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Sample records for camarones silvestres litopenaeus

  1. Uso de diferentes fármacos para anestesiar camarones Litopenaeus vannamei Boone en prácticas de acuacultura - The use of different drugs to anesthetize shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Boone in aquaculture practices

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    Guzmán-Sáenz, Francisco M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas prácticas rutinarias en camarón como la ablación ocular, inseminación artificial, toma de muestra de hemolinfa, colocación de sistemas de identificación (elastómeros, así como algunos manejos para investigación y transporte se dificultan, producen estrés y riesgo de muerte afectando el bienestar. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar por primera vez el efecto anestésico del Hidrocloruro de lidocaína y el Halothano en el camarónLitopenaeus vannamei como medio para facilitar la práctica médica y el manejo de rutina. Se utilizaron camarones Litopenaeus vannamei de 15 a 20 g de peso, en agua marina con parámetros fisicoquímicos controlados. Se realizaron las pruebas en contenedores con 40 L, uno para cada lote de 5 camarones, probando por separado Hidrocloruro de lidocaína y Halothano a diferentes concentraciones en inmersión, midiendo el tiempo de sedación y anestesia general (AG a diferentes dosis. Para verificar el estado anestésico se utilizaroncomo parámetros, el nado, movimientos, respuesta a la agitación del agua y al contacto físico. Al detectar el estado de anestesia general, se procedió a realizar ablaciones oculares, inseminación artificial, toma de muestra de hemolinfa y colocación de elastómeros. Después los camarones se regresaron a sus contenedores originales con una aireación continua y recambio de agua para establecer el tiempo de recuperación. En base a los resultados, se concluye queel anestesiar camarones con las sustancias propuestas, permite realizar los manejos anteriormente señalados con mayor facilidad y menor riesgo de daño o muerte de los mismos mejorando el bienestar animal. SummaryRoutine experiments on shrimp, such as ocular ablation, artificial insemination, haemolymph sampling, placement of identification systems (elastomeres, and some investigation and transport handling, may become difficult, create stress and a high death risk for the animal, affecting its

  2. Uso de diferentes fármacos para anestesiar camarones Litopenaeus vannamei Boone en prácticas de acuacultura - The use of different drugs to anesthetize shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Boone in aquaculture practices

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco M. Guzmán-Sáenz; González-Alanís, Pablo; Sanchez Martínez, Jesús G; Gutierrez Salazar, Gilberto; Aguirre Guzmán, Gabriel.; Perez-Castañeda, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    ResumenLas prácticas rutinarias en camarón como la ablación ocular, inseminación artificial, toma de muestra de hemolinfa, colocación de sistemas de identificación (elastómeros), así como algunos manejos para investigación y transporte se dificultan, producen estrés y riesgo de muerte afectando el bienestar. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar por primera vez el efecto anestésico del Hidrocloruro de lidocaína y el Halothano en el camarónLitopenaeus vannamei como medio para facilit...

  3. Control de la reproducción de camarones marinos

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    Jorge Alfaro Montoya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El entendimiento de la biología reproductiva básica es necesario para el mejoramiento de la producción de gametos de camarones. Esta presentación revisará nuestro conocimiento actual en materia de determinación sexual, control hormonal de la maduración, fertilización, y técnicas para la producción comercial de gametos y desove. La maduración controlada de camarones es una actividad comercial; sin embargo, no se conoce el modelo genético de los sexos, ni se ha desarrollado la reversión de sexos y producción de monosexos. La fertilización in vitro de Penaeus es aun una técnica de bajos rendimientos, y la criopreservación de embriones o larvas no existe. La ablación ocular continúa siendo la técnica de manejo hormonal para la maduración de hembras, aunque la aplicación de serotonina podría ser una alternativa en el futuro cercano. El avance logrado en producción de espermatóforos y en el entendimiento de los problemas asociados con su calidad, son nuevas contribuciones para el mejoramiento de la reproducción controlada de camarones.

  4. Efecto de Debaryomyces hansenii en la respuesta antioxidante de juveniles de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei

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    María Pacheco M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la respuesta antioxidante [actividad de superóxido dismutasa (SOD y catalasa (CAT] así como la cuenta total de hemocitos (CTH y el contenido de proteínas (CP en camarones (Litopenaeus vannamei expuestos a diferentes dosis y cepas de la levadura Debaryomyces hansenii (DH5, DH6, LL1, y un inmunoestimulante comercial (LAM. Materiales y métodos. Las levaduras fueron cultivadas y suministradas diariamente en concentraciones diferentes (104 – 106 UFC/mL directamente a los tanques de cultivo de los camarones (8 ± 0.2 g mientras que LAM fue aplicado una vez a la semana (0.5 mg/L. Los organismos fueron mantenidos bajo condiciones de laboratorio (28°C, 35%, 80% de recambio diario de agua, dieta comercial para camarón ad libitum. Los tratamientos fueron distribuidos por duplicado y los resultados evaluados a los 15 días con un análisis de varianza y una prueba de Tukey. Resultados. Se registró un CTH significativo (p<0.05 en los tratamientos con DH6 y LL1 (106 UFC/mL comparada con el control, mientras que las cepas DH5 y DH6 revelaron un incremento significativo (p<0.05 de CP con la dosis de 104 UFC/mL. Los camarones tratados con LAM incrementaron significativamente (p<0.05 los valores de SOD y CAT. Conclusiones. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que D. hansenii incrementa la respuesta antioxidante y CTH en camarones.

  5. Variación temporal en la abundancia de postlarvas y juveniles de camarón azul (Litopenaeus stylirostris) y camarón café (Farfantepenaeus californiensis) en el estuario del Río Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    MS Galindo-Bect; HM Page; RL Petty; JM Hernández-Ayón; EA Aragón-Noriega; H Bustos-Serrano

    2007-01-01

    Se estudió la variación temporal en la abundancia y composición de postlarvas y juveniles de camarones peneidos en uncanal de mareas del estuario del Río Colorado. Se realizaron muestreos cada dos semanas durante flujo y reflujo de mareas demarzo a noviembre de 2000. Las postlarvas del camarón azul Litopenaeus stylirostris estuvieron presentes a partir de mayo, conmayor densidad durante el flujo de marea a principios de junio. A finales de septiembre se observó un pico de menor densidad, yen ...

  6. Efecto de la salinidad sobre la fisiología energética del camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone Effect of salinity on physiological energetics of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone

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    Gustavo Valdez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el balance energético en juveniles de Litopenaeus vannamei, aclimatados a la salinidad como hiperosmóticos (20 ups, isosmóticos (26 ups, o hiposmóticos (32 ups. Además, se calculó la razón atómica O:N. La tasa de ingestión, el consumo de oxígeno, la excreción de amonio y el campo de crecimiento fueron afectados significativamente (p 0.05 en los camarones expuestos a las tres salinidades. Para optimizar las condiciones de cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei se recomienda mantener a los juveniles en la salinidad para la cual es isosmótico (26 ups, evitando el estrés ambiental, lo que desde el punto de vista fisiológico se canaliza en una mayor cantidad de energía hacia el campo de crecimiento.The energy balance was determined with in Litopenaeus vannamei, juveniles acclimated to salinity where they were hyperosmotic (20 ups, isosmotic (26 ups, and hypo-osmotic (32 ups. Also O:N atomic ratio was calculated. The ingestion rate, oxygen consumption, ammonium excretion and scope for growth were affected significantly (p 0.05 in the shrimps exposed to the three salinities. We recommend maintaining Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles at the salinity level which is isosmotic (26 ups, where they are free of environmental stress, these conditions for white shrimp juveniles would enhance production in the cultivation of this species.

  7. Prevalencia y distribución de los principales agentes etiológicos que afectan los langostinos silvestres en Tumbes, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Alfaro Aguilera; Mervin Guevara Torres; Isaías Gonzales Chávez

    2011-01-01

    Se determinó la prevalencia y distribución de diferentes agentes patógenos en langostinos silvestres, en la zona de esteros de la Región Tumbes - Perú, entre marzo y diciembre de 2009. Los canales de marea considerados en este estudio fueron: Boca del Río Tumbes, El Alcalde, Jelí, El Bendito, Envidia, Soledad y Algarrobo. Se colectó un total de 1926 langostinos entre juveniles y pre-adultos de las especies Litopenaeus vannamei, L. stylirostris y Farfantepenaeus californiensis. Utilizando la t...

  8. Respuesta inmunomoduladora de la superóxido dismutasa en juveniles de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei expuestos a inmunoestimulantes

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    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la actividad inmunomoduladora de la manganeso superóxido dismutasa (MnSOD en juveniles de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei expuestos a diferentes inmunoestimulantes. Organismos cuyo peso varió entre 0.7 y 1.0 g fueron inmersos durante 6 h en soluciones de β-glucano, lipopolisacárido (LPS, fucoidán, y Vibrio penaeicida muerto por calor. Se determinó la actividad enzimática de la MnSOD en los organismos para evaluar si los diferentes inmunoestimulantes utilizados eran capaces de inducir actividad antioxidante. Los inmunoestimulantes probados activaron el sistema inmune de los camarones, mostrando un incremento generalizado en la respuesta antioxidante 48 h después del ensayo. El mayor incremento en la actividad de la enzima (3.2 veces superior al grupo control se registró cuando se utilizó la bacterina. Se expusieron los camarones a V. penaeicida 10 días después de la exposición a los inmunoestimulantes, obteniendo un incremento en la actividad antioxidante de los camarones expuestos previamente a β-glucano, LPS y fucoidán. La respuesta enzimática más alta se obtuvo con los organismos estimulados con β-glucano (2.5 veces superior al control. Este estudio demostró la capacidad de los juveniles de camarón para mejorar la respuesta antioxidante después de ser expuestos a inmunoestimulantes y a una bacteria patógena.

  9. Abundancia de juveniles de camarones peneidos comerciales en la zona norte de Laguna Madre, México Abundance of the commercial penaeid shrimp juveniles in the North zone of Laguna Madre, Mexico

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    Armando T. Wakida-Kusunoki

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se tomaron muestras mensuales de agosto del 2005 a noviembre del 2006, para analizar los cambios de abundancia de juveniles de camarones peneidos comerciales en la parte norte de Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas. En cada una de las nueve estaciones de muestreo se realizó un arrastre nocturno, utilizando una red tipo chinchorro, de tamaño de malla de 1.25 cm y seis metros de longitud de relinga inferior. Se observaron tres especies de peneidos comerciales y cada una de ellas tuvo sus valores más altos de abundancia en diferentes periodos del año. El camarón café, Farfantepenaeus aztecus fue más abundante de abril-mayo; el camarón rosado, Farfantepenaeus dourarum en diciembre-enero y el camarón blanco, Litopenaeus setiferus en julio y septiembre. Estos resultados muestran que estas especies tienen un uso temporal diferencial en Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas.Monthly samplings were carried out during August, 2005 to November, 2006 to analizing the changes of the abundance of commercial juvenile penaeid shrimps in the North part of Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas. In every nine points a night trawl were carried out using a seine net of mesh size of 1.25 cm and 6 m length of bottom rope. Three commercial penaeid shrimp species were found and each one presented high abundance values for different periods of the year. Brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, in April-May period; pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus dourarum, in December-January, and the white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus in July and September. These results showed that different species presented a differential temporal use in Laguna Madre.

  10. Lectina en L. Setiferus una alternativa en cultivo ante Enfermedades que Afectan al Cultivo de Camarones (Lectins from L. setiferus a possible solution for Culture Shrimp Diseases

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    Juan Alpuche

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de camarones peneidos, es una actividad que genera ganancias del orden de billones de dólares en países como Ecuador, Brasil, China, y Tailandia. La mayor parte de la producción de estos países, se basan en el cultivo de Litopenaeus monodon. En América latina, Litopenaeus vannamei es la especie cultivada mas importante. Durante la rápida expansión de la camaronicultura, ha estado plagada por enfermedades, convirtiéndose en el problema más grande de la industria, causando perdidas millonarias en la industria; La mayoría de las enfermedades se hicieron evidentes en la última década del siglo pasado, en donde la mayoría de dichas enfermedades fueron causadas por virus que afectan a los camarones peneidos. El camarón blanco del Golfo de México aparenta ser una especie muy resistente a enfermedades virales, es por ello, que L. setiferus es considerada como una especie potencial para el desarrollo de esta actividad; estudios enfocados a conocer como funcionan los mecanismos de defensa en esta especie, son de vital importancia para el desarrollo planeado de la producción y el cultivo de la especie. La investigación del sistema inmune en la especie ha demostrado que es posible aumentar la resistencia a enfermedades, mediante la ingestión sustancias que modulen al sistema inmune y mediante programas que involucran prácticas básicas de buen manejo. El diagnostico de la enfermedad es difícil de realizar, si no se presentan síntomas o signos,. Para esto, se sugiere, que pueden usarse biomarcadores, mediante los cuales se puede monitorear el estado de salud de los organismos. Las lectinas son glicoproteínas de reconocimiento de carbohidratos, que se encuentran en la hemolinfa de crustáceos, considerando las características bioquímicas de las lectinas descubiertas, las hacen candidatas a ser usadas como marcardores de salud. Se pueden observar similitudes en cuanto a especificidad de lectinas encontradas a lo largo de

  11. Sexagem cirúrgica em aves silvestres

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    Raso T.F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a utilização da laparoscopia na sexagem de 349 aves silvestres nacionais e exóticas, pertencentes a 61 espécies, de 11 famílias e seis ordens. Foram sexadas aves com idades entre quatro meses e 42 anos e peso corpóreo entre 55g e 3,4kg. Com essa técnica foi possível visualizar as gônadas, avaliar seu estágio de desenvolvimento e observar os órgãos adjacentes. A técnica cirúrgica utilizando endoscópio rígido para sexagem de aves silvestres foi considerada rápida e segura. Nenhum óbito foi verificado durante ou em conseqüência do procedimento cirúrgico.

  12. Biología de los camarones Peneidos del manglar de Guadalupe

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas-Beltrán, Ricardo

    1981-01-01

    Durante el desarrollo de dos campañas preliminares en 1976 hemos podido recolectar ocho especies de Peneidos en el manglar de Guadalupe. Las citaremos en orden de importancia: Penaeus (Melicerlus) aztecus subtilis, P. (M.) brasiliensis, P. (M.) duorarum notialis, P. (Litopenaeus) schmitti, Trachypenaeus similis similis, T. constrictus, Sicyonia wheeleri y S. laevigata. De éstas ocho especies las cuatro primeras presentan un gran interés comercial y las seis últimas se citan por primera vez pa...

  13. Comercio de fauna silvestre en colombia.

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    Mancera Rodríguez, Néstor Javier; Reyes García, Otto

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo ofrece un panorama sobre las actividades relacionadas con el comercio de bienes derivados de las especies de fauna silvestre en Colombia, abordando el tema desde el desarrollo que ha tenido su actividad productiva, el aprovechamiento extractivo, así como la dinámica de su comercio legal e ilegal en el país y el desarrollo y promoción de alternativas productivas sustentadas en su aprovechamiento. Se analizó la información secundaria de entidades como el Ministerio de Ambiente, Viv...

  14. Effect of hydrosoluble polysaccharides of Macrocystis pyrifera on physiological and metabolic responses of Litopenaeus vannamei infected with Vibrio campbellii Efecto de polisacáridos hidrosolubles de Macrocystis pyrifera sobre las respuestas fisiológicas y metabólicas de Litopenaeus vannamei infectado con Vibrio campbellii

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    Liliana Noemi Sánchez Campos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei between 23 and 32 g of wet weight were injected or submerged in a hydrosoluble polysaccharides extract from Macrocystis pyrifera and infected with Vibrio campbellii. The infection decreased the oxygen consumption rate to 24 mg O2 h-1 kg-1 w.w., in shrimps of the control group, which were only infected with V. campbellii. Immunestimulated shrimps did not decrease their oxygen consumption rate at any hour p.i. (46 mg O2 h-1 kg-1 w.w. maintaining it similar to the pre-injection group. Glucose level in the hemolymph of V. campbellii infected shrimps at two hours p.i. was significantly higher (p > 0.05 than the level of the pre-injection group. L. vannamei injected with the extract showed a significant decrease (p > 0.05 in their glucose level at 12 hours p.i., but at 24 hours p.i. it returned to normal level. Shrimps submerged in the extract showed no significant glucose level difference (p 0.05 immunoestimulated shrimps showed an increase in their total proteins levels. This study concluded that administration of extract of M. pyrifera via injection and immersion in adult white shrimp can be used for immunostimulation purposes.Adultos de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei de entre 23 y 32 g de peso húmedo fueron inyectados o sumergidos en un extracto de polisacáridos hidrosolubles de Macrocystis pyrifera e infectados con Vibrio campbellii. La infección disminuyó la tasa de consumo de oxígeno a 24 mg O2 h-1 kg-1 p.h. en los camarones del grupo control infectados con V. campbellii. Los camarones inmunoestimulados vía inyección e inmersión, mantuvieron una tasa de consumo de oxígeno de 46 mg O2 h-1 kg-1 p.h., similar a los camarones control. La concentración de glucosa en la hemolinfa de los adultos infectados con V. campbellii a las dos horas p.i. fue significativamente más alto (p > 0.05 que la del grupo control de pre-inyección. Los inyectados con el extracto e infectados con V. campbellii

  15. Effect of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus on the growth performance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei in a sequential polyculture system Efecto de la tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus sobre el crecimiento del camarón blanco del Pacífico (Litopenaeus vannamei, en un sistema de policultivo secuencial

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    Cesar Hernández-Barraza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out at the Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL, University of Arizona, to assess the effect of the addition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, at different densities, on the growth performance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. The growth rate and feed conversion of shrimp, both in polyculture and monoculture, were evaluated. Shrimp-tilapia proportions were 20:8 individuals in Treatment One (T1, 20:4 individuals in Treatment Two (T2 and 20:2 individuals in Treatment Three (T3, while in Treatment Four (T4 shrimp were stocked as a control group with a ratio of 20:0. The experiment lasted for four weeks at 10 ppt water salinity. The shrimp and fish were fed once a day with 8% and 3% of their body weight, respectively, using a 35% protein feed. At the end of the experiment, the average individual weight and best feed conversion ratio were obtained in shrimp polyculture treatment with highest tilapia density 6.08 ± 0.18 g and 1.26 ± 0.01 respectively, while the lowest scores were found in the monoculture treatment with 5.14 ± 0.59 g and 1.35 ± 0.01, respectively (P El presente estudio se llevó a cabo en el Laboratorio de Investigación del Medio Ambiente (ERL. de la Universidad de Arizona, para evaluar el efecto de la adición de la tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus a diferentes densidades, en el desempeno del crecimiento del camarón blanco del Pacífico (Litopenaeus vannamei. La tasa de crecimiento y conversión alimenticia del camarón, tanto en policultivo y monocultivo, fueron evaluados. Las proporciones de camarón y la tilapia fueron de 20:8 individuos en el tratamiento uno (T1, 20:4 en el tratamiento dos (T2 y de 20:2 en el tratamiento tres (T3, mientras que en el tratamiento cuatro (T4, únicamente fueron sembrados camarones, participando como grupo control con una relación de 20:0. El experimento se realizó durante cuatro semanas y agua a 10 ppm de salinidad. Los camarones y

  16. Evidence of Sympatry of Clade A and Clade B Head Lice in a Pre-Columbian Chilean Mummy from Camarones

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    Boutellis, Amina; Drali, Rezak; Rivera, Mario A.; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Three different lineages of head lice are known to parasitize humans. Clade A, which is currently worldwide in distribution, was previously demonstrated to be present in the Americas before the time of Columbus. The two other types of head lice are geographically restricted to America and Australia for clade B and to Africa and Asia for clade C. In this study, we tested two operculated nits from a 4,000-year-old Chilean mummy of Camarones for the presence of the partial Cytb mitochondrial gene (270 bp). Our finding shows that clade B head lice were present in America before the arrival of the European colonists. PMID:24204678

  17. Respuestas Bioquímicas de Camarones Marinos a Factores Ambientales

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    Juan Alpuche;

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Las modificaciones constantes en el medio ambiente marino y los sistemas costeros son ocasionados tanto por desastres naturales como huracanes, terremotos, inundaciones, así como por actividades humanas. En la mayoría de los organismos marinos, las variables ambientales son determinantes de los cambios fisiológicos. Ante alguna modificación en el ambiente ocurren cambios bioquímicos en los organismos que les permiten mantener la homeostasis con su hábitat.El presente trabajo, es una recopilación bibliográfica de las respuestas a variaciones ambientales en peneidos. Se revisaron los cambios generados por variaciones en la temperatura, la geología de las cuencas, contaminantes, salinidad y materia orgánica en el medio marino.Las respuestas bioquímicas de los organismos a cambios químicos en la composición del agua, van desde ajustes en la permeabilidad de las membranas celulares hasta hiperventilación en branquias.Al intervenir la temperatura en los procesos metabólicos de estos organismos, se presentan alteraciones en la regulación de la respuesta inmune, provocando que los mecanismos de defensa se reviertan contra las células propias atacándolas como extrañas.El oxigeno disuelto (OD tiene un papel regulador que está dado por su intervención directa en la capacidad de los organismos para la obtención de energía a partir de la respiración, por la vía de la fosforilación oxidativa.Existen pocos estudios en los cuales se haya evaluado la tolerancia de organismos juveniles o adultos de L. setiferus a contaminantes específicos. Sin embargo, algunos reportes indican que algunas especies resisten más que otras a contaminantes.La salinidad afecta la distribución de animales marinos y estuarinos, por lo cual la distribución de camarones peneidos esta relacionada directamente con gradientes de salinidad formados latitudinalmente.L. setiferus tiene como hábitat un margen geológicamente inactivo, con caracter

  18. Ectoparásitos del orden PHTHIRAPTERA en Aves Silvestres

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    Andrea Saavedra-Orjuela; Sylvia Arévalo-Barreto; Diego Soler-Tovar

    2014-01-01

    Los ectoparásitos de las aves silvestres en Colombia han sido poco estudiados. Se tiene conocimiento que éstos animales pueden ser afectados por ácaros, pulgas, garrapatas y moscas. Sin embargo, los piojos juegan un papel protagónico en el ectoparasitismo de aves silvestres y tienden a ser altamente específicos con sus huéspedes; por lo tanto, hay muchas especies de Phthiraptera que se han registrado a partir de un solo huésped, mientras que algunas otras especies se han registrado en varias ...

  19. PRODUCTOS NATURALES COMO ESTIMULADORES DEL SISTEMA INMUNOLÓGICO DE Litopenaeus vannamei, INFECTADO CON Vibrio parahaemolyticus

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    Nelson Pe\\u00F1a-Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la respuesta inmunológica de Litopenaeus vannamei con manano-oligosacáridos (T1, ajo (T2 y un compuesto de extractos de plantas (T3 después de ser infectados con Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Se realizaron dos bioensayos con una duración de seis (1x106 UFC y catorce (3x106 UFC días en el Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología de la Universidad de Costa Rica durante el 2011. Para esta investigación se extrajeron 120 camarones para cada periodo experimental de fincas ubicadas en la Península de Nicoya. Al finalizar la dosificación de los productos se evaluó la ganancia de peso y la conversión alimenticia. Luego de la infección con V. parahaemolyticus se realizaron hemogramas, coagulación, bacteriología de hemolinfa y mortalidad acumulada. Los parámetros inmunológicos no mostraron diferencias estadísticas (P>0,05 entre tratamientos en ningún periodo, sin embargo a los seis días T1 mostró los mejores resultados con 41,07x105 hemocitos/ml; una coagulación de 34,40 s y 4,44x103 UFC/ ml. En el periodo de catorce días T2 obtuvo los mejores valores (55,76x105 hemocitos/ml; una coagulación de 34,20 s y15,4x103 UFC/ml. La mortalidad acumulada se presentó a las diez horas de inoculación, hubo menor cantidad de muertes en T1 y T3 (76,2% a los seis días, mientras que a los catorce días fue para T1 (93,2%. La ganancia de peso y la conversión alimenticia resultaron con diferencias estadísticas (P<0,05 solo para el bioensayo que se extendió por seis días, donde T2 presentó una biomasa de 54,3 g, un incremento en la ganancia de peso de 19,3% y una conversión alimenticia de 1,4.

  20. Respuesta inmune y expresión de genes en el camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei inducida por inmunoestimulantes microbianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luna-González

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un bioensayo de 26 días para evaluar el efecto inmunoestimulante de bacterias ácido lácticas y levaduras (MI, adicionadas en el alimento, en Litopenaeus vannamei. Los tratamientos del bioensayo se realizaron por triplicado: I dieta control (Camaronina®; II MI en alimento, diario; III MI en alimento, cada tres días y; IV MI en alimento, cada seis días. Los camarones sólo eran libres de WSSV. Para el estudio del sistema inmune se hizo un conteo total de hemocitos, se determinó bioquímicamente la concentración de anión superóxido, y la actividad de la fenoloxidasa. También se estudió la expresión semicuantitativa de seis genes del sistema inmune, utilizando la técnica de RT-PCR. No hubo aumento significativo en el crecimiento y la supervivencia, el conteo total de hemocitos, la concentración de la proteína total en plasma y hemocitos, y la concentración del anión superóxido. La actividad de la fenoloxidasa en plasma en el tratamiento IV fue significativamente mayor que en los tratamientos I, II y III. La fenoloxidasa del SLH (proFO en el tratamiento IV fue significativamente mayor que en los tratamientos I y III. La MI provocó una sobreexpresión significativa de los genes que codifican para la profenoloxidasa (tratamiento IV, lisozima (tratamiento III y transglutaminasa (tratamiento II, con respecto a los animales no tratados (control. La mezcla de inmunoestimulantes microbianos puede aumentar la resistencia de L. vannamei contra patógenos en los cultivos.

  1. AISLAMIENTO DE BACTERIAS RESISTENTES A ARSENICO DESDE MUESTRAS DE ROCAS VOLCANICAS DE LA QUEBRADA CAMARONES, REGION PARINACOTA: CHILE ISOLATION OF ARSENIC RESISTANCE BACTERIA FROM VOLCANIC ROCKS OF QUEBRADA CAMARONES, PARINACOTA REGION: CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El arsénico se encuentra en estado natural en rocas, suelo, agua, aire y es liberado al ambiente mediante fenómenos naturales tales como erupciones volcánicas, erosión de las rocas e incendios forestales, donde los microorganismos son esenciales para el ecosistema por su participación en diferentes procesos naturales. El objetivo del trabajo fue aislar bacterias resistentes a arsénico, desde muestras de rocas provenientes de la Quebrada Camarones, región Parinacota, Chile. Las rocas fueron cultivadas en un medio mineral adicionado con arsenito (500 ug/ml durante 7 días a temperatura ambiente y con agitación. Las cepas fueron aisladas en diferentes medios e identificadas mediante el sistema Rapid™NF plus. La capacidad de oxidar arsénico fue realizada mediante el ensayo cualitativo con nitrato de plata y la detección de genes aox, mediante RT-PCR. La reducción de arsénico fue evaluada mediante la amplificación de los genes ars por PCR. Se aislaron bacilos Gram negativos, no fermentadores, identificados como Pseudomonas alcaligenes y Wautersia solanacearum todas ellas capaces de tolerar concentraciones igual o mayor a 8 mM de As(III. Los análisis mediante RT-PCR demuestran la presencia de genes aox, que codifica para una enzima oxidante que cataliza la oxidación de As(III a As(V. La capacidad de oxidar arsenito de las cepas aisladas, favorecería la colonización de otras especies no tolerantes a arsénico importantes en los ciclos biogeoquímicos.Arsenic is naturally present in rocks, soil, water, and air, being released to the environment by natural processes such as volcanic eruptions, and erosion rock. Microorganisms are known to play an important role in the Arsenic natural cycle. The aim of this work was isolate arsenic resistant bacteria to volcanic rocks, from Quebrada Camarones, Parinacota Region, Chile. Rocks were cultured in an arsenite conditioned mineral broth (500 ug/mL over 7 days at ambient temperature, under

  2. COMERCIO DE FAUNA SILVESTRE EN COLOMBIA WILDLIFE TRADE IN COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor Javier Mancera Rodríguez; Otto Reyes García

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo ofrece un panorama sobre las actividades relacionadas con el comercio de bienes derivados de las especies de fauna silvestre en Colombia, abordando el tema desde el desarrollo que ha tenido su actividad productiva, el aprovechamiento extractivo, así como la dinámica de su comercio legal e ilegal en el país y el desarrollo y promoción de alternativas productivas sustentadas en su aprovechamiento. Se analizó la información secundaria de entidades como el Ministerio de Ambiente, Viv...

  3. Sensory quality of frozen shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Inês Maria Barbosa Nunes Queiroga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the sensory quality of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei grown and stored in a freezer. A sensory analysis consisted of the Quality Index Method (MIQ to review the raw shrimp and Descriptive Analysis (AD in cooked shrimp in samples stored for a period of 90 days, using eight previously trained panelists. Accommodation comprising shrimp filet (100-120 pieces / kg samples were subjected to freezing in liquid nitrogen (- 86 °C, Freezing Tunnel (- 35 °C and Domestic Freezer (- 18 °C. At 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage in these freezing systems, determination of pH, water holding capacity (WHC, weight loss during cooking (WLC, shearing force, color, total volatile bases (TVB and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were performed. The attributes manual firmness and softness showed better results in rapid freezing. The color parameters (a *, b * and L *, WHC and WCL were higher at 90 days of storage, no significant losses were observed. Highlighted the strength of greater shear in slowly frozen samples at 90 days, confirming the results reported by the sensory panel. At 90 days of storage, the frozen shrimp showed good sensory quality and physical and chemistry characteristics. The shelf life of this shrimp could be set at about 90 days.

  4. Induction of ovarian maturation and spawning by combined treatment of serotonin and a dopamine antagonist, spiperone in Litopenaeus stylirostris and Litopenaeus vannamei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaro Montoya, J.; Zuniga, G.; Komen, J.

    2004-01-01

    The study was designed to develop a reliable technique for inducing ovarian maturation and spawning in Litopenaeus stylirostris and Litopenaeus vannamei, as an alternative to the traditional and destructive eyestalk ablation. Two combinations of molecules were evaluated: (a) serotonin (5-HT) at 50 ¿

  5. Reproducción de cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Homóptera: Dactylopiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Arnoldo Flores-Hernández; Bernardo Murillo-Amador; José Luis García-Hernández; Enrique Troyo-Diéguez; Edgar Omar Rueda-Puente; José Cruz Salazar-Torres

    2006-01-01

    Por sus características, la cochinilla silvestre ofrece perspectivas de aprovechamiento como fuente de carmín y para el mejoramiento genético de la grana fi na. Por lo anterior, se estableció una multiplicación y crianza de cochinilla silvestre, proveniente de la zona árida del norte de México para caracterizarla, utilizando como hospedero a Opuntia megacantha Salm Dyck. Los resultados indican que la especie silvestre pertenece al género-especie Dactylopius opuntia. Se determinó la presencia ...

  6. Evaluación del potencial reproductivo de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei en condiciones de domesticación

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, B.P.

    2003-01-01

    La expansión de la industria camaronícola depende de un adecuado conocimiento del proceso de reproducción que permita desarrollar programas de domesticación. El potencial reproductivo de los camarones domesticados al ser transferidos a condiciones de maduración depende, en buena parte, de la condición previa en la que se encuentran. Los indicadores más importantes relacionados con esta condición y que se analizan en el presente trabajo en relación a la edad y el tamaño de los camarones son: e...

  7. Prevalencia y distribución de los principales agentes etiológicos que afectan los langostinos silvestres en Tumbes, Perú

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    Rubén Alfaro Aguilera

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la prevalencia y distribución de diferentes agentes patógenos en langostinos silvestres, en la zona de esteros de la Región Tumbes - Perú, entre marzo y diciembre de 2009. Los canales de marea considerados en este estudio fueron: Boca del Río Tumbes, El Alcalde, Jelí, El Bendito, Envidia, Soledad y Algarrobo. Se colectó un total de 1926 langostinos entre juveniles y pre-adultos de las especies Litopenaeus vannamei, L. stylirostris y Farfantepenaeus californiensis. Utilizando la técnica de la PCR, se detectó la presencia de los patógenos NHPB (0,62%, IHHNV (0,31%, BP (1,61% y WSV (2,75%; no se encontró infección por TSV. Las tres especies en estudio fueron positivas a WSV y BP, presentándose la mayor prevalencia de infección por WSV (2,98% en la especie L. stylirostris y por BP (2,66% en L. vannamei. La NHPB fue detectada en las especies L. vannamei y L. stylirostris con 0,77% y 0,43% de prevalencia respectivamente. Se obtuvo una prevalencia de 0,52% para IHHNV en L. vannamei. Las más altas prevalencias de las infecciones por WSV, BP, NHPB e IHHNV se registraron en los canales de marea El Alcalde (10,79%, Algarrobo (4,51%, Envidia (2,26% y Jelí (5,05%. Los datos señalan la presencia constante de diversos patógenos virales y bacterianos en diferentes especies de peneidos y su amplia distribución a lo largo del litoral tumbesino, lo que constituye un riesgo potencial para el desarrollo de la acuicultura en la región, y podría afectar las poblaciones naturales de langostinos.

  8. Efecto de la adición de un extracto acuoso de pionilla Lasianthaea podocephala en el cultivo del camarón blanco del Pacífico Litopenaeus vannamei en condiciones de laboratorio

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    Emmanuel Villanueva-Gutiérrez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de dos concentraciones de un extracto acuoso de la raíz de pionilla (Lasianthaea podocephala Gray, sobre las variables de la calidad del agua, condición fisiológica y parámetros de producción del camarón blanco del Pacífico, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, cultivado en condiciones intensivas de laboratorio. Dos tratamientos y un control fueron evaluados por triplicado: T1 (1 mL de extracto por acuario, T2 (3 mL y C (control, 0 mL. No se observó un efecto negativo de los tratamientos sobre los parámetros de la calidad del agua, los cuales estuvieron dentro de rangos aceptables, sin presentar diferencias significativas entre tratamientos (P < 0,05. Algunos de los parámetros de producción tales como la supervivencia, biomasa final y FCA fueron mejores en los tratamientos en que se utilizó el extracto bajo las condiciones experimentales empleadas. La concentración de metabolitos hemolinfáticos, sugiere que los organismos cultivados en los acuarios con extracto tuvieron mejores condiciones, considerando los niveles mayores de proteína y colesterol en su músculo en relación con el control; además los resultados de expresión de genes indican que el extracto podría tener algún efecto inmunoestimulante sobre los camarones. No obstante, se recomienda efectuar estudios adicionales para evaluar y determinar a nivel molecular los ingredientes activos de los tubérculos de raíz de pionilla, para obtener mayor información sobre el uso potencial de este vegetal en la acuacultura.

  9. COMERCIO DE FAUNA SILVESTRE EN COLOMBIA WILDLIFE TRADE IN COLOMBIA

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    Néstor Javier Mancera Rodríguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo ofrece un panorama sobre las actividades relacionadas con el comercio de bienes derivados de las especies de fauna silvestre en Colombia, abordando el tema desde el desarrollo que ha tenido su actividad productiva, el aprovechamiento extractivo, así como la dinámica de su comercio legal e ilegal en el país y el desarrollo y promoción de alternativas productivas sustentadas en su aprovechamiento. Se analizó la información secundaria de entidades como el Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial, las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales y Autoridades Ambientales Urbanas, el Instituto Colombiano de Desarrollo Rural-INCODER, las Autoridades Policiales, los Institutos de Investigación, el Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística, la Dirección de Impuestos y Aduanas Nacionales-DIAN, el Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo, y PROEXPORT. entre otras. En Colombia, el comercio de especies de fauna silvestre está centrado principalmente en la extracción de ejemplares de forma ilegal, lo cual ha generado desequilibrios en las poblaciones naturales y ha repercutido en el deterioro de la dinámica de los ecosistemas. El comercio legal de fauna silvestre se basa en la producción de unas pocas especies entre las que se destacan la babilla (Caiman crocodilus, el chigüiro (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, cerca de 200 especies de peces ornamentales y en menor medida el lobo pollero (Tupinambis nigropunctatus, la iguana (Iguana iguana, la boa (Boa constrictor, escarabajos (Dynastes hercules y mariposas. En el país no se tiene información exacta sobre el número de incautaciones realizadas en los operativos de control al tráfico ilegal de fauna, y no existe un conocimiento de la dinámica de este comercio ilegal.This work offers a current view on the activities related to the trade of derived from the wildlife species in Colombia, approaching the topic from the development that has had its productive activity

  10. Patógenos que afectan el cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei en ambiente marino y dulceacuícola en el estado de Baja California, México - Pathogens that affect crop Litopenaeus vannamei in marine environment and freshwater in the state of Baja California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cáceres Martínez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEntre abril del 2003 y septiembre del 2006 se realizó un estudio sobreepibiontes y agentes patógenos del camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannameicultivado en siete granjas del estado de Baja California, México; dichas granjas cultivaron camarón en tres diferentes ambientes salinos. El estudio comprendió análisis en fresco, análisis histopatológico y análisis moleculares específicos para el virus de la mancha blanca (WSSV. Camarones cultivados en ambiente marino (salinidad de 35.9 upspresentaron protozoos coloniales peritricos Zoothamnium sp. adheridos a las branquias con una prevalencia de 0 al 80% y un grado de severidad de 1 a 2 (P=0-80%, GS=1-2, además, bacterias filamentosas Leucothrix sp. (P=0-50%, GS=1-3. En camarones cultivados con agua de origen subterráneo (salinidad de 1.6 ups, los epibiontes asociados a las branquias fueron diatomeas (P=0-20%, GS=1-2 y rotíferos (P=0-40%, GS=1-2. Y camarones cultivados con agua derivada de río (salinidades de 0.8 a 5.3 ups, presentaron algas coloniales Euglenoides (P=0-100% GS=1-2, protozoos peritricos Epistylis sp. (P=0-100%, GS= 1-3 y bacterias filamentosas Leucothrix sp. (P= 0-100, GS=1-3, como epibiontes branquiales. El análisis histopatológico reveló melanosis, necrosis e infiltración hemocítica de las branquias, asociado con los epibiontes y condiciones ambientales de cultivo. Además, se observaron cuerpos de inclusión Cowdry tipo “A” relacionados con el Virus de la NecrosisHematopoyética Hipodérmica Infecciosa (IHHNV en camarones de todas las granjas estudiadas (P= 2-36 % y GS=1-2. Adicionalmente, encamarones cultivados con agua de origen subterráneo el análisishistopatológico del hepatopáncreas mostró la presencia de infeccionesbacterianas (P=15-69%, GS= 1-4 e inclusiones con múltiples esferaseosinófilas en su interior parecidas a Haplosporidios (P= 0-48% y GS=1-3. Los análisis moleculares específicos para el virus de la mancha blanca fueron negativos. Se

  11. Bioseguridad en el Manejo de Fauna Silvestre y no Convencional

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    Nestor Varela

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La bioseguridad es un conjunto de actuaciones para prevenir la pérdida de la integridad biológica a diversas escalas, estando relacionada como concepto a múltiples campos y disciplinas. En las ciencias de la salud, la bioseguridad hace referencia a la prevención de la contaminación derivada del contacto con órganos o tejidos de origen biológico y microorganismos. Los problemas traumáticos, las reacciones alérgicas o irritativas y las zoonosis son las causas de enfermedad más frecuentes en las personas que manejan fauna, por ello la prevención debe dirigirse prioritariamente al control de estos factores. Las medidas de protección incluyen la higiene personal, el aseo, limpieza y desinfección de las instalaciones, elementos y equipos, el empleo de indumentaria de protección personal, y la adopción de protocolos específicos de acuerdo al nivel de riesgo detectado para las diversas actividades realizadas por el personal. Se describe un código de prácticas generales a varios niveles para personas encargadas del manejo de fauna y se describen los niveles de bioseguridad que se emplean como protocolos ante la ausencia de conocimiento sobre bioriesgo durante la práctica con animales silvestres.

  12. Parasitos de aves e mamíferos silvestres em cativeiro no estado de Pernambuco

    OpenAIRE

    Pauline Marie de Souza Santos; Silvia Gabriela Nunes da Silva; Cristina Farias da Fonseca; Jaqueline Bianque de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: Os animais silvestres são hospedeiros de uma grande variedade de parasitos que podem interferir em sua conservação ex situ. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os parasitos gastrointestinais (PGI) e ectoparasitos dos animais do Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres (CETAS) do Instituto Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA) de Recife, Pernambuco, além de determinar os aspectos do manejo em cativeiro que possam estar relacionados com os parasitos ident...

  13. Estudio de la triquinelosis en la fauna silvestre del noroeste español

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, María Estrella

    2016-01-01

    La triquinelosis en España se considera una zoonosis endémica cuyo ciclo doméstico está aparentemente controlado, pero todos los años aparecen brotes en humana relacionados con el consumo de carne de cerdo y jabalí sin control sanitario. En este sentido, la fauna silvestre actúa de reservorio de Trichinella spp., especialmente el jabalí y los carnívoros. Para conocer la situación epidemiológica actual de Trichinella spp. en la fauna silvestre de Galicia, hemos realizado el estudio más ampl...

  14. Abejas silvestres (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) como bioindicadores en el neotrópico

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Reyes-Novelo; Virginia Meléndez Ramírez; Hugo Delfín González; Ricardo Ayala

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo es una revisión sobre el potencial de las abejas silvestres como grupo indicador en estudios de diversidad y fragmentación de hábitat. Se describen los criterios utilizados para seleccionar grupos de organismos como bioindicadores y se discute la información disponible para evaluar si las abejas pueden ser consideradas idóneas. La información disponible sugiere que las abejas silvestres cumplen con los criterios requeridos para considerarlas un grupo indicador y se recomienda su ...

  15. Ectoparásitos del orden PHTHIRAPTERA en Aves Silvestres

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    Andrea Saavedra-Orjuela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los ectoparásitos de las aves silvestres en Colombia han sido poco estudiados. Se tiene conocimiento que éstos animales pueden ser afectados por ácaros, pulgas, garrapatas y moscas. Sin embargo, los piojos juegan un papel protagónico en el ectoparasitismo de aves silvestres y tienden a ser altamente específicos con sus huéspedes; por lo tanto, hay muchas especies de Phthiraptera que se han registrado a partir de un solo huésped, mientras que algunas otras especies se han registrado en varias especies de aves estrechamente relacionadas. Se hace verdaderamente importante desde el ámbito médico veterinario tener registro del tipo de ectoparásito involucrado en caso de haber infestaciones severas. Los factores que favorecen el contacto directo entre las aves infestadas con otras, como el número de veces que esto ocurra, el tiempo de duración de los contactos y la longitud de las plumas, contribuye altamente a la infestación entre individuos. Así mismo, las medidas de los especímenes se relacionan directamente con el estadio de desarrollo en el que se encuentre y éste vivirá todo su ciclo de vida sobre el ave pues es completamente dependiente para su supervivencia. En el orden Phthiraptera se encuentra el suborden Amblycera, de los cuales se conoce que tres familias parasitan a las aves (Laemobothridae, Menoponidae y Ricinidae y el suborden Ischnocera, de la cual sólo una de sus familias principales (Philopteridae parasita a las aves, la cual involucra una numerosa lista de especies.   ECTOPARASITES OF THE PHTHIRAPTERA ORDER IN WILD BIRDS. Abstract. Ectoparasites of wild birds in Colombia have been little studied. It is known these animals can be affected by mites, fleas, ticks and flies. However, lice play a leading role in wild birds ectoparasitism and tend to be highly specific to their guests; therefore, there are many species of Phthiraptera that have been recorded from a single host, while some other species have been

  16. Parásitos de animales silvestres en cautiverio en Lima, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Lily Arrojo

    2013-01-01

    Los parásitos de los animales silvestres en cautiverio peruanos se registran aquí. La mayoría de las especies son nematodos. Dos especies son al patógeno de host: Prosthenorchois elegans y Strongyloides sp.

  17. Tráfico y Venta Ilegal de Animales Silvestres en la Ciudad de Cochabamba, Bolivia

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    L P Meriles-Treviño

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Artículo divulgativo sobre venta ilegal de fauna silvestre en la Ciudad de Cochabamba, Bolívia. Identifica las problemáticas, marco legal, lugares de venta y actividades para mitigar el impacto de esta actividad.

  18. Bacterial communities associated with white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) larvae at early developmental stages

    OpenAIRE

    ANTONIUS SUWANTO; YULIN LESTARI; MAGGY TENNAWIJAYA SUHARTONO; ARTINI PANGASTUTI

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial communities associated with white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) larvae at early developmental stages. Biodiversitas 11 (2): 65-68.Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) was used to monitor the dynamics of the bacterial communities associated with early developmental stages of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) larvae. Samples for analysis were egg, hatching nauplii, 24 hours old nauplii, and 48 hours old nauplii which were collected from one cycle of production ...

  19. Enfermedad de la mancha del caparazón en el camarón de cultivo Litopenaeus vannamei - Brown spot disease in aquaculture shrimp litopenaeus vanname.

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    Manuel Rubio Limonta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa presencia de manchas color café a negro en el camarón Litopenaeus vannamei constituye un síndrome relacionado con infecciones bacterianas o fúngicas en cutícula, apéndices o branquias, causante de depreciación comercial del producto.AbstractThe presence of brown to black spots on shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a syndrome related to bacterial or fungal cuticle, appendages or gills, causing commercial depreciation of the product.

  20. Toxoplasmosis Silvestre: relación presa-predador y papel funcional de pequeños felinos silvestres neotropicales en la transmisión -resumen-

    OpenAIRE

    William A Cañón-Franco; N López-Orozco; A F Malheiros; M Santos-Filho; Gennari, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Pequeños felinos neotropicales se ubican en el tope de la cadena alimenticia y‚ aunque críticamente amenazados‚ ocho especies de felinos son relativamente abundantes en el continente americano‚ sin embargo‚ pocos estudios biológicos sobre la circulación de agentes infecciosos han sido realizados. Para determinar el papel epidemiológico que cumplen las poblaciones de felinos silvestres en la transmisión de la Toxoplasmosis en la región sur de Brasil (estado de Rio Grande do Sul)‚ fue determina...

  1. Ciutat de Mallorca, 31 de desembre del 1229: Sant Silvestre, Sant Jordi i Jaume I

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Renedo Puig

    2007-01-01

    Un dels episodis més memorables del Llibre dels feits és la descripció de l’atac final a la Ciutat de Mallorca el 31 de desembre del 1229. Es tracta del dia de sant Silvestre i, encara que Jaume I no esmenti aquesta efemèride en el seu relat, potser no es tracta d’una coincidència. Per un cristià del segle XIII sant Silvestre era, d’acord amb el divulgadíssim Actus Beati Silvestri, el responsable de la conversió al cristianisme de l’emperador Constantí i d’Helena, la seva mare. Era, per tant,...

  2. ZOONOSIS TRANSMITIDAS POR ANIMALES SILVESTRES Y SU IMPACTO EN LAS ENFERMEDADES EMERGENTES Y REEMERGENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Monsalve B

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes originadas desde animales de vida silvestre, pueden ser transmitidas a las poblaciones humanas por contacto directo o por vectores. Las zoonosis determinan una gran problemática social epidemiológica. La relación que tiene las enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes está ligada a la pérdida de la biodiversidad por factores antropogénicos, debido a la destrucción de hábitats naturales, el tráfico de fauna y a la pérdida de diversidad genética. Todos estos aspectos juegan un papel en la aparición de las patologías de origen infeccioso. Esta revisión intenta acercarse al conocimiento de las zoonosis transmitidas por animales silvestres y su impacto en las enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes.

  3. [Reseñas Bibliográficas] Atlas de la flora vascular silvestre de Burgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Aizpuru

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Es una reseña bibliográfica de la obra, Atlas de la flora vascular silvestre de Burgos / Alejandre Sáenz, J.M. García-López, L. Marín Padellano, G. Mateo Sanz, E. Miguélez del coso, C. Molina Martín, G. Montamarta Prieto, S. Patino Sánchez, M.A. Pinto Cebrián 6 J. Valencia Janices.

  4. CARNE DE MONTE Y CONSUMO DE FAUNA SILVESTRE EN LA ORINOQUIA Y AMAZONIA ( COLOMBIA Y VENEZUELA)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Este taller regional estuvo dirigido al tema de carne de monte, consumo de fauna silvestre y procesos alternativos (cría de animales en cautiverio y piscicultura extensiva, entre otros), como elementos que aportan a la seguridad alimentaria de las comunidades locales (rurales e indígenas) en la Orinoquia y Amazonia (Colombia -­ Venezuela). Este evento tuvo como antecedente tres talleres realizados desde 2009 (talleres II, III, IV) y reuniones de expertos llevadas a cabo en 2002 para actual...

  5. Análisis histopatológico en Litopenaeus vannamei infectado con Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Peña-Navarro; Alexander Varela Mejías

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir los principales resultados histopatológicos obtenidos de las diversas respuestas inmunológicas y efectos citopáticos en L. vannamei, después de una infección inducida con V. parahaemolyticus. La inoculación bacterial se realizó en el Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología de la Universidad de Costa Rica, entre junio y agosto del 2011. Para la investigación se utilizaron 40 camarones extraídos de fincas ubicadas en la Península de Nic...

  6. Toxoplasmosis Silvestre: relación presa-predador y papel funcional de pequeños felinos silvestres neotropicales en la transmisión -resumen-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Cañón-Franco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pequeños felinos neotropicales se ubican en el tope de la cadena alimenticia y‚ aunque críticamente amenazados‚ ocho especies de felinos son relativamente abundantes en el continente americano‚ sin embargo‚ pocos estudios biológicos sobre la circulación de agentes infecciosos han sido realizados. Para determinar el papel epidemiológico que cumplen las poblaciones de felinos silvestres en la transmisión de la Toxoplasmosis en la región sur de Brasil (estado de Rio Grande do Sul‚ fue determinada la frecuencia molecular de Toxoplasma gondii. La amplificación del marcador ITS1 fue posible en 31 de los 90 felinos analizados (34‚4%‚ de las especies Puma yagouaroundi (9/22‚ Leopardus geoffroyi (6/22‚ Leopardus tigrinus (8/28‚ Leopardus wiedii (6/10‚ Leopardus pardalis (1/1 y Leopardus colocolo (1/7. Dos nuevos genotipos de T. gondii fueron caracterizados por PCR-RFLP (Lw#31Tn - Py#21Sm y el genotipo Py#56Br previamente descrito en gatos domésticos‚ perros y chigüiros del Brasil. Adicionalmente‚ fue parcialmente caracterizado el genotipo I (Py#36Sm‚ evidenciando la circulación ambiental y su posible relación en la presentación de toxoplasmosis ocular en humanos. Los resultados demuestran que pequeños felinos silvestres tienen un papel importante en la transmisión de la toxoplasmosis en la interfase animales domésticos-silvestres‚ por lo que no se descarta la posible hibridación con genotipos urbanos. La carnivoría y las relaciones presa-predador son fundamentales en la transmisión horizontal de Toxoplasma. Aunque existan variaciones biogeográficas y estacionales en la dieta de los felinos silvestres‚ aproximadamente 40% a 80%‚ corresponde a pequeños mamíferos no voladores (marsupiales y roedores. El estudio de la dinámica de transmisión en diferentes niveles tróficos es de gran interés para la comprensión ecológica del ciclo silvestre de este parásito. Esta propuesta se fundamenta en evaluar

  7. IMPACT OF PARASITISM BY GREGARINES (Nematopsis sp) IN FARMING SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco M. Guzmán-Sáenz; Roberto Pérez-Castañeda; Gilberto Gutiérrez-Salazar; Pablo González-Alanís; Mario Hernández-Acosta; Jesús G. Sánchez-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Infestation of gregarines from genus Nematopsis in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is commonly associated with a decrease in production and low weight, as well as a possible predisposition to viral infections. The goal of our past research was to evaluate the effect of the Nematopsis sp. gregarine parasitosis on the growth of farm-grown Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp. Four cages were built with PVC pipes and plastic screens with a 6mm light diameter, 1,7m in height, and 1,5m in width ...

  8. Análisis histopatológico en Litopenaeus vannamei infectado con Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Peña-Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir los principales resultados histopatológicos obtenidos de las diversas respuestas inmunológicas y efectos citopáticos en L. vannamei, después de una infección inducida con V. parahaemolyticus. La inoculación bacterial se realizó en el Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología de la Universidad de Costa Rica, entre junio y agosto del 2011. Para la investigación se utilizaron 40 camarones extraídos de fincas ubicadas en la Península de Nicoya; a cada uno se le inyectó en promedio 2,0x106 UFC de V. parahaemolyticus. Al finalizar el periodo de infección, se realizaron los análisis histopatológicos en branquias, epitelio subcuticular, hepatopáncreas, intestino, órgano linfoide, tejido hematopoyético, músculo estriado, tejido nervioso, corazón, entre otras. Los principales hallazgos a nivel histológico fueron hemocitos melanizados, infiltración hemocítica, melanosis, esferoides tipo A, B y C, mionecrosis coagulativa, fagocitosis, picnosis, entre otras, útiles para determinar el estado sanitario de los camarones y en particular, el efecto citopático de V. parahaemolyticus en infecciones sistémicas.

  9. Vibrio harveyi effect under survival of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Aguirre-Guzmán

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The culture of aquatic organisms show a high relevance in the human feeding and the culture activities can create artificial conditions that increase the growth and selection of specific bacteria. Vibrio species are normal bacteria’s from microflora of penaeid shrimp, those are opportunistic pathogens that can take advantage of the ecological changes generated for the culture of aquatic organisms and which may cause diseases, low survival and economic losses in the shrimp production. The aim of this research was to determine the variation in the survival of different larval substages (nauplius, zoea I-III, mysis I-III and postlarvae 1, of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed at three doses [103 , 105 , and 107 colony-forming unit (CFU ml-1 [ of V. harveyi, by immersion (30 min as infection method. This species generated a significant low survival in larvae (p < 0.05 only in high doses (105 and 107 CFU ml-1 , where higher doses show the lowest values of survival. Larval substages and postlarvae 1 of shrimp showed sensitivity associate to the increase of Vibrio doses and this sensitivity decreased with the growth of larval substages and postlarvae 1. This information has high significance for the fisheries and aquaculture industry, which help to generate strategies to reduce the effects of V. harveyi with positive effect in growth and survival of the shrimp larvae and postlarvae 1.

  10. Impactes de la fauna silvestre al sector primari : la Vall d'Alinyà

    OpenAIRE

    Montecabra (Grup de recerca); González, Sofia; Grau, Dídac; Pascual, Marta

    2015-01-01

    La Vall d'Alinyà ha estat tradicionalment una zona agrícola i ramadera, encara que actualment està molt reduïda a causa de l'abandonament dels cultius, la falta del relleu generacional, l'envelliment de la població, la migració a la ciutat, entre d'altres. Aquestes activitats humanes conviuen amb la fauna silvestre de la zona, que en alimentar-se parcialment dels cultius, generalment patates i pèsols, on hi causa diversos impactes. És el cas del porc senglar (Sus scrofa) en especial. Hem obse...

  11. Metodologías para la Colecta de Muestras en Fauna Silvestre in situ

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Monsalve-Buriticá

    2013-01-01

    El estudio de la fauna silvestre implica el manejo de las poblaciones y su hábitat, ya sea para el aprovechamiento de las especies cinegéticas y de importancia comercial, el control de las poblaciones que causan daño a los intereses humanos, o para la conservación de especies amenazadas. Determinar los diferentes métodos para la colecta de muestras en la investigación del médico de la conservación se hace una actividad transversal a otras ciencias de forma transdisciplinaria cuando se trabaja...

  12. Uso tradicional de vertebrados silvestres en la Sierra Nanchititla, México

    OpenAIRE

    Monroy Vilchis, Octavio; Cabrera García, Leonardo; Suárez, Pedro; Zarco González, Martha Mariela; Rodríguez Soto, Clarita; Urios, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Los pobladores nativos de México se han caracterizado por poseer conocimiento tradicional sobre las especies de flora y fauna de los ambientes donde habitan, así como por sus prácticas de aprovechamiento. En este estudio se documentó el uso tradicional de vertebrados silvestres por parte de los habitantes de las trece comunidades de mayor influencia de la Reserva Natural Sierra Nanchititla (RNSN), se examinó su disponibilidad como recurso en esta área protegida y se analizó la correlación ent...

  13. USO TRADICIONAL DE VERTEBRADOS SILVESTRES EN LA SIERRA NANCHITITLA, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Octavio Monroy-Vilchis; Leonardo Cabrera; Pedro Suárez; Martha Mariela Zarco-González; Clarita Rodríguez-Soto; Vicente Urios

    2008-01-01

    Los pobladores nativos de México se han caracterizado por poseer conocimiento tradicional sobre las especies de flora y fauna de los ambientes donde habitan, así como por sus prácticas de aprovechamiento. En este estudio se documentó el uso tradicional de vertebrados silvestres por parte de los habitantes de las trece comunidades de mayor influencia de la Reserva Natural Sierra Nanchititla (RNSN), se examinó su disponibilidad como recurso en esta área protegida y se analizó la correlación ent...

  14. ZOONOSIS TRANSMITIDAS POR ANIMALES SILVESTRES Y SU IMPACTO EN LAS ENFERMEDADES EMERGENTES Y REEMERGENTES

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Monsalve B; Salim Mattar V.; Marco Gonzalez T

    2009-01-01

    Las enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes originadas desde animales de vida silvestre, pueden ser transmitidas a las poblaciones humanas por contacto directo o por vectores. Las zoonosis determinan una gran problemática social epidemiológica. La relación que tiene las enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes está ligada a la pérdida de la biodiversidad por factores antropogénicos, debido a la destrucción de hábitats naturales, el tráfico de fauna y a la pérdida de diversidad genética. Todos es...

  15. Efficacy of marine green alga Ulva fasciata extract on the management of shrimp bacterial diseases Eficacia del extracto del alga marina verde Ulva fasciata sobre el manejo de las enfermedades bacterianas en camarones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Selvin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites of the green algae, Ulva fasciata, were tested to determine the efficacy of controlling shrimp bacterial pathogens. Exploratory experiments indicated that an intermediate dose (1 g kg-1 of shrimp of Ulva in the diet was highly effective at controlling bacterial pathogens of shrimp, as compared to lower (500 mg kg-1 and higher (1.5 g kg-1 doses. The pilot experiments evaluated the percent of relative protection afforded shrimps treated with Ulva diet and faced with various concentrations of bacterial pathogen. The survival of shrimps treated with Ulva diet was significant (P Metabolites secundario de algas verdes Ulva fasciata fue probado para determinar la eficacia de controlar el camarón pathogens bacterial. Las conclusiones de experimentos exploratorios indicaron que la dosis mediana (1 g kg-1 de camarón de dieta Ulva era sumamente eficaz en el control de pathogens bacterial de camarón cuando comparado al más abajo (500 mg kg-1 y más alto (1,5 g kg-1 dosis. En los experimentos pilotos, la protección de pariente de por ciento de camarones trató con la dieta Ulva y desafió con varias concentraciones de bacterial patógeno fueron evaluados. La supervivencia de camarones trató con la dieta Ulva era significativo (P < 0,01. Basado en las conclusiones presentes, podría ser deducido que U. verde fasciata puede ser una fuente excelente para desarrollar la comida potente medicinal para la dirección de enfermedad de camarón.

  16. Arbovírus Ilheus em aves silvestres (Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Luiz Eloy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o isolamento do vírus Ilheus no Estado de São Paulo e avaliar o seu impacto para a saúde pública. MÉTODOS: O isolamento de vírus foi realizado em camundongos albinos Swiss, a partir de sangue de aves silvestres, capturadas com redes de espera tipo mist net, armadas no nível do solo, no Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo. A identificação das cepas isoladas foi feita pelos testes de inibição da hemaglutinação, fixação de complemento e neutralização em camundongos. Amostras de plasma de aves e de mamíferos silvestres foram submetidas à pesquisa sorológica para detecção de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação. RESULTADOS: Foram isoladas duas cepas do vírus Ilheus em sangue de aves das espécies Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis e detectados anticorpos em aves das espécies Columbina talpacoti, Geopelia cuneata, Molothrus bonariensis e Sicalis flaveola, em sagüis das espécies Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix penicillata e no quati Nasua nasua. CONCLUSÕES: O isolamento do vírus Ilheus e a detecção de anticorpos específicos em aves residentes, migratórias e de cativeiro, em sagüis e quatis, comprovam a presença desse agente no Parque Ecológico do Tietê. O comportamento migratório de aves silvestres pode determinar a introdução do vírus em outras regiões. Considerando-se a patogenicidade para o homem e a confirmação da circulação desse agente viral em área urbana, freqüentada para atividade de lazer e de educação, o risco de ocorrência de infecção na população humana não pode ser descartado.

  17. Deep-water shrimp fisheries in Latin America: a review Pesquerías de camarones de aguas profundas en América Latina: una revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo S Wehrtmann

    2012-09-01

    á expandiendo sus actividades hacia aguas profundas. Las características del ciclo de vida de estos recursos de aguas profundas los hacen más vulnerables a la explotación que la mayoría de los recursos de aguas someras. Además, la falta de información sobre la ecología de la mayoría de las especies de aguas profundas constituye una limitación importante para el desarrollo e implementación de estrategias de manejo. Este escenario ha causado preocupación sobre la sustentabilidad de estos recursos y de los posibles impactos ambientales en los ecosistemas de aguas profundas. La pesca comercial en América Latina se extiende también hacia aguas profundas y, considerando las preocupaciones anteriormente mencionadas, se requiere la necesidad de compilar la información disponible sobre los recursos de camarones de aguas profundas y la situación actual de estas pesquerías en América Latina. Esta revisión se enfoca en México, Centro América, Perú, Chile y Brasil y describe las especies explotadas, la flota pesquera (siempre cuando sea disponible, las estadísticas pesqueras y las estrategias de manejo. Un total de 17 especies (10 spp. de Penaeoidea y 7 spp. de Caridea son de interés comercial en América Latina; sin embargo, camarones de aguas profundas solo se pescan actualmente en Costa Rica, Colombia y Chile. Un plan de manejo implementado existe en Chile y Colombia, mientras que en Brasil se aprobaron regulaciones sobre la pesca de camarones de la familia Aristeidae, pero éstas nunca han sido implementadas. Considerando la falta de información sobre la biología de los camarones de aguas profundas, lo que dificulta el desarrollo de estrategias adecuadas de manejo, se requiere urgentemente mejorar la comunicación y colaboración entre los diferentes actores en Latinoamérica. Se sugiere establecer un banco de datos abierto para búsquedas y actualizarlo constantemente, lo que servirá como fuente valiosa de información para investigadores y quienes deben tomar

  18. Evidences of abundant hemocyanin variants in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianliang; Guo, Lingling; Lu, Xin; Lu, Hui; Wang, Fan; Zhong, Mingqi; Chen, Jiehui; Zhang, Yueling

    2016-09-01

    Hemocyanin (HMC) is a multifunctional immune molecule present in mollusks and arthropods and functions as an important antigen non-specific immune protein. Our previous evidences demonstrated that Litopenaeus vannamei HMC might display extensive molecular diversities. In this study, bioinformatics analysis showed dozens of variant sequences of the HMC subunit with higher molecular weight from L. vannamei (LvHMC). Three variant fragments, named as LvHMCV1-3, which shared 85-99% nucleotide identity with that of the classical form of LvHMC (AJ250830.1), were cloned and characterized. Spatial expression profiles showed that LvHMCV1-3 had different tissue-specific distribution, which were affected by stimulation with six pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli K12, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, with each variant fragment showing a specific stress pattern to different bacterial pathogens. Full length cDNA of LvHMCV3 was further cloned and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 92% identity with that of LvHMC, possessed a conserved structure characteristic of the HMC family and could be clustered into one branch along with other arthropod HMC in a phylogenetic tree. In addition, the recombinant protein of LvHMCV3 (rLvHMCV3) showed obvious agglutination activities against three aquaculture pathogenic bacteria including E. coli K12, V. parahaemolyticus and S.aureus at concentrations ranging from 31.25-62.5g/mL. It also showed obvious antibacterial activity against V. parahaemolyticus at concentrations 0.02-0.5mg/mL, and possessed the best inhibitive effects compared with those of rLvHMCV4 and rLvHMC. Co-injection of V. parahaemolyticus and rLvHMCV3 in L. vannamei showed significant decrease of the mortality rate at 24-72h after injection. Therefore, these studies suggested that L. vannamei had abundant HMC variants, which possessed obvious resistance to pathogenic

  19. Poblaciones silvestres de Tagetes filifolia lag. En el centro-sur de México

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Serrato Cruz; Juan Saúl Barajas Pérez

    2006-01-01

    Aquí se presentan los primeros informes sobre aspectos ambientales y la morfológicos de 102 colectas de poblaciones silvestres de Tagetes filifolia Lag. obtenidas en la Región Centro-Sur de México, así como información sobre sus usos. La especie se encontró desde los 750 hasta 2686 m de altitud, en 16 regiones que varían en climas: templado (Cw), semicálido A (C) y (A) C, cálido (A) y semiseco (BS), con 27 subtipos climáticos. Se registraron gradientes de expresión morfológicos de la planta e...

  20. Arbovírus Ilheus em aves silvestres (Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Luiz Eloy; Suzuki Akemi; Coimbra Terezinha Lisieux Moraes; Souza Renato Pereira de; Chamelet Esther Luiza Bocato

    2001-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Relatar o isolamento do vírus Ilheus no Estado de São Paulo e avaliar o seu impacto para a saúde pública. MÉTODOS: O isolamento de vírus foi realizado em camundongos albinos Swiss, a partir de sangue de aves silvestres, capturadas com redes de espera tipo mist net, armadas no nível do solo, no Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo. A identificação das cepas isoladas foi feita pelos testes de inibição da hemaglutinação, fixação de complemento e neutralização em camundongos. Amostras d...

  1. Orientalismos peninsulares en el levante andaluz. Nombres y usos de algunas plantas silvestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Montes, Francisco

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The author describes sorne wild plants from the provinces of Almería, Granada and Jaén (Andalusia, Spain that have folk names from Eastern Iberia. For each plant he provides the scientific and folk name, the isoglottic line and the lexical arca. He also informs about the use of these plants in folk and household medecine, religious rites, animal husbandry, etc.En este estudio se presentan algunas plantas silvestres de Almería, Granada y Jaén cuyos nombres vulgares proceden del oriente peninsular. De cada planta se da, junto al nombre vulgar y científico, la isoglosa o límite de los orientalismos y sus correspondientes áreas léxicas. Al mismo tiempo se hace el estudio etnográfico de sus usos en la medicina popular o doméstica, ritos religiosos, ganadería, etc.

  2. Probiotic P-acidilactici application in shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris culture subject to vibriosis in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Castex, Mathieu; Chim, Liet; Pham, Dominique; Lemaire, Pierrette; Wabete, Nelly; Nicolas, Jean-Louis; Schmidely, P; Mariojouls, C.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effects of a lactic acid bacterium, Pediococcus acidilactici (strain MA 18/5M, CNCM), as a dietary probiotic on growth performance and some nutritional and microbiological aspects of the shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris. Experimental shrimp culture was carried out over 10 weeks, using floating cages of 14 m(2) each set in earthen ponds, in a New Caledonia farm affected by "Summer syndrome", a septicaemic vibriosis caused by Vibrio nigripulchritudo. The experiment design testing ...

  3. Searching for genetic markers of virulence in Vibrio nigripulchritudo, a Litopenaeus stylirostris shrimp pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaud, Yann

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, a new pathology seasonally occurs in new caledonian shrimp farms during the warm season. Diseased Litopenaeus stylirostris shrimp suffer from a systemic vibriosis which was attributed to highly pathogenic Vibrio nigripulchritudo. At the present time, only two farms among 17 are affected by the so called "summer syndrome". In such a context it appears urgent to develop reliable diagnostic tools to detect V. nigripulchritudo strains and to differentiate highly virulent strains from ...

  4. Reproduction of the hawaiian strain of pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris in New Caledonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Dominique; Patrois, Jacques; Goyard, Emmanuel; Maillez, Jean-rene; Broutoi, Francis; Dufour, Robert; Peignon, Jean-marie; Brun, Pierre; Lambert, Christian; Pita, Etienne

    2007-01-01

    The Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris was introduced in New Caledonia thirty years ago. Because of its high inbreeding, a SPF strain domesticated in Hawaii, genetically differentiated from the Caledonian strain, had to be imported. The two strains’ reproductive performances were compared at different periods and cross breedings were assessed. The average results show that Caledonian animals give twice as many nauplii than the Hawaiian animals. The best cross breeding is obtained wi...

  5. Effect of dietary protein level on growth and energy utilization by Litopenaeus stylirostris under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gauquelin, F; Cuzon, Gerard; Gaxiola, G.; Rosas, C.; Arena, L.; Bureau, D; Cochard, Jean-claude

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted using a bioenergetics approach to generate information on energy requirement and feed utilization of Litopenaeus stylirostris. Animals (initial mean weight 21 +/- 1 g were fed ad libitum six experimental diets, ranging from 25 to 58% crude protein (CP), for 50 days. Weight gain increased from 21 to 30 g with increasing dietary protein level. Survival rates averaged 80%. Basal metabolism (HeE) and heat increment of feeding (HiE) were monitored using respirometry. HeE...

  6. Optimization of Process Parameters for Litopenaeus vannamei Seafood Sauce using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Xinyue Li; Jianfeng Sun; Xiaopeng Cui; Jie Wang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in order to determine the optimum formulation of Litopenaeus vannamei seafood sauce, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of contents of thick broad-bean sauce, sweet soybean paste and Shacha sauce on the sensory quality. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the data were adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model. The independent parameters of contents of thick broad-bean sauce, sweet soybean paste and the quadratics...

  7. Vibrios associated with Litopenaeus vannamei larvae, postlarvae, broodstock, and hatchery probionts

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberghe, J.; Verdonck, L.; Robles-Arozarena, R.; Rivera, G. (Gildardo); Bolland, A.; Balladares, M.; Gomez-Gil, B.; Calderon, J; Sorgeloos, P.; Swings, J.

    1999-01-01

    Several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different Litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries (in Ecuador) and shrimp farms (in Mexico). Samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juveniles and broodstock. In Ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing symptoms of zoea 2 syndrome, mysis mold syndrome, and bolitas syndrome has been...

  8. Vibrios Associated with Litopenaeus vannamei Larvae, Postlarvae, Broodstock, and Hatchery Probionts

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberghe, Johan; Verdonck, Linda; Robles-Arozarena, Rocio; Rivera, Gabriel; Bolland, Annick; Balladares, Marcos; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Calderon, Jorge; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Swings, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different Litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries (in Ecuador) and shrimp farms (in Mexico). Samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juveniles and broodstock. In Ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing symptoms of zoea 2 syndrome, mysis mold syndrome, and bolitas syndrome has been...

  9. [Determination of endosulfan pesticide residues in Litopenaeus vannamai by capillary gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaosong; Huang, Daxin; Lu, Shengyu

    2007-05-01

    A method is described for the determination of endosulfan pesticide residues in Litopenaeus vannamai by capillary gas chromatography. The residues of alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan were extracted from the sample with ethyl acetate, and the extract was cleaned up using a neutral alumina column and an active carbon column after concentrated and then eluted with a mixture of n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1 : 1, v/v). During the process of purification, the flow rate of eluent was controlled within 3 mL/min. The eluate was collected and evaporated to 1 mL for analysis. The determination was performed on a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. The retention time was used for qualification and the external calibration standard was used for quantitation. The results obtained showed that the recoveries were 80.5% - 97.3% for alpha-endosulfan and 81.1% - 109.5% for beta-endosulfan. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0. 002 mg/kg, and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0. 007 mg/kg for both. The precision of the method, expressed as the relative standard deviation for the within-laboratory repeatability, was generally below 8.5%. The method was used for the analysis of Litopenaeus vannamai samples from Guangxi Province, a Litopenaeus vannamai aquiculture area in south China. PMID:17679437

  10. Aspectos Generales de la Evaluación Hematológica en Fauna Silvestre y no Convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Copete-Sierra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El uso de la evaluación hematológica en animales silvestres y no convencionales es fundamental para la evaluación general del estado de salud de estas poblaciones. La estandarización de los procedimientos de laboratorio, el conocimiento y la experiencia del analista en la identificación de las diferencias morfológicas, son fundamentales para obtener resultados confiables que proporcionan la mayor utilidad clínica. El objetivo de este documento es recopilar información básica para la realización adecuada de la evaluación hematológica en animales silvestres y no convencionales, así como los aspectos generales para su interpretación.

  11. Development of EST-SSR markers by data mining in three species of shrimp: Litopenaeus vannamei, Litopenaeus stylirostris, and Trachypenaeus birdy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Franklin; Ortiz, Juan; Zhinaula, Mariuxi; Gonzabay, Cesar; Calderón, Jorge; Volckaert, Filip A M J

    2005-01-01

    We report on the data mining of publicly available Litopenaeus vannamei expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to generate simple sequence repeat (SSRs) markers and on their transferability between related Penaeid shrimp species. Repeat motifs were found in 3.8% of the evaluated ESTs at a frequency of one repeat every 7.8 kb of sequence data. A total of 206 primer pairs were designed, and 112 loci were amplified with the highest success in L. vannamei. A high percentage (69%) of EST-SSRs were transferable within the genus Litopenaeus. More than half of the amplified products were polymorphic in a small testing panel of L. vannamei. Evaluation of those primers in a larger testing panel showed that 72% of the markers fit Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, which shows their utility for population genetic analysis. Additionally, a set of 26 of the EST-SSRs were evaluated for Mendelian segregation. A high percentage of monomorphic markers (46%) proved to be polymorphic by singles-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis. Because of the high number of ESTs available in public databases, a data mining approach similar to the one outlined here might yield high numbers of SSR markers in many animal taxa. PMID:16027992

  12. Aislamiento de Vibrio sp. a partir de órganos internos de Dormitator latifrons (Richarson, 1844 silvestres – Reporte preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Mendoza-Rodríguez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se informa el hallazgo de Vibrio sp.utilizando medio de cultivo selectivoTCBS de muestras de tracto intestinal deejemplares de “monengue” Dormitatorlatifrons silvestres, especie que sealimenta principalmente de detritus enambientes inundados de zonas costeras.This report it shows the finding results ofVibrio sp. using selective culture TCBSfrom intestine samples of fishes “Pacificfat sleepers” Dormitator latifronssavages, species that is fed mainly ondetritus in flooded environments ofcoastal zones.

  13. Evaluation of the pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension associated to heart failure in Camarones town. Evaluación del tratamiento farmacológico de la hipertensión arterial asociada a insuficiencia cardiaca en el poblado de Camarones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Vázquez Montero

    2006-12-01

    muestra de 43 pacientes, cifra que representó el 35,2 % del universo de estudio, en seis Consultorios Médicos de la Familia del área urbana del Policlínico Comunitario de Camarones, Palmira, Cienfuegos, durante el primer semestre de 2004. Resultados: El 51,2 % de los pacientes se incluyeron en la clase II de la clasificación de la New York Heart Asociation y el 55,8 % fueron considerados hipertensos grado II. Los antihipertensivos más utilizados fueron el captopril y la clortalidona y dentro de los fármacos asociados a los antihipertensivos se incluyó el dinitrato de isosorbide, la digoxina y el ácido acetil salicílico. El 87,3 % de los pacientes recibían una dosis correcta y en el 88,9 % se siguió un adecuado intervalo de administración. Se consideró adecuada la prescripción en un 65,1 % de los pacientes del estudio. Conclusiones: Los avances en el tratamiento de estas enfermedades se deben a diversos factores. Aunque el estudio muestra que el tratamiento de los pacientes de la serie es adecuado, debe mejorarse siempre que sea posible.

