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Sample records for camarones silvestres litopenaeus

  1. Uso de diferentes fármacos para anestesiar camarones Litopenaeus vannamei Boone en prácticas de acuacultura - The use of different drugs to anesthetize shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Boone in aquaculture practices

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    Guzmán-Sáenz, Francisco M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas prácticas rutinarias en camarón como la ablación ocular, inseminación artificial, toma de muestra de hemolinfa, colocación de sistemas de identificación (elastómeros, así como algunos manejos para investigación y transporte se dificultan, producen estrés y riesgo de muerte afectando el bienestar. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar por primera vez el efecto anestésico del Hidrocloruro de lidocaína y el Halothano en el camarónLitopenaeus vannamei como medio para facilitar la práctica médica y el manejo de rutina. Se utilizaron camarones Litopenaeus vannamei de 15 a 20 g de peso, en agua marina con parámetros fisicoquímicos controlados. Se realizaron las pruebas en contenedores con 40 L, uno para cada lote de 5 camarones, probando por separado Hidrocloruro de lidocaína y Halothano a diferentes concentraciones en inmersión, midiendo el tiempo de sedación y anestesia general (AG a diferentes dosis. Para verificar el estado anestésico se utilizaroncomo parámetros, el nado, movimientos, respuesta a la agitación del agua y al contacto físico. Al detectar el estado de anestesia general, se procedió a realizar ablaciones oculares, inseminación artificial, toma de muestra de hemolinfa y colocación de elastómeros. Después los camarones se regresaron a sus contenedores originales con una aireación continua y recambio de agua para establecer el tiempo de recuperación. En base a los resultados, se concluye queel anestesiar camarones con las sustancias propuestas, permite realizar los manejos anteriormente señalados con mayor facilidad y menor riesgo de daño o muerte de los mismos mejorando el bienestar animal. SummaryRoutine experiments on shrimp, such as ocular ablation, artificial insemination, haemolymph sampling, placement of identification systems (elastomeres, and some investigation and transport handling, may become difficult, create stress and a high death risk for the animal, affecting its

  2. Influencia de los parámetros ambientales en el crecimiento de camarones Litopenaeus en el sistema de cultivo semi-intensivo, en la granja " Campa s.a."

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    Pablo Guerrero

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available La influencia de parámetros ambientales (físico-químicos en el desarrollo de camarones Litopeneidos cultivados en el período seco, en una granja cuyo sistema productivo es semi-intensivo, se muestra en las variaciones de su crecimiento. La salinidad el parámetro de mayor influencia, dado que sus fluctuaciones resultaron estadísticamente significativas en tres de los cuatro estanques de producción de camarones de exportación, muestreados en este estudio. La salinidad resultó ser el factor ambiental que mejor explica las variaciones del crecimiento de camarones cultivados (95.4%« c 99.3%, 0.005 c P 0.099, funcionando como parámetro de predicción del crecimiento de ésta especie. El estudio se realizó en la empresa productora de Camarones Camarones del Pacífico S.A (CAMPA S.A, el período comprendido entre octubre/ 1996 a marzo/ 1997.

  3. Uso de diferentes fármacos para anestesiar camarones Litopenaeus vannamei Boone en prácticas de acuacultura - The use of different drugs to anesthetize shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Boone in aquaculture practices

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    Francisco M. Guzmán-Sáenz; González-Alanís, Pablo; Sanchez Martínez, Jesús G; Gutierrez Salazar, Gilberto; Aguirre Guzmán, Gabriel.; Perez-Castañeda, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    ResumenLas prácticas rutinarias en camarón como la ablación ocular, inseminación artificial, toma de muestra de hemolinfa, colocación de sistemas de identificación (elastómeros), así como algunos manejos para investigación y transporte se dificultan, producen estrés y riesgo de muerte afectando el bienestar. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar por primera vez el efecto anestésico del Hidrocloruro de lidocaína y el Halothano en el camarónLitopenaeus vannamei como medio para facilit...

  4. Evaluación del amaranto y la quinua como fuentes reemplazantes a la harina de pescado en dietas para juveniles litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas, Ricardo; Molina, César

    2004-01-01

    Evaluación del amaranto y la quinua como Fuentes reemplazantes a la harina de pescado en dietas para juveniles Litopenaeus vannamei Se realizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio para conocer el efecto de reemplazar la proteína de la harina de pescado por la del amaranto y la quinua sobre el crecimiento de camarones juveniles Litopenaeus vannamei.

  5. Control de la reproducción de camarones marinos

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    Jorge Alfaro Montoya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El entendimiento de la biología reproductiva básica es necesario para el mejoramiento de la producción de gametos de camarones. Esta presentación revisará nuestro conocimiento actual en materia de determinación sexual, control hormonal de la maduración, fertilización, y técnicas para la producción comercial de gametos y desove. La maduración controlada de camarones es una actividad comercial; sin embargo, no se conoce el modelo genético de los sexos, ni se ha desarrollado la reversión de sexos y producción de monosexos. La fertilización in vitro de Penaeus es aun una técnica de bajos rendimientos, y la criopreservación de embriones o larvas no existe. La ablación ocular continúa siendo la técnica de manejo hormonal para la maduración de hembras, aunque la aplicación de serotonina podría ser una alternativa en el futuro cercano. El avance logrado en producción de espermatóforos y en el entendimiento de los problemas asociados con su calidad, son nuevas contribuciones para el mejoramiento de la reproducción controlada de camarones.

  6. Parámetros inmunitaríos en camarones juveniles lv en piscinas camaroneras infectadas con white spot syndrom virus

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    Montesdeoca, Bélgica Mercedes; Ibarra, Eulalia; Rodríguez, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    Parámetros inmunitarios en camarones juveniles LV en piscinas camaroneras infectadas con White Spot Syndrom Virus Parámetros inmunitarios en camarones juveniles LV en piscinas camaroneras infectadas con White Spot Syndrom Virus

  7. Efecto de Debaryomyces hansenii en la respuesta antioxidante de juveniles de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei

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    María Pacheco M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la respuesta antioxidante [actividad de superóxido dismutasa (SOD y catalasa (CAT] así como la cuenta total de hemocitos (CTH y el contenido de proteínas (CP en camarones (Litopenaeus vannamei expuestos a diferentes dosis y cepas de la levadura Debaryomyces hansenii (DH5, DH6, LL1, y un inmunoestimulante comercial (LAM. Materiales y métodos. Las levaduras fueron cultivadas y suministradas diariamente en concentraciones diferentes (104 – 106 UFC/mL directamente a los tanques de cultivo de los camarones (8 ± 0.2 g mientras que LAM fue aplicado una vez a la semana (0.5 mg/L. Los organismos fueron mantenidos bajo condiciones de laboratorio (28°C, 35%, 80% de recambio diario de agua, dieta comercial para camarón ad libitum. Los tratamientos fueron distribuidos por duplicado y los resultados evaluados a los 15 días con un análisis de varianza y una prueba de Tukey. Resultados. Se registró un CTH significativo (p<0.05 en los tratamientos con DH6 y LL1 (106 UFC/mL comparada con el control, mientras que las cepas DH5 y DH6 revelaron un incremento significativo (p<0.05 de CP con la dosis de 104 UFC/mL. Los camarones tratados con LAM incrementaron significativamente (p<0.05 los valores de SOD y CAT. Conclusiones. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que D. hansenii incrementa la respuesta antioxidante y CTH en camarones.

