]It suggested that,when Guangxi rice

  17. Effects of rice straw, biochar and mineral fertiliser on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in a rain-fed lowland rice soil of Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ly, Proyuth; Duong, Quynh Vu; Jensen, Lars Stoumann;

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of water regimes and nutrient amendments on CH4 and N2O emissions in a 2 × 3 factorial, completely randomised growth chamber experiment. Treatments included continuously flooded (CF) and alternate wetting and drying (AWD), and three organic amendments: no amendment......-control, rice straw (RS) and biochar (BC). Compound fertiliser was applied to all treatments. Rice was grown in columns packed with a paddy soil from Cambodia. Results revealed faster mineralisation of organic carbon (RS and BC) when applied in water-saturated conditions lasting for 2 weeks instead of flooding...... accounted for on average 1.7 % of the total applied mineral fertiliser N. Overall, the global warming potentials (GWPs) were lower in treatments under AWD than those under the CF water regime except for the control treatment with only mineral fertiliser application. Grain yields were slightly higher...

  18. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sputum using Selective Enrichment Broth and Ashdown’s Medium at Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Cambodia [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4w7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somary Nhem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis infection, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly reported in Cambodia. We hypothesized that implementation of an enhanced sputum testing protocol in a provincial hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratory would increase detection of B. pseudomallei. We tested 241 sputum specimens that were deemed acceptable for culture, comparing culture in selective enrichment broth followed by sub-culture on Ashdown’s medium to standard culture methods. Two specimens (0.8% were positive for B. pseudomallei using the enhanced protocol whereas one specimen (0.4% was positive using standard methods. These findings demonstrate that B. pseudomallei is rarely detected in sputum at this hospital. The low frequency of B. pseudomallei in sputum specimens precludes drawing any conclusions about the relative benefits of an enhanced sputum testing protocol at this site. Promoting clinician awareness of the infection and encouraging utilization of diagnostic microbiology services are likely to be important factors in facilitating identification of melioidosis.

  19. How do rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations behave under seasonal water stress in northeastern Thailand and central Cambodia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Tomo' omi [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Mudd, Ryan G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Giambelluca, Thomas W. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Kobayashi, Nakako [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki [Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Lim, Tiva Khan [Cambodian Rubber Research Institute, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Liu, Wen [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Huang, Maoyi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Jefferson M. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ziegler, Alan D. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Yin, Song [Cambodian Rubber Research Institute, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Mak, Sophea Veasna [Cambodian Rubber Research Institute, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Kasemsap, Poonpipope [Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    Plantation rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) is a viable economic resource for Southeast Asian countries. Consequently, rubber plantations are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially changing the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with the traditional land covers they are replacing. Delineating the characteristics of biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations is therefore important to understanding the impacts of such land use change on environmental processes. We have conducted eddy flux measurements in two rubber plantation sites: (1) Som Sanuk (SS), located northern Thailand; and (2) Cambodian Rubber Research Institute (CRRI), central Cambodia. Both sites have a distinct dry season. Measurements were made over a 3-year period. We used combination of actual evapotranspiration (ET) flux measurements and an inversed version of a simple 2-layer ET model for estimating the mean canopy stomatal conductances (gs), which is among the most effective measures for describing water and energy exchanges and tree water use characteristics. A main novelty in this analysis is that the rubber canopy conductance can be extracted from total surface conductance (including the canopy and the vegetation floor effects) and hence environmental and biological controls on rubber tree gs are explicitly compared at each site in different seasons and years. It is demonstrated how each studied rubber plantation copes with each strong seasonal drought via tree water use strategies. Potential tree water use deficit (precipitation (P) – potential evaporation (ET_POT)) for each season (i.e., December-February: DJF, March-May: MAM, June-August: JJA, and September-November: SON) revealed in which season and how the water use should be controlled. We found that in seasons when actual tree water use deficit (P

  20. Natural polymorphisms of HIV-1 CRF01_AE integrase coding region in ARV-naïve individuals in Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam: an ANRS AC12 working group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhin, Janin; Donchai, Tawee; Hoang, Khanh Thu Huynh; Ken, Sreymom; Kamkorn, Jiraporn; Tran, Ton; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Peeters, Martine; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Lien, Truong Xuan; Nerrienet, Eric; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The HIV integrase enzyme is essential for the HIV life cycle as it mediates integration of HIV-1 proviral DNA into the infected cell's genome. Recently, the development of drugs capable of inhibiting integrase has provided major new options for HIV-infected, treatment-experienced patients with multidrug resistant virus, as well treatment-naïve patients. More than 40 amino acid substitutions within integrase have been described as associated mostly with resistance of HIV B-subtypes to currently available integrase inhibitors (INIs). We have analyzed the natural polymorphisms of the integrase coding region in 87 antiretroviral-naïve subjects (32 from Cambodia, 37 from Thailand and 18 from Vietnam) infected with CRF01_AE virus, the predominant HIV-1 strain circulating in Southeast Asia. The 864bp integrase coding region was sequenced using the ANRS consensus sequencing technique from plasma samples, and amino acid results were interpreted for drug resistance according to the ANRS (Updated July 2009, version 18) and Stanford algorithms (Version November 6, 2009). Alignment of the 87 amino acid sequences against the 2004 Los Alamos HIV-1 clade B consensus sequence showed that overall, 119 of 288 (41.3%) amino acid positions presented at least one polymorphism each. Substitutions found in >60% of study subjects occurred at: K14, A21, V31, S39, I72, T112, T124, T125, G134, I135, K136, D167, V201, L234 and S283. Also, new amino acid substitutions of as yet unknown significance were identified: E152K/H, S153F/L, N155I and E157G. None of the known integrase resistance mutations were observed, except E157Q found in one Cambodian subject (1.1%, CI 95% 0.02-6.3%). The clinical impact of this substitution on resistance of B and nonB-viruses to the licensed INI raltegravir is unclear. If this substitution is confirmed to compromise the virologic response to raltegravir, further studies will be needed to better assess the prevalence of this substitution among CRF01_AE virus

  1. Natural polymorphisms of HIV-1 CRF01_AE integrase coding region in ARV-naïve individuals in Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam: an ANRS AC12 working group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhin, Janin; Donchai, Tawee; Hoang, Khanh Thu Huynh; Ken, Sreymom; Kamkorn, Jiraporn; Tran, Ton; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Peeters, Martine; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Lien, Truong Xuan; Nerrienet, Eric; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The HIV integrase enzyme is essential for the HIV life cycle as it mediates integration of HIV-1 proviral DNA into the infected cell's genome. Recently, the development of drugs capable of inhibiting integrase has provided major new options for HIV-infected, treatment-experienced patients with multidrug resistant virus, as well treatment-naïve patients. More than 40 amino acid substitutions within integrase have been described as associated mostly with resistance of HIV B-subtypes to currently available integrase inhibitors (INIs). We have analyzed the natural polymorphisms of the integrase coding region in 87 antiretroviral-naïve subjects (32 from Cambodia, 37 from Thailand and 18 from Vietnam) infected with CRF01_AE virus, the predominant HIV-1 strain circulating in Southeast Asia. The 864bp integrase coding region was sequenced using the ANRS consensus sequencing technique from plasma samples, and amino acid results were interpreted for drug resistance according to the ANRS (Updated July 2009, version 18) and Stanford algorithms (Version November 6, 2009). Alignment of the 87 amino acid sequences against the 2004 Los Alamos HIV-1 clade B consensus sequence showed that overall, 119 of 288 (41.3%) amino acid positions presented at least one polymorphism each. Substitutions found in >60% of study subjects occurred at: K14, A21, V31, S39, I72, T112, T124, T125, G134, I135, K136, D167, V201, L234 and S283. Also, new amino acid substitutions of as yet unknown significance were identified: E152K/H, S153F/L, N155I and E157G. None of the known integrase resistance mutations were observed, except E157Q found in one Cambodian subject (1.1%, CI 95% 0.02-6.3%). The clinical impact of this substitution on resistance of B and nonB-viruses to the licensed INI raltegravir is unclear. If this substitution is confirmed to compromise the virologic response to raltegravir, further studies will be needed to better assess the prevalence of this substitution among CRF01_AE virus.