  14. Mating systems in caridean shrimp (Decapoda: Caridea and their evolutionary consequences for sexual dimorphism and reproductive biology Sistemas de apareamiento en camarones carideos (Decapoda: Caridea y sus consecuencias evolutivas en el dimorfismo sexual y biología reproductiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIÁN CORREA

    2003-06-01

    species with search & attend the situation is variable, and only some males benefit by acquiring large size while others do better by searching or changing sex. In contrast to other crustaceans free-living shrimp do not exhibit precopulatory mate guarding and they are relatively unaggressive. The characteristic and efficient escape behavior of shrimp using their contractile abdomen might be one important trait that has constrained the evolution of such behaviors. Our review indicates that the mating systems of caridean shrimp depend both on environmental and on biological characteristicsEn este articulo revisamos relaciones funcionales y evolutivas entre los sistemas de apareamiento de camarones carideos, y características específicas tales como biología/ecología general, sistemas sexuales, conducta y morfología. Basados en reportes bibliográficos se describió cuatro sistemas de apareamiento, y un quinto fue reconocido pero la informaci��n disponible fue insuficiente para describirlo en detalle. `Monogamia' ocurre en muchas especies que habitan en refugios monopolizables o huéspedes, especialmente cuando las condiciones ambientales restringen la probabilidad de encuentros entre conespecíficos. En contraste, las especies de vida libre experimentan encuentros más frecuentes y los machos pueden dominar o buscar: En el sistema de apareamiento `dominancia vecinal' los machos más grandes rinden mayor éxito reproductivo porque son los que tienen el mejor desempeño en la competencia agresiva por las hembras receptivas. En el sistema `pura búsqueda' son los machos pequeños los que lo hacen mejor porque su agilidad les permite buscar pareja eficazmente entre la población. El cuarto sistema de apareamiento es `búsqueda & compañía' que ocurre en simbiontes solitarios que experimentan condiciones demográficas y ecológicas variables: dependiendo de las condiciones ambientales y del estado ontogenético, puede ser conveniente para los machos buscar o permanecer

  15. Epidemiology and control of wild rabies in Italy / Epidemiologia e profilassi della rabbia silvestre in Italia

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    Armando Giovannini

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The authors analyse biological characteristics of the fox Vulpes vulpes with regard to the epidemiology of sylvatic rabies in Italy. Emphasis is put on the lack of deepen studies both on fox population densities, and on important behavioural habits. A retrospective analysis of wild rabies epidemics in Italy from 1977 to 1988 has shown: 1 the spread of rabies by 20 to 80 km/year; 2 the existence of three/four year oscillations, clearly evident in single epidemics, but masked in the total number of cases in Italy; 3 the mosaic-like pattern of the final phase of the epidemic; 4 the extinction of outbreaks following the mosaic phase, in a few cases not correlated with human intervention. The authors criticize the control measures enforced in Italy, on the bases of the inefficacy and inefficiency of the thinning out programme and, on the contrary, the efficiency of the oral vaccination of the fox population. Riassunto Gli autori analizzano la biologia della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes in relazione all'epidemiologia della rabbia silvestre in Italia; sottolineano la grave carenza di dati nel nostro Paese sia sulla densità di popolazione della Volpe, sia su aspetti di ecologia comportamentale importanti per l'epidemiologia della rabbia silvestre in Italia dal 1977 al 1988 rilevando: 1 una velocità di avanzamento variabile da 20 a 80 km/anno; 2 una ciclicità tri-quadriennale per singola epidemia che può essere mascherata se si considera erroneamente la sommatoria dei casi accertati; 3 l'andamento a mosaico delle fasi finali delle epidemie; 4 l'estinzione dei focolai successivamente alla fase a mosaico, in alcuni casi non correlabile all'intervento dell'uomo. Infine, gli autori analizzano in modo critico la profilassi della rabbia nella Volpe attuata in Italia, rilevando la scarsa efficacia ed inefficienza dello sfoltimento e, in contrapposizione, l'efficacia e l'economicità della vaccinazione

  16. Parasitos de aves e mamíferos silvestres em cativeiro no estado de Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Marie de Souza Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Os animais silvestres são hospedeiros de uma grande variedade de parasitos que podem interferir em sua conservação ex situ. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os parasitos gastrointestinais (PGI e ectoparasitos dos animais do Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres (CETAS do Instituto Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA de Recife, Pernambuco, além de determinar os aspectos do manejo em cativeiro que possam estar relacionados com os parasitos identificados. Foram coletados ectoparasitos e amostras fecais de 223 aves e mamíferos, as quais foram processadas pelos métodos: microscopia direta, flutuação e sedimentação. Helmintos e/ou protozoários foram detectados em 91 (40,8% amostras fecais, sendo 64 (70,3% de aves e 27 (29,7% de mamíferos. Ovos de Capillaria sp., Ascaridida, Spirurida e oocistos de Eimeria sp. foram detectados nas amostras fecais das aves, enquanto ovos de Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides sp., Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma sp., Strongylida e oocistos de Coccídios foram encontrados nas amostras fecais de mamíferos. Os ectoparasitos identificados em aves foram Colpocephalum turbinatum, Kurodaia (Kurodaia fulvofasciata, Halipeurus sp., Naubates sp., Saemundssonia sp., Austromenopon sp., Paragoniocotes sp., Brueelia sp., Myrsidea sp. and Pseudolynchia sp., enquanto em mamíferos os ectoparasitos identificados foram Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma varium, A. calcaratum, A. nodosum, Ornithodoros talaje e Ctenocephalides felis felis. A. calcaratum e O. talaje são registrados pela primeira vez em Pernambuco e T. tetradactyla é apresentado como novo hospedeiro de O. talaje. Nenhum dos animais estudados apresentou sinais clínicos em decorrência da infecção/infestação parasitária. Parasitos com potencial zoonótico como T. trichiura, Strongyloides sp., T. canis e Ancylostoma sp. foram identificados em primatas não humanos e carnívoros. Precárias condições estruturais

  17. Conocimiento y géstion de las enfermedades de fauna silvestre en Colombia (Consultoria WCS – VVS -resumen-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Milena Peñuela-Gómez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Para realizar una aproximación al estado del arte en cuanto al conocimiento y gestión de las enfermedades de fauna silvestre en Colombia‚ inicialmente‚ se sintetizaron las funciones y avances de gestión de las diferentes entidades del sector público y privado a nivel nacional‚ lo que permitió estructurar diagramas de gestión en el marco de la articulación normativa e institucional vigente para el tema. En cuanto al conocimiento de enfermedades de fauna silvestre‚ se analizaron 319 documentos de pertinencia en el tema‚ que se hallaban disponibles en diferentes recursos electrónicos como físicos y‚ a los cuales se analizaron diferentes variables mediante estadística descriptiva. Los resultados más relevantes de este análisis evidencian que en el país hay una participación en dicha investigación en el 70% de los departamentos‚ resaltándose el mayor número de investigaciones en Cundinamarca‚ Bogotá‚ Valle del Cauca‚ Antioquia‚ Caldas‚ Córdoba y Meta; entretanto se evidencia que para los últimos diez años (2001-2011‚ se han generado más del 70% de los documentos y que gran parte de trabajos fueron realizados en condiciones ex situ‚ la interfase silvestre se aborda en un 81% ‚ adicionalmente dentro de las temáticas abordadas‚ las patologías de tipo infeccioso con un 32,6% y los mamíferos con un 51,17% constituyen la entidad y la clase animal más estudiada respectivamente. Como conclusiones del trabajo‚ se menciona que existen vacios de información ya que la visibilidad de la información es baja‚ aspecto que posiblemente repercute en la articulación y uso de la misma para el manejo de la fauna. También se observa una ausencia de responsabilidades propias en esta materia‚ tal vez debido a deficiencias normativas para abordar la vigilancia y control de las enfermedades en fauna silvestre. Se hace necesario buscar estrategias por medio de las que se motive o facilite la publicación de

  18. Relación del Virus del Oeste del Nilo con las Aves Silvestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Soler-Tovar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El Virus del Oeste del Nilo (VON es un Flavivirus que produce una encefalomielitis y puede afectar aves y mamíferos; los efectos varían desde poco notorios hasta la muerte, y en su difusión es importante la participación de especies animales como las aves donde es transmitido a través de mosquitos vectores. El VON se conoce de Uganda desde 1937 y está ampliamente distribuido en África, el oriente y la región sur y tropical de Eurasia. En el Hemisferio Occidental, el VON fue la primera causa de enfermedad en poblaciones de aves y humanos en Nueva York en 1999 y la epizootia ha continuado hasta ahora. La presencia del virus en Norteamérica junto con un número relativamente grande de aves migratorias susceptibles al agente, hacen de este virus de especial atención por su posible impacto sobre la fauna silvestre, los animales domésticos y el hombre en Sudamérica. La infección y mortalidad de aves normalmente precede a las epidemias en humanos y por lo tanto el monitoreo de aves es una herramienta preventiva efectiva que debe ser considerada seriamente.

  19. Aspectos Epidemiológicos de la Enfermedad de Newcastle en Aves Silvestres de Vida Libre

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    Laura Vargas-Castillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la enfermedad de Newcastle (NDV pertenece al género Avulavirus, serotipo paramixovirus aviar tipo 1, de la familia Paramyxoviridae. Es altamente contagiosa ya que se ha demostrado que es capaz de infectar a por lo menos 241 especies, de 27 de los 50 órdenes de aves en el mundo; su patogenicidad está dada por el huésped y el tipo de cepa que presente el animal; se manifiesta con signos clínicos relacionados con el sistema respiratorio, digestivo o nervioso en relación al tipo de cepa. En el humano puede causar conjuntivitis leve y limitada. Esta enfermedad se trasmite por contacto directo con aves enfermas o portadoras, al igual que por contacto con ambientes contaminados. Los estudios relacionados con la presencia del virus de la enfermedad de Newcastle en aves silvestres han sido importantes debido a las implicaciones del virus dentro de la industria avícola ya que genera consecuencias socioeconómicas y sanitarias graves e incide en el comercio internacional de animales.

  20. Combined effect of external ammonia and molt stage on the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris physiological response

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnier, Chantal; Justou, Carole

    2004-01-01

    The effect of ambient ammonia and molt stage on the physiological response of the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris was studied. Shrimps were submitted to 54.6 mg l(-1) ammonia-N (1.76 mg l(-1) NH3-N) for 24 h. Only shrimps in stages C, D-0, D-1 and D-2 were used for the analysis. Haemolymph was assayed for osmoregulatory capacity (OC), magnesium ion (Mg ion), total proteins, oxyhaemocyanin, lactate and glucose. Molt stage had an effect on OC, Mg ion and total proteins in control shrimps, ...

  1. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the microbiological, biochemical characteristics of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Xia; Tian, Xin; Li, Jian-Rong

    2016-06-01

    Using thermal processing (TP) treatment (100 ℃, 1-8 min) as a control, the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, 200-500 MPa, 2.5-20 min) on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were investigated. The results showed that the efficiency of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) inactivation and log reduction of total plate count (TPC) by HHP treatment were all significantly lower than by TP treatment (p treatment was significantly lower than with TP treatment (p treatment turned the appearance of shrimps slightly pink. PMID:26199222

  2. Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( Pprobiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( Pprobiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

  3. Dietas practicas para el cultivo de Litopenaeus schmitti: una revisión (Practical diets for Litopenaeus schmitti shrimp culture: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime-Ceballos, Barbarito:

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se resumen los resultados del trabajo desarrollado por investigadorescubanos en el campo de la alimentación y nutrición del camarónblanco Litopenaeus schmitti, referidos a la formulación de alimentosbalanceados para las fases de precría y engorde. Aporta información sobre la respuesta de dicha especie a la inclusión de materias primasconvencionales o no en dietas prácticas, constituyendo una vía deabaratamiento de las mismas mediante el uso de ingredientes nacionales. Además se muestran los resultados obtenidos en cuanto aempleo de aglutinantes, tamaños de partículas e investigaciones básicas aplicadas a esta actividad. Estos estudios han servido de base para la obtención de alimentos comerciales eficientes que sustentan el desarrollo de la camaronicultura en Cuba, propiciando el diseño de alimentos acordes a las necesidades y posibilidades del país, constituye un valioso material para el conocimiento y desarrollo del cultivo en cuanto a Results of the research workdeveloped by Cuban investigators on feeding and nutrition of white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, referred the food formulation for nursery and grow-out phases. It contributes information on the answer of this species to the inclusion of conventional raw materials or not in practical diets, constituting a via to reduce prices trough the use of national ingredients. In addition results obtained as far as use of aglutinantes, sizes of particles and basic investigations applied to this activity are shown. These studies have served as base to obtain efficient commercial diets that have supported the development of shrimp culture in Cuba, facilitating the designof artifitial food according to the necessities and possibilities of the country, constituting a valuable material for the knowledge anddevelopment of the culture as far as feeding and nutrition.H

  4. Replacement of fish meal with black soldier fly meal in practical diets for Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimp account for 15 percent of the total value of internationally traded fishery products, and currently are the largest single aquaculture commodity in value terms. The Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) generated USD 11 billion from a production volume of 2.7 million metric tons (mm...

  5. Opciones de gestión para reducir la cacería ilegal: el caso de la Reserva de Vida Silvestre Amazónica Manuripi, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Sophía Kantuta; Dresdner Cid, Jorge; Chávez Rebolledo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    La recolección de castaña (Bertholletia excelsa) es la principal actividad forestal no maderable de Bolivia y la fuente de ingresos más relevante para comunidades y propietarios privados que habitan dentro el área Reserva Nacional de Vida Silvestre Amazónica Manuripi. Sin embargo, esta actividad está vinculada a problemas de conservación de la fauna silvestre como consecuencia de la cacería realizada por los recolectores que se internan en el bosque para recoger los frutos de la castaña. La c...

  6. Secuencia parcial de un fragmento de ADN de patos silvestres homologo al Complejo Mayor de

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Guzmán Sofía

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa variación individual de la respuesta inmune esta ligada a ladiversidad funcional y estructural del MHC (por sus siglas en inglesMajor Histocompatibility Complex, TcR (Receptores de células T,inmunoglobulinas (anticuerpos, citoquininas, TNF (por sus siglas eningles Tumor Necrosis Factor, entre otras proteínas. Estas proteínasestán codificadas por múltiples y polimórficos genes, la variabilidad de estos genes constituyen las principales bases, en las variaciones de la resistencia a determinada enfermedad o enfermedades. Estascaracterísticas se han documentado en la gallina doméstica, pero no enel pato. En el presente trabajo se amplifico por PCR un fragmento denucleótidos de ADN genómico de pato doméstico que compartió un100% de similitud con un fragmento del MHC clase II de pollo, quecorrespondió a una secuencia similar a DAB1 (Disabled 1.La secuencia DAB1 también fue amplificada en nueve especies de patos silvestres del género Anas que posterior a un análisis por el polimorfismo del largo de los fragmentos de restricción (PLFR con las enzimas RsaI, BsrI y HindIII, se observó que la especie Anas americana,Anas platyrhynchos diazi y Anas platyrhynchos domesticus fueronsutilmente diferentes a la especie Anas discors, Anas crecca, Anascyanoptera, Anas acuta, Anas streptera y Anas clypeata. Hasta dondesabemos, este es el primer reporte que indica la presencia desecuencias similares a DAB1 en patos silvestres. Este estudio podríaayudar a entender porque los patos podrían ser menos susceptibles apresentar neoplasias que en las gallinas.SummaryThe individual response of the immune system is linked to the functional and structural diversity of the MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex, TcR (T cell receptor, inmunoglobulines (antibodies, citokines, TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor, among other proteins. These proteins are coded for multiple and polymorphic genes, the variability of these genes constitutes the main bases, in the

  7. Interrelaciones entre hospedadores, vectores y parásitos sanguíneos en poblaciones de aves silvestres

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez de la Puente, Josué

    2009-01-01

    El parasitismo es una de las relaciones simbióticas más importantes en la naturaleza. Las aves, como la mayoría de los organismos silvestres, se encuentran con frecuencia afectadas por una enorme diversidad de parásitos, tanto endoparásitos como ectoparásitos. El estudio del parasitismo bajo un prisma ecológico-evolutivo es una de las principales vías de investigación mundial en el campo de la biología evolutiva por la importancia de estos organismos parásitos en la evolución de sus hospedado...

  8. Contribución a la patología de los carnívoros silvestres.

    OpenAIRE

    Sobrino Menchero, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    España cuenta con una rica comunidad de carnívoros silvestres terrestres. Esta tesis parte de las siguientes hipótesis: (1) los carnívoros terrestres, por su ubicación en la cúspide de la pirámide trófica, pueden ser buenos indicadores de la presencia y frecuencia de enfermedades que afectan a distintos taxones animales. (2) la diversidad paisajística de la Península Ibérica, que se asocia con diferentes comunidades de carnívoros terrestres, podría determinar diferencias en la distribución y ...

  9. Cogumelos silvestres portugueses: valorização como alimentos funcionais e fonte de nutracêuticos

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Vaz, Josiana A.; Barros, Lillian; Almeida, Gabriela M.; Martins, Anabela; Vasconcelos, M. Helena

    2012-01-01

    Os cogumelos silvestres possuem grande diversidade de biomoléculas com valor nutricional e/ou propriedades medicinais. Têm sido reconhecidos como alimentos funcionais e como fonte de compostos para o desenvolvimento de fármacos e nutracêuticos, incluindo compostos com propriedades anti-tumorais. Exemplos disso são os β-glucanos “Lentinan” (do cogumelo Lentinus edodes) e “Schizophyllan” (do meio de cultura de Schizophyllum commune) ou os glucopéptidos PSP e “Krestin” (PSK) (do micélio de Corio...

  10. Infecção natural de roedores silvestres pelo Schistosoma mansoni Natural infection of sylvatic rodents by Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia Maria Correa Silva; Zilton A. Andrade

    1989-01-01

    No município baiano de Planalto, 47% dos roedores silvestres capturados (Nectomys) estavam infectados pelo Schistosoma mansoni, enquanto a prevalência desta infecção na população humana da área era de 3,26%. Os roedores habitam zonas peridomiciliares, têm hábitos aquáticos e eliminam ovos viáveis do S. mansoni. Albergam número variável de vermes e formam granulomas periovulares pequenos, principalmente no fígado e intestinos, sem fibrose hepática importante ou sinais de hipertensão porta. A d...

  11. Caracterização nutricional de raízes e partes vegetativas de Fragaria vesca L. (morangueiro silvestre)

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Morales, Patricia; Sánchez-Mata, María Cortes; Oliveira, M. Beatriz P.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2014-01-01

    As raízes e partes vegetativas de Fragaria vesca L. (morango silvestre) são vulgarmente usadas em infusões e decocções para diferentes fins medicinais [ 1 ,2]. A sua composição em compostos bioativos (principalmente compostos fen6licos) tem vindo a ser descrita por vários autores [por exemplo, 3], no entanto, o seu contributo em termos de compostos nutricionais permanece desconhecido. Assim, este trabalho teve como principal objetivo a determinação da composição centesimal, val...

  12. Propriedades nutricionais e bioativas de espécies silvestres da etnoflora transmontana tradicionalmente consumidas em verde.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-01-01

    A informação sobre a composição dos alimentos em macronutrientes e micronutrientes mas, também, em compostos bioativos, nomeadamente antioxidantes, é extraordinariamente importante para o consumidor. Essa informação torna-se ainda mais relevante no que diz respeito a plantas silvestres da Etnoflora Transmontana tradicionalmente consumidas, de forma a recuperar a sua utilização em hábitos alimentares inerentes à nutrição moderna. As verduras, em particular, são conhecidas como excelentes fonte...

  13. MAMÍFEROS INVASORES EN LA PATAGONIA ARGENTINA: EL CONEJO SILVESTRE EUROPEO COMO CASO EMBLEMÁTICO

    OpenAIRE

    Never Antonio Bonino Vassallo

    2010-01-01

    Se brinda una reseña de los estudios biológicos y ecológicos realizados sobre el conejo silvestre europeo (Oryctolagus cuniculus), tal vez el más emblemático de los mamíferos exóticos introducidos en Argentina. En el sector continental argentino el conejo se encuentra establecido, y en proceso de dispersión, principalmente en las provincias de Mendoza y Neuquén (NO de la Patagonia). En esta región, el conejo ha demostrado tener un efecto negativo sobre la economía regional, especialmente e...

  14. Potencial nutracêutico de cogumelos silvestres comestíveis do género Agaricus.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Os cogumelos têm uma enorme importância industrial, nomeadamente nos sectores da indústria alimentar e farmacêutica. O volume comercial relacionado com cogumelos silvestres chegou mesmo a atingir, em 2004, 1,5 mil milhões de euros [1]. Assim, o estudo das suas características químicas e biológicas adquire enorme relevância uma vez que eles constituem bioreactores naturais para a produção de compostos com interesse farmacológico [2,3]. Neste trabalho, apresentaremos um estudo comparativo d...

  15. Ixodídeos em animais silvestres na Região do Planalto Serrano, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Sangaletti Lavina; Antonio Pereira de Souza; Amélia Aparecida Sartor; Anderson Barbosa de Moura

    2015-01-01

    O conhecimento da fauna de ixodídeos, bem como a potencialidade como transmissores de patógenos aos seus hospedeiros e em alguns casos aos humanos, é de grande importância para o estabelecimento de programas de saúde pública e vigilância epidemiológica. Com o objetivo de identificar ixodídeos de mamíferos silvestres no Planalto Serrano de Santa Catarina foram examinados carrapatos, coletados ou recebidos no Laboratório de Parasitologia e Doenças Parasitárias do Centro de Ciências Agroveteriná...

  16. Sensitivity of Larvae and Adult and the Immunologic Characteristics of Litopenaeus vannamei under the Acute Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most commercially important species of shrimp in the world. In this study, we performed acute hypoxia tests with Litopenaeus vannamei to estimate 12 h median lethal concentration (LC50 values at different life stages. The results indicated that the 12 h LC50 values were significantly different in different life stages of shrimp (P<0.05. The maximum value of 12 h LC50 was 2.113 mg L−1 for mysis III, and the minimum value was 0.535 mg L−1 for adult shrimp with an average total length of 6 cm. The study also determined the hemocyanin concentration (HC and the total hemocyte counts (THC in the conditions of hypoxia and reoxygenation. These results showed that the THC decreased and the HC increased under hypoxia, and the THC increased and the HC decreased in the condition of reoxygenation. These results can provide fundamental information for shrimp farming and seedling and also can guide the breeding selection, as well as being very helpful to better understand the hypoxia stress mechanism of shrimp.

  17. Culturable fungal diversity of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei boone from breeding farms in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Roberta Cruz da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the most common shrimp species cultivated in the northeast of Brazil, is very susceptible to microbial diseases, and this consequently affects productivity. There are reports of bacteria, viruses and protozoa in these shrimp, but not fungi. This study aims to isolate and identify fungi present in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and in their nursery waters, at two breeding farms in Brazil. The pathogenic potential of the isolates was assessed through the qualitative detection of proteases and aflatoxin B production. The 146 isolated fungi comprised 46 species. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Furarium were the three most relevant genera and Aspergillus flavus was the predominant species with a total of 33 isolates. Most of the isolated species are known as potentially pathogenic to humans and other animals. Eighteen isolates of A. flavus and two of A. parasiticus were able to produce aflatoxin B and 33 out of the 46 species produced protease, indicating that these fungi may also become pathogenic to shrimp and their consumers.

  18. Caracterización morfológica de accesiones silvestres de guayaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz florez Jaime Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la caracterización morfológica de 22 accesiones silvestres de guayaba Psidium guajava L. 14 colectadas en el municipio de Restrepo (Valle del Cauca, seis en Armenia (Quindío y dos en Pereira (Risaralda. Se utilizaron 12 descriptores cuantitativos y 10 cualitativos de tallo, hojas y frutos; el análisis de agrupamiento se hizo mediante el coeficiente de Dice-Nei-Li y el promedio aritmético no ponderado (UPGMA. La mayor variabilidad se halló en los descriptores peso de la pulpa (CV = 55.92%, peso (CV = 45.23%, y acidez del fruto (CV = 44.75%. El análisis de agrupamientos con base en caracteres cuantitativos permitió establecer cuatro grupos: las accesiones del grupo A (Armenia, presentaron valores promedio de los descriptores de la calidad del fruto (grados Brix, acidez del fruto y relación grados Brix/acidez y valores altos de contenido de pulpa. La mayoría de accesiones del grupo C (Restrepo tuvieron altos valores de calidad del fruto y bajo contenido de pulpa. El grupo B, constituido por accesiones de Armenia y Pereira, se diferenció por valores bajos en los descriptores de rendimiento del fruto (peso del fruto, de la pulpa y diámetro de la cavidad seminal. Las accesiones del grupo D (Restrepo mostraron valores promedios en calidad y rendimiento del fruto. Los descriptores cuantitativos se reunieron en tres variables sintéticas para rendimiento y calidad del fruto que representaron 76.86% de la variabilidad total.

  19. Caracterización morfológica de accesiones silvestres de guayaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Jiménez Lozano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la caracterización morfológica de 22 accesiones silvestres de guayaba Psidium guajava L. 14 colectadas en el municipio de Restrepo (Valle del Cauca, seis en Armenia (Quindío y dos en Pereira (Risaralda. Se utilizaron 12 descriptores cuantitativos y 10 cualitativos de tallo, hojas y frutos; el análisis de agrupamiento se hizo mediante el coeficiente de Dice-Nei-Li y el promedio aritmético no ponderado (UPGMA. La mayor variabilidad se halló en los descriptores peso de la pulpa (CV = 55.92%, peso (CV = 45.23%, y acidez del fruto (CV = 44.75%. El análisis de agrupamientos con base en caracteres cuantitativos permitió establecer cuatro grupos: las accesiones del grupo A (Armenia, presentaron valores promedio de los descriptores de la calidad del fruto (grados Brix, acidez del fruto y relación grados Brix/acidez y valores altos de contenido de pulpa. La mayoría de accesiones del grupo C (Restrepo tuvieron altos valores de calidad del fruto y bajo contenido de pulpa. El grupo B, constituido por accesiones de Armenia y Pereira, se diferenció por valores bajos en los descriptores de rendimiento del fruto (peso del fruto, de la pulpa y diámetro de la cavidad seminal. Las accesiones del grupo D (Restrepo mostraron valores promedios en calidad y rendimiento del fruto. Los descriptores cuantitativos se reunieron en tres variables sintéticas para rendimiento y calidad del fruto que representaron 76.86% de la variabilidad total.

  20. Hacia el Entendimiento de la Analgesia y Anestesia en Animales Silvestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnando Nassar-Montoya

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La práctica en especies silvestres que lógicamente conlleva la utilización de fármacos analgésicos y anestésicos, presenta una idiosincrasia propia que tiene que ser entendida desde la conceptualización del significado de la medicina veterinaria. Por esto, estos textos inician con una reflexión a partir del siguiente texto de una sentencia del Tribunal Nacional de Ética Profesional de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de Colombia: “… La investigada se excusó en que realizó el examen clínico general previa la cirugía, sin embargo, el examen superficial o externo del animal no es suficiente para hacer una evaluación completa del estado de salud como lo exige la norma. Cuando un animal va a ser intervenido quirúrgicamente y sometido a anestésicos que le pueden causar la muerte, se deben reducir los riesgos posibles por lo que, como mínimo se debe evaluar el estado de la función hepática y renal de los animales. La médica veterinaria no realizó exámenes pre-quirúrgicos que descartaran problemas de función hepática o renal, causándole con esta omisión una violación al deber profesional del artículo…”

  1. Augusto Boal en la educación social: del teatro del oprimido al psicodrama silvestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel F. Vieites García

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available La obra de Augusto Boal Teatro del Oprimido se suele situar entre las aportaciones más transcendentales del teatro del siglo XX, en tanto sus dictados teóricos y sus propuestas metodológicas y prácticas han calado en ámbitos de la educación social y teatral relacionados con el desarrollo de la democracia cultural. Pasados cuarenta años desde sus primeras experiencias, en este trabajo se propone una genealogía del teatro del oprimido a partir de una lectura crítica de sus textos fundacionales y de alguna experiencia considerada paradigmática en su desarrollo, para mostrar su naturaleza, aportes, fortalezas y debilidades. Igualmente se muestra el tránsito entre una dimensión más educativa y teatral y otra más centrada en la terapia y el desarrollo personal, para concluir que las técnicas y recursos empleados en teatro del oprimido, que proceden de fuentes muy diversas, siguen teniendo potencialidades indudables en propuestas de intervención social, cultural y educativa propias de la pedagogía teatral y la pedagogía social.Cómo referenciar este artículoVieites García, M. F. (2015. Augusto Boal en la educación social: del teatro del oprimido al psicodrama silvestre. Foro de Educación, 13(18, pp. 161-179. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2015.013.018.009 

  2. DIAGNÓSTICO JURÍDICO SOBRE EL DECOMISO Y MANEJO POSTDECOMISO DE FAUNA SILVESTRE EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DEL CHOCÓ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisneider Hinestroza Cuesta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un estudio de carácter descriptivo sobre los decomisos y el manejo postdecomiso de fauna silvestre en el departamento del Chocó utilizado como corredor para el tráfico y comercialización ilegal; se analizan, a partir del marco jurídico colombiano, la definición de fauna silvestre, decomiso y sus consecuencias jurídicas. Entre el 2005 y marzo del 2011 se realizaron en el Chocó 904 decomisos: 316 aves, 321 reptiles y 264 de mamíferos, 1 anfibio, 1 arácnido y 1 pez. La tendencia ha sido el aumento. La principal opción de disposición de fauna decomisada es la Liberación. Se han impuesto solamente sanciones de tipo administrativo sin reporte en el Registro Único de Infractores Ambientales y no se ha adelantado ninguna investigación de tipo penal

  3. Growth enhancement of shrimp (Litopenaeus schmitti) after transfer of tilapia growth hormone gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenal, Amilcar; Pimentel, Rafael; Pimentel, Eulogio; Martín, Leonardo; Santiesteban, Dayamí; Franco, Ramón; Aleström, Peter

    2008-05-01

    Electroporation of Litopenaeus schmitti embryos was used to transfer the pE300tiGH15 plasmid that contains the tilapia growth hormone gene (tiGH) complexed with a nuclear localization signal peptide into the zygotes. The gene construct was detected in 35 (36%) of the 98 larvae screened by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Western blot analyses revealed that 34% of the screened larvae expressed a single tiGH-specific band with the expected molecular mass (23.1 kDa). The development index and larval length indicated a significant growth enhancement from day 3 on after electroporation, with an average of 32% of the growth enhancement. To our knowledge, this is the first report on gene transfer enhanced growth in crustaceans. PMID:18204820

  4. Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Sanchez, Griselda; Moreno-Félix, Carolina; Velazquez, Carlos; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Acosta, Anita; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Aldana-Madrid, María-Lourdes; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat-Marina; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Burgos-Hernandez, Armando

    2010-01-01

    An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line. PMID:21139845

  5. Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Moreno-Félix

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9 and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma, respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line.

  6. Metal content of the gulf of California blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías-Espericueta, M G; Izaguirre-Fierro, G; Valenzuela-Quiñonez, F; Osuna-López, J I; Voltolina, D; López-López, G; Muy-Rangel, M D; Rubio-Castro, W

    2007-08-01

    The blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris is the main target species of the Gulf of California shrimping fleet, and its heavy metal content might be of concern for human health because of the increasing contamination of the Gulf. The Cd content of shrimp caught by commercial trawlers ranged from 0.38 to 1.05 microg/g and the mean value was significantly lower in the northern fishing grounds. Pb ranged from 3.19 to 9.59 microg/g and was significantly higher in the northern area. There were no significant geographic difference in the case of Cu and Zn (respective means = 25.4 and 57.8 microg/g). The mean values of all metals show that none is of particular concern for human health. PMID:17639322

  7. Essai de substitution de l'érythromycine en élevage larvaire de Litopenaeus stylirostris

    OpenAIRE

    Herlin, Jose

    2001-01-01

    Cette fiche biotechnique présente deux expérimentations visant à réduire voire substituer l'usage de l'érythromycine en élevage larvaire de Litopenaeus stylirostris. La première testant la bactérie Roseobacter gallaeciensis comme probiotique, associée ou non à des changements d'eau différents, n'a pas donné de résultats positifs malgré des résultats intéressants de croissance et de survie, obtenus sur des larves de mollusques au Laboratoire de Physiologie des Invertébrés de L'IFREMER de Brest...

  8. Involvement of penaeidins in defense reactions of the shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris to a pathogenic vibrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, M; Vandenbulcke, F; Garnier, J; Gueguen, Y; Bulet, P; Saulnier, D; Bachère, E

    2004-04-01

    The present study reports for the first time the involvement of an antimicrobial peptide in the defense reactions of a shrimp infected by a pathogenic Vibrio, Vibrio penaeicida. New members of the penaeidin family were characterized in the shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris by RT-PCR and RACE-PCR from hemocyte total RNAs, and by mass spectrometry detection and immunolocalization of mature peptides in shrimp hemocytes. In infected shrimps, bacteria and penaeidin distribution colocalized in the gills and the lymphoid organ that represented the main infected sites. Moreover, the shrimp immune response to infection involved massive hemocyte recruitment to infection sites where released penaeidin may participate in the isolation and elimination of the bacteria, We show that the ability of the shrimps to circumvent shrimp infections is closely related to a recovery phase based on the hematopoietic process. PMID:15095016

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of a threonine/serine protein kinase lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Lingwei; Liu, Rongdiao; Xu, Xun; Shi, Hong

    2014-07-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including anti-apoptosis, protein synthesis, glucose metabolism and cell cycling. However, the role of the PI3K-AKT pathway in crustaceans remains unclear. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the AKT gene lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei. The 511-residue LVAKT was highly conserved; contained a PH domain, a catalytic domain and a hydrophobic domain; and was highly expressed in the heart and gills of L. vannamei. We found, using Real-Time Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis, that lvakt was up-regulated during early white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Moreover, the PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, reduced viral gene transcription, implying that the PI3K-AKT pathway might be hijacked by WSSV. Our results therefore suggest that LVAKT may play an important role in the shrimp immune response against WSSV.

  10. Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkiflee Kuedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from astaxanthin treatment in mice: an inhibition of paw edema induced in hind paw, an increase in mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and thermal paw withdrawal latency, and a reduction in the amount of myeloperoxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation products in the paw. Furthermore the effect was comparable to indomethacin, a standard treatment for inflammation symptoms. Due to adverse effects of indomethacin on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, our study suggests promising prospect of astaxanthin extract as an anti-inflammatory alternative against carrageenan-induced paw edema and pain behavior.

  11. Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuedo, Zulkiflee; Sangsuriyawong, Anantita; Klaypradit, Wanwimol; Tipmanee, Varomyalin; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa

    2016-01-01

    Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from astaxanthin treatment in mice: an inhibition of paw edema induced in hind paw, an increase in mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and thermal paw withdrawal latency, and a reduction in the amount of myeloperoxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation products in the paw. Furthermore the effect was comparable to indomethacin, a standard treatment for inflammation symptoms. Due to adverse effects of indomethacin on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, our study suggests promising prospect of astaxanthin extract as an anti-inflammatory alternative against carrageenan-induced paw edema and pain behavior. PMID:27007359

  12. Influence of Probiotics on the Growth and Digestive Enzyme Activity of White Pacific Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G(o)mez R. Geovanny D.; MA Shen

    2008-01-01

    The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were de-termined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics (Bacillus spp.) supple-mented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly (P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly (P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

  13. Essential roles of Cdc42 and MAPK in cadmium-induced apoptosis in Litopenaeus vannamei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cd2+ induces Cdc42 and MAPKs pathway related gene of Litopenaeus vannamei up-regulation. • Reduction of THC, increase of ROS production and apoptotic cell rate were observed when the shrimps exposure to Cd2+. • DsRNA-suppression of LvCdc42 and MAPKs during Cd2+ stress reduces the ROS production and apoptosis. • We conclude that LvCdc42 and MAPKs play key roles in Cd2+ stress responses of shrimps. - Abstract: Cadmium, one of the most toxic heavy metals in aquatic environments, has severe effects on marine invertebrates and fishes. The MAPK signaling pathway plays a vital role in stress responses of animals. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays a vital role in animals’ stress responses, including mediation of apoptosis induced by the Rho GTPase Cdc42. However, there is limited knowledge about its function in shrimps, although disorders exacerbated by environmental stresses (including heavy metal pollution) have caused serious mortality in commercially cultured shrimps. Thus, we probed roles of Cdc42 in Litopenaeus vannamei shrimps (LvCdc42) during cadmium exposure by inhibiting its expression using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference. The treatment successfully reduced expression levels of MAPKs (including p38, JNK, and ERK). Cadmium exposure induced significant increases in expression levels of LvCdc42 and MAPKs, accompanied by reductions in total hemocyte counts (THC) and increases in apoptotic hemocyte ratios and ROS production. However, all of these responses were much weaker in LvCdc42-suppressed shrimps, in which mortality rates were higher than in controls. Our results suggest that the MAPK pathway plays a vital role in shrimps’ responses to Cd2+. They also indicate that LvCdc42 in shrimps participates in its regulation, and thus plays key roles in ROS production, regulation of apoptosis and associated stress responses

  14. Essential roles of Cdc42 and MAPK in cadmium-induced apoptosis in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ting; Wang, Wei-Na, E-mail: weina63@aliyun.com; Gu, Mei-Mei; Xie, Chen-Ying; Xiao, Yu-Chao; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Lei

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Cd{sup 2+} induces Cdc42 and MAPKs pathway related gene of Litopenaeus vannamei up-regulation. • Reduction of THC, increase of ROS production and apoptotic cell rate were observed when the shrimps exposure to Cd{sup 2+}. • DsRNA-suppression of LvCdc42 and MAPKs during Cd{sup 2+} stress reduces the ROS production and apoptosis. • We conclude that LvCdc42 and MAPKs play key roles in Cd{sup 2+} stress responses of shrimps. - Abstract: Cadmium, one of the most toxic heavy metals in aquatic environments, has severe effects on marine invertebrates and fishes. The MAPK signaling pathway plays a vital role in stress responses of animals. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays a vital role in animals’ stress responses, including mediation of apoptosis induced by the Rho GTPase Cdc42. However, there is limited knowledge about its function in shrimps, although disorders exacerbated by environmental stresses (including heavy metal pollution) have caused serious mortality in commercially cultured shrimps. Thus, we probed roles of Cdc42 in Litopenaeus vannamei shrimps (LvCdc42) during cadmium exposure by inhibiting its expression using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference. The treatment successfully reduced expression levels of MAPKs (including p38, JNK, and ERK). Cadmium exposure induced significant increases in expression levels of LvCdc42 and MAPKs, accompanied by reductions in total hemocyte counts (THC) and increases in apoptotic hemocyte ratios and ROS production. However, all of these responses were much weaker in LvCdc42-suppressed shrimps, in which mortality rates were higher than in controls. Our results suggest that the MAPK pathway plays a vital role in shrimps’ responses to Cd{sup 2+}. They also indicate that LvCdc42 in shrimps participates in its regulation, and thus plays key roles in ROS production, regulation of apoptosis and associated stress responses.

  15. IMPACT OF PARASITISM BY GREGARINES (Nematopsis sp IN FARMING SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M. Guzmán-Sáenz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Infestation of gregarines from genus Nematopsis in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is commonly associated with a decrease in production and low weight, as well as a possible predisposition to viral infections. The goal of our past research was to evaluate the effect of the Nematopsis sp. gregarine parasitosis on the growth of farm-grown Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp. Four cages were built with PVC pipes and plastic screens with a 6mm light diameter, 1,7m in height, and 1,5m in width and length (2,23 m3, and were installed in a farm-growing area in La Pesca, Tamaulipas. Twenty-nine previously weighed shrimp, L. vannamei, were placed in each cage. These had a “2” (6 to 10 parasites per shrimp degree of infestation severity by Nematopsis sp. The shrimp in 2 cages were fed for 5 days with the farm feed and 6g/kg of sodium monensin. The shrimp in the remaining cages were fed with commercial feed. After 5 days, the shrimp in the 4 cages were fed with a balanced feed for 38 days. After this, the biomass of each cage was recorded. The shrimp in the control cages weighed an average of 7,12g at the beginning of research and 9,27g at the end, and the treated shrimp weighed 7,09g and 9,88g, respectively. The non-treated shrimp gained 2,5g and the treated shrimp gained 2,79g. This present research shows that the negative effect on the shrimp growth caused by Nematopsis sp. infestation can be reversed if the infected shrimp are treated against infestation with sodium monensin, which possesses a therapeutic effect that eliminated the infestation without affecting the shrimp growth.

  16. Litopenaeus vannamei clathrin coat AP17 involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Fang; Liu, Qing-Hui; Wu, Yin; Huang, Jie

    2016-05-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the main pathogen of shrimp culture, and has brought great losses of the shrimp aquaculture industry every year since it has been found. However, the specific mechanism of the virus into the cell is not very clear. Recent research suggests that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is involved in WSSV infection. By sequence analysis, clathrin coat AP17 is an σ subunit of AP-2 complex which is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. To obtain the full-length sequence of Clathrin coat AP17 of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCCAP17), the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was performed to get the sequence of 3'and 5' end and splicing by DNAMAN. The full-length sequence of LvCCAP17 is 842 bp and expected to encoding 142 amino acids, and the amino acid sequence was analyzed by online software. The mRNA expression of LvCCAP17 in different tissues was carried out with quantitative real-time PCR and the LvCCAP17 was detected in all tested tissues of Litopenaeus vannamei. The transcriptional expression level of LvCCAP17 in epithelium and hepatopancreas was significantly up-regulated after WSSV infection. Far-Western blotting and ELISA assay showed that LvCCAP17 interacted with rVP26 and rVP37. Silencing of LvCCAP17 gene by double-strand RNA (dsRNA) interference significantly delay of cumulative mortality rate in WSSV infected shrimp and reduced the expression level of immediate early gene 1(ie1) and vp28. These results indicated that clathrin-meated endocytosis is responsible for WSSV infection. PMID:26988289

  17. The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei is not the cause of white feces syndrome in whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Tangprasittipap, Amornrat; Srisala, Jiraporn; Chouwdee, Saisunee; Somboon, Montagan; Chuchird, Niti; Limsuwan, Chalor; Srisuvan, Thinnarat; Flegel, Timothy W; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2013-01-01

    Background The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei was first described from Thailand in 2009 in farmed, indigenous giant tiger shrimp Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. The natural reservoir for the parasite is still unknown. More recently, a microsporidian closely resembling it in morphology and tissue preference was found in Thai-farmed, exotic, whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei exhibiting white feces syndrome (WFS). Our objective was to compare the newly found pathogen with E. ...

  18. KUALITAS LINGKUNGAN DAN AKTIVITAS ENZIM PENCERNAAN UDANG VANNAMEI (Litopenaeus vannamei) PADA BERBAGAI KONSENTRASI PROBIOTIK BIOREMEDIASI-Bacillus sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Aslamyah, Siti

    2012-01-01

    Udang vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei) merupakan jenis udang yang dapat dibudidayakan di tambak selain udang windu (Penaeus monodon Fab.). Udang vannamei memiliki keunggulan, yaitu dapat hidup pada rentang salinitas lebar (euryhaline) dari 5 hingga 30 ppt, mampu beradaptasi terhadap kepadatan tinggi, serta tumbuh baik dengan pakan berprotein rendah (Haliman dan Adijaya, 2005). Demikian juga, perubahan salinitas khususnya pada salinitas tinggi. Disamping itu, udang vannamei juga mempunyai laj...

  19. Dextrose as carbon source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) in a zero exchange system

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina M Suita; Eduardo L.C Ballester; Paulo C Abreu; Wilson Wasielesky Jr

    2015-01-01

    This work compared the use of dextrose and molasses as carbon sources for biofloc development, water quality maintenance, microorganism composition and growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles in biofloc technology (BFT). Two treatments, dextrose and molasses, were tested with four replicates each. Carbon was added to achieve a C:N-AT (N-(NH3+NH4+)) ratio of 6:1. Physical and chemical water quality variables were monitored daily, and shrimp growth was estimated through periodic bi...

  20. Feasibility of polyculture of blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris and goldlined rabbitfish Siganus lineatus in a mesocosm system

    OpenAIRE

    Luong, Trung Cong; Hochard, Sebastien; Royer, Florence; Lemonnier, Hugues; Letourneur, Yves

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to (1) estimate the effects of polyculture of blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris with goldlined rabbitfish Siganus lineatus on production, environmental quality and water and sediment metabolism and (2) to determine if blue shrimp and goldlined rabbitfish polyculture is possible. The experiment was carried out for 12 weeks in a mesocosm system that consisted of 12 circular outdoor mesocosm fiberglass tanks (1.7 m2, 1275 L water volume). Shrimp (2.9 g) were randomly s...

  1. Physiological response of the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris to short-term confinement on a pond bottom

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnier, Chantal; Lemonnier, Hugues; Legrand, Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    The blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris was exposed to pond sediment for 48 h and its physiological response was studied in relation to molt stage. Shrimp were maintained in cages within a semi-intensive pond after 4 months of rearing. Hypoosmoregulatory capacity (hypo-OC), magnesium ions (Mg ions), glucose, total proteins and oxyhaemocyanin were assayed in haemolymph. An increase of 370% to 500% in Mg ions concentration and 200% to 266% in glucose concentration, and a decrease in hypo-OC in...

  2. Experimental evaluation of co-culture of juvenile sea cucumbers, Holothuria scabra (Jaeger), with juvenile blue shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson)

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, S.; Patrois, Jacques; Fraisse, N

    2006-01-01

    The co-culture of juvenile sea cucumber Holothuria scabra (Jaeger), or 'sandfish', with juvenile blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson) was tested by growing groups in co-culture and monoculture for 3 weeks in tanks with enriched sand substratum. Feed was supplied on trays, accessible only to shrimp. Survival of shrimp and sandfish was high in all treatments (73-100%). Growth of shrimp did not differ between monoculture and co-culture, but sandfish grew significantly slower in co-cul...

  3. Effect of probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici on antioxidant defences and oxidative stress of Litopenaeus stylirostris under Vibrio nigripulchritudo challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Castex, Mathieu; Lemaire, Pierrette; Wabete, Nelly; Chim, Liet

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant defences and induced oxidative stress tissue damage of the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris, under challenge with Vibrio nigriputchritudo, were investigated for a 72-h period. For this purpose, L stylirostris were first infected by immersion with pathogenic V. nigripulchritudo strain SFn1 and then antioxidant defences: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), Total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathiones and induced tissue damage (MDA and carbon...

  4. A soft technology to improve survival and reproductive performance of Litopenaeus stylirostris by counterbalancing physiological disturbances associated with handling stress

    OpenAIRE

    Wabete, Nelly; Chim, Liet; Pham, Dominique; Lemaire, Pierrette; Massabuau, J

    2006-01-01

    The consequences of handling stress (fishing, transfer, eyestalk ablation) on shrimp broodstock are poorly documented. The weakness of farmed shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris, during winter is a major problem in New Caledonia, because of seasonal climate (tropical-sub-temperate). The transfer of broodstock in winter from earthen outdoor ponds to indoor maturation tanks in the hatchery (T=20 degrees C, Salinity=35 parts per thousand, fed shrimp) usually leads, after 48 h, to high mortality (up...

  5. Metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in the Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson) from New Caledonia: laboratory and field studies

    OpenAIRE

    Metian, Marc; Eltayeb, Mohamed M.; Hédouin, Laëtitia; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Mugnier, Chantal; Bustamante, Paco; Warnau, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The present work aimed at better understanding metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in the edible Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris, using both laboratory and field approaches. In the laboratory, the bioaccumulation kinetics of Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, and Zn have been investigated in shrimp exposed via seawater and food, using the corresponding gamma-emitting radiotracers (Ag-110m, Cd-109, Co-57, Cr-51, and Zn-65) and highly sensitive nuclear detection techniques. Results showed that hepato...

  6. Management measures to control diseases reported by tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farmers in Guangdong, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Liu, Liping; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard;

    2016-01-01

    Culture of tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) has intensified during the last decade in China with increased production, meanwhile it has also brought some problems, including diseases, increased use of antimicrobials and other chemicals for disease control...... production area in China. Tilapia farmers (25) mainly reported streptococcosis (9) and exophthalmia disease (9) which often was treated with sulfadiazine, florfenicol and vitamins or rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) extract, although farmers thought the effectiveness of antimicrobial treatment has decreased...

  7. Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Doan, Ryan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Chen, Patricia L.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco, J. Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G.; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D; Jason E. Sawyer; Charles D Johnson; Dindot, Scott V.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is provided freely. RNA-Seq with Illumina HiSeq technology was used to analyze samples extracted from shrimp abdominal muscle, hepatopancreas, gills and pleopods. We used the Trinity and Trinotate software suites for transcriptome assembly and annotation, respectively. The quality ...

  8. Neonatal cannibalism in cage-bred wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Canibalismo neonatal en conejos silvestres (Oryctolagus cuniculus alojados en jaula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P González-Redondo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the occurrence of neonatal cannibalism by individually outdoors cage-bred wild rabbit does (Oryctolagus cuniculus. Ninety eight parturitions that were gathered from 19 female cage-born wild rabbits during five consecutive years were monitored for cannibalism incidence. This alteration in maternal behaviour, which was exclusively limited to the peripartum period, had a high incidence (13.3% of parturitions and was significantly associated with inadequate maternal behaviour such as not using straw or hair in nestbuilding or giving birth outside the nest box. In 84.6% of the parturitions with occurrence of cannibalism the does did not introduce hair into the nest boxes, and in 92.3% of the parturitions with cannibalised kits the does did not introduce straw into the nest boxes. Cannibalism was also associated with a large proportion of rabbits that gave birth outside the nest boxes (53.8%. It is discussed that cannibalism practiced by wild rabbit does in captivity is a manifestation of the failure of maternal behaviour, a consequence of the stress they experience in captivity.El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la práctica de canibalismo neonatal por conejas silvestres (Oryctolagus cuniculus alojadas individualmente en jaulas ubicadas al aire libre. Se controló la incidencia de canibalismo en 98 partos producidos durante cinco años consecutivos por 19 conejas silvestres nacidas en jaula. Esta alteración de la conducta maternal, que estuvo limitada exclusivamente al periparto, tuvo una elevada incidencia (13,3% de los partos y estuvo asociada significativamente con una inadecuada conducta maternal, tal como la no introducción de pelo y paja en los nidales por parte de las conejas o los partos fuera del nidal. En el 84,6% de los partos en los que ocurrió canibalismo las conejas no introdujeron pelo en los nidales, y en el 92,3% de los partos con gazapos canibalizados las conejas no introdujeron paja en

  9. The complete mitochondrial genomes of the yellowleg shrimp Farfantepenaeus californiensis and the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Varela-Romero, Alejandro; Muhlia-Almazán, Adriana; Anduro-Corona, Iván; Vega-Heredia, Sarahí; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis E; De la Rosa-Vélez, Jorge; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2009-03-01

    Mitochondria play key roles in many cellular processes. Description of penaeid shrimp genes, including mitochondrial genomes are fairly recent and some are focusing on commercially important shrimp as the Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei that is being used for aquaculture not only in America, but also in Asia. Much less is known about other Pacific shrimp such as the yellowleg shrimp Farfantepenaeus californiensis and the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris. We report the complete mitogenomes from these last two Pacific shrimp species. Long DNA fragments were obtained by PCR and then used to get internal fragments for sequencing. The complete F. californiensis and L. stylirostris mtDNAs are 15,975 and 15,988 bp long, containing the 37 common sequences and a control region of 990 and 999 bp, respectively. The gene order is identical to that of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Secondary structures for the 22 tRNAs are proposed and phylogenetic relationships for selected complete crustacean mitogenomes are included. Phylogenomic relationships among five shrimp show strong statistical support for the monophyly of the genus across the analysis. Litopenaeus species define a clade, with close relationship to Farfantepenaeus, and both clade with the sister group of Penaeus and Fenneropenaeus. PMID:20403743

  10. Análisis fisiológico y genético del desempeño reproductivo del camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Arcos, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    Durante la reproducción de camarones peneidos en cautiverio se ha observado que las hembras, a pesar de encontrarse bajo las mismas condiciones de maduración y de que provengan de una población homogénea en cuanto a edad y tamaño, presentan un diferente potencial reproductivo. Esto es, se ha observado que un alto porcentaje (75%) de hembras no desova o produce desoves no viables, mientras que un bajo porcentaje de hembras (25%) tienen la capacidad de desovar múltiples veces, produciendo estas...

  11. El Virus del Nilo Occidental y las Aves Silvestres de Colombia: experiencia en San Andrés Islas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Soler-Tovar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El Virus del Nilo Occidental (VNO es una zoonosis transmitida por zancudos (Culex spp., por lo tanto pertenece al grupo de los Arbovirus, se clasifica dentro del género Flavivirus, familia Flaviviridae. El virión es de cadena sencilla, ARN de secuencia positiva de aproximadamente 11 kb (kilobases. Pertenece al serocomplejo de la Encefalitis Japonesa. Debido a la actualidad e importancia del VNO, entre septiembre de 2005 y febrero de 2006, se realizo una investigación entre la Línea de Microbiología y Epidemiología Veterinaria de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia y la Fundación ProAves, con el apoyo del Centro de Control y Prevención de Enfermedades de los Estados Unidos (CDC, para detectar el VNO en aves silvestres de San Andrés Islas, Colombia.

  12. Atividade e moléculas antioxidantes de cogumelos silvestres comestíveis do género Agaricus

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Anabela; Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Os cogumelos contêm vários compostos antioxidantes nomeadamente, compostos fenólicos (e.g. ácidos fenólicos), tocoferóis e carotenóides. Entre as substâncias biologicamente ativas presentes nos cogumelos, os compostos fenólicos têm atraído muita atenção devido às suas excelentes propriedades como antioxidantes e ao seu potencial anti-inflamatório ou antitumoral [1,2]. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o potencial antioxidante de seis espécies silvestres comestíveis do género Agaricus: Agaricus bis...

  13. Are camouflaged seeds less attacked by wild birds? Sementes camufladas são menos atacadas por aves silvestres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat, corn and rice crops in Brazil use seeds treated with systemic insecticide/nematicide carbofuran, mixed to rhodamine B red dye. Carbofuran is toxic and rhodamine B is attractive to wild birds that eat up these seeds, resulting in notable mortality during planting. A field experiment was performed in southeast Brazil to evaluate if camouflaged seeds would be less consumed by wild birds in comparison to commercial seeds with red-colored rhodamine B and aposematic blue seeds. Camouflaged seeds were less removed than seeds with rhodamine B and natural colors. The camouflaging was more effective in the presence of irregularities and litter. There was no removal of blue-colored seeds. As legislation requires treated seeds to receive a different color to avoid accidents with humans, camouflaging may be used as replacement of rhodamine B to reduce mortality rates of wild birds.Plantações de trigo milho e arroz no Brasil utilizam sementes tratadas com o inseticida e nematicida sistêmico carbofuran, associado ao corante vermelho rodamina B. O carbofuran é tóxico e a rodamina B é atrativa às aves silvestres, as quais consomem estas sementes, resultando em notável mortalidade durante o plantio. Um experimento realizado em campo agrícola no sudeste do Brasil mostrou que sementes camufladas foram menos removidas por aves silvestres do que sementes com rodamina B. A camuflagem foi potencializada em presença de irregularidades e serrapilheira no solo. Não houve remoção de sementes de cor azul, mas a formulação granular de cor azul tem causado mortalidade de aves nos USA e Canadá. Como sementes tratadas com agrotóxicos devem, de acordo com a legislação, receber coloração diferenciada para evitar acidentes com humanos, a camuflagem pode ser utilizada, substituindo a rodamina B.

  14. Aplicaciones del Triage en la Medicina de Fauna Silvestre, Exótica y de Zoológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Varela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo el autor revisa los elementos conceptuales y metodológicos del triage como herramienta en la atención médica de animales silvestres y exóticos, con objeto de compendiar los aspectos esenciales para que el clínico veterinario realice la evaluación y categorización inicial de los pacientes que ingresan por emergencia a las clínicas, zoológicos, centros de rehabilitación, o que son atendidos en el campo durante accidentes naturales, así como la metodología para establecer las necesidades de abordamiento clínico, condiciones de riesgo y lugar apropiado de tratamiento de estos pacientes. Se incluyen en el documento aspectos básicos sobre normas de conducta ética y legislación, con énfasis en Colombia; además de algunas generalidades sobre manejo de fauna silvestre. Abstract. In this article the author revises conceptual and methodological elements of triage into the wildlife and exotic animals medical care, with object of summarizing essential aspects so that the clinical veterinarian carries out the evaluation and the patients' initial categorization that enter for emergency to the clinics, zoos, rehabilitation centers and that they are assisted in the field, as well as the methodology to establish the necessities of clinical approach, conditions of risk and appropriate place of these patients' treatment. They are included in the document basic aspects about norms of ethical behavior, legislation and some generalities on wildlife management, with emphasis in Colombian legislation.

  15. Ixodídeos em animais silvestres na Região do Planalto Serrano, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Sangaletti Lavina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da fauna de ixodídeos, bem como a potencialidade como transmissores de patógenos aos seus hospedeiros e em alguns casos aos humanos, é de grande importância para o estabelecimento de programas de saúde pública e vigilância epidemiológica. Com o objetivo de identificar ixodídeos de mamíferos silvestres no Planalto Serrano de Santa Catarina foram examinados carrapatos, coletados ou recebidos no Laboratório de Parasitologia e Doenças Parasitárias do Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias – CAV/UDESC no período 2001 a 2011. Os ixodídeos eram provenientes de animais silvestres que passaram pelo processo de triagem do Hospital de Clínicas Veterinárias (HCV do CAV e de animais encontrados mortos em rodovias do Estado. De acordo com as chaves dicotômicas específicas identificou-se Amblyomma aureolatum coletados em Pseudalopex gymnocercus, Lycalopex gymnocercus, Leopardus pardalis, Cerdocyon thous, Leopardus tigrinus, Puma concolor e Bufo sp.; A. dubitatum em Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris; A. rotundatum em Puma concolor e Bohtrops sp.; A. ovale em Bufo sp.; e Rhipicephalus microplus em Mazama gouazoubira. Foi identificado um exemplar de A. longirostre que se encontrava em uma residência da área urbana do município de Lages. As espécies A. rotundatum em Bohtrops sp. e em Puma concolor; e A. longirostre, encontrada no ambiente, foram relatadas pela primeira vez no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. 

  16. Estudio preliminar de especies de micobacterias en primates colombianos no humanos en cautiverio en dos centros de rescate de fauna silvestre de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barragán Fonseca Karol Bibiana

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la presencia de diferentes especies de micobacterias en 83 primates colombianos en cautiverio en dos centros de rescate de fauna silvestre de Bogotá. Se evaluaron 166 muestras de sangre y lavado gástrico mediante amplificación por PCR-spoligotyping para micobacterias del
    complejo tuberculosis y Hsp65-PRA para micobacterias no  tuberculosas (MNT. Se obtuvo una prevalencia del 2,4% para micobacterias del complejo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, encontrando un Saimiri sciureus infectado con Mycobacterium microti tipo vole y un Saguinus leucopus infectado con
    Mycobacterium africanum, siendo el primer reporte de estas micobacterias para primates del Nuevo Mundo. La prevalencia para MNT fue de 7,2% perteneciendo a las especies Mycobacterium phlei, M. terrae, M. vaccae, M. flavescens, M. flavescens y M. zsulgaii, algunas de estas, patógenos oportunistas. No existe una diferencia a nivel descriptivo en cuanto a la edad, al sexo y al tipo de entrega de los individuos infectados con MNT y micobacterias tuberculosas con respecto a los individuos que no las presentaron. Los primates del Nuevo Mundo pueden ser portadores sanos de micobacterias tuberculosas lo que representa un riesgo para la salud humana, y con ciertas especies de micobacterias, podría ser un riesgo para las poblaciones de primates silvestres en caso de que estos primates sean liberados en el medio silvestre. Este estudio es relevante para el país, ya que integra conceptos médicos tanto epidemiológicos como microbiológicos, con aspectos relacionados con la conservación de la fauna silvestre.

  17. Infecção natural de roedores silvestres pelo Schistosoma mansoni Natural infection of sylvatic rodents by Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Correa Silva

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available No município baiano de Planalto, 47% dos roedores silvestres capturados (Nectomys estavam infectados pelo Schistosoma mansoni, enquanto a prevalência desta infecção na população humana da área era de 3,26%. Os roedores habitam zonas peridomiciliares, têm hábitos aquáticos e eliminam ovos viáveis do S. mansoni. Albergam número variável de vermes e formam granulomas periovulares pequenos, principalmente no fígado e intestinos, sem fibrose hepática importante ou sinais de hipertensão porta. A deposição maior de ovos se faz a nível do intestino, sobretudo do jejuno, com passagem de grande número de ovos para as fezes. Miracídios isolados a partir dos ovos retirados dos roedores infectaram normalmente a Biomphalaria glabrata, com eliminação de cercárias, com as quais se provocou infecção no camundongo branco, em tudo semelhante aquelas causadas por outras cepas de origem humana. Também camundongos que foram deixados em contacto com as águas infestadas pelos roedores silvestres se infectaram facilmente, atestando o alto grau de transmissibilidade da área. Conclui-se que os roedores silvestres de planalto toleram bem a infecção esquistossomótica natural, são bons eliminadores de ovos viáveis do S. mansoni, estão infectados por uma cepa semelhante a que infecta o homem e podem ter um papel na manutenção do ciclo vital do S. mansoni na área estudada.In Planalto, a small locality in the interior of the Bahia state, Brazil, 47% of sylvatic rodents were found to be naturally infected with Schistosoma mansoni, whereas the prevalence of the infection in the inhabitants of the area was 3.26%. The rodents (Nectomys live near the houses, in contact with water passing viable schistosome eggs in the stools. Worm burden is variable amongst such rodents. Periovular granulomas are small, especially in liver and intestines, and hepatic fibrosis is mild or absent, with no morphological evidence of portal hypertension being noted

  18. Development of EST-SSR markers by data mining in three species of shrimp: Litopenaeus vannamei, Litopenaeus stylirostris, and Trachypenaeus birdy

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, F; Ortiz, J.; Zhinaula, M.; Gonzabay, C.; Calderón, J.; Volckaert, F.A.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the data mining of publicly available Litopenaeus vannamei expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to generate simple sequence repeat (SSRs) markers and on their transferability between related Penaeid shrimp species. Repeat motifs were found in 3.8% of the evaluated ESTs at a frequency of one repeat every 7.8 kb of sequence data. A total of 206 primer pairs were designed, and 112 loci were amplified with the highest success in L. vannamei. A high percentage (69%) of EST-SSRs were transfe...

  19. Heritability of body weight and resistance to ammonia in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjia; Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Sui, Juan; Kong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia, toxic to aquaculture organisms, represents a potential problem in aquaculture systems, and the situation is exacerbated in closed and intensive shrimp farming operations, expecially for Litopenaeus vannamei. Assessing the potential for the genetic improvement of resistance to ammonia in L. vannamei requires knowledge of the genetic parameters of this trait. The heritability of resistance to ammonia was estimated using two descriptors in the present study: the survival time (ST) and the survival status at half lethal time (SS50) for each individual under high ammonia challenge. The heritability of ST and SS50 were low (0.154 4±0.044 6 and 0.147 5±0.040 0, respectively), but they were both significantly different from zero (P 0.05), suggesting that ST and SS50 could be used as suitable indicators for resistance to ammonia. There were also positive phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to ammonia and body weight, which means that resistance to ammonia can be enhanced by the improvement of husbandry practices that increase the body weight. The results from the present study suggest that the selection for higher body weight does not have any negative consequences for resistance to ammonia. In addition to quantitative genetics, tools from molecular genetics can be applied to selective breeding programs to improve the efficiency of selection for traits with low heritability.

  20. Molecular markers for identifying a new selected variety of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Huang, Hao; Li, Yijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    Selective breeding of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the last decade has produced new varieties exhibiting high growth rates and disease resistance. However, the identification of new varieties of shrimps from their phenotypic characters is difficult. This study introduces a new approach for identifying varieties of shrimps using molecular markers of microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences. The method was employed to identify a new selected variety, Kehai No. 1 (KH-1), from three representative stocks (control group): Zhengda; Tongwei; and a stock collected from Fujian Province, which is now cultured in mainland China. By pooled genotyping of KH-1 and the control group, five microsatellites showing differences between KH-1 and the control group were screened out. Individual genotyping data confirmed the results from pooled genotyping. The genotyping data for the five microsatellites were applied to the assignment analysis of the KH-1 group and the control group using the partial Bayesian assignment method in GENECLASS2. By sequencing the mitochondrial control regions of individuals from the KH-1 and control group, four haplotypes were observed in the KH-1 group, whereas 14 haplotypes were obtained in the control group. By combining the microsatellite assignment analysis with mitochondrial control region analysis, the average accuracy of identification of individuals in the KH-1 group and control group reached 89%. The five selected microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region sequences were highly polymorphic and could be used to distinguish new selected varieties of L. vannamei from other populations cultured in China.

  1. Mercury content and their risk assessment in farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from NW Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Alvarez, C G; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Osuna-López, J I; Voltolina, D; Frías-Espericueta, M G

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the total mercury content in hepatopancreas and edible muscle of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei cultured along the NW coast of Mexico, and to evaluate the potential human health risk due to their consumption. Samples were obtained between May and June 2010 in 26 shrimp farms from the three most important shrimp-producing states of NW Mexico, and total Hg was analyzed after reduction with SnCl2 in a mercury analyzer. The ranges of Hg concentrations of the hepatopancreas were 0.101±0.03-0.184±0.13 μg g(-1) in Sonora, 0.077±0.055-0.813±0.363 μg g(-1) in Sinaloa and 0.139±0.037-0.791±0.33 μg g(-1) in Nayarit. In the muscle, values were from 0.078±0.02 to 0.539±0.09 μg g(-1) in Sonora, 0.154±0.03-0.861±0.423 μg g(-1) in Sinaloa and 0.121±0.041-1.48±0.44 μg g(-1) in Nayarit. Considering the concentrations of Hg in the muscle and the national consumption rate, shrimp farmed in NW Mexico does not represent a risk for human health (HQ<1). PMID:25303662

  2. Analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Weiji; Li, Weiya; Zhang, Quanqi; Kong, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Seven microsatellite markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei, which were introduced from Central and South America to China. All seven microsatellite loci were polymorphic, with polymorphism information content ( PIC) values ranging from 0.593 to 0.952. Totally 92 alleles were identified, and the number of alleles ( Na) and effective alleles ( Ne) varied between 4 and 21 and 2.7 and 14.6, respectively. Observed heterozygosity ( H o) values were lower than the expected heterozygosity ( H e) values (0.526-0.754), which indicated that the seven stocks possessed a rich genetic diversity. Thirty-seven tests were detected for reasonable significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. F is values were positive at five loci, suggesting that there was a relatively high degree of inbreeding within stocks. Pairwise F st values ranged from 0.0225 to 0.151, and most of the stock pairs were moderately differentiated. Genetic distance and cluster analysis using UPGMA revealed a close genetic relationship of L. vannamei between Pop2 and Pop3. AMOVA indicated that the genetic variation among stocks (11.3%) was much lower than that within stocks (88.7%). Although the seven stocks had a certain degree of genetic differentiation and a rich genetic diversity, there is an increasing risk of decreased performance due to inbreeding in subsequent generations.

  3. Antimutagenic Compounds of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei: Isolation and Structural Elucidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-María López-Saiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, cancer is the main cause of mortality worldwide; thus, the search of chemopreventive compounds to prevent the disease has become a priority. White shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei has been reported as a source of compounds with chemopreventive activities. In this study, shrimp lipids were extracted and then fractionated in order to isolate those compounds responsible for the antimutagenic activity. The antimutagenic activity was assessed by the inhibition of the mutagenic effect of aflatoxin B1 on TA98 and TA100 Salmonella tester strains using the Ames test. Methanolic fraction was responsible for the highest antimutagenic activity (95.6 and 95.9% for TA98 and TA100, resp. and was further separated into fifteen different subfractions (M1–M15. Fraction M8 exerted the highest inhibition of AFB1 mutation (96.5 and 101.6% for TA98 and TA100, resp. and, after further fractionation, four subfractions M8a, M8b, M8c, and M8d were obtained. Data from 1H and 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry analysis of fraction M8a (the one with the highest antimutagenic activity, suggest that the compound responsible for its antimutagenicity is an apocarotenoid.

  4. Stylicins, a new family of antimicrobial peptides from the Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, J L; Abdelouahab, M; Dupont, J; Lefevre, F; Bachère, E; Romestand, B

    2010-03-01

    The present study reports the characterization of Ls-Stylicin1, a novel antimicrobial peptide from the penaeid shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris. The predicted mature peptide of 82 residues is negatively charged (theoretical pI=5.0) and characterized by a proline-rich N-terminal region and a C-terminal region containing 13 cysteine residues. The recombinant Ls-Stylicin1 has been isolated in both monomeric and dimeric forms. Both display strong antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum (1.25 microM

  5. Molecular phylogeny of western Atlantic Farfantepenaeus and Litopenaeus shrimp based on mitochondrial 16S partial sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, R; Rogers, A D; Maclean, N; D'Incao, F

    2001-01-01

    Partial sequences for the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene were obtained from 10 penaeid shrimp species: Farfantepenaeus paulensis, F. brasiliensis, F. subtilis, F. duorarum, F. aztecus, Litopenaeus schmitti, L. setiferus, and Xiphopenaeus kroyeri from the western Atlantic and L. vannamei and L. stylirostris from the eastern Pacific. Sequences were also obtained from an undescribed morphotype of pink shrimp (morphotype II) usually identified as F. subtilis. The phylogeny resulting from the 16S partial sequences showed that these species form two well-supported monophyletic clades consistent with the two genera proposed in a recent systematic review of the suborder Dendrobranchiata. This contrasted with conclusions drawn from recent molecular phylogenetic work on penaeid shrimps based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI region that failed to support recent revisions of the Dendrobranchiata based on morphological analysis. Consistent differences observed in the sequences for morphotype II, coupled with previous allozyme data, support the conclusion that this is a previously undescribed species of Farfantepenaeus. PMID:11161743

  6. Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from pond-reared Litopenaeus vannamei marketed in Natal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Maria Rodrigues de Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten out of fifty fresh and refrigerated samples of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei collected from retailers in Natal (Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil tested positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The Kanagawa test and multiplex PCR assays were used to detect TDH and TRH hemolysins and the tdh, trh and tlh genes, respectively. All strains were Kanagawa-negative and tlh-positive. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for seven antibiotics by the agar diffusion technique. Five strains (50% presented multiple antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (90% and amikacin (60%, while two strains (20% displayed intermediate-level resistance to amikacin. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. Intermediate-level susceptibility and/or resistance to other antibiotics ranged from 10 to 90%, with emphasis on the observed growing intermediate-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. Half our isolates yielded a multiple antibiotic resistance index above 0.2 (range: 0.14-0.29, indicating a considerable risk of propagation of antibiotic resistance throughout the food chain.

  7. Evaluation of different lipid sources in diet of pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei at low salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Litopenaeus vannamei (1.98 ± 0.28 g were fed diets containing soybean oil (SBO, beef tallow (BFT, fish oil (FIO, linseed oil (LNO, and an equal combination of SBO + BFT + FIO (SBF or SBO + BFT + LNO (SBL as dietary lipid source respectively for 8 weeks at low salinity of 3‰. The shrimp fed the SBL diet had the highest weight gain and survival rate. The whole body fatty acid composition including the EPA and DHA of L. vannamei generally reflected the composition of dietary fatty acids with the highest DHA and EPA found in L. vannamei fed FIO. The activities of fatty acid synthetase, acyl-CoA, diacylgycerol acyltransferase 2, elongase of long-chain fatty acids family member 6, Δ5 and Δ6 fatty acid desaturases of shrimp fed SBL were significantly lower than those fed BFT. The results indicated that fish oil could not be the only lipid source for L. vannamei cultured at low salinity, and the shrimp fed non-fish oil diet with a suitable proportion of PUFAs could obtain the same growth and survival rate as those fed diets with fish oil.

  8. Effect of salinity on regulation mechanism of neuroendocrine-immunoregulatory network in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qun; Pan, Luqing; Ren, Qin; Wang, Lin; Miao, Jingjing

    2016-02-01

    The effects of low salinity (transferred from 31‰ to 26‰, 21‰, and 16‰) on the regulation pathways of neuroendocrine-immunoregulatory network were investigated in Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that the hormones (corticotrophin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone) and biogenic amines (dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine) concentrations in lower salinity groups increased significantly within 12 h. The gene expression of biogenic amine receptors showed that dopamine receptor D4 and α2 adrenergic receptor in lower salinity groups decreased significantly within 12 h, whereas the 5-HT7 receptor significantly increased within 1d. The second messenger synthetases (adenylyl cyclase, phospholipase C) and the second messengers (cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic guanosine monophosphate) of lower salinity groups shared a similar trend in which adenylyl cyclase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate reached the maximum at 12 h, whereas phospholipase C and cyclic guanosine monophosphate reached the minimum. The immune parameters (total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, phagocytic activity, crustin expression, antibacterial activity, C-type lectin expression, hemagglutinating activity) in lower salinity groups decreased significantly within 12 h. Except for the total hemocyte count, all the parameters recovered to the control levels afterwards. Therefore, it may be concluded that the neuroendocrine-immunoregulatory network plays a principal role in adapting to salinity changes as the main center for sensing the stress and causes immune response in L. vannamei. PMID:26766179

  9. Transcriptome analysis of the unfolded protein response in hemocytes of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hong; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Bi, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yue, Hai-Tao; Yuan, Kai; Chen, Yong-Gui; Wen, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

    2016-07-01

    In this study, Litopenaeus vannamei was injected with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against L. vannamei immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (LvBip) to activating UPR in the hemocytes, shirmps injected dsRNA against enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) as control group. And genes expression in hemocytes of then were analyzed using Illumina Hiseq 2500 (PE100). By comparing the analyzed results, 1418 unigenes were significantly upregulated, and 596 unigenes were significantly down-regulated upon UPR. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes against known databases indicated that the distribution of gene pathways between the upregulated and down-regulated genes were substantially different. A total of 208 genes of UPR system were obtained, and 69 of them were differentially expressed between the two groups. Results also showed that L. vannamei UPR was involved in various metabolic processes, such as glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and nucleic acid metabolism. In addition, UPR was emgaged in immune-assicoated signaling pathways, such as NF-κB signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, Hippo signaling pathway, p38 MAPK signaling pathway and Wnt signaling pathway in L. vannamei. These results improved our current understanding of the L. vannamei UPR, and highlighted its importance in cell homeostasis upon environmental stress. PMID:26497095

  10. The Effect of Three Culture Methods on Intensive Culture System of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhen; WAN Rong; SONG Xiefa; GAO Lei

    2013-01-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance.This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84d.The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks,i.e.,outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C),greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M).Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C (P <0.05).In contrast to the other two treatments,mode-M had stable pH after 50d cultivation of shrimps.In the mid-late period,the average concentrations of TAN,NO2-N,DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C (P <0.05).Despite lack of differences in the final shrimp weight among different treatments (P >0.05),mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield,survival rate and feed conversion rate (P < 0.05) than other modes.There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments (P<0.05).These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system ofL.vannamei.