  8. Requerimientos nutricionales de juveniles de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus schmitti): evaluación de dietas prácticas

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo, J; Fraga, I.; de Arazoza, M.; S. Alvarez; Ramos, D.; González, R.

    2002-01-01

    Con el objetivo de determinar el efecto de diferentes relaciones proteína/energía (P/E), sobre el crecimiento de juveniles de Camarón Blanco Litopenaeus schmitti , mediante la utilización de dietas prácticas, se desarrolló un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, a escala de laboratorio, durante 59 días. Se evaluaron 12 dietas con diferentes niveles de inclusión de proteínas, lípidos y carbohidratos. El crecimiento fue mayor en los camarones que se alimentaron con las...

  9. Cultivo tierra adentro de camarón marino Litopenaeus vannamei: evaluación del agua de dos granjas acuícolas en Cuba

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    B. Jaime-Ceballos; J. E. Cabrera-Machado; F. Vega-Villasante

    2012-01-01

    La base científica para la realización con éxito del cultivo de camarones tierra adentro, está en la evaluación del origen y la composición del agua a emplear, cuya calidad debe ser establecida como premisa para su uso posterior. Para lograr satisfactoriamente el cultivo del camarón marino Litopenaeus vannamei, en el Municipio Guamá (Santiago de Cuba, Cuba), a una salinidad de 3 ups, se analizaron muestras de agua de dos fuentes de abasto ubicadas en la granja de acuicultura Sevilla y la es...

  10. Abundancia de juveniles de camarones peneidos comerciales en la zona norte de Laguna Madre, México Abundance of the commercial penaeid shrimp juveniles in the North zone of Laguna Madre, Mexico

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    Armando T. Wakida-Kusunoki

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se tomaron muestras mensuales de agosto del 2005 a noviembre del 2006, para analizar los cambios de abundancia de juveniles de camarones peneidos comerciales en la parte norte de Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas. En cada una de las nueve estaciones de muestreo se realizó un arrastre nocturno, utilizando una red tipo chinchorro, de tamaño de malla de 1.25 cm y seis metros de longitud de relinga inferior. Se observaron tres especies de peneidos comerciales y cada una de ellas tuvo sus valores más altos de abundancia en diferentes periodos del año. El camarón café, Farfantepenaeus aztecus fue más abundante de abril-mayo; el camarón rosado, Farfantepenaeus dourarum en diciembre-enero y el camarón blanco, Litopenaeus setiferus en julio y septiembre. Estos resultados muestran que estas especies tienen un uso temporal diferencial en Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas.Monthly samplings were carried out during August, 2005 to November, 2006 to analizing the changes of the abundance of commercial juvenile penaeid shrimps in the North part of Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas. In every nine points a night trawl were carried out using a seine net of mesh size of 1.25 cm and 6 m length of bottom rope. Three commercial penaeid shrimp species were found and each one presented high abundance values for different periods of the year. Brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, in April-May period; pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus dourarum, in December-January, and the white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus in July and September. These results showed that different species presented a differential temporal use in Laguna Madre.

  11. Efecto de la salinidad sobre la fisiología energética del camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone Effect of salinity on physiological energetics of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone

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    Gustavo Valdez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el balance energético en juveniles de Litopenaeus vannamei, aclimatados a la salinidad como hiperosmóticos (20 ups, isosmóticos (26 ups, o hiposmóticos (32 ups. Además, se calculó la razón atómica O:N. La tasa de ingestión, el consumo de oxígeno, la excreción de amonio y el campo de crecimiento fueron afectados significativamente (p 0.05 en los camarones expuestos a las tres salinidades. Para optimizar las condiciones de cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei se recomienda mantener a los juveniles en la salinidad para la cual es isosmótico (26 ups, evitando el estrés ambiental, lo que desde el punto de vista fisiológico se canaliza en una mayor cantidad de energía hacia el campo de crecimiento.The energy balance was determined with in Litopenaeus vannamei, juveniles acclimated to salinity where they were hyperosmotic (20 ups, isosmotic (26 ups, and hypo-osmotic (32 ups. Also O:N atomic ratio was calculated. The ingestion rate, oxygen consumption, ammonium excretion and scope for growth were affected significantly (p 0.05 in the shrimps exposed to the three salinities. We recommend maintaining Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles at the salinity level which is isosmotic (26 ups, where they are free of environmental stress, these conditions for white shrimp juveniles would enhance production in the cultivation of this species.

  12. Lectina en L. Setiferus una alternativa en cultivo ante Enfermedades que Afectan al Cultivo de Camarones (Lectins from L. setiferus a possible solution for Culture Shrimp Diseases

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    Juan Alpuche

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de camarones peneidos, es una actividad que genera ganancias del orden de billones de dólares en países como Ecuador, Brasil, China, y Tailandia. La mayor parte de la producción de estos países, se basan en el cultivo de Litopenaeus monodon. En América latina, Litopenaeus vannamei es la especie cultivada mas importante. Durante la rápida expansión de la camaronicultura, ha estado plagada por enfermedades, convirtiéndose en el problema más grande de la industria, causando perdidas millonarias en la industria; La mayoría de las enfermedades se hicieron evidentes en la última década del siglo pasado, en donde la mayoría de dichas enfermedades fueron causadas por virus que afectan a los camarones peneidos. El camarón blanco del Golfo de México aparenta ser una especie muy resistente a enfermedades virales, es por ello, que L. setiferus es considerada como una especie potencial para el desarrollo de esta actividad; estudios enfocados a conocer como funcionan los mecanismos de defensa en esta especie, son de vital importancia para el desarrollo planeado de la producción y el cultivo de la especie. La investigación del sistema inmune en la especie ha demostrado que es posible aumentar la resistencia a enfermedades, mediante la ingestión sustancias que modulen al sistema inmune y mediante programas que involucran prácticas básicas de buen manejo. El diagnostico de la enfermedad es difícil de realizar, si no se presentan síntomas o signos,. Para esto, se sugiere, que pueden usarse biomarcadores, mediante los cuales se puede monitorear el estado de salud de los organismos. Las lectinas son glicoproteínas de reconocimiento de carbohidratos, que se encuentran en la hemolinfa de crustáceos, considerando las características bioquímicas de las lectinas descubiertas, las hacen candidatas a ser usadas como marcardores de salud. Se pueden observar similitudes en cuanto a especificidad de lectinas encontradas a lo largo de