  2. Domestic Violence against Married Women in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Carrera, Jennifer S.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of marital resources and early-life experiences on recent domestic violence and attitudes about wife abuse among 2,074 married Cambodian women. Household standard of living was negatively associated with physical domestic violence. Women with 8-13 fewer years of schooling than their husbands more often experienced physical…

  3. Fewer Cambodia Pupils Cheat on Final Exams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏露涟

    2001-01-01

    我曾经在柬埔寨大使馆工作过,深知该国“高考”作弊现象之猖獗。政府终于下了决心,下了猛药:动用警察和宪兵,使用监视器!也许是神经过敏了,一场骚乱差点发生。因为,在一家书店发现了今年高考试题的答案!】

  4. WinFood data from Kenya and Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owino, Victor O; Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick; Omollo, Selina;

    2015-01-01

    during randomized, controlled trials (WinFood Study) designed to assess the efficacy of locally produced complementary foods based on traditional animal-source foods (edible termites and spiders) to support growth and nutritional status in Kenyan and Cambodian infants. METHODS: In a randomized......, controlled design, infants received WinFood or corn-soy blend (CSB) for 9 months from 6 to 15 months of age. Lean mass accrual and blood nutrition indicators (lipid profile, iron and zinc status) were measured cross-sectionally at 9 and 15 months of age, respectively. Lean mass was determined by measuring...... deuterium oxide enrichment in saliva samples following a standard dose of deuterium solution (0.5 g/kg body weight) to infants. Blood nutrition indicators were determined following the drawing of 3 mL of blood by venipuncture. RESULTS: Challenges included rapid depletion of food rations, high rate of loss...

  5. Pediatric Suppurative Parotitis in Cambodia 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesser, Nicole; Pocock, Joanna; Moore, Catrin Elisabeth; Soeng, Sona; Chhat, Hor Put; Sar, Poda; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas; Thy, Vann; Sar, Vuthy; Parry, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of suppurative parotitis in Cambodian children are not known. We describe 39 cases at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap between January 2007 and July 2011 (0.07/1000 hospital attendances). The median age was 5.7 years with no neonates affected. B. pseudomallei was cultured in 29 (74%) cases. No deaths occurred; one child developed a facial nerve palsy. PMID:22531239

  6. Economic land concessions decrease rural household incomes in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Xi; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Theilade, Ida

    2016-01-01

    In this policy brief, the authors present new empirical evidence of the negative effects of ELCs on rural incomes and livelihoods. In this policy brief, the authors present new empirical evidence of the negative effects of ELCs on rural incomes and livelihoods.

  7. Scholastic Achievement of Adolescent Refugees from Cambodia and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Cecile; Drapeau, Aline

    2000-01-01

    Central American and Cambodian students in six Canadian high schools and their parents were interviewed to assess the students' emotional problems and pre- and postmigration family environment. Findings indicate that the relationship between the emotional problems and scholastic achievement of teenaged refugees was tenuous. (Author/MKA)

  8. Higher Education Reform in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Le Thac

    1991-01-01

    Lists 12 changes to Vietnamese higher education resulting from the 1987 socioeconomic "renovation" that involved decentralization of authority and a shift to a mixed economy. Describes the development of higher education in Laos since 1975. Examines efforts by Cambodian higher education to recover from the devastation of the 1970s. (SV)

  9. Exploring Strategies that Build Livelihood Resilience: a Case from Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Berkes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods in Cambodian fishing communities are complex and dynamic. Fluctuations in resource abundance, seasonal cycles of resource use, and changes in access create conditions that bring challenges for rural households, as do economic and policy drivers. Nonetheless, people are continuously “doing something” in response to these stresses and shocks. This paper sets out to explore how households and community members attempt to mitigate against such challenges. The analysis of livelihood stresses and shocks in two Cambodian fishing villages shows that diversification is a commonly used strategy for coping and adapting. Analyzing responses at multiple scales, with emphasis on resilience-building strategies at household and community levels, illuminates aspects of livelihoods. To study local-level perspectives of resilience, well-being was used as the surrogate of resilience, producing three clusters of responses related to economic conditions, resources, and relationships.

  10. Sociological Analysis of Road Safety Situation In Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    DE JONG, Marjolein; Brijs, Tom; Brijs, Kris; Sann, Socheata; Ol, Soveasna

    2011-01-01

    The global objective of the study is to explore the conceptual understanding of road crashes as a social issue among general road users and to understand better the behavioral determinants of motorcycle helmet wearing among youth. Both researches show some interesting similarities about how the interviewed think about wearing a helmet. Both questionnaires reveal that there is good understanding of why you should wear a helmet and the respondents have a positive attitude towards helmet wearing...

  11. Cambodia -Thailand Dispute Ignited by Thaksin's Appointment as Advisor of Cambodia%他信出任柬埔寨顾问引发柬泰争斗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋清润

    2009-01-01

    @@ 今年11月4日,柬埔寨正式发布公告,聘任泰国前总理他信为柬政府及首相洪森的顾问,并允他人境讲学.此事随后引发泰柬两国互撤大使并驱逐其他高级外交官的外交争端.

  12. Improving adult learning and professional development in a post-conflict are: The case of Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, J.; Kalyanpur, M.; Kuiper, W.; van den Akker, J.

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, international development organizations try to increase professional capacity of local staff. These attempts are thought to fail because of financial constraints, but this is just part of the story. Professional development and adult learning theories approach learning from a wes

  13. Improving adult learning and professional development in a post-conflict area: the case of Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, J.; Kalyanpur, M.; Kuiper, W.; Akker, van den J.

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, international development organizations try to increase professional capacity of local staff. These attempts are thought to fail because of financial constraints, but this is just part of the story. Professional development and adult learning theories approach learning from a wes

  14. Improving Adult Learning and Professional Development in a Post-Conflict Area: The Case of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkvens, Jan B. Y.; Kalyanpur, Maya; Kuiper, Wilmad; Van den Akker, Jan

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, international development organizations try to increase professional capacity of local staff. These attempts are thought to fail because of financial constraints, but this is just part of the story. Professional development and adult learning theories approach learning from a western perspective, while many developing societies…

  15. The challenge of assessing social dimensions of avoided deforestation: Examples from Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasgaard, M., E-mail: mase@life.ku.dk

    2013-01-15

    Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD +) has moved to the central stage of the climate change debate by being promoted as a significant, cheap, and quick win-win strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and thereby mitigate climate change. In order to be successful in reducing emissions while providing the projected social and environmental co-benefits, REDD + needs to overcome key challenges of insecure forest tenure and inequity in the distribution of benefits. Such challenges threaten to affect the livelihoods and well-being in the local communities and in turn the effectiveness of REDD+. While REDD + programs will affect the participating communities, there is limited knowledge as to what social impacts these projects may bring to the local population. Similarly, assessment of these social dimensions has received little attention until recently, and is consequently out of sync with the realities of REDD + projects. The present paper aims to shed light on the methodological and contextual challenges in the assessment of the social dimensions of REDD+. Some of the main social concerns of REDD + are outlined with an emphasis on the uniqueness and complexity of REDD + interventions. Recently proposed approaches to assess social impacts in REDD + are critically assessed in terms of the diversity of frameworks proposed, choice of social indicators, and data collection requirements. Specifically, these methodological implications are further discussed in the light of the social dimensions and the prescribed regulations of REDD + in a Cambodian context. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insecure tenure and inequitable benefit sharing are main social concerns in REDD +. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two guides to social assessments in REDD + are critically reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mismatch between social assessment requirements and the reality of REDD + is analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete, topical examples from Cambodian REDD + are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Support the claim to add qualitative assessment of social dimensions in REDD +.