  11. Nitric oxide synthase-dependent immune response against gram negative bacteria in a crustacean, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, Tania; Carpio, Yamila; Bolívar, Jorge; Gómez, Leonardo; Estrada, Mario Pablo; Pendón, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived radical generated by nitric oxide synthases (NOS). NO is involved in a variety of functions in invertebrates, including host defense. In previous studies, we isolated and sequenced for the first time the NOS gene from hemocytes of Panulirus argus, demonstrating the inducibility of this enzyme by lipopolysaccharide in vitro e in vivo. Hyperimmune serum was obtained from rabbits immunized with a P. argus -NOS fragment of 31 kDa produced in Escherichia coli, which specifically detected the recombinant polypeptide and the endogenous NOS from lobster hemocytes by western blotting and immunofluorescence. In the present work, we demonstrate that the hyperimmune serum obtained against P. argus NOS also recognizes Litopenaeus vannamei NOS in hemocytes by western blotting and immunofluorescence. Our data also show that while the hemolymph of L. vannamei has a strong antibacterial activity against the Gram negative bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila, the administration of the anti NOS serum reduce the natural bacterial clearance. These results strongly suggest that NOS is required for the shrimp immune defense toward Gram negative bacteria. Therefore, the monitoring of induction of NOS could be an important tool for testing immunity in shrimp farming. PMID:26804662

  12. The cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: molecular cloning and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Anduro, Gracia A; Barillas-Mury, Carolina-V; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Gupta, Lalita; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Hernández-López, Jorge; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2006-01-01

    Manganese containing superoxide dismutase (SOD) is normally a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial enzyme in eukaryotic organisms; however, a cytoplasmic manganese SOD (cMnSOD) was found in crustaceans that use hemocyanin as oxygen carrier. The complete cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of a cMnSOD from Litopenaeus vannamei were determined. The coding sequence predicts a 287 residues protein with a unique 61 amino acids extension at the N-terminus and lacking a mitochondrial-targeting sequence. Phylogenetic analysis clusters cMnSODs and mitochondrial MnSODs in two separate groups. cMnSOD transcripts were detected in hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, intestine, nervous system, muscle, pleopods and gills. Since hemocytes are key defense cells and their reactions produce superoxide radicals, the infection by white spot syndrome virus on the cMnSOD transcript levels were investigated and found to increase transiently 1h post-infection and then decrease as the viral infection progressed to levels significantly lower than uninfected controls by 12h post-infection. PMID:16504292

  13. Catalase from the white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei: molecular cloning and protein detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares-Sánchez, Olga L; Gómez-Anduro, Gracia A; Felipe-Ortega, Ximena; Islas-Osuna, Maria A; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2004-08-01

    Catalase is an antioxidant enzyme that plays a very important role in the protection against oxidative damage by breaking down hydrogen peroxide. It is a very highly conserved enzyme that has been identified from numerous species including bacteria, fungi, plants and animals, but the information about catalase in crustaceans is very limited. A cDNA containing the complete coding sequence for catalase from the shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei was sequenced and the mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in selected tissues. Catalase was detected in hepatopancreas crude extracts by Western blot analysis with anti-human catalase polyclonal antibodies. The nucleotide sequence is 1692 bp long, including a 72-bp 5'-UTR, a coding sequence of 1515 bp and a 104-bp 3'-UTR. The deduced amino acid sequence corresponds to 505 amino acids with high identity to invertebrate, vertebrate and even bacterial catalases and contains the catalytic residues His71, Asn144, and Tyr354. The predicted protein has a calculated molecular mass of 57 kDa; which coincides with the size of the subunit (approximately 55 kDa) and the tetrameric protein (approximately 230 kDa) detected in hepatopancreas extracts under native conditions. Catalase mRNA level was higher in hepatopancreas, followed by gills and was not detected in muscle. PMID:15325332

  14. Antimutagenic Compounds of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): Isolation and Structural Elucidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Saiz, Carmen-María; Hernández, Javier; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco-Javier; Velázquez, Carlos; Ocaño-Higuera, Víctor-Manuel; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Robles-Sánchez, Maribel; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Burgos-Hernández, Armando

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, cancer is the main cause of mortality worldwide; thus, the search of chemopreventive compounds to prevent the disease has become a priority. White shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) has been reported as a source of compounds with chemopreventive activities. In this study, shrimp lipids were extracted and then fractionated in order to isolate those compounds responsible for the antimutagenic activity. The antimutagenic activity was assessed by the inhibition of the mutagenic effect of aflatoxin B1 on TA98 and TA100 Salmonella tester strains using the Ames test. Methanolic fraction was responsible for the highest antimutagenic activity (95.6 and 95.9% for TA98 and TA100, resp.) and was further separated into fifteen different subfractions (M1–M15). Fraction M8 exerted the highest inhibition of AFB1 mutation (96.5 and 101.6% for TA98 and TA100, resp.) and, after further fractionation, four subfractions M8a, M8b, M8c, and M8d were obtained. Data from 1H and 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry analysis of fraction M8a (the one with the highest antimutagenic activity), suggest that the compound responsible for its antimutagenicity is an apocarotenoid. PMID:27006678

  15. Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

  16. Comparison of the Respiratory Metabolism of Juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei Cultured in Seawater and Freshwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Sen; WANG Fang; DONG Shuanglin; LI Ying

    2014-01-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei, a euryhaline species, can be cultured at a wide range of salinities. The emergence of freshwater pond-culture of L. vannamei is an important prelude to the continued development of shrimp culture in China. In this study, we com-pared the respiratory metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei cultured in freshwater and saltwater by measuring their oxygen consump-tion rate (OCR), ammonium-type nitrogen excretion rate (AER) and pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activi-ties at different molting stages in order to physiecologically characterize juvenile L. vannamei under freshwater conditions. The re-sults showed that OCR was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater at all stages of molting cycle. However, variation of OCR among molting stages in saltwater was similar with that in freshwater, and the highest OCR was observed at post-molting stage. At all stages of molting cycle, AER was significantly higher in freshwater than in saltwater, and the highest was observed at post-molting stage. The activity of PK was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater. Conversely, the activity of LDH was higher in freshwater than in saltwater in general. Significant variation of PK and LDH activities in molting cycle was observed in saltwater and freshwater. The results indicated that aerobic metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei was more active in saltwater than in freshwater;while its protein metabolism was more active in freshwater than in saltwater.

  17. Comparison of the respiratory metabolism of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in seawater and freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Sen; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Li, Ying

    2013-11-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei, a euryhaline species, can be cultured at a wide range of salinities. The emergence of freshwater pond-culture of L. vannamei is an important prelude to the continued development of shrimp culture in China. In this study, we compared the respiratory metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei cultured in freshwater and saltwater by measuring their oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ammonium-type nitrogen excretion rate (AER) and pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities at different molting stages in order to physiecologically characterize juvenile L. vannamei under freshwater conditions. The results showed that OCR was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater at all stages of molting cycle. However, variation of OCR among molting stages in saltwater was similar with that in freshwater, and the highest OCR was observed at post-molting stage. At all stages of molting cycle, AER was significantly higher in freshwater than in saltwater, and the highest was observed at post-molting stage. The activity of PK was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater. Conversely, the activity of LDH was higher in freshwater than in saltwater in general. Significant variation of PK and LDH activities in molting cycle was observed in saltwater and freshwater. The results indicated that aerobic metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei was more active in saltwater than in freshwater; while its protein metabolism was more active in freshwater than in saltwater.

  18. Florescimento e frutificação do maracujazeiro silvestre Passiflora setacea D. C. cultivado em Jaboticabal, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Machado Ataíde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Muitas espécies de Passiflora apresentam comportamento florífero diferente durante o ano e, consequentemente, com variações nas produções e períodos de colheitas, como observado para o maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis sims. Estudo com espécies silvestre constitui-se numa importante alternativa para usos de novos genótipos no melhoramento das espécies cultivadas comercialmente, em especial, a Passiflora setacea, devido ao grande potencial de mercado; contudo, essa espécie é pouco estudada, principalmente em relação à propagação, germinação, floração e condições de armazenamento. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o florescimento e a frutificação do maracujazeiro silvestre Passiflora setacea cultivado em Jaboticabal-SP. A floração e a frutificação foram avaliadas pelo percentual de frutificação através da polinização natural e artificial das flores, realizado no período de agosto a outubro. As características físicas dos frutos foram avaliadas através dos seguintes parâmetros: a massa do fruto (g; b diâmetro longitudinal do fruto (cm; c diâmetro transversal do fruto (cm; d espessura da casca (cm; e rendimento de polpa (%. A característica química foi determinada por meio do teor de sólidos solúveis (SS. Verificou-se que a Passiflora setacea apresentou precocidade de floração em relação ao maracujazeiro-amarelo, com florescimento durante o ano todo, nas condições de Jaboticabal-SP. Observou-se que essa espécie possui bom nível de tolerância às doenças foliares, resistência à morte precoce e apresenta diferentes níveis de compatibilidade entre as plantas, possibilitando a essas características serem utilizadas em programas de melhoramento genético. Constatou-se ainda que as características físicas encontradas nos frutos atendem às exigências da indústria.

  19. Comparative studies of hemolymph physiology response and HIF-1 expression in different strains of Litopenaeus vannamei under acute hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lin; Li, Yuhu; Qiu, Liguo; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-06-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei has a high commercial value and is the primary cultured shellfish species globally. In this study, we have compared the hemolymph physiological responses between two L. vannamei strains under acute hypoxia. The results showed that hemocyanin concentration (HC) of strain A6410 was significantly higher than strain Zhengda; Total hemocyte counts (THC) decreased significantly in both strains under hypoxic stress (p  0.05), but in the gills and hepatopancreas under hypoxia for 12 h (p selective breeding process of hypoxia tolerance in L. vannamei. PMID:27016815

  20. Effect of dietary probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici on antioxidant defences and oxidative stress status of shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris

    OpenAIRE

    Castex, Mathieu; Lemaire, Pierrette; Wabete, Nelly; Chim, Liet

    2009-01-01

    in this study we evaluated the effects of the probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M on shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris (also called Penaeus stylirostris), first on antioxidant defences and secondly on the oxidative stress status in the shrimps' haemolymph and digestive gland. We conducted two experiments with the same protocol in which shrimps were fed two diets for three weeks: a control diet and a probiotic diet containing 1 g of live P. acidilactici MA18/5M kg(-1). In the first exper...

  1. Response of the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris to temperature decrease and hypoxia in relation to molt stage

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnier, Chantal; Soyez, Claude

    2005-01-01

    The effect of different levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) and a decreased temperature combined with severe hypoxia were studied in the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris in relation to molt stage. In the first experiment, shrimps were submitted to DO concentrations of 5 to 1 mg l(-1). Osmoregulatory capacity (OC) was measured in shrimps at molt stage C after 6, 24, or 48 h of exposure. No mortality was recorded but a significant negative effect of DO concentration on hypo-OC was observed for ...

  2. Quality changes during frozen storage of blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) with antioxidant, α-tocopherol, under different conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Zulema Valencia-Perez; Herlinda Soto-Valdez; Josafat Marina Ezquerra-Brauer; Enrique Márquez-Ríos; Wilfrido Torres-Arreola

    2015-01-01

    Fresh blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) muscle was stored with antioxidants under different conditions: ANTIOX 2%, packed in bilayer film of polyamide-low density polyethylene film (PA-LDPE) with 2% α-tocopherol; ANTIOX 4%, packed in PA-LDPE film with 4% α-tocopherol; and ANTIOX-GLAZED, samples stored glazed with 2% α-tocopherol. Shrimps packed in PA-LDPE without α-tocopherol were used as CONTROL. All samples were stored at –20 °C for 120 days. As compared to the CONTROL, the shrimp stor...

  3. Nitrogen dynamics model in zero water exchange, low salinity intensive ponds of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, at Colima, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A Castillo-Soriano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a mathematical model based on differential equations describing the dynamics of nitrogen (NH4+, NO2-, NO3- and organic nitrogen in phytoplankton in ponds of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, with low salinity and zero turnovers, from planting to harvest. The model predicts the results of commercial production in three ponds. We show that this culture system, without replacement, retains the nitrogen and shrimp produced a lower feed conversion in comparison with systems with replacement. The model can be used to define strategies for improved performance.

  4. Effect of light and aeration on the metamorphosis rate from nauplii to protozoea and larval quality of Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Hadja Radtke Nunes; Edemar Roberto Andreatta

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine the optimal ranges of the factors light intensity and aeration that reflect the best rate of metamorphosis from nauplii to the first protozoea stage of Litopenaeus vannamei, and also the highest quality of the larvae, two separate experiments were carried out. The nauplii were exposed to four different light intensities (0; 5,000; 10,000; and 15,000 lux) and four aeration conditions (static, low, medium and strong). The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA (significance ...

  5. Erratum to: Response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farafidy ANDRIANTAHINA; LIU Xiaolin; HUANG Hao; XIANG Jianhai

    2012-01-01

    The original version of the title of this article unfortunately contained a mistake.The spelling of the [ZResponese]was incorrect.The title should read:Response to selection,heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp,Litopenaeus vannamei.The publishing companies apologize to the authors.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis CG-B52, a Highly Virulent Bacterium of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), Isolated from a Colombian Caribbean Aquaculture Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Eric J C; Carrillo-Castro, Katerine; Zárate, Lina; Güiza, Linda; Pieper, Dietmar H; García-Bonilla, Erika; Salazar, Marcela; Junca, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis strain CG-B52 was isolated as the etiological agent producing a self-limited outbreak of high mortalities in commercial Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds on the Colombian Caribbean coast in 2005. Here, we report its draft genome and three novel extrachromosomal elements that it harbors. PMID:27174263

  7. Effects of dietary supplementation of a commercial prebiotic on survival, growth, immune responses, and gut microbiota of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 35-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate growth, bacterial populations of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets containing the commercial prebiotic PrevidaTM. Four diets were formulated to contain Previda at 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.6% by wei...

  8. Effects of dietary supplementation of a commercial prebiotic Previda on survival, growth, immune responses and gut microbiota of pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 35-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate growth, bacterial populations of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets containing the commercial prebiotic PrevidaTM. Four diets were formulated to contain Previda at 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.6% by we...

  9. MAMÍFEROS INVASORES EN LA PATAGONIA ARGENTINA: EL CONEJO SILVESTRE EUROPEO COMO CASO EMBLEMÁTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Never Antonio Bonino Vassallo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se brinda una reseña de los estudios biológicos y ecológicos realizados sobre el conejo silvestre europeo (Oryctolagus cuniculus, tal vez el más emblemático de los mamíferos exóticos introducidos en Argentina. En el sector continental argentino el conejo se encuentra establecido, y en proceso de dispersión, principalmente en las provincias de Mendoza y Neuquén (NO de la Patagonia. En esta región, el conejo ha demostrado tener un efecto negativo sobre la economía regional, especialmente en áreas ganaderas y en plantaciones comerciales de árboles frutales y maderables. No existen programas oficiales para controlar la dispersión geográfica y/o el impacto de esta especie exótica. La gente que se siente perjudicada por el conejo recurre a intentos individuales para controlar sus efectos negativos. Es necesario implementar monitoreos regulares de la dispersión del conejo para la detección temprana y el manejo de poblaciones recién establecidas; además, se requieren estudios comparativos tendientes a determinar los métodos más adecuados para controlar el impacto del conejo.

  10. Tráfico y tenencia ilegal de fauna silvestre en el departamento de Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cabrejo Bello

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de establecer cuáles son los principales grupos taxonómicos, suparticipación y las ciudades con mayores índices de tráfico y tenencia ilegal de vida silvestre en el departamento de Boyacá, jurisdicción de la Corporación Autónoma Regional de Boyacá- Corpoboyacá, se tomaron reportes de la base de datos de dicha entidad entre los años 2004 y 2008. Se hallaron registros de 398 individuos decomisados por parte de la autoridad ambiental y otros por entregas voluntarias. El grupo con mayor incidencia fue el de las aves con 58%,seguido por los reptiles con 26% y en tercer lugar los mamíferos con el 16% de los registros. Se observó que las tres principales ciudades del departamento (Tunja, Duitama y Sogamoso reportan las frecuencias más elevadas de incautaciones. Puerto Boyacá, también registra un número elevado de decomisos. Dentro de los tres grupos mencionados, las especies más afectadas correspondena los órdenes Psitaciformes, Primates y Testudínata, por lo cual merecen principal atención. Se recomienda además, implementar planes de conservación y emprender actividades de educación ambiental encaminadas a la utilización sostenible de la fauna en general.

  11. Evaluación sobre el uso de la fauna silvestre en la Tierra Comunitaria de Origen Tacana, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tejada

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available En el marco del proyecto del Consejo Indígena del Pueblo Tacana CIPTA,“Elaboración de una Estrategia de Desarrollo Sostenible de la TCO Tacana con base en el Manejo de los Recursos Naturales”, se realizó un diagnóstico sobre el uso de la vida silvestre en 20 comunidades tacanas en el área de su demanda territorial. Sobre la base de talleres participativos se registró un total de 181 vertebrados que son utilizados con diferentes fines. De un total de 43 especies de mamíferos que están utilizadas por los Tacana, 40 son utilizados como alimento. En el caso de las aves, 56 de 72 especies registradas para uso son utilizadas como alimento. Nueve de las 16 especies de reptiles utilizadas tienen fines alimenticios. En el caso de los peces de 50 especies registradas para algún uso, 40 son utilizadas como alimento. El resto de las especies de vertebrados registradas con algún uso son utilizadas exclusivamente con fines artesanales, medicinales y lúdicos. Las entrevistas realizadas sugieren que las especies más frecuentemente cazadas son Tapirus terrestris, Mazama americana, Dasyprocta variegata, Cuniculus paca, Pecari tajacu,Ateles chamek, Alouatta sara,Penelope jacquacu y Mitu tuberosa. Los peces más frecuentemente consumidos son Pseudoplatystoma triginun, P. fasciatum, Prochilodus nigricans y Colossoma macropomum.

  12. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of arginine kinase from the white Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis at 1.25 Å resolution of free-ligand arginine kinase from the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei are reported. Crystals belong to space group P212121, phases were determined by molecular replacement and refinement was performed with Phenix. Crystals of an unligated monomeric arginine kinase from the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvAK) were successfully obtained using the microbatch method. Crystallization conditions and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis to 1.25 Å resolution are reported. Data were collected at 100 K on NSLS beamline X6A. The crystals belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.5, b = 70.2, c = 81.7 Å. One monomer per asymmetric unit was found, with a Matthews coefficient (VM) of 2.05 Å3 Da−1 and 40% solvent content. Initial phases were determined by molecular replacement using a homology model of LvAK as the search model. Refinement was performed with PHENIX, with final Rwork and Rfree values of 0.15 and 0.19, respectively. Biological analysis of the structure is currently in progress

  13. FONTES E NÍVEIS DE VITAMINA C PARA O CAMARÃO Litopenaeus vannamei NA FASE DE RECRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyva Ribeiro Ferraz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of different sources and levels of vitamin C was evaluated on growth, survival, protein retention and health of Litopenaeus vannamei with initial weight of 5.90 ± 0.57 g. Five hundred and forty individuals were distributed in 27 cages in a completely randomized design in a 4x2 factorial scheme (four sources and two levels (n = 3. The sources used were ascorbic acid crystal, coated ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid monophosphate and ascorbic acid PEG (polyethylene glycol with two levels: 180 and 260 mg kg-1. No influence was observed (P>0.05 from the source, level of vitamin C nor interaction of these factors on growth, survival, retention of protein and parameters of health of the shrimp. Necrosis was observed in the abdomen of all animals. The use of vitamin C in sources and levels estimated for the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei weighing over 5 g shows no improvement in growth, survival, protein retention and health of shrimp.

  14. Selection for growth performance of tank-reared Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-05-01

    Seven growth-related traits were measured to assess the selection response and genetic parameters of the growth of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, which had been domesticated in tanks for more than four generations. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were evaluated and fitted to an animal model. Realized response was measured from the difference between the mean growth rates of selected and control families. Realized heritability was determined from the ratio of the selection responses and selection differentials. The animal model heritability estimate over generations was 0.44±0.09 for body weight (BW), and ranged from 0.21±0.08 to 0.37±0.06 for size traits. Genetic correlations of phenotypic traits were more variable (0.51-0.97), although correlations among various traits were high (>0.83). Across generations, BW and size traits increased, while selection response and heritability gradually decreased. Selection responses were 12.28%-23.35% for harvest weight and 3.58%-13.53% for size traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.34±0.09 to 0.48±0.15 for harvest weight and 0.17±0.01-0.38±0.11 for size traits. All phenotypic and genetic parameters differed between various treatments. To conclude, the results demonstrated a potential for mass selection of growth traits in L. vannamei. A breeding scheme could use this information to integrate the effectiveness constituent traits into an index to achieve genetic progress.

  15. Cloning of Litopenaeus vannamei CD63 and it's role in white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guang-Kuo; Liu, Qing-Hui; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is currently the most serious shrimp pathogen, which has brought huge losses to shrimp industry worldwide. CD63 of shrimp belongs to the tetraspanin superfamily, which plays an important role in signal transduction and immune process. In this paper, CD63 cDNA sequence of Litopenaeus vannamei was cloned using RACE method. The amplified sequence is 1472 bp, with its ORF 744 bp, encoding 247 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the sequence of LvCD63 has 93% similarity with Penaeus monodon and 92% similarity with Fenneropenaeus chinensis. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of LvCD63 expressed in the tissues of hemocytes, gill, epithelial tissue, heart, lymphoid, hepatopancreas, stomach, intestines, muscle and nerve. Among these tissues the highest expression level was showed in the tissue of haemolymph, followed by epithelial tissue, hepatopancreas, and nerve. The lowest expression level of LvCD63 was appeared in the muscle tissue. After WSSV challenge, the expression levels of LvCD63 were both up-regulated in the tissues of gill and epithelial. However the expression level of LvCD63 in hepatopancreas was down-regulated. Far-western blot analysis showed that LvCD63 interacts with VP28, and both VP28N and VP28C fragments interact with LvCD63. Flow cytometry analysis showed that LvCD63 was present on the surface of hemocytes and it is required for binding of WSSV virions. Neutral experiments in vivo showed that LvCD63LEL delayed WSSV infection in shrimp. PMID:26964710

  16. Influence of dietary carbohydrate on the metabolism of juvenile Litopenaeus stylirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas; Cuzon; Gaxiola; Arena; Lemaire; Soyez; Van Wormhoudt A

    2000-06-28

    The effect of dietary carbohydrates (CBH) on glucose and glycogen, digestive enzymes, ammonia excretion and osmotic pressure and osmotic capacity of Litopenaeus stylirostris juveniles was studied. The increase of CBH, ranging between 1 and 33%, stimulates activities of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase in the hepatopancreas. High levels of glucose in hemolymph and of glycogen in the hepatopancreas were reached at the highest level of dietary CBH; however, the kinetics of accumulation is different. Shrimps fed with low level of CBH needed 3 h to reached glucose peak, whereas only 1 h is necessary for high CBH levels. A saturation curve was observed in glycogen level and alpha-amylase activity with maximum values in shrimp-fed diets containing 21% CBH. This level could be used to be included as a maximum shrimp dietary CBH level. Pre-prandial glycogen levels were observed in shrimp fed a diet containing 1% CBH, indicating an important gluconeogenesis, which affected the protein metabolism. The present results show that a diet containing 10% CBH may not be enough to cover the CBH requirement, which could be satisfied by dietary protein content. The low osmotic capacity observed in shrimp fed on a diet containing 10% CBH coincided with a relatively low post-prandial nitrogen excretion which reflects a low concentration of amino acids circulating in hemolymph, which affected the osmotic pressure and the osmotic capacity. These results reflect the high plasticity of shrimp species to use protein to obtain metabolic energy from food and its limited capacity for processing dietary CBH. PMID:10841934

  17. Effect of bioactive peptides (BPs) on the development of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangjun; Yu, Ermeng; Li, Zhifei; Yu, Deguang; Wang, Haiying; Gong, Wangbao

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of replacing fish meal (FM) with bioactive peptides (BPs) in diet of white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). The changes in growth performance, body composition, non-specific immunity, and water quality were examined after the shrimp were fed four diets, in which 0% (control), 33.3%, 66.7% and 100% of FM was replaced by BPs, respectively. The groups were designated as Con, 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs. A total of 720 shrimp with an initial body weight of 1.46 ± 0.78 g were fed the experimental diets for 56 days. The results revealed that: 1) the weight gain rate (WGR) in 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs was significantly higher than that in Con ( P levels of acid phosphatase (ACP), lysozyme (LZM), superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenol oxidase (PO) and bactericidal activity increased significantly with the inclusion of BPs; 4) in terms of water quality, no significant difference was found in pH and dissolved oxygen among diets during the whole experimental period. Moreover, even though nitrite and ammonium levels tended to increase with time, there was no significant difference among groups. The results indicated that BPs is an applicable alternative of protein source, which can substitute FM in the diets of L. vannamei; it is able to effectively promote growth performance and improve immunity. Moreover, BPs in the diets had no negative impact on water quality.

  18. Molecular characterization and function of a PTEN gene from Litopenaeus vannamei after Vibrio alginolyticus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, C-Y; Kong, J-R; Zhao, C-S; Xiao, Y-C; Peng, T; Liu, Y; Wang, W-N

    2016-06-01

    PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene, suppresses cell survival, growth, apoptosis, cell migration and DNA damage repair by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In this study, the full-length Litopenaeus vannamei PTEN (LvPTEN) cDNA was obtained, containing a 5'UTR of 59bp, an ORF of 1269bp and a 3'UTR of 146bp besides the poly (A) tail. The PTEN gene encoded a protein of 422 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 48.3 KDa and a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 7.6. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that LvPTEN was distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus, and the tissue distribution patterns showed that LvPTEN was ubiquitously expressed in all the examined tissues. Vibrio alginolyticus challenge induced upregulation of LvPTEN expression. Moreover, RNAi knock-down of LvPTEN in vivo significantly increased the expression of LvAKT mRNA, while reducing that of the downstream apoptosis genes LvP53 and LvCaspase3. LvPTEN knock-down also caused a sharp increase in cumulative mortality, bacterial numbers, and DNA damage in the hemolymph of L. vannamei following V. alginolyticus challenge, together with a sharp decrease in the total hemocyte count (THC). These results suggested that LvPTEN may participate in apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in L. vannamei, and play an important role in shrimp innate immunity. PMID:26801100

  19. Effects of different enzymatic hydrolysis methods on the bioactivity of peptidoglycan in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xiaoling; ZHANG Yue; WEI Song; HUANG Jie

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different hydrolysis methods on peptidoglycan (PG) were assessed in terms of their impact on the innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp,Litopenaeus vannamei.PG derived from Bifidobacterium thermophilum was prepared in the laboratory and processed with lysozyme and protease under varying conditions to produce several different PG preparations.A standard shrimp feed was mixed with 0.05% PG preparations to produce a number of experimental diets for shrimp.The composition,concentration,and molecular weight ranges of the soluble PG were analyzed.Serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity in the shrimp were determined on Days 6-31 of the experiment.The protective activity of the PG preparations was evaluated by exposing shrimp to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).Data on the composition of the PG preparations indicated that preparations hydrolyzed with lysozyme for 72 h had more low-molecular-weight PG than those treated for 24 h,and hydrolysis by protease enhanced efficiency of hydrolysis compared to lysozyme.SDS-PAGE showed changes in the molecular weight of the soluble PG produced by the different hydrolysis methods.Measurements of serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity levels in the shrimp indicated that the PG preparations processed with enzymes were superior to the preparation which had not undergone hydrolysis in enhancing the activity of the two serum enzymes.In addition,the preparation containing more low-molecular-weight PG enhanced the resistance of the shrimp to WSSV,whereas no increased resistance was observed for preparations containing less low-molecular-weight PG.These findings suggest that the immunity-enhancing activity of PG is related to its molecular weight and that increasing the quantity of low-molecular-weight PG can fortify the effect of immunity enhancement.

  20. Litopenaeus vannamei immunestimulated with Macrocystis pyrifera extract:improving the immune response against Vibrio campbellii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liliana Noemi Snchez Campos; Fernando Daz Herrera; Ana Denisse Re Araujo; Manuel de Jess Acosta Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To examine the immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei after different treatments with a hot water extract of Macrocystis pyrifera (M. pyrifera) and a subsequent challenge with Vibrio campbellii (V. campbellii). Methods: A total of 184 adult white shrimp that were infected with V. campbellii (1í106 CFU/shrimp) were immunostimulate by the hot-water extract from M. pyrifera via either injection (10 µg) or immersion (350 mg/L), the experimental controls were injected with either saline solution or V. campbellii (1í106 CFU/shrimp). The bacterial DNA depuration rate, antimicrobial activity and total hemocyte count were evaluated in hemolymph samples at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection. Results:Injected shrimp (10 µg M. pyrifera extract) demonstrated the best clearance of bacterial infection, with 82% survival at 72 h post-infection (cellular response). Hemolymph from the immersed organisms had the best antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli growth;specifically, the most efficient antimicrobial activity was observed at 24 h post-infection. Both types of immunostimulated shrimp had similar total hemocyte counts at 24 h post-infection (1.63-1.59 million/mL);however, after 72 h, injected shrimp had higher total hemocyte counts than immersed animals (2.59 v.s. 0.56 million/mL). Conclusions: The injection of the M. pyrifera hot-water extract facilitated a more efficient response to V. campbellii infection due to the stimulation of the hemocytes of the shrimp. In other words, the cellular immune response was more efficient to eliminate bacterial infection than the humoral response in shrimp.

  1. Molecular characterization of an adiponectin receptor homolog in the white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Ran; Alam, Md Jobaidul; Yoon, Tae-ho; Lee, Soo Rin; Park, Hyun; Kim, Doo-Nam; An, Doo-Hae; Lee, Jae-Bong; Lee, Chung Il

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin (AdipoQ) and its receptors (AdipoRs) are strongly related to growth and development of skeletal muscle, as well as glucose and lipid metabolism in vertebrates. Herein we report the identification of the first full-length cDNA encoding an AdipoR homolog (Liv-AdipoR) from the decapod crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei using a combination of next generation sequencing (NGS) technology and bioinformatics analysis. The full-length Liv-AdipoR (1,245 bp) encoded a protein that exhibited the canonical seven transmembrane domains (7TMs) and the inversed topology that characterize members of the progestin and adipoQ receptor (PAQR) family. Based on the obtained sequence information, only a single orthologous AdipoR gene appears to exist in arthropods, whereas two paralogs, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, have evolved in vertebrates. Transcriptional analysis suggested that the single Liv-AdipoR gene appears to serve the functions of two mammalian AdipoRs. At 72 h after injection of 50 pmol Liv-AdipoR dsRNA (340 bp) into L. vannamei thoracic muscle and deep abdominal muscle, transcription levels of Liv-AdipoR decreased by 93% and 97%, respectively. This confirmed optimal conditions for RNAi of Liv-AdipoR. Knockdown of Liv-AdipoR resulted in significant changes in the plasma levels of ammonia, 3-methylhistine, and ornithine, but not plasma glucose, suggesting that that Liv-AdipoR is important for maintaining muscle fibers. The chronic effect of Liv-AdipoR dsRNA injection was increased mortality. Transcriptomic analysis showed that 804 contigs were upregulated and 212 contigs were downregulated by the knockdown of Liv-AdipoR in deep abdominal muscle. The significantly upregulated genes were categorized as four main functional groups: RNA-editing and transcriptional regulators, molecular chaperones, metabolic regulators, and channel proteins. PMID:27478708

  2. Distribution of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) from Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E; Viana, Z C V; Onofre, C R E; Korn, M G A; Santos, V L C S

    2016-02-01

    In this study, concentrations of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species (Litopenaeus vannamei) from farming and zone natural coastal located in the northeastern Brazil were investigated. The elements determination was performed by optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP OES). The following ranges of concentrations in the tissues were obtained in µg g-1 dry weight: Al: 13.4-886.5, Cd: 0.93-1.80; Cu: 24.8-152; Fe: 3.2-410.9; Mn: 0.36-24.4; Se: 0.094-9.81 and Zn: 20.3-109.4. The shrimp muscle can be a good iron source (about 88.9 mg-1g dry weight). The distribution of Se concentration in tissues showed much variation between locations, and the concentration levels found in shrimp muscles of wild samples were high, where its levels in 67% of muscle and 50% of others tissues samples exceeded the ANVISA limit, indicating evidence of selenium bioaccumulation. Significant correlation was observed between the following pairs of elements: Fe-Zn (r= -0.70), Mn-Cu (r= -0.74), Se-Cu (r= -0.68), Se-Mn (r= 0.82) in the muscles; Fe-Al (r= 0.99), Mn-Al (r= 0.62), Mn-Fe (r= 0.62), Se-Al (r = 0.88), Se-Fe (r= 0.87), Se-Mn (r= 0.58) in the exoskeleton and Cu-Zn (r = 0.68), Al-Cu (r= 0.88), Fe-Cu (r= 0.95) and Fe-Al (r= 0.97) in the viscera. PMID:26909636

  3. ANÁLISIS DEL CRECIMIENTO DE UN GENOTIPO SILVESTRE DE Carica papaya L. CULTIVADO EX SITU Y CV. `MARADOL ROJA ́´

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rodríguez Cabello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La especie Carica papaya L., es nativa del trópico americano y uno de los frutales más cultivados a nivel mundial. En Cuba existen problemas que afectan la producción de este frutal, considerados los más importantes el reducido número de cultivares explotados comercialmente y la baja diversidad genética presente en el banco de germoplasma. Sin embargo, existen genotipos silvestres que constituyen una fuente importante de genes para los programas de mejoramiento y explotación local, los cuales aún no se han caracterizado. Estudios de análisis del crecimiento permiten comprender su comportamiento en diferentes periodos de siembra en condiciones ex situ eidentificar caracteres de crecimiento inicial que posibiliten el aumento del rendimiento y favorezcan los trabajos de mejoramiento en busca de genotipos más productivos. Debido a lo antes señalado, el objetivo de la presente investigación fue realizar estudios del crecimiento del genotipo papaya silvestre de la cuenca Almendares-Vento. Las semillas para los experimentos se obtuvieron de frutos colectados in situ. Las medidas directas en la planta fueron área foliar y peso seco. Para la determinación de la superficie foliar se empleó una cámara digital y un software. El análisis computarizado de las imágenes de hojas obtenidas con la cámara digital permitió estimar el área foliar de forma simple, rápida y económica. La mayor producción de área foliar del genotipo silvestre y similar comportamiento en la masa seca y resto de los indicadores evaluados, indica la disponibilidad de recursos durante toda la fase de crecimiento, lo cual se asocia con su rendimiento

  4. Viabilidad fitoclimática de las repoblaciones de pino silvestre (Pinus sylvestris L. en la Sierra de los Filabres (Almería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández Cancio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La variabilidad climática actual se caracteriza por provocar cambios bruscos en los cursos fitoclimáticos, lo que está desencadenando procesos de mortalidad de especies forestales. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la adecuación fitoclimática de las masas artificiales de Pinus sylvestris L. en la Sierra de los Filabres (Almería, para lo cual se analizaron 35 variables fitoclimáticas que determinan la estabilidad climática de la especie. El estudio de los valores interanuales de las variables climáticas indica que entre 1970 y 1980 comenzó una perturbación climática amplia, modificando la estacionalidad y la variabilidad de las precipitaciones y de las temperaturas. Como rasgos más significativos tenemos el aumento de las temperaturas, sobre todo de las máximas, el aumento de la oscilación térmica y de los extremos diarios, la disminución global de precipitación, el aumento grave de la aridez primaveral y el deterioro de todas las variables ómbricas. El estudio de las estaciones con masas repobladas de pino silvestre en Andalucía oriental indica que las estaciones están fuera de la nube de puntos de las masas de pino silvestre establecidas en España. Las masas de pino silvestre de la Sierra de los Filabres están notablemente fuera de estación en todas sus características fitoclimáticas y pueden desaparecer progresiva o bruscamente, sobre todo si se implanta un cambio climático.

  5. Caracterización anatómica y conductividad hidráulica teórica de los elementos de vaso de variedades silvestres y cultivadas de nopal tunero (Opuntia)

    OpenAIRE

    Eulogio Pimienta- Barrios; Sofía Loza Cornejo; María Eugenia González Del Castillo-Aranda

    2003-01-01

    Se estudió la morfología y la conductancia hidráulica teórica de elementos de vaso del xilema en cladodios de especies y variedades cultivadas y silvestres de nopal ( Opuntia spp.) colectados en las regiones semiáridas de los estados de Jalisco y Zacatecas, con el fin de investigar si las diferencias en la resistencia a la sequía que se observan comúnmente en el campo entre especies silvestres y cultivadas de Opuntia pueden estar relacionadas con divergencias en la densidad, la anatomía de lo...

  6. Ecología trófica del jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa) silvestre en Chile Trophic ecology of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    ÓSCAR SKEWES; ROBERTO RODRÍGUEZ; FABIÁN M. JAKSIC

    2007-01-01

    Documentamos la dieta del jabalí silvestre en el centro-sur de Chile basados en el examen de 20 estómagos colectados en los faldeos de volcán Mocho-Choshuenco (39°54' S, 72°02' O) y en el Parque Nacional Vicente Pérez Rosales (41°03' S, 71°54' O). La dieta está representada por animales, vegetales y hongos. Entre los vegetales y hongos son consumidas tanto las partes epígeas como hipógeas, lo mismo que frutos y semillas. Hongos y rizomas de Gunnera tinctoria constituyen ítemes vegetales cuant...

  7. Frutos tropicais silvestres e polpas de frutas congeladas: atividade antioxidante, polifenóis e antocianinas Wild fruits and pulps of frozen fruits: antioxidant activity, polyphenols and anthocyanins

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Marta Kuskoski; Agustín García Asuero; Maria Teresa Morales; Roseane Fett

    2006-01-01

    Os sucos de frutas tropicais conquistam cada vez mais o mercado consumidor, sendo o Brasil um dos principais produtores. Existe grande diversidade de produtos derivados de frutos e constante inserção de novos produtos no mercado de consumo, os quais, na maioria das vezes, ainda não foram devidamente pesquisados com respeito às suas propriedades e atividades benéficas à saúde. Neste trabalho, objetiva-se determinar algumas propriedades de frutos tropicais silvestres in natura e polpas de fruto...

  8. Propuesta de ubicación taxonómica para los chayotes silvestres ( Sechium edule, Cucurbitaceae de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone una clasificación taxonómica para el chayote, Sechium edule (Jacq. Swartz, que incluye dos subespecies: S. edule ssp. edule y S. edule ssp. sylvestre. Adicionalmente, se documentan por primera vez poblaciones silvestres de la especie para los estados de Querétaro y Puebla, México, y se proporcionan datos sobre la distribución de todas las poblaciones similares hasta ahora registradas en el país.

  9. Ecología de enfermedades infecciosas emergentes y conservación de especies silvestres Ecology of emerging infectious diseases and wild species conservation

    OpenAIRE

    G Medina-Vogel

    2010-01-01

    Las recientes publicaciones científicas respecto de enfermedades infecciosas emergentes en especies silvestres están aumentando la preocupación internacional en el deterioro de la salud del ecosistema de los océanos, ambientes terrestres y límnicos. Se estudiaron investigaciones publicadas en los últimos 25 años. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: 1) determinar la importancia del hábitat y la introducción de especies alóctonas, dentro del contexto de la contaminación y el cambio climático,...

  10. Caracterização nutricional e propriedades bioactivas de espécies silvestres da etnoflora transmontana tradicionalmente consumidas em verde

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carla; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2011-01-01

    É extraordinariamente importante que o consumidor tenha informação sobre a composição dos alimentos em macronutrientes e micronutrientes mas, também, em compostos bioactivos, nomeadamente antioxidantes. Esta informação torna-se ainda mais relevante para plantas silvestres da Etnoflora Transmontana tradicionalmente consumidas, de forma recuperar a sua utilização em hábitos alimentares inerentes à nutrição moderna. As verduras, em particular, são conhecidas como excelentes fontes...

  11. Estudo de plantas silvestres comestíveis da região mediterrânica como fontes de compostos bioativos

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Elsa Cristina da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado, Engenharia Biológica, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2015 Atualmente as plantas silvestres comestíveis são muito procuradas com o intuito de introduzir novos sabores e texturas na alimentação, particularmente na gastronomia gourmet. Os benefícios para a saúde, decorrentes dos elevados níveis de compostos bioativos presentes nestas plantas, são um adicional motivo de interesse. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de extrat...

  12. CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS DE FORMAS CULTIVADAS, SILVESTRES E INTERMEDIAS DE FRIJOL COMÚN DE HÁBITO TREPADOR

    OpenAIRE

    Rogelio Lépiz Ildefonso; J. Jesús López Alcocer; J. Jesús Sánchez González; Fernando Santacruz-Ruvalcaba; Ricardo Nuño Romero; Eduardo Rodríguez Guzmán

    2010-01-01

    Se hizo una caracterización morfológica de formas cultivadas, silvestres e intermedias de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae) de hábito trepador. Se evaluaron 15 materiales en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Para determinar las relaciones morfológicas entre las formas incluidas, se registraron 18 variables cuantitativas con lo que se hicieron análisis de varianza, de agrupamiento con base en la distancia euclidiana y componentes principales. Doce de lo...

  13. Diagnóstico del tráfico ilegal y del manejo post decomiso de fauna silvestre en nueve corporaciones autónomas regionales de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montenefgro Olga Lucía

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La fauna silvestre siempre ha estado relacionada con el hombre sirviéndole de diferentes maneras, ya sea como fuente de alimento, como compañía, como materia prima para la fabricación de accesorios (pieles y otros productos o como diversión. Una de las causas más importantes de pérdida de diversidad la constituye el aprovechamiento no sostenible de especies de fauna y flora tanto para el consumo directo como para el comercio, lo que conlleva a la reducción en el tamaño de las poblaciones silvestres y por tanto una mayor vulnerabilidad a la extinción. El tráfico ilegal de especies silvestres es considerado a nivel mundial como una de las principales causas de disminución de las poblaciones naturales y como uno de los mercados ilegales que mayores sumas de dinero moviliza anualmente, con el fin de surtir la demanda de los mercados mundiales de la moda, las excentricidades de pequeños grupos, las investigaciones biomédicas y comportamentales, la novedad causada a turistas y las prácticas culturales o religiosas de muchas poblaciones humanas. En Colombia uno de los problemas de conservación más complejos lo representa el manejo de aquellos especímenes de fauna silvestre que son objeto de decomiso por parte de las autoridades ambientales regionales. Para lograr una adecuada disposición de la gran cantidad de animales silvestres confiscados o entregados voluntariamente en Colombia, el Ministerio del Medio Ambiente y las demás autoridades ambientales acordaron poner en marcha nueve centros regionales para el manejo de fauna decomisada o
    Centros de Atención y Valoración (CAV. Esta disposición tenía el propósito de implementar parámetros y protocolos que faciliten tomar decisiones que tanto las instituciones como los profesionales encargados enfrentan a diario. Sin embargo, el manejo de la fauna postdecomiso continua siendo uno de los problemas más complejos debido a la gran cantidad de animales decomisados y a la poca

  14. Detección de Rickettsia spp. en Suero y Garrapatas de Mamíferos Silvestres en Cautiverio en Montería, Córdoba -resumen-

    OpenAIRE

    Dave Wehdeking-Hernández; Laura Hernández-Fernández; César Rojano-Bolaño; J Ruíz-Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Las rickettsiosis transmitidas por garrapatas son causadas por bacterias intracelulares pertenecientes al grupo de las fiebres manchadas del género Rickettsia. Estas zoonosis son algunas de las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores de más antiguo conocimiento‚ e incluyen dentro de su ciclo de transmisión diversas especies de mamíferos. No obstante‚ en Colombia existen pocos trabajos enfocados a conocer la dinámica de las rickettsiosis en animales silvestres. El objetivo de este estudio fue d...

  15. Hongos comestibles silvestres: especies exóticas de Suillus (Boletales, Basidiomycota y Lactarius (Russulales, Basidiomycota asociados a cultivos de Pinus elliottii del nordeste argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Niveiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos silvestres comestibles son un recurso económico importante que permite obtenerun producto deshidratado que puede comercializarse fácilmente. En el presente trabajo, y conel objeto de dar a conocer este recurso, se ilustran y describen dos especies de hongosmicorrícicos asociadas a cultivos de Pinus elliottii en el nordeste argentino que no han sidomencionadas anteriormente para la región: Lactarius deliciosus para la provincia de Misionesy Suillus granulatus para las provincias de Corrientes y Misiones

  16. LA DOMESTICACIÓN DE PLANTAS EN MÉXICO: COMPARACIÓN DE LA FORMA CULTIVADA Y SILVESTRE DE BYRSONIMA CRASSIFOLIA (MALPIGHIACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    J.C. Raya-Pérez; C.L. Aguirre-Mancilla; K. Gil-Vega; Simpson, J

    2010-01-01

    Las plantas domesticadas presentan una serie de características conocidas como síndrome de domesticación. Esto permite un mejor aprovechamiento de las mismas por parte de los humanos y ha sido estudiada principalmente en plantas anuales herbáceas. En este trabajo se hizo un muestreo de árboles silvestres (changunga) y cultivados (nanche) de Byrsonima crassifolia en la región de Uruapan, México. El objetivo fue buscar diferencias genéticas mediante marcadores moleculares por medio de la técnic...

  17. Nuevas cepas de duganella aisladas de la rizosfera de olivo silvestre y cultivado y su uso en la producción de violaceína

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, Blanca B.; Aranda Ocampo, Sergio; Montes Borrego, Miguel; Castillo, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    [ES] La presente invención se refiere a unas cepas bacterianas de Duganella spp. obtenidas de la rizosfera de olivos silvestres y cultivados. Preferentemente las cepas son CECT 7779, CECT 7780 y CECT 7781 y más preferentemente la cepa bacteriana es CECT 7780. Además, la presente invención se refiere a sus combinaciones con otros microorganismos y a las composiciones que comprenden los productos anteriores, así como a un procedimiento para la producción de violaceína y a la violaceína produ...

  18. Nuevas cepas de duganella aisladas de la rizosfera de olivo silvestre y cultivado y su uso en la producción de violaceína

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, Blanca B.; Aranda Ocampo, Sergio; Montes Borrego, Miguel; Castillo Castillo, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    La presente invención se refiere a unas cepas bacterianas de Duganella spp. obtenidas de la rizosfera de olivos silvestres y cultivados. Preferentemente las cepas son CECT 7779, CECT 7780 y CECT 7781 y más preferentemente la cepa bacteriana es CECT 7780. Además, la presente invención se refiere a sus combinaciones con otros microorganismos y a las composiciones que comprenden los productos anteriores, así como a un procedimiento para la producción de violaceína y a la violaceína producida par...

  19. Ácaros Asociados a Mamíferos y Aves Silvestres de la Reserva Nacional Forestal Bosque de Yotoco -resumen-

    OpenAIRE

    A Rueda-Hurtado; N C Mesa-Cobo; C A Jaramillo-Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Colombia posee cerca del 10% de la biota mundial‚ ubicándola segunda entre los doce países megadiversos; con el fin de conocer la diversidad de ácaros asociados a mamíferos y aves silvestres de la Reserva Nacional Forestal Bosque de Yotoco‚ un ecosistema con múltiples amenazas antropicas‚ se realizó este trabajo‚ se colectaron 22 hospederos‚ teniendo en cuenta los protocolos de bioseguridad‚ ética y bienestar animal y de manejo propio de cada especie. Para la captura de los hospederos se util...

  20. Fauna silvestre asociada a ganado vacuno doble propósito en sistema de silvopastoreo, Pinto, Magdalena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime De La Ossa V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la biodiversidad faunística asociada a ganadería vacuna de doble propósito en dos potreros estructurados con Botriochloa pertusa (colosoana como herbácea dominante, uno de ellos plantado con Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae como fuente de alimento adicional y otro con escaso y disperso arbolado. Materiales y métodos. El área de estudio está ubicada en el municipio de Pinto, Magdalena. Cada potrero evaluado fue de 10 ha, se mantuvo en cada uno un lote de quince vacas (½ Cebú, ¼ Pardo y ¼ Costeño con Cuernos, la separación entre las áreas muestreadas fue de 500m. Los registros de fauna se condujeron mediante punto fijo de conteo, en diez sitios de avistamiento, durante 20 días continuos, con cubrimiento visual amplio. Al ganado vacuno adulto presente en las dos áreas de trabajo se le realizó un pesaje individual al inicio del trabajo y al final del mismo, con el fin de determinar posibles diferencias entre ellos. Resultados. Estadísticamente el número de individuos y el número de especies presentaron diferencias significativas, siendo mayor la diversidad biológica para el potrero que poseía la plantación de C. cujete, mientras que el peso corporal de las vacas sometidas a pastoreo en las dos áreas no presentó diferencias significativas. Conclusiones. Se demuestra la importancia de este modelo pecuario como promotor de la conservación faunística local al convertirse enrefugio de variadas especies silvestres, al tiempo que mantiene la productividad existente sin alterar el ambiente sustancialmente.

  1. Estudio de la resistencia a Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en germoplasma cultivado y silvestre de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeimy García Valencia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira, en condiciones de campo y casa de malla, se evaluaron por preferencia para oviposición y número de ninfas de mosca blanca (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius varias accesiones silvestres y poblaciones segregantes de tomate resistentes al pasador del fruto, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, donde se evaluaron como variables el número de huevos y de ninfas del insecto por hoja. En cada observación se incluyeron tres hojas del tercio superior, medio e inferior del tallo de la planta. Las poblaciones de mosca blanca fueron muy bajas en los dos primeros ciclos de cultivo (en campo debido, probablemente, a las altas precipitaciones. Estas condiciones no permitieron una selección de materiales resistentes o susceptibles a este insecto. En el tercer ciclo de cultivo, bajo condiciones de casa de malla, no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los retrocruzamientos respecto al testigo susceptible para la variable preferencia por oviposición. El genotipo 4212P4 presentó el menor número de ninfas, mostrando que tiene posiblemente un mecanismo que le confiere menor atracción para B. tabaci. Se encontró que los genotipos menos preferidos para oviposición y con menor número de ninfas fueron PI 134417, PI 134418 y PI 126449 (Solanum habrochaites var. Glabratum S. Knapp y D. M Spooneer.

  2. Efecto de la salinidad sobre la fisiología energética del camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Effect of salinity on physiological energetics of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone)

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Valdez; Fernando Díaz; Ana Denisse Re; Elizabeth Sierra

    2008-01-01

    Se determinó el balance energético en juveniles de Litopenaeus vannamei, aclimatados a la salinidad como hiperosmóticos (20 ups), isosmóticos (26 ups), o hiposmóticos (32 ups). Además, se calculó la razón atómica O:N. La tasa de ingestión, el consumo de oxígeno, la excreción de amonio y el campo de crecimiento fueron afectados significativamente (p < 0.05) cuando los organismos fueron aclimatados a 20, 26 y 32 ups. La mayor cantidad de energía ingerida contenida en el alimento se determinó en...

  3. Descripción de larvas mysis de tres especies de camarones mesopelágicos del género Gennadas (Decapoda: Aristeidae en aguas del Pacífico sudoriental Description of mysis larvae of three mesopelagic shrimp species of the genus Gennadas (Decapoda: Aristeidae from the southeastern Pacific waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rivera

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A nivel mundial solo se han reportado los estadios larvales de dos especies de camarones del género Gennadas, ambas del océano Atlántico. Durante el transcurso de un crucero de investigación realizado desde Caldera, costa norte de Chile, hasta Isla de Pascua, se colectaron tres morfotipos de estadios mysis, pertenecientes a este género, ninguno de ellos pertenece a alguna de las especies previamente descritas. Se entregan las descripciones de esos especímenes y se comparan con las especies previamente descritasOnly two description of larval stage of shripms belonging to Gennadas genus are reported to this time, both of these to Atlantic oceans. During a survey off coast from Caldera, northern Chile, to Easter Island, three morphotypes of mysis stage of shrimp's belonging to Gennadas genus were collected, none of these showed some resemblance with the descriptions in the literature. The results of the descriptions of these samples and his comparation with previously knowed species are showed here

  4. Does zero-water discharged technology enhance culture performance of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone.)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suantika, Gede; Anggraeni, Jayanty; Hasby, Fahri Azhari; Yanuwiarti, Ni Putu Indah

    2014-03-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei or white leg shrimp is an introduced shrimp which has successfully cultured in Indonesia. In Indonesia, L. vannamei is commonly cultured on outdoor/earthen pond that requires renewal of water, less control in term of water quality and disease and attributed to unpredictable yield production. Based on the existing culture condition, a system that enable to minimize water consumption, improve the hygiene of the culture and at the same time maintain a more stable yield production is urgent to be developed by using a zero water discharge system. The system consists of: (a) culture tank - to retain and culture the shrimp; (b) CaCO3 grained - buffering agent and substrate of nitrifying bacteria; (c) aeration line - to provide O2 and homogenize the culture; (d) ancho (feeding) - to control an appropriate feed; (e) nitrifying bacteria adding - to consume ammonium and nitrite then convert it to nitrate, and also control pathogen Vibrio sp.; (f) diatom microalgae (Chaetoceros gracilis) - to uptake nitrate, bacteriostatic agent, feed source, provide O2 and shading. In this study, there were 2 treatments: the static culture (batch) system was set as control (K) (in 70 PL/m2), and culture system with zero-water discharge system which was inoculated by 0.02% v/v 106 CFU/ml of mixed culture nitrifying bacteria and diatom microalgae in 70 PL/m2 (P1). The white leg shrimp used in this experiment was at post larvae (PL) 10 and cultured in a batch system (1 × 1 × 0.5 m3 pond) during 2 months. Several parameters including survival rate, mean body weight, and water quality (salinity, temperature, pH, DO, ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate) were measured. Based on the results, biomass of P1 (237.12 ± 31.11) gram is significantly higher than control (K) (180.80 ± 12.26) gram (Pculture period in all treatments were still in tolerance range of white leg shrimp post larvae, except ammonium concentration in control (K) (2.612 ± 0.56) mg/L which is significantly

  5. Regulation of water quality and growth characteristics of indoor raceway culture of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG Weiling; YANG Ming; DAI Xilin; HOU Wenjie; LIU Yongshi; DING Fujiang

    2009-01-01

    Two modes of regulating the water quality of experimental ponds in indoor raceway culture of Litopenaeus vannamei were evaluated using simple water treatment facilities. A self-made water purifying net, aeration stone, composite microbe preparation, and Ceratophyllum demersum were placed in the experimental ponds and the culture water was circulated along the raceway inside the pond using a paddle wheel aerator. In addition, the water quality in the experimental pond was improved by draining effluent from the pipeline at the bottom of ponds 7 and 8 (mode I) and exchanging the circulating water in pond 10 (mode II) with the reservoir water in pond 9 using a pump and pipeline. The water quality in the experimental ponds was similar in response to regulation using mode I or mode II. Water quality parameters in the experimental ponds were controlled within a suitable range by simple facilities during culture period without using any chemical treatments. The rich content of dissolved oxygen was maintained by the circular flow and continuous aeration of the pond water. The respective average values of the main water parameters in experimental ponds 7 and 10 in response to regulation of the water quality using modes I and II were as follows: pH 8.17 and 7.99; DO 5.16 mg/L and 5.97 mg/L; CODMn 18.45 and 12.61 mg/L; TAN (NH_3-N) 0.854 mg/L (0.087 mg/L) and 0.427 mg/L (0.012 mg/L); NO_2-N 0.489 mg/L and 0.337 mg/L. Moreover, the average body length and body weight of harvested shrimp of pond 7 and pond 10 were 7.56 cm and 8.99 cm, 5.10 g and 8.33 g, respectively. Furthermore, the survival rate, average biomass yield and average condition factor of the shrimp harvested were 70% and 60%, 2.54 kg/m~2 and 2.14 kg/m~2, and 0.675 g/cm and 0.927 g/cm, respectively. Linear equations describing the relationship between body length and culture time and cubic or power functions describing the relationship between body weight and body length were obtained based on evaluation of the

  6. The known two types of transglutaminases regulate immune and stress responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chang, Hao-Che; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Cheng, Winton

    2016-06-01

    Transglutaminases (TGs) play critical roles in blood coagulation, immune responses, and other biochemical functions, which undergo post-translational remodeling such as acetylation, phosphorylation and fatty acylation. Two types of TG have been identified in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and further investigation on their potential function was conducted by gene silencing in the present study. Total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph clotting time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus were measured when shrimps were individually injected with diethyl pyrocarbonate-water (DEPC-H2O) or TG dsRNAs. In addition, haemolymph glucose and lactate, and haemocytes crustin, lysozyme, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), transglutaminaseI (TGI), transglutaminaseII (TGII) and clotting protein (CP) mRNA expression were determined in the dsRNA injected shrimp under hypothermal stress. Results showed that TG activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were significantly decreased, but THC, hyaline cells (HCs) and haemolymph clotting time were significantly increased in the shrimp which received LvTGI dsRNA and LvTGI + LvTGII dsRNA after 3 days. However, respiratory burst per haemocyte was significantly decreased in only LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp. In hypothermal stress studies, elevation of haemolymph glucose and lactate was observed in all treated groups, and were advanced in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp following exposure to 22 °C. LvCHH mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated, but crustin and lysozyme mRNA expressions were significantly down-regulated in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp; moreover, LvTGII was significantly increased, but LvTGI was significantly decreased in LvTGI silenced shrimp

  7. Carrapatos (Acari: Ixodidae em mamíferos silvestres do Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra e arredores, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Fernandes Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo relata ixodídeos em mamíferos silvestres no Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra e arredores, no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. De julho de 2005 a junho de 2014, foram coletadas 58 larvas, 133 ninfas e 43 carrapatos adultos em 40 eventos de captura de mamíferos de vida livre do Parque e arredores. Nos hospedeiros da ordem Carnivora, foram identificados Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844, Amblyomma sculptum Berlese, 1888, Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, 1844, Dermacentor nitens Neumann, 1897 e Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888. Em hospedeiros da ordem Xenarthra, foram identificados espécimes de Amblyomma pseudoconcolor Aragão, 1908 e A. sculptum. Este estudo relata os primeiros registros dos ixodídeos D. nitens e R. microplus parasitando Lycalopex vetulus, e A. ovale em Leopardus tigrinus no país. Os achados do presente estudo indicam a proximidade entre os animais domésticos e silvestres causada pela expansão agropecuária no território brasileiro

  8. Effects of water temperature and dietary carbohydrate levels on growth and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xingqiang; MA Shen; DONG Shuanglin

    2006-01-01

    A 3×3 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of water temperature (22 ℃, 27℃ and 32℃) and dietary carbohydrate (CBH) levels (15.47%, 29.15% and 41.00%) on growth, food consumption, feed efficiency, apparent digestibility coefficient and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that, at each dietary CBH level, specific growth rate, food consumption and apparent digestibility coefficient generally increased, while feed efficiency decreased with increasing water temperatures. Specific growth rate and food consumption were the highest in the shrimps fed with diet of 29.15% CBH, closely followed by those with 15.47% CBH, and those with 41.00% CBH had the lowest value.

  9. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  10. Steroid hormone "cortisone" and "20-hydroxyecdysone" involved in the non-specific immune responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Chang, Ching-Hsu; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of two steroid hormones on phenoloxidase activity, O2(-) production in the haemocytes, total haemocyte count (THC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activity, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activity, and plasma cholesterol concentrations in white shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei). Phenoloxidase activity, THC and plasma cholesterol concentration in shrimps treated with cortisone and 20-hydroxyecdysone were found to be lower when compared with the control groups. In the observation of O2(-) production, treatment of cortisone and hydroxyecdysone were reducing the activity in the 1st day, but to be undiversified with the elapsed time. By contrast, SOD activity in the hepatopancreas, plasma GOT activity, and GPT activity were significantly increased when compared with the control groups. PMID:27403594

  11. Natural infection by endoparasites among free-living wild animals Infecção natural por endoparasitas em animais silvestres de vida-livre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Holsback

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals. Fecal samples from wild mammals and birds at rehabilitation centers in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo were analyzed by sedimentation and flotation-centrifugation methods. Parasite eggs, oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites were found in 71% of the samples. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in fecal samples from oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus and scaly-headed parrots (Pionus maximiliani. Giardia cysts were identified in the feces of a gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira. Among the most common parasites found, there were eggs from Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina and Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and from Cestoda. Several Enterobius sp. eggs were found in the feces of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus. It can be concluded from this study that despite the small number of samples, the diversity of parasites found was noteworthy. Additional information about parasite endofauna in wild animals is needed, since their presence might suggest that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic animals and/or humans. In addition, further studies on parasites from free-living wild animals are of prime importance for understanding the intensity of anthropic changes in wild environments.O objetivo deste trabalho foi pesquisar a frequência de ocorrência e a variedade de parasitas intestinais de animais silvestres de vida livre. Amostras de fezes de mamíferos e aves silvestres de centros de reabilitação dos Estados do Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo, foram analisadas pelos métodos de sedimentação e de centrífugo-flutuação. Foram encontrados ovos, oocistos, cistos e/ou trofozoítos de parasitas em 71% das amostras. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp. foram detectados em amostras de fezes de gato-do-mato-pequeno (Leopardus tigrinus e maritacas (Pionus maximiliani. Cistos de Giardia

  12. Fenologia de espécies silvestres de macieira como polinizadora das cultivares gala e fuji Phenology of wild apple species like pollinators of gala and fuji cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Petri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A escolha correta de cultivares polinizadoras na macieira é determinante para a obtenção de altos rendimentos. Muitas regiões produtoras de maçãs do mundo utilizam macieiras silvestres com o fim específico de polinização, porém existem poucas informações quanto ao uso dessas espécies nas condições climáticas do Sul do Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento fenológico de espécies silvestres de macieira quanto à floração em comparação as cultivares comerciais 'Gala' e 'Fuji', nas condições climáticas do Sul do Brasil, em Caçador-SC (latitude 26º42'32" sul, longitude 51º00'50" oeste e altitude de 960 metros. As macieiras silvestres estudadas foram M. atrosanguinea, M. baccata, M. eleyi, M. floribunda, M. hopa, M. platycarpa, M. robusta, 'John Downil', 'Prof. Spengler', 'Milalew imuni', 'Profusion', 'Winter gold' e 'Yellow Siberian'. As espécies silvestres apresentaram grande variabilidade na época de florescimento e na duração do mesmo ao longo dos anos. A maior coincidência do período de floração e com maior regularidade ao longo dos anos foi obtido entre às cultivares Gala e Fuji. 'Prof. Spengler', 'Profusion', 'Winter gold' e 'John Downil' são as espécies silvestres de macieira com maior potencial de utilização como polinizadoras, podendo ser utilizadas complementarmente para polinização das cultivares Gala e Fuji. As espécies M. hopa, M. eleyi e M. atrosanguinea, devido à alta densidade de floração, podem ser utilizadas como segunda opção para a polinização das cultivares Gala e Fuji.The correct choice of pollinator cultivars is an important management factor for obtaining high productivity in apple trees. Many apple production regions in the world adopt wild apple species with the specific purpose of pollination. However, there is little information about the use of this species in the climatic conditions of South Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the

  13. A ten-month diseases survey on wild Litopenaeus setiferus (Decapoda: Penaeidae) from Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río-Rodríguez, Rodolfo Enrique; Pech, Daniel; Soto-Rodriguez, Sonia Araceli; Gomez-Solano, Monica Isela; Sosa-lopez, Atahualpa

    2013-09-01

    The development of shrimp aquaculture in Mexican coasts of the Gulf of Mexico began to be explored using the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in the mid 90's. Many concerns over the risk of disease transmission to the economically important native penaeids, have been the main deterrent for the aquaculture of L. vannamei in the region. Concurrently, more than 10 years of research experience on the aquaculture suitability of the native Litopenaeus setiferus from the Terminos Lagoon, in the Yucatán Peninsula, have been accumulated. The aim of this study was then to determine the seasonal variations of the naturally acquired diseases and the possible detection of exotic pathogens. For this, random subsamples (n-60) of juveniles L. setiferus were collected from monthly captures. In order to detect the widest range of pathogens, including infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis (IHHNV) and white spot syndrome (WSSV) viruses, both histopathological and molecular methods were employed. Monthly prevalence (%) was calculated for every finding. We were able to detect a total of 16 distinct histological anomalies, most of which the presumptive aetiological agent was readily identified. PCR results for viruses were negative. For some pathogens and symbionts, the prevalence was significantly different between the adult and juvenile populations. Prevalence of diseases tended to be higher in juvenile shrimp than in adults. The results of this study indicated that L. setiferus carry a wide variety of pathogens and symbionts that seem to be endemic to penaeids of the Gulf of Mexico, and those juveniles were more conspicuous to acquire pathogens and symbionts than adults. PMID:24027916

  14. Salinity tolerance, ontogeny of osmoregulation and zootechnical improvement in the larval rearing of the Caledonian Blue Shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris (Decapoda, Penaeidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Dominique; Charmantier, Guy; Wabete, Nelly; Boulo, Viviane; Broutoi, Francis; Mailliez, Jean-rene; Peignon, Jean-marie; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    The ontogeny of osmoregulationwas investigated in Litopenaeus stylirostris by studying salinity tolerance and osmoregulatory capacity. Shrimp at different larval and postlarval stages were exposed to various salinities and survival was monitored for 24 h. Survival rates exceeded 80% at salinity over 25 ppt (750 mOsm.kg(-1)) at all the stages. At salinities below to 25 ppt, salinity tolerance was higher in nauplii and zoeae than in mysis larvae. Postlarval stages were able to withstand lower s...

  15. Correlation between Detection of a Plasmid and High-Level Virulence of Vibrio nigripulchritudo, a Pathogen of the Shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris▿

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaud, Yann; Saulnier, Denis; Mazel, Didier; Goarant, Cyrille; Le Roux, Frédérique

    2008-01-01

    Vibrio nigripulchritudo, the etiological agent of Litopenaeus stylirostris summer syndrome, is responsible for mass mortalities of shrimp in New Caledonia. Epidemiological studies led to the suggestion that this disease is caused by an emergent group of pathogenic strains. Genomic subtractive hybridization was carried out between two isolates exhibiting low and high virulence. Our subtraction library was constituted of 521 specific fragments; 55 of these were detected in all virulent isolates...

  16. Grow-out of sandfish Holothuria scabra in ponds shows that co-culture with shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris is not viable

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, J.; Agudo, N.; Purcell, S.; Blazer, P; Simutoga, M; Pham, Dominique; Della Patrona, Luc

    2007-01-01

    We examined the potential for producing the large numbers of sandfish (Holothuria scabra) needed for restocking programmes by co-culturing juveniles with the shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris in earthen ponds. Our experiments in hapas within shrimp ponds were designed to detect any deleterious effects of sandfish on shrimp, and vice versa. These experiments showed that a high stocking density of juvenile sandfish had no significant effects on growth and survival of shrimp. However, survival and...

  17. A white spot disease-like syndrome in the Pacific blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) as a form of bacterial shell disease

    OpenAIRE

    Goarant, Cyrille; Brizard, Raphael; Marteau, Anne-laure

    2000-01-01

    In May 1997, some white lesions evoking the white spot syndrome disease were observed in Litopenaeus stylirostris broodstock in New Caledonia. The occurrence of these lesions was neither associated with mortality, nor with histological evidence of white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV), The evidence suggests that these lesions result from a form of bacterial disease and are associated with an increased bacterial flora on the outer surface of the cuticle, as well as an increased incidence thro...

  18. Ontogeny of osmoregulation in the Pacific blue shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris (Decapoda, Penaeidae): Deciphering the role of the Na+/K+-ATPase

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Dominique; Charmantier, Guy; Boulo, Viviane; Wabete, Nelly; Ansquer, Dominique; Dauga, Clément; Grousset, Evelyse; Labreuche, Yannick; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille

    2016-01-01

    International audience The role of the main ion transporting enzyme Na +/K +-ATPase in osmoregulation processes was investigated in Litopenaeus stylirostris. The development and localization of the osmoregulation sites were studied during ontogenesis by immunodetection of Na+ K+-ATPase using monoclonal antibodies and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Osmoregulation sites were identified as the pleurae and branchiostegites in the zoeae and mysis stages. In the subsequent post-metamorp...

  19. Characterization of a primary cell culture from lymphoid organ of Litopenaeus vannamei and use for studies on WSSV replication

    OpenAIRE

    Li, W.; N. Thao; Corteel, M.; Dantas-Lima, J.J.; Thuong, K.V.; V. V. Tuan; Bossier, P.; Sorgeloos, P.; Nauwynck, H.

    2014-01-01

    Shrimp aquaculture is a booming agro-industry worldwide. Due to intensification of shrimp farming, pathogens emerge. Control of these pathogens especially viral pathogens is essential for a further expansion of this industry. Until now, the lack of shrimp cell lines has limited research on shrimp viral pathogens. In this context, a primary culture from the lymphoid organ of Litopenaeus vannamei was developed and standardized as a platform for further research on white spot syndrome virus (WSS...

  20. Detección de Rickettsia spp. en Suero y Garrapatas de Mamíferos Silvestres en Cautiverio en Montería, Córdoba -resumen-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Wehdeking-Hernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las rickettsiosis transmitidas por garrapatas son causadas por bacterias intracelulares pertenecientes al grupo de las fiebres manchadas del género Rickettsia. Estas zoonosis son algunas de las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores de más antiguo conocimiento‚ e incluyen dentro de su ciclo de transmisión diversas especies de mamíferos. No obstante‚ en Colombia existen pocos trabajos enfocados a conocer la dinámica de las rickettsiosis en animales silvestres. El objetivo de este estudio fue detectar‚ por medio de la técnica de PCR en tiempo real‚ la presencia de Rickettsia spp.‚ en muestras de suero y garrapatas colectadas en mamíferos mantenidos en cautiverio en el Centro de Atención y Valoración de Fauna Silvestre de la Corporación autónoma Regional de los Valles del Sinú y San Jorge CAV-CVS‚ entre los años 2009 y 2014. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre de 14 felinos‚ de las especies Leopardus pardalis (10‚ Puma concolor (3 y Panthera onca (1; de 58 primates‚ correspondientes a las especies Ateles geofroyii (17‚ Alouatta seniculus (14‚ Cebus capucinus (14‚ Saguinus oedipus (6‚ Cebus albifrons (4 Aotus sp. (2 y Ateles belzebuth (1; y de otros mamíferos: Tayassu pecari (1‚ Procyon cancrivorous (1 y Cerdocyon thous (1. En cuanto a las garrapatas‚ se colectaron e identificaron individuos del género Haemaphysalis sp. en un ejemplar de Sylvilagus sp.‚ y de las especies Amblyomma ovale‚ Riphicephalus microplus y Dermacentor nitens en P. concolor. Posteriormente fueron organizadas en pool. No se encontraron muestras de suero positivas a Rickettsia spp. (0/72. Se detectó un pool de garrapatas de la especie A. ovale positivo a este microorganismo. Este es el primer reporte en Colombia de ectoparásitos de Puma concolor positivos a Rickettsia spp. Se requiere continuar con los muestreos de ectoparásitos para determinar si este microorganismo se encuentra circulante entre mamíferos silvestres en el país.

  1. New records of Histoplasma capsulatum from wild animals in the Brazilian Amazon Novos registros de Histoplasma capsulatum em animais silvestres na Amazônia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Daibes Naiff

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight isolates of Histoplasma capsulation were obtained from eight species of forest mammals from the States of Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia in the Amazon Region of Brazil. Primary isolates were obtained by inoculating triturated liver and spleen tissue intradermally and intraperito-neally in hamsters. Mycological diagnosis in hamsters presenting lesions was confirmed by histopathology and culture on Sabouraud dextrose-agar. Infected hamsters developed signs of disease within two to nine months; all had disseminated visceral lesions and most also had skin lesions at the sites of inoculation. None of the hamsters inoculated with skin macerates of the original hosts developed histoplasmosis, and histopathological examination of the viscera of the wild hosts failed to reveal H. capsulation. Prevalence of infection was considerably higher in females than in males both for the opossum Didelphis marsupialis and for total wild animals (479 examined. It is proposed that canopy-dwelling mammals may acquire the infection from conidia borne on convective currents in hollow trees with openings at ground-level.Vinte e oito amostras de Histoplasma capsulatum foram obtidas de oito espécies de mamíferos silvestres nos Estados do Amazonas, Pará e Rondônia. Os isolamentos foram feitos mediante inoculação de amostras trituradas de fígado e baço em hamsters por via intradérmica e intraperitoneal. O diagnóstico micológico nos hamsters que apresentaram lesões foi confirmado por histopatologia e cultivo em meio dextrose-agar de Sabouraud. Os hamsters infectados desenvolveram sinais de doença após dois a nove meses; todos apresentaram lesões disseminadas nas vísceras e a maioria apresentou também lesões cutâneas nos locais da inoculação. Nenhum dos hamsters inoculados com material de pele dos hospedeiros originais desenvolveu histoplasmose, e H. capsulatum não foi detectado nos exames histopatológicos dos animais silvestres. A preval

  2. Rastreio parasitológico em populações de caprinos silvestres, assilvestrados e domésticos no Parque Nacional da Peneda-Gerês

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Patrícia de Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária A cabra-montesa (Capra pyrenaica) é uma espécie endémica da Península ibérica, uma das mais emblemáticas do Parque Nacional da Peneda-Gerês. Contam-se 13 anos desde o regresso deste ungulado silvestre a território português depois de a espécie ser considerada extinta em 1890. A presença crescente de gado doméstico e assilvestrado, sobretudo de caprinos, nas áreas ocupadas pelas cabras montesas constitui uma das principais ameaças...

  3. Caracterização química de cogumelos silvestres e comerciais de Portugal: moléculas com potencial nutricional

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2013-01-01

    Desde os primórdios da civilização humana que os corpos frutíferos dos macrofungos (cogumelos) são apreciados não apenas pela sua textura e sabor, mas também pelas suas propriedades químicas e nutricionais (Manzi et al., 1999). Os cogumelos silvestres são ricos em minerais e possuem elevadas quantidades de água, proteínas, fibras e glicídeos, apresentam baixo teor cm lipídeos o que os torna excelentes como alimentos em dietas pouco calóricas (Kalac, 2009). As espécies de cogumelos comestíveis...

  4. Reproducción de cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Homóptera: Dactylopiidae Reproduction of wild cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldo Flores-Hernández

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Por sus características, la cochinilla silvestre ofrece perspectivas de aprovechamiento como fuente de carmín y para el mejoramiento genético de la grana fina. Por lo anterior, se estableció una multiplicación y crianza de cochinilla silvestre, proveniente de la zona árida del norte de México para caracterizarla, utilizando como hospedero a Opuntia megacantha Salm Dyck. Los resultados indican que la especie silvestre pertenece al género-especie Dactylopius opuntia. Se determinó la presencia de partenogénesis en hembras. La duración de los estadios biológicos depende del sexo del insecto; el adulto hembra permaneció durante 38.4 días y 4.2 días para machos, los primeros estadios ninfales fueron similares en duración (18.1-19.8 días. El ciclo biológico de las hembras fue de 77 días mientras que el de los machos fue de 43 días. Para las hembras se estimó un periodo de preoviposición de 18.8 días, manteniéndose en oviposición durante 21 días con un promedio de 131 insectos por hembra. La proporción sexual hembras: machos fue 1:1. El tipo de reproducción fue predominantemente sexual, aunque hubo hembras partenogénicas. Este es el primer reporte de Dactylopius opuntiae como cochinilla silvestre asociada a la zona árida del noreste de México, específicamente en el Bolsón de Mapimí, Durango, México.Wild cochineal has characteristics that offer advantage as a source of carmine and for fine cochineal improvement. To characterize wild cochineal, we initiated a breeding effort raising wild cochineal from the arid zone of the north oh Mexico, using as a host organism Opuntia megacantha Salm dick. The results indicate that the wild specie is Dactylopius opuntiae. The presence of parthenogenesis in females was determined. The duration of ontogenetic stages depends on the sex of the insect. The adult female lasted 38.4 days and 4.2 days for males, the first stage nymphs were similar in duration (18-19.8 days. The complete

  5. Intoxicaciones intencionadas y accidentales de fauna silvestre y doméstica en España: diferencias entre Comunidades Autónomas

    OpenAIRE

    IS Sánchez-Barbudo; PR Camarero; R. Mateo

    2012-01-01

    En este estudio se han analizado 1.157 casos sospechosos de intoxicación de fauna silvestre y doméstica en el medio natural (1.800 animales y 340 cebos) procedentes de diversas Comunidades Autónomas (CCAA) españolas durante el periodo 2004-2010. Se ha detectado un 41,2% de casos positivos (40,8% de animales y 52,6% de cebos). En los carnívoros domésticos la detección del tóxico llegó al 71,4%, lo que indica su utilidad como centinelas del uso de veneno en el medio natural. El 78,3% de los ani...

  6. Valorização de espécies silvestres de cogumelos do Nordeste Transmontano do ponto de vista nutricional

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Anabela; Reis, Filipa S.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-01-01

    As espécies de cogumelos comestíveis têm sido descritas como altamente nutritivas e até mesmo comparadas à carne, ovos e leite, já que apresentam uma composição em aminoácidos similar à das proteínas de origem animal [1]. Este trabalho compila os resultados obtidos pelo nosso grupo de investigação relativamente ao valor nutricional de várias espécies de cogumelos silvestres da região de Bragança [2], local de enorme biodiversidade micológica. Assim, os dados apresentados incluem o estudo de 8...