  13. Respuesta inmunomoduladora de la superóxido dismutasa en juveniles de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei expuestos a inmunoestimulantes

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    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la actividad inmunomoduladora de la manganeso superóxido dismutasa (MnSOD en juveniles de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei expuestos a diferentes inmunoestimulantes. Organismos cuyo peso varió entre 0.7 y 1.0 g fueron inmersos durante 6 h en soluciones de β-glucano, lipopolisacárido (LPS, fucoidán, y Vibrio penaeicida muerto por calor. Se determinó la actividad enzimática de la MnSOD en los organismos para evaluar si los diferentes inmunoestimulantes utilizados eran capaces de inducir actividad antioxidante. Los inmunoestimulantes probados activaron el sistema inmune de los camarones, mostrando un incremento generalizado en la respuesta antioxidante 48 h después del ensayo. El mayor incremento en la actividad de la enzima (3.2 veces superior al grupo control se registró cuando se utilizó la bacterina. Se expusieron los camarones a V. penaeicida 10 días después de la exposición a los inmunoestimulantes, obteniendo un incremento en la actividad antioxidante de los camarones expuestos previamente a β-glucano, LPS y fucoidán. La respuesta enzimática más alta se obtuvo con los organismos estimulados con β-glucano (2.5 veces superior al control. Este estudio demostró la capacidad de los juveniles de camarón para mejorar la respuesta antioxidante después de ser expuestos a inmunoestimulantes y a una bacteria patógena.

  14. Estudio de la expresión del arnm de neuropéptidos del cerebro y ganglio torácico de hembras de litopenaeus vannamei durante el ciclo reproductivo

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    Fresneda, Adriana; Nieto, Julia

    2002-01-01

    Estudio de la expresión del ARNm de neuropéptidos del cerebro y ganglio torácico de hembras de Litopenaeus vannamei durante el ciclo reproductivo Para la cría de camarón en cautiverio se trabaja con nauplios producidos en laboratorio a través de la maduración de reproductores, ya sean silvestres o levantados en las granjas camaroneras.

  15. Biología de los camarones Peneidos del manglar de Guadalupe

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    Rojas-Beltrán, Ricardo

    1981-01-01

    Durante el desarrollo de dos campañas preliminares en 1976 hemos podido recolectar ocho especies de Peneidos en el manglar de Guadalupe. Las citaremos en orden de importancia: Penaeus (Melicerlus) aztecus subtilis, P. (M.) brasiliensis, P. (M.) duorarum notialis, P. (Litopenaeus) schmitti, Trachypen

  16. Evidence of Sympatry of Clade A and Clade B Head Lice in a Pre-Columbian Chilean Mummy from Camarones

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    Boutellis, Amina; Drali, Rezak; Rivera, Mario A.; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Three different lineages of head lice are known to parasitize humans. Clade A, which is currently worldwide in distribution, was previously demonstrated to be present in the Americas before the time of Columbus. The two other types of head lice are geographically restricted to America and Australia for clade B and to Africa and Asia for clade C. In this study, we tested two operculated nits from a 4,000-year-old Chilean mummy of Camarones for the presence of the partial Cytb mitochondrial gene (270 bp). Our finding shows that clade B head lice were present in America before the arrival of the European colonists. PMID:24204678

  17. Respuestas Bioquímicas de Camarones Marinos a Factores Ambientales

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    Juan Alpuche;

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Las modificaciones constantes en el medio ambiente marino y los sistemas costeros son ocasionados tanto por desastres naturales como huracanes, terremotos, inundaciones, así como por actividades humanas. En la mayoría de los organismos marinos, las variables ambientales son determinantes de los cambios fisiológicos. Ante alguna modificación en el ambiente ocurren cambios bioquímicos en los organismos que les permiten mantener la homeostasis con su hábitat.El presente trabajo, es una recopilación bibliográfica de las respuestas a variaciones ambientales en peneidos. Se revisaron los cambios generados por variaciones en la temperatura, la geología de las cuencas, contaminantes, salinidad y materia orgánica en el medio marino.Las respuestas bioquímicas de los organismos a cambios químicos en la composición del agua, van desde ajustes en la permeabilidad de las membranas celulares hasta hiperventilación en branquias.Al intervenir la temperatura en los procesos metabólicos de estos organismos, se presentan alteraciones en la regulación de la respuesta inmune, provocando que los mecanismos de defensa se reviertan contra las células propias atacándolas como extrañas.El oxigeno disuelto (OD tiene un papel regulador que está dado por su intervención directa en la capacidad de los organismos para la obtención de energía a partir de la respiración, por la vía de la fosforilación oxidativa.Existen pocos estudios en los cuales se haya evaluado la tolerancia de organismos juveniles o adultos de L. setiferus a contaminantes específicos. Sin embargo, algunos reportes indican que algunas especies resisten más que otras a contaminantes.La salinidad afecta la distribución de animales marinos y estuarinos, por lo cual la distribución de camarones peneidos esta relacionada directamente con gradientes de salinidad formados latitudinalmente.L. setiferus tiene como hábitat un margen geológicamente inactivo, con caracter

  18. Análisis proteomico de la subunidad LSL1 de la lectina del Camaron Blanco del Golfo de Mexico Litopenaeus setiferus

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    Alpuche-Osorno, Ja,b.Pereyra, Ma.,Vazquez, Lc., Agundis, Ca., Rosas, Cd., Zenteno, Ea. a