  16. High prevalence of Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm infections in humans, Cambodia, 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a hookworm of canids and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common hookworm infecting humans. In 2012, we investigated the prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cambodian village. Over 57....... ceylanicum hookworms into 2 groups, 1 containing isolates from humans only and the other a mix of isolates from humans and animals. We hypothesize that preventative chemotherapy in the absence of concurrent hygiene and animal health programs may be a factor leading to emergence of A. ceylanicum infections......% of the population was infected with hookworms; of those, 52% harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. The greatest intensities of A. ceylanicum eggs were in persons 21-30 years of age. Over 90% of dogs also harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. Characterization of the cytochrome oxidase-1 gene divided isolates of A...

  17. A dystopian society of the contemporaneity: Khmer Rouge’s Cambodia. Short considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadrian Gorun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to point out just a few of the most important characteristics of the toughest totalitarian regime of the contemporary period, that of the Cambodia’s Khmer Rouges. I underlined the main particularities that make it quite different from other Communist regimes of the XX-th century. I attempted also to establish a few connections and similarities with the belletristic literature, mainly with George Orwell’s work. In my approach, I started from the premise that the British writer was known as one of the most famous authors of anti-utopian novels. With the aid of the belletristic writing, I tried also to use an interdisciplinary approach.

  18. Assessment of the Conditions for Linking Microfinance to Household Biodigester Construction in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandararot, K.; Dannet, L.

    2006-10-15

    This report presents a comprehensive assessment of the conditions for helping households finance the construction of a biodigester. A micro-credit programme for biodigester users was jointly designed by the National Biodigester Programme (NBP), Netherlands Development Finance Company (FMO) and Microfinance Institutions (MFIs). By using in-depth interviews, a household survey and a desk study, it was determined that the demand for biodigester market was significant, with 96.5% of the studied households possessing the capacity to operate a biodigester. The research for demand for micro-credit showed that households were indeed in need of a financial aid (84%) but the majority was unwilling to borrow credit due to fear of inability to repay it. The ones willing to borrow demanded a credit size of 400,000-1,200,000 riels. The MFIs contacted (ACLEDA, Amret, CEB, Prasac, HURREDO) were interested in lending a micro-credit to biodigester users but were also concerned for the credit as it was for consumption and not production. It appeared that credit conditions desired by potential biodigester users were overall in line with MFIs offered conditions, but an interest rate gap was also in place. Some of the extensive suggestions on how to alleviate the problem offered in the report place FMO in the centre of operations as a possible guarantor of default loans, among other duties. The challenges likely to arise because of a roll-out strategy (linking potential biodigester users with micro-credit), as well plausible solutions are presented as well.

  19. Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance: Cambodia, Indonesia, and NAMRU-2

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose international security threats because of their potential to inflict harm upon humans, crops, livestock, health infrastructure, and economies. The following questions stimulated the research described in this report: What infrastructure is necessary to enable EID surveillance in developing countries? What are the cultural, political, and economic challenges that are faced? Are there generalizations that may be made to inform engagement with developing ...

  20. Female genital mutilation/cutting type IV in Cambodia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Irion, Olivier; de Tejada, Begoña Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Nontherapeutic female genital modifications can cause short- and long-term consequences. Caregivers should promote women's self knowledge on genitals' anatomy and physiology, and psychophysical and sexual health. They should also inform on possible negative consequences of vulvar nontherapeutic alterations requested and avoid the medicalization of female genital mutilation. PMID:26732824

  1. Environmental factors and WASH practices in the perinatal period in Cambodia: implications for newborn health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, Alessandra N; Oberhelman, Richard A; Potts, Kaitlin Storck; Gordon, Anastasia; Var, Chivorn

    2015-03-01

    Infection contributes to a significant proportion of neonatal death and disability worldwide, with the major burden occurring in the first week of life. Environmental conditions and gaps in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices may contribute to the risk of infection, particularly in settings where health centers are expanding to meet the growing demand for skilled care at birth and homes do not have adequate access to water and sanitation. A qualitative approach was used to understand the environmental context for infection prevention and control (IPC) and WASH associated behaviors in health centers where women give birth, and in homes of newborns, in a rural Cambodian province. Structured observations and focus group discussions revealed important gaps in optimal practices, and both structural and social barriers to maintaining IPC during delivery and post-partum. Solutions are available to address the issues identified, and tackling these could result in marked environmental improvement for quality of care and neonatal outcomes. Water, sanitation and hygiene in home and health center environments are likely to be important contributors to health and should be addressed in strategies to improve neonatal survival. PMID:25711360

  2. Environmental Factors and WASH Practices in the Perinatal Period in Cambodia: Implications for Newborn Health

    OpenAIRE

    Bazzano, Alessandra N.; Oberhelman, Richard A; Kaitlin Storck Potts; Anastasia Gordon; Chivorn Var

    2015-01-01

    Infection contributes to a significant proportion of neonatal death and disability worldwide, with the major burden occurring in the first week of life. Environmental conditions and gaps in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices may contribute to the risk of infection, particularly in settings where health centers are expanding to meet the growing demand for skilled care at birth and homes do not have adequate access to water and sanitation. A qualitative approach was used to understa...

  3. Environmental Factors and WASH Practices in the Perinatal Period in Cambodia: Implications for Newborn Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra N. Bazzano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Infection contributes to a significant proportion of neonatal death and disability worldwide, with the major burden occurring in the first week of life. Environmental conditions and gaps in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH practices may contribute to the risk of infection, particularly in settings where health centers are expanding to meet the growing demand for skilled care at birth and homes do not have adequate access to water and sanitation. A qualitative approach was used to understand the environmental context for infection prevention and control (IPC and WASH associated behaviors in health centers where women give birth, and in homes of newborns, in a rural Cambodian province. Structured observations and focus group discussions revealed important gaps in optimal practices, and both structural and social barriers to maintaining IPC during delivery and post-partum. Solutions are available to address the issues identified, and tackling these could result in marked environmental improvement for quality of care and neonatal outcomes. Water, sanitation and hygiene in home and health center environments are likely to be important contributors to health and should be addressed in strategies to improve neonatal survival.

  4. From Spirit Forest to Rubber Plantation: The Accelerating Disaster of "Development" in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Keating

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the rise of Cambodia’s GDP and other development indicators, continuing extreme poverty combined with very rapid conversion of traditional subsistence lands, forests, and waters into economic land concessions (ELCs to national and transnational companies is leading to intensified land insecurity issues and other human rights problems that may destabilize the country.  An elite sector of Cambodian society comprised of the heads of state, business, and the military is implicated as the central cause of ongoing poverty and land loss.   This paper outlines the problematic nature of the ELC processes that began in the post-conflict era and continue today, and adapts Roy Rappaport’s concepts of cognized/operational environments within a political and historical framework for analyzing the strategies of these elites, and compares their cognized environments with those of indigenous Kuoy peoples who are among those whose lands are threatened by ELCs, and suggests that the high-modern discourses of development adhered to by the elites is based on ultimate sacred postulates just as much as are the explicitly religious discourses of traditional Kuoy peoples.