  7. Arbovírus Ilheus em aves silvestres (Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis) Ilheus arbovirus in wild birds (Sporophila caerulescens and Molothrus bonariensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Eloy Pereira; Akemi Suzuki; Terezinha Lisieux Moraes Coimbra; Renato Pereira Souza; Esther Luiza Bocato Chamelet

    2001-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Relatar o isolamento do vírus Ilheus no Estado de São Paulo e avaliar o seu impacto para a saúde pública. MÉTODOS: O isolamento de vírus foi realizado em camundongos albinos Swiss, a partir de sangue de aves silvestres, capturadas com redes de espera tipo mist net, armadas no nível do solo, no Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo. A identificação das cepas isoladas foi feita pelos testes de inibição da hemaglutinação, fixação de complemento e neutralização em camundongos. Amostras d...

  8. Adaptación climática de 25 especies de frijol silvestre (Phaseolus spp) en la república mexicana

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis López Soto; José Ariel Ruiz Corral; José de Jesús Sánchez González; Rogelio Lépiz Ildefonso

    2005-01-01

    En la presente investigación se determinaron los tipos climáticos de distribución de 25 especies silvestres del género Phaseolus, cuestión que resulta indispensable para la descripción de su distribución geográfica en México. Para ello se conformó una base de datos de colectas realizadas en el interior del país en las últimas dos décadas. Esta base de datos se elaboró en formato matricial e incluyó descriptores de sitio, geográficos y topográficos. A partir de las coorden...

  9. Caracterización morfológica de accesiones silvestres de guayaba Morphologic characterization of wild accesions of guava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Jiménez Lozano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la caracterización morfológica de 22 accesiones silvestres de guayaba Psidium guajava L. 14 colectadas en el municipio de Restrepo (Valle del Cauca, seis en Armenia (Quindío y dos en Pereira (Risaralda. Se utilizaron 12 descriptores cuantitativos y 10 cualitativos de tallo, hojas y frutos; el análisis de agrupamiento se hizo mediante el coeficiente de Dice-Nei-Li y el promedio aritmético no ponderado (UPGMA. La mayor variabilidad se halló en los descriptores peso de la pulpa (CV = 55.92%, peso (CV = 45.23%, y acidez del fruto (CV = 44.75%. El análisis de agrupamientos con base en caracteres cuantitativos permitió establecer cuatro grupos: las accesiones del grupo A (Armenia, presentaron valores promedio de los descriptores de la calidad del fruto (grados Brix, acidez del fruto y relación grados Brix/acidez y valores altos de contenido de pulpa. La mayoría de accesiones del grupo C (Restrepo tuvieron altos valores de calidad del fruto y bajo contenido de pulpa. El grupo B, constituido por accesiones de Armenia y Pereira, se diferenció por valores bajos en los descriptores de rendimiento del fruto (peso del fruto, de la pulpa y diámetro de la cavidad seminal. Las accesiones del grupo D (Restrepo mostraron valores promedios en calidad y rendimiento del fruto. Los descriptores cuantitativos se reunieron en tres variables sintéticas para rendimiento y calidad del fruto que representaron 76.86% de la variabilidad total.Quantitative and qualitative morphologic characterization of 22 wild accessions of guava Psidium guajava L. collected in Restrepo (Valle del Cauca, Armenia (Quindío and Pereira (Risaralda was done. Twelve (12 quantitative and ten (10 qualitative descriptors of stem, leaves and fruits were used. The Dice- Nei Li coefficient and the UPGMA was used for the cluster analysis. Dendrograms and principal components analysis were used. The highest variability was associated with fruit descriptors, pulp weight (CV = 55

  10. Tratamiento de efluentes del cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei mediante procesos de sedimentación, filtración y absorción Treatments of effluents from Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp cultures through sedimentation, filtration and absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La eficiencia de remoción de materia particulada y nutrientes disueltos de efluentes de estanques de reproductores de Litopenaeus vannamei fue evaluada a escala de laboratorio, empleando tratamientos de sedimentación, filtración por Crassostrea rhizophorae y absorción por Ulva fasciata. En cada tratamiento se empleó un tiempo de residencia hidráulica del efluente de seis horas. En la etapa de sedimentación se utilizaron estanques con 90 L del efluente. Para la etapa de filtración, se emplearon estanques con 20 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de sedimentación. En la absorción se utilizaron estanques con 15 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de filtración. Al final de cada etapa se colectaron muestras de 500 mL para los análisis de calidad de agua. Los resultados indicaron que en la sedimentación, la turbidez, clorofila-a y sólidos suspendidos totales presentaron una remoción de 93,8%, 94,5% y 65,9%, respectivamente. La filtración alcanzó eficiencias de 89,3% y 100% para bacterias totales y clorofila a, respectivamente. En la absorción, fosfato (PO4-3 , amonio (N-NH4- y nitrato (N-NO3 fueron reducidos en 53,6%, 49,6% y 70,2%, respectivamente, en relación a los valores del estanque control. Los tratamientos combinados de sedimentación, filtración y absorción, bacterias totales (95,1%, turbidez (97,1% sólidos suspendidos totales (81,3%, clorofila-a (99,1%, amonio (54,1%, nitrito (58,0%, nitrato (69,2% y fosfato (52,9%, presentaron una alta eficiencia de remoción, en relación a los valores del efluente bruto. Se concluye que la combinación de tratamientos mejora significativamente la calidad de los efluentes del cultivo del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei.

  11. QUALITY OF THE WATER IN SHRIMP FARM Litopenaeus vannamei WITH SYSTEM OF PARTIAL RECIRCULATION SYSTEM. QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA EM FAZENDA DE CAMARÃO MARINHO Litopenaeus vannamei COM SISTEMA DE RECIRCULAÇÃO PARCIAL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Otávio Brito

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aim to characterize the quality of the water affluent and effluent of a shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei farm , which operates with system of partial recirculation system. The samples were accomplished during the low water and high tide periods of the day. The analyzed variables were: dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, salinity, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate. They samples were seven points, distributed strategically in way to characterize the water from the entrance going by the inside of the to your exit farm. ANOVA and Tukey test (P<0,05 were used in statistical analysis. Was observed the pH and dissolved oxygen stayed presenting averages of 7.72 and 6.58mg.L-1, respectively. The final averages went from 1.40 mg.L-1 to ammonia, 0.76 mg.L-1 for nitrate, 0.08 mg.L-1 for nitrite and 1.63 mg.L-1 for the phosphate.

    KEY WORDS: Quality of the water, recirculation, shrimp, vannamei.
    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a qualidade da água afluente e efluente de uma fazenda de camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei, que opera com sistema de recirculação parcial de água. As coletas foram realizadas durante os períodos de baixamar e preamar, diurnas, nos dias de lua. Analisaram-se as seguintes variáveis: oxigênio dissolvido, temperatura, pH, salinidade, amônia, nitrato, nitrito e fosfato. Escolheram-se sete pontos de coleta, distribuídos estrategicamente, de modo a caracterizar a água desde a entrada, passando pelo interior da fazenda até sua saída. Para análise estatística, utilizaram-se análise de variância (ANOVA e teste de Tukey (P<0,05. Observou-se que o pH e o oxigênio dissolvido apresentaram uma média de 7,72 e 6,58mg.L-1, respectivamente. As médias finais foram de 1,40mg.L-1 para amônia, 0,76mg.L-1 para nitrato, 0,08mg.L-1 para nitrito e 1,63mg.L-1 para o fosfato.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Camarão, vannamei, qualidade da água, recirculação

  12. CARACTERIZACIÓN MORFOAGRONÓMICA DEL GERMOPLASMA CUBANO DE PAPA (Solanum ssp. EVALUACIÓN DE LAS ESPECIES SILVESTRES. PARTE I

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    J. G. Castillo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas, durante las campañas 2002-2003, 2003-2004 y 2004-2005, se estudiaron 63 especies silvestres del germoplasma cubano de papa. Se realizó una caracterización morfoagronómica de las especies del banco, que incluyó los siguientes caracteres cualitativos: forma del tubérculo, color del tubérculo y profundidad de los ojos así como cuantitativos: rendimiento por planta (t.ha-1, masa promedio del tubérculo, número de tubérculos por planta y altura de la planta. Además, se evaluó el comportamiento ante el hongo A. solani y el virus del enrollamiento de la hoja (PLRV. Los caracteres cualitativos se expresan en porcentajes de presencia dentro de la colección. Para los cuantitativos se determinaron los estadísticos descriptivos, media, valores máximos y mínimos, desviación estándar y coeficiente de variación. Se realizó un análisis de componentes principales, para conocer la distribución de cada una de las especies dentro de la colección y su posible uso en el programa de mejoramiento cubano. Se encontró una alta variabilidad dentro de esta colección de especies silvestres para las condiciones cubanas, así como las fuentes de resistencia para el hongo A. solani y el PLRV. Se demostró, mediante esta caracterización, que existe un amplio pool de genes en esta colección, para ser utilizada más ampliamente en el programa de mejoramiento cubano.

  13. Efecto de ensilados de pescado e hígado de tiburón en el crecimiento de Litopenaeus schmitti, en sustitución de la harina y el aceite de pescado(Effect of fish silage and liver of sharks in the growth of Litopenaeus schmitti in place of fish meal and fish oil

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    Fraga-Castro, Iliana E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenDos diseños experimentales completamente aleatorizado se desarrollaron durante 6 semanas, para evaluar el efecto de dietas con ensilados de pescado (EP e hígado de tiburón (EHT, en el crecimiento de juveniles de camarón blanco Litopenaeus schmitti (peso inicial 1.3 ± 0.12 g. El EP con desechos de tilapia se incluyó en las dietas a niveles de 0, 16.5, 27.5 y 31 %, en sustitución de la harina de pescado.AbstractIn order to evaluate the effect of diets with fish silage (EP and shark liver (EHT, the growth of juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti (mean initial weight 1.3 ± 0.12, developed a laboratory scale two completely randomized design for 6 weeks.

  14. Effect of copper on the growth of shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei: water parameters and copper budget in a recirculating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng; Song, Yi; Li, Xian

    2014-09-01

    Shrimps ( Litopenaeus vannamei) were intensively cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system for 98 days to investigate effects of 0.3 mg/L Cu on its performance, Cu budget, and Cu distribution. Shrimps in Cu-treated systems had greater mean final weight (11.10 vs 10.50 g), body length (107.23 vs 106.42 mm), survival rate (67.80% vs 66.40%), and yield (6.42 vs 5.99 kg/m3), and lower feed conversion ratio (1.20 vs 1.29) than those in control systems but the differences were not significant. Vibrio numbers remained stable (104-106 colony forming units/mL) in the rearing tanks of both control and treated systems. Total ammonium-N, nitrite-N, nitrate-N, pH, chemical oxygen demand, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids were similar in controls and treatments. Dissolved Cu concentration in the treated systems decreased from 0.284 to 0.089 mg/L while in the control systems it increased from 0.006 2 to 0.018 mg/L. The main sources of Cu in the treated systems were the artificially added component (75.7% of total input), shrimp feed (21.0%), water (2.06%), and shrimp biomass (1.22%). The major outputs of Cu occurred via the mechanical filter (41.7%), water renewal (15.6%), and draining of the sediment trap (15.1%). The foam fractionator removed only 0.69% of total Cu input. Harvested shrimp biomass accounted for 11.68% of Cu input. The Cu concentration of shrimps in the Cu-treated systems (30.70 mg/kg wet weight) was significantly higher than that in control systems (22.02 mg/kg). Both were below the maximum permissible concentration (50 mg/kg) for Cu in seafood for human consumption in China. Therefore, recirculating systems can be used for commercial on-growing of Litopenaeus vannamei without loss of shrimp quality, even in water polluted by 0.30 mg/L Cu. The mechanical filter is the main route for Cu removal.

  15. Técnica de digestibilidad in vitro en ingredientes y alimentos para camarón

    OpenAIRE

    NIETO LO?PEZ, MARTHA GUADALUPE; CRUZ SUA?REZ, LUCI?A ELIZABETH; RICQUE MARIE, DENIS; EZQUERRA BRAUER, MARINA

    2005-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se evaluo? si algunas te?cnicas in vitro o la digestibilidad en otras especies podri?an ser aplicadas en el control de calidad de harinas de pescado, dietas y otros ingredientes utilizados en la alimentacio?n del camaro?n Litopenaeus vanname. Para ello se determinaron los coeficientes de correlacio?n obtenidos en la digestibilidad in vivo en camaro?n y la digestibilidad in vivo en otras especies (salmo?n, trucha o mink), o con cada una de las diferentes te?cnicas in vit...

  16. Hypoxia drives apoptosis independently of p53 and metallothionein transcript levels in hemocytes of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix-Portillo, Monserrath; Martínez-Quintana, José A; Arenas-Padilla, Marina; Mata-Haro, Verónica; Gómez-Jiménez, Silvia; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2016-10-01

    The cellular mechanisms used by the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to respond to hypoxia have been studied from the energetic metabolism and antioxidant angles. We herein investigated the participation of p53 and metallothionein (MT) in the apoptotic process in response to hypoxia in shrimp hemocytes. The Lvp53 or LvMT genes were efficiently silenced by injection of double stranded RNA for p53 or MT. The effects of silencing on apoptosis were measured as caspase-3 activity and flow cytometry in hemocytes after 24 and 48 h of hypoxia (1.5 mg DO L(-1)). Hemocytes from unsilenced animals had significantly higher apoptosis levels upon both times of hypoxia. The apoptotic levels were diminished but not suppressed in dsp53-silenced but not dsMT-silenced hemocytes after 24 h of hypoxia, indicating a contribution of Lvp53 to apoptosis. Apoptosis in normoxia was significantly higher in dsp53-and dsMT-silenced animals compared to the unsilenced controls, pointing to a possible cytoprotective role of LvMT and Lvp53 during the basal apoptotic program in normoxia. Overall, these results indicate that hypoxia augments apoptosis in shrimp hemocytes and high mRNA levels of Lvp53 and LvMT are not necessary for this response. PMID:27459156

  17. RAPD markers as predictors of infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) resistance in shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizer, Suzanne E; Dhar, Arun K; Klimpel, Kurt R; Garcia, Denise K

    2002-02-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprints of two shrimp populations (Litopenaeus stylirostris) were compared to find genetic marker(s) that may be associated with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) resistance or susceptibility. Of the 100 10-mer random primers and 100 intersimple-sequence repeat (ISSR) primers screened, five provided markers specific to the Super Shrimp population and three provided markers specific to the wild caught population. The two populations were further characterized for relative viral load (reported as cycle threshold, CT) using real-time quantitative PCR with primers specific to the IHHNV genome. The beta-actin gene was amplified to serve as a control for normalization of the IHHNV viral load. The mean viral load was significantly lower (C(T) = 34.58; equivalent to 3.3 x 10(1) copies of IHHNV genome/ng DNA) in Super Shrimp than in the wild caught population (CT = 23.49; equivalent to 4.2 x 10(4) copies/ng DNA; P < 0.001; CT values are inversely related to viral load). A preliminary prediction model was created with Classification and Regression Tree (CART) software (Salford Systems, San Diego, Calif.), where the resultant decision tree uses the presence or absence of seven RAPD markers as predictors of the relative viral load. PMID:11908650

  18. Quality changes during frozen storage of blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris with antioxidant, α-tocopherol, under different conditions

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    Adriana Zulema Valencia-Perez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fresh blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris muscle was stored with antioxidants under different conditions: ANTIOX 2%, packed in bilayer film of polyamide-low density polyethylene film (PA-LDPE with 2% α-tocopherol; ANTIOX 4%, packed in PA-LDPE film with 4% α-tocopherol; and ANTIOX-GLAZED, samples stored glazed with 2% α-tocopherol. Shrimps packed in PA-LDPE without α-tocopherol were used as CONTROL. All samples were stored at –20 °C for 120 days. As compared to the CONTROL, the shrimp stored with the antioxidant showed lower lipid oxidation (0.10-0.14 vs 1.58 mgMA/kg of muscle, lost less firmness and astaxanthin content. ANTIOX 2% and ANTIOX-GLAZED showed the lowest concentrations of formaldehyde (0.081-0.083 μM/g. There were no significant differences in color and sensory properties, but differences in the integrity of the muscle fibers were observed. The treatments with α-tocopherol maintained the shrimp muscle quality during frozen storage. However, no significant differences were found between these treatments.

  19. Double-stranded RNA confers both preventive and therapeutic effects against Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Teerapong; Yasri, Pratchayapong; Panyim, Sakol; Udomkit, Apinunt

    2011-01-01

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) infection is found widespread in peneaid shrimp, especially in economically important species such as black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Although effective prevention method for viral diseases is not well established in shrimp, the treatment with viral specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or siRNA has given promising results. In present study, dsRNAs corresponding to non-structural (ORF1 and ORF2 overlapping sequence) and structural (ORF3) genes of PstDNV were investigated for their potency to inhibit PstDNV replication in the shrimp. Periodically injection of either ORF1-2 dsRNA or ORF3 dsRNA at three days interval into L. vannamei resulted in substantial inhibition of PstDNV infection. In addition, a possibility for a therapeutic application of dsRNA in PstDNV-infected shrimp was demonstrated by the efficient suppression of PstDNV replication in L. vannamei when the ORF1-2 dsRNA was delivered into the shrimp within 24h post-PstDNV injection. Hence, our results established both the preventive and therapeutic potency of dsRNA to inhibit PstDNV in L. vannamei that could be applied as a potential treatment of PstDNV infection in shrimp. PMID:20869997

  20. Protection of blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) against the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) when injected with shrimp lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Wei-jun; Wang, Wei-na

    2010-04-01

    In this study we found that a blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) lysozyme gene (Lslzm) was up-regulated in WSSV-infected shrimp, suggesting that lysozyme is involved in the innate response of shrimp to this virus. Shrimp were intramuscularly injected with Lslzm protein to identify how this recombinant protein protects L. stylirostris from WSSV infection and to determine how this protein influences nonspecific cellular and humoral defense mechanisms. Higher survival rates and a lower viral load (compared with controls) were reported for shrimps that were first injected with the Lslzm protein and then infected with WSSV. In addition, the Lslzm expression level and the immunological parameters (including THC, phagocytic activity, respiratory burst activity, phenoloxidase activity and lysozyme activity) were all significantly higher in the WSSV-infected shrimp treated with the Lslzm protein, compared with the controls. These results indicate that lysozyme is effective at blocking WSSV infection in L. stylirostris and that lysozyme modulates the cellular and humoral defense mechanisms after they are suppressed by the WSSV virus. PMID:20074645

  1. Viral interference between infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus and white spot syndrome virus in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnichon, Valérie; Lightner, Donald V; Bonami, Jean-Robert

    2006-10-17

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is highly virulent and has caused significant production losses to the shrimp culture industry over the last decade. Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) also infects penaeid shrimp and, while being less important than WSSV, remains a major cause of significant production losses in Litopenaeus vannamei (also called Penaeus vannamei) and L. stylirostris (also called Penaeus stylirostris). These 2 viruses and their interactions were previously investigated in L. stylirostris. We report here laboratory challenge studies carried out to determine if viral interference between IHHNV and WSSV also occurs in L. vannamei, and it was found that experimental infection with IHHNV induced a significant delay in mortality following WSSV challenge. L. vannamei infected per os with IHHNV were challenged with WSSV at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 d post-infection. Groups of naïve shrimp infected with WSSV alone died in 3 d whereas shrimp pre-infected with IHHNV for 30, 40 or 50 d died in 5 d. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the delay correlated to the IHHNV load and that WSSV challenge induced a decrease in IHHNV load, indicating some form of competition between the 2 viruses. PMID:17140141

  2. cDNA cloning, expression and antibacterial activity of lysozyme C in the blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijun Mai; Chaoqun Hu

    2009-01-01

    The gene coding for lysozyme in blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) was cloned, sequenced and expressed in pET-32a vector. The deduced amino acid sequence of F. Merguiensi lysozyme showed 37-93% similarity with the mouse, human, chicken, and tiger prawn counterparts. The lysozyme was purified to homogeneity and observed as a band of approximately 15 kDa in 15% SDS-PAGE. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that mRNA transcripts of lysozyme could be mainly detected in the tissues of haemocytes, gill, gonad and the lymphoid organ of unchallenged shrimps, whereas the expression of lysozyme transcripts was increased in all the tested tissues after the heat-killed Vibrio alginolyticus challenge. The temporal expression of lysozyme mRNA in haemolymph challenged by Micrococcus luteus and V. Alginolyticus was both up-regulated and reached the maximum level at 8 and 16 h post-stimulation, respec-tively, and then dropped back to the original level. Bacteriolytic activity of the lysozyme against different bacterial cultures was deter-mined by the solid phase and turbidimetric assays. The results demonstrated that the lysozyme we obtained was not only against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but also against shrimp pathogens V. Alginolyticus and V. Parahemolyticus. In addition, the study of the inhibition mechanism revealed that the antibacterial activity of the lysozyme was a result of the bactericidal effect.

  3. Metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in the Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson) from New Caledonia: laboratory and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metian, Marc; Hédouin, Laetitia; Eltayeb, Mohamed M; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Mugnier, Chantal; Bustamante, Paco; Warnau, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The present work aimed at better understanding metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in the edible Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris, using both laboratory and field approaches. In the laboratory, the bioaccumulation kinetics of Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, and Zn have been investigated in shrimp exposed via seawater and food, using the corresponding gamma-emitting radiotracers ((110 m)Ag, (109)Cd, (57)Co, (51)Cr, and (65)Zn) and highly sensitive nuclear detection techniques. Results showed that hepatopancreas and intestine concentrated the metals to the highest extent among the blue shrimp organs and tissues. Moulting was found to play a non negligible detoxification role for Co, Cr and, to a lesser extent, Zn. Metal retention by L. stylirostris widely varied (from a few days to several months), according to the element and exposure pathway considered (a given metal was usually less strongly retained when ingested with food than when it was taken up from the dissolved phase). In the field study, Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn were analysed in shrimp collected from a New Caledonian aquaculture pond. Metal concentrations in the shrimp muscles were generally relatively low and results confirmed the role played by the digestive organs and tissues in the bioaccumulation/storage/detoxification of metals in the Pacific blue shrimp. Preliminary risk considerations indicate that consumption of the shrimp farmed in New Caledonia is not of particular concern for human health. PMID:20637480

  4. Dextrose as carbon source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 in a zero exchange system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina M Suita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work compared the use of dextrose and molasses as carbon sources for biofloc development, water quality maintenance, microorganism composition and growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles in biofloc technology (BFT. Two treatments, dextrose and molasses, were tested with four replicates each. Carbon was added to achieve a C:N-AT (N-(NH3+NH4+ ratio of 6:1. Physical and chemical water quality variables were monitored daily, and shrimp growth was estimated through periodic biometry. After 30 days, survival, final biomass, and feeding conversion rate (FCR were determined. Dissolved organic carbon, chlorophyll-a, floc volume, total ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate concentrations, and microorganisms (qualified by groups, were measured every three days. Water quality variables remained within acceptable levels throughout the experimental period, except for nitrite, which reached higher levels than recommended for this species. The use of dextrose resulted in higher water transparency, which influenced the remaining centric diatoms. A superior shrimp performance was observed at this treatment, presumably because of variations on the microbial community. Therefore, it is concluded that the addition of dextrose results in a superior growth performance of L. vannamei when cultured in BFT systems.

  5. High prevalence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in shrimps Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei sampled from slow growth ponds in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Narayanan; Sathiyaraj, Ganesan; Raj, Mithun; Shanmugam, Venu; Baskaran, Babu; Govindan, Umamaheswari; Kumaresan, Gayathri; Kasthuriraju, Karthick Kannan; Chellamma, Thampi Sam Raj Yohannan

    2016-08-01

    Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis in cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon is caused by the newly emerged pathogen Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP). It has been detected in shrimp cultured in China, Vietnam and Thailand and is suspected to have occurred in Malaysia and Indonesia and to be associated with severely retarded growth. Due to retarded shrimp growth being reported at farms in the major grow-out states of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha in India, shrimp were sampled from a total of 235 affected ponds between March 2014 and April 2015 to identify the presence of EHP. PCR and histology detected a high prevalence of EHP in both P. monodon and L. vannamei, and infection was confirmed by in situ hybridization using an EHP-specific DNA probe. Histology revealed basophilic inclusions in hepatopancreas tubule epithelial cells in which EHP was observed at various developmental stages ranging from plasmodia to mature spores. The sequence of a region of the small subunit rDNA gene amplified by PCR was found to be identical to EHP sequences deposited in GenBank. Bioassays confirmed that EHP infection could be transmitted orally to healthy shrimp. Histology also identified bacterial co-infections in EHP-infected shrimp sampled from slow-growth ponds with low-level mortality. The data confirm that hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis caused by EHP is prevalent in shrimp being cultivated in India. EHP infection control measures thus need to be implemented urgently to limit impacts of slowed shrimp growth. PMID:27503918

  6. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yuan Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰ containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE at 0 (control, 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen, and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs, granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells, total hemocyte count (THC, phenoloxidase (PO activity, respiratory bursts (RBs, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP, peroxinectin (PX, cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

  7. ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-03-01

    To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.

  8. Effect of Salinity on the Biosynthesis of Amines in Litopenaeus vannamei and the Expression of Gill Related Ion Transporter Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Luqing; LIU Hongyu; ZHAO Qun

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of salinity on the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) α-subunit and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) β-subunit gene in the gill of Litopenaeus vannamei. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay showed that the expression of NKAα-subunit and V-ATPaseβ-subunit gene was significantly influ-enced by salinity. It was found that the NKA activity significantly varied with salinity in time and dose dependent manner;whereas the V-ATPase activity did not. The abundance of NKAα-subunit gene transcript increased rapidly when the salinity decreased from 26b to 21, and slowly when the salinity decreased from 26 to 31 within the first 24 h. When the salinity decreased from 26 to 21, the transcription of NKAα-subunit gene in gill epithelium was higher at 12 h than that at 0 h, which was consistent with the result of immunoblotting assay of NKAα-subunit. In addition, salinity had a significant time-and dose-dependent effect on the concentration of biogenic amines in both hemolymph and gill. As compared to other parameters, the concentration of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) varied in different patterns when the salinity decreased from 26 to 21 or increased from 26 to 31, sug-gesting that DA and 5-HT played different regulatory roles in osmotic adaption and modulation of shrimp when salinity varies.

  9. Effect of shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) farming waste on the growth, digestion, ammonium-nitrogen excretion of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Luo, Peng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-06-01

    In this study, specific growth rate (SGR), ingestion rate (IR), food conversion ratio (FCR), apparent digestion ratio (ADR) and ammonium-nitrogen excretion were determined for sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) reared in plastic containers (70 L; 4 containers each diet treatment). Sea cucumbers were fed with five diets containing different amounts of farming waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0) and a formulated compound (20% sea mud and 80% powdered algae). Sea cucumbers grew faster when they were fed with diet D (25% shrimp waste and 75% formulated compound) than those fed with other diets. Although IR value of sea cucumber fed with diet A (shrimp waste) was higher than those fed with other diets, both the lowest SGR and the highest FCR occurred in this diet group. The highest and the lowest ADR occurred in diet E (formulated compound) and diet A group, respectively, and the same to ammonium-nitrogen excretion. The contents of crude protein, crude lipid and total organic matter (TOM) in feces decreased in comparison with corresponding diets. In the feces from different diet treatments, the contents of crude protein and TOM increased gradually as the contents of crude protein and TOM in diets increased, while crude lipid content decreased gradually as the crude lipid content in diets increased.

  10. Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  11. TAT improves in vitro transportation of fortilin through midgut and into hemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Ai, Qinghui; Wang, Xiaojie

    2012-06-01

    Fortilin is a multifunctional protein implicated in many important cellular processes. Since injection of Pm-fortilin reduces shrimp mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), there is potential application of fortilin in shrimp culture. In the present study, in order to improve trans-membrane transportation efficiency, the protein transduction domain of the transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide was fused to fortilin. The Pichia pastoris yeast expression system, which is widely accepted in animal feeds, was used for production of recombinant fusion protein. Green fluorescence protein (GFP) was selected as a reporter because of its intrinsic visible fluorescence. The fortilin, TAT and GFP fusion protein were constructed. Their trans-membrane transportation efficiency and effects on immune response of shrimp were analyzed in vitro. Results showed that TAT peptide improved in vitro uptake of fortilin into the hemocytes and midgut of Litopenaeus vannamei. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity of hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin or GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly increased compared with that in the control without expressed fortilin. The PO activity of hemocytes incubated with 200 μg mL-1 GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly higher than that in the group with the same concentration of GFP-Fortilin. Hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin-TAT at all concentrations showed significantly higher nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity than those in the control or in the GFP-Fortilin treatment. The present in vitro study indicated that TAT fusion protein improved the immune effect of fortilin.

  12. Effect of culture intensity and probiotics application on microbiological and environmental parameters in Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prasanna Kumar; Muralidhar, M; Solanki, Haresh G; Patel, Pretesh P; Patel, Krishna; Gopla, Chavali

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the complex interaction among stocking density and extent of probiotic use with production and environmental parameters in Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds to suggest suitable management strategies. The study was conducted inL. vannamei culture ponds with stocking density of 35 nos sq m(-1) (Group I) and 56 nos sq m(-1) (Group II) and probiotic application @16.5 kg ha(-1) and 157 kg ha(-1), respectively. There was no significant difference noted between the two groups of ponds in respect to ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in sediment and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in water samples, whereas significantly higher levels of AOB in water samples of high intensity culture ponds (Group II) and NOB in sediment samples of Group I were observed. The levels of sulphur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and sulphur reducing bacteria (SRB) in Group I pond water and in Group II sediment were significantly higher than their corresponding levels in the other group. In both the groups, ammonia, nitrite and sulphide concentrations were below toxic limits prescribed for shrimp farming. Comparing the production parameters at harvest revealed that low intensity culture ponds (Group I) had higher growth rate, average body weight and significantly lower FCR and higher survival rate than high intensity culture ponds (Group II). The results indicated that application of microbial products in higher quantities did not benefit significantly, and there is a need to regulate quantum and schedule of biological product usage for economically sustainable shrimp culture. PMID:26930856

  13. Population genetic structure of Brazilian shrimp species (Farfantepenaeus sp., F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis and Litopenaeus schmitti: Decapoda: Penaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Gusmão

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Penaeid shrimps are important resources for worldwide fisheries and aquaculture. In the Southwest Atlantic, Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, F. paulensis, F. subtilis, Farfantepenaeus sp. and Litopenaeus schmitti are among the most important commercially exploited species. Despite their high commercial value, there is little information available on the different aspects of their biology or genetics and almost no data on their stock structure. We used allozymes to estimate variability levels and population genetic structure of F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis, L. schmitti and the recently detected species Farfantepenaeus sp. along as much as 4,000 km of Brazilian coastline. No population heterogeneity was detected in F. brasiliensis or L. schmitti along the studied area. In contrast, F ST values found for Farfantepenaeus sp. and F. paulensis indicate that the populations of those two species are genetically structured, comprising different fishery stocks. The largest genetic differences in F. paulensis were found between Lagoa dos Patos (South and the two populations from Southeast Brazil. In Farfantepenaeus sp., significant differences were detected between the population from Recife and those from Fortaleza and Ilhéus.

  14. Effect of hemoglobin powder substituted for fishmeal on growth performance, protein digestibility, and trypsin gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangrat Chookird

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent increases in the price and demand of fishmeal, the primary protein source in shrimp feeds, have caused asearch for alternative protein sources. Hemoglobin powder (HE is a by-product produced by separating hemoglobin fromplasma of farm animal un-coagulant blood. HE contains high protein content but low lipid content, and thus has highpotential for fishmeal substitution.A six week feeding trial was carried out to investigate effects of HE substituted for fishmeal protein on growth performance,protein digestibility and trypsin gene expression in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. Six diets with0%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of HE replacing fishmeal protein were fed four times daily to six groups of shrimp withan average initial weight of 3.53 g/shrimp. Growth of shrimp decreased with increasing level of HE substitution. Although the12.5% HE substitution caused significantly lower final weight, weight gain, SGR, feed intake, PER and PPV in comparisonwith the control diet, FCR of this diet was not statistically different (p0.05. In-vitro and in-vivo protein digestibility of 12.5% HE substitution were significantly lower than that of the controlgroup in which the trypsin gene expression of shrimp fed 12.5% HE substituted diet was the highest.

  15. Effects of periodical salinity fluctuation on the growth, molting, energy homeostasis and molting-related gene expression of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Guo, Xiantao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin

    2016-04-01

    To determine the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to periodical salinity fluctuation, a 30-day experiment was conducted in laboratory. In this experiment, two salinity fluctuation amplitudes of 4 (group S4) and 10 (group S10) were designed. The constant salinity of 30 (group S0) was used as the control. Levels of shrimp growth, molting frequency (MF), cellular energy status (ATP, ADP and AMP), as well as the expression of genes encoding molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), ecdysteroid-regulated protein (ERP), and energy-related AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were determined. The results showed that periodical salinity fluctuation significantly influenced all indicators except MF which ranged from 13.3% in group S10 to15.4% in group S4. In comparison with shrimps cultured at the constant salinity of 30, those in group S4 showed a significant elevation in growth rate, food conversion efficiency, cellular energy status, ERP and MIH gene transcript abundance, and a significant reduction in CHH and AMPK transcript abundance (P < 0.05). However, salinity fluctuation of 10 only resulted in a significant variation in MIH and CHH gene expression when compared to the control (P < 0.05). According to our findings, L. vannamei may be highly capable of tolerating salinity fluctuation. When ambient salinity fluctuated at approx. 4, the increased MF and energy stores in organisms may aid to promoting shrimp growth.

  16. Identification of Bacterial Community Composition in Freshwater Aquaculture System Farming of Litopenaeus vannamei Reveals Distinct Temperature-Driven Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyi Tang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Change in temperature is often a major environmental factor in triggering waterborne disease outbreaks. Previous research has revealed temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial population in several aquatic ecosystems. To date, very little information is available on aquaculture environment. Here, we assessed environmental temperature effects on bacterial community composition in freshwater aquaculture system farming of Litopenaeus vannamei (FASFL. Water samples were collected over a one-year period, and aquatic bacteria were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Resulting DGGE fingerprints revealed a specific and dynamic bacterial population structure with considerable variation over the seasonal change, suggesting that environmental temperature was a key driver of bacterial population in the FASFL. Pyrosequencing data further demonstrated substantial difference in bacterial community composition between the water at higher (WHT and at lower (WLT temperatures in the FASFL. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the highest abundant phyla in the FASFL, however, a large number of unclassified bacteria contributed the most to the observed variation in phylogenetic diversity. The WHT harbored remarkably higher diversity and richness in bacterial composition at genus and species levels when compared to the WLT. Some potential pathogenenic species were identified in both WHT and WLT, providing data in support of aquatic animal health management in the aquaculture industry.

  17. Evaluation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei health during a superintensive aquaculture growout using NMR-based metabolomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey B Schock

    Full Text Available Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc. The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production.

  18. Application of Wet Waste from Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with or Without Sea Mud to Feeding Sea Cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yanfeng; HU Chaoqun; RENChunhua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) (P>0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no sig-nificant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments (P>0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  19. BAC end sequencing of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: a glimpse into the genome of Penaeid shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Chengzhang; Huan, Pin; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai; Huang, Chao

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the genome of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). To address this, we conducted BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) end sequencing of L. vannamei. We selected and sequenced 7 812 BAC clones from the BAC library LvHE from the two ends of the inserts by Sanger sequencing. After trimming and quality filtering, 11 279 BAC end sequences (BESs) including 4 609 pairedends BESs were obtained. The total length of the BESs was 4 340 753 bp, representing 0.18% of the L. vannamei haploid genome. The lengths of the BESs ranged from 100 bp to 660 bp with an average length of 385 bp. Analysis of the BESs indicated that the L. vannamei genome is AT-rich and that the primary repeats patterns were simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and low complexity sequences. Dinucleotide and hexanucleotide repeats were the most common SSR types in the BESs. The most abundant transposable element was gypsy, which may contribute to the generation of the large genome size of L. vannamei. We successfully annotated 4 519 BESs by BLAST searching, including genes involved in immunity and sex determination. Our results provide an important resource for functional gene studies, map construction and integration, and complete genome assembly for this species.

  20. Diversidad genética de especies silvestres y cultivadas de Rubus L. de los municipios de Pamplona y Chitagá, región Nororiental de Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Orlando Cancino-Escalante; Dámarys Sileidy Barbosa Hernández; Claudia Díaz Carvajal

    2012-01-01

    Analizar las tasas de similitud y variabilidad genética entre las accesiones cultivadas elite y especies silvestres del genero Rubus con marcadores moleculares AFLP en fincas con cultivos comerciales de Rubus glaucus Benth, per tenecientes a cuatro asociaciones de cultivadores de mora en los municipios de Pamplona y Chitagá (Norte de Santander, Colombia). Se evaluaron individuos de 15 accesiones de R. glaucus que habían sido previamente seleccionados mediante mecanismos de selección participa...

  1. Management of the fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) in relation to rabies / Interventi sulle popolazioni di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes) in Lombardia in relazione al controllo della rabbia silvestre

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Gerletti; Franca Guidali; Giovanni Scherini; Guido Tosi

    1991-01-01

    Abstract A description of the sanitary measures adopted in Lombardy Region against the spreading of rabies in populations of foxes is provided. Detailed accounts are reported for the Province of Sondrio. Riassunto Viene fornito un quadro sintetico relativo all'andamento dell'epidemia di rabbia silvestre nel territorio della Regione Lombardia e ai provvedimenti di controllo sanitario adottati nei confronti delle popolazioni di Volpe....

  2. Índice de desarrollo y supervivencia de larvas del camarón azul Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson, 1871), alimentadas con diferentes concentraciones de Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel E Godínez; Arnulfo H Díaz; María del C Gallo

    2005-01-01

    Se llevaron a cabo ensayos alimenticios con larvas del camarón azul (Litopenaeus stylirostris) utilizando cuatro diferentes concentraciones de la microalga Chaetoceroscalcitrans (30000, 60000, 90000 y 120000 cél/ml), con una concentración constante por tratamiento de 10000 cél/ml de Tetraselmis suecica y seis nauplios por ml de Artemia franciscana recién eclosionada. El período de prueba se inició a partir del sub estadio zoea 1 y concluyó hasta la aparición de misis 3. En cada ensayo fueron...

  3. Combined effect of exposure to ammonia and hypoxia on the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris survival and physiological response in relation to molt stage

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnier, Chantal; Zipper, Etienne; Goarant, Cyrille; Lemonnier, Hugues

    2008-01-01

    The effect of ambient ammonia, hypoxia and combination of both on survival and the physiological and immunological response of the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris in relation to molt stage was studied. Shrimp were submitted to 44.0-71.5 mg 1(-1) total ammonia-N corresponding to 2.0 mg 1(-1) unionized ammonia NH3-N and/or to 1.5 mg O-2 1(-1) (4.3 kPa) for 24 hours. Survival was recorded and the molt stages of both dead and surviving shrimp determined. Only shrimp in intermolt and premolt ...

  4. Evaluación in vivo del efecto cicatrizante de un gel a base de quitosano obtenido de exoesqueleto de camarón blanco litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Heimy Franceline Martínez Sánchez; Amada Yerén Escobedo Lozano; Evaristo Méndez-Gómez; Alfredo Emmanuel Vázquez; Manuel de Jesús Sol Hernández; Anahí Elizabeth Osuna Lizárraga

    2014-01-01

    Healing effect of a chitosan-based gel obtained from the exoskeleton of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its evaluation in vivoTítulo corto: Evaluación del quitosano como cicatrizanteResumen:  En México alrededor del 62 % de la población sufre de accidentes causantes de alteraciones en la piel como quemaduras, heridas y diabetes principalmente. Para atender esta problemática, se propone el uso de un gel de quitosano, obtenido del exoesqueleto de camarón ya que presenta actividad antimicr...

  5. Ataque de populações humanas por triatomíneos silvestres no Amazonas: uma nova forma de transmissão da infecção chagásica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigues Coura

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprovou-se o "ataque" de triatomineos silvestres (Rhodnius brethesi a colhedores de piaçava (Leopoldinia piaçaba, em piaçabal na localidade de Acuquaia, no Rio Padauari, afluente do Rio Negro, no Município de Barcelos, Estado do Amazonas, onde em trabalho anterior verificamos uma prevalência sorológica para anticorpos anti-T. cruzi em 12,5% da população na sede do município, com uma forte associação do contato dessa população com triatomineos silvestres, conhecidos na área como "piolho da piaçava", os quais vivem predominantemente nas piaçabeiras. O "ataque " de triatomineos a populações humanas foi possivelmente o mecanismo inicial de abordagem dos triatomineos ao homem, adaptando-se posteriormente ao seu peridomicílio e domicílio, principalmente em áreas desmaiadas ou de cerrado com poucos reservatórios silvestres. No caso do Amazonas, relatado neste trabalho, os triatomineos estavam provavelmente famintos por escassez de outros animais de sangue quente para sua alimentação.

  6. Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal, alone or in combination with distiller’s dried grains with solubles in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, grown in a clear-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  7. Arbovírus Ilheus em aves silvestres (Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis Ilheus arbovirus in wild birds (Sporophila caerulescens and Molothrus bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eloy Pereira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o isolamento do vírus Ilheus no Estado de São Paulo e avaliar o seu impacto para a saúde pública. MÉTODOS: O isolamento de vírus foi realizado em camundongos albinos Swiss, a partir de sangue de aves silvestres, capturadas com redes de espera tipo mist net, armadas no nível do solo, no Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo. A identificação das cepas isoladas foi feita pelos testes de inibição da hemaglutinação, fixação de complemento e neutralização em camundongos. Amostras de plasma de aves e de mamíferos silvestres foram submetidas à pesquisa sorológica para detecção de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação. RESULTADOS: Foram isoladas duas cepas do vírus Ilheus em sangue de aves das espécies Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis e detectados anticorpos em aves das espécies Columbina talpacoti, Geopelia cuneata, Molothrus bonariensis e Sicalis flaveola, em sagüis das espécies Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix penicillata e no quati Nasua nasua. CONCLUSÕES: O isolamento do vírus Ilheus e a detecção de anticorpos específicos em aves residentes, migratórias e de cativeiro, em sagüis e quatis, comprovam a presença desse agente no Parque Ecológico do Tietê. O comportamento migratório de aves silvestres pode determinar a introdução do vírus em outras regiões. Considerando-se a patogenicidade para o homem e a confirmação da circulação desse agente viral em área urbana, freqüentada para atividade de lazer e de educação, o risco de ocorrência de infecção na população humana não pode ser descartado.OBJECTIVE: To report the first Ilheus arboviruses isolated from wild birds and analyze its public health impact. METHODS: Wild birds and mammals were captured using mist nets and Tomahawk traps, respectively. Blood samples were drawn from these animals and inoculated intracerebrally in Swiss suckling mice found in the Parque Ecológico do Tietê, Brazil. The isolates were

  8. Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Rickettsia‚ Ehrlichia y Anaplasma en Fauna Silvestre ex situ e in situ de algunas Regiones de Colombia -resumen-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Monsalve-Buriticá

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades causadas por bacterias del orden de los Rickettsiales son trasmitidas por ectoparásitos originados en vida silvestre‚ sin embargo‚ en Colombia no existe una línea base del conocimiento en este sentido. Estos microorganismos intracelulares son causantes de enfermedades transmisibles en pacientes humanos; convirtiéndolas en zoonosis de tipo emergente. Este estudio ha permitido determinar la presencia de microorganismos del orden de los Rickettsiales (Ehrlichia spp.‚ Anaplasma spp.‚ y Rickettsia spp. en ejemplares silvestres de centros de conservación ex situ (Zoológicos‚ CAV y CAVR y en algunas regiones en condiciones in situ del país. De igual manera se identifica la infección de estos microorganismos en ectoparásitos vectores relacionados. Por medio de la técnica PCRrt‚ se detectó la presencia de Rickettsia spp.‚ Anaplasma spp.‚ y Ehrlichia spp.‚ en suero obtenido de mamíferos‚ y garrapatas colectadas de reptiles y mamíferos del Centro de Atención y Valoración de Fauna silvestre de la Corporación Autónoma Regional de los Valles del Sinú y San Jorge CAV-CVS en Montería (Córdoba‚ en osos hormigueros (Myrmecophaga tridactyla en Pore (Casanare‚ y en garrapatas obtenidas en ejemplares de titi gris (Saguinus leucopus y su hábitat en la vereda La Parroquia en Mariquita (Tolima. En Montería‚ los resultados obtenidos en mamíferos demostraron la ausencia de Rickettsia spp. en 72 muestras de suero‚ sin embargo se detectó un pool de garrapatas de la especie Amblyomma ovale positivo a este microorganismo‚ siendo el primer reporte en Colombia de ectoparásitos de Puma concolor positivos a Rickettsia spp.‚ mientras que en reptiles se detectaron 18 pools de garrapatas positivos a Rickettsia spp (90 %. En las garrapatas colectadas de nueve osos palmeros (Myrmecophaga tridactyla de vida libre se detectaron 12 pool de garrapatas positivos a este microorganismo (17‚6 %‚ y en ejemplares de

  9. Diarrea Viral Bovina (DVB y su Impacto en Poblaciones Silvestres: reporte de exposición en venado coliblanca (Odocoileus virginianus -resumen-

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    Pedro E Navas-Suárez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversos eventos de origen antrópico (ej., incremento de la demanda alimenticia conducen a efectos como la ampliación de la frontera agrícola y las consecuentes interacciones entre poblaciones domésticas-productivas y silvestres‚ una de las cuales es el contacto directo que desde la perspectiva epidemiológica es riesgoso en términos de interfaz de agentes infecciosos en poblaciones; con lo cual‚ se hace necesario identificar y describir la ecología del patógeno para comprender su importancia en metapoblaciones (domésticos‚ productivos‚ silvestres y humanos. A nivel viral‚ los Pestivirus son conocidos por los impactos productivos y reproductivos en ungulados domésticos‚ mientras que en silvestres se han reportado eventos de morbi-mortalidad en poblaciones in situ de Bison bison‚ Odocoileus hemionus‚ O. virginianus y cabras salvajes confirmados por serología y aislamiento viral principalmente Diarrea Viral Bovina (DVB. En Colombia‚ DVB no es sujeta a control oficial‚ aunque según la Federación Colombiana de Ganaderos (FEDEGAN‚ es de importancia en ganaderías de leche y carne‚ con prevalencia histórica de 41% (2005-2009 (n=5219; por otro lado‚ ocupa el cuarto puesto en solicitud diagnóstica (1-leptospirosis‚ 2-rinotraqueitis infecciosa bovina‚ 3-leucosis‚ los departamentos de mayor diagnóstico son Antioquia‚ Caquetá y Cundinamarca; la enfermedad genera problemas reproductivos en ganaderías‚ donde indicadores reproductivos como el porcentaje de preñez‚ incremento de abortos o momias y disminución de la tasa de natalidad son afectados sensiblemente; al estar incluida en el complejo reproductivo bovino se debe monitorear y controlar. Por otro lado‚ en especies silvestres de Colombia no se conocen reportes de aislamiento o actividad inmunológica; aunque‚ mundialmente se considera que O. virginianus puede hospedarlo y generar un cuadro clínico similar al observado en bovinos (enfermedad o

  10. Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Total Phenols of Wild and Cultivated Berries in Chile Capacidad Antioxidante, Antocianinas y Fenoles Totales de Berries Silvestres y Cultivados en Chile

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    Jaime Guerrero C

    2010-12-01

    ón fue determinar la capacidad antioxidante (AC, antocianinas totales (TA y el contenido de fenoles totales (TP, de berries silvestres y cultivados en diferentes localidades de la Región de La Araucanía y Región de Los Ríos (Chile. Para evaluar estos parámetros se utilizó el método de radicales libres 2,2-difenil-2- picrilhidrazilo (DPPH, pH diferencial y Folin-Ciocalteu, respectivamente. Los porcentajes de decoloración del DPPH estuvieron comprendidos entre 67,8% para zarzaparrilla roja y 95,3% para rosa mosqueta. El maqui presentó un contenido de AT significativamente mayor (2240,2 y 1445,3 mg L-1 cianidina 3-glucósido que el resto de los berries, el promedio de AT fue de 335,5 mg L-1. En cuanto al contenido FT los mayores niveles se obtuvieron en los dos cultivares de saskatoon (773,9 y 1001,9 mg L-1 ácido gálico y en rosa mosqueta silvestre (1457,0 y 1140,4 mg L-1 de ácido gálico. En este estudio se concluye que existen diferencias significativas en la capacidad antioxidante de frutos silvestres y cultivados en Chile, observándose una fuerte correlación entre el CA y el contenido de FT.

  11. Ecología de enfermedades infecciosas emergentes y conservación de especies silvestres Ecology of emerging infectious diseases and wild species conservation

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    G Medina-Vogel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las recientes publicaciones científicas respecto de enfermedades infecciosas emergentes en especies silvestres están aumentando la preocupación internacional en el deterioro de la salud del ecosistema de los océanos, ambientes terrestres y límnicos. Se estudiaron investigaciones publicadas en los últimos 25 años. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: 1 determinar la importancia del hábitat y la introducción de especies alóctonas, dentro del contexto de la contaminación y el cambio climático, en el surgimiento de enfermedades infecciosas, y 2 evaluar el riesgo de extinción de especies con problemas de conservación. La evaluación de los casos escogidos, más importantes, permite concluir que los patógenos responsables de las enfermedades infecciosas en especies silvestres pueden transmitirse rápidamente entre huéspedes pudiendo llegar a producir en corto tiempo epizootias que pueden poner en peligro poblaciones vulnerables en declinación. La destrucción del hábitat y la introducción de especies alóctonas son variables ambientales que significativamente afectan la ecología de las enfermedades infecciosas emergentes. En cambio la contaminación y el cambio climático actúan como variables ambientales que favorecen la transmisión y la creación de nuevos huéspedes. Esta multicausalidad en el origen de las enfermedades genera la necesidad de un enfoque transdisciplinario para enfrentarlas. El riesgo creciente de epizootias debido a las variables ambientales y biológicas estudiadas, fuerza incluir en los planes de conservación y rescate de especies silvestres la ecología de las enfermedades infecciosas.Recent literature on emerging infectious diseases in wild species raises international concerns about ocean, terrestrial and freshwater ecosystem health. Reports documenting infectious diseases in wild species from the last 25 years were investigated. The goals of the study were to: 1 assess the importance of habitat and

  12. Prevalência da infecção pelo Toxoplasma gondii em animais domésticos, silvestres e grupamentos humanos da Amazônia

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    José João Ferraroni

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Através de Reação de Hemaglutinação Indireta para toxoplasmose foram examinadas amostras de sangue de dez diferentes espécies de animais domésticos e silvestres, de um grupamento humano da cidade de Manaus-Amazonas e de um grupamento humano indígena de área distante, no território de Roraima. Em 108 animais domésticos, o exame sorológico foi reagente em 90,6% dos gatos (Felis catus, 68,4% dos cães (Canis familiaris, 60,0% dos bovinos (Bos sp, 41,2% dos galináceos (Gallus sp e 40,0% dos palmípedes (Cairina sp. Nos 104 animais silvestres foram reagentes 75,0% dos felídeos (Felis sp, 63,6% dos marsupiais (Didelphis marsupialis e Marmosa sp, 63,3% dos primatas (Saimiri sp e 61,1% dos roedores (Proechimys. Entre os dois grupos humanos a prevalência foi de 70,6% nos 51 habitantes da área de Manaus, 64,8% nos 37 silvícolas de Roraima. Os autores discutem os resultados obtidos, assim como os diversos aspectos envolvidos na epidemiologia da toxoplasmose e chamam a atenção para a existência de mecanismos de transmissão ainda não esclarecidos, enfatizando a necessidade de maiores estudos dessa zoonose.Serological examination for Toxoplasma gondii in human blood samples and in blood samples from ten different species of animals obtained in Manaus, State of Amazonas-Brazil, are compared with results obtained from similar examinations of blood from humans living in other areas of the Amazon basin. The domestic cat (Felis catus showed the highest levels of antibody for Toxoplasma gondii, whereas the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus and duck (Cairina sp the lowest. The other animals showed similar intermediate levels of antibody to this protozoa. The authors discuss the results and several aspects of the involvement in epidemiology of toxoplasmosis and call attention to some transmission mechanisms not yet elucidated.

  13. Divergência genética em germoplasma de aveias silvestres com base em caracteres multicategóricos e quantitativos

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    Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As aveias silvestres são importantes fontes de genes para programas de melhoramento e sua caracterização é fundamental para a efetiva conservação e uso. Por isso, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a divergência genética em uma coleção de 71 subamostras de aveias silvestres, do Banco de Germoplasma da Embrapa Trigo, com base em caracteres multicategóricos e quantitativos. Procederam-se às análises de variância, para os caracteres quantitativos, e multivariada, para ambos os tipos de caracteres. Os métodos de agrupamento UPGMA, a partir da distância euclidiana média (caracteres multicategóricos, e de ligação completa, com base na distância de Mahalanobis (caracteres quantitativos, foram os mais adequados para ilustrar a relação entre as subamostras. A pilosidade da base dos grãos foi o caractere com maior contribuição relativa para divergência genética (32,16% e a menor contribuição foi da pilosidade do nó superior (0,081%. As subamostras divergiram quanto a vinte caracteres: pilosidade da bainha da folha inferior, bordas da lâmina imediatamente abaixo da folha bandeira, nó superior, face externa do lema e base do grão; posição da folha bandeira e das ramificações na panícula; frequência de plantas com folha bandeira recurvada; intensidade da pilosidade do nó superior e da cerosidade do lema; orientação das ramificações na panícula; comprimento dos pelos basais do grão, ráquila, panícula, glumas e planta; cor do lema, tipo de arista, número de grãos por espigueta e ciclo. O germoplasma apresenta elevada variabilidade genética e genes de interesse para o melhoramento de aveias.

  14. Desempeño reproductivo de dos líneas de reproductores de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei introducidos en Cuba - Reproductive behaviour of broodstocks from lines of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei introducing in Cuba

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    Lic. Missael Guerra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUno de los mayores problemas en los laboratorios de producción depostlarvas es el “inbreeding”, el que puede afectar las características reproductivas de los animales y tener un impacto negativo en la producción. En este trabajo se evaluaron los registros reproductivos de los progenitores de dos introducciones (I1 e I3 de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei provenientes del mismo lugar mantenidos en ciclo de producción cerrado. Para el estudio se tomaron los resultados del número de hembras maduras diarias (Mad/día; Porciento de cópula (% Cop y nauplios por desove (Nau/Des. Todos estos indicadores fueron comparados entre meses y entre introducciones. El número de hembras maduras fue el único que mostró una distribución normal variando de 119 a 178 y de 43 a 70 para cada una de las introducciones respectivamente. Se observó que existen diferencias significativas entre los meses en todos para los indicadores. Se observó un comportamiento similar de loscaracteres reproductivos, el segundo y tercer mes fueron los mejoresdurante el período de producción. No existieron diferencias significativas en el porciento de cópula ni en el número de nauplios por desoves, pero en el número de hembras maduras si hubo diferencias mostrando valores de 160 para I1 y de 62 para I3; esto probablemente se debe a problemas de manejo, el número de animales que se encontraban en la nave o a condiciones ambientales. Estos parámetros son muy importantes para la diferenciación genética entre líneas, además de ser muy útiles en un posible tratamiento de loci cuantitativo (QTL, por sus siglas en ingles que permitan mejoras los caracteres reproductivos y así obtener reproductores más eficientes.SummaryOne of the major concerns in hatcheries is inbreeding, which can affect fitness-related traits, and may have a significant negative impact on production. We present the analysis of reproductive records for broodstocks from two different

  15. Oxygen consumption of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles in heterotrophic medium with zero water exchange Consumo de oxigênio de juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei em meio heterotrófico sem renovação de água

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    Luis Vinatea

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at determining the dissolved oxygen consumption rate of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles maintained in a microbial biofloc raceway system at high density with no aeration. Three 4 L bottles were filled for each treatment, sealed hermetically, and placed in an enclosed greenhouse raceway system. Four shrimp (13.2±1.42 g were assigned to two sets of the bottles, which underwent the following treatments: light conditions with no shrimp; dark conditions with no shrimp; light conditions with shrimp; and dark conditions with shrimp. Dissolved oxygen content was measured every 10 min for 30 min. A quadratic behavior was observed in dissolved oxygen concentration over time. Significant differences for oxigen consumption were observed only at 10 and 20 min between shrimp maintained in the dark and those under light conditions. At 10 min, a higher value was observed in shrimp maintained under light, and at 20 min, in the dark. Significant differences between 10 and 20 min and between 10 and 30 min were observed when oxygen consumption was analyzed over time in the presence of light. Under dark conditions there were significant differences only between 20 and 30 min. Lethal oxygen concentration (0.65 mg L-1 would be reached in less than one hour either under light or dark conditions with no aeration.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o consumo de oxigênio dissolvido (OD de juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei mantidos em sistema de cultivo de bioflocs bacterianos em alta densidade e ausência de aeração. Três garrafas de 4 L foram preenchidas para cada tratamento, fechadas hermeticamente e colocadas em sistema de cultivo fechado. Quatro camarões (13,2±1,42 g foram colocados em dois dos conjuntos de garrafas. Os tratamentos aplicados foram: luminosidade, sem camarões; escuro, sem camarões; luminosidade, com camarões; escuro, com camarões. A concentração de oxigênio dissolvido foi determinada a cada 10 min durante 30 min. Foi

  16. Acute toxicity of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and permethrin to juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei =Toxicidade aguda de pirazossulfurom-etílico e permethrin em juvenis de camarão branco Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Giovanni Lemos de Mello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the LC50 (96h of two pesticides: SiriusR 250 SC herbicide of the pyrazosulfuron-ethyl group, and TalcordR insecticide of the permethrin group, on juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp total hemocyte count (THC was also determined as an indication of physiological alterations caused by the pesticides. Juvenile shrimp (5.0 } 0.5 g were exposed to the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 and 1000 ƒÊg L-1 SiriusR 250 SC; and 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 ƒÊg L-1 TalcordR. The TalcordR LC50 (96h was of 0.00933 ƒÊg L-1 or 9.33 ng L-1. There were no significant changes in the THC between control and test groups. No SiriusR 250 SC concentrations tested killed more than 50%of the shrimp; therefore, the herbicide was considered not toxic to the juveniles. However, the THC showed significant differences between the control and test groups, suggesting sublethal effects to L. vannamei juveniles. According to the results, the insecticide TalcordR is highly lethal for L. vannamei and the herbicide SiriusR 250 SC was not lethal in the concentrations tested but showed sublethal effects as lower THC. The results demonstrate the risks involved in farming L. vannamei shrimp near rice cultures where these pesticides are routinely used.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a CL50 (96h dos agroquimicos SiriusR 250 SC, herbicida a base de pirazossulfurom-etilico, e TalcordR, inseticida a base de permethrin, em juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei, bem como avaliar possiveis alteracoes fisiologicas por meio da contagem total de hemocitos (CTH dos camaroes. Juvenis de L. vannamei (5,0 } 0,5 g foram expostos as seguintes concentracoes dos agroquimicos: SiriusR 250 SC, 0; 0,1; 1; 10; 100 e 1.000 ƒÊg L-1, e TalcordR, 0; 0,001; 0,01; 0,1; 1 e 10 ƒÊg L-1. A CL50 (96h do inseticida TalcordR foi de 0,00933 ƒÊg L-1 ou 9,33 ng L-1. Nao houve alteracoes significativas da CTH entre as medias dos grupos

  17. Caracterización preliminar de los invertebrados bentónicos capturados accidentalmente en la pesca de camarones en el norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, sudeste de Brasil Preliminary characterization of benthic invertebrates caught as by-catch in the shrimp fishery in the north of the Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

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    Igor David da Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para caracterizar la biodiversidad de invertebrados bentónicos que componen la fauna asociada a la pesca de camarones en el puerto del Farol de Sao Thomé, costa norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, se realizaron 11 pescas mensuales en el año 2004 con redes de arrastre de fondo, cuya área de operaciones comprende 3-5 mn desde la línea de costa, entre 22°00'S y 22°20'S. Los datos registrados de cada taxon y/o especie se refieren a la frecuencia de ocurrencia, frecuencia numérica, biomasa, índice de Importancia Relativa y abundancia. En total se registraron 27 especies de invertebrados bentónicos de Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Annelida, Crustácea, Echinodermata y Bryozoa. Crustácea fue el más representativo, tanto en número de ejemplares de Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus y Callinectes ornatos, como en biomasa de P. diogenes y H. pudibundas. En términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia en los muéstreos, 11 especies (40,7% fueron constantes; 6 (22,2% accesorias y 10 (37,0% accidentales.In order to characterize the biodiversity of the benthic invertebrate by-catch associated with the shrimp fishery at Farol de Sao Thome harbor, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, in 2004, 11 monthly trawls were conducted using bottom trawl nets between 22°00'S and 22°20'S and from 3 to 5 nm from the shoreline. The analyzed data for each talon and/or species include frequency of occurrence, numeric frequency, biomass, index of Relative Importance, and abundance. In total, 27 benthic invertebrate species were recorded, including Peripheral, Cnidarians, Mollusk, Annelid, Crustacea, Echinodermata, and Bryozoa. The most representative group was Crustacea, both in number of specimens (Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus, Callinectes ornatus and in biomass (P. diogenes, H. pudibundus. In terms of the frequency of occurrence in the samples, 11 species (40.7% were constant, 6 species (22.2% were accessories, and 10 species (37.0% were by-catch.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterisation of a pattern recognition molecule, lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Winton; Liu, Chun-Hung; Tsai, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2005-04-01

    A lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) cDNA was cloned from the haemocyte and hepatopancreas of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei using oligonucleotide primers and RT-PCR. Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA end RACE method. Analysis of nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has an open reading frame of 1101 bp encoding a protein of 367 amino acids including a 17 amino acid signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the mature proteins (350 amino acids) is 39.92 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.37. Two putative integrin binding motifs (cell adhesion site), RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) and a potential recognition motif for beta- (1-->3) linkage of polysaccharides were observed in the LGBP. Sequence comparison showed that LGBP deduced amino acid of L. vannamei has an overall similarity of 95%, 92% and 61% to that of blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris LGBP, tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon BGBP and crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus LGBP, respectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that LGBP transcript in haemocyte of L. vannamei increased in 3- and 6-h post Vibrio alginolyticus injection. PMID:15561560

  19. Growth and Feed Efficiency of Juvenile Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Fed Formulated Diets Containing Different Levels of Poultry by-Product Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Shuyan; TAN Beiping; MAI Kangsen; ZHENG Shixuan

    2009-01-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture ofLitopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower (P0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litopenaeus vannamei.

  20. Lactic-acid bacteria increase the survival of marine shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after infection with Vibrio harveyi

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    Felipe do Nascimento Vieira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the survival, post-larvae quality, and the population of bacteria in Litopenaeus vannamei after the addition of two strains of lactic-acid bacteria (2 and B6 experimentally infected by Vibrio harveyi. Fifteen hundred nauplii were distributed in 20 L capacity tanks with four replicates. The survival of control animals was lower (21% than that of animals fed with the strains B6 (50% and 2 (44%. Total bacterial population in the water and larvae, as well as of the Vibrio ssp. in water was not different among the treatments. No difference was observed in the population of Vibrio ssp. between the control larvae (5.5±0.5 log UFC/mL and that fed with strain 2 (5.4±0.1 log UFC/mL. Shrimp from control and fed with strain 2 showed significantly higher bacterial population than those fed with strain B6 (1.2±0.2 log UFC/mL. It was detected the lower load of Vibrio ssp. bacteria with potential of pathogenicity after feeding with strain B6.Moreover, these larvae showed more active behavior and low number of necrosis in relation to the control group and to that fed with strain 2.Este trabalho avaliou a adição de duas cepas de bactérias lácticas (2 e B6 na sobrevivência, qualidade de pós-larva e na população de bactérias na larvicultura de Litopenaeus vannamei experimentalmente infectado por Vibrio harveyi. Mil e quinhentos náuplios foram distribuídos em tanques de 20 L com quatro repetições. A sobrevivência dos animais controle foi menor (21% do que a dos alimentados com as cepas B6 (50% e 2 (44%. Sobrevivência de misis após desafio com V. harveyi foi maior em B6 do que nos outros tratamentos. A população total de bactérias na água e nas larvas, bem como de Vibrio ssp. na água não foi diferente entre os tratamentos. Não houve diferença, também, entre a população de Vibrio ssp. em larvas do grupo controle (5,5±0,5 log UFC/mL e larvas alimentadas com a cepa 2 (5,4±0,1 log UFC/mL. Camarões do grupo controle e

  1. A MicroRNA-Mediated Positive Feedback Regulatory Loop of the NF-κB Pathway in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hongliang; Yuan, Jia; Chen, Yonggui; Li, Sedong; Su, Ziqi; Wei, Erman; Li, Chaozheng; Weng, Shaoping; Xu, Xiaopeng; He, Jianguo

    2016-05-01

    In the evolutionarily conserved canonical NF-κB pathway, degradation of the NF-κB inhibitor IκB in the cytoplasmic NF-κB/IκB complex allows the liberated NF-κB to translocate into the nucleus to activate various target genes. The regulatory mechanism governing this process needs further investigation. In this study, a novel microRNA, temporarily named miR-1959, was first identified from an invertebrate Litopenaeus vannamei miR-1959 targets the 3'-untranslated region of the IκB homolog Cactus gene and reduces the protein level of Cactus in vivo, whereas the NF-κB homolog Dorsal directly binds the miR-1959 promoter to activate its transcription. Therefore, miR-1959 mediates a positive feedback regulatory loop, in that Dorsal activates miR-1959 expression, and in turn, miR-1959 inhibits the expression of Cactus, further leading to enhanced activation of Dorsal. Moreover, miR-1959 regulates the expression of many antimicrobial peptides in vivo and is involved in antibacterial immunity. To our knowledge, it is the first discovery of a microRNA-mediated feedback loop that directly regulates the NF-κB/IκB complex. This positive feedback loop could collaborate with the known NF-κB/IκB negative loop to generate a dynamic balance to regulate the activity of NF-κB, thus constituting an effective regulatory mechanism at the critical node of the NF-κB pathway. PMID:26994223

  2. Virulence of Vibrio harveyi responsible for the "Bright-red" Syndrome in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Rodriguez, Sonia A; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Lozano, Rodolfo; del Rio-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Diéguez, Ana L; Romalde, Jesús L

    2012-03-01

    Vibrio harveyi (Vh) CAIM 1792 strain was isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei affected with "Bright-red" Syndrome (BRS). The strain grew in 1-10% NaCl, at 15-35°C and was resistant to ampicillin (10 μg), carbenicillin (100 μg) and oxytetracycline (30 μg). The lowest MIC was for enrofloxacine (0.5 μgml(-1)). The in vivo and in vitro toxicity of bacterial cells and the extracellular products (ECPs) of Vh CAIM 1792 grown at 1.0%, 2.0% and 4.0% NaCl were evaluated. Adherence ability, enzymatic activities and siderophore production of bacterial cell was tested. The ECPs exhibited several enzymatic activities, such as gelatinase, amylase, lipase, phospholipase and caseinase. These ECPs displayed a strong cytotoxic effect on HELA cell line at 6 and 24 h. Challenges using 10(3) CFU g(-1) caused opacity at the site of injection and over 80% shrimp mortality before 24 h p.i. (post-injection). Mortality caused by the ECPs was higher than mortalities with bacteria, especially in the first hours p.i. Bacteria were re-isolated from hemolymph samples of moribund shrimp and identified as Vh CAIM 1792 by rep-PCR. Histological analysis of shrimp L. vannamei injected with Vh CAIM 1792 revealed generalized necrosis involving skeletal muscle (MU) at the injection site, the lymphoid organ (LO), heart and connective tissues. Melanization within the MU at the site of injection was also observed as well as hemocytic nodules within the hearth and MU at 168 h p.i. LO was the target organ of BRS. Necrosis of the MU at the injection site was the main difference in comparison to other shrimp vibriosis. PMID:22306693

  3. Nitric oxide as an antimicrobial molecule against Vibrio harveyi infection in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Wong, Nai-Kei; Jiang, Xiao; Luo, Xing; Zhang, Lvping; Yang, Dan; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key effector molecule produced in the innate immune systems of many species for antimicrobial defense. However, how NO production is regulated during bacterial infection in invertebrates, especially crustaceans, remains poorly understood. Vibrio harveyi, a Gram-negative marine pathogen, is among the most prevalent and serious threats to the world's shrimp culture industry. Its virulence typically manifests itself through shrimp hepatopancreas destruction. In the current study, we found that NO generated by an in vitro donor system (NOC-18) could rapidly and effectively kill V. harveyi. In addition, injection of heat-killed V. harveyi increased the concentration of NO/nitrite and the mRNA expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the commercially most significant shrimp species. Live V. harveyi challenge also induced NO/nitrite production and NOS gene expression in primary L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Co-incubation of l-NAME, an inhibitor selective for mammalian constitutive NOSs, dose-dependently blocked V. harveyi-induced NO/nitrite production, without affecting V. harveyi-induced NOS mRNA expression. Furthermore, l-NAME treatment significantly increased the survival rate of infecting V. harveyi in cultured primary hepatopancreatic cells of L. vannamei. As a whole, we have demonstrated that endogenous NO produced by L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells occurs in enzymatically regulated manners and is sufficient to act as a bactericidal molecule for V. harveyi clearance. PMID:25449376

  4. Probiotic modulation of the gut bacterial community of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus CAIM 170

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    Irasema E Luis-Villaseñor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of two probiotic mixtures was studied using the fingerprints of the bacterial community of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles exposed to probiotics and challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus CAIM 170. Fingerprints were constructed using 16S rRNA gene and the PCR-SSCP (Single strand conformation polymorphism technique, and the probiotics used were an experimental Bacillus mixture (Bacillus tequilensis YC5-2 + B. endophyticus C2-2 and YC3-B and the commercial probiotic Alibio. The DNA for PCR-SSCP analyses was extracted directly from the guts of shrimps treated for 20 days with the probiotics and injected with 2.5*10(5 CFU g-1 of V. parahaemolyticus one week after suspension of the probiotic treatment. Untreated shrimps served as positive (injected with V. parahaemolyticus and negative (not injected controls Analysis of the bacterial community carried out after inoculation and 12 and 48 h later confirmed that V. parahaemolyticus was present in shrimps of the positive control , but not in the negative control or treated with the probiotic mixtures. A significant difference in the diversity of the bacterial community was observed between times after infection. The band patterns in 0-12 h were clustered into a different group from that determined after 48 h, and suggested that during bacterial infection the guts of whiteleg shrimp were dominated by gamma proteobacteria represented by Vibrio sp. and Photobacterium sp. Our results indicate that the experimental and the commercial mixtures are suitable to modulate the bacterial community of L. vannamei and could be used as a probiotic to control vibriosis in juvenile shrimp.

  5. Ácaros Asociados a Mamíferos y Aves Silvestres de la Reserva Nacional Forestal Bosque de Yotoco -resumen-

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    A Rueda-Hurtado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia posee cerca del 10% de la biota mundial‚ ubicándola segunda entre los doce países megadiversos; con el fin de conocer la diversidad de ácaros asociados a mamíferos y aves silvestres de la Reserva Nacional Forestal Bosque de Yotoco‚ un ecosistema con múltiples amenazas antropicas‚ se realizó este trabajo‚ se colectaron 22 hospederos‚ teniendo en cuenta los protocolos de bioseguridad‚ ética y bienestar animal y de manejo propio de cada especie. Para la captura de los hospederos se utilizaron trampas Sherman y Redes de Niebla‚ para la extracción de los ácaros se utilizó el método de observación directa en estereoscopio‚ montándose en medio Hoyer’s. Para las determinaciones taxonómicas se usaron las claves de Dowling y colaboradores‚ Ohio State University. En el estudio se encontraron 652 ácaros los suborden‚ Astigmata‚ 4 familias‚ representado principalmente por la familia Lardoglyphidae con un 95% (316‚ seguido por Pteronyssidae con el 3% (9‚ Analgidae con 1%(4 y Dermoglyphidae con 1% (3; Mesostigmata‚ segundo suborden más representado‚ se encontraron 237 individuos de 4 familias‚ Laelapidae con 86% (205‚ Macronyssidae con 7% (16‚ Ascidae con 1% (1 y Dermanyssidae con 6% (15. El suborden menos representado fue el Prostigmata con solo una familia Erythraeidae 100% (83.

  6. Efecto del fotoperiodo y la temperatura sobre la composición bioquímica en reproductores silvestres de cabrilla sardinera, Mycteroperca rosacea (Streets, 1877

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    José Antonio Estrada-Godínez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó el factor de condición (K, el índice gonadosomático (IGS, hepatosomático (IHS y de grasa visceral (IGV, así como la composición bioquímica en diferentes tejidos de reproductores silvestres de cabrilla sardinera, Mycteroperca rosacea, para evaluarlos a lo largo de un ciclo reproductivo y ver la relación que presentan los cambios con respecto a la temperatura del agua y fotoperiodo de la zona de muestreo. Se capturaron 187 reproductores, 146 hembras y 41 machos en el golfo de California, México. Se observaron diferencias significativas (P < 0,005 en los IGS, IHS e IGV; en el caso de K no se encontraron diferencias. También, se observaron variaciones significativas (P < 0,05 en la mayoría de los parámetros bioquímicos, encontrándose los valores más altos durante la etapa de desove, mientras que los más bajos durante la etapa de reposo. Todos los índices estimados y los parámetros bioquímicos determinados, se correlacionaron significativamente (P < 0,05 con el fotoperiodo, mientras que solo se encontraron correlaciones significativas (P < 0,05 entre el IGS e IGV con respecto a la temperatura del agua.

  7. Desenterrado os mortos: A reconstrução do passado político brasileiro na obra de Edney Silvestre

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    Gabriela Antunes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a trilogia de estreia de Edney Silvestre, composta por Se eu fechar os olhos agora (2009, A felicidade é fácil (2011, e Vidas provisórias (2013. Pretende-se fazer um breve balanço da contribuição do autor para a reabertura de um debate sobre o recente passado histórico-político brasileiro, e, relacionando os fatos abordados no romance com temas contemporâneos, ressaltar a relevância e a atualidade desse debate. Para isso, os textos serão analisados cronologicamente, o que visa mostrar o desenvolvimento do tratamento do sujeito histórico no conjunto de obras do autor. This paper aims to analyse Edney Silvestre’s trilogy composed by If I close my eyes now (2009, Happiness is easy (2011, and Temporary lives (2013, as well as to review the author’s contribution in reopening a debate on Brazilian’s recent historical and political past. By pointing out the relationship between the facts mentioned in thenovels and contemporary Brazil, it aims to stress the importance and up-to-dateness of this discussion. In order to achieve these goals, the novels will be analysed chronologically, which also intends to reveal the development of the way the author deals with Brazilian history throughout his oeuvre.

  8. Aclimatação do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 à água doce com diferentes estratégias de alimentação e calagem = Acclimatization of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 to the freshwater with different feeding and liming strategies

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    Paulo de Paula Mendes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pós-Larvas do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase de PL9-10 e PL25-26 foram aclimatadas à água doce (0,0 ‰, objetivando promover cultivos em regiões interioranas. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos conduzidos em aquários com capacidade útil de 44 litros e densidade de estocagem de 11,36 pós-larvas/L. No experimento 1, foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cal hidratada (0,018 g a 0,031 g e 2 dietas, formuladas à base de ração comercial para camarão e biomassa de artêmia. No experimento 2, foram testadas 5dietas com diferentes concentrações de biomassa de artêmia (0% a 100%, inseridas em rações de peixes e camarões. No final do processo de aclimatação, a sobrevivência das póslarvas variou de 40,44% a 98,04%. Concluiu-se que pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei podem ser aclimatadas à água doce e que o aumento da concentração de cal e de artêmia na ração melhoraram significativamente (pLitopenaeus vannamei postlarvae with 9-10 (PL9-10, 25-26 days old (PL25-26 were acclimated to freshwater (0 ppt for the purpose of attending the inland cultures. Two experiments were conducted in 44 liter aquariums with stocking density of 11.36 postlarvae/L. In experiment 01, different concentrations of hydrated lime (0.018 g a 0.031 g and two diets, formulated with commercial shrimp ration and artemia biomass, were tested. In experiment 02, five diets, withdifferent concentrations of artemia biomass (0 to 100% inserted in fish and shrimp rations, were tested. At the end of the acclimatization process, the postlarvae survival varied from40.44 to 98.04%. Results showed that Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae can be acclimated to freshwater. Also, the increase of lime concentration and the artemia biomass in the ration improved (p<0.05 the zootechnic parameters of the species in a significant way.