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Se purificó por filtración en Sephacryl S-300 una subunidad de 84 kDa de la lectina de L. setiferus (LsL1, específica para azucares N-acetilados. Por dicroísmo circular se encontró que LsL1 contiene en su estructura secundaria 49% de hojas plegadas beta y 6.9% de alfa hélices. La secuencia de aminoácidos de la subunidad LsL1 se determinó por MALDI-TOF a partir de péptidos trípticos. Comparando los valores con la base de datos NCBInr (Swiss-Prot 2003/08/06, esta subunidad mostró 23% de similitud con el precursor hemocianina, proteína responsable de la respiración en crustáceos, que a su vez ha sido relacionada con la generación de péptidos de defensa; al alinear el péptido con otras proteínas involucradas con la defensa en crustáceos muestran una similitud del 80% con hemocianina, y profenoloxidasa, por lo que podemos asumir que las lectinas de esta especie participan en procesos de defensa. By filtration in a column of Sephacryll S-300 was purified a subunit of 84 kDa of the lectina of L. setiferus (LsL1, specific for N-acetilated sugars. By Circular dicroism we found that LsL1 in its secondary structure contains 49% of sheet beta and 6.9% of alfa helix. The sequence of amino acids of the subunit LsL1 were assayed from triptic peptides by MALDI-TOF and they had a rank of mass from 768.36 to 3379.76 m/z. Comparing these data with relative values obtained of the database NCBInr (Swiss-Prot 2003/08/06, this protein showed 23% of homology with a precursor of the responsible protein for the respiration in crustaceans, the one that besides has related to the generation of defense peptides. Alignments with other proteins related to mechanisms of defense in crustaceans indicate a homology of the 80% with similar proteins to the hemocyanin, and the profenoloxidase. We can assume that functionally lectinas of this species participate actively in processes of defense.

  19. Effect of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus on the growth performance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei in a sequential polyculture system Efecto de la tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus sobre el crecimiento del camarón blanco del Pacífico (Litopenaeus vannamei, en un sistema de policultivo secuencial

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    Cesar Hernández-Barraza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out at the Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL, University of Arizona, to assess the effect of the addition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, at different densities, on the growth performance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. The growth rate and feed conversion of shrimp, both in polyculture and monoculture, were evaluated. Shrimp-tilapia proportions were 20:8 individuals in Treatment One (T1, 20:4 individuals in Treatment Two (T2 and 20:2 individuals in Treatment Three (T3, while in Treatment Four (T4 shrimp were stocked as a control group with a ratio of 20:0. The experiment lasted for four weeks at 10 ppt water salinity. The shrimp and fish were fed once a day with 8% and 3% of their body weight, respectively, using a 35% protein feed. At the end of the experiment, the average individual weight and best feed conversion ratio were obtained in shrimp polyculture treatment with highest tilapia density 6.08 ± 0.18 g and 1.26 ± 0.01 respectively, while the lowest scores were found in the monoculture treatment with 5.14 ± 0.59 g and 1.35 ± 0.01, respectively (P El presente estudio se llevó a cabo en el Laboratorio de Investigación del Medio Ambiente (ERL. de la Universidad de Arizona, para evaluar el efecto de la adición de la tilapia del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus a diferentes densidades, en el desempeno del crecimiento del camarón blanco del Pacífico (Litopenaeus vannamei. La tasa de crecimiento y conversión alimenticia del camarón, tanto en policultivo y monocultivo, fueron evaluados. Las proporciones de camarón y la tilapia fueron de 20:8 individuos en el tratamiento uno (T1, 20:4 en el tratamiento dos (T2 y de 20:2 en el tratamiento tres (T3, mientras que en el tratamiento cuatro (T4, únicamente fueron sembrados camarones, participando como grupo control con una relación de 20:0. El experimento se realizó durante cuatro semanas y agua a 10 ppm de salinidad. Los camarones y

  20. Effect of hydrosoluble polysaccharides of Macrocystis pyrifera on physiological and metabolic responses of Litopenaeus vannamei infected with Vibrio campbellii Efecto de polisacáridos hidrosolubles de Macrocystis pyrifera sobre las respuestas fisiológicas y metabólicas de Litopenaeus vannamei infectado con Vibrio campbellii

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    Liliana Noemi Sánchez Campos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei between 23 and 32 g of wet weight were injected or submerged in a hydrosoluble polysaccharides extract from Macrocystis pyrifera and infected with Vibrio campbellii. The infection decreased the oxygen consumption rate to 24 mg O2 h-1 kg-1 w.w., in shrimps of the control group, which were only infected with V. campbellii. Immunestimulated shrimps did not decrease their oxygen consumption rate at any hour p.i. (46 mg O2 h-1 kg-1 w.w. maintaining it similar to the pre-injection group. Glucose level in the hemolymph of V. campbellii infected shrimps at two hours p.i. was significantly higher (p > 0.05 than the level of the pre-injection group. L. vannamei injected with the extract showed a significant decrease (p > 0.05 in their glucose level at 12 hours p.i., but at 24 hours p.i. it returned to normal level. Shrimps submerged in the extract showed no significant glucose level difference (p 0.05 immunoestimulated shrimps showed an increase in their total proteins levels. This study concluded that administration of extract of M. pyrifera via injection and immersion in adult white shrimp can be used for immunostimulation purposes.Adultos de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei de entre 23 y 32 g de peso húmedo fueron inyectados o sumergidos en un extracto de polisacáridos hidrosolubles de Macrocystis pyrifera e infectados con Vibrio campbellii. La infección disminuyó la tasa de consumo de oxígeno a 24 mg O2 h-1 kg-1 p.h. en los camarones del grupo control infectados con V. campbellii. Los camarones inmunoestimulados vía inyección e inmersión, mantuvieron una tasa de consumo de oxígeno de 46 mg O2 h-1 kg-1 p.h., similar a los camarones control. La concentración de glucosa en la hemolinfa de los adultos infectados con V. campbellii a las dos horas p.i. fue significativamente más alto (p > 0.05 que la del grupo control de pre-inyección. Los inyectados con el extracto e infectados con V. campbellii

  1. Efecto de Vibrio harveyi en la sobre vivencia de larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Aguirre-Guzmán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos acuícolas son de gran relevancia en la alimentación humana, pero crean un medio ambiente artificial que promueve el crecimiento de diferentes especies de bacterias. Las especies del género Vibrio son bacterias de la microflora normal de los camarones peneidos y son también agentes patógenos oportunistas que pueden tomar ventaja de éstos cambios ecológicos generados en los cultivos acuícolas causando diferentes enfermedades, sobrevivencias bajas y pérdidas económicas en la producción de camarón. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue determinar la variación en la sensibilidad, de diferentes subestadios larvarios (nauplio, zoea I-III, misis I-III y en el de postlarva 1, del camarón blanco del Pacifico Litopenaeus vannamei al ser expuestos a tres dosis [103, 105, y 107 unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC ml-1] de V. harveyi, mediante infecciones por inmersión (30 min. Esta especie generó una sobrevivencia baja significativa en las larvas (p < 0,05 solamente en las dosis más altas (105 y 107 UFC ml-1, siendo la última dosis la que presentó los valores más bajos de sobrevivencia. Además, se observó que los subestadios larvales y en el de postlarva 1 fueron más resistentes a V. harveyi al aumentar la edad de los mismos. Esta información tiene gran significado para la industria acuícola, ya que les permite generar estrategias que disminuyan los efectos de V. harveyi y que les permita mejorar el crecimiento y sobrevivencia de las larvas y de postlarva 1 del camarón.