  5. Parental Involvement and Students' Achievement in Cambodia: Focusing on Parental Resourcing of Public Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, Sokcheng

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the effect of parental involvement on students' achievement in a variety of contexts can provide valuable insights into how the relationship between parental involvement and students' achievement may depend on specific local contexts of education and family. Drawing on the theoretical perspectives derived from social capital model, this…

  6. A Comparison of the Menstruation and Education Experiences of Girls in Tanzania, Ghana, Cambodia and Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Marni; Ackatia-Armah, Nana; Connolly, Susan; Smiles, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The barriers to menstrual hygiene management faced by adolescent schoolgirls in low-income countries are gaining interest at practice and policy levels. The challenges include inadequate water, sanitation and disposal facilities for the management of menses with privacy and dignity, and insufficient guidance to help girls feel confident in…

  7. Lost in translation? How project actors shape REDD+ policy and outcomes in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Forest protection policies to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) are currently being implemented by international donors, governments and conservation agencies across the developing world aiming for reduction of greenhouse gases while ensuring fair distribution of ...

  8. Household practices related to disease transmission between animals and humans in rural Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Osbjer, Kristina; Boqvist, Sofia; Sokerya, Seng; Kannarath, Chheng; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Background Zoonotic diseases are disproportionately affecting poor societies in low-income countries and pose a growing threat to public health and global food security. Rural Cambodian households may face an increased likelihood of exposure to zoonotic diseases as people there live in close association with livestock. The objectives of the study was to identify practices known to influence zoonosis transmission in rural Cambodian households and relate the practices to agro-ecological region,...

  9. Cambodia : Review of Government Information and Communications Technologies Policies and Investments

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Further, governments are using information and communication technologies (ICT) as tools to reduce transaction costs and processing time, and increase government revenues. Further, the potential to access public services at home or at a local Internet kiosk empowers citizens in rural areas, including women and minorities. Access to relevant public information on rights and benefits, inheri...

  10. Professional Education Programme for Land Management and Land Administration in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setha, Vung; Mund, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Land management and land administration are defined as a system of planning, management and administration methods and techniques that aims to integrate ecological with social, economic and legal principles in the management of land for urban and rural development purposes. The main objective is to meet changing and developing human needs, while…

  11. Forestry Administration of Cambodia : The Forest Concession Management and Control Pilot Project

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Concession Management and Control Pilot Project (FCMCPP) overall objective was developed in the early 2000s and aims at 'testing and demonstrating, through implementation, a comprehensive set of forest planning and management guidelines and control procedures and establishing an effective forest management compliance monitoring and enforcement capability'. According to the planning handbook a separate and specific document was supposed to be prepared with regard to the social issue...

  12. Freshwater fish as a dietary source of vitamin A in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna; Chamnan, Chhoun; Loeung, Deap;

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem among children and women. Common Cambodian fish species were sampled and screened for vitamin A content. Contents of vitamin A-active compounds (all-trans retinol, all-trans dehydroretinol, 13-cis retinol, 13-cis dehydroretinol and P-carotene) were ...... by Brouwer et al. [Brouwer, I. A., Dusseldorp, M. V., West, C. E., & Steegers-Theunissen, R. P. M. (2001). Bioavailability and bioefficacy of folate and folic acid in man. Nutrition Research Review, 14, 267-293]).......Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem among children and women. Common Cambodian fish species were sampled and screened for vitamin A content. Contents of vitamin A-active compounds (all-trans retinol, all-trans dehydroretinol, 13-cis retinol, 13-cis dehydroretinol and P-carotene) were...... determined by high-performance liquid chromatography in samples of raw, whole fish from 29 fish species and in raw, edible parts from 24 species. Replicate samples were analysed in seven selected species. Two species, Parachela siamensis and Rasbora tornieri had very high vitamin A contents >1500 RAE/100 g...

  13. Mercury Contamination of Skin-whitening Creams in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Murphy

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion. Some producers of skin-whitening creams in Thailand, China and Taiwan appear to be aware of the risks of mercury contamination and have modified their products. However, other producers of skin-whitening creams continue to use mercury. XRF analysis allows for rapid screening of mercury in cosmetics and should be used to gather additional information on mercury content in cosmetics in support of public health efforts to stem the import, export and sales of skin creams containing mercury.

  14. Report on monitoring in the flood season in Cambodia in 2006 en 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    The FMMP is cooperating with WWF Living Mekong Programme, and three Delft Cluster institutes (UNESCO-IHE, Delft Hydraulics and Geodelft) to implement a 2 year 'Roads and Floods' project. The project aims at developing economically sound and environmentally friendly guidelines for the planning and de

  15. Rural Internal Migrants Navigating Apprenticeships and Vocational Training: Insights from Cambodia and Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Chea (Lyda); R.B.C. Huijsmans (Roy)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractThe policy phrase Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is rapidly gaining ground across Southeast Asia (and beyond). TVET is centrally about ‘skills’ development and considered an important policy component in smoothening young people’s ‘school-to-work transition’.

  16. Contribution to the diatom flora of Cambodia: Five new recent freshwater taxa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saúl BLANCO; Irene (A)LVAREZ-BLANCO; Cristina CEJUDO-FIGUEIRAS; Eloy B(E)CARES

    2012-01-01

    Cambodian aquatic ecosystems are extremely diversified and constitute major preservation targets.However,the species composition,diversity,and distribution of the inhabiting algal communities are largely unknown.During a sample collection carried out in the Angkor and Banteay Srei monuments area in 2010,several unknown diatom taxa were found in various population densities in the artificial lakes surrounding these temples.Detailed light and scanning electron microscopy observations allowed the description of five of them (Pinnularia cambodiana,P.shivae,Gomphonema angkoricum,G.paradaphnoides,and Frustulia lacus-templi) as taxa new to science.Differential diagnostic criteria with respect to similar taxa,together with the ecological and environmental implications of these findings,are briefly discussed.

  17. Chemical analysis of black crust on the Angkor sandstone at the Bayon temple, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wonsuh; Oguchi, Chiaki; Waragai, Tetsuya

    2014-05-01

    The Angkor complex is the one of the greatest cultural heritages in the world. It is constructed in the early 12th century, designated as a world cultural heritage by UNESCO in 1992. The temples at the Angkor complex are mainly made of sandstone and laterite. However, due to the tropical climate, plants, lichens and various microorganisms are growing well on the rock surface. Black crusts are also easily found on the stone surface. The 21st technical session of the International Coordinating Committee for the Safeguarding and Development of the Historic Site of Angkor (ICC-Angkor) held in 2012 recommended that to preserve both the biofilms and the forest cover and to prohibit the biocides (chlorine-based) and organic biocides. However, there are many reports that lichens and microorganisms accelerate rock weathering. It is important to clarify that how the biofilm on the Angkor temples affect Angkor sandstones. We sampled Angkor sandstone covered by black crust at the Bayon temple, Angkor complex, and observed the section and the surface of the rock sample by using SEM. Surfaces of the samples are not polished in order to observe the original condition. The samples are coated with gold for 180 seconds. The depth of the black crust is up to 1 mm. Many filamentous materials were found on the black crust. Average energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data of the five areas of ca. 20 μm ×15 μm in the black crusts shows that over 80 % of the filamentous materials are compounds of carbon. It seems that these materials are hyphae. The shape of the hypha is like a thread and its size is few μm in diameter and up to several centimeters in length. Black crusts are consisted of elements and compounds of carbon, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe. Further research has to be done to find out the better and proper way of conservation for the Angkor complex.

  18. Characteristics of tuberculosis patients at intake in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoa, Nguyen B; Wei, Chen; Sokun, Chay;

    2011-01-01

    The tuberculosis register is a critical data source for the information system of national tuberculosis control programs. From the information in the tuberculosis case register, it is possible to extend the standard analysis of age and sex characteristics among sputum smear-positive cases to all ...

  19. 31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... private remittances to nationals are not generally prohibited pursuant to this chapter, and is not a...) For the support of the payee, or for the support of the payee and members of his household, in amounts not exceeding $300 in any consecutive 3-month period to any one payee or to any household; and (2)...