  9. Primer registro de la utilización de harinas de Salicornia bigelovii y Scomber japonicus en dietas prácticas para el cultivo súper-intensivo de camarón Litopenaeus stylirostris First record on the use of Salicornia bigelovii and Scomber japonicus fishmeals as feed for Litopenaeus stylirostris under super-intensive farming

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel de J . Acosta-Ruiz; J. Paniagua-Michel; J Olmos-Soto; E Paredes-Escalona

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto de las harinas de Salicornia bigelovii (SA) y Scomber japonicus, semiprocesada (HPS) como ingredientes en la formulación de dietas para camarón azul Litopenaeus stylirostris, en cultivo súper-intensivo. Se formularon tres diferentes dietas isoproteicas (40%) e isocalóricas (6 kcal g-1): (DSA), (DHPS), basal (DBA) y una dieta control (DCO). El peso obtenido con DSA y DHPS (0,9 ± 0,014 y 0,8 ± 0,015 g) fue similar a la dieta comercial DCO (0,9 ± 0,07 g), no existieron difere...

  10. Acesso ao alimento artificial e enchimento do trato digestivo de juvenis do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae durante as fases clara e escura do período de 24 horas Artificial food access and digestive tract filling of juvenil marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae during light and dark phases in 24-hour period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele S. Pontes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de dados acerca do comportamento alimentar do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 com relação ao alimento artificial ofertado em bandejas poderá induzir a uma alimentação inadequada, resultando no desperdício da ração, no aporte desnecessário de nutrientes, e conseqüente aumento dos custos com a alimentação e da poluição ambiental potencial desta atividade. Objetivando fornecer subsídios para a melhoria do manejo alimentar praticado nas fazendas, foram realizados estudos comportamentais utilizando 64 juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei (7,57 ± 1,01g, mantidos em densidade populacional de 33 m², submetidos a fotoperíodo artificial, em ciclo invertido, para observação durante as fases clara e escura. A ração foi ofertada em intervalos pré-estabelecidos, registrando-se posteriormente através de método focal contínuo: a latência para chegada à bandeja, b latência para consumo do alimento e c Índice de Enchimento do Trato Digestivo. Os animais foram mais rápidos para chegar à bandeja e também para iniciar o consumo do alimento nos horários da fase clara. O enchimento do trato digestivo mostrou-se superior na meia hora subsequente à oferta do alimento, especialmente nos horários da fase clara.The few data on the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 behavior related to feed offer in trays can result inadequate feeding by the animal, feed wastage and unnecessary nutrient input, increasing feed costs and potential environmental pollution of that culture. In order to provide tools for improved feed management methods in shrimp farms, a behavioral study was conducted, using 64 Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (7,57 ± 1,01g, one animal per 33 m². They were submitted to artificial photoperiods, half of them in reversed cycle, in order to register behavior during light and dark phases. The following variables were registered (continuous sampling after feed exposition: a latency to access the

  11. Biorremediación de los efluentes de cultivo del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 utilizando tapetes microbianos en un sistema de recirculación Bioremediacion of effluents ones of the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 using microbial mats in a recirculating system

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    Carlos Lezama-Cervantes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un sistema de recirculación (SR integrando el cultivo del camarón con tapetes microbianos buscando mitigar los impactos ambientales de los subproductos del cultivo del camarón y avanzar hacia la biorremediación del agua de cultivo. Los consorcios microbianos obtenidos de ambientes naturales (TaM estuvieron constituidos por bacterias (55,6%, cianófitas (18,4%, diatomeas (9%, nemátodos (5,6% y clorófitas (1,4%, entre los grupos taxonómicos principales. La remoción de nutrientes y sólidos se evaluó en un SR (2 ciclos/hora conteniendo (n = 3 60 y 120 ind m-2 de Litopenaeus vannamei. Los resultados demostraron que los TaM redujeron los niveles de nitrógeno amoniacal por encima del 71% diariamente; la demanda bioquímica de oxígeno (DBO5 se redujo más de 68% y los sólidos suspendidos (SST hasta en 62% al compararse con los sistemas control (p 0,05. El agua bio-remediada tiene un efecto positivo en el cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei, y promueve el crecimiento y sobrevivencia en presencia de TaM en el SR.We developed a recirculating system integrating shrimp culture with microbial mats aiming to mitigate the environmental impacts of by-products from shrimp culture and to advance toward the bioremediation of the shrimp culture water. The microbial consortia collected from natural environments (TaM was constituted by bacteria (55.6%, Cyanophyte (18.4%, diatoms (9%, nematods (5.6% and Chlorophyte algae (1.4% among the major taxonomic groups. The removal of nutrients and solids by these mats was assessed in a recirculating system (2 cycles/hour (n = 3 containing 60 and 120 ind m-2 of Litopenaeus vannamei. Results showed that the microbial mat reduces daily up to 71% of ammonia nitrogen, decreases around 68% of the biochemical oxygen demand (DBO5 and up to 62% of suspended solids (SST when comparing to the control systems (p 0.05. The Bioremediated culture water had a positive effect on the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei, and

  12. Ataque de populações humanas por triatomíneos silvestres no Amazonas: uma nova forma de transmissão da infecção chagásica?

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    José Rodrigues Coura

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprovou-se o "ataque" de triatomineos silvestres (Rhodnius brethesi a colhedores de piaçava (Leopoldinia piaçaba, em piaçabal na localidade de Acuquaia, no Rio Padauari, afluente do Rio Negro, no Município de Barcelos, Estado do Amazonas, onde em trabalho anterior verificamos uma prevalência sorológica para anticorpos anti-T. cruzi em 12,5% da população na sede do município, com uma forte associação do contato dessa população com triatomineos silvestres, conhecidos na área como "piolho da piaçava", os quais vivem predominantemente nas piaçabeiras. O "ataque " de triatomineos a populações humanas foi possivelmente o mecanismo inicial de abordagem dos triatomineos ao homem, adaptando-se posteriormente ao seu peridomicílio e domicílio, principalmente em áreas desmaiadas ou de cerrado com poucos reservatórios silvestres. No caso do Amazonas, relatado neste trabalho, os triatomineos estavam provavelmente famintos por escassez de outros animais de sangue quente para sua alimentação.An "attack" of wild triatomines (Rhodnius brethesi topiaçaca workers (Leopoldinia piaçaba is confirmed in the locality of Acuquaia, at Padauari river, affluent of Rio Negro in the municipality of Barcelos, State of Amazonas, Brazil. A serological prevalence of 12.5% for T. cruzi antibodies in human population, in the city of Barcelos, has already been described in a previous paper. A strong association between the serological positivity and the population contact with wild triatomines, known in the area as "piaçava's lice", was verified.

  13. Frutos tropicais silvestres e polpas de frutas congeladas: atividade antioxidante, polifenóis e antocianinas Wild fruits and pulps of frozen fruits: antioxidant activity, polyphenols and anthocyanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Marta Kuskoski

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Os sucos de frutas tropicais conquistam cada vez mais o mercado consumidor, sendo o Brasil um dos principais produtores. Existe grande diversidade de produtos derivados de frutos e constante inserção de novos produtos no mercado de consumo, os quais, na maioria das vezes, ainda não foram devidamente pesquisados com respeito às suas propriedades e atividades benéficas à saúde. Neste trabalho, objetiva-se determinar algumas propriedades de frutos tropicais silvestres in natura e polpas de frutos comercializados congelados. Para determinar a atividade antioxidante, utilizou-se o método do radical 2,2-difeniL-1-picrilhidrazilo (DPPH·; para determinar os polifenóis totais, o método de Folin-Ciocalteu e, para as antocianinas, o método da diferença de pH. As polpas de frutas analisadas foram de amora, uva, açaí, goiaba, morango, acerola, abacaxi, manga, graviola, cupuaçu e maracujá; e os frutos silvestres, jambolão e baguaçu. Representada em TEAC (atividade antioxidante equivalente a Trolox, a atividade antioxidante global das polpas oscila entre mínimos e máximos 0,5 e 53,2mimol g-1, enquanto que, representada em VCEAC (atividade antioxidante equivalente a vitamina C, entre mínimos e máximos de 64,8 e 1198,9mg100g-1. Para os extratos de polpa dos frutos in natura, a atividade antioxidante oscila entre 13,3 e 111,2mimol g-1 (TEAC e entre 42,8 e 2533,1mg 100g-1 (VCEAC. Em ordem decrescente de capacidade antioxidante, encontra-se: acerola> manga> morango> uva> açaí> goiaba> amora> graviola> maracujá> cupuaçu> abacaxi. Os frutos de baguaçu apresentam maior atividade antioxidante que os de jambolão.The tropical fruit juices are gaining ever greater space in the consumer market, and Brazil is one of the main producer countries in this market. There is a great diversity of products derived from fruits and new products for consumption are launched constantly, often without the necessary research into their active properties and

  14. Ecología trófica del jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa silvestre en Chile Trophic ecology of the wild boar (Sus scrofa in Chile

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    ÓSCAR SKEWES

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Documentamos la dieta del jabalí silvestre en el centro-sur de Chile basados en el examen de 20 estómagos colectados en los faldeos de volcán Mocho-Choshuenco (39°54' S, 72°02' O y en el Parque Nacional Vicente Pérez Rosales (41°03' S, 71°54' O. La dieta está representada por animales, vegetales y hongos. Entre los vegetales y hongos son consumidas tanto las partes epígeas como hipógeas, lo mismo que frutos y semillas. Hongos y rizomas de Gunnera tinctoria constituyen ítemes vegetales cuantitativamente importantes en la alimentación. El jabalí forrajea en general en ambiente boscoso, pero las especies vegetales más frecuentes en la dieta se encuentran en espacios abiertos o fuera del bosque. El ambiente dominado por Chusquea spp. constituye un importante sitio de alimentación. Los roedores de la familia Muridae dominan entre los animales determinados en la dieta del jabalí. Esta situación, sin embargo, parece obedecer a la ocurrencia de una ratada producto de la semillación masiva de Chusquea spp. durante la época de muestreo. Las aves de la familia Rhinocryptidae e invertebrados (en especial larvas del coleóptero Chiasognathus grantii constituyen parte frecuente de los ítemes animales de la dieta del jabalí. En comparación a estudios en otras partes del mundo, el jabalí silvestre en Chile consume hongos en porcentaje de ocurrencia similar (65 % a su dieta en Estados Unidos de América pero bastante más alta que su dieta en Europa (5-32 %. En relación al volumen del componente animal, el jabalí en Chile consume más (16,1 % que en Estados Unidos de América (6 % y que en Europa (7-13 %We document the diet of wild boar in south-central Chile based on analysis of 20 stomachs collected on the outskirts of Mocho-Choshuenco volcano (39°54' S, 72°02' W and of Vicente Pérez Rosales National Park (41°03' S, 71°54' W. The diet incorporates animals, plants and fungi. Among the latter two, both epigeal and hypogeal parts

  15. Especies silvestres mediterráneas con valor ornamental: selección, producción, viverística y utilización en jardinería

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Sánchez, Juan José; Franco Leemhuis, José Antonio; Vicente Colomer, María José

    2008-01-01

    El presente libro resulta de la colaboración entre la extinta Dirección General del Medio Natural (actual Dirección General de Patrimonio Natural y Biodiversidad) y la Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena para desarrollar un estudio sobre el establecimiento de criterios de recuperación, selección, producción viverística y utilización de especies de la flora silvestre con valor ornamental en la Región de Murcia. La información recogida en este libro se mantendrá a...

  16. Management of the fox (Vulpes vulpes in Lombardy Region (Northern Italy in relation to rabies / Interventi sulle popolazioni di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes in Lombardia in relazione al controllo della rabbia silvestre

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    Guido Gerletti

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A description of the sanitary measures adopted in Lombardy Region against the spreading of rabies in populations of foxes is provided. Detailed accounts are reported for the Province of Sondrio. Riassunto Viene fornito un quadro sintetico relativo all'andamento dell'epidemia di rabbia silvestre nel territorio della Regione Lombardia e ai provvedimenti di controllo sanitario adottati nei confronti delle popolazioni di Volpe. Più in dettaglio è esaminata la situazione in provincia di Sondrio.

  17. Contribución al establecimiento de parámetros de calidad y rangos de variación para material vegetal de Momordica charantia L. proveniente de individuos silvestres y de cultivo

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Navarro, Laura Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia L. (Curcubitaceae), conocida en Colombia como balsamina, es una planta medicinal reconocida por su actividad hipoglicemiante. Actualmente se viene utilizando tanto el material vegetal proveniente de cultivo, como de crecimiento silvestre para la elaboración de productos fitoterapéuticos. Sin embargo se desconoce el impacto de la fuente de obtención de la droga cruda sobre la calidad de los mismos y no se dispone de una monografía o guía de control de calidad para su anális...

  18. Real time PCR quantification of WSSV infection in specific pathogen free (SPF) Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) exposed to antiviral nucleotide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Badhul Haq; K Kalai Priya; R Rajaram; R Vignesh; M Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the level of WSSV transmission from the infected tiger prawn Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) to specific pathogen free Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) in laboratory captivity condition in relation to PCR detection, histopathological observation and viral genome sequence. Methods: Viral DNA was isolated from purified virions by treatment with proteinase K (0.2 mg/mL) and Sarkosyl (1%). The purity and concentration of the DNA were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Moribund and dead shrimp were removed and processed for indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) analysis. Histological observation of infected L. vannamei shrimps were revealed by the degenerated cells which were characterized by intranuclear inclusions in the tissues of WSSV infected mid-gut gland, lymphoid organ, gill lamellae and gut epithelium. Total DNA was extracted, from shrimp hemolymph and tissues, with a High Puree PCR template preparation kit. WSSV-DNA was detected using a commercial 2-step PCR detection kit. Results:The present study compares the real-time PCR results with SYBR Green I concentration ranging from 0.2 to 0.7×. The positive standard was used in the range of 102, 104 106, 108 and 1010 copies/ng of DNA in general. The PCR analysis showed the appearance of a prominent band from the PCR amplified product of WSSV-DNA at internal control band of 848 bp. Moderate and severe levels were observed as 650 bp and 910 bp (200 & 2 000 copies) in various transmission routes. The WSSV content in moribund shrimp of all the experimental species (L. vannamei) approximately ranged in nucleotide application by quantification method from 0.000 001 WSSV copies/μg of total DNA. In whole moribund infection animal, approximately 0.02 WSSV copies/μg of DNA was detected in nucleotide applied animal. Conclusion: These results indicate that wild brood stock and native culture shrimp P. monodon may be infected with WSSV and can get transferred into the SPF L. vannamei farming

  19. Effect of probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici on antioxidant defences and oxidative stress of Litopenaeus stylirostris under Vibrio nigripulchritudo challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castex, Mathieu; Lemaire, Pierrette; Wabete, Nelly; Chim, Liet

    2010-04-01

    Antioxidant defences and induced oxidative stress tissue damage of the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris, under challenge with Vibrio nigripulchritudo, were investigated for a 72-h period. For this purpose, L. stylirostris were first infected by immersion with pathogenic V. nigripulchritudo strain SFn1 and then antioxidant defences: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), Total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathiones and induced tissue damage (MDA and carbonyl proteins) were determined in the digestive gland at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection (h.p.i.). In the meantime, TAS was also measured in the blood. Infection level of the shrimps during the challenge was followed by determining V. nigripulchritudo prevalence and load in the haemolymph of the shrimps. Changes in all these parameters during the 72-h.p.i. period were recorded for control shrimps and shrimps previously fed for one month with probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M at 10(7) CFU g(-1) of feed. Our results showed that immersion with V. nigripulchritudo led to maximal infection level in the haemolymph at 24 h.p.i. preceding the mortality peak recorded at 48 h.p.i. Significant decreases in the antioxidant defences were detected from 24 h.p.i. and beyond that time infection leaded to increases in oxidative stress level and tissue damage. Compared to control group, shrimps fed the probiotic diet showed lower infection (20% instead of 45% at 24 h.p.i. in the control group) and mortality (25% instead of 41.7% in the control group) levels. Moreover, infected shrimp fed the probiotic compared to uninfected control shrimps exhibited very similar antioxidant status and oxidative stress level. Compared to the infected control group, shrimps fed the probiotic sustained higher antioxidant defences and lower oxidative stress level. This study shows that bacterial infection leads to oxidative stress in L. stylirostris and highlighted a beneficial effect of P

  20. Impact of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) co-infection on survival of penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Song, Xiaoling; Huang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an important viral pathogen that infects farmed penaeid shrimp, and the threat of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection to shrimp farming has become increasingly severe. Viral and bacterial cross or superimposed infections may induce higher shrimp mortality. We used a feeding method to infect Litopenaeus vannamei with WSSV and then injected a low dose of V. parahaemolyticus (WSSV+Vp), or we first infected L. vannamei with a low-dose injection of V. parahaemolyticus and then fed the shrimp WSSV to achieve viral infection (Vp+WSSV). The eff ect of V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV co-infection on survival of L. vannamei was evaluated by comparing cumulative mortality rates between experimental and control groups. We also spread L. vannamei hemolymph on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar plates to determine the number of Vibrio, and the WSSV copy number in L. vannamei gills was determined using an absolute quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. LvMyD88 and Lvakt gene expression levels were detected in gills of L. vannamei by real-time PCR to determine the cause of the diff erent mortality rates. Our results show that (1) the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the WSSV+Vp group reached 100% on day 10 after WSSV infection, whereas the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the Vp+WSSV group and the WSSV-alone control group approached 100% on days 11 and 13 of infection; (2) the number of Vibrio in the L. vannamei group infected with V. parahaemolyticus alone declined gradually, whereas the other groups showed significant increases in the numbers of Vibrio (P<0.05); (3) the WSSV copy numbers in the gills of the WSSV+Vp, Vp+WSSV, and the WSSV-alone groups increased from 105 to 107 /mg tissue 72, 96, and 144 h after infection, respectively. These results suggest that V. parahaemolyticus infection accelerated proliferation of WSSV in L. vannamei and vice versa. The combined accelerated proliferation of both V

  1. Effect of dissolved oxygen on swimming ability and physiological response to swimming fatigue of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yan; Zhang, Xiumei; Liu, Xuxu; Thakur, Dhanrajsingh N.

    2013-11-01

    The swimming endurance of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, 87.66 mm ± 0.25 mm, 7.73 g ± 0.06 g) was examined at various concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO, 1.9, 3.8, 6.8 and 13.6 mg L-1) in a swimming channel against one of the five flow velocities (v 1, v 2, v 3, v 4 and v 5). Metabolite contents in the plasma, hepatopancreas and pleopods muscle of the shrimp were quantified before and after swimming fatigue. The results revealed that the swimming speed and DO concentration were significant factors that affected the swimming endurance of L. vannamei. The relationship between swimming endurance and swimming speed at various DO concentrations can be described by the power model (ν·t b = a). The relationship between DO concentration (mg L-1) and the swimming ability index (SAI), defined as SAI = Σ{0/9000} vdt(cm), can be described as SAI = 27.947 DO0.137 (R 2 = 0.9312). The level of DO concentration directly affected the physiology of shrimp, and exposure to low concentrations of DO led to the increases in lactate and energetic substrate content in the shrimp. In responding to the low DO concentration at 1.9 mg L-1 and the swimming stress, L. vannamei exhibited a mix of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism to satisfy the energetic demand, mainly characterized by the utilization of total protein and glycogen and the production of lactate and glucose. Fatigue from swimming led to severe loss of plasma triglyceride at v 1, v 2, and v 3 with 1.9 mg L-1 DO, and at v 1 with 3.8, 6.8 and 13.6 mg L-1 DO, whereas the plasma glucose content increased significantly at v 3, v 4 and v 5 with 3.8 and 6.8 mg L-1 DO, and at v 5 with 13.6 mg L-1 DO. The plasma total protein and hepatopancreas glycogen were highly depleted in shrimp by swimming fatigue at various DO concentrations, whereas the plasma lactate accumulated at high levels after swimming fatigue at different velocities. These results were of particular value to understanding the locomotory ability of whiteleg

  2. Optimal content and ratio of lysine to arginine in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zhengfu; DONG Chaohua; WANG Linlin; HU Yanjiang; ZHU Wei

    2013-01-01

    The optimal quantity of dietary lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg),and the optimal ratio of dietary Lys to Arg for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were investigated.Coated Lys and Arg were added to a basal diet (37.99% crude protein and 7.28% crude lipid) to provide graded levels of Lys and Arg.The experimental diets contained three Lys levels (2.51%,2.11%,and 1.70% of total diet),and three Arg levels (1.41%,1.80%,and 2.21% of total diet) and all combinations of these levels were tested.Pacific white shrimp,with a mean weight of 3.62±0.1 g,were randomly distributed in 36 fiberglass tanks with 30 shrimp per tank and reared on the experimental diets for 50 days.After the feeding trial,the growth performance,survival,feed conversion rate (FCR),body composition and protease and lipase activities in the hepatopancreases of the experimental shrimps were determined.The results show that weight gain (WG),specific growth rate (SGR),FCR,body protein,body Lys and Arg content were significantly affected by dietary Lys and Arg (P<0.05) and improved when dietary Lys and Arg levels were 2.11%-2.51% and 1.80%-2.21%,respectively.Protease and lipase activities in the hepatopancreases of the shrimps appeared higher when dietary Lys and Arg quantities were 2.11%-2.51% and 1.80%-2.21%,although the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05).Therefore,according to our results,the optimal Lys and Arg quantities in the diet of Pacific white shrimp,L.vannamei,were considered to be 2.11%-2.51% and 1.80%-2.21%,respectively,and the optimal ratio to be 1:0.88-1:1.05.

  3. Observações sobre calazar em Jacobina, Bahia. VI - Investigações sobre reservatórios silvestres e comensais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Sherlock

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante os anos de 1982 a 1986, a investigação sobre mamíferos comensais e silvestres, da periferia da cidade de Jacobina, Bahia, mostrou, ao lado do escasso número de exemplares, uma reduzida variedade específica dessa fauna. Capturou-se apenas 11 espécies, entre as quais, predominou o Didelphis albiventris, que abrangeu 44% dos 213 espécimens capturados. Entre os 193 com exames já concluídos, 84 eram exemplares de D. albiventris e 2 estavam infectados pela Leishmania donovani senso lato, 1 por L. mexicana amazonensis, 1 por L. braziliensis, subespécie e 3 por Trypanosoma cruzi Também foram observadas formas suspeitas de serem amastigotas de leishmanics, nos esfregaços de órgãos de 3 exemplares de Dasyprocta aguti, 1 Cercomys cunicularius - e 1 Oryzomys eliurus. 0 restante dos exemplares, inclusive 14 de Lycalopex vetulus, estava negativo para flagelados. Apesar de reforçado por outros indicadores epidemiológicos, como a predominância específica, a freqüência domiciliar, a atratividade para a vetora Lutzomyia longipalpis, e a concomitância com casos humanos nos mesmos locais, o índice de 2,3% de infecção natural do Didelphis albiventris, não autoriza a conclusão definitiva de ser o marsupial o mais importante reservatório natural da leishmaniose visceral em Jacobina.

  4. Epidemiología molecular de la rabia urbana en Colombia, 1994-2004. La rabia en ecosistemas silvestres como amenaza para la población humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Boshell

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    En Colombia la rabia ocurre en dos ciclos epidemiológicos principales: la rabia urbana con el perro como principal reservorio y transmisor principalmente a humanos, y la rabia silvestre con especies animales de la vida silvestre como los quirópteros y zorros entre otros, como reservorios y transmisores principalmente a especies ganaderas y eventualmente a humanos que se convierten en víctimas accidentales. Durante los últimos años la rabia silvestre en Colombia ha cobrado mayor relevancia como problema de salud pública que la rabia urbana, a juzgar por el número de víctimas humanas. Con el fin de perfeccionar el diagnóstico y la tipificación del virus de la rabia en Colombia, el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia del Instituto Nacional de Salud estandarizó técnicas para amplificar y secuenciar un fragmento de ADN complementario (cADN a una fracción de 902 nucleótidos seleccionados del ARN del virus, con el fin de adelantar estudios de epidemiología molecular. La fracción mencionada contiene secuencias que codifican para los aminoácidos 447-525 de la glicoproteína y 1-35 de la proteína L. Además contiene la región intergénica no codificante conocida como Pseudogen Psi.

    Las técnicas estandarizadas fueron las siguientes: a extracción de ARN total a partir de cerebro de ratón infectado. b amplificación molecular por transcripción reversa y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. c secuenciación del fragmento amplificado.

    Mediante estas técnicas de epidemiología molecular viral se determinó que durante 1994-2004, la rabia urbana se concentró en tres regiones geográficas definidas, con epizootias en el antiplano cundiboyacense, departamento de Arauca y la región Caribe. Las dos primeras se controlaron

  5. Tratamiento de efluentes del cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei por sedimentación y filtración por la ostra Crassostrea rhizophorae Treatment of Litopenaeus vannamei farming effluents by sedimentation and oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ramos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A escala de laboratorio se evaluaron las eficiencias de remoción del material particulado y nutrientes disueltos desde efluentes de cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei, utilizando un sistema combinado de dos fases, sedimentación y filtración por la ostra Crassostrea rhizophorae, empleando tres tiempos de retención hidráulica (TRH del efluente, 6, 12 y 24 h. En la fase de sedimentación, se emplearon estanques de 100 L en los cuales fueron colocados 90 L de efluente. En la fase de filtración, se utilizaron estanques de 50 L en los cuales se colocaron 20 L del efluente sobrenadante correspondiente a cada TRH de la fase de sedimentación. Cada unidad experimental de la fase de filtración fue sembrada con 15 ejemplares adultos de ostras con un peso promedio de 80 g manteniendo una biomasa de 1.200 g estanque-1 . Se utilizó un estanque control para cada TRH, conteniendo solamente conchas de ostras sin animal. Los resultados indicaron que en la fase de sedimentación el mejor desempeño fue alcanzado en el tiempo de 24 h, con 56,1% de remoción para la turbidez, 36,3% para los sólidos volátiles totales, la DB0(5 con 31,0% y el amonio con 21,4%. En la fase de filtración, la mayor eficiencia de remoción fue alcanzada en el tiempo de 6 h, con valores de 62,1% para la turbidez, 69,4% para los sólidos disueltos totales, 35,4% para los sólidos volátiles totales, 100% para la clorofila a y 17,2% para la DB0(5, en relación a los valores del estanque control. En esta fase, el amonio presentó un aumento en su concentración en todos los TRH. Calculadas las eficiencias de remoción con las dos fases integradas: sedimentación y filtración, en el tiempo de 6 h, en relación al efluente bruto, el desempeño mejoró significativamente alcanzando valores de 69,3% para la turbidez, 69,0% para los sólidos disueltos totales, 41,3% para los sólidos volátiles totales y 100% para la clorofila a.Efficiency in removing particulate matter and dissolved

  6. Aspects moléculaires et biochimiques des stylicines, peptides multifonctionnels identifiés chez la crevette bleue du Pacifique Litopenaeus stylirostris (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Rolland, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    Les travaux présentés dans ce mémoire ont été motivés par l’importance économique de l’élevage de la crevette bleue du pacifique Litopenaeus stylirostris dont les fortes mortalités sont principalement dues au développement de maladies bactériennes et virales. Ils ont consisté en la caractérisation des deux premiers membres d’une famille originale de peptides multifonctionnels présents chez les crevettes pénéides, les stylicines. Ces peptides, nommés stylicines 1 et 2, sont des peptides anioni...

  7. Les capacités osmorégulatrices chez la crevette bleue Litopenaeus stylirostris, au cours de l’ontogenèse

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    L’étude de l’ontogenèse de l’osmorégulation a été entreprise chez la crevette bleue Litopenaeus stylirostris en Nouvelle-Calédonie. L’implication des tissus de la cavité branchiale dans la régulation ionique a été déterminée au préalable chez des juvéniles par immunolocalisation de trois transporteurs protéiques d’ions, ( la NKA, le co-transporteur NKCC1 et le CFTR ) et par la détection de ionocytes en microscopie électronique. Le rôle de la NKA a été particulièrement étudié et son implicatio...

  8. Does damming of the Colorado River affect the nursery area of blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in the Upper Gulf of California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Noriega, E A; Calderón-Aguilera, L E

    2000-12-01

    After damming the Colorado River the freshwater flow was reduced to 1% of its virgin flow to the Upper Gulf of California (UGC). The ecological effects need to be properly documented. The UGC is the nursery area for Litopenaeus stylirostris, the most profitable fishery in the zone. In order to know the relative abundance of L. stylirostris postlarval stage we conducted a sampled survey every 14 days in 1993, 1994 and 1997, plus an intensive sampling during a complete tide cycle in July 1995 and 1996. We did 10 min trawls each hour during the flood tide. Relative abundance of postlarvae was higher (p < 0.05) in those years when freshwater flow reached the UGC. PMID:11487932

  9. A hemocyte-expressed fibrinogen-related protein gene (LvFrep) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Expression analysis after microbial infection and during larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Jaqueline da Rosa; Barreto, Cairé; Silveira, Amanda da Silva; Vieira, Graziela Cleusa; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Perazzolo, Luciane Maria

    2016-09-01

    Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) comprise a large family of microbial recognition proteins involved in many biological functions in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. By taking advantage of publicly accessible databases, we have identified a FREP-like homolog in the most cultivated penaeid shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (LvFrep). The obtained sequence showed a conserved fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) and displayed significant similarities to FREP-like proteins from other invertebrates and to ficolins from crustaceans. The expression of LvFrep appeared to be limited to circulating hemocytes. Interestingly, LvFrep gene expression was induced in shrimp hemocytes only in response to a Vibrio infection but not to the White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Moreover, LvFrep transcript levels were detected early in fertilized eggs, suggesting the participation of this immune-related gene in the antimicrobial defenses during shrimp development. PMID:27380968

  10. First report on White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV infection in white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustacea, Penaeidae under semi intensive culture condition in India

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    Gunalan Balakrishnan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific shrimp culture began in India in the late eighties along the east coast particularly inAndrapradesh and Tamilnadu. Continuous success of shrimp culture was affected by mass mortalities ofcultured shrimp in 1994. Thereafter disease infection on survival and production of shrimps get itsimportance in culture. The present study is the first report on WSSV (white spot syndrome virusinfection in cultured Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 in India. WSSV infection was observed on 70thdays of culture due to cross contamination of white spot infected shrimp from the neighboring farmbecause of birds. Due to this infection within two days the mortality ratio has gone up to 25% in pond 1and 12% in pond 2. So this present study strongly recommends to every shrimp farmers to go for birdfencing & crab fencing to avoid horizontal contamination, before stocking the good quality seed, thenthey will have the risk free WSSV culture.

  11. INFLUÊNCIA DA REFRIGERAÇÃO NA PRESERVAÇÃO DO NÚMERO TOTAL DE HEMÓCITOS DE CAMARÕES MARINHOS Litopenaeus vannamei CULTIVADOS UTILIZANDO-SE CITRATO DE SÓDIO

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    Andréa Christianne Gomes Barretto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For carrying out blood cell count, the use anti-coagulants is necessary, and in the specific case of the hemolymph in shrimp, there is still no standard solution to avoid its coagulation. Sodium citrate is frequently used as anti-coagulant, because it has been previously proven to be efficient in the preservation of the hemocytes of the sea shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In 140 samples of hemolymph with sodium citrate (10% in the ratio of 1:1, collected at 2 stages of cultivation, in dry and wet season, were examined for HTC immediately after collection and then again after storage in the refrigerator. All data were analyzed using modeling mathematics formulas (P < 0.05. After storage in the refrigerator, the number of cells decreased considerably. Therefore, the anticoagulant sodium citrate only preserved the hemolymph of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei for HTC when the count was done immediately after collection.

  12. In vivo titration of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in specific pathogen-free Litopenaeus vannamei by intramuscular and oral routes

    OpenAIRE

    Escobedo-Bonilla, C.M.; Wille, M.; Sanz, V.A.; Sorgeloos, P.; Pensaert, M. B.; Nauwynck, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a devastating pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. Standardized challenge procedures using a known amount of infectious virus would assist in evaluating strategies to reduce its impact. In this study, the shrimp infectious dose 50% endpoint (SID50 ml-1) of a Thai isolate of WSSV was determined by intramuscular inoculation (i.m.) in 60 and 135 d old specific pathogen-free (SPF) Litopenaeus vannamei using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and 1-step polymerase cha...

  13. Cross breeding of different domesticated lines as a simple way for genetic improvement in small aquaculture industries: Heterosis and inbreeding effects on growth and survival rates of the Pacific blue shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) stylirostris

    OpenAIRE

    Goyard, Emmanuel; Goarant, Cyrille; Ansquer, Dominique; Brun, Pierre; De Decker, Sophie; Dufour, Robert; Galinie, C; Peignon, Jean-marie; Pham, Dominique; Vourey, Elodie; Harache, Yves; Patrois, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Two populations of the Latin American shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus)stylirostris domesticated in Hawaii and in New Caledonia were previously shown to be genetically differentiated and proven highly inbred. In New Caledonia, where different Vibriosis affect shrimp production and antibiotic use is banned in growing ponds, the Hawaiian population was introduced to increase the allelic variability available for local shrimp farmers and start a genetic improvement program. Growth and survival rates ...

  14. Size-composition of Annual Landings in the White Shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, Fishery of the Northern Gulf of Mexico, 1960–2006: Its Trend and Relationships with Other Fishery-dependent Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Nance, James M.

    2010-01-01

    The potential for growth overfishing in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, fishery of the northern Gulf of Mexico appears to have been of limited concern to Federal or state shrimp management entities, following the cataclysmic drop in white shrimp abundance in the 1940’s. As expected from surplus production theory, a decrease in size of shrimp in the annual landings accompanies increasing fishing effort, and can eventually reduce the value of the landings. Growth overfishing can exa...

  15. Optimización del procedimiento del cálculo del alimento en estanques de engorde para la eficiencia del cultivo del camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei en Cuba (Optimization of the procedure of calculating the fattening food in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Cabrera, Redney

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa alimentación es una práctica de manejo importante si se considera su costoelevado y su efecto nocivo en el ecosistema del estanque. El método másutilizado para alimentar camarones en cultivos es por voleo y la dosis dealimento proporcionada por este método, se determina por tablas dealimentación.SummaryFood is an important management practice considering its high cost and itsharmful impact on the ecosystem of the pond. The method used to feed shrimpcrop is broadcast and the dose of food provided by this method is determinedby feeding tables.

  16. Mesocestoides sp. (Eucestoda, Mesocestoididae parasitizing four species of wild felines in Southern Brazil Mesocestoides sp. (Eucestoda, Mesocestoididae parasitando quatro espécies de felinos silvestres no Sul do Brasil

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    Moisés Gallas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus and Puma yagouaroundi are wild feline species endangered mainly due to habitat destruction and vehicle run overs. Seventeen felines hit on the roads were collected in Southern Brazil and examined for parasites. Cestodes were identified as Mesocestoides sp. The parasites were found in the small intestine of the hosts with a prevalence of 66.7% (L. colocolo and L. tigrinus, 60% (P. yagouaroundi and 50% (L. geoffroyi. Rodents and lizards were found in the stomach contents and they possibly were intermediate hosts of Mesocestoides sp. This is the first report of Mesocestoides sp. in wild felines in Brazil.As espécies Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus e Puma yagouaroundi, são felídeos silvestres ameaçados de extinção, principalmente pela destruição do hábitat e morte em rodovias. Dezessete felídeos foram coletados atropelados no sul do Brasil e, analisados na pesquisa de parasitos. Cestóides encontrados foram identificados como Mesocestoides sp. Os parasitos foram encontrados no intestino delgado dos hospedeiros com prevalência de 66,7% (L. colocolo e L. tigrinus, 60% (P. yagouaroundi e 50% (L. geoffroyi. Roedores e lagartos foram encontrados no conteúdo estomacal, podendo ser os hospedeiros intermediários para Mesocestoides sp. Este é o primeiro registro de Mesocestoides sp. em felídeos silvestres no Brasil.

  17. Desarrollo del producto brochetas a partir de camaron l. vannamei.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, G.M.; Flores, E. R.; Espino, R.; Nodarse, Ma. de L.; Turiño, M.

    2010-01-01

    El sector pesquero del Ministerio de la Industria Alimenticia tiene identificada las producciones de camarón entero, colas de camarón, colas peladas de camarón y camarón partido, todos congelados; a partir de camarón de cultivo. con fines exportables ó comercialización en el mercado de frontera y pescaderías especializadas Precisamente el desarrollo de la camaronicultura ha traído consigo una disminución de los precios en el mercado internacional, debido a la saturación de los mismos po...

  18. Comportamento reológico de méis de florada de silvestre Rheological behavior of honey from Serjania glabrata flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre J. de M. Queiroz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento reológico de méis de Apis mellifera produzidos no estado do Piauí, no semi-árido brasileiro, elaborados com florada predominante de silvestre (Serjania glabrata. As amostras foram coletadas ao longo do ano 2000, a partir de coletas realizadas por apicultores, associações e cooperativas de apicultura da região abrangida pelos municípios de Picos, Itainópolis, Vera Mendes e Isaías Coelho. Após as coletas as amostras passaram pelos processos de centrifugação, filtragem e decantação. As medidas reológicas foram feitas nas temperaturas de 20 a 40 ºC utilizando-se um viscosímetro Brookfield, modelo RVT. As leituras de velocidade de rotação e torque foram transformadas em valores de taxa de deformação e tensão de cisalhamento. Os dados de taxa de deformação e tensão de cisalhamento foram ajustados pelas equações da Lei-da-Potência e de Herschel-Bulkley. As amostras apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico. As equações se ajustaram adequadamente aos resultados experimentais de tensão de cisalhamento em função da taxa de deformação. O aumento de temperatura reduziu a viscosidade aparente em níveis próximos de 80%. Os valores de viscosidade aparente foram bem ajustados por uma equação do tipo Arrhenius.The rheological behavior of Apis mellifera honey produced in the State of Piauí, in the Brazilian semi-arid, obtained with predominance of Serjania glabrata flowers was studied. The samples were collected in the year 2000 by beekeepers and associations and cooperatives of beekeepers in the area covered by the municipal districts of Picos, Itainópolis, Vera Mendes and Isaías Coelho. The samples were centrifuged, filtered, decanted and the rheological measures at temperatures of 20 to 40 ºC using a Brookfield Viscometer RVT model were made. The readings of rotation speed and torque were transformed in shear rate and shear stress values. The data of shear rate and shear stress were fitted

  19. Intoxicaciones intencionadas y accidentales de fauna silvestre y doméstica en España: diferencias entre Comunidades Autónomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IS Sánchez-Barbudo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se han analizado 1.157 casos sospechosos de intoxicación de fauna silvestre y doméstica en el medio natural (1.800 animales y 340 cebos procedentes de diversas Comunidades Autónomas (CCAA españolas durante el periodo 2004-2010. Se ha detectado un 41,2% de casos positivos (40,8% de animales y 52,6% de cebos. En los carnívoros domésticos la detección del tóxico llegó al 71,4%, lo que indica su utilidad como centinelas del uso de veneno en el medio natural. El 78,3% de los animales que fueron positivos a los análisis toxicológicos han sido considerados como intoxicaciones intencionadas. Las aves rapaces diurnas fueron el grupo más afectado por las intoxicaciones (43,6% del total de animales positivos, seguido de los mamíferos carnívoros (27,1%. Los tóxicos más frecuentemente detectados fueron insecticidas anticolinesterásicos (cebos/animales: 80,4%/65,8%, seguidos de rodenticidas anticoagulantes (5%/19,6%, estricnina (2,2%/6,5% y arsénico (4,5%/2,3%. De las diferencias observadas entre CCAA destaca la preponderancia en el uso de estricnina en Asturias, rodenticidas anticoagulantes en Castilla y León, insecticidas organofosforados en Aragón, insecticidas carbamatos en Castilla-La Mancha y Madrid, y la aparición de otros venenos, como á-cloralosa o barbitúricos, en Cataluña. En resumen, el 82,3% de las intoxicaciones intencionadas fueron debidas a anticolinesterásicos y el 85,5% de las accidentales a rodenticidas anticoagulantes. En futuras regulaciones de plaguicidas y biocidas se debería tener en cuenta el riesgo del uso ilegal en la preparación de cebos envenenados que comporta la comercialización de formulados con alta riqueza de ingredientes activos con baja DL .

  20. Dispersión endozoócora de leguminosas silvestres: desde la recuperación hasta el establecimiento en campo

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    María Eugenia Ramos-Font

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dispersión endozoócora de leguminosas silvestres: desde la recuperación hasta el establecimiento en campoLa dispersión de semillas mediante el tracto digestivo de los animales constituye un mecanismo esencial para la colonización de nuevos nichosecológicos, el mantenimiento de poblaciones vegetales, y para evitar la fragmentación de hábitats. Este trabajo evalúa la capacidad real de dispersiónendozóoora por ganado ovino de Adenocarpus decorticans (AD, A. telonensis (AT, Cytisus fontanesii (CF, C. striatus (CS, Genista florida (GF yG. versicolor (GV mediante el análisis de: recuperación de semillas en heces, germinación en cámara, emergencia en invernadero y establecimientoy supervivencia en campo durante dos años. Nuestros resultados sugieren que el ganado ovino es un agente de dispersión efectivo para la mayoríade las especies, excepto para CF. La recuperación de semillas osciló entre el 32% (AT y GV y el 3.4% (CS. Se observó que el paso por el tractodigestivo estimulaba o no afectaba a la germinación de las semillas en laboratorio. En invernadero, la mayoría de las especies incrementaban oigualaban su emergencia en las heces respecto a las semillas control. Sin embargo, el estiércol dificultó la germinación de la mitad de las especiesen condiciones naturales. A pesar de ello, la probabilidad de reclutamiento de las semillas dispersadas fue similar o superior a la de semillas intactas,excepto para CF. En conclusión, la oveja puede ser un dispersador eficaz de la mayoría de las especies estudiadas y esta capacidad podría utilizarseen planes de gestión y/o restauración forestal.

  1. Fenología de la floración en tomate cultivado y especies silvestres relacionadas Flowering phenology in cultivated tomato and related wild species

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    Edwin Fernando Restrepo Salazar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar se comparó la fenología de la floración de doce accesiones silvestres de Solanum sección Lycopersicum con la del tomate cultivado tipo “chonto”. Los tratamientos se repitieron tres veces. Se evaluó la aparición de las 12 primeras inflorescencias y el tipo de inflorescencia. Las fenologías de las accesiones de la variedad glabratum de S. habrochaites (PI 134417, PI134418 y PI126449, las accesiones LA1624, LA2092 de la variedad typicum de S. habrochaites y la accesión LA 444-1 de S. peruvianum coincidieron con la del tomate “chonto”. No se presentaron diferencias significativas en la variable días a inicio de floración entre las accesiones de la variedad glabratum y el tomate cultivado. Las accesiones de la variedad glabratum de S. habrochaites y el tomate cultivado presentaron inflorescencias simples; mientras que las accesiones de la variedad typicum de S. habrochaites y de la especie S. peruvianum presentaron inflorescencias bifurcadas.The flowering phenology of twelve wild accesions of Solanum section Lycopersicum were compared with those of the cultivated tomato type of “chonto” by using the randomized complete block design. The treatments were repeated three times. The appearance initiate of the first twelve inflorescences and kind of inflorescence were evaluated. The phenologies of the accesions of the glabratum variety from S. habrochaites (PI 134417, PI134418 y PI126449, LA1624 y LA2092 of the typicum variety from S. habrochaites and LA 444-1 from S. peruvianum coincided with those of the “chonto” tomato. There were no significant differences between the glabratum variety accessions and cultivated tomato in the starting days of flowering variable. The accesions of the glabratum variety from S. habrochaites and the cultivated tomato presented simple inflorescences; while the accesions of the typicum variety from S. habrochaites and S. peruvianum specie showed

  2. Effect synergistic of the radiation and of the refrigeration in the conservation of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into account shrimp susceptibility to autolise and bacterial decomposition, this study aimed to evaluate the different gamma irradiation doses influence over meat quality related to microbiological, physical-chemical, nutritional and sensorial aspects, during cold storage of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Samples were taken from fresh shrimps without cephalothoraxes, settled into polystyrene trays, packed with flexible plastic film and submitted to different doses of gamma irradiation (1.0 and 3.5 kGy). Samples were kept under refrigeration (5 deg C) and analyzed at the 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day of storage. Microbiological analyzes were realized (Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella ssp, coliforms, psychotropic and mesophilic population), and physical-chemical and tests (Total volatile bases (TVNB), pH, non proteic nitrogen (NNP), TBARS analysis - reactive substances to thiobarbituric acid (TBA), trimetil amine (TMA) cholesterol tenor and proximate composition). Instrumental color test were realized and hedonic test was taken to determine cooked products sensorial quality during storing period. It was noticed that the irradiation process reduced bacterial population and during storage all the irradiated samples were under the patterns established by the Brazilian legislation (Brazil, 2005a). Non-irradiated samples were inappropriate for consumption after one week of storage, since they were over Staphylococcus established limits. The pH values ranged from 6.05 to 6.39; 19.47 to 80.84 mg.100g-1 for TVNB; 2.61 to 12.85 mg.100g-1 for TMA-N; 0.22 a 1.20 mg of malonaldeide.1000g-1 for TBA and 53.09 to 134.81 mg.100g-1 for cholesterol concentrations. Irradiated samples kept more stability during storage period when compared to non-irradiated samples, regarding to pH, TVNB and TMA levels. Samples irradiation resulted into cholesterol and TBA values reduction at different evaluated moments. No significant differences (p <= 0.05) were found in

  3. A percepção dos alunos dos anos iniciais do ensino fundamental de duas escolas de Taubaté (SP sobre animais silvestres e domésticos

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    Bárbara Helena Ramos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo buscou analisar de que maneira os conhecimentos de Ciências e Biologia, mais especificamente sobre animais silvestres e domésticos, são definidos por alunos do Ensino Fundamental, por meio de suas experiências escolares e de suas interações com a cultura com a qual convivem. Para tanto, foi desenvolvido um inventário durante o ano letivo de 2005 com os 2º e 3º anos de uma escola pública e outra privada do município de Taubaté. Foram analisadas interações de 250 alunos com idades entre 7 e 9 anos. Esse grupo de alunos participou do ano inicial do projeto "Natureza e Criança: aprendendo com animais e plantas", projeto de extensão da Universidade de Taubaté (UNITAU cuja primeira edição ocorreu em 2005. Alunos dos cursos de graduação vinculados ao projeto realizaram visitas nas escolas, onde foram trabalhadas duas imagens com os alunos (florestal e urbana, e por meio delas foi pedido às crianças que citassem todos os animais, de livre escolha, que pudessem habitar esses ambientes. Assim, obteve-se como resultado 225 citações de macacos para os animais silvestres, e 210 de cachorro para os domésticos, na avaliação inicial. Observando ambas as escolas, após a avaliação final, pode-se notar que além do aumento das citações de animais domésticos na imagem urbana, ocorreu a diminuição de citações para os animais silvestres na mesma imagem. Dessa forma é notável que os tipos de animais citados sejam aqueles mais enfatizados pela mídia, por meio dos desenhos animados e documentários e pelo próprio cotidiano das crianças

  4. Influência do aquecimento sobre diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2 residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) = Influence of heating under different titration methods of residual SO2 on shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)

    OpenAIRE

    Karla Patrícia Brito de Araújo Vieira; Lílian Maria Nery de Barros Góes; Paulo de Paula Mendes; Alfredo Olivera Galvez; Emiko Shinozaki Mendes

    2008-01-01

    O metabissulfito de sódio é o conservante mais aplicado na carcinicultura, com uso amparado em legislações vigentes no país, todavia, seu resíduo, dióxido de enxofre (SO2), em concentrações altas, pode provocar reações adversas à saúde. Este estudo foidesenvolvido com a finalidade de observar a influência do aquecimento sob diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2 residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei. Os camarões foram submetidos a nove concentrações de metabissulfito de sódio e avaliados ...

  5. Implicación epidemiológica de carnívoros silvestres de ambientes atlánticos en el mantenimiento y dispersión de Escherichia coli, Trichinella SPP y Ectoparásitos

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Alcázar, Eduardo Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    El aumento de la población humana está provocando la invasión de diferentes ecosistemas y, con ello, un mayor contacto entre la fauna silvestre, doméstica y el hombre. Algunas especies de carnívoros generalistas han sido capaces de adaptarse con éxito a los entornos antropogénicos, incrementando sus poblaciones; el hecho de que estén situadas en lo alto de la cadena trófica, que sean más longevas y con mayor capacidad de dispersión que otras especies, hace que estos carnívoros actúen como bio...

  6. Contribución al Conocimiento de los Parámetros Hematológicos en Armadillo Nueve Bandas (Dasypus novemcinctus, en Núcleos de Reubicación de Fauna Silvestre en la Orinoquia Colombiana (resumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan S Melo-Restrepo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El armadillo nueve bandas (Dasypus  novemcinctus, es un pequeño mamífero placentado de la familia Dasypodidae recubierto por una armadura de placas óseas cubiertas por escudos córneos, su distribución va desde Argentina y Chile en Latino América hasta el sur de los Estados Unidos, su carne es muy apetecida, por lo cual es grande la presión del hombre sobre la especie a través de la caza indiscriminada y la destrucción de los hábitats naturales. Con el propósito de conocer el comportamiento y la sanidad de la especie Ex situ se practicó un muestreo a cinco especímenes adultos en los núcleos de reubicación de fauna silvestre bajo el área de influencia de CORMACARENA.

  7. Parásitos Gastrointestinales en Monos de Margarita Sapajus apella margaritae (Primates: Cebidae en Estado Silvestre (Nueva Esparta, Venezuela. Hallazgos preliminares -resumen-

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    Glencora M Montesinos-López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El mono capuchino de Margarita es el único primate endémico del territorio insular venezolano y habita las áreas boscosas del oriente de la Isla de Margarita (Edo. Nueva Esparta. Se encuentra bajo la categoría ‘’En Peligro Crítico’’ en la Lista Roja de Especies Amenazadas (UICN y en el Apéndice II del CITES. La fragmentación del hábitat‚ la cacería como plaga de cultivos y el tráfico de monos como mascotas‚ son sus principales amenazas‚ todas de carácter antropogénico. Con el objetivo de evaluar el estado sanitario de esta especie‚ se llevó a cabo un muestreo fecal no invasivo de ejemplares silvestres para realizar descarte de parásitos gastrointestinales. Las muestras se recolectaron durante 2013 - 2014 en el cerro Matasiete (11‚4 Km2 (parte del Monumento Natural Cerros Matasiete y Guayamurí y en el Parque Nacional Cerro El Copey (71,3 km2. Se emplearon plataformas de madera‚ previamente cebadas mediante colocación recurrente de frutas. Se procedió a la recolección seriada de heces sobre las mismas‚ confirmando su origen a través de cámaras trampa y la observación directa de los monos alimentándose sobre estas superficies. Las muestras de heces se conservaron refrigeradas hasta su análisis en el Hospital Veterinario Salamanca‚ para ser procesadas mediante evaluación cualitativa (examen directo y método de concentración por flotación de Willis y técnica especial de cultivos larvarios en algunos casos. Se recolectaron un total de 35 muestras donde se reportó la presencia de huevos de nemátodos de los órdenes Strongylida (45%‚ n=16‚ Rhabditida (20%‚ n=7‚ Spirurida (14%‚ n=5 y Ascaridida (11%‚ n=4‚ identificados en cooperación con la Universidad Central de Venezuela. Estos resultados señalan por primera vez la naturaleza del parasitismo en esta población de primates‚ revelando la necesidad de estudios posteriores con énfasis en identificación más detallada de estos par

  8. Procedencia y uso de madera de pino silvestre y pino laricio en edificios históricos de Castilla y Andalucía

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    Rodríguez Trobajo, Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The productive cycle of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. within the medieval Castilian and Andalusian carpentry is here analysed. New criteria to identify both timbers and its dendrochronological date are shown as previous facts to determine their geographical origin. Historical names of these species and other names, such as alerce, with a vague allocation are also studied. Main historical areas of resource and river ways of Tajo and Guadalquivir used to transport the wood (black pine to interior cities (Sevilla, Toledo, Madrid … are thus identified. On the other hand, wood’s diversification and its selective use is analysed regarding its resistance value. Availability also determines that a sort of wood becomes fossil-guide (especie-guía, which is proposed as chronological indicator for several periods and constructive contexts. Some timber remains dating to the first millennium are studied in detail. They belong to the Mosque of Cordoba and four early medieval churches sited in the Duero valley (La Nave, Baños, Quintanilla and Barriosuso. The empiric dating and analysis of this material offer a post quem chronology for the building of these churches and new facts about the distribution of theses wood’s species in the north-western Iberian peninsula.Se realiza un recorrido a través del ciclo constructivo de las maderas de pino silvestre (Pinus sylvestris L. y pino laricio (Pinus nigra Arn. en el ámbito de la carpintería medieval de Castilla y Andalucía. Nuevos criterios para diferenciar las dos especies de madera y su datación dendrocronológica, son aportados como datos previos para determinar el origen geográfico del material. Son objeto de discusión los nombres históricos de estas especies y otras voces, como alerce, que tienen una imprecisa asignación. Se identifican así las principales áreas históricas de aprovechamiento y las vías fluviales del Tajo y Guadalquivir utilizadas para el

  9. Observações sobre calazar em Jacobina, Bahia. VI - Investigações sobre reservatórios silvestres e comensais

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    I. A. Sherlock

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante os anos de 1982 a 1986, a investigação sobre mamíferos comensais e silvestres, da periferia da cidade de Jacobina, Bahia, mostrou, ao lado do escasso número de exemplares, uma reduzida variedade específica dessa fauna. Capturou-se apenas 11 espécies, entre as quais, predominou o Didelphis albiventris, que abrangeu 44% dos 213 espécimens capturados. Entre os 193 com exames já concluídos, 84 eram exemplares de D. albiventris e 2 estavam infectados pela Leishmania donovani senso lato, 1 por L. mexicana amazonensis, 1 por L. braziliensis, subespécie e 3 por Trypanosoma cruzi Também foram observadas formas suspeitas de serem amastigotas de leishmanics, nos esfregaços de órgãos de 3 exemplares de Dasyprocta aguti, 1 Cercomys cunicularius - e 1 Oryzomys eliurus. 0 restante dos exemplares, inclusive 14 de Lycalopex vetulus, estava negativo para flagelados. Apesar de reforçado por outros indicadores epidemiológicos, como a predominância específica, a freqüência domiciliar, a atratividade para a vetora Lutzomyia longipalpis, e a concomitância com casos humanos nos mesmos locais, o índice de 2,3% de infecção natural do Didelphis albiventris, não autoriza a conclusão definitiva de ser o marsupial o mais importante reservatório natural da leishmaniose visceral em Jacobina.From 1982 to 1986, investigations on the natural infection with leishmanias of the sylvatic and commensal mammals were carried out around the city of Jacobina, Bahia, one of the oldest endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. The species of Marsupialia Didelphis albiventris predominated, with the rate of 44%, over the total of 213 specimens belonging to only 11 different species of mammals collected there. Among the 84 specimens of D. albiventris examined, 2(2.3% were infected with Leishmania donovani sensu lato; 1 with L. mexicana amazonensis, 1 with L. braziliensis sub species, and 3 with Trypanosoma cruzi. Also, amastigote suspected bodies were

  10. RESISTENCIA AL PERFORADOR DEL FRUTO DEL TOMATE DERIVADA DE ESPECIES SILVESTRES DE Solanum spp. RESISTANCE TO TOMATO FRUIT BORER DERIVED FROM WILD SPECIES OF Solanum spp.

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    Franco Alirio Vallejo Cabrera

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la resistencia al pasador del fruto Neoleucinodes elegantalis en doce introducciones silvestres de Solanum sección Lycopersicum. Las introducciones PI 134417, PI134418 y PI 126449 Solanum habrochaites var. glabratum, las introducciones LA 1624 y LA2092 de S. habrochaites var. typicum y la introducción LA 444-1 de S. peruvianum, presentaron alta resistencia al pasador del fruto de tomate N. elegantalis. Se realizó la introgresión genética de la resistencia al pasador del fruto presente en la introducción PI 134418 de S. habrochaites var. glabratum hacia el cultivar Unapal - Maravilla de S. lycopersicum. Se encontró asociación positiva altamente significativa entre el daño causado por el insecto plaga y el peso del fruto; a medida que se recupera el peso del fruto del cultivar Unapal - Maravilla (padre recurrente, por sucesivos retrocruzamientos, se disminuye la resistencia al insecto plaga. Los tricomas y el número de frutos por racimo no afectaron la infestación y el daño de los frutos por parte del insecto; mientras que el peso de fruto si tuvo efecto importante ya que tiende a producir mayor daño a medida que se incrementa el peso de fruto. El método del retrocruzamiento fue efectivo para romper la asociación entre el peso de fruto y la resistencia al insecto. Se obtuvieron plantas recombinantes RC2 con resistencia al pasador del fruto y pesos de fruto entre 45,1 y 68,6g.Twelve wild introductions of Solanum section Lycopersicum were evaluated to determine their resistance to tomato fruit borer Neoleucinodes elegantalis. The introductions PI 134417, PI134418 and PI 126449 of Solanum habrochaites var. glabratum, the introduction LA 1624 and LA2092 of S. habrochaites var. typicum, and the introduction LA 444-1 of S. peruvianum, presented high resistance to the tomato fruit borer of tomato N. elegantalis. Genetic introgression of resistance to tomato fruit borer in the introduction PI 134418 S. habrochaites var. glabratum

  11. Flowering phenology in cultivated tomato and related wild species Fenología de la floración en tomate cultivado y especies silvestres relacionadas

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    Lobo Arias Mario

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The flowering phenology of twelve wild accesions of Solanum section Lycopersicum were compared with those of the cultivated tomato type of “chonto” by using the randomized complete block design. The treatments were repeated three times. The appearance initiate of the first twelve inflorescences and kind of inflorescence were evaluated. The phenologies of the accesions of the glabratum variety from S. habrochaites (PI 134417, PI134418 y PI126449, LA1624 y LA2092 of the typicum variety from S. habrochaites and LA 444–1 from S. peruvianum coincided with those of the “chonto” tomato. There were no significant differences between the glabratum variety accessions and cultivated tomato in the starting days of flowering variable. The accesions of the glabratum variety from S. habrochaites and the cultivated tomato presented simple inflorescences; while the accesions of the typicum variety from S. habrochaites and S. peruvianum specie showed compound inflorescences.Key words: Solanum lycopersicum; S. habrochaites; S. peruvianum; kind of inflorescence.En un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar se comparó la fenología de la floración de doce accesiones silvestres de Solanum sección Lycopersicum con la del tomate cultivado tipo “chonto”. Los tratamientos se repitieron tres veces. Se evaluó la aparición de las 12 primeras inflorescencias y el tipo de inflorescencia. Las fenologías de las accesiones de la variedad glabratum de S. habrochaites (PI 134417, PI134418 y PI126449, las accesiones LA

  12. Coinfección entre Distemper Canino y un Verme Pulmonar en un Cerdocyon thous en Estado Silvestre en el Municipio de Pereira

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    Nestor Varela-Arias

    2014-12-01

    áticos; en pulmón neumonía broncointersticial con cuerpos de inclusión y múltiples microgranulomas con nemátodos  en estadío L1 intralesionales; en cerebro cambios hipóxicos y en riñón nefrosis tubular multifocal; entre otros hallazgos. La evidencia confirma como causa de muerte una falla multiorgánica por coinfección entre el virus del distemper (Morbillivirus ARN -‚ familia Paramyxoviridae que afecta diferentes mamíferos del orden CARNIVORA y vermes pulmonares compatibles con Filaroides osleri (Oslerus o Angiostrongylus sp. Ambos agentes causan muertes con impacto directo en las poblaciones de zorros en otras latitudes‚ sin embargo la interacción patogénica no está bien descrita‚ por lo que se recomienda monitorear las poblaciones silvestres de C. thous en Galicia‚ zona en la que se han presentado muertes de zorros con signos similares‚ además de importantes generadores de cambio ecosistémico (expansión urbana‚ construcción y operación de proyectos turísticos.

  13. Las abejas silvestres de Colombia: Por qué y cómo conservarlas The Colombian wild bees: Why and how to preserve them

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    González Víctor Hugo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Las abejas silvestres de Colombia, al igual que las del resto del mundo, están sufriendo los rigores de las actividades desarrolladas por el hombre y así se catalogan como organismos en peligro. El conocimiento actual de las abejas en nuestro país, como muchos otros insectos, todavía se encuentra en una fase muy incipiente; es fragmentado, local y carece de una síntesis. Tan sólo se conoce racionalmente 5% de las abejas del país, especialmente las especies corbiculadas de la familia Apidae. Muy poco trabajo taxonómico ha sido realizado por investigadores colombianos y prácticamente no existen trabajos por autores extranjeros enfocados en la fauna colombiana. La carencia de especialistas, las dificultades para el envío de material al exterior y la falta de recursos han dificultado la tarea. Sin embargo, la alta riqueza de especies que creemos se encuentra en el país representa una razón más para avanzaren el conocimiento y entendimiento de la biodiversidad de éste grupo. En esta revisión se analizan las principales causas que ponen en riesgo las poblaciones y especies de la apifauna nativa: deforestación, pastoreo, la abeja africanizada y la explotación irracional de las abejas, entre otras. Se proponen algunas acciones a ser emprendidas conjuntamente con centros académicos, agricultores, campesinos, indígenas y la sociedad en general que permitan proteger las especies, teniendo en cuenta que median-te la polinización, se tornan en eslabones esenciales dentro de los ecosistemas permitiendo la conservación de muchas especies vegetales y otras comunidades.The Colombian wild bees, as well as those in the rest of the whole world are undergoing the rigor of human activities and so are considered to be under threat of extinction. The current knowledge about Colombian bees, like other insects, is still in its beginnings, is fragmentated and a synthesis is desirable. Only 5% of the Colombian bees are well known, especially the

  14. Correlation between Detection of a Plasmid and High-Level Virulence of Vibrio nigripulchritudo, a Pathogen of the Shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Yann; Saulnier, Denis; Mazel, Didier; Goarant, Cyrille; Le Roux, Frédérique

    2008-01-01

    Vibrio nigripulchritudo, the etiological agent of Litopenaeus stylirostris summer syndrome, is responsible for mass mortalities of shrimp in New Caledonia. Epidemiological studies led to the suggestion that this disease is caused by an emergent group of pathogenic strains. Genomic subtractive hybridization was carried out between two isolates exhibiting low and high virulence. Our subtraction library was constituted of 521 specific fragments; 55 of these were detected in all virulent isolates from our collection (n = 32), and 13 were detected only in the isolates demonstrating the highest pathogenicity (n = 19), suggesting that they could be used as genetic markers for high virulence capacity. Interestingly, 10 of these markers are carried by a replicon of 11.2 kbp that contains sequences highly similar to those of a plasmid detected in Vibrio shilonii, a coral pathogen. The detection of this plasmid was correlated with the highest pathogenicity status of the isolates from our collection. The origin and consequence of this plasmid acquisition are discussed. PMID:18359828

  15. Correlation between detection of a plasmid and high-level virulence of Vibrio nigripulchritudo, a pathogen of the shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Yann; Saulnier, Denis; Mazel, Didier; Goarant, Cyrille; Le Roux, Frédérique

    2008-05-01

    Vibrio nigripulchritudo, the etiological agent of Litopenaeus stylirostris summer syndrome, is responsible for mass mortalities of shrimp in New Caledonia. Epidemiological studies led to the suggestion that this disease is caused by an emergent group of pathogenic strains. Genomic subtractive hybridization was carried out between two isolates exhibiting low and high virulence. Our subtraction library was constituted of 521 specific fragments; 55 of these were detected in all virulent isolates from our collection (n = 32), and 13 were detected only in the isolates demonstrating the highest pathogenicity (n = 19), suggesting that they could be used as genetic markers for high virulence capacity. Interestingly, 10 of these markers are carried by a replicon of 11.2 kbp that contains sequences highly similar to those of a plasmid detected in Vibrio shilonii, a coral pathogen. The detection of this plasmid was correlated with the highest pathogenicity status of the isolates from our collection. The origin and consequence of this plasmid acquisition are discussed. PMID:18359828

  16. EFEITO DAS ALTAS DENSIDADES DE ESTOCAGEM NO CRESCIMENTO E SOBREVIVÊNCIA DE Litopenaeus vannamei NA FASE FINAL DE ENGORDA, CULTIVADOS EM SISTEMAS DE BIOFLOCOS (BFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ferreira Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high stocking densities on survival, growth and feed conversion rates of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp, in final growout phase, in a Biofloc Technology (BFT culture system, keeping the same water parameters for all treatments. Shrimps (11.96 ± 1.14 g were stocked in microcosms (0.50/m2 tanks, connected to a BFT system raceway. The study was carried out for 45 days. The shrimp were stocked at densities of 150, 300, 450 and 600 shrimp/m2. Bioflocs were collected for analysis of proximate composition. The results were submitted to one-way ANOVA, and differences were compared by Tukey test (α = 0.05. In T300 and T450, growth and survival were not affected by high stocking densities. The highest biomass reached (T450 was 5.1kg/m² and the best feed conversion rate was 1.54 in T150. The results of this study indicate that stocking densities in the proposed system can be high, but not exceeding 450 shrimp/m². Furthermore, even maintaining the same water parameters for all treatments, there was a negative effect between density and shrimp growth, confirming that this effect is behavioral.

  17. The effects of feeding commercial feed formulated for semi-intensive systems on Litopenaeus vannamei production and its profitability in a hyper-intensive biofloc-dominated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Braga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the production of Litopenaeus vannamei in a high density biofloc-dominated system using two commercial feeds; a less expensive feed (US$0.99 kg−1 formulated for semi-intensive systems and the more expensive (US$1.75 kg−1 which was designed for hyper-intensive systems. A 67-days study was conducted in six 40 m3 lined with Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer membrane raceways (RWs filled with mixture of seawater (22 m3, and biofloc-rich water (18 m3. Each RW was stocked (500 shrimp m−3 using juveniles (2.66 g produced from Taura-Resistant and Fast-Growth breeding lines. The study was composed of two feed treatments with three replicates each; the cheaper feed (SI-35 contained 35% crude protein (CP, 7% lipid and 4% fiber while the more expensive one (HI-35 had the same levels of CP and lipid but only 2% fiber. The SI-35 treatment required more solids removal, oxygen, and bicarbonate supplementation than the HI-35 treatment. Weekly growth, total biomass, yield were significantly lower in the SI-35 treatment, whereas feed conversion ratio was higher. The economic analysis indicates that both feeds would be commercially viable, nevertheless, the less-expensive feed financially underperformed the other.

  18. Innate immune-stimulating and immune genes up-regulating activities of three types of alginate from Sargassum siliquosum in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudiati, Ervia; Isnansetyo, Alim; Murwantoko; Ayuningtyas; Triyanto; Handayani, Christina Retna

    2016-07-01

    The Total Haemocyte Count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity, Phagocytic Activity/Index and Total Protein Plasma (TPP) were examined after feeding the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei with diets supplemented with three different types of alginates (acid, calcium and sodium alginates). Immune-related genes expression was evaluated by quantitative Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results indicated that the immune parameters directly increased according to the doses of alginates and time. The 2.0 g kg(-1) of acid and sodium alginate treatments were gave better results. Four immune-related genes expression i.e. LGBP, Toll, Lectin, proPO were up regulated. It is therefore concluded that the supplementation of alginate of Sargassum siliquosum on the diet of L. vannamei enhanced the innate immunity as well as the expression of immune-related genes. It is the first report on the simultaneous evaluation of three alginate types to enhance innate immune parameters and immune-related genes expression in L. vannamei. PMID:26993614

  19. Evaluación del crecimiento y supervivencia en larvas de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei usando como fuente de alimento microalgas vivas y congeladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elifonso Isiordia Pérez:

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen matraces de 1.5 litros de capacidad con 5 El objetivo del presente rabajo fue evaluar el eplicas cada tratamiento. La densidad de efecto de una dieta monoalgal a base de dos microalgas a suministrar fue de 50,000 células presentaciones Tetraselmis sp. (vivas y / mililitro. Conforme mudaban de estadio se congeladas:producto comercial: INLAND hacía conteo de organismos vivos y se media Seafarm® en la supervivencia y crecimiento longitud El mayor porcentaje de supervivencia en larvas de camarón blanco Litopenaeus y crecimiento se registró en las larvas vannamei en estadios larvales desde limentadas con Tetraselmis sp. vivas (97.3 Protozoea 1 (PZ1 a Protozoea 3 (PZ3. El ±4.6 en PZI, 94.1 ± 2.13 en PZ2 y 30.7±12.6 experimento se realizó en las instalaciones del en PZ3. Sin embargo este resultado no es Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y comparable a los obtenidos con otras especies Desarrollo (CIAD, Unidad Mazatlán Sinaloa. El de microalgas como Chaetoceros muelleri e estudio se realizó bajo condiciones controladas Isochrysis galbana. de temperatura (28°C, salinidad (35‰ y fotoperiodo (12 h luz / oscuridad. Se sembraron 150 organismos en nauplio V en

  20. The protection of CpG ODNs and Yarrowia lipolytica harboring VP28 for shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei against White spot syndrome virus infection

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    Q Yi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The white spot syndrome is one of the most serious disease which has caused high mortalities and huge economic losses to shrimp culture. In the present study, the oral administrations with CpG ODNs and Yarrowia lipolytica harboring VP28 (rVP28-yl as dietary supplement for shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were conducted to evaluate their protective effects against WSSV. After feeding for 15 days, the cumulative mortality and the copy number of WSSV in CpG and rVP28-yl feeding shrimps were significantly lower when they were challenged by WSSV, compared with those in control shrimps (p < 0.05. The caspase-3 activity was suppressed in rVP28-yl feeding shrimps but ascended in CpG feeding shrimps after WSSV challenge. Besides, the PO activity in CpG feeding shrimps was significantly increased after feeding trial, and kept increasing post WSSV challenge (p < 0.05. While the increased NO production was observed both in CpG and rVP28-yl feeding shrimps after feeding trial and WSSV challenge. In addition, increased mRNA expression levels of STAT and Dicer were observed in CpG group post WSSV challenge. These results together indicated that oral feeding of CpG ODNs and rVP28-yl could enhance the innate non-specific immune responses especially antiviral immunity of shrimps in varying degrees, and increase their resistance against WSSV infection

  1. Passive Immune-Protection of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infections with Anti-Vibrio Egg Yolk (IgY)-Encapsulated Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lin, Li; Yao, Dongrui; Sun, Jingjing; Du, Xuedi; Li, Xiumei; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio spp. are major causes of mortality in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) which is lacking adaptive immunity. Passive immunization with a specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) is a potential method for the protection of shrimp against vibriosis. In this study, immune effects of the specific egg yolk powders (IgY) against both V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus on white shrimp were evaluated. The egg yolk powders against V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus for passive immunization of white shrimp were prepared, while a tube agglutination assay and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used for detection of IgY titer. Anti-Vibrio egg yolk was encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin, which could keep the activity of the antibody in the gastrointestinal tract of shrimp. The results showed that the anti-Vibrio egg powders had an inhibiting effect on V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus in vitro. Lower mortality of infected zoeae, mysis, and postlarva was observed in groups fed with anti-Vibrio egg powders, compared with those fed with normal egg powders. The bacterial load in postlarva fed with specific egg powders in seeding ponds was significantly lower than those fed with normal egg powders in seeding ponds. These results show that passive immunization by oral administration with specific egg yolk powders (IgY) may provide a valuable protection of vibrio infections in white shrimp. PMID:27196895

  2. Comparison of immune response in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after knock down of Toll and IMD gene in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjie; Song, Lei; Sun, Yuhang; Liu, Tao; Hou, Fujun; Liu, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) pathways are essential for inducing immune related genes during invasion of pathogens. In the present study, transcripts of eight pathway-related genes in Litopenaeus vannamei, including Toll, IMD, Pelle, IAP1, TRAF6, ALF, Crustin and Penaeidin3 were analyzed to further understand the potential relationship between Toll and IMD pathway. The high transcription levels of TRAF6, Pelle, Toll, IMD and IAP1 in selected tissues indicates their functional roles in Toll and IMD pathways. The increased mRNA expression of Toll and IMD detected in the early stage might suggest the inducible role of Toll and IMD upon bacterial infection. Moreover, the continuous increase of IMD and the high level of Pelle and TRAF6 in Vibrio anguillarum challenged group indicated that Gram-negative bacterium can activate both the Toll and IMD signaling pathway. Silencing of Toll by a dsRNA-mediated RNAi strongly increased the transcripts of IMD, Pelle, TRAF6, IAP1 and Akirin, knocking down of IMD also markedly increased the transcripts of Toll, Pelle, IAP1 and Akirin. Furthermore, ALF expression was significantly increased in response to V. anguillarum and Micrococcus lysodeikticus challenge, while the transcripts of Crustin and Pen3 in hemocytes were significantly reduced in V. anguillarum group, but rose significantly following M. lysodeikticus infection. In summary, we speculate that Toll and IMD pathway are not independent in shrimp, but linked to defense against bacterial infection. PMID:26855014

  3. 贮藏过程中凡纳滨对虾生物胺的变化%Changes of biogenic amines in Litopenaeus vannamei during storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杰; 薛长湖; 赵庆喜; 李兆杰; 薛勇

    2007-01-01

    以邻苯二甲醛(OPA)为柱后衍生化试剂,采用反相HPLC法测定凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)中的酪胺(Tyr)、腐胺(Put)、尸胺(Cad)、组胺(His)、胍丁胺(Agm)、精胺(Spe)和亚精胺(Spd)等7种生物胺.结合虾的感官分析、pH值和T-VBN值测定等方法评价凡纳滨对虾的品质,分析了凡纳滨对虾在不同贮藏温度和贮藏时间下的生物胺种类及含量的变化.结果表明,在0和4℃两种贮藏温度下,尸胺和腐胺发生的变化均最显著,可以其作为凡纳滨对虾新鲜程度的参考指标,确定最长贮藏时间分别为8 d和6 d.

  4. Passive Immune-Protection of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infections with Anti-Vibrio Egg Yolk (IgY-Encapsulated Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio spp. are major causes of mortality in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei which is lacking adaptive immunity. Passive immunization with a specific egg yolk antibody (IgY is a potential method for the protection of shrimp against vibriosis. In this study, immune effects of the specific egg yolk powders (IgY against both V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus on white shrimp were evaluated. The egg yolk powders against V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus for passive immunization of white shrimp were prepared, while a tube agglutination assay and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were used for detection of IgY titer. Anti-Vibrio egg yolk was encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin, which could keep the activity of the antibody in the gastrointestinal tract of shrimp. The results showed that the anti-Vibrio egg powders had an inhibiting effect on V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus in vitro. Lower mortality of infected zoeae, mysis, and postlarva was observed in groups fed with anti-Vibrio egg powders, compared with those fed with normal egg powders. The bacterial load in postlarva fed with specific egg powders in seeding ponds was significantly lower than those fed with normal egg powders in seeding ponds. These results show that passive immunization by oral administration with specific egg yolk powders (IgY may provide a valuable protection of vibrio infections in white shrimp.