  2. Factores asociados a parasitismo gastrointestinal en guanacos silvestres (Lama guanicoe)

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Pablo Gastón

    2015-01-01

    Fil: Moreno, Pablo Gastón. Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas; Argentina. Recientes investigaciones han demostrado que el estado de salud en animales silvestres es crucial para modular las dinámicas de infección de las enfermedades. Existe un sinergismo entre la condición fisiológica, el sistema inmunológico de un individuo y su susceptibilidad para contraer enfermedades. La meta de esta tesis fue investigar los factores determinantes de abundanc...

  3. Patógenos introducidos al Perú en post larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei importadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin Guevara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El comercio internacional de animales acuáticos es uno de los factores más importantes en la introducción involuntaria de patógenos a una región libre de estos. Los patógenos introducidos han sido causa de enormes pérdidas económicas en organismos bajo cultivo y daños ecológicos en poblaciones silvestres. En este trabajo, utilizando la técnica de la PCR se analizaron postlarvas de Litopenaeus vannamei importadas desde Ecuador para ser utilizada en los cultivos de langostinos en Tumbes. La finalidad fue detectar patógenos como el virus de la mancha blanca (WSV, virus de la cabeza amarilla (YHV, virus de la necrosis hipodérmica y hematopoyética infecciosa (IHHNV, Baculovirus penaei (BP, virus del síndrome de Taura (TSV y la bacteria de la hepatopancreatitis necrotizante (NHPB. Se analizaron 177 muestras de postlarvas en el año 2009 y 274 en el 2010. En el año 2009 se encontraron cuatro patógenos infecciosos en las postlarvas analizadas, siendo más frecuente el IHHNV (9,60%. En el año 2010 la frecuencia de aparición de postlarvas infectadas con IHHNV fue mayor (16,79%. Tanto en el 2009 como en el 2010 se encontraron postlarvas positivas a NHPB, BP y TSV

  4. PRODUCTOS NATURALES COMO ESTIMULADORES DEL SISTEMA INMUNOLÓGICO DE Litopenaeus vannamei, INFECTADO CON Vibrio parahaemolyticus

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    Nelson Pe\\u00F1a-Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la respuesta inmunológica de Litopenaeus vannamei con manano-oligosacáridos (T1, ajo (T2 y un compuesto de extractos de plantas (T3 después de ser infectados con Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Se realizaron dos bioensayos con una duración de seis (1x106 UFC y catorce (3x106 UFC días en el Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología de la Universidad de Costa Rica durante el 2011. Para esta investigación se extrajeron 120 camarones para cada periodo experimental de fincas ubicadas en la Península de Nicoya. Al finalizar la dosificación de los productos se evaluó la ganancia de peso y la conversión alimenticia. Luego de la infección con V. parahaemolyticus se realizaron hemogramas, coagulación, bacteriología de hemolinfa y mortalidad acumulada. Los parámetros inmunológicos no mostraron diferencias estadísticas (P>0,05 entre tratamientos en ningún periodo, sin embargo a los seis días T1 mostró los mejores resultados con 41,07x105 hemocitos/ml; una coagulación de 34,40 s y 4,44x103 UFC/ ml. En el periodo de catorce días T2 obtuvo los mejores valores (55,76x105 hemocitos/ml; una coagulación de 34,20 s y15,4x103 UFC/ml. La mortalidad acumulada se presentó a las diez horas de inoculación, hubo menor cantidad de muertes en T1 y T3 (76,2% a los seis días, mientras que a los catorce días fue para T1 (93,2%. La ganancia de peso y la conversión alimenticia resultaron con diferencias estadísticas (P<0,05 solo para el bioensayo que se extendió por seis días, donde T2 presentó una biomasa de 54,3 g, un incremento en la ganancia de peso de 19,3% y una conversión alimenticia de 1,4.

  5. Tráfico y Venta Ilegal de Animales Silvestres en la Ciudad de Cochabamba, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    L P Meriles-Treviño; E R Fortón-Rojas

    2008-01-01

    Artículo divulgativo sobre venta ilegal de fauna silvestre en la Ciudad de Cochabamba, Bolívia. Identifica las problemáticas, marco legal, lugares de venta y actividades para mitigar el impacto de esta actividad.

  6. Sinopsis sobre la Casuística de Felinos Silvestres en la Unidad de Rescate y Rehabilitación de Animales Silvestres (URRAS): 1995 – 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Pérez; Diego Soler-Tovar; Claudia Brieva

    2009-01-01

    Entre 1995 y 2008, han ingresado 13 animales de la familia Felidae, a la Unidad de Rescate y Rehabilitación de Animales Silvestres (URRAS), como resultado del tráfico ilegal de fauna silvestre. Este estudio retrospectivo determinó el tipo de ingreso de los animales a la unidad, así como las especies que ingresaron con mayor frecuencia, las principales patologías que presentaron al ingreso o durante su estadía en la unidad, los tratamientos instaurados y su respuesta, así como el destino de lo...

  7. COMERCIO DE FAUNA SILVESTRE EN COLOMBIA WILDLIFE TRADE IN COLOMBIA

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    Néstor Javier Mancera Rodríguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo ofrece un panorama sobre las actividades relacionadas con el comercio de bienes derivados de las especies de fauna silvestre en Colombia, abordando el tema desde el desarrollo que ha tenido su actividad productiva, el aprovechamiento extractivo, así como la dinámica de su comercio legal e ilegal en el país y el desarrollo y promoción de alternativas productivas sustentadas en su aprovechamiento. Se analizó la información secundaria de entidades como el Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial, las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales y Autoridades Ambientales Urbanas, el Instituto Colombiano de Desarrollo Rural-INCODER, las Autoridades Policiales, los Institutos de Investigación, el Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística, la Dirección de Impuestos y Aduanas Nacionales-DIAN, el Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo, y PROEXPORT. entre otras. En Colombia, el comercio de especies de fauna silvestre está centrado principalmente en la extracción de ejemplares de forma ilegal, lo cual ha generado desequilibrios en las poblaciones naturales y ha repercutido en el deterioro de la dinámica de los ecosistemas. El comercio legal de fauna silvestre se basa en la producción de unas pocas especies entre las que se destacan la babilla (Caiman crocodilus, el chigüiro (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, cerca de 200 especies de peces ornamentales y en menor medida el lobo pollero (Tupinambis nigropunctatus, la iguana (Iguana iguana, la boa (Boa constrictor, escarabajos (Dynastes hercules y mariposas. En el país no se tiene información exacta sobre el número de incautaciones realizadas en los operativos de control al tráfico ilegal de fauna, y no existe un conocimiento de la dinámica de este comercio ilegal.This work offers a current view on the activities related to the trade of derived from the wildlife species in Colombia, approaching the topic from the development that has had its productive activity