  20. Female genital mutilation/cutting type IV in Cambodia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Irion, Olivier; de Tejada, Begoña Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Nontherapeutic female genital modifications can cause short- and long-term consequences. Caregivers should promote women's self knowledge on genitals' anatomy and physiology, and psychophysical and sexual health. They should also inform on possible negative consequences of vulvar nontherapeutic alterations requested and avoid the medicalization of female genital mutilation.

  1. Paradigm and Paradox: Education for All and the Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanpur, Maya

    2011-01-01

    In keeping with international guidelines and to meet the target of Education for All (EFA) by 2015, the Cambodian government, with assistance from non-government and aid organisations, has instituted several initiatives towards including children with disabilities in the educational mainstream. This paper examines these efforts within the context…

  2. What International Aid Organizations Can Learn from International Adult Learning: Experiences from Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkvens, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in…

  3. Study on element concentrations in aerosol in ambient air from Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to accumulate basic information necessary for reduction of suspended particle materials (SPM) in Phnom Penh, various element concentrations were measured with ICP-mass spectrometry and neutron activation analysis, and some their sources were estimated. SPM were collected at a roadside area in the middle of the City (1 point, 11 samples of 24 hours and 14 samples of 7 ∼ 16 hours) and two residence areas (2 points, 13 samples of 24 hours and 1 sample of 16 hours) with membrane filters of air samplers set at the level of 8∼9 m height. For research SPM sources, two kinds of comparative samples were also collected from roadside dust and soil (2 points, 9 samples) and from exhaust deposit of vehicles (bicycle 11, gasoline automobile 7, diesel car 10 samples) and electric generator (6 samples). SPM concentrations measured were 67∼1,000 μg/m3 (average 410 μg/m3). The concentrations in the roadside area were several times higher than in the residence area. Toxic element concentrations were all higher in roadside with an exception of Cd. The concentrations of Pb was 44 ng/m3 on the average, amounting to 1/10 of WHO Guidelines. Comparing element concentrations of SPM with those of the soils and deposits, factor analysis using 18 elements including Ba, V, Pb suggests three major sources of soil, vehicle exhaust, and oil burning. (H. Yokoo)

  4. Hopane, sterane and n-alkane distributions in shallow sediments hosting high arsenic groundwaters in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of elevated As in ground waters exploited for drinking water and irrigation in South-East Asia is causing serious impacts on human health. A key mechanism that causes the mobilization of As in these waters is microbially mediated reductive transformation of As-bearing Fe(III) hydrated oxides and the role of degradable organic matter (OM) in this process is widely recognized. A number of different types of OM that drive As release in these aquifers have been suggested, including petroleum derived hydrocarbons naturally seeping into shallow sediments from deeper thermally mature source rocks. However, the amount of information on the characteristics of the OM in South-East Asian aquifers is limited. Here the organic geochemical analyses of the saturated hydrocarbon fractions and radiocarbon analysis, of two additional sites in SE Asia are reported. The results show that the OM in a given sedimentary horizon likely derives from multiple sources including naturally occurring petroleum. The importance of naturally occurring petroleum as one of the sources was clearly indicated by the n-alkane CPI of approximately 1, the presence of an unresolved complex mixture, and hopane (dominated by 17α(H),21β(H) hopanes) and sterane distribution patterns. The results also indicate that the OM in these aquifers varies tremendously in content, character and potential bioavailability. Furthermore, the presence of petroleum derived OM in sediments at both sites doubles the number of locations where their presence has been observed in association with As-rich, shallow aquifers, suggesting that the role of petroleum derived OM in microbially mediated As release might occur over a wider range of geographical locations than previously thought

  5. The challenge of assessing social dimensions of avoided deforestation: Examples from Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD +) has moved to the central stage of the climate change debate by being promoted as a significant, cheap, and quick win–win strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and thereby mitigate climate change. In order to be successful in reducing emissions while providing the projected social and environmental co-benefits, REDD + needs to overcome key challenges of insecure forest tenure and inequity in the distribution of benefits. Such challenges threaten to affect the livelihoods and well-being in the local communities and in turn the effectiveness of REDD+. While REDD + programs will affect the participating communities, there is limited knowledge as to what social impacts these projects may bring to the local population. Similarly, assessment of these social dimensions has received little attention until recently, and is consequently out of sync with the realities of REDD + projects. The present paper aims to shed light on the methodological and contextual challenges in the assessment of the social dimensions of REDD+. Some of the main social concerns of REDD + are outlined with an emphasis on the uniqueness and complexity of REDD + interventions. Recently proposed approaches to assess social impacts in REDD + are critically assessed in terms of the diversity of frameworks proposed, choice of social indicators, and data collection requirements. Specifically, these methodological implications are further discussed in the light of the social dimensions and the prescribed regulations of REDD + in a Cambodian context. - Highlights: ► Insecure tenure and inequitable benefit sharing are main social concerns in REDD +. ► Two guides to social assessments in REDD + are critically reviewed. ► Mismatch between social assessment requirements and the reality of REDD + is analyzed. ► Concrete, topical examples from Cambodian REDD + are used. ► Support the claim to add qualitative assessment of social dimensions in REDD +.

  6. Soil carbon and soil respiration in conservation agriculture with vegetables in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A balance between food production and environmental protection is required to sustainably feed a growing population. The resource saving concept of conservation agriculture aims to achieve this balance through implementing simultaneously three conservation practices; no-till, continuous soil cover, ...

  7. Money for something? Investigating the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation interventions in the Northern Plains of Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Despite substantial investments in biodiversity conservation interventions over the past two decades there is relatively little evidence about whether interventions work, and how they work. Whether an intervention is deemed to ?work? depends upon how goals are defined and then measured, which is complex given that different stakeholders have very different expectations for any intervention (including species conservation, habitat protection, human wellbeing or participation goals), and becaus...

  8. Perceptions of nursing students on effective clinical preceptors in Phnom Penh National Hospitals, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virya Koy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing education has evolved substantially in the last few decades. Preceptorship is important to nursing education for several reasons. The purpose of this study is to describe the effective nursing clinical preceptors in Phnom Penh National Hospitals. Both preceptors and students have reported experiencing constrained relationships, tension and anxiety, which led to failure result or frustrating experiences in clinical teaching and learning. Methods: The stratified sampling of 166 was invited. A cross-sectional design survey was used. The Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient for all items was 0.945. Results: The findings were given as effective clinical preceptorship had a moderate (3.02, 0.85. The interpersonal relationship (3.51, 0.88, evaluation (3.39, 0.93, personal traits (2.80, 0.83, nursing competencies (3.39, 0.93, and teaching ability (2.70, 0.81. Conclusion: Interpersonal relationship, formative evaluation, giving suggestions and correcting mistakes without belittling was perceived to be important characteristic. It is necessary to integrate clinical teaching skills to clinical preceptors. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1605-1610

  9. Prediction of contamination potential of groundwater arsenic in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater has increasingly been recognized as a major global issue of concern. As groundwater resources are one of most important freshwater sources for water supplies in Southeast Asian countries, it is important to investigate the spatial distribution of As cont...