  5. Dietary supplementation of probiotic Bacillus PC465 isolated from the gut of Fenneropenaeus chinensis improves the health status and resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Peng-Cheng; Song, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Guo-Fu; Xu, Hua; Huang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    This study conducted a 30-day feeding trial and a subsequent 20-day anti-virus infection trial to determine the effects of probiotic Bacillus PC465 on the growth, health status, and disease resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp samples were fed with three practical diets prepared from shrimp feed containing varying probiotic doses [0 (control), 10(7), and 10(9) CFU g(-1)]. Probiotic supplementation significantly increased the weight gain and survival of L. vannamei (p digestive enzymes, such as amylase, protease, and lipase, in the shrimp mid-gut significantly increased in the probiotic-fed groups on days 15 and 30, except lipase on day 30. The influence of 10(9) CFU g(-1) on enzyme activities was also greater than that of 10(7) CFU g(-1). Scanning electron microscopy revealed folds and large ravines across the interior surface of the mid-gut, and the number of these folds and ravines increased significantly after the probiotic was administered. The probiotic treatment significantly (p digestion, and nutrient absorption of L. vannamei. Probiotic treatment also enhances the microbial structures in the gut, promotes the immune status of shrimp, and provides protection against viral infection. The supplementation with 10(9) CFU g(-1) can also improve the growth and survival of L. vannamei. PMID:27177431

  6. Effect of dietary potassium on growth, nitrogen metabolism, osmoregulation and immunity of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared in low salinity seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinjie; Tan, Beiping; Lin, Yingbo; Chi, Shuyan; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui

    2013-11-01

    An 8 weeks feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary potassium on the growth and physiological acclimation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared in diluted seawater (salinity 4). Six semi-purified practical diets containing 0.59, 0.96, 1.26, 1.48, 1.74, and 2.17 g potassium K+ per 100 g diet were formulated, respectively. The survival and feed conversion rate did not show significant difference among groups of shrimps given these diets (P>0.05). The shrimps fed the diets containing 0.96-1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet gained the highest weight, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio. Their ammonium-N excretion rate as well as hemolymph concentration of Na+ and Cl- were significantly lower than those of the control (Phemolymph urea level, and the phenoloxidase and lysozyme activities were significantly higher than those of the control (P<0.05). The growth and physiological response of the test shrimps suggested that diet containing 1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet improved the growth of L. vannamei in low-salinity seawater, and enhanced the physiological acclimation of the organism.

  7. Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Contreras

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs; Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM—carbohydrates (CHO basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm; Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B; SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C; fishmeal commercial feed (FM was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs; additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR. Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.

  8. Functional feed assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei using 100% fish meal replacement by soybean meal, high levels of complex carbohydrates and Bacillus probiotic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

    2011-01-01

    Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)-carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures. PMID:21747750

  9. Contamination assessments of surface water in coastal lagoon (Maluan Bay, China) incorporating biomarker responses and bioaccumulation in hepatopancreas of exposed shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)--an integrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zaosheng; Dong, Xiaoxia; Zhou, Shilei; Yan, Changzhou; Yan, Yijun; Chi, Qiaoqiao

    2014-01-01

    Maluan Bay, characterized by various degrees of anthropogenic contamination, is considered as one of the most industrialized and urbanized coastal lagoon in China, where large amounts of metal contaminants in surface water and biota were detected in previous studies. However, no clear discriminating power among sampling sites could be made only through comparisons between contaminant levels and Environmental Quality Standards and especially biological-based monitoring integrating biomarkers and bioaccumulation of exposure are scarce. For this purpose, antioxidants enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glutathione-S-transferase were assessed using the hepatopancreas of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after 7 days laboratory exposure under controlled conditions to characterize the effects of polluted waters to shrimps. The metal concentrations of sampled water and bioaccumulation in hepatopancreatic tissues were also analyzed, and data were linked to biomarkers' responses by multivariate (principal component analysis-factor) analysis. A representation of estimated factor scores was performed to confirm the factor descriptions classifying the pollution status and characterizing the studied sites, which pointed out the impact of multiple sources of contaminants to the water quality and provided further evidences to the existence of clear pollution and toxicological gradients in critical areas. The results of the present investigation underlined that the integrated approach could be a powerful tool for the identification of causal toxic contaminants in complex mixtures and the assessment of human-induced environmental quality of the system in coastal zones. PMID:23589269

  10. Effect of Dietary Potassium on Growth, Nitrogen Metabolism, Osmoregulation and Immunity of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Reared in Low Salinity Seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongyu; ZHANG Xinjie; TAN Beiping; LIN Yingbo; CHI Shuyan; DONG Xiaohui; YANG Qihui

    2014-01-01

    An 8 weeks feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary potassium on the growth and physio-logical acclimation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared in diluted seawater (salinity 4). Six semi-purified practical diets containing 0.59, 0.96, 1.26, 1.48, 1.74, and 2.17 g potassium K+per 100 g diet were formulated, respectively. The survival and feed conversion rate did not show significant difference among groups of shrimps given these diets (P>0.05). The shrimps fed the diets containing 0.96-1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet gained the highest weight, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio. Their ammonium-N excretion rate as well as hemolymph concentration of Na+and Cl-were significantly lower than those of the control (P<0.05), but a reverse trend was observed for their gill Na+/K+-ATPase. Moreover, the shrimps fed with 1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet were the highest in hemolymph urea level, and the phenoloxidase and lysozyme activities were significantly higher than those of the control (P<0.05). The growth and physiological response of the test shrimps suggested that diet containing 1.48 g K+per 100 g diet improved the growth of L. vannamei in low-salinity seawater, and enhanced the physiological acclimation of the organism.

  11. Evaluation of the presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei estuarine-wild from southern Sinaloa and northern Nayarit by microbiological analysis and PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez-Gómez, E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the incidence of human poisonings attributed to raw shrimp consumption in southern of Sinaloa and northern of Nayarit in recent years, white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was sampled from three wildestuaries where it’s been captured and one sample was taken from a sale center in order to determine the possible presence of toxigenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus, from May to December of 2012. Samples were analyzed by Biochemical test and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, they were also tested for the specific an toxicological identification, using molecular oligo nucleotides markers tlh, tdh and trh. The number of positives results were recorded to a table of most probable number (MPN.The number of samples positive for V. parahaemolyticus, weren’t toxigenic and it was demonstrated that they were below the limit established in the Mexican Official Standard NOM-242-SSA1-2009. In conclusion, the present study revealed that consumption of raw shrimp from the dates and sites sampled did not show to be a risk for human gastrointestinal diseases.

  12. Ensayo para el cultivo del camarón marino litopenaeus vannamei Pérez-Farfante y Kensley, 1997, a baja salinidad en la estación del Mariel

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Machado, J.E.; Jaime Ceballos, B.; Galindo López, J.

    2010-01-01

    Con el objetivo de evaluar el cultivo del camarón marino Litopenaeus vannamei a baja salinidad, se ensayaron diferentes modificaciones del agua de pozo de una localidad cercana al río Mosquito (Mariel, La Habana, Cuba), previo análisis de su composición iónica. Se desarrolló un diseño completamente aleatorizado a escala de laboratorio, durante 14 días, utilizando postlarvas (PL20). Al agua se le realizaron las siguientes modificaciones: I) agua de pozo + sal bruta + sulfato de mag...

  13. An in vitro study of alkaline phosphatase sensitivity to mixture of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in the hepatopancreas of coastal lagoon wild and farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Acosta, Jesús A; Burgos-Hernandez, Armando; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos A; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique; Torres-Arreola, Wilfrido; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Ezquerra-Brauer, J Marina

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to establish the combined effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) on wild Litopenaeus vannamei hepatopancreas alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity compared with that of farmed shrimp. AP activity in hepatopancreas extract was confirmed by several specific inhibitor assays. AP activity of wild shrimp was higher than that of farmed shrimp (p mycotoxins concentrations used in the study, AP from farmed L. vannamei was sensitive to the presence of both mycotoxins; however, AP is more sensitive to the combination of AFB1 + FB1 suggesting a possible synergistic or potentiating inhibitory effect. PMID:27040818

  14. Aclimatação do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 à água doce com diferentes estratégias de alimentação e calagem - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.668 Acclimatization of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 to the freshwater with different feeding and liming strategies - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.668

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    Bruno Leonardo da Silva Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pós-Larvas do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase de PL9-10 e PL25-26 foram aclimatadas à água doce (0,0 ‰, objetivando promover cultivos em regiões interioranas. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos conduzidos em aquários com capacidade útil de 44 litros e densidade de estocagem de 11,36 pós-larvas/L. No experimento 1, foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cal hidratada (0,018 g a 0,031 g e 2 dietas, formuladas à base de ração comercial para camarão e biomassa de artêmia. No experimento 2, foram testadas 5 dietas com diferentes concentrações de biomassa de artêmia (0% a 100%, inseridas em rações de peixes e camarões. No final do processo de aclimatação, a sobrevivência das póslarvas variou de 40,44% a 98,04%. Concluiu-se que pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei podem ser aclimatadas à água doce e que o aumento da concentração de cal e de artêmia na ração melhoraram significativamente (p Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae with 9-10 (PL9-10, 25-26 days old (PL25-26 were acclimated to freshwater (0 ppt for the purpose of attending the inland cultures. Two experiments were conducted in 44 liter aquariums with stocking density of 11.36 postlarvae/L. In experiment 01, different concentrations of hydrated lime (0.018 g a 0.031 g and two diets, formulated with commercial shrimp ration and artemia biomass, were tested. In experiment 02, five diets, with different concentrations of artemia biomass (0 to 100% inserted in fish and shrimp rations, were tested. At the end of the acclimatization process, the postlarvae survival varied from 40.44 to 98.04%. Results showed that Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae can be acclimated to freshwater. Also, the increase of lime concentration and the artemia biomass in the ration improved (p < 0.05 the zootechnic parameters of the species in a significant way.

  15. Aspectos do ciclo silvestre do Trypanosoma cruzi em regiões de cerrado (Município de Formosa, Estado de Goiás) Aspects of the sylvatic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in the region of cerrado (Formosa municipality, State of Goias)

    OpenAIRE

    D.A. Mello

    1981-01-01

    Neste trabalho estão apresentados resultados de estudos sobre roedores, marsupiais e triatomíneos do norte do municipio de Formosa,Estado de Goiás, e sua importância no ciclo silvestre do T.cruzi. A região estudada esta localizada do ponto de vista geográfico, na "Provincia do Cerrado". Foram coletados 963 roedores, 11 marsupiais e 766 triatomíneos silvestres. O índice de infecção pelo T. cruzi entre os roedores foi de 0,1% e entre os marsupiais 36,3%, enquanto todos os triatomíneos estavam n...

  16. Phytoplanktonic composition of three cultivation systems used in Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931 marine shrimp farms - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.4816

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    Ivone Ferreira Borges

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the different compositions of phytoplankton in three cultivation systems of marine shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931, denominated as organic, intensive and semi intensive. The samples were done fortnightly, when phytoplankton was collected by a net for phytoplankton, 65 µm mesh, being then filtrated in a total volume of water of 100 L, and preserved in formaldehyde solution at 4% and identified according to the methodology of Cordeiro et al. (1997. The results show that the densities of Diatoms were of 16.65, 10.47 and 7.57 cel. 103 mL-1 for the organic, intensive and semi intensive cultivations, respectively. As for cyanobacteria, the average figures were 42.06 cel. 103 mL-1 for semi intensive 17.27 cel. 103 mL-1, in the intensive cultivation and 6.11 cel. 103 mL-1 for the organic cultivation system. The dinoflagellates had the highest cellular density in the phytoplankton community analyzed with 61.9 cel. 103 mL-1 in the intensive cultivation, 0.33 and 0.03 cel. 103 mL-1 for both semi intensive and organic cultivation systems respectively. Euglenas presented the results of 4.98 and 14.86 cel. 103 mL-1 only for semi intensive and intensive cultivations. It was then concluded that all cultivations presented average rates below recommended for such studied systems.The aim of this work is to assess the different compositions of phytoplankton in three cultivation systems of marine shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931, denominated as organic, intensive and semi intensive. The samples were done fortnightly, when phytoplankton was collected by a net for phytoplankton, 65 µm mesh, being then filtrated in a total volume of water of 100 L, and preserved in formaldehyde solution at 4% and identified according to the methodology of Cordeiro et al. (1997. The results show that the densities of Diatoms were of 16.65, 10.47 and 7.57 cel. 103 mL-1 for the organic, intensive and semi intensive cultivations

  17. Sequence and Expression Analysis of COPE Gene from Litopenaeus vannmei%凡纳滨对虾COPE基因序列及低温表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭金霞; 蒋小珍; 房振峰; 殷勤; 韦嫔媛; 陈晓汉

    2013-01-01

    The cloning of cold tolerant COPE gene was studied in order to provide basis for the molecular mechanism study of Litopenaeus uan-namei cold tolerance characters. By using the homology cloning and RACE-PCR technology for Litopenaeus vannamei COPE gene (Lv-COPE) full-length cDNA sequencing, the bioinformatics analysis was conducted and the fluorescence quantitative PCR expression and Lo-COPE gene expression in tissues under low temperature stress was studied. Results showed that the LvCOPE cDNA length wasl217bp, which contained an 888 bp ORF which encoded a 296 Aa peptide. A conserved TPR region was found in the peptide, and the phylogenetic tree constructed by COPE protein reflected the evolutionary level of the species. The real-time PCR showed that the LvCOPE mRNA express in all tissues were mainly expressed in muscle. The LvCOPE mRNA was downwards regulated in the hepatocirrhosis, heart, gill, and muscle areas of shrimp treated under low temperature. Therefore, LvCOPE was conserved in gene structure and evolution relationship, and the downwards regulation of mRNA under low temperature may related to its cold tolerance function.%通过对已知耐寒候选基因-COPE基因的克隆和研究,为凡纳滨对虾耐寒性状的分子机理研究提供依据.运用同源克隆和RACE-PCR技术获得凡纳滨对虾COPE基因(LvCOPE)全长cDNA序列,对其进行了生物信息学分析,采用荧光定量PCR研究了LvCOPE基因的组织表达谱及其在低温胁迫下表达量的变化.结果显示,LvCOPEcDNA全长1217 bp,包含888 bp开放阅读框,编码296个氨基酸残基,具有保守的TPR结构域.各物种COPE蛋白序列构建的系统进化树能准确反映各物种间的进化关系.IvCOPE mRNA在各组织中呈遍在表达,在肌肉组织中表达量最高.低温表达谱分析显示,bCOPE mRNA在低温处理对虾的肝胰腺、心、鳃、肌肉等组织中均呈下调表达,随着处理温度由15℃降至11℃度,其在肝胰腺中表达量逐渐降

  18. Utilização de modelos estatísticos para avaliar dados de produção do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei cultivados em águas oligohalina e salgada = Use of statistical models to evaluate production data of Litopenaeus vannamei, reared in oligohaline and salty waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Bessa Neves Spanghero

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei pode ser cultivado em águas comampla faixa de salinidade (0,5-60 g L-1. Desta forma, objetivou-se comparar dados de produção desse crustáceo quando cultivado em águas oligohalina (0,5-5,0 g L-1 ou salgada (25,0-40,0 g L-1, utilizando-se modelos matemáticos. Para relacionar as variáveis de manejo com as de produção, os modelos foram formulados com base em um banco de dados com 278 cultivos comerciais da região Nordeste do Brasil. Para estimar os parâmetros dos modelos, utilizou-se a técnica dos mínimos quadrados. A seleção das variáveis foi realizada com o processo de Stepwise associado à transformação de Box e Cox. A adequação das equações e os pressupostos de normalidade, para os erros, foram analisados com base na análise de variância, na estatística de Durbin-Watson, na análise de resíduo e no teste denormalidade. Em todas as equações formuladas, a variável cultivo em água salgada (CAS foi selecionada, evidenciando diferença significativa (p The marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei may be reared in a wide range of salinity (0.5-60.0 g L-1. In this study, the production data of shrimp reared either in oligohaline (0.5-5.0 g L-1 or salty waters (25.0- 40.0 g L-1 were compared using mathematical models. The models considered variables related to management and production, and were formulated using a database with 278 culture cycles from different shrimp farms in Northeastern Brazil. The least-squarestechnique was applied to estimate the model’s parameters. The selection of variables used the Stepwise process associated to Box and Cox’s transformation. The adequacy of the equations and the normality estimated for the errors were analyzed on the basis of theanalysis of variance in the Durbin-Watson statistics, on the residue analysis and the normality test. For all the formulated equations, the variable ‘culture in salty water’ was selected, evidencing significant

  19. Comportamento de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae em função da oferta do alimento artificial nas fases clara e escura do período de 24 horas Behavior of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae in relation to artificial food offer along light and dark phases in a 24 h period

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    Cibele S. Pontes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de dados acerca do comportamento do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 relacionado ao alimento artificial ofertado em comedouros poderá induzir a uma alimentação inadequada, aumentando a relação custo/benefício e os impactos ambientais potenciais do seu cultivo. Objetivando fornecer subsídios para a melhoria do manejo alimentar praticado nas fazendas, foram desenvolvidos estudos comportamentais utilizando 64 juvenis de L. vannamei (7,57 ± 1,01 g, submetidos a fotoperíodo artificial, metade deles em ciclo invertido, para observação das suas atividades durante as fases clara e escura. A ração foi oferecida em intervalos pré-estabelecidos, registrando-se antes e depois da oferta: exploração, natação, alimentação e inatividade (focal instantâneo. A natação ocorreu preferencialmente durante a fase escura. A alimentação foi mais elevada na primeira meia hora posterior à oferta, com ênfase nos horários da fase clara. O alimento artificial atuou, em ambas as fases, como um indutor da exploração do substrato, tornando os camarões mais ativos em todos os horários posteriores à sua oferta.The few data on the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 behavior related to artificial food offer in feeding trays may result an inadequate feeding by the animal, increasing the cost/benefit relation in shrimp culture and its potential environmental impact. In order to provide tools for optimizing feeding management in shrimp farms, a behavioral study was developed, using 64 L. vannamei juveniles (7,57 ± 1,01 g. They were submitted to artificial photoperiods, half of them in reversed cycle, in order to register their behavior during light and dark phases. In established intervals, the following activities were registered before and after food exposition: exploration, swimming, feeding and inactivity (instantaneous sampling. Swimming occurred mostly during the dark phase. Feeding time was higher in

  20. Efeito da adição do melaço na relação carbono/nitrogênio no cultivo de camarão Litopenaeus vannamei na fase berçário = Effect of molasses addition on carbon/nitrogen ratio in the nursery phase of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp culture

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    Ugo Lima Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se o efeito da adição do melaço nas relações carbono:nitrogênio (C:N sobre o desempenho zootécnico do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase berçário, quando cultivado sem renovação de água. As relações do C:N foram avaliadas nas proporções de 25:1 (25M, 15:1 (15M e o controle (0M, sem aplicação de carbono, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Pós-larvas (PL com peso inicial de 2,5 ± 0,5 mg, foram estocadas em 12 tanques (800 L volume útil, em densidades de 6,25 PL L-1, durante 42 dias de cultivo. Ao final do cultivo, os pesos finais dos camarões dos tratamentos 25M (532,0 mg e 15M (540,0 mg foram superiores (p The effect of molasses addiction on carbon:nitrogen ratios (C:N on the performance of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp during the nursery phase cultured without water exchange was investigated. The C:N ratios were evaluated in 25:1 (25M and 15:1 (15M proportion and a control (0M, with no carbon source addition, in a randomized experimental design with four replicates. Post-larvae (PL with initial weight of 2.5 ± 0.5 mg were stocked in 12 tanks (800 L net volume, at the density of 6.25 PL L-1 during 42 culture days. At the end of culture, the shrimps weights on 25M (532.0 mg and 15M (540.0 mg treatments were higher (p < 0.05 than the 0M (428.6 mg treatment. Shrimp survival was high in all treatments (77.9 to 90.0%, but without significant difference (p ≥ 0.05. Therefore, the 15 and 25:1 C:N ratios showed an increased growth performance of nursery phase L. vannamei post-larvae cultured without water exchange.

  1. Influência do aquecimento sobre diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2 residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 = Influence of heating under different titration methods of residual SO2 on shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Patrícia Brito de Araújo Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O metabissulfito de sódio é o conservante mais aplicado na carcinicultura, com uso amparado em legislações vigentes no país, todavia, seu resíduo, dióxido de enxofre (SO2, em concentrações altas, pode provocar reações adversas à saúde. Este estudo foidesenvolvido com a finalidade de observar a influência do aquecimento sob diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2 residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei. Os camarões foram submetidos a nove concentrações de metabissulfito de sódio e avaliados com diferentesmétodos de detecção de SO2. O método da titulação Adolfo Lutz adaptado apresentou grande sensibilidade para detecção de SO2 residual. O método da titulação iodométrica com aquecimento possibilitou a detecção de maiores níveis de SO2, quando comparado aométodo sem o aquecimento. O aquecimento interferiu negativamente no método da fita reativa. Conclui-se que o aquecimento influenciou positivamente a titulação iodométrica, não ocorrendo o mesmo com a fita reativa.Sodium metabisulfite is the most applied preservative in shrimp culture, with its use supported by current legislation; however, its residue, sulfur dioxide (SO2, in high concentrations can provoke adverse health reactions. This study evaluated the influence of heating under different methods of residual SO2 titration in Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimps were treated with nine concentrations of sodium metabisulfite and evaluated by different methods of SO2 titration. The adapted Adolfo Lutz titration method presented the highest sensitivity for the detection of SO2. The method of iodometric titration with heating made possible the detention ofhigher levels of SO2, when compared to the same method without heating. The heating influenced negatively on the reactive ribbon method. It is concluded that the heating influenced positively on the iodometric titration, as opposed to the reactive ribbon.

  2. Evaluación de la actividad enzimática y contenido de proteína en larvas de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei alimentadas con diferentes dietas (Evaluation of the enzymatic activity and protein content in larvae of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed with different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiordia-Pérez E

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available El alimento vivo para el cultivo de camarón requiere especial atención. Los alimentos comúnmente empleados en esta industria, se han seleccionado principalmente por la facilidad de su cultivo más que por sus propiedades nutricionales. El presente trabajo compara el uso de copépodos (Tisbe monozota vivos y muertos y una dieta microligada y microparticulada como alternativa alimenticia de nauplios de Artemia para larvas de camarón evaluando la actividad enzimática y contenido de proteínas de las misma. El estudio se realizó en estadios larvales de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura (28°C, salinidad (35‰ y fotoperiodo (12 h luz / 12h oscuridad. En ambos experimentos el mayor contenido proteico se obtuvo en larvas alimentadas con la dieta experimental y con Artemia viva. a diferencia de la actividad enzimática que fue mayor al utilizar copépodos tanto vivos como muertos. Los resultados demostraron que no hay diferencia significativa en contenido proteico y en actividad de tripsina al usar copépodos (vivos o muertos y nauplios de Artemia , y sugieren a la dieta experimental como buena fuente alternativa en los primeros estadios larvales de camarón blanco L. vannamei The live food for the shrimp culture requires special attention. The food commonly used in this industry, have been selected mainly for the feasibility of their culture rather than their nutritional properties. This present work include alive and dead copepods (Tisbe monozota and a microparticulate microbound diet as alternative live food to Artemia nauplii for shrimp larvae, evaluating their enzymatic activity and protein content. The study was made with larval stages of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under control culture conditions: temperature (28°C, salinity (35% and photoperiodo (12 h light/12h dark. In both experiments the higher protein content was obtained in larvae fed with the microdiet and Artemia nauplii

  3. Primer registro de la utilización de harinas de Salicornia bigelovii y Scomber japonicus en dietas prácticas para el cultivo súper-intensivo de camarón Litopenaeus stylirostris First record on the use of Salicornia bigelovii and Scomber japonicus fishmeals as feed for Litopenaeus stylirostris under super-intensive farming

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    Manuel de J . Acosta-Ruiz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de las harinas de Salicornia bigelovii (SA y Scomber japonicus, semiprocesada (HPS como ingredientes en la formulación de dietas para camarón azul Litopenaeus stylirostris, en cultivo súper-intensivo. Se formularon tres diferentes dietas isoproteicas (40% e isocalóricas (6 kcal g-1: (DSA, (DHPS, basal (DBA y una dieta control (DCO. El peso obtenido con DSA y DHPS (0,9 ± 0,014 y 0,8 ± 0,015 g fue similar a la dieta comercial DCO (0,9 ± 0,07 g, no existieron diferencias significativas (P > 0,05 en talla (cm, peso (g y factor de conversión alimenticio (FCA. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que DSA y DHPS son factibles de utilizar en la formulación de dietas para camarón por ser ingredientes de bajo costo que pueden sustituir a la harina de maíz y pescado tradicional, respectivamente sin efectos detrimentales en el crecimiento y supervivencia.The effect of semi-processed fishmeals (HPS made using Salicornia bigelovii (SA and Scomber japonicusas ingredients in the formulation of diets for blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris undersuper-intensive farming was evaluated. Three different isoproteinic (40% and isocaloric (6 kcal g-1 diets were formulated: DSA, DHPS, basal (DBA; a fourth control diet (DCO was also used. The weights obtained with DSA and DHPS (0.9 ± 0.014 and 0.8 ± 0.015 g were similar to those obtained with the commercial diet (DCO; 0.9 ± 0.07 g, and no significant differences (P > 0.05 were found for size (cm, weight (g, and the feed conversion ratio (FCR. The results suggest that the use of DSA and DHPS in the formulation of diets for shrimp is feasibleas these are low-cost ingredients that can be used as substitutes for cornstarch and traditional fishmeal, respectively, without detrimental effects for shrimp growth and survival.

  4. Expression Levels of Litopenaeus vannamei Toll in the Whiteleg Shrimp (L. vannamei in Response to Different Routes of Yellow Head Virus Infection

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    Parin Chaivisuthangkura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was based on experimental infection via the pathogenic injections and natural infections by Yellow-head Virus (YHV. Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei were experimentally infected with YHV by either injection or co-habitation with YHV-injected shrimp. Thereafter, YHV load, L. vannamei Toll (LvToll mRNA and LvToll protein level in gills of moribund and survived shrimp from both groups were determined. All shrimp of the YHV-injected group died within 3 days post-injection and 80% of co-habitation group died within 14 days, with 20% surviving to day 30. Moribund and survived shrimp gills were isolated and analyzed to determine YHV load and LvToll expression. Tissue was also assessed to determine LvToll protein level using an immunofluorescence method. Viral load and levels of LvToll and LvToll in moribund shrimp from co-habitation group were significantly higher than were those of moribund shrimp from YHV-injected group. Survived shrimp from co-habitation group had a significantly lower viral load and lower levels of LvToll and LvToll than the moribund shrimp of the same group. It suggests that mRNA and protein levels in shrimp following an infection by a particular pathogen could differ depending on the route of infection. As the co-habitation method of inducing infection is considered a natural mode of infection, this study also suggests that during natural YHV infection in penaeid shrimp, the up-regulation of LvToll does occur; whether this response is responsible for some degree of protection against mortality caused by YHV infection requires further study.

  5. Identification of a novel C-type lectin from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its role in defense against pathogens infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhan; ZHANG Jiquan; LI Fuhua; ZHANG Xiaojun; LIU Chengzhang; XIANG Jianhai

    2011-01-01

    Acting as one of the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs),C-type lectin is believed to mediate pathogen recognition and plays an important role in the clearance of pathogens as part of the innate immune system.In this work,a novel C-type lectin gene (named LvLecl) was cloned from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.The ORF of LvLecl is 510 bp,encoding 169 amino acids.The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acids at the N-terminal and a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) at the C-terminal.LvLecl was mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas.Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the level of LvLecl transcripts significantly changed in the hepatopancreas after the shrimp were artificially challenged with LPS,Micrococcus lysodeikticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).RNAi-based silencing of LvLecl resulted in increases in mortality when the shrimp were challenged with WSSV,and the median lethal time was reduced compared with controls.Although there was no characteristic “EPN” (Glu-Pro-Ser) or “QPD” (Gln-Pro-Asp) motif,the recombinant LvLecl,expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3),could also agglutinate M.lysodeikticus and Vibrio anguillarum.The agglutinating activities were calcium-dependent and could be inhibited by D-mannose,D-glucose,D-galactose and N-Acetyl-D-mannose.These results suggest that LvLecl might be involved in the immune response against WSSV and bacterial infections and contribute to non-self recognition as a pattem recognition receptor in the innate immune system of the shrimp L.vannamei.

  6. In situ hybridization demonstrates that Litopenaeus vannamei, L. stylirostris and Penaeus monodon are susceptible to experimental infection with infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kathy F J; Pantoja, Carlos R; Poulos, Bonnie T; Redman, Rita M; Lightnere, Donald V

    2005-02-28

    Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) was recently found to be the cause of necrosis in the skeletal muscle of farm-reared Litopenaeus vannamei from northeastern Brazil. Nucleic acid extracted from semi-purified IMN virions showed that this virus contains a 7.5 kb RNA genome. A cDNA library was constructed, and a clone, designated as IMNV-317, was labeled with digoxigenin-11-dUTP and used as a gene probe for in situ hybridization (ISH). This probe specifically detected IMNV in infected tissues. To determine the susceptibility of 3 species of penaeid shrimp (L. vannamei, L. stylirostris, Penaeus monodon) to IMNV infection, juveniles were injected with purified virions and observed for clinical signs of infection and mortality over a 4 wk period. All L. vannamei exhibited typical lesions after 6 d, and lesions were visible in all L. stylirostris by Day 13. The clinical signs of opaque muscle were not seen in P. monodon, due to their highly pigmented exoskeleton precluding visual detection of lesions. Moderate mortality (20%) occurred in infected L. vannamei. No mortalities were observed in either L. stylirostris or P. monodon. Histological examination and ISH indicated that all 3 species are susceptible to IMNV infection. Using ISH, IMNV was detected in tissues including the skeletal muscle, lymphoid organ, hindgut, and phagocytic cells within the hepatopancreas and heart. In all 3 species, skeletal muscle cells produced the strongest ISH reactions. Based on the onset of clinical signs of infection and mortality, L. vannamei appears to be the most susceptible of these 3 species to IMNV infection. PMID:15819442

  7. Ontogeny of osmoregulation in the Pacific blue shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris (Decapoda, Penaeidae): Deciphering the role of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Dominique; Charmantier, Guy; Boulo, Viviane; Wabete, Nelly; Ansquer, Dominique; Dauga, Clément; Grousset, Evelyse; Labreuche, Yannick; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille

    2016-01-01

    The role of the main ion transporting enzyme Na+/K+-ATPase in osmoregulation processes was investigated in Litopenaeus stylirostris. The development and localization of the osmoregulation sites were studied during ontogenesis by immunodetection of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase using monoclonal antibodies and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Osmoregulation sites were identified as the pleurae and branchiostegites in the zoeae and mysis stages. In the subsequent post-metamorphic stages the osmoregulatory function was mainly located in the epipodites and branchiostegites and osmotic regulation was later detected in the gills. The presence of ionocytes and microvilli in these tissues confirmed their role in ionic processes. The complete open reading frame of the mRNA coding for the α-subunit of Na+K+-ATPase was characterized in L. stylirostris. The resulting 3092-bp cDNA (LsNKA) encodes a putative 1011-amino-acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 112.3kDa. The inferred amino acid sequence revealed that the putative protein possesses the main structural characteristics of the Na+K+-ATPase α-subunits. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicated that LsNKA transcripts did not significantly vary between the different developmental stages. The number of transcripts was about 2.5-fold higher in the epipodites and gills than in any other tissues tested in juveniles. A reverse genetic approach was finally implemented to study the role of LsNKA in vivo. Knockdown of LsNKA expression by gene-specific dsRNA injection led to an increase of shrimp mortality following an abrupt salinity change compared to control animals. These data strongly suggest that LsNKA plays an important role in osmoregulation when the shrimp are challenged by changing salinities. PMID:26827851

  8. Effects of dietary chlorogenic acid on growth performance, antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite.

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    Wang, Yun; Li, Zheng; Li, Jian; Duan, Ya-Fei; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    An eight-week feeding trial followed by an acute combined stress test of low-salinity and nitrite were performed to evaluate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were randomly allocated in 12 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different levels of CGA (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) feed) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WG), biomass gain (BG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed intake were determined after feeding for 56 days. Antioxidant capacity were evaluated by determining the activity of total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) as well as the gene expression of GSH-Px and CAT in the hepatopancreas of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at the end of the combined stress test. The results indicated that supplemention of CGA had no significant effects on the growth performance and the activities of TAS, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in hepatopancreas of shrimp cultured under normal conditions for 56 days. However, compared with the control group, CGA (200, 400 mg kg(-1) feed) significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite, as indicated by the significant (P CAT, as well as higher transcript levels of GPx and CAT gene in shrimp treated with CGA in the combined tress test. Our findings suggested that CGA possessed dual-modulatory effects on antioxidant capacity of L. vannamei and could be a potential feed additive that can enhance shrimp resistance against environmental stresses. The recommended application dosage is 200 mg kg(-1) and further studies are needed to clarify the action model of CGA efficiency. PMID:25600509

  9. Efecto de la inulina y del ácido fúlvico en la supervivencia, crecimiento, sistema inmune y prevalencia de WSSV en Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Anayeli Gutiérrez-Dagnino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del prebiótico inulina y ácido fúlvico, adicionados en el alimento, sobre el crecimiento, supervivencia, prevalencia de WSSV y sistema inmune de Litopenaeus vannamei. Para esto, se realizó un bioensayo, con tratamientos por triplicado, donde se probaron diferentes concentraciones de los aditivos. Se hizo un análisis de WSSV en organismos infectados con una carga viral relativamente alta utilizando la PCR sencilla y anidada. Al final del bioensayo se extrajo la hemolinfa y se estudió el sistema inmune en hemocitos a nivel bioquímico y genético (PCR cuantitativo. El peso final fue similar en todos los tratamientos y la supervivencia estuvo entre 66,7% y 93,3%. La prevalencia de WSSV disminuyó un 13% respecto al control. El número de hemocitos, la actividad de la fenoloxidasa y la concentración de anión superóxido fueron similares en todos los tratamientos. Los aditivos modularon la expresión de los genes transglutaminasa, superóxido dismutasa y profenoloxidasa, pero no la del receptor Toll. Los aditivos no afectan negativamente el crecimiento y protegen al camarón contra WSSV en organismos infectados con una carga viral relativamente alta. No se observó efecto de los aditivos en los efectores del sistema inmune estudiados a nivel bioquímico pero si modularon la expresión de algunos genes relacionados con el sistema inmune en L. vannamei.

  10. Transcriptome and Molecular Pathway Analysis of the Hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Chronic Low-Salinity Stress.

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    Ke Chen

    Full Text Available The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a euryhaline penaeid species that shows ontogenetic adaptations to salinity, with its larvae inhabiting oceanic environments and postlarvae and juveniles inhabiting estuaries and lagoons. Ontogenetic adaptations to salinity manifest in L. vannamei through strong hyper-osmoregulatory and hypo-osmoregulatory patterns and an ability to tolerate extremely low salinity levels. To understand this adaptive mechanism to salinity stress, RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to changes in salinity from 30 (control to 3 practical salinity units (psu for 8 weeks. In total, 26,034 genes were obtained from the hepatopancreas tissue of L. vannamei using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system, and 855 genes showed significant changes in expression under salinity stress. Eighteen top Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways were significantly involved in physiological responses, particularly in lipid metabolism, including fatty-acid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycosphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Lipids or fatty acids can reduce osmotic stress in L. vannamei by providing additional energy or changing the membrane structure to allow osmoregulation in relevant organs, such as the gills. Steroid hormone biosynthesis and the phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism pathways were also involved in the adaptation of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the differential expression patterns of 20 randomly selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. This study is the first report on the long-term adaptive transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the results will further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying osmoregulation in euryhaline crustaceans.

  11. Molecular characterization and expression of AMP-activated protein kinase in response to low-salinity stress in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

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    Xu, Chang; Li, Erchao; Xu, Zhixin; Wang, Shifeng; Chen, Ke; Wang, Xiaodan; Li, Tongyu; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao

    2016-08-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) serves as a major regulator of cellular energy metabolism by activating ATP production pathways and blocking ATP consumption. However, information on AMPK genes in aquatic animals is limited. In this study, three subunits of AMPK were cloned from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The full-length cDNAs of the α, β and γ subunits were 1617, 1243 and 3467bp long, respectively, with open reading frames of 1566, 873 and 2988bp encoding for 521, 290 and 996 amino acids, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignments of the three subunits showed that the functional domains in the L. vannamei proteins retained the highest similarity with those of other animals, at 89%, 58%, and 75%, respectively. The expression levels of the three subunits were higher in the muscle and gills than in the eyestalk and hepatopancreas. The mRNA levels of AMPK-α and AMPK-β were up-regulated in the hepatopancreas and muscle after acute low-salinity stress at 3psu for 6h compared with control salinity at 20psu. After 8-week salinity stress at 3psu, AMPK-α and AMPK-β mRNA levels in the hepatopancreas were significantly higher than those of the control at 30psu. However, in the muscle only AMPK-γ mRNA was significantly up-regulated at low salinity relative to controls. Muscle and hepatopancreas showed increases in AMPK protein after 6h exposure to low salinity, but there were no differences seen after long term acclimation. The change patterns of protein were slightly differing from the mRNA patterns due to the distinguishing function of individual subunits of AMPK. These findings confirm that three AMPK subunits are present in L. vannamei and that all encode proteins with conserved functional domains. The three AMPK subunits are all regulated at the transcriptional and protein levels to manage excess energy expenditure during salinity stress. PMID:27095693

  12. Metabolic enzyme activities, metabolism-related genes expression and bioaccumulation in juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

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    Ren, Xianyun; Pan, Luqing; Wang, Lin

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on metabolic detoxification system and bioaccumulation of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In this study, juvenile white shrimp L. vannamei were exposed for 21 days at four different concentrations of 0, 0.03, 0.3 and 3μg/L. Detoxification enzyme activities of phase I (aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), epoxide hydrolase (EH)) and phase II (glutathione-S-transferase (GST), sulfotransferase (SULT), uridine diphosphate glucuronyl transferase (UGT)) were determined, and results showed that all the detoxification enzyme activities increased in a dose-dependent manner except for the low BaP exposure. Transcription of genes was detected and measured by real-time RT-PCR. It showed that at day six BaP increased cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, GST, SULT visa aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that they could be potential targets of BaP that disrupt the detoxification system. The consistency of their responses to BaP exposure implies that AhR action may be involved in invertebrate CYP regulation. Additionally, BaP bioaccumulation increased rapidly first and showed an incoming plateau. Besides, the enzyme activities and bioaccumulation in the hepatopancreas were higher than those in the gills. These results will not only provide information on BaP metabolic mechanism for this species, but also scientific data for pollution monitoring. PMID:24636950

  13. Effects of biofloc promotion on water quality, growth, biomass yield and heterotrophic community in Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 experimental intensive cultures

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    Irasema E. Luis-Villaseñor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Six 1.2-m3 tanks were stocked with an initial biomass of 500 g m-3 of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (individual weight: 1.0±0.3 g, to evaluate the effect of biofloc promotion on water quality and on shrimp growth and production, and to identify the dominant taxa in the heterotrophic communities present in experimental closed cultures. Feeding was ad libitum twice daily with 35% protein shrimp feed. Three tanks were managed as biofloc technology (BFT systems, adding daily an amount of cornmeal equivalent to 50% of the shrimp feed supplied. The remaining three received only shrimp feed and served as controls. Experiment lasted 21 days. The mean concentrations of P-PO4 3- and inorganic dissolved N species (TAN, N-NO2 -, N-NO3 - were significantly lower (P<0.5 in BFT than in the control. The individual final weight, increase in biomass, food, and protein conversion rates were significantly better in BFT than in the control (P<0.05. The mean N content of the shrimp biomass gained in the BFT cultures was equivalent to 45.7% of the protein-N added as feed, and was significantly higher than the 34.7% recycled into shrimp biomass in the control cultures. Bacterial concentrations were not significantly different. Vibrionaceae dominated in both systems; in both some isolates were potential pathogens, and diversity was higher in the control than in the BFT treatment. The advantages of BFT technology are confirmed by the significantly lower TAN and N-NO2 - concentrations, as well as by the better shrimp performance in terms of growth, biomass yield, and food and protein conversion efficiency.

  14. TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL WITH AN ORGANICALLY CERTIFIED YEAST–BASED PROTEIN IN PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP (Litopenaeus Vannamei DIETS: LABORATORY AND FIELD TRIALS

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    Ewen McLean

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of totally replacing the fishmeal component of marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei diets was examined both in the laboratory setting and during a full–scale commercial trial. Animals were fed either a traditional fishmeal–based diet or one in which complete replacement of fishmeal, on a per protein basis, was manufactured using a yeast–based product, NuPro®. Laboratory studies determined that irrespective of diet fed, no difference in shrimp performance (weight gain, survival and SGR occurred. A field trial was thus activated to determine whether lab–scale studies were transferable to the commercial setting. Trials were conducted in earthen ponds from mid–June to early November 2005. Ponds were initially stocked with PL12–16 shrimp at a rate of 100,000 per hectare. At trial end, ponds receiving the NuPro®–based feed had equivalent growth to that of shrimp fed the traditional, fishmeal–based diet. Percent increase in weight from initial values and survival for the NuPro® ponds was 296, 269 and 275%, and 78, 76 and 85% respectively, whereas that for the fishmeal–based diet was 305% and 80% respectively. Noteworthy was that within pond size variation of L. vannamei was lower in NuPro® fed animals (±2.3 g when compared against animals receiving the traditional feed (±4.1 g. Overall observations from the field trial indicate the importance of the »bioreactor« pond with respect to the supply of energy to sustain shrimp growth potential.

  15. Immunity enhancement with administration of Gracilaria corticata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae compared to gamma irradiation in expose to WSSV in shrimp, in juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Kakoolaki, Shapour; Mohammadidost, Mehrdad

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the efficacy of Gracilaria corticata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and gamma irradiation WSSV as immunostimulants to white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven hundred and twenty healthy shrimp SPF L. vannamei subadult with average weight of 10 ± 1.02 g were collected and divided into 8 groups. The first group (T1) was fed with commercial pellet, the second group (T2) fed with S. cerevisiae (2 g/kg), the third group (T3) fed with G. corticata powder mixed with shrimp feed (2 g/kg) and, finally, the fourth group (T4) was fed with commercial pellet and injected intramuscularly gamma irradiant WSSV (1 μl/gbw) for 10 days. The shrimps were then injected with WSSV and maintained for 25 days. The positive control group for each treatment was maintained in the same manner but without injection with WSSV. Moreover, survival rate and immune parameters such as total hemocyte count (THC), total protein plasma (TPP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity and phenoloxidase activity (PO) were determined. Results indicated that the survival rates for groups T4, T3 T2 and T1 were 57.05 ± 3.52%, 22.5 ± 0.5%, 15 ± 1.05% and 00.0 ± 0%, respectively. Ultimately, at the end of the study the shrimp group T4 showed higher hematological data: THC, TPP, SOD, POD and PO. The study concluded that gamma irradiant WSSV is effective immunostimulants in shrimp L. vannamei and the immunity has better performances than those of the G. corticata and S. cerevisiae. PMID:27377028

  16. Effect of various Na/K ratios in low-salinity well water on growth performance and physiological response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Tan, Beiping; Yang, Jinfang; Lin, Yingbo; Chi, Shuyan; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of sodium to potassium (Na/K) ratios on the growth performance and physiological response of the Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vananmei), various concentrations of KCl were added to low-salinity well water (salinity 4) in an 8-week culture trial. Six treatments with Na/K ratios of 60:1, 42:1, 33:1, 23:1, 17:1, and 14:1 were replicated in triplicate. The highest weight-gain rate (3 506±48)% and survival rate (89.38±0.88)% was observed in well water with Na/K ratios of 23:1 and 42:1, respectively, while the feed conversion ratio (1.02±0.01), oxygen consumption, and ammonia-N excretion rate was the lowest in the medium with a Na/K ratio of 23:1. Gill Na+-K+-ATPase activity, as an indicator of osmoregulation, peaked in the treatment where the Na/K ratio was 17:1. The total hemocyte count, respiratory burst, and immune-related enzyme activities (ALP, LSZ, PO, and SOD) of L. vananmei were affected significantly by Na/K ratios ( Pcontrol (75±7.07)%. In conclusion, the addition of K+ to low-salinity well water in L. vannamei cultures is feasible. Na/K ratios ranging from 23:1 to 33:1 might improve survival and growth. Immunity and disease resistance are also closely related to the Na/K ratio of the low-salinity well water. The findings may contribute to the development of more efficient K + remediation strategies for L. vananmei culture in low-salinity well water.

  17. Trophic transfer of lead through a model marine four-level food chain: Tetraselmis suecica, Artemia franciscana, Litopenaeus vannamei, and Haemulon scudderi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Jiménez, M F; Arellano-Fiore, C; Rocha-Velarde, R; Jara-Marini, M E; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Páez-Osuna, F

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to assess the transfer of lead (Pb) along an experimental, four-level food chain: Tetraselmis suecica (phytoplankton) → Artemia franciscana (crustacean, brine shrimp) → Litopenaeus vannamei (crustacean, white shrimp) → Haemulon scudderi (fish, grunt). T. suecica was exposed to a sublethal dose of Pb in solution and then used as the base of a marine food chain. Significant differences in Pb concentrations were found between exposed organisms of the different trophic levels and the control. Particularly, Pb concentrations in fish of the simulated trophic chain were two-to three times higher in the exposed specimens than in the control. Levels of Pb in phytoplankton showed a substantial increase with respect to the solution (level I), with bioconcentration factors averaging from 930 to 3630. In contrast, a strong decrease in Pb concentration from phytoplankton to zooplankton (level II) and from zooplankton to shrimp tissues (level III) was evidenced by bioaccumulation factors metal transfer observed in these two predators, Pb concentration in the grunt fish (level IV) was higher than in the shrimp (level III) (bioaccumulation factor >1.0). Some of the added Pb is transferred from the phytoplankton along the food chain, thus producing a net accumulation of Pb mainly in fish and, to a lesser extent, in shrimp tissues. Because Pb is one of the most pervasive contaminants in coastal ecosystems, its transference by way of diet and potential net accumulation in higher predators is of ecologic importance for marine life. In addition, because shrimp and adult Haemulon scudderi are commercially important resources, this issue is of particular relevance to the safety of marine products. PMID:21082317

  18. A preliminary evaluation of the San Pedro daisy (Lasianthaea podocephala tuber powder, as a feed additive on the intensive culture of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei under laboratory conditions

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    Marcel Martínez-Porchas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out during seven weeks to preliminarily evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion of powder from the tuber Lasianthaeapodocephala, commonly known as the San Pedro daisy or pionilla, as a feed additive on the production parameters, food consumption, and nutritional condition of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, intensively farmed under laboratory conditions. Hypothetically, the additive should improve these parameters as it does when used for humans. The powder was included at different levels (0 [Control], 0.2 [T1] and 1 g kg-1 [T2] in a commercial shrimp feed. The tuber powder exhibited a free amino acid profile being arginine (8.59 mg g-1 and glutamine (3.36 mg g-1 the most abundant. Feed consumption was not influenced by any treatment; however, the survival and the overall production responses were higher in both treatments using the powder (T1 and T2 compared to the control. No significant differences were detected in muscle concentrations of lactate and glucose, although higher protein and lower cholesterol concentrations were observed in shrimp reared in the control. The lower cholesterol concentration of shrimp from the control could be associated to a poor nutritional status. In conclusion, addition of the powder of San Pedro daisy did not improve the feed consumption, but apparently had a positive effect on survival, production response and nutritional status of shrimp. These responses could be associated to an hypothetic effect of some plant components at a nutritional-molecular level, or to a possible antimicrobial effect; however, further specific studies are needed.

  19. A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with “Bacterial White Tail Disease” of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

  20. Selection of Vibrio harveyi-resistant Litopenaeus vannamei via a three-round challenge selection with a pathogenic strain of V. harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-Hong; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Xiang, Jian-Hai; Wang, Ping

    2013-08-01

    To obtain Vibrio harveyi-resistant Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp used for study on immune response of shrimp avoid vibriosis, a three-round challenge selection procedure was applied. In this procedure, resistant shrimp were selected gradually via three rounds challenge experiment with a pathogenic strain of V. harveyi at a median and controllable lethal dose of 96-h LD50 (the median lethal dose). After this procedure, the cumulative mortality of selected shrimp during 96 h after injection of V. harveyi at 2.0 × 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) significantly decreased from 93.3% to 26.7%, the hours of beginning of death and the hours of attaining of the maximum cumulative mortality of shrimp prolonged from 4 h and 10 h to 8 h and 24 h, respectively. The LD50 of 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 96 h of selected shrimp significantly increased to 1.4 ± 0.1 × 10(7) (p < 0.01), 5.5 ± 0.4 × 10(6) (p < 0.01), 3.1 ± 0.2 × 10(6) (p < 0.01), 2.7 ± 0.1 × 10(6) (p < 0.01) and 2.7 ± 0.1 × 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) (p < 0.01), about 15.9, 15.3, 9.4, 10.0 and 10.4 times of that of normal shrimp, respectively. In conclusion, the resistance of shrimp to Vibrio significantly increased after the three-round challenge selection procedure. PMID:23665547

  1. Validation of a commercial insulated isothermal PCR-based POCKIT test for rapid and easy detection of white spot syndrome virus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei.

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    Yun-Long Tsai

    Full Text Available Timely pond-side detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV plays a critical role in the implementation of bio-security measures to help minimize economic losses caused by white spot syndrome disease, an important threat to shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. A portable device, namely POCKIT™, became available recently to complete fluorescent probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR, and automatic data detection and interpretation within one hour. Taking advantage of this platform, the IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system was established to allow simple and easy WSSV detection for on-site users. The assay was first evaluated for its analytical sensitivity and specificity performance. The 95% limit of detection (LOD of the assay was 17 copies of WSSV genomic DNA per reaction (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 24 copies per reaction. The established assay has detection sensitivity similar to that of OIE-registered IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Protection System with serial dilutions of WSSV-positive Litopenaeus vannamei DNA. No cross-reaction signals were generated from infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV, monodon baculovirus (MBV, and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV positive samples. Accuracy analysis using 700 L. vannamei of known WSSV infection status shows that the established assayhassensitivity93.5% (95% CI: 90.61-95.56% and specificity 97% (95% CI: 94.31-98.50%. Furthermore, no discrepancy was found between the two assays when 100 random L. vannamei samples were tested in parallel. Finally, excellent correlation was observed among test results of three batches of reagents with 64 samples analyzed in three different laboratories. Working in a portable device, IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system allows reliable, sensitive and specific on-site detection of WSSV in L. vannamei.

  2. Activating transcription factor 4 and X box binding protein 1 of Litopenaeus vannamei transcriptional regulated white spot syndrome virus genes Wsv023 and Wsv083.

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    Xiao-Yun Li

    Full Text Available In response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, the signaling pathway termed unfolded protein response (UPR is activated. To investigate the role of UPR in Litopenaeus vannamei immunity, the activating transcription factor 4 (designated as LvATF4 which belonged to a branch of the UPR, the [protein kinase RNA (PKR-like ER kinase, (PERK]-[eukaryotic initiation factor 2 subunit alpha (eIF2α] pathway, was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvATF4 was 1972 bp long, with an open reading frame of 1299 bp long that encoded a 432 amino acid protein. LvATF4 was highly expressed in gills, intestines and stomach. For the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV challenge, LvATF4 was upregulated in the gills after 3 hpi and increased by 1.9-fold (96 hpi compared to the mock-treated group. The LvATF4 knock-down by RNA interference resulted in a lower cumulative mortality of L. vannamei under WSSV infection. Reporter gene assays show that LvATF4 could upregulate the expression of the WSSV gene wsv023 based on the activating transcription factor/cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate response element (ATF/CRE. Another transcription factor of L. vannamei, X box binding protein 1 (designated as LvXBP1, has a significant function in [inositol-requiring enzyme-1(IRE1 - (XBP1] pathway. This transcription factor upregulated the expression of the WSSV gene wsv083 based on the UPR element (UPRE. These results suggest that in L. vannamei UPR signaling pathway transcription factors are important for WSSV and might facilitate WSSV infection.

  3. Dietary supplementation of short-chain fructooligosaccharides influences gastrointestinal microbiota composition and immunity characteristics of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, cultured in a recirculating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Burr, Gary S; Gatlin, Delbert M; Hume, Michael E; Patnaik, Susmita; Castille, Frank L; Lawrence, Addison L

    2007-12-01

    Supplementation of prebiotic compounds, including short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) has been shown to confer benefits on nutrient utilization, growth, and disease resistance of various animal species through improved gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota. However, potential uses of prebiotics for shrimp have not been defined. A 6-wk feeding trial was conducted in a recirculating system to determine the effects of scFOS supplementation on growth performance, immune functions, and GI microbiota composition of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). scFOS was supplemented in a nutritionally complete diet (35% crude protein) at 0.025, 0.0500, 0.075, 0.100, 0.200, 0.400, and 0.800% by weight. After 6 wk of feeding, shrimp fed 0, 0.1, and 0.8% scFOS were sampled for assays of immune function and GI microbiota. Dietary supplementation of scFOS did not improve weight gain, feed conversion ratio, or survival of shrimp. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis suggested the intestinal tract microbial community from shrimp fed the basal diet was different from that of shrimp fed the scFOS diets [similarity coefficient (SC) = 74.9%)], although the intestinal tract microbial community from shrimp fed the scFOS-supplemented diets was very similar (SC = 92.3%). All the bacterial species contributing to the GI microbial differences were identified, although most of them are uncultured species. Both total hemocyte count and hemocyte respiratory burst increased (P < 0.05) by incremental dietary supplementation of scFOS (0-0.8%). This study is the first to our knowledge to show that dietary scFOS can selectively support growth of certain bacterial species in the GI tract of shrimp and enhance immunity, which may facilitate development of alternative strategies, including novel probiotics and synbiotics, for shrimp growth and health management. PMID:18029496

  4. AVALIAÇÃO DO GANHO DE PESO DE PÓS-LARVAS DO CAMARÃO MARINHO Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931, ALIMENTADOS COM PEIXES DA FAUNA ACOMPANHANTE DO CAMARÃO MARINHO EVALUATION OF WEIGHT GAIN IN POST-LARVAE OF MARINE SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931 FED ON FISH SPECIES WHICH COMPOSE THE MARINE SHRIMP FISHERIES BYCATCH

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    Henrique José Mascarenhas dos Santos Costa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar o desenvolvimento inicial de pós-larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei em água doce utilizando como alimento peixes da fauna acompanhante da pesca do camarão marinho. Cultivaram-se 48 pós-larvas com peso e comprimento médio total iniciais de 0,008±0,001 g e 11,0±0,5 mm, respectivamente. Para cada tratamento foram utilizados, como alimento, ração comercial (RC para camarão marinho com 45% de proteína bruta, Opisthonema oglinum (OO (sardinha bandeira e Chloroscombus chrysurus (CC (palombeta, respectivamente. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A densidade de estocagem consistiu de quatro camarões por aquário. Durante os 75 dias de experimento, a alimentação foi administrada ad libitum. Registrou-se a temperatura média final de 27,1±0,8ºC para os três tratamentos e o pH médio final de 7,68±0,27 para os camarões alimentados com RC e 7,66±0,22 para os indivíduos alimentados com OO e CC, respectivamente. Os pesos médios finais foram de 0,560±0,096 g, 0,495±0,091 g e 0,500±0,101 g e os comprimentos totais finais de 62,1±0,9 mm, 57,0±0,8 mm e 56,2±0,9 mm para os tratamentos com RC, OO e CC, respectivamente. Os resultados do peso e comprimento final mostraram que não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os tratamentos testados. A sobrevivência final foi de 87,5±14,4%, 68,8±12,5% e 62,5±14,3% para o RC, OO e CC, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a utilização de ração para camarão marinho e os peixes marinhos O. oglinum e C. chrysurus como alimento para pós-larvas de camarão marinho apresentam desenvolvimento semelhante. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Camarão marinho, dietas, Chloroscombus chrysurus, Litopenaeus vannamei, Opisthonema oglinum. The objective of this study was to evaluate the early development of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae in freshwater fed on fish species that compose the shrimp fisheries bycatch. Forty eight post

  5. Assessing the potential toxicity of marine sediments found in petroleum industry areas: A new approach based on responses of postlarval shrimp; Evaluacion del potencial de toxicidad de sedimentos marinos en areas de la industria petrolera: Un nuevo metodo basado en respuestas de postlarvas de camarones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelista, A.J.A.; Nascimento, I.A.; Pereira, S.A.; Lopes, M.B.N.L.; Martins, L.K.P. [Laboratorio de Bio Marinha e Biomonitoramento IBIO-UFBA, Campus Universitario de Ondina, Salvador (Brazil); Fillmann, G [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, West Hoe, PL (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-15

    In this study we tested the toxicity of bulk sediment from the northeastern area of Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate environmental impact induced by 50 years of exposure to the local petroleum industry (Petrobras). Sediment samples were collected during one year, at three-month intervals, from four sites in areas of oil extraction (Ilha das Fontes, station 4), transportation (Ilhas de Madre de Deus and Pati, stations 2 and 3) and refinement (RELAM, station1). Two reference stations (5 and 6) were located outside the petroleum influence area, to the south of the bay. Static bioassays were conducted for 96 h, using 7-8 day old Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae (PL). The assays were conducted in 2.5 L plastic jars containing 200 g of surface (1 cm deep) bulk sediment covered by 2 L of dilution water (filtered seawater, 28 ppt salinity, 27 + 2 degree centigrade and DO under saturation). Fifteen exposed PL in each jar were fed daily on 60 recently hatched Artemia salina nauplii. Physico-chemical parameters were monitored. Mortality and dry weight gain were taken as end-points. The PL mortality data obtained for sediment from the Petrobras stations in comparison to the data from the reference stations were not significantly different (P > 0.05); however, the dry weight gain showed significant differences among stations. A maximum value was reached at station 5 (reference area) and a minimum at station 1 (RELAM refinery). Stations 2 and 3 in petroleum transportation areas did not show significant differences (P > 0.05). To evaluate the sensitivity of this bulk-sediment test in detecting contaminant effects generated by the petroleum industry, the toxicity data were considered in terms of the hydrocarbon levels analyzed in sediments from the same Petrobras areas and in one of the control areas, located outside the bay. The results support the assumption that the bulk-sediment bioassay on penaeid PL is a suitable methodology not only to distinguish between

  6. Presença de anticorpos da classe IgM de Leptospira interrogans em animais silvestres do Estado do Tocantins, 2002 Presence of IgM antibodies for Leptospira interrogans in wild animals from Tocantins State, 2002

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    Milton Formiga de Souza Júnior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Quatrocentos e vinte e sete amostras de soro provenientes de animais silvestres foram testadas frente a 18 sorovariedades de Leptospira interrogans. De 286 amostras de Cebus apella, 46 (16,1% foram positivas para as sorovariedades pomona, brasiliensis, mini, swajizak, grippothyphosa, sarmin, fluminense, autumnalis, hebdomadis, guaratuba, javanica e icterohaemorhagiae. Das 82 de Alouatta caraya, 2 (2,4% foram positivas para as sorovariedades mangus e fluminense. Das 31 de Nasua nasua, 4 (12,9% foram positivas para as sorovariedades fluminense e javanica. Das 10 amostras de Cerdocyon thous, 2 (20% foram positivas para as sorovariedades fluminense e brasiliensis. Sete de Dasyprocta sp, 6 de Tamandua tetradactila e 5 de Euphractus sexcintus não apresentaram reatividade.Four hundred and twenty-seven serum samples of wild animals were tested against 18 serovars of Leptospira interrogans. Of 286 samples of Cebus apella, 46 (16.1% were positive for the serovars pomona, brasiliensis, mini, swajizak, grippotyphosa, sarmin, fluminense, autumnalis, hebdomadis, guaratuba, javanica and icterohaemorrhagiae. Of 82 samples of Alouatta caraya, 2 (2.4% were positive for the serovars mangus and fluminense. Of 31 samples of Nasua nasua, 4 (12.9% were positive for the serovars fluminense and javanica, and of 10 samples of Cerdocyon thous, 2 (20 % were positive for the serovars fluminense and brasiliensis. Seven samples of Dasyprocta sp, 6 of Tamandua tetradactyla and 5 of Euphractus sexcintus did not present reactivity.

  7. DIAGNÓSTICO PARTICIPATIVO DE LAS CONDICIONES SOCIOCULTURALES ASOCIADAS A LA CONSERVACIÓN DE LOS CHILES SILVESTRES (Capsicum spp. EN LA DEPRESIÓN CENTRAL DE CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

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    R. A. A. Bran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los recursos fitogenéticos son la base de la seguridad alimentaria de la población mundial. México constituye uno de los centros de origen y diversidad de varias especies vegetales, entre ellas diversos tipos de Capsicum. Sin embargo, el mal manejo de ellos está afectando su conservación, fundamentalmente por la acción depredadora del hombre, el uso excesivo de agroquímicos y la deforestación; todo esto explica el esfuerzo de las instituciones científicas y gubernamentales por su cuidado y conservación. El trabajo se realizó en cinco municipios de la región Frailesca de la Depresión Central de Chiapas, México. Se inició con la aplicación de una encuesta a 386 pobladores de la región rural. La información fue evaluada mediante el análisis de frecuencia. Los resultados demostraron que la población rural tiene conocimientos sobre la utilización de los chiles silvestres y semisilvestres como alimento y condimento, no así en los aspectos relacionados con su conservación, la cual es realizada por los campesinos en pequeños huertos.

  8. Evaluación in vivo del efecto cicatrizante de un gel a base de quitosano obtenido de exoesqueleto de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Heimy Franceline Martínez Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Healing effect of a chitosan-based gel obtained from the exoskeleton of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its evaluation in vivoTítulo corto: Evaluación del quitosano como cicatrizanteResumen:  En México alrededor del 62 % de la población sufre de accidentes causantes de alteraciones en la piel como quemaduras, heridas y diabetes principalmente. Para atender esta problemática, se propone el uso de un gel de quitosano, obtenido del exoesqueleto de camarón ya que presenta actividad antimicrobiana e inmunológica acelerando la cicatrización. Se evaluó el efecto sinérgico sobre la velocidad de cicatrización, aplicándolo en heridas de 1 cm2 infringidas a 48 ratones albinos, agrupados en cuatro tratamientos; Quitosano 0.15 y 0.30 %, producto cicatrizante (Ketanserina al 2 % y blanco (testigos sin tratamiento. El tiempo para la cicatrización sin tratamiento y el producto comercial fue 14 días, teniendo el control un efecto cicatrizante del 0 %, mientras que los geles de quitosano 0.15 y 0.30 % cicatrizaron en 7 días (P> 0.05 con efecto cicatrizante del 58 % para el quitosano 0.15 y 64 % para el quitosano 0.30.Palabras clave: piel, heridas, gel, quitosano, cicatrización.Abstract: Skin problems in Mexico have steadily increased (62 % by burns, wounds and diabetes mainly. To solve this problem, chitosan can be implemented; this polysaccharide has an antimicrobial and immunology activity against bacteria and fungi, accelerating healing. Therefore, synergistic effect of chitosan gel on the rate of healing, obtained from the exoskeleton of shrimp was evaluated. This was tested by applying it 1 cm2 over inflicted wounds of 48 albino mice, of 45 days old and between 23 to 26 g of weight, during 14 days, and grouped into four treatments: 1 0.15 % chitosan 2 0.30 % chitosan, 3 commercial product 2 % Ketanserin and 4 A batch of untreated controls. The time required for healing without treatment was 14 days, and with the utilization of 0

  9. Identification and characterization of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 from Litopenaeus vannamei involved in anti-bacterial host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Li, Haoyang; L, Kai; Qian, Zhe; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng

    2016-05-01

    LvTAK1, a member of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) families, has been identified from Litopenaeus vannamei in this study. The full length of LvTAK1 is 2670 bp, including a 2277 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a putative protein of 758 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of ∼83.4 kDa LvTAK1 expression was most abundant in muscles and was up-regulated in gills after LPS, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphhylococcu saureus, Poly (I:C) and WSSV challenge. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments indicated that LvTAK1 could activate the expression of several antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs). In addition, the dsRNA-mediated knockdown of LvTAK1 enhanced the susceptibility of shrimps to Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a kind of Gram-negative bacteria. These results suggested LvTAK1 played important roles in anti-bacterial infection. CoIP and subcellular localization assay demonstrated that LvTAK1 could interact with its binding protein LvTAB2, a key component of IMD pathway. Moreover, over-expression of LvTAK1 in Drosophila S2 cell could strongly induce the promoter activity of Diptericin (Dpt), a typical AMP which is used to read out of the activation of IMD pathway. These findings suggested that LvTAK1 could function as a component of IMD pathway. Interestingly, with the over-expression of LvTAK1 in S2 cell, the promoter activity of Metchnikowin (Mtk), a main target gene of Toll/Dif pathway, was up-regulated over 30 times, suggesting that LvTAK1 may also take part in signal transduction of the Toll pathway. In conclusion, we provided some evidences that the involvement of LvTAK1 in the regulation of both Toll and IMD pathways, as well as innate immune against bacterial infection in shrimp. PMID:27033469

  10. Influência de duas dietas na qualidade da água dos tanquesberçário, utilizados no cultivo do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

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    Adriano Prysthon da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivos experimentais com pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase de berçário, foram realizados em uma fazenda de camarão, objetivando avaliar a influência da utilização de duas dietas na qualidade físico-química das águas residuais. As dietas foram formuladas à base de ração comercial e náuplios de artêmia, denominadas MAC e MAA, respectivamente. Foram utilizadas pós-larvas no estágio (PL19, estocadas a 16PL/L em dois tanques-berçário de 60 m3. Ao final de 10 dias de cultivo, as concentrações dos compostosnitrogenados (amônia, nitrito e nitrato e fosfatados (fósforo total e ortofosfatos dos tanquesberçário foram menores na dieta MAA do que na MAC (pExperiments were carried out in a commercial marine shrimp farm in order to evaluate the use of two diets in Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae, during nursery phase, on physiochemical wastewater quality. Two feeding methods were adopted: Commercial Feeding Method (MAC and Artemia Feeding Method (MAA. The nursery tanks (60 m3 were provided with 19 days post-larvae (PL19 with a stocking density of 16PL/liter. After 10 days of culture, the concentrations of nitrogen (ammonia, nitrite and nitrate and phosphorus compounds (total phosphorus and orthophosphate in the nursery tank were smaller for MAC, rather than MAA treatment (p<0.05. Consequently, MAA treatment induced low levels of daily compounds increment,thus contributing to a significant reduction of the nutrients that caused water eutrophication.

  11. Genetics of two marine shrimp hatcheries of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 in Pernambuco, Brazil Genética de duas larviculturas de camarão branco do Pacífico Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 em Pernambuco, Brasil

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    Ana Patrícia Souza de Lima

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp industry has grown significantly over the past 10 years in Brazil, especially the farmed production of the exotic Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In 2004, this industry was marked by a productivity crisis, which stirred interest towards genetic improvement of shrimp stocks. Shrimp breeders importation was banned in Brazil by a govern Normative Instruction in 1997, as a sanitary precaution. Since then, broodstock replacement in hatcheries has been based on domestic stocks, raising concerns on the decline of genetic diversity and if the existing diversity would allow effective genetic improvement programs. In the present research, genetic parameters such as number of alleles, effective allele number, expected and observed heterozygosities, inbreeding coefficient, genetic differentiation index and deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium have estimated of two important commercial hatcheries in Northeast Brazil, genotyping 5 microsatellite loci. Effective allele number (3 to 10.5 and average observed and expected heterozygosities (0.480 and 0.680 were consistent with those reported for cultured and wild Penaeid populations. However, F IS positive values (0.381 for hatchery A and 0.249 for hatchery B reflected a significant heterozygous deficiency within hatcheries (PA carcinicultura cresceu significativamente no Brasil ao longo dos últimos 10 anos, especialmente a produção do camarão branco do Pacífico, o exótico Litopenaeus vannamei. Em 2004, a atividade foi marcada por uma crise na produção, que despertou interesse na implantação de programas de melhoramento dos estoques de camarão. A importação de crustáceos foi banida do Brasil por uma Instrução Normativa de 1997, como uma medida de precaução sanitária. Desde então, a reposição de matrizes nas larviculturas passou a ser conduzida com estoques domesticados, gerando preocupações sobre o possível declínio da diversidade genética e sobre a

  12. Acute toxicity of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and permethrin to juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.6974 Acute toxicity of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and permethrin to juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.6974

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    Silvano Garcia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the LC50 (96h of two pesticides: Sirius® 250 SC herbicide of the pyrazosulfuron-ethyl group, and Talcord® insecticide of the permethrin group, on juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp total hemocyte count (THC was also determined as an indication of physiological alterations caused by the pesticides. Juvenile shrimp (5.0 ± 0.5 g were exposed to the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 and 1000 µg L-1 Sirius® 250 SC; and 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 µg L-1 Talcord®. The Talcord® LC50 (96h was of 0.00933 µg L-1 or 9.33 ng L-1. There were no significant changes in the THC between control and test groups. No Sirius® 250 SC concentrations tested killed more than 50% of the shrimp; therefore, the herbicide was considered not toxic to the juveniles. However, the THC showed significant differences between the control and test groups, suggesting sublethal effects to L. vannamei juveniles. According to the results, the insecticide Talcord® is highly lethal for L. vannamei and the herbicide Sirius® 250 SC was not lethal in the concentrations tested but showed sublethal effects as lower THC. The results demonstrate the risks involved in farming L. vannamei shrimp near rice cultures where these pesticides are routinely used.The objective of this study was to determine the LC50 (96h of two pesticides: Sirius® 250 SC herbicide of the pyrazosulfuron-ethyl group, and Talcord® insecticide of the permethrin group, on juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp total hemocyte count (THC was also determined as an indication of physiological alterations caused by the pesticides. Juvenile shrimp (5.0 ± 0.5 g were exposed to the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 and 1000 µg L-1 Sirius® 250 SC; and 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 µg L-1 Talcord®. The Talcord® LC50 (96h was of 0.00933 µg L-1 or 9.33 ng L-1. There were no significant changes in the THC between control and test groups. No

  13. The impact of oxygen consumption by the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei according to body weight, temperature, salinity and stocking density on pond aeration: a simulation = Impacto do consumo de oxigênio do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei em relação ao peso corporal, temperatura, salinidade na aeração do viveiro: uma simulação

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    Luis Vinatea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A simulation was conducted to determinate the impact caused by thecombination of Litopenaeus vannamei respiratory rate (mg O2 shrimp-1 h-1, the behavior of SOTR (kg O2 h-1 of mechanical aerators as a function of salinity, as well as the oxygen consumption rate of the pond water and soil (mg O2 L-1 h-1 on the aeration of shrimp ponds (1, 10, 50 and 100 ha stocked with different densities (10, 40 and 120 shrimp m-2, salinities (1, 13, 25 and 37 ppt, temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C, and shrimp wet weight (5, 10, 15 and 20 g. Results showed that under lower salinity, with larger shrimp, and higher stocking density, higher will be the quantity of required 2-HP aerators to keep dissolved oxygen over 50% saturation. In addition, under low salinity, with 5 and 10 g shrimp, independent of stocking density, more aerators per hectare are required and electricity cost is higher at 20°C and salinity 1 ppt. Less aerators and lower electricity cost was observed at 30°C, salinities of 25 and 37 ppt, and shrimp of 15 and 20 g. Baseado em estudos de respiração de Litopenaeus vannamei (mg O2 camarão-1 h-1, comportamento do Standard Oxygen Transfer Rate (SOTR, kg O2 h-1 de aeradores mecânicos em função da salinidade, assim como as taxas de respiração da água e do solo (mg O2 L-1 h-1, uma simulação foi realizada a fim de determinar o impacto que estas três variáveis juntas têm sobre a aeração de viveiros (1, 10, 50 e 100 ha, estocados com diferentes densidades (10, 40 e 120 camarões m-2 em salinidades de 1, 13, 25 e 37 ppm, temperaturas de 20, 25 e 30°C e peso úmido dos camarões de 5, 10, 15 e 20 g. Os resultados mostraram que em salinidades mais baixas, com animais maiores e maiores densidades de estocagem, maior será a quantidade de aeradores de 2 cvnecessários para manter o oxigênio dissolvido acima de 50% da saturação. Igualmente, em baixas salinidades e com camarões de 5 e 10 g, independente da densidade de estocagem, mais aeradores

  14. Culture of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 with zero water exchange and no food addition: an eco-friendly approach Cultivo de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 sin recambio de agua y sin adición de alimento formulado: un sistema amigable con el ambiente

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    Juan Manuel Audelo-Naranjo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Juveniles (3.5 ± 0.3 g of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were grown during 40 days with no water exchanges, no food addition and four initial densities (25, 50, 75 and 100 g m-3, corresponding to between 8 and 32 shrimp m-2, to determine growth rates, which could be achieved using the periphyton growing on artificial substrates as the only food source. The experimental culture units were 12 polyethylene 1 m³ cylindrical tanks with 4.8 m² of total submerged surface (bottom and walls, provided with 7.2 m² of artificial substrate (Aquamats™. There were no significant differences in the ammonia and nitrite concentrations determined in the four treatments (0.17-0.19 and 0.10-0.11 mg L-1, respectively, which remained below the respective levels of concern for shrimp cultures. Mean survival was similar, and ranged from close to 91 to 97%, whereas there were significant differences in mean individual weight, which ranged from 11.9-10.6 g shrimp-1 for the two low initial densities (25 y 50 g m-3, to 8.3-7.7 g shrimp-1 for the other treatments. However, because of the high survival and of the higher initial density, the best biomass yield was with 100 g m-3. The final nitrogen contents of sediment and water were lower than the initial values, and between 36 and 60% of the difference was converted into shrimp biomass.Durante 40 días se cultivaron juveniles de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei con un peso individual de 3,5 ± 0,3 g y biomasas iniciales de 25, 50, 75 y 100 g m-3 (equivalente a 8-32 ind m-2, sin cambios de agua y adición de alimento, para determinar la tasa de crecimiento usando como única fuente de alimentación el perifiton desarrollado en sustratos artificiales. Se utilizaron estanques cilíndricos de polietileno de 1 m³ con tres réplicas por tratamiento, con una superficie de 4,8 m² (paredes y fondo y 7,1 m² de sustrato artificial (Aquamats™. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las concentraciones

  15. Phytoplanktonic composition of three cultivation systems used in Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931 marine shrimp farms = Composição fitoplanctônica em três sistemas de cultivo do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931

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    Michelle Pereira Melo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the different compositions of phytoplankton in three cultivation systems of marine shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931, denominated as organic, intensive and semi intensive. The samples were done fortnightly, when phytoplankton was collected by a net for phytoplankton, 65 ƒÊm mesh, being then filtrated in a total volume of water of 100 L, and preserved in formaldehyde solution at 4% and identified according to the methodology of Cordeiro et al. (1997. The results show that the densities of Diatoms were of 16.65, 10.47 and 7.57 cel. 103 mL-1 for the organic, intensive and semi intensive cultivations, respectively. As for cyanobacteria, the average figures were 42.06 cel. 103 mL-1 forsemi intensive 17.27 cel. 103 mL-1, in the intensive cultivation and 6.11 cel. 103 mL-1 for the organic cultivation system. The dinoflagellates had the highest cellular density in the phytoplankton community analyzed with 61.9 cel. 103 mL-1 in the intensive cultivation, 0.33 and 0.03 cel. 103 mL-1 for both semi intensive and organic cultivation systems respectively. Euglenas presented the results of 4.98 and 14.86 cel. 103 mL-1 only for semi intensive and intensive cultivations. It was then concluded that all cultivations presented average rates below recommended for such studied systems.Conduziu-se esse trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar as diferentes composicoes fitoplanctonicas em tres sistemas de cultivo para o camarao marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931, denominados de organico, intensivo e semiintensivo. As amostragens foram realizadas quinzenalmente, onde o fitoplancton foi coletado atraves de uma rede de plancton, com malha de 65 ƒÊm, sendo filtrado um volume de agua total de 100 litros, que foram preservadas em solucao de formol a 4% e identificadas segundo a metodologia de Cordeiro et al. (1997. Os resultados mostram que as densidades de diatomaceas foram de 16,65; 10,47 e 7,57 cel. 103 mL-1, respectivamente

  16. 凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei) F0-ATP合酶b链全长cDNA的克隆及组织分布%cDNA Cloning and Study on Tissue Distribution of F0-ATP Synthase b-chain ofLitopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓东; 刘庆慧; 关广阔; 李倩; 李晨; 黄倢

    2015-01-01

    采用RACE方法克隆得到了凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)的F0-ATP合酶b链基因的全长cDNA序列.生物信息学分析显示,该基因开放阅读框744 bp,编码248个氨基酸,分子量为28.2 kDa.Blast比对结果显示,克隆得到的cDNA序列所编码的氨基酸序列与海虱(Caligus clemensi) F0-ATP合酶β亚基的同源性为50%,与黑腹果蝇(Drosophila melanogaster) F0-ATP合酶β亚基的同源性为60%.免疫组化实验及流式细胞分析表明,F0-ATP合酶b链广泛分布于对虾鳃组织中,并且在对虾血细胞表面有分布.%White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major fatal pathogen to shrimp. It is known that the b-chain of F0-ATP synthase plays a key role in the synthesis of ATP in all living organisms. Evidence from our previous research indicated that the b-chain of F0-ATP synthase ofLitopenaeus vannamei was involved in WSSV infection. However the full-length sequence of the b-chain of F0-ATP synthase in L. vannamei has not been available yet. In this study we cloned the full cDNA using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to predict the amino acid sequence and the secondary and space structure of the b-chain of F0-ATP synthase. We also mapped the homology and phylogenic tree using ClustalX 1.83 and MEGA 4.02. Immuno-histochemical and flow cytometry analysis were carried out to detect the tissue distribution of the b-chain of F0-ATP synthase in L. vannamei. The results showed that the 1129 bp full length cDNA was successfully cloned. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the full length cDNA had an open reading frame (ORF) of 744 bp that encoded 248 amino acids, and that the predicted molecular weight of the mature peptide was 28.2 kDa. The homology analysis of the b-chain of F0-ATP synthase between species demonstrated that there was a higher similarity betweenL. vannamei andCaligus clemensi (50%), and Drosophila melanogaster

  17. Aspectos do ciclo silvestre do Trypanosoma cruzi em regiões de cerrado (Município de Formosa, Estado de Goiás Aspects of the sylvatic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in the region of cerrado (Formosa municipality, State of Goias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Mello

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estão apresentados resultados de estudos sobre roedores, marsupiais e triatomíneos do norte do municipio de Formosa,Estado de Goiás, e sua importância no ciclo silvestre do T.cruzi. A região estudada esta localizada do ponto de vista geográfico, na "Provincia do Cerrado". Foram coletados 963 roedores, 11 marsupiais e 766 triatomíneos silvestres. O índice de infecção pelo T. cruzi entre os roedores foi de 0,1% e entre os marsupiais 36,3%, enquanto todos os triatomíneos estavam negativos. Face aos aspectos ecológicos estudados, discute-se o papel desempenhado por roedores e marsupiais na manutenção e circulação do T. cruzi em ambiente silvestre. Alguns aspectos epidemiológicos no ambiente doméstico foram também abordados.Studies were carried out on the role of rodents, marsupials and triatoma bugs in the wild cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi. The area studied, located in the county of formosa, State of Goiás, Brasil, belongs to the "Província do Cerrado". The following animals were collected and examined: 963 rodents, 11 marsupials and 766 wild triatomid bugs. The infection rates for T. cruzi were as follow: 36.3% for the marsupials, 0.1% for the rodents, while all the triatomids were negative. The role of the collected mammals in the maintenance and circulation of T. cruzi in the wild environment is discussed. In addition, some epidemiological aspects of the domestic environment were also studied.