  8. Respuesta inmune y expresión de genes en el camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei inducida por inmunoestimulantes microbianos

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    Antonio Luna-González

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un bioensayo de 26 días para evaluar el efecto inmunoestimulante de bacterias ácido lácticas y levaduras (MI, adicionadas en el alimento, en Litopenaeus vannamei. Los tratamientos del bioensayo se realizaron por triplicado: I dieta control (Camaronina®; II MI en alimento, diario; III MI en alimento, cada tres días y; IV MI en alimento, cada seis días. Los camarones sólo eran libres de WSSV. Para el estudio del sistema inmune se hizo un conteo total de hemocitos, se determinó bioquímicamente la concentración de anión superóxido, y la actividad de la fenoloxidasa. También se estudió la expresión semicuantitativa de seis genes del sistema inmune, utilizando la técnica de RT-PCR. No hubo aumento significativo en el crecimiento y la supervivencia, el conteo total de hemocitos, la concentración de la proteína total en plasma y hemocitos, y la concentración del anión superóxido. La actividad de la fenoloxidasa en plasma en el tratamiento IV fue significativamente mayor que en los tratamientos I, II y III. La fenoloxidasa del SLH (proFO en el tratamiento IV fue significativamente mayor que en los tratamientos I y III. La MI provocó una sobreexpresión significativa de los genes que codifican para la profenoloxidasa (tratamiento IV, lisozima (tratamiento III y transglutaminasa (tratamiento II, con respecto a los animales no tratados (control. La mezcla de inmunoestimulantes microbianos puede aumentar la resistencia de L. vannamei contra patógenos en los cultivos.

  9. Febre amarela silvestre: reemergencia de transmissao no estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Mascheretti; Cilea H Tengan; Helena Keiko Sato; Akemi Suzuki; Renato Pereira de Souza; Marina Maeda; Roosecelis Brasil; Mariza Pereira; Rosa Maria Tubaki; Wanderley,Dalva M.V.; Carlos Magno Castelo Branco Fortaleza; Ana Freitas Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO Descrever a investigação do surto de febre amarela silvestre e as principais medidas de controle realizadas no estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS Estudo descritivo do surto de febre amarela silvestre na região sudoeste do estado, entre fevereiro e abril de 2009. Foram avaliados casos suspeitos e confirmados em humanos e primatas não humanos. A investigação entomológica, em ambiente silvestre, envolveu captura em solo e copa de árvore para identificação das espécies e detecção de infecção...

  10. Prevalencia y distribución de los principales agentes etiológicos que afectan los langostinos silvestres en Tumbes, Perú

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    Rubén Alfaro Aguilera

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la prevalencia y distribución de diferentes agentes patógenos en langostinos silvestres, en la zona de esteros de la Región Tumbes - Perú, entre marzo y diciembre de 2009. Los canales de marea considerados en este estudio fueron: Boca del Río Tumbes, El Alcalde, Jelí, El Bendito, Envidia, Soledad y Algarrobo. Se colectó un total de 1926 langostinos entre juveniles y pre-adultos de las especies Litopenaeus vannamei, L. stylirostris y Farfantepenaeus californiensis. Utilizando la técnica de la PCR, se detectó la presencia de los patógenos NHPB (0,62%, IHHNV (0,31%, BP (1,61% y WSV (2,75%; no se encontró infección por TSV. Las tres especies en estudio fueron positivas a WSV y BP, presentándose la mayor prevalencia de infección por WSV (2,98% en la especie L. stylirostris y por BP (2,66% en L. vannamei. La NHPB fue detectada en las especies L. vannamei y L. stylirostris con 0,77% y 0,43% de prevalencia respectivamente. Se obtuvo una prevalencia de 0,52% para IHHNV en L. vannamei. Las más altas prevalencias de las infecciones por WSV, BP, NHPB e IHHNV se registraron en los canales de marea El Alcalde (10,79%, Algarrobo (4,51%, Envidia (2,26% y Jelí (5,05%. Los datos señalan la presencia constante de diversos patógenos virales y bacterianos en diferentes especies de peneidos y su amplia distribución a lo largo del litoral tumbesino, lo que constituye un riesgo potencial para el desarrollo de la acuicultura en la región, y podría afectar las poblaciones naturales de langostinos.

  11. Abejas silvestres (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) como bioindicadores en el neotrópico

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Reyes-Novelo; Virginia Meléndez Ramírez; Hugo Delfín González; Ricardo Ayala

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo es una revisión sobre el potencial de las abejas silvestres como grupo indicador en estudios de diversidad y fragmentación de hábitat. Se describen los criterios utilizados para seleccionar grupos de organismos como bioindicadores y se discute la información disponible para evaluar si las abejas pueden ser consideradas idóneas. La información disponible sugiere que las abejas silvestres cumplen con los criterios requeridos para considerarlas un grupo indicador y se recomienda su ...

  12. Estudio de la triquinelosis en la fauna silvestre del noroeste español

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    La triquinelosis en España se considera una zoonosis endémica cuyo ciclo doméstico está aparentemente controlado, pero todos los años aparecen brotes en humana relacionados con el consumo de carne de cerdo y jabalí sin control sanitario. En este sentido, la fauna silvestre actúa de reservorio de Trichinella spp., especialmente el jabalí y los carnívoros. Para conocer la situación epidemiológica actual de Trichinella spp. en la fauna silvestre de Galicia, hemos realizado el estudio más ampl...

  13. CITES felinos salvajes : (convenio sobre el comercio internacional de especies amenazadas de fauna y flora silvestres) /

    OpenAIRE

    Cabanellas Cabezas, Ana María.; Gómez Baca, Miriam.; González Medina, Sara.