  10. Detection of Campylobacter in human and animal field samples in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbjer, Kristina; Tano, Eva; Chhayheng, Leang; Mac-Kwashie, Akofa Olivia; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Ellström, Patrik; Sokerya, Seng; Sokheng, Choup; Mom, Veng; Chheng, Kannarath; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Boqvist, Sofia; Rautelin, Hilpi; Magnusson, Ulf

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter are zoonotic bacteria and a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide with Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli being the most commonly detected species. The aim of this study was to detect Campylobacter in humans and livestock (chickens, ducks, pigs, cattle, water buffalo, quail, pigeons and geese) in rural households by routine culturing and multiplex PCR in faecal samples frozen before analysis. Of 681 human samples, 82 (12%) tested positive by PCR (C. jejuni in 66 samples and C. coli in 16), but none by routine culture. Children were more commonly Campylobacter positive (19%) than adult males (8%) and females (7%). Of 853 livestock samples, 106 (12%) tested positive by routine culture and 352 (41%) by PCR. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequent in chickens and ducks and C. coli in pigs. In conclusion, Campylobacter proved to be highly prevalent by PCR in children (19%), ducks (24%), chickens (56%) and pigs (72%). Routine culturing was insufficiently sensitive in detecting Campylobacter in field samples frozen before analysis. These findings suggest that PCR should be the preferred diagnostic method for detection of Campylobacter in humans and livestock where timely culture is not feasible. PMID:26991032

  11. High Prevalence of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm Infections in Humans, Cambodia, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Dalsgaard, Anders; Khieu, Virak; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Traub, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a hookworm of canids and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common hookworm infecting humans. In 2012, we investigated the prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cambodian village. Over 57% of the population was infected with hookworms; of those, 52% harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. The greatest intensities of A. ceylanicum eggs were in persons 21-30 years of age. Over 90% of dogs also harbo...

  12. Commentary (Pre-Trial Detention in the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Most international criminal courts and tribunals find provisional detention absolutely necessary to ensure the swift delivery of justice. A decision on pre-trial detention must be in conformity with well-recognized human rights standards, thus respecting the person’s right to a fair trial...... in international criminal courts and tribunals. To date, all provisional detention orders against former members of the inner circle of Pol Pot, except for one, have been re-affirmed on appeal in the ECCC. This commentary appraises the ECCC case law on pre-trial detention from the standpoint of its conformity...

  13. Microbial biofilms on the sandstone monuments of the Angkor Wat Complex, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylarde, Christine C; Rodríguez, César Hernández; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Ortega-Morales, B Otto

    2012-02-01

    Discoloring biofilms from Cambodian temples Angkor Wat, Preah Khan, and the Bayon and West Prasat in Angkor Thom contained a microbial community dominated by coccoid cyanobacteria. Molecular analysis identified Chroococcidiopsis as major colonizer, but low similarity values (sandstone. Such analyses are important prerequisites to the application of control strategies.

  14. Market-based biogas sector development in least developed countries —The case of Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buysman, E.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    In many of the least developed countries the energy security conundrum is how to provide affordable, safe and clean energy to a low income rural population. Household level generation of biogas from animal waste for both cooking and lighting, while producing high quality organic fertiliser, is incre

  15. Compromize and Controversy Over Global Intercountry Adoption: A Comparative Analysis of Adoption in Haiti, Chad, Southeast Asian Countries, and Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Uchehara, Kieran E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Authorities in belligerent countries are now faced with a new problem:  modern warfare and natural disasters. Between 2001 and 2010, four relatively publicized adoption related cases have caused some Third World countries to revitalize their concerns over the rights of children in such cases of adoption, mainly the New Life Children's Refuge (NLCR) in Haiti, the Zoe's Ark in Chad, the Katherine Hart case in Southeast Asian countries, and the twelve United States adoptive parents' c...

  16. Mapping Above-Ground Biomass in a Tropical Forest in Cambodia Using Canopy Textures Derived from Google Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minerva Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a modelling framework for utilizing very high-resolution (VHR aerial imagery for monitoring stocks of above-ground biomass (AGB in a tropical forest in Southeast Asia. Three different texture-based methods (grey level co-occurrence metric (GLCM, Gabor wavelets and Fourier-based textural ordination (FOTO were used in conjunction with two different machine learning (ML-based regression techniques (support vector regression (SVR and random forest (RF regression. These methods were implemented on both 50-cm resolution Digital Globe data extracted from Google Earth™ (GE and 8-cm commercially obtained VHR imagery. This study further examines the role of forest biophysical parameters, such as ground-measured canopy cover and vertical canopy height, in explaining AGB distribution. Three models were developed using: (i horizontal canopy variables (i.e., canopy cover and texture variables plus vertical canopy height; (ii horizontal variables only; and (iii texture variables only. AGB was variable across the site, ranging from 51.02 Mg/ha to 356.34 Mg/ha. GE-based AGB estimates were comparable to those derived from commercial aerial imagery. The findings demonstrate that novel use of this array of texture-based techniques with GE imagery can help promote the wider use of freely available imagery for low-cost, fine-resolution monitoring of forests parameters at the landscape scale.

  17. Dams on Mekong tributaries as significant contributors of hydrological alterations to the Tonle Sap Floodplain in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.; Lauri, H.; Cochrane, T. A.; Kummu, M.

    2014-12-01

    River tributaries have a key role in the biophysical functioning of the Mekong Basin. Of particular interest are the Sesan, Srepok, and Sekong (3S) rivers, which contribute nearly a quarter of the total Mekong discharge. Forty two dams are proposed in the 3S, and once completed they will exceed the active storage of China's large dam cascade in the Upper Mekong. Given their proximity to the Lower Mekong floodplains, the 3S dams could alter the flood-pulse hydrology driving the productivity of downstream ecosystems. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to quantify how hydropower development in the 3S, together with definite future (DF) plans for infrastructure development through the basin, would alter the hydrology of the Tonle Sap's Floodplain, the largest wetland in the Mekong and home to one of the most productive inland fisheries in the world. We coupled results from four numerical models representing the basin's surface hydrology, water resources development, and floodplain hydrodynamics. The scale of alterations caused by hydropower in the 3S was compared with the basin's DF scenario driven by the Upper Mekong dam cascade. The DF or the 3S development scenarios could independently increase Tonle Sap's 30-day minimum water levels by 30 ± 5 cm and decrease annual water level fall rates by 0.30 ± 0.05 cm day-1. When analyzed together (DF + 3S), these scenarios are likely to eliminate all baseline conditions (1986-2000) of extreme low water levels, a particularly important component of Tonle Sap's environmental flows. Given the ongoing trends and large economic incentives in the hydropower business in the region, there is a high possibility that most of the 3S hydropower potential will be exploited and that dams will be built even in locations where there is a high risk of ecological disruption. Hence, retrofitting current designs and operations to promote sustainable hydropower practices that optimize multiple river services - rather than just maximize hydropower generation - appear to be the most feasible alternative to mitigate hydropower-related disruptions in the Mekong.

  18. Simplified Assessment of Antiretroviral Adherence and Prediction of Virological Efficacy in HIV-Infected Patients in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Segeral

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adherence to antiviral therapy is important for HIV-infected people living in low- and middle-income countries, because of poor access to alternative regimens. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adherence in Cambodian patients enrolled in the ESTHER program and treated with WHO first-line regimen for at least 6 months. The survey was based on a self-report questionnaire, drug assay, MCV measurement, visual analog scale, and viral load HIV RNA. Results. Two hundred fifty-nine patients treated for a median of 16 months participated in the survey. At inclusion in the program, 158 patients (61% were ARV-naïve. The virological success rate was 71% overall and 81% in previously ARV-naive patients. Considered individually, the measures suggested perfect adherence in 71% to 93% of patients. In multivariate analysis adjusted for sex and therapeutic status before HAART initiation, only the biological markers were associated with virological efficacy. Self-funded treatment before entry to the program was highly predictive of virological failure. Conclusion. Adherence was excellent in these Cambodian patients. Biological markers were predictive of virological efficacy. MCV might thus serve as a simple alternative for assessing adherence and predicting virological efficacy among patients receiving AZT- or d4T-based regimens.