  18. Evaluación de la Presencia de las Enfermedades de Newcastle y Gumboro en Aves Silvestres en Explotaciones Avícolas de Fómeque‚ Cundinamarca -resumen-

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    Laura V Vargas-Castillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia‚ se ha reportado la circulación de cepas de enfermedades virales en aves de corral‚ lo cual ha generado preocupación en la industria avícola‚ permitiendo un espacio para la evaluación de las estrategias de prevención y control‚ y de vigilancia epidemiológica en zonas de alta concentración de aves de corral y a la posible transmisión de dichas enfermedades entre las especies. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la circulación de los virus de la enfermedad de Newcastle (Paramyxoviridae‚ Avulavirus y enfermedad de Gumboro (Birnaviridae‚ Birnavirus mediante técnicas serológicas (ELISA y moleculares (RT-PCR‚ identificar las aves silvestres en la zona y establecer la percepción del contacto de éstas con las aves de corral. La presencia de los animales se estableció dentro y adyacente a nueve granjas del municipio de Fómeque‚ Cundinamarca‚ entre 2012 y 2013‚ mediante observación‚ registro fotográfico y captura de individuos; además‚ se llevó a cabo la aplicación de una encuesta con ilustraciones a trabajadores y propietarios identificando el contacto con las aves de corral e instalaciones‚ en el lugar donde fueron observadas. Se identificaron 6 órdenes‚ 17 familias‚ 30 géneros‚ 32 especies y 417 individuos‚ de los cuales en su captura se obtuvieron tres órdenes‚ Passeriformes con el mayor número‚ seguido por Columbiformes y en menor número del orden Apodiformes con tres especies‚ siendo muestreados un total de 48 aves en estrecho contacto con las aves de corral; a su vez‚ los datos suministrados por los trabajadores y propietarios afirmaron la presencia en su mayoría de aves de pequeño a mediano tamaño cerca a la bodegas de almacenamiento‚ sobre las tejas o en árboles frutales‚ y aves de mayor tamaño sobrevolando las granjas. Todas las muestras fueron negativas para la enfermedad de Newcastle (NDV y la enfermedad de Gumboro (IBDV mediante la técnica RT

  19. Diversidade de helmintos intestinais em mamíferos silvestres e domésticos na Caatinga do Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Sudeste do Piauí, Brasil Diversity of wild and domestic mammal's intestinal helminths from the Caatinga of the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Southeast of Piauí, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão Martha Lima; Marcia Chame; José Luis Passos Cordeiro; Sérgio Augusto de Miranda Chaves

    2009-01-01

    Estudos sobre biodiversidade permitem avaliações ecossistêmicas e monitoramentos de impactos e mudanças ambientais. A diversidade parasitária pode refletir o processo coevolutivo entre parasitos e hospedeiros, e mudanças ambientais que permitem a perda, ganho ou a manutenção das espécies nesse processo. O presente trabalho utilizou espécies/morfotipos de ovos de helmintos encontrados em fezes de sete mamíferos silvestres (os grupos Dasypodidae e grandes felinos, e as espécies: Tamandua tetrad...

  20. RESCATE Y MANEJO DE FAUNA SILVESTRE EX SITU EN COLOMBIA: ESTUDIO DE CASO DE UN JAGUAR (PANTHERA ONCA)EN LA ORINOQUÍA COLOMBIANA / MANAGEMENT AND RESCUE OF WILDLIFE EX SITU IN COLOMBIA: A STUDY CASE OF A JAGUAR (PANTHERA ONCA) IN THE COLOMBIAN ORINOQUIA

    OpenAIRE

    Zarrate-Charry, Diego; Laverde Trujillo, Laura M.; Balaguera-Reina, Sergio A.; González-Maya, Jose F.; Trujillo, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    La caza y comercialización de fauna silvestre en Colombia es un problema de amplias proporciones, debido principalmente a la magnitud en la cual se presenta dentro del territorio nacional, siendo catalogada como el tercer negocio de carácter ilegal más rentable del país después del narcotráfi co y la venta de armas. Esta situación hace que los pobladores de zonas rurales y urbanas utilicen este tipo de fauna como método de subsistencia, llevando las poblaciones naturales a situaciones preo...

  1. Comparação de métodos de laboratório e de campo para a estimativa da área foliar em fruteiras silvestres Comparison of laboratory and field methods for the estimation of leaf area of wild fruit species

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Mielke; Hoffmann, A.; L. Endres; J.C. Fachinello

    1995-01-01

    Foi realizado um trabalho com o objetivo de estudar diferentes métodos de laboratório e de campo para a estimativa da área foliar de fruteiras silvestres, pertencentes à família Myrtaceae, a saber: uvalheira (Eugenia uvalha Camb.), aracazeiro (Psidium cattleyanum Sabine), goiabeira serrana (Feijoa sellowiana Berg.) e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora DC). Entre os métodos de laboratório, também utilizados como "padrão", bons resultados foram obtidos utilizando-se um medidor automático de área fol...

  2. Contenido de alimento y metabolismo ceco-cólico en el tracto digestivo de poblaciones silvestres de iguana negra (Ctenosaura pectinata) en Morelos, México Cecum-colic content of food and metabolism in the digestive tract of wild population black lizard (Ctenosaura pectinata) in Morelos, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    L Vélez-Hernández; MA Cobos-Peralta; JL Arcos-García

    2012-01-01

    Se colectaron cinco tractos digestivos de iguana negra (Ctenosaura pectinata) en estado silvestre en el estado de Morelos, México, para conocer la composición botánica de la dieta y el metabolismo ceco-cólico. Se observaron frotis realizados del contenido ceco-cólico para registrar la presencia de protozoarios, bacterias y parásitos intestinales existentes. Se obtuvo la media y desviación estándar de las características evaluadas. En el contenido ceco-cólico se identificaron las especies vege...

  3. Preferencias en la anidación de tortugas carey (Eretmochelys imbricata y baulas (Dermochelys coriacea en el Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca Manzanillo, Limón, Costa Rica

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    Lilliana Piedra-Castro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El Caribe costarricense es importante como sitio de alimentación, copulación, anidación y desove de las tortugas marinas, por lo que el presente trabajo pretendió actualizar el patrón de anidación en las tortugas marinas Dermochelys coriacea y Eretmochelys imbricata en el sector Gandoca, del Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca Manzanillo, Limón, Costa Rica, para proponer medidas de manejo. Se realizaron recorridos nocturnos entre las 8:00 p. m. y 4:00 a. m., la playa se dividió en cinco sectores, en estos se realizaron observaciones directas y de rastros, de las tortugas que elaboraron el nido, entre febrero y agosto del 2011 y 2012. Se registraron tres especies de tortugas marinas, Dermochelys coriacea, Eretmochelys imbricata y Chelonia mydas. La anidación de tortugas baula tuvo su punto máximo entre marzo y julio; por su parte, las carey, entre mayo y junio (2011, y junio hasta agosto en el 2012. Se observó preferencia en la posición de la playa utilizada para construir sus nidos; la baula utiliza principalmente la parte media, mientras que la carey utilizó mayormente la parte baja para anidar (t = 17.2525. Se observó que la baula utilizó frecuentemente el sector C; sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias en el uso de los sectores. Se concluye que ambas especies tienen preferencias en la selección de la zona de playa en que anidan; la carey en la parte baja cerca de la línea de costa y la baula en la parte media. Además, las tortugas baula utilizan indistintamente los diferentes sectores de la playa estudiada.

  4. Conducta alimenticia, supervivencia y crecimiento de juveniles silvestres de Graus nigra Philippi, 1887 en cautiverio (Perciformes: Kyphosidae Feeding behavior, survival, and growth of wild Graus nigra Philippi, 1887 juveniles in captivity (Perciformes: Kyphosidae

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    Héctor Flores

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron juveniles silvestres de Graus nigra, que fueron aclimatados durante 30 días en estanques con flujo de agua abierto y a temperatura ambiente, siendo alimentados con alimento formulado. Los peces fueron separados en seis grupos que se mantuvieron en experimentación por 196 días. La supervivencia promedio fue de 80%. El crecimiento en longitud total mostró un incremento promedio del 93,3% para los juveniles grandes (grupos 4, 5 y 6 y 125% para los pequeños (grupos 1, 2 y 3. El crecimiento en peso total mostró un incremento promedio de 434% para los peces grandes (grupos 4, 5 y 6 y de 707% para los pequeños (grupos 1, 2 y 3. Se concluyó que G. nigra toleró el cautiverio y el manejo, con una supervivencia relativamente alta, lo que hace de ella una especie atractiva para la acuicultura chilena.Wild juveniles of Graus nigra were collected and acclimated for 30 days in ponds with open-water flow and ambient temperature; the specimens were given a formulated feed. Fish individuals were separated into six groups that were studied for 196 days. The average survival was 80%. The total length increased an average of 93.3% for large individuals (groups 4, 5, 6 and 125% for small ones (groups 1, 2, 3. The total weight showed an average increase of 434% for large fishes (groups 4, 5, 6 and 707% for small ones (groups 1, 2, 3. Graus nigra was found to tolerate captivity and handling, with a relatively high survival rate, making it an attractive species for aquaculture in Chile.

  5. Diseño y Evaluación de Elementos de Enriquecimiento Ambiental para el titi gris (Saguinus leucopus en proceso de Rehabilitación, en el Centro de Rehabilitacion de Fauna Silvestre del Oriente de Caldas (CRFSOC

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    Esperanza Sepúlveda-Rojas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El Enriquecimiento Ambiental se realiza en todo proceso de rehabilitación con el fin de adaptar al animal a un medio similar al que encontrará en el momento de la liberación y así mismo reducir el estrés del cautiverio y ofrecer una mejor calidad de vida, para este fin se diseñó y evaluó la efectividad de elementos de enriquecimiento ambiental para una pareja de titi gris (Saguinus leucopus en el Centro de Rehabilitación de Fauna Silvestre del Oriente de Caldas. Primero se realizo la observación preliminar de los individuos, luego se utilizaron los métodos de animal focal con registro continuo para el catalogo comportamental previo al enriquecimiento y animal focal con registro instantáneo para la evaluación de los enriquecedores ambientales. En comparación con el catalogo previo se registraron 14 nuevos comportamientos para el macho, 4 asociados, 10 no asociados y 9 nuevos comportamientos para la hembra , 4 asociados y 5 no asociados, presentando mayores frecuencias las categorías de alimentación y exploración en ambos casos. Los enriquecedores más usados fueron Vara con frutos en vaina y Caja de forrajeo. Se calcularon los índices de Shannon semanales para cada individuo registrándose incremento gradual para ambos de la semana 1 a la 4, lo cual demostró aumento en la diversidad de comportamientos, siendo estos estimulados por los enriquecedores ambientales que se implementaron. La implementación de los enriquecedores se considera exitosa ya que los objetivos se cumplieron, por lo cual concluimos que con este enriquecimiento ambiental se estimulan los comportamientos naturales necesarios para llevar a cabo una rehabilitación exitosa.

  6. Evaluación y valorización económica de la fauna silvestre en el río Algodón, Amazonía peruana

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    Rolando Aquino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo informa sobre los hábitats, abundancia cuantitativa y valorización económica de la fauna silvestre que habitan en la cuenca del río Algodón. El estudio está basado en la diferenciación de hábitats, entrevistas a cazadores y censos por transecto. En 7 de los 10 tipos de hábitats diferenciados fueron realizados censos, donde ocurrieron en total 327 avistamientos directos de mamíferos, aves y reptiles. Entre los mamíferos, el pecarí labiado (Tayassu pecari Link y el choro (Lagothrix lagotricha Humboldt fueron los más abundantes con 9,8 individuos/km2, equivalente a 323,4 kg/km2 de biomasa, y 18,4 individuos/km2 equivalente a 202,4 kg/km2 de biomasa, respectivamente. En aves, la mayor densidad correspondió a la pucacunga (Penelope jacquacu Spix con 5,4 individuos/km2, equivalente a 6,9 kg/km2 de biomasa. Sin considerar las especies nocturnas y algunas diurnas, en el área de estudio se estiman alrededor de 31891 animales de caza entre mamíferos y aves, cuyo valor económico fue estimado en US$ 349374. De ellos, 3479 individuos tienen el valor de comercial y pertenecen a cuatro especies de ungulados y uno de aves, el resto tienen el valor de subsistencia.

  7. 凡纳滨对虾幼虾的缬氨酸需要量%Valine Requirement of Juvenile Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vanname

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周歧存; 王用黎; 黄文文; 霍雅文; 王猛强

    2015-01-01

    通过8周的饲养试验评估饲料中缬氨酸含量对凡纳滨对虾( Litopenaeus vannamei)幼虾生长性能、常规营养组成、氨基酸代谢酶活性的影响,以确定凡纳滨对虾幼虾的缬氨酸需要量。以鱼粉、豆粕作为主要蛋白质源配制6种等氮等能(粗蛋白质含量约为40.0%,粗脂肪含量约为7.5%)的试验饲料,其实测缬氨酸含量(干物质基础)分别为1.56%、1.64%、1.72%、1.82%、1.90%、1.96%。选择体重在0.3 g左右的凡纳滨对虾幼虾540尾,随机分为6组,每组(饲料)3个重复,每个重复30尾。结果表明:增重率、特定生长率、蛋白质沉积率和饲料效率均随着饲料中缬氨酸含量的增加先升高后降低,并均在缬氨酸含量为1.82%时达到最大。全虾中粗蛋白质含量在缬氨酸含量为1.72%时达到最高,进一步提高饲料中缬氨酸含量则有不同程度降低;肌肉中粗蛋白质含量在缬氨酸含量为1.96%时达到最高,显著高于缬氨酸含量为1.56%和1.72%时( P0.05)。血清和肝胰脏中最高丙氨酸转氨酶活力均出现在缬氨酸含量最高组(缬氨酸含量为1.96%的组),而肌肉中最高丙氨酸转氨酶活力出现在缬氨酸含量为1.90%的组,且肝胰腺中碱性磷酸酶的活力也在缬氨酸含量为1.90%时达到最高;饲料中缬氨酸含量对肝胰腺中天冬氨酸转氨酶活力未产生显著影响( P>0.05)。以增重率为判定指标,通过折线模型得到凡纳滨对虾幼虾的缬氨酸需要量为占饲料干物质的1.79%(占饲料蛋白质的4.48%),考虑到晶体氨基酸在海水中的溶失,以缬氨酸在海水中浸泡30 min内的溶失率为16.81%计,核定凡纳滨对虾幼虾的缬氨酸需要量为占饲料干物质的1.53%(占饲料蛋白质的3.83%)。%An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary valine content on growth per-formance, common nutrient composition and amino acid metabolic enzyme activities of

  8. 超高压结合酶法消减南美白对虾虾肉中的过敏原%Allergen Elimination from Litopenaeus vannamei Meat by Ultra-high Pressure Treatment Coupled with Papain Hydrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丹丹; 胡志和; 薛璐; 张博洋

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of ultra-high pressure treatment and papain hydrolysis on allergen elimination from the meat of Litopenaeus vannamei. Fresh Litopenaeus vannamei was homogenized after removing the head, tail, shell, and catgut. Three methods, ultra-high pressure treatment, ultra-high pressure treatment followed by papain hydrolysis and simultaneous ultra-high pressure treatment and papain hydrolysis were used to eliminate allergens from the Litopenaeus vannamei homogenate. Indirect ELISA was used to evaluate the results of allergen elimination and the optimal conditions for allergen elimination were explored. The results showed that the optimal conditions for allergen elimination by ultrahigh pressure treatment were 200 MPa, 35 min and 40 ℃. Under these conditions, the optical density at 492 nm (OD492m) after the reaction between antibody and treated Litopenaeus vannamei homogenate was 0.1986. The optimal conditions for ultra-high pressure treatment followed by papain hydrolysis were substrate concentration of 10 g/mL, hydrolysis temperature of 60℃ and enzyme-to-substrate ratio of 1:200, resulting in an OD492nm of 0.0487. The optimal conditions for simultaneous ultra-high pressure treatment in the presence of papain were 300 MPa, 35 min and 40 ℃, which revealed an OD492nm of 0.0516. Based on the above studies, ultra-high pressure treatment is effective for allergen elimination from Litopenaeus vannamei, but inferior to ultra-high pressure treatment followed by papain hydrolysis and ultra-high pressure treatment in the presence of papain.%以虾肉为原料,研究超高压对酶法消减南美白对虾虾肉过敏原的强化作用。将南美白对虾去头、去尾、去壳、去肠线后用匀浆机匀浆,制成虾肉酱,分别采用超高压法、超高压处理后再用木瓜蛋白酶水解、超高压条件下直接酶解的方法消减其过敏原,用间接酶联免疫吸附法检测过敏原消减

  9. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF STRAINS OF Salmonella spp IN RED-FOOT-TORTOISES FROM WILDLIFE TRADE ISOLAMENTO E IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE CEPAS DE Salmonella spp DE JABUTIS-PIRANGA ORIUNDOS DO TRÁFICO DE ANIMAIS SILVESTRES

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    Oberdan Coutinho Nunes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Salmonella sp. in red-foot tortoise (Chelonoides carbonaria because of the fact this particular reptile shows high frequency of illegal commerce, and also because this situation represents a serious risk for health. We collected feces of 89 turtles from the wildlife center “Chico Mendes” - IBAMA/SUPES-BA. Characteristic colonies of Salmonella sp. were isolated in 12.36% of the tortoises (11/89. Nine colonies were identificated at the Adolfo Lutz Institute, distributed into six different sorotypes: S. enterica salamae 47:b:-; S. enterica houtenae 21:g,z51; S. Panama; S. Poona; S. Javiana e S. Michigan. All of them, according to literature, without previous description of infection in C. carbonaria whatsoever. However, there are previous cases of infections and antibiotics resistance involving these sorotypes, confirming the risk represented by wildlife trade to public health concerning the children’s exposition to the source of infection as well as the dissemination of resistant sorotypes.

    KEY WORDS: Epidemiology, reptiles, zoonosis.

    Este trabalho objetivou investigar a ocorrência de Salmonella sp. em jabutis-piranga (Chelonoides carbonaria, dada sua elevada frequência no comércio ilegal e risco que representa para a saúde. Coletaram-se fezes de 89 jabutis mantidos no Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres Chico Mendes – IBAMA/SUPES-BA. Isolaram-se colônias características de Salmonella sp. em 12,36% dos jabutis (11/89. Destas, nove foram identificadas no Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, distribuindo-se em seis diferentes sorovares: S. enterica salamae 47:b:-; S. enterica houtenae 21:g,z51; S. Panama; S. Poona; S. Javiana e S. Michigan, todas, segundo a literatura consultada, sem prévia descrição para C. carbonária. No entanto, estão presentes em relatos de infecções e em estudos sobre resistência a antibióticos, confirmando o risco representado pelo tráfico de animais para a sa

  10. Animales silvestres como reservorios de leptospirosis en Chile: Una revisión de los estudios efectuados en el país Wild animals as reservoirs of leptospirosis in Chile.: Revision of studies in the country

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    J. ZAMORA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se entrega información sobre ratas y ratones capturados en laprovincia de Valdivia que actúan como reservorios de serovares deLeptospirainterrogans y Leptospira borgpeterseni, así como tambiénse dan a conocer resultados de otras especies animales capturados en lazona central del país. Se analizan los porcentajes de positividaddetectados por especie animal y el consecuente riesgo que significan estosreservorios animales para los animales domésticos y para el hombre. Se completa la información sobre los huéspedes de mantenimientode esta espiroquetosis en animales de vida libre, de acuerdo a una revisiónde la literatura especializada del exterior sobre el tema. Todo ello, enun intento de entregar documentación que alerte sobre los eventualesportadores existentes en nuestro medio y, por ende, ser una posible fuentede infección de enfermedades transmisibles a la especie humana ya diferentes especies de animales domésticos, Por último, se concluye que es del todo conveniente y necesarioque las autoridades correspondientes se preocupen de incentivar y fomentarestudios no sólo sobre leptospirosis, sino que también deotras enfermedades infecciosas y del estado sanitario en general de lafauna silvestre del país, financiando y licitando proyectos de investigación.La información que se logre de los trabajos que se realicen seráde considerable valor en la conservación del equilibrio ecológico,en medicina veterinaria preventiva y en salud públicaInformation is given regarding rats and mice captured in the provinceof Valdivia as reservoirs of serovars of Leptospira interrogansand Leptospira borgpeterseni; results obtained from other wild animalscaptured in the central area of the country are also included. The percentagesof positiveness detected by animal species as well as the consequent riskof these reservoirs for domestic animals and humans are analysed. Additional information on the subject in relation to reservoirs of leptospirasin

  11. Capítulo V: evaluación de especies silvestres de Lycopersicon sp. como fuente de resistencia al insecto plaga Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick y su intento de transferencia a Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

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    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En condiciones de campo, se evaluaron 32 introducciones silvestres de Lycopersicon sp. y una de la especie cultivada, L. esculentum Mill, con el fin de determinar la resistencia a Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick. Se utilizó el diseño experimental bloques completos al azar con 4 repeticiones. Como bordes se colocaron tres variedades comerciales susceptibles al insecto (Chonto "Mata Verde", Napoli Y Chonto "Santa Cruz Kada" con el fin de tener una fuente de infestación natural y permanente del cogollero dentro del experimento. Se evaluaron los caracteres número de cogollos afectados, número de hojas dañadas, número de ampollas e intensidad de daño. Todas las introducciones de L. hirsutum y L. peruvianum fueron altamente resistentes. Las introducciones 1406 y 1407 de L. pimpinellifolium también fueron altamente resistentes. La introducción 1759 de L. esculentum y L. esculentum var. ceraciforme fueron muy susceptibles. Las introducciones de L. pimpinellifolium y L. hirsutum no tuvieron dificultad para hibridarse con L. esculentum var. Tropic. El cruzamiento L. esculentum x L. peruvianum no presentó semilla híbrida y se requirió efectuar cultivo de embriones inmaduros, in vitro, utilizando el medio Murashige & Skoog pero sin lograrse resultados positivos.

    Thirty two (32 wild accessions of Lycopersicon sp. and one (1 cultivated accession of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill were evaluated to determinate the resistance to Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick. The experiment was conducted with a complete random design and four repetitions. Three (3 susceptibles cultivated accessions of L. esculentum (Chonto "Mata Verde", Napoli and Chonto "Santa Cruz Kada" were sowed to have natural infestation of S. absoluta. Damage intensity, number of buds damaged, number of leaves demaged and number of "blister" in the leaves were evaluated, All evaluated accessions of L. peruvianum showed heigh resistence. 1406 and 1407 accessions of L. pimpinellifolium

  12. Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil = Infecção experimental em larvas e juvenis de Litopaenaeus vannamei cultivados no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Celso Carlos Buglione

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and theeffects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrioalginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p Este estudo avaliou as características patogênicas de cepas de bactérias isoladas de Litopenaeus vannamei durante surto de mortalidade no Laboratório de Camarões Marinhos, UFSC, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Seu potencial de virulência em larvas e juvenis de camarão marinho e os efeitos sobre a contagem total de hemócito, atividade de fenoloxidase e título aglutinante do soro foramavaliados após infecção experimental. As cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de larvas e de camarões adultos e identificadas bioquimicamente pelo sistema API20E como: duas cepas de Vibrio alginolyticus, três de Aeromonas salmonicida e uma de Pasteurella sp. e P. multocida. Todas as cepas isoladas provocaram mortalidade em L. vannamei, e uma de V. alginolyticus resultou em mortalidade de 97,3 e 88,7% para larvas e juvenis de camarões, respectivamente. O sistema imunológico dos camarões juvenis sofreu influência da infecção experimental

  13. Identificación, establecimiento in vitro y análisis fitoquímico preliminar de especies silvestres de ñame (Dioscorea spp. empleadas con fines medicinales

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    Víctor Andrés Ramos Duarte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Identification, in vitro establishment and preliminary phytochemical analysis of wild yam (Dioscorea spp. used for medicinal purposesTítulo corto: Identificación, establecimiento in vitro y análisis fitoquímico preliminar de especies silvestres de ñameResumen:  Tubérculos del género Dioscorea comercializados con fines medicinales, fueron recolectados con el propósito de lograr su establecimiento a condiciones in vitro. Previamente se lograron identificar taxonómicamente las especies y por medio de análisis fitoquímicos demostrar su potencial farmacéutico. El material recolectado fue identificado como Dioscorea coriacea, D. lehmannii, D. meridensis, D. polygonoides y una especie comestible D. trifida. Tubérculos recolectados de centros de acopio y traídos de campo fueron lavados, desinfectados, asperjados con Ácido Giberélico (AG3 y sembrados en sustrato BM-2®, en invernadero a 18°C día y 10°C noche. Los tubérculos completos o por secciones fueron almacenados en bolsas herméticas a temperatura ambiente. Posteriormente se desinfectó material vegetal de las especies D. coriacea, D. lehmannii, D. meridensis y D polygonoides, seleccionando explantes de brotes sanos (D. coriacea / laboratorio para su establecimiento. Se evaluaron tres medios de cultivo para establecimiento, el que presentó los mejores resultados fue Medio Murashige & Skoog (1962 suplementado con BAP 1 mL/L, AG3 1 mL/L y Putrescina 2 mL/L. Para la extracción y análisis de metabolitos secundarios se utilizaron tubérculos de D. coriacea, D. lehmannii y D. polygonoides, empleando como solvente de extracción metanol. Se  encontró mayor concentración de extracto vegetal en D. coriacea (54%, y mediante cromatografía en capa delgada (CCD, se confirmó la presencia de saponinas, que resultó mayor en comparación con D. polygonoides especie reconocida por su alto contenido de saponinas. Estos resultados permitirán realizar análisis m

  14. Teste de ELISA indireto para diagnóstico sorológico de leishmaniose visceral em canídeos silvestres Indirect ELISA for the serological diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in wild canids

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    Paulo R.B. Ferreira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Na América do Sul, alguns canídeos silvestres são considerados reservatórios naturais da Leishmania chagasi. A resposta imunológica desses animais à Leishmania é pouco conhecida, havendo a necessidade de métodos diagnósticos adequados para esse fim. No presente estudo, é descrita a padronização do ensaio imunoenzimático indireto (ELISA para o diagnóstico sorológico de leishmaniose visceral em canídeos silvestres brasileiros. Foram estudadas amostras de soro e plasma de 12 canídeos cativos: sete lobos-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus, três raposinhas (Lycalopex vetulus e dois cachorros-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous. As amostras de um C. brachyurus e uma L. vetulus, cativos em área endêmica para LV, que apresentavam doença clínica e positividade em testes de Imunofluorescência Indireta e Reação em Cadeia de Polimerase, foram utilizadas como controles positivos. Foram comparados os conjugados anti-IgG de cão e proteína A, ambos ligados a peroxidase, cujos testes detectaram quatro (04/12 e três (03/12 C. brachyurus soropositivos para anticorpos anti-Leishmania sp., respectivamente. As médias das densidades ópticas (DOs das amostras negativas foram nitidamente mais baixas do que as médias das DOs dos positivos tanto no ELISA com anti-IgG de cão (4,8 vezes como com proteína A (15,5 vezes. Os soros de três C. brachyurus positivos no ELISA indireto foram avaliados por Western blotting e identificaram 22 bandas, sendo imunodominantes as de peso molecular de 19, 22, 24, 45 e 66 kDa. Os testes ELISA com a proteína A e o conjugado anti-IgG de cão apresentaram respectivamente concordância excelente (Kappa = 1; pIn South America, some wild canids are considered natural reservoirs of Leishmania chagasi. The immunological response of wild canids to Leishmania is not well understood, and the development of diagnostic methods is necessary for such purpose. In the present study, the standardization of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent

  15. The impact of oxygen consumption by the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei according to body weight, temperature, salinity and stocking density on pond aeration: a simulation - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.7018 The impact of oxygen consumption by the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei according to body weight, temperature, salinity and stocking density on pond aeration: a simulation - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.7018

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    Rafael Arantes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A simulation was conducted to determinate the impact caused by the combination of Litopenaeus vannamei respiratory rate (mg O2 shrimp-1 h-1, the behavior of SOTR (kg O2 h-1 of mechanical aerators as a function of salinity, as well as the oxygen consumption rate of the pond water and soil (mg O2 L-1 h-1 on the aeration of shrimp ponds (1, 10, 50 and 100 ha stocked with different densities (10, 40 and 120 shrimp m-2, salinities (1, 13, 25 and 37 ppt, temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C, and shrimp wet weight (5, 10, 15 and 20 g. Results showed that under lower salinity, with larger shrimp, and higher stocking density, higher will be the quantity of required 2-HP aerators to keep dissolved oxygen over 50% saturation. In addition, under low salinity, with 5 and 10 g shrimp, independent of stocking density, more aerators per hectare are required and electricity cost is higher at 20°C and salinity 1 ppt. Less aerators and lower electricity cost was observed at 30°C, salinities of 25 and 37 ppt, and shrimp of 15 and 20 g.A simulation was conducted to determinate the impact caused by the combination of Litopenaeus vannamei respiratory rate (mg O2 shrimp-1 h-1, the behavior of SOTR (kg O2 h-1 of mechanical aerators as a function of salinity, as well as the oxygen consumption rate of the pond water and soil (mg O2 L-1 h-1 on the aeration of shrimp ponds (1, 10, 50 and 100 ha stocked with different densities (10, 40 and 120 shrimp m-2, salinities (1, 13, 25 and 37 ppt, temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C, and shrimp wet weight (5, 10, 15 and 20 g. Results showed that under lower salinity, with larger shrimp, and higher stocking density, higher will be the quantity of required 2-HP aerators to keep dissolved oxygen over 50% saturation. In addition, under low salinity, with 5 and 10 g shrimp, independent of stocking density, more aerators per hectare are required and electricity cost is higher at 20°C and salinity 1 ppt. Less aerators and lower electricity cost was

  16. Efeito da adição do melaço na relação carbono/nitrogênio no cultivo de camarão Litopenaeus vannamei na fase berçário - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.4496 Effect of molasses addition on carbon/nitrogen ratio in the nursery phase of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp culture - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.4496

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    Diogo Bessa Neves Spanghero

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se o efeito da adição do melaço nas relações carbono:nitrogênio (C:N sobre o desempenho zootécnico do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase berçário, quando cultivado sem renovação de água. As relações do C:N foram avaliadas nas proporções de 25:1 (25M, 15:1 (15M e o controle (0M, sem aplicação de carbono, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Pós-larvas (PL com peso inicial de 2,5 ± 0,5 mg, foram estocadas em 12 tanques (800 L volume útil, em densidades de 6,25 PL L-1, durante 42 dias de cultivo. Ao final do cultivo, os pesos finais dos camarões dos tratamentos 25M (532,0 mg e 15M (540,0 mg foram superiores (p L. vannamei cultivadas na fase berçário sem renovação de águaThe effect of molasses addiction on carbon:nitrogen ratios (C:N on the performance of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp during the nursery phase cultured without water exchange was investigated. The C:N ratios were evaluated in 25:1 (25M and 15:1 (15M proportion and a control (0M, with no carbon source addition, in a randomized experimental design with four replicates. Post-larvae (PL with initial weight of 2.5 ± 0.5 mg were stocked in 12 tanks (800 L net volume, at the density of 6.25 PL L-1 during 42 culture days. At the end of culture, the shrimps weights on 25M (532.0 mg and 15M (540.0 mg treatments were higher (p L. vannamei post-larvae cultured without water exchange.

  17. Diversidade de helmintos intestinais em mamíferos silvestres e domésticos na Caatinga do Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Sudeste do Piauí, Brasil Diversity of wild and domestic mammal's intestinal helminths from the Caatinga of the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Southeast of Piauí, Brazil

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    Brandão Martha Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre biodiversidade permitem avaliações ecossistêmicas e monitoramentos de impactos e mudanças ambientais. A diversidade parasitária pode refletir o processo coevolutivo entre parasitos e hospedeiros, e mudanças ambientais que permitem a perda, ganho ou a manutenção das espécies nesse processo. O presente trabalho utilizou espécies/morfotipos de ovos de helmintos encontrados em fezes de sete mamíferos silvestres (os grupos Dasypodidae e grandes felinos, e as espécies: Tamandua tetradactyla, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Cerdocyon thous, Pecari tajacu e dois domésticos (Canis familiaris e Sus scrofa, que cohabitam o Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara (PNSC e seu entorno, para analisar a diversidade dos helmintos intestinais desses mamíferos. Neste trabalho, utilizou-se achados da fauna helmintológica de mamíferos silvestres e domésticos, para avaliar um possível fluxo de helmintos entre estes dois grupos hospedeiros usando Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA dos hospedeiros com base na composição de suas faunas helmintológicas. Os resultados indicam que a região do PNSC, ainda mantém condições ambientais que ainda propiciam a manutenção da composição da fauna de helmintos de mamíferos silvestres, diferente da encontrada nos animais domésticos.Biodiversity studies allow ecosystem assessment and monitoring of environmental changes and impacts. Parasite diversity could reflect the host/ parasite coevolutionary process and the environment changes that permit the loss, gain or maintenance of species. This survey used species/morphotypes of helminths eggs found in feces from seven wild mammal species (the groups Dasypodidae and Large Cats, and Tamandua tetradactyla, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Cerdocyon thous, Pecari tajacu and from two domestic species (Canis familiaris and Sus scrofa, which occur within the Serra da Capivara National Park (PNSC and surrounding areas in order to analise

  18. Entomological investigation of a sylvatic yellow fever area in São Paulo State, Brazil Investigação entomológica em área de ocorrência de febre amarela silvestre no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Vera L. F. de Camargo-Neves

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Following reports of two autochthonous cases of sylvatic yellow fever in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2000, entomological surveys were conducted with the objective of verifying the occurrence of vector species in forest environments close to or associated with riparian areas located in the western and northwestern regions of the State. Culicidae were captured in 39 sites distributed in four regions. Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes albopictus were the most abundant species and were captured in all the regions studied. H. leucocelaenus was the most abundant species in the municipalities of Santa Albertina and Ouroeste, where the two cases of sylvatic yellow fever had been reported. Mosquitoes from the janthinomys/capricornii group were only found at eight sites in the São José do Rio Preto region, while Sabethes chloropterus was found at one site in Ribeirão Preto. H. leucocelaenus showed its capacity to adapt to a secondary and degraded environment. Our results indicate a wide receptive area for yellow fever transmission in the State of São Paulo, with particular emphasis on the possibility of H. leucocelaenus being involved in the maintenance of this sylvatic focus of the disease.O registro de dois casos autóctones de febre amarela silvestre no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em 2000, desencadeou investigações entomológicas com o objetivo de verificar a ocorrência das espécies vetoras em ambientes florestais próximos ou associados às zonas ribeirinhas, situados nas regiões oeste e noroeste do Estado. As capturas foram realizadas em 39 localidades distribuídas por quatro regiões do Estado. Haemagogus leucocelaenus e Aedes albopictus foram as espécies mais abundantes e capturadas em todas as regiões. H. leucocelaenus foi a espécie mais abundante nos municípios de Santa Albertina e Ouroeste, onde os casos de febre amarela silvestre foram registrados. Mosquitos do grupo janthinomys/capricornii foram encontrados em oito

  19. Studies on early development and larval morphology of pond-reared blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris%细角滨对虾的幼体发育及形态特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许尤厚; 胡超群; 张吕平; 陈国良; 吴立峰

    2007-01-01

    以细角滨对虾Litopenaeus stylirostris为实验对象,按时间顺序观察了胚胎各期的形态特征.通过解剖从无节幼体到仔虾第1天各期幼体的附肢,对其发育形态及其刚毛着生方式进行了描述和统计.比较研究了细角滨对虾和凡纳滨对虾L.vannamei无节幼体期形态差异以及色素的变化、溞状幼体期眼上棘形态的差异以及大颚齿数目.结果表明,无节幼体期细角滨对虾的色素明显多于凡纳滨对虾;两者溞状幼体期眼上棘的形态存在明显差异;两者在无节幼体至仔虾第1天各期大颚活动齿的数目变化一致.

  20. Malófagos (Phthiraptera recolhidos de aves silvestres no Zoológico de São Paulo, SP, Brasil Chewing lice (Phthiraptera from wild birds in the São Paulo Zoo, State of São Paulo, SP, Brazil

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    Michel P. Valim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e oito espécies de malófagos foram recolhidas de aves silvestres no acervo do Zoológico de São Paulo durante o ano de 2003. Vinte e três foram identificadas ao nível de espécie e cinco ao nível genérico. Os relatos de novas espécies no Brasil e novas associações parasitárias para a literatura são discutidos.Twenty-eight species of chewing lice were recovered from wild birds in the São Paulo Zoo during 2003. Twenty-three were identified to species level and five to the generic level. New species records for Brazil and new host-lice associations are discussed.

  1. El veterinario forense. Caza clandestina en fauna silvestre. Análisis forense y situacional de dos casos en el municipio de Tandil, Argentina (The Forensic Veterinary. Clandestine hunt in wild fauna. Forensic and situational studies in two cases. Tandil county. Argentina

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    Schettino, D.M.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenDos casos de caza clandestina de fauna silvestre ocurren con diferencia de meses en el municipio de Tandil, en los años2005 y 2006. Ambos afectaron a ciervos dama (Dama dama que fueron cazados en diferentes circunstancias. La utilización de perros entrenados para matar como también el uso de armas de guerra en áreas suburbanas está tácitamente prohibida en la legislación actual. Ambos casos son peritados en la FCV-UNCPBA y se analizan las condiciones de cada situación, el respaldo legal y los resultados obtenidos en amboscasos.

  2. Caracterización de micorrizas establecidas entre dos hongos comestibles silvestres y pinos nativos de México Characterization of mycorrhizas established between two wild edible mushrooms and native pines of Mexico

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    Violeta Carrasco-Hernández

    Full Text Available Las especies forestales dependen de la simbiosis que realizan con los hongos ectomicorrízicos, para un crecimiento óptimo. Adicionalmente México es un importante reservorio cultural y biológico de especies de hongos silvestres comestibles a nivel mundial. A pesar de la gran importancia ecológica, antropológica y práctica, existen escasas descripciones de las ectomicorrizas formadas entre hongos ectomicorrizicos comestibles y plantas nativas de México. En el presente trabajo, se realizó la descripción morfológica de las ectomicorrizas de los hongos comestibles Laccaria bicolor y L. proxima en asociación con Pinus patula y P. pseudostrobus. La síntesis de las micorrizas estudiadas se efectuó mediante la inoculación con esporas en un sustrato estéril, bajo condiciones de invernadero. Se describen las ectomicorrizas formadas en plantas 397 días después de la siembra de pinos y de la inoculación con las especies fúngicas. Se observaron diferencias en la micromorfología de las ectomicorrizas de ambas especies fúngicas, siendo los principales caracteres distintivos, la longitud de la ectomicorriza, el tipo de ramificación, la forma de las puntas no ramificadas y el color de los ápices. Ambas especies presentaron el mismo arreglo anatómico de la capa externa del manto. Se adiciona también la descripción de las esporomas de Laccaria bicolor y L. proxima. Este estudio se realizó en el laboratorio de micorrizas del Programa de Edafología del Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agrícolas (CP en 2009.For an optimum growth, forest species depend on the symbiosis with ectomycorrhizal mushrooms. Additionally, Mexico is an important cultural and biological reserve of species of wild edible mushrooms at world level. In spite of huge ecological, anthropological and practical importance, there are scarce descriptions of ectomycorrhizas formed between edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms and native plants of Mexico. In this work was done

  3. Distribución geográfica de las especies cultivadas de Amaranthus y de sus parientes silvestres en México Geographical distribution of cultivated species of Amaranthus and their wild relatives in Mexico

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    Eduardo Espitia-Rangel

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo obtener los patrones de distribución de Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus hypochondriacus y sus parientes silvestres, mediante el uso de Sistemas de Información Geográfica, además de realizar un patrón de variación geográfica de las zonas donde se localizan. El género Amaranthus está distribuido a lo largo de México. A. cruentus y A. hypochondriacus se distribuyen en la parte centro sur del país, mientras que A. powellii está distribuido del centro al norte de México. Por otro lado, A. hybridus se puede cultivar prácticamente en todo México, por lo que fue la especie que presentó la mayor adaptación en comparación a las otras tres especies que mostraron una distribución más limitada. De acuerdo con la hipótesis que A. hybridus puede ser el ancestro más probable de A. cruentus y según los resultados obtenidos en este estudio, esta hipótesis podría ser cierta debido que en toda la distribución de A. cruentus está presente A. hybridus. Cabe mencionar, sobre la hipótesis que A. hypochondriacus puede ser un híbrido entre A. cruentus y A. powellii, se puede concluir que es cierta ya que A. hypochondriacus presentó un patrón de variación latitudinal parecido a A. powellii y un patrón de variación altitudinal similar a A. cruentus; además que todas ellas convergen en el Valle de México.The aim of this work was to obtain the distribution patterns of Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus hypochondriacus and its wild relatives using Gorgraphic Information Systems, as well as creating a geographic variation pattern of the areas in which they are found. The genus Amaranthus is distributed throughout Mexico. A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus are distributed in the south-central area of the country, whereas A. powellii is found in the center and north of Mexico. On the other hand, A. hybridus can be cultivated in practically any part of the country, making it the species with the

  4. Behavioral experiments in a wild passerine cause short-term reductions in parental provisioning and nestling mass Experimentos conductuales en un ave paserina silvestre causan reducciones de corto plazo en el cuidado parental y peso de pichones

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    WOUTER F.D VAN DONGEN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on wild animals often involves the capture and temporary removal of individuals from their territory. Although the acute effects of such procedures are well understood in terms of stress hormone profiles, their effect on the behaviour of captured individuals after release is poorly known. Additionally, for socially-monogamous individuals captured whilst breeding, little is known regarding whether the remaining individual compensates for the temporary loss of its partner and whether offspring condition or survival ultimately decreases due to any reductions in parental provisioning. We investigated the influence of field-based experiments requiring temporary adult removal on adult provisioning behaviour and nestling mass in the thorn-tailed rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda, a Chilean furnariid species with equal parental effort between sexes. During the absence of the removed individual, remaining individuals did not increase nestling provisioning rates while, upon their release, removed individuals did not return to nestling feeding for at least 38 minutes and typically much longer. This drastic reduction in combined parental provisioning negatively affected nestling mass, while average nestling mass increased during a control period, nestlings failed to gain weight during and subsequent to parental removal. Finally, our experiments did not affect fledging probability. Overall, our results indicate that the temporary removal of rayaditos from their territories can cause short-term reductions in parental provisioning and nestling weight, but is unlikely to lead to any long-term effects on nestling survival.Las investigaciones en animales silvestres frecuentemente requieren la captura y remoción de individuos de sus territorios. Si bien se conocen los efectos a nivel hormonal de tales métodos, sus efectos sobre la conducta de los individuos después de la liberación son escasamente conocidos. Además, para individuos de especies mon

  5. The ecology of Triatoma sordida in natural environments in two different regions of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil Ecologia do Triatoma sordida no ambiente silvestre de duas diferentes regiões do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    L. Diotaiuti

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken about T. sordida in the natural environment in two different regions of the state of Minas Gerais: Itapagipe (Triângulo, an area of cerrado modified by the formation of fields of pasture and agriculture, and Mato Verde (north an area of transition between caatinga and cerrado with profound deforestation in the last years due to the expansion of cotton cultivation. In both regions the principal ecotopes identified were hollow trees and the bark of live or dead trees, where the occurrence of a food source is not frequent. In this environment, the triatomines utilize various food sources; opposums appear to represent an important source of infection. In the north of Minas, a greater concentration of reservoirs and vectors was observed than in the Triángulo which could explain the higher level of infection of the triatomines in the north. Close attention to the process of domiciliation of T. sordida in the north of Minas is recommended where an extensive intervention by man in the natural environment has occurred and where a rise in the population of triatomines in the peridomestic environment has been observed in recent years.Foi realizado um estudo sobre o T. sordida em ambiente silvestre em duas diferentes regiões do estado de Minas Gerais: Itapagipe (Triângulo, área de cerrado modificado para formação de campos de pastagem e agricultura, e Mato Verde (norte uma área de transição entre a caatinga e o cerrado, profundamente desmatada nos últimos anos com a finalidade de expansão do cultivo de algodão. Em ambas as regiões, os principais ecotopos identificados corresponderam a buracos e cascas de árvores vivas ou mortas, onde a ocorrência de fontes de alimentação não é frequente. Neste ambiente, os triatomíneos utilizam-se de variadas fontes de alimentação; gambás parecem representar urna importante fonte de infecção. No norte de Minas, observou-se urna maior concentração de reservatórios e vetores

  6. Efecto del fotoperiodo y la razón camarón:macroalga en la remoción de nitrógeno amoniacal total por Gracilaria vermiculophylla, en cultivo con Litopenaeus vannamei, sin recambio de agua

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    Adolfo Sánchez-Romero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del fotoperiodo y la relación de biomasa camarón:macroalga en la remoción de nitrógeno amoniacal total (NAT, por la macroalga Gracilaria vermiculophylla, en cultivo con camarón Litopenaeus vannamei, sin recambio de agua. Se evaluaron cuatro fotoperiodos: 12:12, 14:10, 16:08 y 24:00 h de luz:oscuridad y dos relaciones de biomasa camarón:macroalga, 1:4 y 1:8. El diseño experimental fue factorial de 4x2 con cuatro réplicas por tratamiento. Las menores concentraciones de NAT (0,55 ± 0,17 mg L-1, N-NO² (0,145 ± 0,29 mg L-1 y N-NO3 (3,13 ± 0,73 mg L-1 se registraron en la relación 1:8. Las mayores tasas de crecimiento de la macroalga (3,07 ± 1,44% día-1 se obtuvieron con fotoperiodo de 24:00 h y relación de biomasa 1:8. La mayor tasa de incorporación de N en la macroalga (0,31 ± 0,12 mg N L-1 día-1 ocurrió en las mismas condiciones. El crecimiento del camarón fue similar al reportado en sistemas tradicionales de recirculación. La integración de G. vermiculophylla en el sistema sin recambio, fue capaz de mantener los niveles de compuestos nitrogenados tóxicos en niveles favorables para el crecimiento de L. vannamei.

  7. Administration of Bacillus subtilis strains in the rearing water enhances the water quality, growth performance, immune response, and resistance against Vibrio harveyi infection in juvenile white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokaeifar, Hadi; Babaei, Nahid; Saad, Che Roos; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Balcazar, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    In this study, vegetative cell suspensions of two Bacillus subtilis strains, L10 and G1 in equal proportions, was administered at two different doses 10(5) (BM5) and 10(8) (BM8) CFU ml(-1) in the rearing water of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) for eight weeks. Both probiotic groups showed a significant reduction of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate ions under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In comparison to untreated control group, final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR) and digestive enzymatic activity were significantly greater in the BM5 and BM8 groups. Significant differences for survival were recorded in the BM8 group as compared to the control. Eight weeks after the start of experiment, shrimp were challenged with Vibrio harveyi. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in shrimp survival between probiotic and control groups. Cumulative mortality of the control group was 80%, whereas cumulative mortality of the shrimp that had been given probiotics was 36.7% with MB8 and 50% with MB5. Subsequently, real-time RT-PCR was employed to determine the mRNA levels of prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin (PE), lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan- binding protein (LGBP) and serine protein (SP). The expression of all immune-related genes studied was only significantly up-regulated in the BM5 group compared to the BM8 and control groups. These results suggest that administration of B. subtilis strains in the rearing water confers beneficial effects for shrimp aquaculture, considering water quality, growth performance, digestive enzymatic activity, immune response and disease resistance. PMID:24161773

  8. Comparative analysis of water quality in Litopenaeus vannamei ponds and nutritional quality of shrimp muscle%凡纳滨对虾池塘水质及对虾肌肉品质的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世凯; 江敏; 戴习林; 刘利平; 胡伟国; JAMES S. DIANA

    2012-01-01

    From May to September in 2010,water quality parameters such as water temperature,total dissolved salt,dissolved oxygen,pH,transparency,nitrite nitrogen,ammonia nitrogen,nitrate nitrogen,total nitrogen,reactive phosphorus,total phosphorus,chlorophyll-a and biochemical oxygen demand were analyzed in 22 Litopenaeus vannamei ponds with different culturing methods in Fengxian District,Shanghai.Water used for Farm No.1 was natural fresh water which had been precipitated before being introduced to the ponds.Mixed salt were added to the fresh water for culturing shrimp in Farm No.2.Results were as follows: water temperature,dissolved oxygen and pH didn't change dramatically and could match the demand of Litopenaeus vannamei.The proportion of nitrate nitrogen in ponds to TIN was the highest,the ratio of ammonia nitrogen to TIN increased with time extension,and that of nitrite nitrogen to TIN increased obviously in the later period of culture cycle.Contents of reactive phosphorus decreased gradually while the total phosphorus increased in the whole process of culture.Biochemical oxygen demand and chlorophyll-a also increased gradually with the shrimp growing up.Muscle nutritional quality of Litopenaeus vannamei from the two farms were analyzed and the results were as follows: contents of crude protein and crude fat of shrimp muscle in Farm No.1 were 16.30% and 1.42% respectively,lower than those in shrimp muscle from Farm No.2 which were 18.30% and 1.61%.Content of total amino acids in shrimp from Farm No.1was 23.27%,and the essential amino-acid was 9.09%.While those in shrimp from Farm No.2 were 27.52% and 10.74%.Contents of flavor amino acids in shrimp from Farms No.1 and 2 were 8.52% and 10.16% respectively.%2010年5-9月期间,对上海奉贤区两个养殖场采取不同养殖方式的22个凡纳滨对虾养殖塘的水温(T)、总溶解盐(TDS)、溶解氧(DO)、pH、透明度(SD)、亚硝酸盐氮(NO2-N)、总氨氮(TAN)、硝酸盐氮(NO3-N

  9. Influência do aquecimento sobre diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2 residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3437 Influence of heating under different titration methods of residual SO2 on shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3437

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Oliveira Galvez; Paulo de Paula Mendes; Lílian Maria Nery de Barros Góes; Karla Patrícia Brito de Araújo Vieira; Emiko Shinozaki Mendes

    2008-01-01

    O metabissulfito de sódio é o conservante mais aplicado na carcinicultura, com uso amparado em legislações vigentes no país, todavia, seu resíduo, dióxido de enxofre (SO2), em concentrações altas, pode provocar reações adversas à saúde. Este estudo teve como finalidade observar a influência do aquecimento sob diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2) residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei. Os camarões foram submetidos a nove concentrações de metabissulfito de sódio e avaliados diferentes mét...

  10. Comparison of Pollen Production and Quality Characteristics of Cultivated and Wild Almond Species Comparación de Producción y Características de Calidad del Polen de Especies de Almendro Cultivadas y Silvestres

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    Safder Bayazit

    2011-12-01

    breeding programs.Hay varias especies de almendros silvestres en Turquía incluidas Amygdalus orientalis (Mill., Amygdalus turcomanica (Lincz., Amygdalus fenzliana (Fritsch Lipsky, Amygdalus trichamygdalus (Hand.-Mazz. Woronow, Amygdalus arabica (Olivier, y Amygdalus webbii (Spach. Estas especies ofrecen un gran valor para mejoramiento del almendro; se estudió la viabilidad del polen, tasa de germinación, y producción de polen para siete genotipos de A. orientalis y siete genotipos de A. turcomanica cultivados en condiciones naturales en el sudeste de Anatolia (Gaziantep and §anhurfa provinces, Turkey. También se estudiaron cultivares de almendros (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D.A. Webb obtenidos desde Pozanti Agricultural Experimental Station, Universidad de Cukurova. Las viabilidades de polen de los diversos genotipos se determinaron por las pruebas 2,3,5-trifeniltetrazolium cloruro (TTC y fluoresceína diacetato (FDA. Las tasas de germinación de polen se establecieron en condiciones de placas Petri (1% agar + 0, 10, 15, y 20% sucrosa mientras la producción de polen se estimó con métodos hemocitométricos. Las tasas de viabilidad de polen fueron cercanas entre ambos métodos para los genotipos de A. orientalis y A. turcomanica. Las tasas de germinación de polen fueron dependientes del contenido de sucrosa y del genotipo. Los cultivares mostraron tasas de germinación de polen similares en todas las concentraciones de sucrosa mientras el polen de los genotipos A. orientalis y A. turcomanica mostraron mayores tasas de germinación en 10% sucrosa. El número de anteras por flor fue mayor en los cultivares mientras el número de granos de polen fue menor en otras especies de almendro. Mientras el número de granos de polen por flor fue relativamente alto en genotipos de A. orientalis, la calidad del polen fue alta en las tres especies en investigación. Los resultados sugirieron que estas dos especies, A. orientalis y A. turcomanica, podrían ser usadas para futuros

  11. Enfermedades infecciosas en camaronesPenaeus y langosta Panulirus. Situación actual.

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    Manuel Rubio Limonta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl conocimiento de la situación epidemiológica internacional de las enfermedades infecciosas que afectan la salud del camarón y la langosta tienen una importancia relevante, ignorar su significado ha facilitado el desarrollo de epidemias que han devastado áreas de cultivo en todo el mundo.AbstractThe lack of information on international epidemiological situation of the diseases that affect the health of shrimp and lobster have played an important role in the epidemics that have devastated cultivated areas worldwide.

  12. Evaluation of the pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension associated to heart failure in Camarones town.

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    Pedro Miguel Milián Vázquez.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arterial hypertension is a risk factor for many cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Objective: To evaluate the pharmacological treatment in patients with arterial hypertension, also suffering from heart failure. Methods: A descriptive-prospective study was carried out, this consisted in the use of prescription-indication drugs through a simple random sample study of 43 patients, representing the 35.2 % in six Family Clinical Units of the urban area of Camarones’ Communitarian Policlinic, Palmira, Cienfuegos, during the first semester of 2004. Results: the 51.2 % of the patients were included in the class II of the New York Heart Asociation’s classification, and the 55.8% were considered hypertense class II. The hypertensive drugs more used were the captopril and the clortalidone, and among the drugs associated to the hypertensive ones it was included the isosorbide dinitrate, the digoxin and the acetylsalicylic acid. The 87.3 % of the patients received a correct dose, and in the 88.9% it was followed an adequate administration interval. The prescription was considered adequate in the 65.1 % of the studied patients. Conclusions: the advances in the treatment of these diseases are due to different factors, even though the study shows that the treatment of the patient of the series is adecuate, it should be bettered as long as possible.

  13. Evaluation of the pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension associated to heart failure in Camarones town.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Miguel Milián Vázquez; Idalmis Pérez Alemán; Carlos Martín Álvarez; Maira Quirós Enríquez.; Lidia Vázquez Montero

    2006-01-01

    Background: Arterial hypertension is a risk factor for many cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Objective: To evaluate the pharmacological treatment in patients with arterial hypertension, also suffering from heart failure. Methods: A descriptive-prospective study was carried out, this consisted in the use of prescription-indication drugs through a simple random sample study of 43 patients, representing the 35.2 % in six Family Clinical Units of the urban area of Camarones’ Communita...

  14. Residuos de nitrofuranos en tilapia, camarones, harina de pescado y balanceado en Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Chalén, F.; Sáenz, J.; Cambisaca, M.; Franco, F.

    2010-01-01

    Para los organismos mundiales de referencia, los residuos de metabolitos de Nitrofuranos en tilapia, camarón, harina de pescado y balanceado son considerados como un factor de riesgo en la salud pública y como limitante en el desarrollo económico de cualquier país donde se comercializa este tipo de productos. Estas razones junto con el avance de metodologías analíticas cada vez más sensibles, han hecho que los requisitos de sanidad e inocuidad exigidos sean cada vez más estrictos, especialmen...

  15. Respuestas Bioquímicas de Camarones Marinos a Factores Ambientales

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Alpuche;; Ali Pereyra; Concepción Agundis

    2005-01-01

    Las modificaciones constantes en el medio ambiente marino y los sistemas costeros son ocasionados tanto por desastres naturales como huracanes, terremotos, inundaciones, así como por actividades humanas. En la mayoría de los organismos marinos, las variables ambientales son determinantes de los cambios fisiológicos. Ante alguna modificación en el ambiente ocurren cambios bioquímicos en los organismos que les permiten mantener la homeostasis con su hábitat.El presente trabajo, es una recopilac...

  16. Parasites of domestic and wild canids in the region of Serra do Cipó National Park, Brazil Parasitos de canídeos domésticos e silvestres na região do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó - Brasil

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    Juliana Lúcia Costa Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, diseases have been shown to be important causes of extinctions among wild species. Greater emphasis has been given to diseases transmitted by domestic animals, which have been increasing in numbers in natural areas, along with human populations. This study had the aim of investigating the presence of intestinal helminths in wild canids (maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, and crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous in the Serra do Cipó National Park (43-44º W and 19-20º S and endo and ectoparasites of domestic dogs in the Morro da Pedreira Environmental Protection Area (an area surrounding the National Park. The Serra do Cipó is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Among the enteroparasites found in domestic and wild canids, the following taxons were identified: Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Toxocara sp., Spirocerca sp., Physaloptera sp., Strongyloides sp., Cestoda, Dipylidium caninum, Diphyllobothriidae, Hymenolepidae, Anoplocephalidae, Trematoda, Acanthocephala and Isospora sp. Domestic dogs were positive for leishmaniasis and Babesia canis in serological tests. Among the ectoparasites, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Ctenocephalides felis felis were observed in domestic dogs. Variations in the chaetotaxy of the meta-episternum and posterior tibia were observed in some specimens of C. felis felis.Nas últimas décadas, as doenças têm sido apontadas como importantes causas de extinção de espécies silvestres. Maior ênfase tem sido dada às doenças transmitidas por animais domésticos que crescem em número, bem como as populações humanas, em áreas naturais. O presente estudo objetivou verificar a presença de helmintos intestinais de canídeos silvestres (lobo-guará - Chrysocyon brachyurus e cachorro-do-mato - Cerdocyon thous do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (43-44º W e 19-20º S e endo e ectoparasitos de cães domésticos da Área de Proteção Ambiental Morro da Pedreira (entorno do

  17. Evidence of hantavirus infection in wild rodents captured in a rural area of the state of São Paulo, Brazil Evidência de infecção por hantavírus em roedores silvestres capturados em uma área rural do estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Elba Regina S. de Lemos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the etiological agents of the Hantavirus Cardio-Pulmonary Syndrome, a serious rodent-borne disease in Brazil. In order to investigate the occurrence of hantavirus infection in wild rodents, a survey was conducted in three different suburban areas of the municipality of Pedreira, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Of the 145 wild animals captured belonging to 12 different species identified by morphology and karyological analysis, 107 were rodents of the following species: Akodon montensis, Bolomys lasiurus, Calomys tener, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oligoryzomys flavescens, and Myocastor coypus. Blood samples from these rodents were assayed for the presence of antibodies against hantavirus by IgG ELISA using Andes recombinant nucleocapsid antigen. Antibody reactive to Andes virus was found in two different species, O. nigripes and O. flavescens. These results indicate a potential risk for hantavirus transmission to humans in this area, where reservoir rodents are present in peridomestic settings.Hantavírus é o agente etiológico da síndrome cardio-pulmonar por hantavirus (SCPH, uma importante doença transmitida por roedores no Brasil. Com o objetivo de se conhecer a ocorrência de infecção por hantavírus em pequenos roedores silvestres, uma análise sorológica foi conduzida em três diferentes áreas do subúrbio da cidade de Pedreira, São Paulo. Dos 145 animais silvestres capturados, pertecentes a 12 diferentes espécies identificadas por morfologia e por análise cariológica, 107 eram roedores das seguintes espécies: Akodon montensis, Bolomys lasiurus, Calomys tener, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oligoryzomys flavescens, e Myocastor coypus. Amostras de sangue desses roedores foram testadas para a presença de anticorpos IgG contra o antígeno do nucleocapsídeo do vírus Andes através do teste ELISA. Reatividade sorológica ao vírus Andes foi observada em duas espécies diferentes, O. nigripes and O. flavescens. Estes resultados

  18. Flebotomíneos coletados em matas remanescentes e abrigos de animais silvestres de zoológico no perímetro urbano de Maringá, sul do Brasil. Estudo preliminar Phlebotomines collected in remaining florests and wild animal shelters in zoological garden in the urban area of Maringá, Paraná State, shoutern Brazil. Preliminary study

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    Ueslei Teodoro

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Um caso de leishmaniose tegumentar com provável infecção em uma das áreas de matas remanescentes no perímetro urbano de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil, o desconhecimento da fauna e do comportamento de flebotomíneos nestas matas despertaram o interesse desta investigação. Os flebotomíneos foram coletados com armadilhas de Falcão instaladas em matas remanescentes do Parque do Ingá, Bosque Dois e Horto Florestal, de junho a setembro de 1995, no período noturno. Nestas áreas coletaram-se 3.532 flebotomíneos, prevalecendo Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939 com 3.395 (96,1% exemplares. No Parque do Ingá, onde as coletas também foram feitas em abrigos de animais silvestres, mantidos em zoológico, foram coletados 2.907 flebotomíneos, dos quais 1.723 nestes abrigos. Os resultados mostram melhor adaptação de Lutzomyia whitmani nas matas remanescentes no perímetro urbano de Maringá e sua freqüência nos abrigos dos animais silvestres mantidos em cativeiro.The present study was undertaken after the detection of one case of cutaneous leishmaniasis with presumed infection in one of the three remaining wooded areas in the urban area of the city of Maringá, Southern Brazil; also in view of the lack of knowledge about sand flies and their behavior. From June to September, 1995, sand flies were caught with Falcão traps during the night in the remaining wooded areas (Parque do Ingá, Bosque Dois and Horto Florestal. A total of 2,907 sand flies were caugth in Parque do Ingá; 1,723 of them were aught in forest traps and 1,184 in wild animal shelter traps at the zoo. The results show that Lutzomyia whitmani is better adapted to the three areas under study and that it frequently occurs in wild animal shelters within the urban perimeter of Maringá.

  19. 凡纳滨对虾对虾素3a基因的克隆与序列分析%Gene Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Penaeidin 3a in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志强

    2013-01-01

    Antibacterial peptide molecules are the main immunity effectors in the innate immunity system of the low invertebrate. They play an important part in preventing pathogens invasion. In order to explore the antibacterial peptides molecular diversity and the molecular structure association, we took Litopenaeus vannamei as the study object. Gene cloning and structure analysis of penaeidin 3a antibacterial peptides gene were done. The results indicated that penaeidin 3a molecular possessed classic shrimp penaeidin domain. And there was a spherical structure that formed by eight conserved cysteine residues. Especial-ly , there was a pro-rich motif which played an important role in forming the special molecular function. This study could provide the theoretical basis for the next functional research of penaeidin molecular.%抗菌肽分子是无脊椎动物先天免疫系统中的主要免疫效应分子,在防止病原菌入侵方面,发挥着重要作用.为了探索先天免疫系统中抗菌肽分子的多样性以及分子结构之间的关联,本文以凡纳滨对虾为研究对象,对其enaeidin 3a抗菌肽基因进行了基因克隆和生物信息学分析.研究结果表明penaeidin 3a分子具有经典的对虾素结构域,而且存在着一个由8个保守的半胱氨酸残基形成的球状实体结构,尤其是分子中存在富含脯氨残基的结构基序,对于分子功能的形成具有重要作用.本研究可为下一步对虾素分子功能的研究提供理论基础.

  20. Performance and immunological resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei fed a β-1,3/1,6-glucan-supplemented diet after per os challenge with the Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV

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    Hassan Sabry Neto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the efficacy of a β-1,3/1,6-glucan source on the survival, growth, and immunological responses of Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV. The work was conducted in 20 tanks of 500 L with clear water with constant recirculation and aeration. Shrimp weighing 2.6±0.4 g were stocked at 100 animals/m2 and reared for 10 weeks. Viral challenge occurred through oral administration of IMNV positive extract (1.82 £ × 103 copies of IMNV/µL RNA during three consecutive days, twice a day. One treatment and three controls, with five replicatetanks each, were used, as follows: Com - commercial diet fed to non-challenged shrimp (NCS; Ref - lab-manufactured basal diet, deprived of β-1,3/1,6- glucan fed to NCS; IMNV-Ref - basal diet fed to IMNV-challenged shrimp; and, IMNV-BetG - basal diet with 1,000 mg/kg of a β-1,3/1,6-glucan. Per os challenge began on the 29th day of rearing (4.93-g to 6.92-g shrimp. Shrimp were effectively contaminated with IMNV. Animals were highly susceptible to IMNV four weeks after the first day of infection when mortality peaked. Shrimp in the Com treatment (69.5±12.7% reached the highest survival, but it did not differ from the Ref group (57.9±9.21%. Shrimp under the IMNV-Ref treatment achieved the lowest survival (23.2±5.76%. Survival for IMNV-BetG (48.1±8.53% was significantly higher than IMNV-Ref, and similar to the Ref group. Total hemocyte count was significantly affected by treatment and hemolymph sampling time, while serum protein concentration and phenoloxidase activity did not change. Addition of 1,000 mg/kg of β-1,3/1,6-glucan in a diet for L. vannamei enhances shrimp survival when orally exposed to IMNV. No signs of immunological fatigue or detriment in growth are detected when the species is continually exposed to this diet.

  1. Isolation and Identification of Extracellular Enzyme-Producing Bacteria from the Intestinal Tract of Litopenaeus vannamei%具有多种胞外酶的对虾肠道黏附菌的分离和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧玲; 罗鹏; 杨世平; 李广聪; 莫嘉文; 王蔚

    2012-01-01

    用对虾饲料培养基从健康凡纳滨对虾肠道分离出500株黏附细菌,以产淀粉酶、脂肪酶和蛋白酶能力为指标,筛选出产该3种消化酶的细菌90株,占总菌株的18%.对其中生长较快的69株进行16SrDNA基因测序,确定其分类地位.结果显示,69株菌分别属于不动杆菌属(Acinetobacter)、芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)、葡萄球菌属(Staphylococcus)、假交替单胞菌属(Pseudoalteromonas)、气单胞菌属(Aeromonas)、嗜盐单胞菌属(Halomonas)、利斯顿氏菌属(Listonella)、莫拉氏菌属(Moraxella)等,其中数量最多是芽胞杆菌属,占鉴定细菌总数的53.62%,数量最少是气单胞菌属和嗜盐单胞菌属,均占鉴定细菌总数的2.90%.表明对虾肠道黏附菌群中具有较多能分泌多种消化酶的细菌,可进一步开发为促进对虾消化功能的益生菌.%500 strains adhesive bacteria were isolated from the intestinal tract of Litopenaeus vannamei by using shrimp-feed abstraction medium. All bacterial strains were screened for producing capability of protease, amylase and lipase. There were 90 strains that could produce three extracellular enzymes, 18.0% of the total intestinal adhesive bacterial populations. 69 strains with rapid growth were identified according to homology analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. They were grouped into eight genera as follows: Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Pseudoalteromonas, Aeromonas, Halomonas, Listonella, Moraxella, respectively. The dominant genus was Bacillus, which account for 53.62% of the total identified strains. There were least number strains belong to Aeromonas and Halomonas, which account for 2.90% of the total identified isolates, respectively. The results indicate that there are plentiful extracellular enzyme-producing bacterium adhered to intestine of shrimp with the potential to be promising probiotic of promoting digestion.

  2. Utilização de náuplios de “branchoneta” Dendrocephalus brasiliensis (Pesta, 1921 na alimentação de larvas do "camarão cinza" Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2013 The use of “branchoneta” Dendrocephalus brasiliensis (Pesta 1921 nauplii in Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone 1931 larval feeding - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2013

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    Alfredo Oliveira

    2003-04-01

    . brasiliensis podem ser úteis em combinação com náuplios de Artemia sp. vivos, como alimento vivo ou congelado para larvas de Litopenaeus vannameiThe aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Dendrocephalus brasiliensis as food for Litopenaeus vannamei larvae and post-larvae. The larvae (Protozoea PZ3 were stocked in 15 buckets (filled up with 10 liters of water, at a density of 100 larvae/L and they were grown during 18 days until post-larvae (PL10. The experiment consisted of 5 feeding treatments and 3 repetitions: 1 (T1, live Artemia sp. nauplii; 2 (T2, live D. brasiliensis nauplii; 3 (T3, frozen D. brasiliensis; 4 (T4, a combination of live Artemia sp. nauplii and live D. brasiliensis nauplii; 5 (T5, a combination of live Artemia sp. nauplii and frozen D. brasiliensis nauplii; micro-algae were offered for all of them. The larvae were fed 8 times a day; during the first 2 days they were given 800 D. brasiliensis nauplii/L/day; from the 3rd until the 6th day they were given 2000 D. brasiliensis nauplii/L/day and from the 7th day until the final, 4000 D. brasiliensis nauplii/L/day. The larvae were completed the metamorphosis to post-larvae (PL1 in 169, 168, 170, 171 and 169 hours for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The mean weight and length at (PL1 stage were, 444.444µg and 6mm for T1, 592.59µg and 5.866mm for T2, 224.082µg and 5.733mm for T3, 448.838µg and 5.6mm for T4 and 290.474µg and 5.866mm for T5, respectively. The experiment was finished at the PL10 stage when the post-larvae were counted to determine the survival rate. The survival results showed: 58.8%; 35.5%; 36.6%; 76.3% and 79.3% for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. At the end of this experiment PL10 reached a mean weight and length of 1552.538µg and 8.833mm for T1, 1253.617µg and 9.2mm for T2, 690.413µg and 8.433mm for T3, 1522.717µg and 9.3mm for T4 and 1391.33µg and 9.466mm for T5.The results of survival rate data, time, final weight and length of larvae of each experiment obtained were

  3. Production of segregating populations with resistance to the fruit borer from crosses between tomato and wild accessions of Lycopersicon spp. Producción de poblaciones segregantes resistentes al pasador del fruto a partir de cruzamientos entre tomate y accesiones silvestres de Lycopersicon spp.

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    Lobo Mario

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Interspecifics crosses between tomato plants L. esculentum and thirteen wild accessions of Lycopersicon spp. with resistance to the fruit borer were carried out. Six Hybrids population were produced which had low percentages of crossing efficiency and seed germination, and high amount of abnormal seeds. Seeds of four RC1 populations and four RC2 populations were obtained, which presented low percentages of backcrossing efficiency. Equally seeds of three F2 populations and two F3 population were produced which were obtained from a low number of fruits in comparison with the high amount of isolated Inflorescences. Key words: Interspecifics crosses, backcrossing, Lycopersicon esculentum, Neoleucinodes elegantalis, resistance.Se hicieron cruzamientos interespecíficos entre plantas de tomate L. esculentum y trece accesiones silvestres de Lycopersicon spp. resistentes al pasador del fruto. Se produjeron seis poblaciones híbridas que presentaron porcentajes bajos de eficiencia en el cruzamiento y de germinación de semilla y alta cantidad de semillas anormales. Se obtuvieron semillas de cuatro poblaciones RC1 y cuatro poblaciones RC2, las cuales presentaron porcentajes bajos de eficiencia de retrocruzamiento. Igualmente se produjeron semillas de tres poblaciones F2 y dos poblaciones F3 las cuales se obtuvieron de un número bajo de frutos en comparación con la alta cantidad de inflorescencias aisladas. Palabras claves: Cruzamientos interespecíficos, retrocruzamiento, Lycopersicon esculentum, Neoleucinodes elegantalis, resistencia.

  4. OPTIMIZACIÓN DEL RENDIMIENTO Y CONTENIDO DE TIMOL DE ACEITE ESENCIAL DE ORÉGANO SILVESTRE OBTENIDO POR ARRASTRE CON VAPOR OPTIMIZAÇÃO DO RENDIMENTO E CONTEÚDO DE TIMOL DO ÓLEO ESSENCIAL DO ORÉGANO SELVAGEM OBTIDO POR ARRASTRE À VAPOR OPTIMIZATION OF YIELD AND THYMOL CONTENT OF WILD OREGANO ESSENTIAL OIL OBTAINED BY STEAM DISTILLATION PROCESS

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    OSCAR ARANGO B.; FELIPE BOLAÑOS; OSCAR VILLOTA; ANDRÉS HURTADO B; INÉS TORO

    2012-01-01

    Se estudió el proceso de extracción por arrastre con vapor a escala de planta piloto del aceite esencial de orégano silvestre (Lippia origanoides H.B.K) de la región del Alto Patía (Colombia) utilizando la metodología de superficie de respuesta. Los factores estudiados fueron el tiempo de extracción (1-3 horas), la densidad del lecho (60-100 g/L) y la presión de extracción (1-3 psi). Las variables de respuesta fueron el rendimiento de extracción y el contenido de timol del aceite esencial. La...