    2011-01-01

    CITES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora = Conveni sobre el Comerç Internacional d’Espècies Amenaçades de Fauna i Flora Silvestre. Treball presentat a l'assignatura de Deontologia i Veterinària Legal (21223)

  14. Parásitos de animales silvestres en cautiverio en Lima, Perú

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    Lily Arrojo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Los parásitos de los animales silvestres en cautiverio peruanos se registran aquí. La mayoría de las especies son nematodos. Dos especies son al patógeno de host: Prosthenorchois elegans y Strongyloides sp.

  15. Evaluación del potencial reproductivo de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei en condiciones de domesticación

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, B.P.

    2003-01-01

    La expansión de la industria camaronícola depende de un adecuado conocimiento del proceso de reproducción que permita desarrollar programas de domesticación. El potencial reproductivo de los camarones domesticados al ser transferidos a condiciones de maduración depende, en buena parte, de la condición previa en la que se encuentran. Los indicadores más importantes relacionados con esta condición y que se analizan en el presente trabajo en relación a la edad y el tamaño de los camarones son: e...

  16. Abundancia de juveniles de camarones peneidos comerciales en la zona norte de Laguna Madre, México Abundance of the commercial penaeid shrimp juveniles in the North zone of Laguna Madre, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Armando T. Wakida-Kusunoki; Leobardo García-Solorio; Norma Gloria Vázquez Benavides

    2008-01-01

    Se tomaron muestras mensuales de agosto del 2005 a noviembre del 2006, para analizar los cambios de abundancia de juveniles de camarones peneidos comerciales en la parte norte de Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas. En cada una de las nueve estaciones de muestreo se realizó un arrastre nocturno, utilizando una red tipo chinchorro, de tamaño de malla de 1.25 cm y seis metros de longitud de relinga inferior. Se observaron tres especies de peneidos comerciales y cada una de ellas tuvo sus valores más altos...

  17. Induction of ovarian maturation and spawning by combined treatment of serotonin and a dopamine antagonist, spiperone in Litopenaeus stylirostris and Litopenaeus vannamei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaro Montoya, J.; Zuniga, G.; Komen, J.

    2004-01-01

    The study was designed to develop a reliable technique for inducing ovarian maturation and spawning in Litopenaeus stylirostris and Litopenaeus vannamei, as an alternative to the traditional and destructive eyestalk ablation. Two combinations of molecules were evaluated: (a) serotonin (5-HT) at 50 ¿

  18. Efecto de la adición de un extracto acuoso de pionilla Lasianthaea podocephala en el cultivo del camarón blanco del Pacífico Litopenaeus vannamei en condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Villanueva-Gutiérrez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de dos concentraciones de un extracto acuoso de la raíz de pionilla (Lasianthaea podocephala Gray, sobre las variables de la calidad del agua, condición fisiológica y parámetros de producción del camarón blanco del Pacífico, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, cultivado en condiciones intensivas de laboratorio. Dos tratamientos y un control fueron evaluados por triplicado: T1 (1 mL de extracto por acuario, T2 (3 mL y C (control, 0 mL. No se observó un efecto negativo de los tratamientos sobre los parámetros de la calidad del agua, los cuales estuvieron dentro de rangos aceptables, sin presentar diferencias significativas entre tratamientos (P < 0,05. Algunos de los parámetros de producción tales como la supervivencia, biomasa final y FCA fueron mejores en los tratamientos en que se utilizó el extracto bajo las condiciones experimentales empleadas. La concentración de metabolitos hemolinfáticos, sugiere que los organismos cultivados en los acuarios con extracto tuvieron mejores condiciones, considerando los niveles mayores de proteína y colesterol en su músculo en relación con el control; además los resultados de expresión de genes indican que el extracto podría tener algún efecto inmunoestimulante sobre los camarones. No obstante, se recomienda efectuar estudios adicionales para evaluar y determinar a nivel molecular los ingredientes activos de los tubérculos de raíz de pionilla, para obtener mayor información sobre el uso potencial de este vegetal en la acuacultura.

  19. ZOONOSIS TRANSMITIDAS POR ANIMALES SILVESTRES Y SU IMPACTO EN LAS ENFERMEDADES EMERGENTES Y REEMERGENTES

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    Santiago Monsalve B

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes originadas desde animales de vida silvestre, pueden ser transmitidas a las poblaciones humanas por contacto directo o por vectores. Las zoonosis determinan una gran problemática social epidemiológica. La relación que tiene las enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes está ligada a la pérdida de la biodiversidad por factores antropogénicos, debido a la destrucción de hábitats naturales, el tráfico de fauna y a la pérdida de diversidad genética. Todos estos aspectos juegan un papel en la aparición de las patologías de origen infeccioso. Esta revisión intenta acercarse al conocimiento de las zoonosis transmitidas por animales silvestres y su impacto en las enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes.

  20. USO Y APROVECHAMIENTO DE LA FAUNA SILVESTRE EN LA SELVA ZOQUE, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Lira-Torres, Iván; Briones-Salas, Miguel; Fabián Ricardo GÓMEZ DE ANDA; Deyanira OJEDA-RAMÍREZ; Peláez Acero, Armando

    2014-01-01

    La cacería de subsistencia y la pérdida de hábitat son dos de las principales actividades humanas que tienen un efecto negativo sobre la fauna silvestre en las fronteras de colonización. En la presente investigación se estudió el uso consuntivo que se da a la fauna silvestre en varias comunidades de la Selva Zoque, México. Durante el año 2012 y principios del 2013 se realizó una serie de visitas a la región para conocer y listar la riqueza de especies y usos que los habitantes hacen de ella, ...