  19. Factors influencing poisoning symptoms: a case study of vegetable farmers exposed to mixed insecticides in Prek Balatchheng Village, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Suybros, Nhean; Daniell, William; Meepradit, Parvena; Jaidee, Wanlop

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors influencing poisoning symptoms among 153 mixed insecticide-exposed vegetable farmers in one Cambodian village, where 153 factory workers were selected as a comparative nonexposed group. The research instruments were questionnaires and reactive-paper test kits. The majority of vegetable farmers were male, with approximately 87% of the total participants with an average age of 34 years. The personal hygiene scores of most vegetable farmers (108; 70.8%) were moderate, and knowledge scores were at poor level (131; 85.6%). Abnormally low cholinesterase (ChE) levels were detected among 119 (77.8%) farmers. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with possible poisoning symptoms. This study found that mixing an average of four to six types of insecticides (odds ratio [OR] = 4.6; P = .03) and abnormal ChE level (OR = 4.09; P = .004) was associated with central nervous system (CNS) symptoms. Age group >45 years (OR = 2.8; P = .04) and type of vegetable "other" (OR = 2.73; P = .02) were associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. Type of insecticide, organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates (CMs) (OR = 3.2; P = .04), was associated with respiratory symptoms. It is recommended that farmers should reduce insecticide spraying times, increase their use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and undergo training on insecticide use. These combined measures should improve the insecticide-related health status of vegetable farmers in this area.

  20. Dams on Mekong tributaries as significant contributors of hydrological alterations to the Tonle Sap Floodplain in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Arias

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available River tributaries have a key role in the biophysical functioning of the Mekong Basin. Of particular attention are the Sesan, Srepok, and Sekong (3S rivers, which contribute nearly a quarter of the total Mekong discharge. Forty two dams are proposed in the 3S, and once completed they will exceed the active storage of China's large dam cascade in the upper Mekong. Given their proximity to the lower Mekong floodplains, the 3S dams could alter the flood-pulse hydrology driving the productivity of downstream ecosystems. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to quantify how hydropower development in the 3S would alter the hydrology of the Tonle Sap floodplain, the largest wetland in the Mekong and home to one of the most productive inland fisheries in the world. We coupled results from four numerical models representing the basin's surface hydrology, water resources development, and floodplain hydrodynamics. The scale of alterations caused by hydropower in the 3S was compared with the basin's definite future development scenario (DF driven by the upper Mekong dam cascade. The DF or the 3S development scenarios could independently increase Tonle Sap's 30 day minimum water levels by 30 ± 5 cm and decrease annual water level fall rates by 0.30 ± 0.05 cm d−1. When analyzed together (DF + 3S, these scenarios are likely to eliminate all baseline conditions (1986–2000 of extreme low water levels, a~particularly important component of Tonle Sap's environmental flows. Given the ongoing trends and large economic incentives in the hydropower business in the region, there is a high possibility that most of the 3S hydropower potential will actually be exploited and that dams would be built even in locations where there is a high risk of ecological disruptions. Hence, retrofitting current designs and operations to promote sustainable hydropower practices that optimize multiple river services – rather than just maximize hydropower generation – appear to be the most feasible alternative to mitigate hydropower-related disruptions in the Mekong.

  1. Faecal and protozoan parasite contamination of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) cultivated in urban wastewater in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anh, Vuong Tuan; Tram, Nguyen Thuy; Klank, Lise Tønner;

    2007-01-01

    into a stream. Water spinach samples were harvested at each of the three locations with and without wastewater contact according to the normal practices of farmers, and analysed for ThC, protozoan parasites (Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora), and helminth eggs (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichura...

  2. Philosophy with Children as an Exercise in "Parrhesia": An Account of a Philosophical Experiment with Children in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansieleghem, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The last few decades have seen a steady growth of interest in doing philosophy with children and young people in educational settings. Philosophy with children is increasingly offered as a solution to the problems associated with what is seen by many as a disoriented, cynical, indifferent and individualistic society. It represents for its…

  3. Climate mitigation in the least carbon emitting countries. Dilemmas of Co-benefits in Cambodia and Laos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luukkanen, J., Email: jyrki.luukkanen@utu.fi; Kakonen, M.; Karhumaa, K. [and others

    2013-09-01

    Development has entered a time where it cannot be thought of without reference to climate change. While historically development in the industrialized countries has to a great extent been driven by a fossil fuel based economy, this option is no longer seen as viable for developing countries, which are expected to pursue different pathways of development. At the same time, the impacts of a changing climate affect the poorest countries and populations disproportionately, and multilateral policy declarations signed by most countries underline that there must be an effort to prevent and mitigate this. The effects of climate change onto development policies and practice is also reflected in donor countries' change in perception. Donor countries have begun increasingly integrating climate change objectives into development cooperation programmes and official development assistance (ODA). While significant in terms of discontinuing support to fossil fuels and attempting to increase resilience, this trend also brings into the fore new dilemmas. The main dilemma which emerges - and is explored further in this book - is when development cooperation finance is used in the least developed countries for projects and policies which are principally oriented towards climate change mitigation.

  4. Case Studies of Integrated Pedagogy in Vocational Education: A Three-Tier Approach to Empowering Vulnerable Youth in Urban Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    This paper starts with the real-life issues pertaining to the educational, economic and socio-cultural vulnerability of young Cambodians; and the latter in turn has called for greater integrated stance in vocational education. A multiple-case study of nine educational NGOs located in four cities was conducted, whereby what constitutes an…

  5. How Can Social Enterprise Really Tackle Social Exclusion? A Comparative Study of Children's Welfare in the United Kingdom and Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, Isaac

    2008-01-01

    Social enterprise is being increasingly encouraged as a solution to social problems concerning social exclusion, child development and family welfare within both developed and developing countries. This article considers these policy contexts and two case studies of social enterprises that provide children's services in the United Kingdom and…

  6. The exploitation versus conservation dilemma : preparative research towards a comprehensive and extensive environmental & social impact assessment : Koh Rong archipelago, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Thomasberger, Aris David, 1986-

    2015-01-01

    Following years of civil war and economic stagnation in the late twentieth century, Cambodia’s strong commitment to economic development today often collides with introduced measures of environmental protection, resulting in frequently occurring interest conflicts of exploitation versus conservation. By conducting a preparative research towards a comprehensive and extensive Environmental and Social Impact Assessment of a planned tourism development project within a proposed Marine Protected A...

  7. Promising practices in food security and nutrition assistance to vulnerable households in the Tonle Sap Region, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) seeks to reduce poverty and improve food security for many small-scale fishers and farmers who are dependent on aquatic agriculture systems by partnering with local, national and international partners to achieve large-scale development impact. This study on promising practices in food security and nutrition assistance to vulnerable households in the Tonle Sap region forms part of the preliminary research that informs AAS work i...

  8. Land Reforms and the Tragedy of the Anticommons—A Case Study from Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Loehr

    2012-01-01

    Most of the land reforms of recent decades have followed an approach of “formalization and capitalization†of individual land titles (de Soto 2000). However, within the privatization agenda, benefits of unimproved land (such as land rents and value capture) are reaped privately by well-organized actors, whereas the costs of valorization (e.g., infrastructure) or opportunity costs of land use changes are shifted onto poorly organized groups. Consequences of capitalization and formalization ...

  9. Commentary (Analysis of Decisions on Interim Release at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appazov, Artur

    2015-01-01

    . The commentary examines a tendency of the decision-makers of the ECCC uncritically to accept arguments in the submissions of the Co-Prosecutors to the effect that the continuous provisional detention is in each case the necessary measure in accordance with the law of the ECCC. At that, the quality of judicial...

  10. An examination of the Community Fisheries Sub-Decree in Cambodia: changes and developments during the drafting process

    OpenAIRE

    Levinson, John

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the development of the Community Fisheries Sub-Decree. From its promulgation in late 2000 through its draft form in June 20021, this sub-decree has gone through over 25 drafts. Initially, the writing process involved the public intimately: community meetings were conducted, NGOs contributed their knowledge and expertise, and then, with these consultations in mind, the newly-formed Community Fisheries Development Office (CFDO) in the Department of Fisheries (DoF) drafted...