  5. cDNA Clone of Prophenoloxidase for Litopenaeus Stylirostris and Sequence Structure Analysis%细角滨对虾酚氧化酶原cDNA 克隆及序列结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许尤厚; 胡超群

    2015-01-01

    采用 RT-PCR 原理和长片段扩增技术克隆细角滨对虾酚氧化酶原基因。结果表明,细角滨对虾血淋巴细胞内存在2个 proPO 基因。 proPO gene 1的 cDNA 序列包含有372氨基酸,前190个氨基酸为一个M 家族血蓝蛋白,是一个铜结合位点区域,191-372为一个 C 家族的血蓝蛋白,是一个免疫球蛋白样的区域。proPO gene 2的2个功能位点之间的序列有重叠,proPO gene 2 cDNA 序列的6-935bp 包含了第一个功能位点,928-1464bp 则包含了第二个功能位点。系统进化树比对分析发现2个基因之间的序列差异非常大。细角滨对虾和凡纳滨对虾的 proPO gene 2同处于一个密切相关的群,proPO gene 1则和其他几种对虾的 proPO gene 处于一个群。 proPO gene 2与 proPO gene 1在对虾免疫活动中是否存在不同的功能还有待于进一步的研究。%Prophenoloxidase (proPO) is one of the important factors on humoral immunity of shrimp, so far there are no re-ports for Litopenaeus stylirostris. Depend on techniques of RT-PCR and long fragment amplification cloning, prophenoloxidase gene of L. stylirostris was cloned. The results show that, there are two proPO genes in the lymphocytes of L. stylirostris. ProPO gene 1 cDNA sequence contains 372 amino acids, the first 190 amino acids are a family of M hemocyanin, a copper binding site region, 191-372 is one of the C family of hemocyanin, is an immunoglobulin like region. There are sequence overlap between the 2 functional sites of proPO gene 2, which means that 6-935bp contains the first functional sites, while 928-1464bp contains sec-ond functional sites. The phylogenetic tree alignment analysis showed that sequence structures of two genes is very different. Pro-PO gene 2 of L. stylirostris and L. vannamei was in a closely related group; but proPO gene 1 of L. stylirostris and L. vannamei was in another group with other several shrimp. The function of ProPO gene 2 and proPO gene 1 in shrimp immune

  6. American tripanosomiasis: a study on the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi-like organisms in wild rodents in San Luis province, Argentina Tripanosomiasis americana: um estudo sobre a prevalência do Trypanosoma cruzi e Trypanosoma cruzi-like em roedores silvestres da provincia de San Luis, Argentina

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    Ana María Brigada

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Wild and perianthropic mammals maintain the infection/transmission cycle, both in their natural habitat and in the peridomestic area. The aim of this paper was to present the results from a study on wild rodents in the central and northern regions of San Luis province, Argentina, in order to evaluate the prevalence of this infection. METHODS: Sherman traps were set up in capture areas located between latitudes 32º and 33º S, and longitudes 65º and 66º W. The captured rodents were taxonomically identified and hemoflagellates were isolated. Morphological, biometric and molecular studies and in vitro cultures were performed. Infection of laboratory animals and histological examination of the cardiac muscle and inoculation area were also carried out. Parasites were detected in circulating blood in Calomys musculinus, Graomys griseoflavus, Phyllotis darwini and Akodon molinae. The parasites were identified using biological criteria. Molecular PCR studies were performed on some isolates, which confirmed the characterization of these hemoflagellates as Trypanosoma cruzi. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Forty-four percent of the 25 isolates were identified as Trypanosoma cruzi, and the remaining 56% as Trypanosoma cruzi-like. These findings provide evidence that wild rats infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi-like organisms are important in areas of low endemicity.INTRODUÇÃO: A doença de Chagas é causada pelo Trypanosoma cruzi e os mamíferos periantrópicos e silvestres mantêm o ciclo de infecção/transmissão, tanto no ambiente natural, como no peridomicílio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi mostrar os resultados de um estudo de roedores silvestres do centro e norte da Província de San Luis, Argentina, para avaliar a prevalência da infecção. MÉTODOS: Estabeleceram-se lugares de caça com armadilhas tipo Sherman entre os 32º - 33º de latitude S e 65º - 66º de

  7. Impactos de atropelamentos de animais silvestres no trecho da rodovia SP-215 confrontante ao Parque Estadual de Porto Ferreira – Porto Ferreira, SP (Nota Científica. Impacts roadkills mortality of wild animals in the area of SP-215 highway alongside Porto Ferreira State Park – Porto Ferreira, SP (Scientific Note.

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    Sonia Aparecida de SOUZA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi realizado o monitoramento dos atropelamentos de animais silvestres na rodovia SP–215 no trecho confrontante ao Parque Estadual de Porto Ferreira. Em seis anos foram registrados 72 indivíduos, sendo 17 espécies de mamíferos, 10 de aves, quatro de répteis, uma de anfíbio e três indivíduos não identificados. Dentre esses, lobo-guará Chrysocyon brachyurus, jaguatirica Leopardus pardalis e cuíca-lanosa Caluromys lanatus se encontram na lista das espécies ameaçadas de extinção do Estado de São Paulo. A partir do conhecimento das espécies atingidas, faz-se necessário o desenvolvimento de estudos e propostas de implantação de medidas mitigadoras à presença da rodovia SP–215 para a conservação da fauna.This paper presents the data collected through the monitoring of roadkills on SP–215 highway in the area alongside Porto Ferreira State Park. During six years, 72 roadkills were recorded, including 17 species of mammals, 10 of birds, five of reptiles, one of amphibians and three unidentified individuals. Among those species, maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus, ocelot Leopardus pardalis, and Western woolly opossum Caluromys lanatus are included in the threatened species list of the state of São Paulo. After finding out which species are affected, it is necessary to develop studies and proposals for implementing effective mitigation measures for the presence of SP–215 highway in the area in order to preserve the local fauna.

  8. Infecções naturais de mamíferos silvestres em área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Natural infection of sylvatic mammals of cutaneous leishmaniasis in S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a presença de foco de leishmaniose tegumentar no vale do rio Moji-Guaçú, em região comum aos municípios de Luiz Antonio, São Carlos, Rincão e Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os casos humanos apresentavam formas clínicas caracterizadas por lesões úlcero-vegetantes, de evolução lenta e pobres em parasitos. As investigações sobre infecção natural em animais silvestres levou ao isolamento de roedores, de três cepas em cultura, duas procedentes de Akodon arviculoides e uma de Oryzomys nigripes. As provas de inoculação em hamsters foram, até o momento, positivas para duas delas, mas com evolução lenta, com manifestações clínicas muito discretas e pobres em parasitos. Pelos dados disponíveis até o momento, parece tratar-se de cepas filiáveis à raça "lenta", à qual se atribui papel na etiologia da forma cutaneo-mucosa da leishmaniose.An endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, is described. Clinical aspects of human cases showed few lesions with slow evolution and few parasites. From investigations on natural infections of local sylvatic mammals by skin cultures technique ensued three strains isolations from Akodon arviculoides and Oryzomys nigripes rodents. Two of these showed to infect hamsters experimentally, but with discrete cutaneous manifestations and few parasites. This aspect seems to be alike the behaviour of "slow" strain, who was included in the possibility of the mucocutaneous leishmaniasis etiology. The presence of sylvatic enzootic forms of the disease is concluded.

  9. Phytochemical Evaluation of Wild and Cultivated Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. and C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav. from Oaxaca, Mexico Evaluación Fitoquímica en Chile (Capsicum annuum L. and C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav. Silvestre y Cultivado en Oaxaca, México

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    Araceli Minerva Vera-Guzmán

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reports of the last decade show that some types of food and spices included in the human diet, such as pepper (Capsicum annuum L. can have a positive effect on human health. The Mexican pepper germplasm is poorly documented with regard to variety and the amount of phytochemical compounds that it contains. In the present study, the variation of phytochemical compounds was evaluated in nine fruit variants (morphotypes of wild and cultivated pepper grown in Oaxaca. ANOVA detected significant differences among pepper morphotypes and ripeness stages of fruits; vitamin C, total phenols, flavonoids, P-carotene, coordinated chromatic of color, and capsaicinoids. The highest values of vitamin C were found in 'Tabaquero', 'Guero' and 'Costeño' morphotypes (151.6 to 183.2 mg 100 g-1. With regard to total phenols and flavonoids, 'Piquín' and 'Solterito' had the highest levels. Coordinates of color a* and b*, and chroma presented a positive correlation with phenol and flavonoid contents. The evaluated morphotypes differed in capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin; C. annuum had higher capsaicin content (4.9 to 142 /En la última década, se reportó que el consumo de ciertos alimentos y especias, como el chile (Capsicum annuum L., pueden tener un efecto positivo en la salud. Particularmente, los acervos genéticos mexicanos de chile están poco documentados en relación a la diversidad desde la perspectiva fitoquímica. En este trabajo se evaluó la variación de compuestos fitoquímicos en nueve morfotipos de chile silvestres y cultivados de Oaxaca. El ANDEVA detectó diferencias significativas entre morfotipos y estados de madurez en vitamina C, fenoles, flavonoides, P-caroteno, color, y capsaicinoides. Los valores más altos de vitamina C se determinaron en 'Tabaquero', 'Guero' y 'Costeño' (151.6 a 183.2 mg 100 g-1. En fenoles y flavonoides sobresalieron los tipos 'Piquin' y 'Solterito'. Las coordenadas cromáticas a* y b*, y los tonos (C* se correlacionaron

  10. Comparação de métodos de laboratório e de campo para a estimativa da área foliar em fruteiras silvestres Comparison of laboratory and field methods for the estimation of leaf area of wild fruit species

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    M.S. Mielke

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um trabalho com o objetivo de estudar diferentes métodos de laboratório e de campo para a estimativa da área foliar de fruteiras silvestres, pertencentes à família Myrtaceae, a saber: uvalheira (Eugenia uvalha Camb., aracazeiro (Psidium cattleyanum Sabine, goiabeira serrana (Feijoa sellowiana Berg. e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora DC. Entre os métodos de laboratório, também utilizados como "padrão", bons resultados foram obtidos utilizando-se um medidor automático de área foliar, planímetro ou através do método gravimétrico (fotocópia ou papel filtro. Dentre os métodos de campo, os melhores resultados foram obtidos por regressão linear. As estimativas das áreas foliares (y para as quatro espécies estudadas podem ser tomadas a partir das equações: y = 2,658 + 0,554X, para o araçazeiro; y = 0.75X ou y = 0,856X - 2,115, para a goiabeira serrana; y = 0.68X, para a uvalheira e y = 0,69X ou y = 0,503 + 0,643X, para a pitangueira, sendo X = comprimento x largura da folha.This work was carried out in order to study different laboratory and field methods for estimating leaf area of wild fruit species, belonging to the Myrtaceae: "uvalha" plant (Eugenia uvalha Camb., cattley guava plant (Psidium cattleyanum Sabine, feijoa plant (Feijoa sellowiana Berg and Surinam cherry plant (Eugenia uniflora DC. Among the laboratory' methods utilized as "standard methods", good results were obtained with the use of an automatic leaf area meter, planimeter or by the gravimetric method (photocopy or Whatman paper. Among field methods, best results were obtained with linear regression. The estimation of leaf area y for all studied species could be obtained through the equations: y = 2,658 + 0,554 x for cattley guava plant; y = 0,75 x or y = 0,856 x - 2,115 for feijoa plant; y = 0,68 x for "uvalha" plant and y = 0,69 x or y = 0,503 + 0,643 x for Surinam cherry plant, where x = leaf length x leaf width.

  11. La educación e interpretación ambiental en las áreas silvestres protegidas del estado: La experiencia del Parque Nacional Conguillío (Región de La Araucanía para fomentar la conservación en los visitantes.

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    M. González

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de las Áreas Silvestres protegidas de la Región de la Araucanía, sur de Chile, se destaca el Parque Nacional Conguillío inserto en la precordillera andina. Considerado un área de gran importancia ecosistémica dada la diversidad de ambientes que presenta producto de la acción vulcanológica propia de esta cordillera, ésta unidad conforma parte del selecto grupo de Reserva de la Biosfera del país. En él es posible encontrar ecosistemas de bosque primario de Araucaria, humedales (incluyendo ríos, lagos y esteros, escoriales y altas cumbres como es el Volcán LLaima y Sierra Nevada, todas de importante valor científico, geológico, geomorfológico y turístico. Su alta concurrencia por sus atractivos escénicos, flora y fauna, generan una importante llegada de visitantes, nacionales y extranjeros especialmente en época estival dado las mejores condiciones metereológicas y la temporada de vacaciones. Es por ésta razón, que el programa de educación e interpretación ambiental creado pioneramente hace 37 años y actualmente vigente como actividades para sus visitantes adultos y niño(as, cobra un mayor sentido de pertenencia para el visitante a través de una experiencia en un ASPE. Las actividades como experiencia, buscan la generación de nuevas actitudes que involucren una conducta del visitante orientada a la sostenibilidad del parque y la apreciación del entorno natural como parte fundamental en el desarrollo del ser humano. En este contexto, el programa actual muestra un crecimiento sostenido de un 7% en número de visitantes entre temporada 2013-2014, siendo objetivo de este trabajo el mostrar antecedentes generales del parque, los senderos más visitados, las especies de flora y fauna más atractivas y/o con problemas de conservación, así como el programa en cuanto a las actividades y sus proyecciones de mejora.

  12. Résistance de la crevette Litopenaeus stylirostris à la bactérie pathogène Vibrio penaeicida : Physiologie, immunologie et pathologie comparées d’une population sélectionnée sur un critère de survie aux épisodes de mortalité et d’une population témoin non sélectionnée.

    OpenAIRE

    De Decker, Sophie

    2004-01-01

    La filière crevette de Nouvelle-Calédonie reposesur la maîtrise de la reproduction contrôlée de la crevette Litopenaeus stylirostris, espèce introduite dans les années 1980. La difficulté majeure que rencontre la filière depuis une dizaine d’années est la récurrence du « Syndrome 93 », qui s’exprime sous forme d’épisodes de mortalités lors des baisses de température aux intersaisons. Ces mortalités sont associées à la bactérie pathogène Vibrio penaeicida Une expérience de sélection sur un cri...

  13. Evaluation of segregating populations from crosses between cultivated tomato and PI134418 Evaluación de poblaciones segregantes producidas a partir de cruzamientos entre tomate cultivado y la accesión silvestre PI134418 de Solanum habrochaites var. glabratum resistente al pasador del fruto.

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    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of segregating populations from crosses between cultivated tomato S. lycopersicum L. cv. maravilla and PI134418 wild accession of Solanum habrochaites var. glabratum with resistance to the fruit borer N. elegantalis was made. There was dominance of alleles that decrease theexpression of the character mean fruit weight. The backcrossing method was more efficient than selfing in order to counteract the dominance of alleles that encode by small fruit size. The thrichomes and the mean number of fruit per bunch did not produce any effect on the fruit attack by the fruit borer; while that mean fruit weight had important effect on this attack, therefore, the insect tends to produce more damage with the increasing in the mean fruit weight. The RC1 and RC2 populations showed segregating typical behavior for evaluated characters, presenting high variability in all of them. The backcrossing method was effective to break the negative association between mean fruit weight and the resistance to the insect. The mean fruit weight in the RC2 recombinant was between 45.1 and 68.6 g and showed resistance to the fruit borer.

    Se realizó la evaluación de poblaciones segregantes producidas a partir de cruzamientos entre tomate S. lycopersicum L. cv. maravilla y la accesión silvestre PI134418 de S. habrochaites var. glabratum resistente al pasador del fruto N. elegantalis. Se encontró que hay dominancia de los alelos que disminuyen la expresión del carácter peso promedio de fruto. El método del retrocruzamiento resultó más eficiente que el de la autofecundación, para contrarrestar la dominancia de los alelos que codifican por el tamaño peque

  14. Variabilidade genética de acessos obtidos de populações cultivadas e silvestres de maracujazeiro-doce com base em marcadores rapd Genetic diversity obtained from cultivated population and native accesses of seewt passion fruit based on rapd markers

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    Graciele Bellon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O maracujazeiro-doce (Passiflora alata Curtis, devido a preços diferenciados, vem ganhando importância dentro do mercado de frutas in natura. O melhoramento genético é fundamental para elevar a qualidade e a produtividade da cultura. Os marcadores moleculares do DNA têm sido muito úteis por permitirem a obtenção de um número praticamente ilimitado de polimorfismo genético sem influência do ambiente. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estudar a variabilidade genética de 17 acessos de maracujá-doce, com base em marcadores moleculares RAPD. Um acesso de P. quadrangularis e um de P. edulis foram utilizados como outgroups. Amostras de DNA genômico de cada acesso foram extraídas e 11 iniciadores decâmeros (OPD 04; 07; 08 e16; OPE 18 e 20; OPF 01 e 14; OPG 08; OPH 12 e 16 foram utilizados para a obtenção dos marcadores. Os marcadores obtidos foram convertidos em uma matriz de dados binários, a partir da qual foram estimadas as distâncias genéticas entre os acessos e realizadas análises de agrupamento e de dispersão gráfica. Do total de marcadores, considerando-se apenas os acessos de P. alata, observaram-se 87 (62,12% bandas polimórficas, evidenciando a grande variabilidade intraespecífica. A análise de agrupamento realizada com base nas distâncias genéticas permitiu subdividir os 17 acessos de P. alata em, pelo menos, cinco grupos de similaridade genética. Os acessos silvestres foram os que mais contribuíram para a ampliação da base genética dos materiais estudados, abrindo perspectivas para o uso desses materiais em programas de melhoramento.Sweet passion fruit (Passiflora alata Curtis is gaining importance in the in natura fruit market due to differential value. Genetic breeding is crucial to improve crop quality and productivity. Molecular markers of DNA have been very useful by allowing obtaining a virtually unlimited number of genetic polymorphism without environment influence. This work's objective was to study the

  15. Evaluación de poblaciones segregantes producidas a partir de cruzamientos entre tomate cultivado y la accesión silvestre PI134418 de Solanum habrochaites var. glabratum resistente al pasador del fruto. Evaluation of segregating populations from crosses between cultivated tomato and PI134418 wild accession of Solanum habrochaites var. glabratum with resistance to the fruit borer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin F. Restrepo S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la evaluación de poblaciones segregantes producidas a partir de cruzamientos entre tomate S. lycopersicum L. cv. maravilla y la accesión silvestre PI134418 de S. habrochaites var. glabratum resistente al pasador del fruto N. elegantalis. Se encontró que hay dominancia de los alelos que disminuyen la expresión del caraacute;cter peso promedio de fruto. El método del retrocruzamiento resultó maacute;s eficiente que el de la autofecundación, para contrarrestar la dominancia de los alelos que codifican por el tamaño pequeño del fruto. Los tricomas y el número promedio de frutos por racimo no ejercieron ningún efecto sobre el ataque de los frutos por parte del pasador; mientras que el peso promedio de fruto sí tuvo efecto importante sobre dicho ataque, de tal manera que el insecto tiende a producir mayor daño a medida que se incrementa el peso promedio de fruto. Las poblaciones RC1 y RC2 se comportaron como las típicas segregantes para los caracteres evaluados y exhibieron amplia variabilidad en los mismos. El método del retrocruzamiento fue efectivo para romper la asociación negativa entre el peso promedio de fruto y la resistencia al insecto. El peso promedio de algunos de los frutos en los recombinantes RC2 fluctuó entre 45.1 y 68.6 g y mostraron resistencia al pasador.Evaluation of segregating populations from crosses between cultivated tomato S. lycopersicum L. cv. maravilla and PI134418 wild accession of Solanum habrochaites var. glabratum with resistance to the fruit borer N. elegantalis was made. There was dominance of alleles that decrease the expression of the character mean fruit weight. The backcrossing method was more efficient than selfing in order to counteract the dominance of alleles that encode by small fruit size. The thrichomes and the mean number of fruit per bunch did not produce any effect on the fruit attack by the fruit borer; while that mean fruit weight had important effect on this attack

  16. Capacidad de adhesión y fermentación a gránulos de almidón de papa por bacterias ácido lácticas silvestres para evaluar su actividad como prebiótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Lamadrid Avendaño

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la capacidad prebiótica de los gránulos de almidón de papa en bacterias ácido láctica (BAL con características probióticas. Se utilizaron muestras de almidón de papa de diferentes variedades y almidón de maíz que se utilizó para comparar los resultados con un almidón de diferente origen. Se caracterizó el almidón midiendo: el tamaño del gránulo, el contenido de amilosa y de amilopectina, el nivel de fosforilación, la susceptibilidad a la hidrólisis enzimática y ácida y el contenido de almidón resistente (AR para conocer si estos factores determinan la capacidad prebiótica del almidón. Se encontró que el tamaño de gránulo y el contenido de amilosa determinaron la resistencia a la hidrólisis enzimática que presentaron los almidones de papa. En la hidrólisis ácida los almidones con mayor contenido de amilosa presentaron una mayor resistencia a la degradación. El almidón de papa presentó en promedio un 80% de AR y el de maíz un 44.6%. El almidón de papa por su alto contenido de almidón resistente puede ser un prebiótico potencial para las BAL del colon. En los ensayos de la capacidad amilolítica, cosedimentación y fermentación se trabajó con 44 BAL silvestres y con Lactobacillus casei Shirota y Acti regularis como cepas probióticas control. Las BAL no presentaron actividad amilolítica, sin embargo, presentaron un alto porcentaje de bacterias adheridas a los gránulos de almidón de las diferentes variedades de papa que va de un 75% hasta un 99%, siendo esta asociación un mecanismo de protección para las bacterias ante las condiciones del tracto gastrointestinal. No obstante que el almidón no fue hidrolizado por las BAL se realizó el estudio tendiente a la identificación de los productos de fermentación con la glucosa, que es uno de los productos de la hidrólisis del almidón. Las BAL produjeron ácido láctico como metabolito principal y algunas de éstas dieron pequeñas cantidades de

  17. ANÁLISES COPROPARASITOLÓGICAS DE AVES SILVESTRES CATIVAS

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    Alessandra Snak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In most instances of parasitism in captive birds there is no expression of clinical signs. This fact underscores the importance of performing frequent parasitological examinations in these animals. The aim of this study was to do a coproparasitological analysis to monitor parasitic infections in captive birds in Danilo Galafassi Municipal Park (Municipal Zoo of Cascavel-PR, project approved by the Committee of Ethics and Animal Welfare (CEBEA Campus Palotina-UFPR, protocol nº 29/2010. A total of 228 fecal samples were analyzed from 37 species of captive birds from 22 enclosures in the period from August 2010 to July 2012. Chilled feces were analyzed through flotation methods of Willis-Mollay and simple sedimentation of Hoffmann, Pons and Janer. Out of the analyzed samples, 127 (55.7% were positive and among these 55 (43.3% presented mixed infection. The parasites that were found belonged to the genus Strongyloides, Eimeria, Capillaria, Deletrocephalus and Isospora, the superfamilies Strongyloidea, Ascaroidea and Spiruroidea, the order Trichurida and the class Cestoda. The examinations results of the enclosure of Jabiru mycteia (tuiuiú and Cariama cristata (seriema were negative throughout the study period. Hygienic-sanitary measures and movement control measures of animals and people circulation were introduced to minimize bird’s infection, but it requires further analysis to assess their impact.

  18. Bioseguridad en el Manejo de Fauna Silvestre y no Convencional

    OpenAIRE

    Nestor Varela

    2011-01-01

    La bioseguridad es un conjunto de actuaciones para prevenir la pérdida de la integridad biológica a diversas escalas, estando relacionada como concepto a múltiples campos y disciplinas. En las ciencias de la salud, la bioseguridad hace referencia a la prevención de la contaminación derivada del contacto con órganos o tejidos de origen biológico y microorganismos. Los problemas traumáticos, las reacciones alérgicas o irritativas y las zoonosis son las causas de enfermedad más frecuentes en las...

  19. Tecnologia para preservação de cogumelos silvestres

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Botelho, M. Luísa; Martins, Anabela; Oliveira, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    A curta vida de prateleira dos cogumelos é uma limitação na distribuição e comercialização do produto fresco. Uma tecnologia que permita prolongar o armazenamento pós-colheita e preservar a sua qualidade, beneficiaria a indústria de cogumelos, bem como os consumidores. Feixe de electrões e irradiação gama têm se mostrado potenciais ferramentas nos tratamentos pós-colheita para estender a vida útil de diversos alimentos, incluindo cogumelos. Estão a ser avaliados os efeitos da radiação ...

  20. Nucleotide Mixture Supplementation Affects Non-specific Immune and Antioxidant Indices of Juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei%饲料中添加核苷酸混合物对凡纳滨对虾幼虾非特异性免疫和抗氧化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丹丹; 黄燕华; 曹俊明; 蓝汉冰; 王国霞; 张荣斌; 陈晓瑛; 严晶

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在研究外源核苷酸混合物对凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)幼虾非特异性免疫和抗氧化指标的影响.选取960尾初始体重为(0.43±0.01)g的凡纳滨对虾,随机分为8组(每组设3个重复,每个重复40尾虾),分别投喂在基础饲料中添加0(对照)、0.1、0.2、0.4、0.6、0.8、1.0和1.2g/kg核苷酸混合物(5'-腺苷酸:5'-胞苷酸:5'-尿苷酸二钠:5'-肌苷酸二钠:5'-鸟苷酸二钠=1:1:1:1:1,质量比)的试验饲料,养殖期为5周.结果表明,饲料中添加0.4~1.2g/kg核苷酸混合物可显著或极显著提高凡纳滨对虾幼虾血细胞总数(THC)(P<0.05或P<0.01).与对照组相比,0.6和0.8/kg组血清超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性显著升高(P<0.05).0.4g/kg组血清总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)与对照组相比提高了51.0%(P>0.05),并显著高于1.2g/kg组(P<0.05).各组肝胰腺SOD活性和T-AOC随饲料中核苷酸混合物添加量的增加先升高后降低,均在0.4g/kg组达到最高值.各组血清和肝胰腺过氧化物酶(POD)和碱性磷酸酶(AKP)活性均无显著差异(P>0.05).饲料中添加0.2~1.2g/kg核苷酸混合物可显著降低对虾肝胰腺丙二醛(MDA)含量(P<0.05),而各组血清MDA含量差异不显著(P>0.05).0.2、0.4和0.6g/kg组肌肉抗超氧阴离子自由基(O2-·)活性显著高于1.0和1.2g/kg组(P<0.05),其他各组间差异不显著(P>0.05).结果提示,饲料中添加一定量的核苷酸混合物能提高凡纳滨对虾幼虾的非特异性免疫和抗氧化能力,建议添加量为0.4~0.6g/kg.%A 5-week feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of dietary nucleotides on non-specific immune and antioxidant indices of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. A total of 960 shrimp with an average body weight of (0.43 ±0.01) g were randomly allocated into 8 groups with 3 replicates per group and 60 shrimp per replicate. The control group were fed with the basal diet, while the other 7 groups were fed with the basal diets added

  1. Contenido de alimento y metabolismo ceco-cólico en el tracto digestivo de poblaciones silvestres de iguana negra (Ctenosaura pectinata en Morelos, México Cecum-colic content of food and metabolism in the digestive tract of wild population black lizard (Ctenosaura pectinata in Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Vélez-Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron cinco tractos digestivos de iguana negra (Ctenosaura pectinata en estado silvestre en el estado de Morelos, México, para conocer la composición botánica de la dieta y el metabolismo ceco-cólico. Se observaron frotis realizados del contenido ceco-cólico para registrar la presencia de protozoarios, bacterias y parásitos intestinales existentes. Se obtuvo la media y desviación estándar de las características evaluadas. En el contenido ceco-cólico se identificaron las especies vegetales guamúchil (Phitecellobium dulce y huizache (Acacia farnesiana. Se estimó en base a materia seca la porción vegetal que conforma la dieta, la cual se distribuyó en frutos (62,9%, hojas (30,6%, rebrotes (2,9% y flores (3,5%. La región ceco-cólica se caracterizó por la concentración (mmol de los ácidos grasos acético (68,9 ± 10,6, butírico (11,98 ± 5,7, propiónico (9,04 ± 1,5 y total (89,9 ± 15, con pH de 7,45 y concentración de nitrógeno amoniacal (7,4 ± 2,8 mg/dl. La microbiota que se observó fue el protozoario Nyctotherus spp. Las bacterias totales oscilaron en concentraciones 7 x 10 a 9 x 10/g, siendo las celulolíticas de 9,2 x 10 hasta 3,5 x 10/g de contenido cecal. Los parásitos encontrados son nematodos identificados como miembros de la superfamilia Oxyuroidea con 655 ± 265/g huevos y 6,300 ± 329 adultos/iguana. Se concluye que la fermentación de la región ceco-cólica de la iguana negra en estado adulto se comporta de manera similar como en las especies herbívoras, en las cuales la fermentación se manifiesta de acuerdo con el alimento consumido. La concentración dietaria de proteína cruda fue de 14,5% y energía de 2,193 Mcal/kg y son animales parasitados con oxiuros.Five digestive tracts of black lizards (Ctenosaura pectinata from a wild population were collected in Morelos State, México, in order to identify the plant composition in the diet and the cecum-colic metabolism. Smears obtained from cecum

  2. 凡纳滨对虾半集约化养殖池塘浮游微藻优势种变动规律及其对养殖环境的影响%Change of dominant species of planktonic microalgae in Litopenaeus vannamei' s semi -intensive culture ponds and its impact on the culture environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭聪聪; 李卓佳; 曹煜成; 刘孝竹; 胡晓娟

    2011-01-01

    Investigations on the microalgae community were conducted in Litopenaeus vannamei' s semi-intensive culture ponds.The variation about dominant species of microalgae in shrimp ponds were identified ,moreover,their relationships with culture environment and culture efficiency were analysised.The results showed that a total of 16 dominant species of microalgae were identified.The dominant species in initial phase were Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Nitzschia closteriu and Peridinium pusillum; the ones in the mid-phase were Cyclotella operculata, Lyngbya gardnari, Oscillatoria chlorine, K.microscopica Nygaard, C.kessleri, Cylindrospermum muscicola , C.kuetzingiana, O.salina, Chroococcus cohaerens and O.willei; the ones in the final phase were O.neglecta, O.angustissima and C.pyrenoidosa.Microalgae in initial phase were rare and low density,but Dinophyta occupied the dominant position in pond 2 and pond 4,which caused the low survival rate of their shrimp.The succession of Microalgae in the mid-phase was more frequent by weather interference.But due to undesirable algae in pond 1 and pond 2 ,their resistance to severe weather was weaker than the one in pond 3 and pond 4.In the final phase,the dominant species'number reduced and their dominance was prominent,and Oscillatoria bloom well,but the shrimp in pond 1 fell sick.The result showed that the algae composed by excellent dominant species could play a positive role in stabilizing the environment,and effectively resisted the interference by the weather interference,eventually.The shrimp grow health and culture efficiency was good.However,the algae composed by the undesirable microalgae could bring stress to the shrimp growth,increased the risk of culture, and reduced the culture efficiency.%研究了凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)滩涂土池半集约化养殖池塘浮游微藻优势种的变动规律,并结合养殖环境质量进行了分析.共检出微藻优势种16种,养殖前期优势

  3. Effect of antimicrobial peptide APNT-6 produced by Bacillus natto on fresh-keeping of Litopenaeus vannamei at low temperature%纳豆菌抗菌肽APNT-6对凡纳滨对虾的低温保鲜效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 孙力军; 王雅玲; 刘唤明; 徐德峰; 邓楚津; 杜焕妍; 励建荣

    2012-01-01

    A new biological preservative—antimicrobial peptide APNT-6 produced by Bacillus natto NT-6 and purified by column chromatography will be applied in the fresh-keeping of Litopenaeus vannamei. Bacillus antimicrobial peptides are a series of lipopeptides substances produced by represented Bacillus strains of B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. natto, which include surfactin, iturin, fengycin, subtilin and so on. Numerous studies show that Bacillus antimicrobial peptides have a startling range of antimicrobial activities that can include action against most Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, enveloped viruses, and eukaryotic parasites. Recently, our research group isolated a highly antibiotic activity and largely antimicrobial spectrum strain—B. natto NT-6 from the Chinese traditional food—lobster sauce. According to the mass spectrometry (ESI /MS /CID) analysis,we know the mainly antimicrobial substances produced by this strain is Bacillus antimicrobial peptides, mainly including surfactin, fengycin, and iturin(called after APNT-6). Through oral acute toxicity in mice we found that its LDso greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight, indicating that antimicrobial peptide APNT-6 has high food safety. In this paper, the antibacterial activities of antimicrobial peptide on spoilage organisms were determined by Oxford cup assay. Then the quality changes of L vannamei during storage at (4±1) ℃ were investigated, including the pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), aerobic plate count (APC) and sensory assessment. The results showed that antimicrobial peptide APNT-6 can effectively inhibit 8 strains of spoilage organisms isolated from L. vannamei. During storage at (4±1) ℃, with the extension of storage time, the gradually increasing values of pH, TVB-N and APC of L.vannamei were observed during the 7 days storage. However, incubated 0.5 mg/mL antimicrobial peptide can effectively slow down the value increasing, which extends the shelf-life of L

  4. IMMUNE-RELATED GENES EXPRESSION AND PHAGOCYTOSIS AGAINST WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS AFTER ORAL DELIVERY OF VP28 USING BACILLUS SUBTILIS AS VEHICLES IN LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI%以枯草芽孢杆菌递呈VP28对南美白对虾免疫相关基因表达和细胞特异性吞噬的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晶; 王彦波; 傅玲琳

    2013-01-01

    以枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)为活载体口服递呈对虾白斑综合征病毒(WSSV)囊膜蛋白 VP28,评价其抗病毒感染能力、对南美白对虾免疫相关基因表达以及血淋巴细胞对病毒特异性吞噬的影响。经口服免疫枯草重组菌株B. subtilis-VP28攻毒后,对虾的相对存活率达83.3%。为探讨重组菌株的抗病机理,比较研究了免疫相关基因-proPO(酚氧化酶原)、Peroxinectin(PE)和脂多糖-β-1,3-葡聚糖结合蛋白(LGBP)基因的表达差异,并进一步分析了血淋巴细胞吞噬活性和特异性。结果表明, B. subtilis-VP28菌液能显著提高(P<0.05)对虾proPO、PE和LGBP mRNA的表达水平和血细胞对WSSV的吞噬活性, B. subtilis组对免疫相关基因也有一定的激活作用,而B. subtilis-VP28发酵上清液则能增加血细胞吞噬活性;此外, B. subtilis-VP28菌液组血细胞对WSSV具有特异性吞噬作用。研究为枯草重组菌株B. subtilis-VP28抗WSSV感染作用及其作为特殊功能水产微生态制剂的应用提供了一定的科学依据。%The regulation of immune-related genes expression and phagocytosis of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) were evaluated by oral delivery of VP28 using Bacillus subtilis as vehicles in Litopenaeus vannamei. In our initial ex-periment, by oral delivery of B. subtilis spores harboring VP28 (B. subtilis-VP28) to L. vannamei, the extremely high survival (Relative Percent Survival:83.3%) upon challenge with WSSV can be observed. The differences of genes ex-pression levels of proPO, Peroxinectin (PE) and lipopolysaccharide-and beta-1, 3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) were demonstrated among experimental groups of B. subtilis-VP28 bacterial spores, B. subtilis-VP28 supernatants, B. subtilis and control. The result showed that immune-related genes (proPO, PE and LGBP) were significantly (P<0.05) upregu-lated in both B. subtilis-VP28 bacterial spores and B. subtilis feeding groups compared to B. subtilis-VP28

  5. 饲料中添加核苷酸对凡纳滨对虾幼虾生长、肠道形态及抗氧化酶活力的影响%Effects of dietary nucleotides on growth performance, intestinal morphology and anti-oxidative activities of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丹丹; 曹俊明; 黄燕华; 李雅琪; 蓝汉冰; 陈冰; 陈晓瑛; 严晶; 张荣斌

    2011-01-01

    There has been extensive research into the role of nucleotides and their related metabolic products in aquatic feeds. Nucleotides and metabolites play key roles in many biological processes and are considered conditionally essential nutrients. During periods of rapid growth or certain disease states, dietary nucleotides may spare the cost of de novo nucleotides synthesis and optimize the function of rapidly dividing tissues, such as those in the gastrointestinal and immune systems. Research on dietary nucleotides in aquatic animals has illustrated that they may improve diet palatability, enhance growth in early stages of development, and maintain intestinal and liver health, as well as increase immunity and disease resistance. Despite their apparent importance, little is known about the benefits of supplementary nucleotides in Litopenaeus vannamei. We evaluated the effects of dietary nucleotides on growth, body composition, midgut morphology, and anti-oxidant activity in the hepatopancreas and serum in juvenile L. Vannamei. We randomly assigned 960 shrimp (mean body weight: 1.01 g±0.02 g) into 8 triplicate groups. Group GO (control) was fed a base diet and the remaining seven groups (G0.1, G0.2, G0.4, G0.6, G0.8, G1.0, and G1.2) were fed the base diet supplemented with 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, or 1.2 g/kg, respectively, of a nucleotide mixture containing adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP), cytidine-5'-monophosphate (CMP), uridine-5'- monophosphate disodium salt (UMP), inosine-S'-monophosphate disodium salt (IMP), and guanosine-5'-monophosphate disodium salt (GMP) (1:1:1:1:1 w/w, mix-NT). All groups were fed their respective diets three times a day (8:00, 15:00, and 20:00) at the same fixed rate, which ranged from 4% to 6% of body weight, for 7 weeks. Specific growth rate (SGR) and survival (SR) tended to increase as the concentration of the dietary mix-NT increased, peaking in the group supplemented with 0.6 g/kg, though the differences among the groups were

  6. Floc contribution on spawning performance of blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris

    OpenAIRE

    Emerenciano, Mauricio; Cuzon, Gerard; Goguenheim, Jean; Gaxiola, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    The floc system has been successfully applied for shrimp grow-out, but little is known about floc contribution on reproductive performance. In a 30-day trial, spawning performance of broodstock was evaluated in floc and earthen ponds. Floc spawners achieved better results (P < 0.05) compared with pond spawners in terms of number of spawns per ablated female (2.9 vs. 1.3), spawns per spawning female (3.6 vs. 2.4) and number of consecutive maturation (average of 3.6 times compared with 2.5 time...

  7. 一株芽孢杆菌PC024的鉴定及其抗WSSV感染效果的研究%Isolation and identification of Bacillus sp.and evaluation of its effect on WSSV disease resistance in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳; 宋晓玲; 刘飞; 李玉宏; 黄健

    2013-01-01

    In order to select WSSV disease-resistant strains,a marine Bacillus sp. was isolated and purified from digestive tract from the healthy of Chinese shrimp( Fenneropenaeus chinensis). The morphology and gram stain indicated that the strain is a gram-positive and rod-shaped bacterium, with a single polar flagellum and oval spores. The colony is circular and slightly raised. Identification analyses by the Biolog Carbon Source Utilization, ATB Microbial Identification System, and the fatty acid gas chromatography indicated that the most similar strain in physiological and biochemical characteristics is Bacillus firmus. Phylogenetic analysis with 16S rRNA sequence showed that it has 100% homology with the previously reported Bacillus firmus. The cultured strain PC024 was added to feed by conglutinating to the surface of the pellets and fed to Litopenaeus vannamei. After feeding for 20 d,the shrimp was challenged with WSSV by intramuscular injection to observe the cumulative mortality in 14 d post-challenge. The results showed that the experimental group fed with the strain PC024 had a relative survival rate of 33. 7% in comparison with the control group. The immune-related enzyme activity in the serum and hepatopancreas of shrimp in the experimental group was significantly increased than the control group. And the total number of bacteria of the intestine of the experimental group is always significantly higher than that of the control group and Bacillus firmus can be isolated from the experimental group. This study suggests that the Bacillus firmus PC024 can be used as the WSSV disease prevention probiotic strains and can further be used in shrimp farming.%为了筛选WSSV的防病益生菌株,从健康中国明对虾消化道分离纯化一株芽孢杆菌PC024,经Biolog碳源利用反应、ATB微生物自动鉴定系统、脂肪酸气相色谱分析得出该菌株与坚强芽孢杆菌的生理生化特性最为相似,该菌株为革兰氏阳性菌,有一根端极鞭

  8. 不同放苗密度凡纳滨对虾生物絮团养殖的环境和产出效应%The environmental and production effect of bio-floc aquaculture of Litopenaeus vannamei at different stocking densities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张许光; 赵培; 王国成; 王秀华; 潘鲁青; 黄倢

    2013-01-01

    A 113-day experiment was conducted to investigate the efficiency of bio-floc aquaculture technology (BFA) for water quality control,disease resistance and growth of Litopenaeus vannamei in intensive farming systems at different stocking densities.The experiment was carried out on traditional farming treatments (TF200,TF400,and TF600) and BFA farming treatments (BF200,BF400,and BF600) at stocking densities of 200,400 and 600 ind/m2,respectively.The six groups of shrimp were kept in 18 indoor cement tanks.Bio-flocs were developed in BFA farming tanks by adding sucrose and probiotic with very little water exchange during the experiment.Traditional farming treatments were cultured with traditional methods.It was found that the water quality,special growth rate and survival rate of the shrimp deteriorated or reduced with the increase of stocking density in all treatments.However,BFA at stocking density of 400 ind/m2 revealed advantage in closed farming systems of L.vannamei,compared with the traditional farming at the same stocking density (TF400).In BF400,the bio-floc volume increased by 3.25-fold,while the concentrations of nitrite-N and ammonia-N decreased by 67.9% and 72.7%,respectively; Water consumption decreased about 33%,and body weight,survival,special growth rate and production per unit of L.vannamei increased by 14.5%,156.3%,2.4%,and 194.1%,respectively.The production of BFA farming at stocking density of 400 ind/m2 (BF400) was 4.01-4-0.94 kg/m2,showing the best environmental and production effect.%本研究尝试将生物絮团养殖技术(Bio-floc aquaculture technology,BFA)应用到凡纳滨对虾高密度养殖系统中,研究生物絮团在凡纳滨对虾不同放苗密度下的水质调控、对虾生长及存活等方面的作用效果.试验将200、400和600尾/m2的放苗密度分为传统养殖组(TF200、TF400和TF600)和絮团养殖组(BFA)(BF200、BF400和BF600)共6组,分别在18个室内水泥池中进行,其中BFA组通过添

  9. 凡纳滨对虾细菌性红体病病原的分子特征与耐药性%Molecular characteristics and antimicrobial sensitivity of bacterial pathogen from the outbreak of Litopenaeus vannamei red-body disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健舜; 朱凝瑜; 孔蕾; 丁雪燕; 郑天伦; 杜建明

    2012-01-01

    Red-body disease is one of the most severe diseases of Litopenaeus vannamei. An outbreak of L.vannamei red-body disease happened in a large-scale breeding farm in Zhejiang Province, 2011, with the mortality rate of >90%. A total of ten bacterial isolates were collected from the hepatopancreas of diseased shrimps, which were responsible for this outbreak. These isolates were identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus by Vitek and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) based on the concatenated genes dnaE-gyrB-recA-dtdS-pntA-pyrC-tnaA demonstrated that these isolates belonged to three novel sequence types (ST), with one isolate to ST413, seven to ST414 and two to ST415. ST413 contained two novel allelic profiles, recA-166 and tnaA-\\2\\, and ST414 harbored one novel allelic profile, gyrB-219. These novel allelic profiles and STs had been confirmed and deposited by the MLST website (http://pubmlst.org/vparahaemolyticus/). MLST results indicated these V parahaemolyticus isolates did not originate from the same clone and exhibited remarkable genetic diversity. On the other hand, all of these isolates contained molecular markers for pandemic group, including a unique sequence within the toxRS operon, encoding transmembrane proteins involved in the regulation of virulence-associated genes, and VPA1168 within an 16-kb insertion, which encodes a hypothetical protein with approximately 80% similarity to the Mn2+ and Fe2+ transporter in V.vulnificus. Also these isolates had the same virulence-associated gene composition (tlh+tdt-trh-TSSSl+TSSSI} and antimicrobial sensitivity profiling. Absence of tdh and trh, which had traditionally been thought to be critical for the virulence of V. parahaemolyticus, did not lead to the reduction of bacterial pathogenicity in L.vannamei. Overall, these V. parahaemolyticus isolates might represent distinct variants within PG%为探明引起凡纳滨对虾细菌性红体病的病原,从病虾肝胰脏分离得到10株优势

  10. Physical and chemical properties of pigmented oil obtained from shrimp heads; Evaluacion fisico-quimica de aceite pigmentado obtenido de la cabeza de camaron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Gastelum, J. A.; Sanchez-Machado, D. I.; Lopez-Cervantes, J.; Paseiro-Losada, P.; Sendon, R.; Sanchez-Silva, A. T.; Costa, H. S.; Aurrekoetxea, G. P.; Angulo, I.; Soto-Valdez, H.

    2011-07-01

    In this work the proximal analysis, physicochemical characterization, fatty acid profile and astaxanthin content of pigmented oil obtained by fermentation shrimp heads are presented. Lipids are the major components in the oil (95%). The saponification number is 178.62 mg KOH/g, iodine value 139.8 cg iodine/g, and the peroxide value was not detected. Density and viscosity were 0.92 mg/ml and 64 centipoises, respectively. The highest contents of fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2n6), oleic (C18:1n9) and palmitic (C16:0). Eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3, DHA) account for 9% of the total. The content of astaxanthin was 2.72 mg/g dry weight. The pigmented oil is a dietary source of nutrients with high value such as astaxanthin. (Author) 45 refs.

  11. Improved interspecific selectivity of nylon shrimp (Heterocarpus reedi trawling in Chile Mejoramiento de la selectividad interespecífica en arrastre de camaron nailon (Heterocarpus reedi en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Queirolo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the inter-specific selectivity of a new bottom trawl design for demersal crustaceans, an experimental attempt was carried out to compare the shrinkage effect in length of net structure accessories, particularly shorter bridles and sweeps, based on previous studies on escape behavior of gadiform fishes. For this purposes, an experimental fishing for nylon shrimp (Heterocarpus reedi was carried out on board of two trawler vessels. The results showed no significant differences in catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE for the target species between gears and significant reductions (p Con la finalidad de mejorar la selectividad interespecífica de un nuevo diseño de red de arrastre de fondo de crustáceos demersales, se efectuó una experiencia destinada a probar el efecto del acortamiento de la longitud de las estructuras anexas de la red, específicamente estándares y malletas, basado en investigaciones similares respecto del comportamiento de escape de peces gadiformes. Para ello, se realizó una pesca experimental de camarón nailon (Heterocarpus reedi con dos embarcaciones arrastreras. Los resultados mostraron que el arte de arrastre modificado, respecto del tradicional, presentó rendimientos de pesca (CPUE sin diferencias significativas para el recurso objetivo y disminuciones significativas (valor p < 0,05 en la principal especie de fauna acompañante, Merluccius gayi, cuyos rendimientos de pesca promedio disminuyeron 5,6 kg h-1 (19,2% y 35,7 kg h-1 (47,5% en cada nave.

  12. 饲料中添加核苷酸对凡纳滨对虾幼虾生长、组织生化组成及非特异性免疫功能的影响%Effects of dietary nucleotides on growth performance, tissue biochemical composition and non-specific immunity of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俊明; 许丹丹; 黄燕华; 蓝汉冰; 陈冰; 赵红霞; 蒋卫亮; 陈晓瑛

    2011-01-01

    量、蛋白质沉积率、全虾粗脂肪和灰分含量,一定程度提高全虾粗蛋白和肝胰腺总蛋白含量,显著增加肝胰腺RNA、肠道总蛋白和RNA含量,提高对虾的非特异性免疫功能.%This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary nucleotides on growth performance,body composition, tissue biochemical composition and non-specific immunity of juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).960 shrimp(0.43 ±0.01 ) g were randomly allocated into 8 groups.The control group was fed with the basal diet,while the other seven groups were fed with the basal diet added with 0.1,0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 g/kg mixture of adenosine-5'-monophosphate ( AMP ), cytidine-5'-monophosphate ( CMP), uridine-5'-mono- phosphate disodium salt ( UMP), inosine-5 '-monophosphate disodium salt (IMP) and gnanosine-5'-monophosphate disodium salt(GMP) ( 1: 1: 1: 1: 1 W/W, mix-NT) respectively.After 5 weeks feeding, the results showed that weight gain rate (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR)and feed intake (FI) in shrimp fed 0.4 g/kg mix-NT were significantly higher than those in the control group ( P < 0.05 ).Protein deposit rate (PDR) in 0.6 and 1.0 g/kg groups increased significantly compared with the control group.No significant difference was found among all the treatments in feed conversion rate ( FCR), survival rate ( SR ) and hepatosomafic index ( HSI ) ( P > 0.05 ).The crude lipid and ash content were significantly affected by the dietary mix-NT levels ( P < 0.05 ), while the dry matter and protein content showed no significant difference (P > 0.05).RNA content in hepatopancreas increased significantly (P < 0.05 ) with dietary mix~NT increasing, TP content was not significantly affected ( P > 0.05 ).TP and RNA content in intestine increased significantly with dietary nucleotides increasing( P <0.05).The uric acid( UA)content in serum decreased significantly in 0.6 g/kg group and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (GOT) activity increased

  13. Determinación del flujo de agua para la biorremediación en sistemas recirculados acuaculturales utilizando tapetes microbianos construidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jiménez-Montealegre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del flujo de agua sobre la eficiencia de tapetes microbianos para remover nitrógeno amoniacal total (NAT, N-NH4+ + N-NH3, nitritos (N-NO2-, nitratos (N-NO3- y ortofosfatos (P-PO4-3 en un sistema de recirculación piloto para el cultivo de camarón blanco del Pacífico, Litopenaeus vannamei. Se evaluaron cuatro flujos de agua durante un período de 40 días: 5,2 ± 0,3 (A, 6,6 ± 1,3 (B, 8,4 ± 0,3 (C y 12,2 ± 0,7 (D L min-1. Las concentraciones de NAT y nitritos fueron significativamente menores (P 0,05, y su concentración en los sistemas de cultivo alcanzó valores de 4,63 ± 0,76 mg L-1. La tasa de crecimiento de los camarones se mantuvo cercana al valor esperado de 0,7 g semana-1. En este trabajo se demostró que el flujo de agua posee un efecto importante en la capacidad de los tapetes microbianos para la biorremediación de amonio y nitritos en sistemas recirculados. Se recomienda continuar con la identificación de otras variables que podrían afectar el óptimo funcionamiento de los tapetes microbianos.

  14. Pesquisa de anticorpos contra Leptospira spp. em animais silvestres e em estado feral da região de Nhecolândia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil: utilização da técnica de imuno-histoquímica para detecção do agente Investigation of antibodies to Leptospira spp. in wild and feral animals from the region of Nhecolândia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: use of the immunohistochemistry technique for the agent detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul José Silva Girio

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinadas 315 amostras de soros sangüíneos de diversas espécies de animais que vivem em estado feral ou silvestre na região de Nhecolândia, Corumbá, MS, por meio da prova de soroaglutinação microscópica para leptospirose. Dessas amostras, 67 foram de bois baguás (Bos taurus indicus, 39 de porcos-monteiros (Sus scrofa, 39 de búfalos (Bubalus bubalis, nove de quatis (Nasua nasua, 41 de veados-campeiros (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, 10 de veados-mateiros (Mazama americana e 110 amostras de ovinos (Ovis aries. Em 12 animais que vieram a óbito, seis porcos-monteiros, quatro veados-campeiros e dois ovinos, foram realizadas tentativas de isolamento de Leptospira do fígado e dos rins por cultura em meio semi-sólido. Fragmentos desses órgãos foram submetidos a exame histopatológico e também a exame para detecção das Leptospiras pela técnica de imuno-histoquímica. Os resultados dos exames sorológicos mostraram que 64 (20,3% das amostras foram reagentes para, pelo menos, um sorovar de Leptospira patogênica; foram reagentes 41,0% das amostras de búfalos, 40,3% das de bois baguás, 17,9% das de porcos-monteiros, 9% das de ovinos e 9,7% das amostras de veados-campeiros; nenhuma das amostras de veados-mateiros e de quatis foi reagente. Os sorovares mais freqüentes foram: pomona, para búfalos e ovinos; icterohaemorrhagiae, para ovinos, veados-campeiros e suínos; e copenhageni, para veados-campeiros e suínos. As tentativas de isolamento dos rins e fígados foram todas negativas, e pela técnica da imuno-histoquímica foi detectada Leptospira no fígado de um porco-monteiro. As principais alterações estruturais, encontradas nos rins de dois veados-campeiros e de um porco-monteiro, foram infiltrado inflamatório intersticial com congestão associada a hemorragias.Three hundred and fifteen serum samples of several animal species living in wild or in feral state in the area of Nhecolândia, Corumbá, MS, Brazil, were examined by the

  15. Surveillance of arbovirus infections in the atlantic forest region, State of São Paulo, Brazil: I. detection of hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies in wild birds between 1978 and 1990 Vigilância de infecções por arbovírus na Região da Mata Atlântica, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil.: I. Detecção de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação em aves silvestres entre 1978 e 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivani B. Ferreira

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available We report data related to arbovirus antibodies detected in wild birds periodically captured from January 1978 to December 1990 in the counties of Salesópolis (Casa Grande Station, Itapetininga and Ribeira Valley, considering the different capture environments. Plasmas were examined using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI tests. Only monotypic reactions were considered, except for two heterotypic reactions in which a significant difference in titer was observed for a determined virus of the same antigenic group. Among a total of 39,911 birds, 269 birds (0.7% belonging to 66 species and 22 families were found to have a monotypic reaction for Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE, Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE, Western equine encephalitis (WEE, Ilheus (ILH, Rocio (ROC, St. Louis encephalitis (SLE, SP An 71686, or Caraparu (CAR viruses. Analysis of the data provided information of epidemiologic interest with respect to these agents. Birds with positive serology were distributed among different habitats, with a predominance of unforested habitats. The greatest diversity of positive reactions was observed among species which concentrate in culture fields.Apresentam-se os resultados referentes a anticorpos para arbovírus em aves silvestres capturadas, periodicamente, de janeiro de 1978 a dezembro de 1990, nos municípios de Salesópolis (Estação de Casa Grande; Itapetininga e municípios do Vale do Ribeira, considerando-se os diferentes ambientes de captura. Plasmas foram examinados, por testes de Inibição de Hemaglutinação (IH. Considerou-se apenas as reações monotípicas, com exceção de duas reações heterotípicas, onde ocorreu uma diferença de título significativa para um determinado vírus de um mesmo grupo antigênico. Em um total de 39.911 aves, foram encontradas 269 aves pertencentes a 66 espécies e 22 famílias, com reação monotípica para os vírus Encefalite Equina do Leste (EEE, Encefalite Equina Venezuelana (VEE

  16. Ciutat de Mallorca, 31 de desembre del 1229: Sant Silvestre, Sant Jordi i Jaume I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Renedo Puig

    2014-07-01

    The words that the king employs when relating the possible miraculous intervention of Saint George in that episode have been interpreted as a sample of the prudence of the monarch in inserting wonderful elements in his chronicle. This article proposes a different interpretation of the passage, while taking into account several chronistic sources that aim towards a revision of the role that the Crusade plays in the imaginary world of king James the First.

  17. Resistencia a Tuta absoluta en una entrada de la especie silvestre de tomate Solanum pimpinellifolium

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, R.; Rodríguez López, M. J.; Alba Cano, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Fonseca, M.E.N.

    2010-01-01

    [EN]: We previously found resistance to pests (twospotted spider mite and whitefly) based on type IV glandular trichomes and acylsucrose production in an accession of the wild tomato species S. pimpinellifolium from the germplasm collection at the Experimental Station La Mayora – CSIC. Resistance to the South American tomato pinworm of that accession and plant materials derived from it was investigated in greenhouse conditions at CNPH (Brasilia, Brazil) and, when Tuta absoluta ...

  18. Evaluación de la actividad antihipertensiva de nutraceuticos de fresa silvestre y comercial

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez Ramos, Ma. Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    La fresa es una frutilla que contiene compuestos nutracéuticos tales como: compuestos fenólicos, flavonoides y antocianinas, los cuales presentan una gran gama de actividades biológicas, incluyendo la actividad antioxidante, anticancerígena, antiinflamatoria, antihipertensiva, entre otras. Recientemente se ha reportado que la capacidad antioxidante de los compuestos nutracéuticos de diferentes bayas puede estar involucrada en la reducción de la presión arterial. La hipertensión...

  19. Aspectos Epidemiológicos de la Enfermedad de Newcastle en Aves Silvestres de Vida Libre

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Vargas-Castillo; Diego Soler-Tovar

    2014-01-01

    El virus de la enfermedad de Newcastle (NDV) pertenece al género Avulavirus, serotipo paramixovirus aviar tipo 1, de la familia Paramyxoviridae. Es altamente contagiosa ya que se ha demostrado que es capaz de infectar a por lo menos 241 especies, de 27 de los 50 órdenes de aves en el mundo; su patogenicidad está dada por el huésped y el tipo de cepa que presente el animal; se manifiesta con signos clínicos relacionados con el sistema respiratorio, digestivo o nervioso en relación al tipo de c...

  20. Actividade antioxidante de cogumelos silvestres comestíveis: Leucopaxillus giganteus, Sarcodon imbricatus e Agaricus arvensis

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Queirós, Bruno; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Baptista, Paula

    2007-01-01

    A azeitona de mesa é um alimento tradicionalmente incluído na dieta Mediterrânica. sendo considerada uma fonte importante de antioxidantes naturais nomeadamente composto fenólicos e vitamina E. A presença destes compostos nos alimentos tem sido relacionada com uma menor taxa de incidência de doenças coronárias nos países da Bacia do Mediterrâneo.

  1. Epidemiology and control of wild rabies in Italy / Epidemiologia e profilassi della rabbia silvestre in Italia

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Giovannini; Santino Prosperi

    1991-01-01

    Abstract The authors analyse biological characteristics of the fox Vulpes vulpes with regard to the epidemiology of sylvatic rabies in Italy. Emphasis is put on the lack of deepen studies both on fox population densities, and on important behavioural habits. A retrospective analysis of wild rabies epidemics in Italy from 1977 to 1988 has shown: 1) the spread of rabies by 20 to 80 km/year; 2) the existence of three/four year oscillations, clea...

  2. Gestión forestal sostenible de masas de pino silvestre en el Pirineo Navarro

    OpenAIRE

    Federico J. Castillo; J. Bosco Imbert; Juan A. Blanco; Carmen Traver; Fernando Puertas

    2003-01-01

    La política forestal actual se caracteriza por un compromiso hacia una gestión ecológicamente sostenible de los ecosistemas forestales. Para poder realizarla es necesario conocer los factores que afectan al uso de los bosques, entre los cuales los hay de tipo social, económico, legal, técnico y ecológico. Los beneficios que producen los bosques podrían desaparecer si la estabilidad de las masas forestales es afectada por las actividades humanas. Asumiendo que la explotación de los...

  3. Diversidad de Piojos de Aves Silvestres en Bosque Seco Tropical al Norte del Tolima -resumen-

    OpenAIRE

    M K Ariza-Lozano; Gloria María Ariza-Lozano; M J Gómez-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Los Phthiraptera son insectos ápteros dorsoventralmente aplanados. Se encuentran divididos en cuatro subórdenes de los cuales Amblycera e Ischnocera son los que parasitan aves. En Colombia los estudios de ectoparásitos son escasos en comparación con otros grupos de insectos‚ los existentes poseen un enfoque generalmente taxonómico. Con respecto al departamento del Tolima hasta el momento se ha realizado una única investigación en la que se identificaron los organismos hasta el nivel de famili...

  4. 饲料锌添加水平对凡纳滨对虾免疫抗菌机能和溶菌酶mRNA及Toll受体mRNA表达的影响%Effects of zinc supplementation in diet on the immunity,Vibrio-resistant ability,lysozyme mRNA and Toll receptor mRNA expressions in the white shrimp(Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭腾飞; 黄旭雄; 苏明; 王武刚; 怀向军; 胡盼; 严佳琦; 吕丹; 黄征征

    2011-01-01

    在基础饲料中添加不同水平蛋氨酸锌(添加水平分别为0,50、150mgZn/kg)并饲喂凡纳滨对虾,养殖14d后,取样测定对虾鳃组织中Toll受体mRNA和溶菌酶mRNA的表达水平以及肝胰腺、肌肉和血淋巴中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和溶菌酶(LSZ)活性,并进行溶藻弧菌人工急性感染试验.结果表明,凡纳滨对虾肝胰腺及肌肉中锌蓄积水平随饲料锌添加量的增加而显著增加(P<0.05),肝胰腺中锌蓄积更明显.添加50mgZn/kg组(锌含量为73.25mgZn/kg饲料)对虾鳃组织中的Toll受体mRNA和溶菌酶mRNA表达量均显著高于未添加锌组和添加150mgZn/kg组(P<0.05).添加50mgZn/kg组对虾肌肉、肝胰腺和血淋巴中溶菌酶活性显著高于未添加锌组(P<0.05).添加50mgZn/kg组对虾肝胰腺和血淋巴中的SOD活性也显著高于未添加锌组,但与添加150mg n/kg组无显著差异.而肌肉中SOD活性在添加150mgZn/kg组中最高.经溶藻弧菌人工急性感染后,添加50mgZn/kg组对虾半致死时间和全致死时间大于未添加锌组和添加150mgZn/kg组.本研究表明,相比摄食未添加锌组饲料和添加150mgZn/kg组饲料,凡纳滨对虾的免疫抗菌机能在摄取添加50mgZn/kg(锌含量为73.25mgZn/kg饲料)饲料时得到改善.%Experiments were conducted to study the effects of dietary zinc supplementation on the immune gene expression and immunity and disease-resistant ability of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). The shrimp were fed with 3 zinc methionine diets ( supplemented at 0,50,150 mg Zn/kg diet respectively) respectively for 14 days. Then the expressions of Toll Receptor mRNA and lysozyme mRNA in gill and superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) activity and lysozyme ( LSZ) activity in hepatopancreas, muscle and haemolymph were assayed respectively. The shrimp treated with different zinc diets were also challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus. The results showed that the zinc levels in hepatopancreas and muscle of shrimp significantly

  5. Is it possible to raise, offspring of the 25th generation of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) and 18th generation Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson) in clear water to 40 g?

    OpenAIRE

    Cuzon, Gerard; Arena, Leticia; Goguenheim, Jean; Goyard, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Peneid shrimp are commonly reared in clear-water aquaria or tanks for short-term studies of 4-6 weeks during controlled experiments, such as nutrition studies to estimate dietary nutrient requirements. Recently, in line with the genetic program at Centre Oceanologique du Pacifique (COP), experimental clear-water facilities were tested for the first time over a longer rearing period. Environmental conditions used to maintain animal growth in clear-water system using a well-balanced diet were d...

  6. Physiochemical Changes and Optimization of Phosphate-Treated Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei ) Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Saiah Djebbour; Yang, Je-Eun; Oh, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dae-Wook; Lee, Yang-Bong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the factors responsible for the changed physiochemical properties of unpeeled shrimp treated in cold phosphate solution (2~4°C) with the intervention of 4 factors: phosphate concentration, dipping time, rotation speed, and volume of brine solution. Response surface analysis was used to characterize the effect of the phosphate treatment on shrimps by running 33 treatments for optimizing the experiment. For each treatment, phosphate amount, moisture ...

  7. Acerola Fruit as a Possible Antimelanotic Agent in White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Augusto Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to testify acerola’s inhibitory activity on melanosis in farmed white shrimp (L. vannamei. Shrimp samples underwent immersion in different treatments (control group (C, metabisulphite solution group (M, and acerola solution group (A. Quality Index Method (QIM was used to measure the shrimp shelf life, during 21 days, where microbiological, chemical, and sensory analyses were performed at each 3 days. Groups C and A exceeded the limit of mesophilic bacterial count within 15 days of storage, and for M the period was 18 days. As for the psychrophilic bacteria, C and A both crossed the limit on day 12 and M on the 15th day. Group M had the highest TVBN and pH means, followed by A and lastly C. Yet, TMA analysis showed highest values in group C, second A, and finally M. Sensory analysis determined the shelf life of groups C, M, and A as 10.5, 14.6, and 12.3 days, respectively. There were not many significant differences between the groups in all analyses; hence, dipping shrimp in acerola solutions would not suffice to inhibit melanosis formation. Further studies are needed to fully determine acerola’s antimelanosic potential.

  8. Effects of pesticides on DNA and protein of shrimp larvae Litopenaeus stylirostris of the California Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Reyes, J Guillermo; Leyva, Nancy R; Millan, Olivia A; Lazcano, Guadalupe A

    2002-10-01

    Recently, diverse pathologies and massive mortalities have been presented in shrimp hatcheries located along the California Gulf; therefore, toxic responses of shrimp larvae were used as biomarkers of pesticide pollution, because in this region intensive agriculture is practiced. Shrimp larvae were exposed to DDT, azinphosmethyl, permethrine, parathion, chlorpyrifos, malathion, endosulfan, and carbaryl, in order to determine LC50, DNA adducts and/or breaks, and total protein in larvae. The results indicate reductions in protein and DNA in larvae exposed to these pesticides, and in those exposed to DDT, breaks and/or adducts were registered. It is possible that pesticide pollution is a cause of these problems, because reduction in protein indicates a decrease in larvae growth rate and DNA breaks or adducts have been related to pathologies and carcinogenesis in many aquatic organisms. PMID:12568452

  9. Selection and characterization of potential probiotic bacteria for Litopenaeus stylirostris shrimp hatcheries in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Dominique; Ansquer, Dominique; Chevalier, Anne; Dauga, Clement; Peyramale, Aude; Wabete, Nelly; Labreuche, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    In New Caledonia, shrimp hatcheries are confronted with mass mortality in the larval stages, a phenomenon poorly understood as no specific causative agent has been identified. This has resulted in an excessive use of prophylactic antibiotics, although their adverse effects in aquaculture are notorious. The present work was thus aimed at selecting potential probiotic strains for penaeid hatcheries. From a pool of more than 400 marine bacterial isolates sampled from the local marine environ...

  10. Stylicins, a new family of antimicrobial peptides from the Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris

    OpenAIRE

    Rolland, Jean-Luc; Abdelouahab, Mahdia; Dupont, J.; Lefevre, F.; Bachere, Evelyne; Romestand, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The present study reports the characterization of Ls-Stylicin1, a novel antimicrobial peptide from the penaeid shrimp, Litopenoeus stylirostris. The predicted mature peptide of 82 residues is negatively charged (theoretical pl=5.0) and characterized by a proline-rich N-terminal region and a C-terminal region containing 13 cysteine residues. The recombinant Ls-Stylicin1 has been isolated in both monomeric and dimeric forms. Both display strong antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum (1....

  11. THE EFFECT OF LITOPENAEUS STYLIROSTRIS AQUACULTURE ON MACROALGAE GROWTH IN OPUNOHU BAY, MOOREA, FRENCH POLYNESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Rachel A

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has many effects on the surrounding landscape. In Mo’orea, the only aquaculture operation is a shrimp farm in Opunohu Bay. To test the effect of shrimp farm runoff into the bay, a macroalgae field survey was conducted at different distances from the Opunohu River, where the effluent outlets. Algae cover was used to indicate nutrient concentration. I found that there is no significant relationship between distance from the shrimp farm outlet and algae cover. The red algae Acanthoph...

  12. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio nigripulchritudo, a pathogen of cultured penaeid shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goarant, Cyrille; Reynaud, Yann; Ansquer, Dominique; de Decker, Sophie; Saulnier, Denis; le Roux, Frédérique

    2006-11-01

    A collection of 57 isolates of Vibrio nigripulchritudo from either diseased or healthy shrimp and from shrimp farms environment was studied in order to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen, notably isolated from two distinct shrimp disease complexes. Molecular typing using two different techniques, arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), studied together with experimental pathology data allowed a relevant epidemiological insight into this possibly emerging pathogen. Additionally, results obtained with the two molecular typing techniques were congruent and allowed discriminating the strains associated with the "Summer Syndrome" from strains isolated from other contexts, especially the other shrimp vibriosis "Syndrome 93". These results highlight that the "Summer Syndrome" is most probably caused by an emergent clonal pathogen that therefore deserves surveillance and that AP-PCR can satisfactorily be used for that purpose. PMID:16413158

  13. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio nigripulchritudo, a pathogen of cultured penaeid shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Goarant, Cyrille; Reynaud, Yann; Ansquer, Dominique; De Decker, Sophie; Saulnier, Denis; Leroux, Frederique

    2006-01-01

    A collection of 57 isolates of Vibrio nigripulchritudo from either diseased or healthy shrimp and from shrimp farms environment was studied in order to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen, notably isolated from two distinct shrimp disease complexes. Molecular typing using two different techniques, arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), studied together with experimental pathology data allowed a relevant epidemiological insight into...

  14. "Summer syndrome" in Litopenaeus stylirostris grow out ponds in New Caledonia: zootechnical and environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lemonnier, Hugues; Herbland, Alain; Salery, Lucas; Soulard, Benoit

    2006-01-01

    The "Summer Syndrome", a septicemic vibriosis caused by Vibrio nigripulchritudo, is responsible for one of the two main seasonal mortalities which affect shrimp aquaculture in New Caledonia. It was identified for the first time in December 1997 in an intensive shrimp farm (called farm DF) and has been enzootic ever since. The "Summer syndrome" affects shrimp during warm-season growout. Although the geographic area concerned is limited, it is a potential threat for the industry in that the dis...

  15. Comparative study on the allergenicity of different Litopenaeus vannamei extract solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lisha; Lin, Haixin; Wang, Guoying; Lu, Zongchao; Chen, Guanzhi; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing

    2013-11-01

    Allergen extracts are widely used for allergy diagnosis and treatment. The application of shrimp extract is hampered due to the low protein concentration and the inconsistent allergenicity. Extracting solutions are considered to be the primary limiting factor of protein extraction from crustaceans. This study aimed to select an optimal solution for shrimp protein extraction by comparing the allergenicity of different shrimp extracts. The effect of 7 existing or modified extracting solutions were evaluated, including the glycerol-NaCl solution, the glycerol Cocaine's solution, the buffered saline solution, the Cocaine's solution, the Glucose leaching solution, 1 mol L-1 KCl solution, and 0.01 mol L-1 phosphate buffered saline solution with and without dithiothreitolor (DTT). The quantitative (protein concentration) and qualitative parameters (SDS-PAGE protein patterns and immuno-reactivity) were determined using the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting assay. Results showed that the 1 mol L-1 KCl solution with DTT was optimal for shrimp protein extraction, which yielded high concentration and allergenicity in the protein extract, including major and minor allergens. The 1 mol L-1 KCl solution with DDT is proposed for preparation of shrimp extract and associated allergy diagnosis, as well as potential applications for other crustaceans.

  16. Effects of different enzymatic hydrolysis methods on the bioactivity of peptidoglycan in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yue; Wei, Song; Huang, Jie

    2013-03-01

    The effects of different hydrolysis methods on peptidoglycan (PG) were assessed in terms of their impact on the innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litop enaeus vannamei. PG derived from Bifidobacterium thermophilum was prepared in the laboratory and processed with lysozyme and protease under varying conditions to produce several different PG preparations. A standard shrimp feed was mixed with 0.05% PG preparations to produce a number of experimental diets for shrimp. The composition, concentration, and molecular weight ranges of the soluble PG were analyzed. Serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity in the shrimp were determined on Days 6—31 of the experiment. The protective activity of the PG preparations was evaluated by exposing shrimp to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Data on the composition of the PG preparations indicated that preparations hydrolyzed with lysozyme for 72 h had more low-molecular-weight PG than those treated for 24 h, and hydrolysis by protease enhanced efficiency of hydrolysis compared to lysozyme. SDS-PAGE showed changes in the molecular weight of the soluble PG produced by the different hydrolysis methods. Measurements of serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity levels in the shrimp indicated that the PG preparations processed with enzymes were superior to the preparation which had not undergone hydrolysis in enhancing the activity of the two serum enzymes. In addition, the preparation containing more low-molecular-weight PG enhanced the resistance of the shrimp to WSSV, whereas no increased resistance was observed for preparations containing less low-molecular-weight PG. These findings suggest that the immunity-enhancing activity of PG is related to its molecular weight and that increasing the quantity of low-molecular-weight PG can fortify the effect of immunity enhancement.

  17. Modulation by Biogenic Amines for the Hemocyte Count and Prophenoloxidase Exocytosis via Receptors in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Luqing; LIU Huijie; YU Jinhong

    2011-01-01

    Hemocyte counts and phenoloxidase (PO) activity were examined after hemolymph being incubated in dopamine (DA),noradrenaline (NE) and serotonin (5-HT).Results showed that all the three biogenic amines (BAs) had a significant impact on total hemocyte count (THC),differential hemocyte count (DHC),and intracelluar and extracelluar phenoloxidase (PO) activity.Among these Bas,DA had the strongest effect on the above parameters,whereas 5-HT had the least effect.Preincubation with D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390,D2 receptor antagonist Sulpiride and 1∶1 admixture of the two could significantly inhibit the effect of DA on these parameters.SCH23390 showed a stronger inhibitory effect than Sulpiride,and the admixture exhibited the strongest effect.These results suggested that the change of hemocyte count and activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) system in Litopenaeusvannamei hemocyte can be regulated by BAs,and DA modulates the two parameters via its receptors.

  18. Comparative Study on the Allergenicity of Different Litopenaeus vannamei Extract Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Lisha; LIN Haixin; WANG Guoying; LU Zongchao; CHEN Guanzhi; LIN Hong; LI Zhenxing

    2014-01-01

    Allergen extracts are widely used for allergy diagnosis and treatment. The application of shrimp extract is hampered due to the low protein concentration and the inconsistent allergenicity. Extracting solutions are considered to be the primary limiting factor of protein extraction from crustaceans. This study aimed to select an optimal solution for shrimp protein extraction by com-paring the allergenicity of different shrimp extracts. The effect of 7 existing or modified extracting solutions were evaluated, includ-ing the glycerol-NaCl solution, the glycerol Cocaine’s solution, the buffered saline solution, the Cocaine’s solution, the Glucose leaching solution, 1 mol L-1 KCl solution, and 0.01 mol L-1 phosphate buffered saline solution with and without dithiothreitolor (DTT). The quantitative (protein concentration) and qualitative parameters (SDS-PAGE protein patterns and immuno-reactivity) were deter-mined using the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting assay. Results showed that the 1 mol L-1 KCl solution with DTT was optimal for shrimp protein extraction, which yielded high con-centration and allergenicity in the protein extract, including major and minor allergens. The 1 mol L-1 KCl solution with DDT is pro-posed for preparation of shrimp extract and associated allergy diagnosis, as well as potential applications for other crustaceans.

  19. The Use of Synbiotics to Prevent IMNV and Vibrio harveyi Co-Infection in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADNI OKTAVIANA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects on viral immune responses and bacterial co-infection, of different feeding frequencies of a synbiotic supplemented diet given to Pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei. A synbiotic-supplemented diet was formulated from probiotic Vibrio alginolitycus SKT-bR and prebiotics from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. oligosaccharide. Pacific white shrimp were fed with synbiotic diet at different frequencies, i.e. daily (P1, twice a week (P2, and once a week (P3 for a 30 day pre-challenge test. After the 30 day feeding period, the shrimps were challenged by intramuscular injection of Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV and Vibrio harveyi. The results showed that shrimp treated with a synbiotic-supplemented diet showed significantly higher growth performance than control groups (P<0.05. Shrimp treated under regime P1 showed the highest values for phenoloxidase (PO and respiratory burst (RB parameters compared to shrimp given with other treatments. Following the challenge test, higher survival rate were seen in the P1 treatment group, in comparison to the positive control, and the P1 treatment group showed the highest values in total haemocyte count (THC, PO, and RB.

  20. Selection of proteolytic bacteria with ability to inhibit Vibrio harveyi during white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suntinanalert, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Five isolates of bacteria with high proteolytic activity, isolated from water samples of intensive shrimp ponds in southern Thailand, were selected to test for the ability to control the shrimp pathogen Vibrioharveyi. 70 μl of each culture broth were investigated for their ability to inhibit V. harveyi using an agar well diffusion test but only one isolate W3 gave a reasonable sized inhibition zone of 21.62 mm. This zone wassimilar to that of oxolinic acid (2 μg and sulfamethoxazole (25 μg. The W3 isolate was identified as Pseudomonas sp. Shrimp cultivation in aquaria was conducted to investigate the inhibition of V. harveyi bythe isolate W3. The experiment consisted of a treatment of the shrimp culture with an inoculum of the isolate W3 and V. harveyi (biocontrol set, a positive control set (only inoculation of V. harveyi and a negativecontrol set as without inoculation. No mortality was found in the negative control. Shrimp mortality in the biocontrol set (33% was lower than that in the positive control set (40%; however, it showed no significantdifference (p>0.05. The average numbers of V. harveyi over 12 days of the biocontrol set were lower than those in the positive control set by about 1 log cycle although the numbers were not significantly different(p>0.05. The shrimp growth rate at day 32 of cultivation was in order of the biocontrol treatment (10.17% > the negative control treatment (9.44% > the positive control set (9.28%, but no significant difference (p>0.05 was observed among treatments.