  11. Can groundwater secure drinking-water supply and supplementary irrigation in new settlements of North-West Cambodia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, Jean Michel; Valois, Rémi; Lun, Sambo; Caron, Delphine; Arnout, Ludovic

    2016-02-01

    Since the end of the Cambodian Civil War in 1998, the population of the Oddar Meanchey province has drastically increased despite the lack of adequate infrastructure, including basic amenities such as drinking-water supply. To improve the access to drinking water, governmental and aid agencies have focussed on drilling shallow boreholes. The use of groundwater for irrigation is also a growing concern to cope with the occasional late arrival of the rainy season or to produce food during the dry season. Since the groundwater resource in the province has not been documented, a 4-year study was undertaken (2011-2014), aiming to estimate the capability of groundwater to supply domestic needs and supplementary irrigation for rice production. Aquifer properties were estimated by combined use of hydrogeological techniques with the geophysical magnetic resonance sounding method. Groundwater storage and recharge were estimated based on new developments in the application of the geophysical method for quantifying specific yield. The median groundwater storage of the targeted sandstone aquifer is 173 mm, the recharge is diffuse and annually ranges from 10 to 70 mm, and the transmissivity is low to medium. Simulations of pumping indicate that the aquifer can easily supply 100 L of drinking water per capita daily, even considering the estimated population in 2030. However, the shallow aquifer can generally not deliver enough water to irrigate paddy fields of several hectares during a 2-month delay in the onset of the monsoon.

  12. A No-Win Conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Cambodia-Thailand border dispute harms both countries as well as regional peace Cambodia-Thai-land relations have recently become tense again. Their border dispute in February claimed at least 11 lives and injured close to 100.

  13. Outreach activities in the USEPAM project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning

    Proceedings of the Second Regional Workshop Royal University of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. March 2-4, 2005......Proceedings of the Second Regional Workshop Royal University of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. March 2-4, 2005...

  14. Economic and Environmental Performances of Small-Scale Rural PV Solar Projects under the Clean Development Mechanism: The Case of Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen De Schepper

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The two core objectives of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM are cost-effective emission reduction and sustainable development. Despite the potential to contribute to both objectives, solar projects play a negligible role under the CDM. In this research, the greenhouse gas mitigation cost is used to evaluate the economic and environmental performances of small-scale rural photovoltaic solar projects. In particular, we compare the use of absolute and relative mitigation costs to evaluate the attractiveness of these projects under the CDM. We encourage the use of relative mitigation costs, implying consideration of baseline costs that render the projects profitable. Results of the mitigation cost analysis are dependent on the baseline chosen. To overcome this drawback, we complement the analysis with a multi-objective optimization approach, which allows quantifying the trade-off between economic and environmental performances of the optimal technologies without requiring a baseline.

  15. "We don't forget the old rice pot when we get the new one": discourses on ideals and practices of women in contemporary Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickell, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on microlevel research with men and women of differing ages living in rural and urban Siem Reap (home to the global heritage and tourist site of Angkor), this article focuses on the key discourses and practices that men and women draw on to (de)stabilize putatively traditional ideals of Cambodian womanhood and to (re)situate them in the contemporary period. Mapping the complex ways that people represent, make sense of, and respond to prerevolutionary cultural norms of female behavior in a very different era (with particular, though not exclusive, attention paid to mobility and education), the article demonstrates how deeper ideological changes concerning women’s relationship to Khmer tradition will have to accompany the surface reordering of Cambodian gender relations if equality between women and men is to be achieved. Until then, the ideal woman in contemporary Cambodian society is ultimately one who can creatively negotiate and balance the multiple demands placed on her by society, family, and self. PMID:21114083

  16. Common-pool resources-a challenge for local governance: Experimental research in eight villages in the Mekong Delta of Cambodia and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Werthmann, Christine; Weingart, Anne; Kirk, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We use field experiments to study underlying strategic actions Cambodian and Vietnamese natural resource users take in regard to voluntary contribution to a public good and appropriation of common-pool resources. Two experimental games were implemented to investigate the importance of communication, leadership and monitoring on resource users' strategies in regard to co-operative natural resource use. This paper presents findings regarding cooperation levels of players in eight villages in Ca...

  17. The use of AMS {sup 14}C dating to explore issues of occupation and demise at the medieval city of Angkor, Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penny, Dan [School of Geosciences, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Hua, Quan [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)]. E-mail: qhx@ansto.gov.au; Pottier, Christophe [Ecole Francaise d' Extreme Orient, P.O. Box 93300, Siem Reap (Cambodia); Fletcher, Roland [Department of Archaeology, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Barbetti, Mike [Department of Archaeology, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Radiogenic Isotope Laboratory, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    Angkorian temples are characterised by one or more encircling moats that are excavated into the alluvial substrate. As a key part of the overall design of the temple, the moats are important symbolically and are presumed to be contemporaneous with the associated temple. They also represent important depositional basins for sediment and other materials and can therefore yield vertical profiles of sediment that has accumulated since the moat was originally excavated. Unconformities in these moat profiles can be dated absolutely using small-sample, high-precision AMS radiocarbon techniques. These unconformities are likely to represent periodic re-excavation or maintenance of the moat and therefore indicate the presence of large, presumably centrally organised workforces. In some instances, presumed anthropogenic unconformities occur centuries after Angkor was supposedly abandoned. In this way, radiocarbon dates themselves are being used as a proxy indicator of cultural activity and are being used to challenge the historiography of Angkor's famous demise.

  18. Potential of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery for Mapping Distribution and Evaluating Ecological Characteristics of Tree Species at the Angkor Monument, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita Mizuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large trees play several vital roles in the Angkor monuments landscape. They protect biodiversity, enhance the tourism experience, and provide various ecosystem services to local residents. A clear understanding of forest composition and distribution of individual species, as well as timely monitoring of changes, is necessary for conservation of these trees. using traditional field work, obtaining this sort of data is time-consuming and labour-intensive. This research investigates classification of very high resolution remote sensing data as a tool for efficient analyses. QuickBird satellite imagery was used to clarify the tree species community in and around Preah Khan temple, to elucidate differences in ecological traits among the three dominant species (Dipterocarpus alatus, Lagerstroemia calyculata and Tetrameles nudiflora, and to identify crowns of the dominant species.

  19. Colonization of Asian freshwaters by the Mytilidae (Bivalvia): a comparison of Sinomytilus harmandi from the Tonle-Sap River, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, with Limnoperna fortunei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Brian; Dinesen, Grete E.

    2010-01-01

    China. Because L. fortunei has a Devonian (~345-395 mya) modioline ancestry and S. harmandi is derived from a Permo-Trias (~265–225 mya) ancient mytiline ancestor it appears that Asian freshwater systems have been colonized by representatives of the Mytilidae on two separate temporal occasions....... the Yangtse River in China. Limnoperna fortunei is a highly opportunistic species that has been introduced into many locations outside its mainland Chinese borders, for example, Japan, Taiwan and South America. We suggest the possibility that L. fortunei has also been introduced into tropical Indochina from...

  20. SYMBIOSIS BETWEEN AGRICULTURE AND COMMUNITY-BASED ECOTOURISM : TOWARDS AGRO-TOURISM PRODUCT DIVERSIFICATION CHI PHAT COMMUNE, THMOR BANG DISTRICT, KOH KONG PROVINCE THE KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kakda, Khun

    2012-01-01

    報告番号: ; 学位授与年月日: 2012-09-27 ; 学位の種別: 修士 ; 学位の種類: 修士(サステイナビリティ学) ; 学位記番号: 修創域第4539号 ; 研究科・専攻: 新領域創成科学研究科環境学研究系サステイナビリティ学教育プログラム