  1. Patógenos que afectan el cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei en ambiente marino y dulceacuícola en el estado de Baja California, México - Pathogens that affect crop Litopenaeus vannamei in marine environment and freshwater in the state of Baja California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cáceres Martínez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEntre abril del 2003 y septiembre del 2006 se realizó un estudio sobreepibiontes y agentes patógenos del camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannameicultivado en siete granjas del estado de Baja California, México; dichas granjas cultivaron camarón en tres diferentes ambientes salinos. El estudio comprendió análisis en fresco, análisis histopatológico y análisis moleculares específicos para el virus de la mancha blanca (WSSV. Camarones cultivados en ambiente marino (salinidad de 35.9 upspresentaron protozoos coloniales peritricos Zoothamnium sp. adheridos a las branquias con una prevalencia de 0 al 80% y un grado de severidad de 1 a 2 (P=0-80%, GS=1-2, además, bacterias filamentosas Leucothrix sp. (P=0-50%, GS=1-3. En camarones cultivados con agua de origen subterráneo (salinidad de 1.6 ups, los epibiontes asociados a las branquias fueron diatomeas (P=0-20%, GS=1-2 y rotíferos (P=0-40%, GS=1-2. Y camarones cultivados con agua derivada de río (salinidades de 0.8 a 5.3 ups, presentaron algas coloniales Euglenoides (P=0-100% GS=1-2, protozoos peritricos Epistylis sp. (P=0-100%, GS= 1-3 y bacterias filamentosas Leucothrix sp. (P= 0-100, GS=1-3, como epibiontes branquiales. El análisis histopatológico reveló melanosis, necrosis e infiltración hemocítica de las branquias, asociado con los epibiontes y condiciones ambientales de cultivo. Además, se observaron cuerpos de inclusión Cowdry tipo “A” relacionados con el Virus de la NecrosisHematopoyética Hipodérmica Infecciosa (IHHNV en camarones de todas las granjas estudiadas (P= 2-36 % y GS=1-2. Adicionalmente, encamarones cultivados con agua de origen subterráneo el análisishistopatológico del hepatopáncreas mostró la presencia de infeccionesbacterianas (P=15-69%, GS= 1-4 e inclusiones con múltiples esferaseosinófilas en su interior parecidas a Haplosporidios (P= 0-48% y GS=1-3. Los análisis moleculares específicos para el virus de la mancha blanca fueron negativos. Se

  2. [Reseñas Bibliográficas] Atlas de la flora vascular silvestre de Burgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Aizpuru

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Es una reseña bibliográfica de la obra, Atlas de la flora vascular silvestre de Burgos / Alejandre Sáenz, J.M. García-López, L. Marín Padellano, G. Mateo Sanz, E. Miguélez del coso, C. Molina Martín, G. Montamarta Prieto, S. Patino Sánchez, M.A. Pinto Cebrián 6 J. Valencia Janices.

  3. Determinación de la estructura poblacional de litopenaeus vannamei mediante issrs a lo largo de la costa ecuatoriana

    OpenAIRE

    Fresneda Rodríguez, Adriana

    2003-01-01

    Determinación de la estructura poblacional de Litopenaeus vannamei mediante ISSRs a lo largo de la costa ecuatoriana Muestras de Litopenaeus vannamei fueron colectadas en siete localidades a lo largo de la costa ecuatoriana desde Esmeraldas hasta Machala.

  4. Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella and Vibrio Associated with Farmed Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjoy Banerjee; Mei Chen Ooi; Mohamed Shariff; Helena Khatoon

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed indiv...

  5. Mapeo genético en camarón blanco litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Erazo Maldonado, Edna Constanza

    2002-01-01

    Mapeo genético en camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei Se presenta el primer mapa genético de Litopenaeus vannamei basado en la técnica de AFLPs a partir de una familia proveniente de un cruce comercial y con la información genética de un solo progenitor y 42 hijos.

  6. UTILIZACIÓN DE MARCADORES MOLECULARES PARA EL ESTUDIO DE HONGOS BASIDIOMICETES SILVESTRES

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca Estela Gómez-Luna; Gerardo Vázquez-Marrufo; Carlos Hernán Herrera-Méndez; Alejandro Hernández-Morales; Víctor Olalde-Portugal

    2012-01-01

    Las técnicas de marcadores moleculares en el estudio de basidiomicetos silvestres, son cada vez más aplicadas a proyectos de ecología, con especial enfoque en análisis de la diversidad genética. Con frecuencia se requieren métodos especializados para la extracción del DNA de organismos de ambientes naturales, debido a los complejos compuestos que los constituyen (polímeros de carbohidratos) y los contaminantes del ambiente (partículas de suelo). Los materiales biológicos utilizados fueron bas...

  7. ZOONOSIS TRANSMITIDAS POR ANIMALES SILVESTRES Y SU IMPACTO EN LAS ENFERMEDADES EMERGENTES Y REEMERGENTES

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Monsalve B; Salim Mattar V.; Marco Gonzalez T.

    2009-01-01

    Las enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes originadas desde animales de vida silvestre, pueden ser transmitidas a las poblaciones humanas por contacto directo o por vectores. Las zoonosis determinan una gran problemática social epidemiológica. La relación que tiene las enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes está ligada a la pérdida de la biodiversidad por factores antropogénicos, debido a la destrucción de hábitats naturales, el tráfico de fauna y a la pérdida de diversidad genética. Todos es...

  8. Formas de apropiación de las áreas silvestres protegidas de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Fournier Solano, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    En este ensayo se trata de denunciar algunas de las distintas formas de privatización de las Áreas Silvestres Protegidas (ASP) en especial de los parques nacionales en las últimas décadas en Costa Rica, en el marco de los intereses económicos de las políticas internacionales, en especial la establecida a través del Proyecto Mesoamericano (antes Plan Puebla Panamá) del Banco Mundial, (FMI) y los CAFTA, tratados de libre comercio con países como China, entre otros. Se destaca la participación d...

  9. BUDIDAYA UDANG VANAME (Litopenaeus vannamei) TEKNOLOGI INTENSIF MENGGUNAKAN BENIH TOKOLAN

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Mangampa; Hidayat Suryanto Suwoyo

    2016-01-01

    Salah satu jenis udang yang cukup potensial untuk dikembangkan adalah udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei). Budidaya ini berkembang dengan teknologi intensif, namun terbatas pada golongan masyarakat menengah ke atas (padat modal). Riset ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan data dan informasi pengaruh penggunaan tokolan terhadap produksi, Rasio Konversi Pakan (RKP) pada pembesaran udang vaname teknologi intensif. Riset ini dilaksanakan di tambak Punaga, Takalar, Instalasi Balai Riset Perikanan Budid...

  10. KONSUMSI OKSIGEN UDANG VANNAMEI Litopenaeus vannamei BERDASARKAN BERAT TUBUH

    OpenAIRE

    Ambeng, Ambeng; Umar, Muhammad Ruslan; Mangawe, Victor G

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian menkaji tentang korelasi konsumsi oksigen udang vannamei L. vannamei berdasarkan bobot tubuh secara in vitro. yang akan menunjang usaha budidaya udang vannamei dalam penyediaan kebutuhan oksigen terlarut di tambak dari masa tebar sampai tahap pemanenan, dengan demikian lama pemakaian dan jumlah kincir sebagai pemasok oksigen terlarut dapat diefisienkan untuk menekan biaya produksi udang ABSTRACT Oxygen consumption of Litopenaeus vannamei experiment was conducted at Researc...

  11. Diagnóstico de enfermedades en mamíferos, aves y salmónidos silvestres

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    2009-01-01

    Elaborado por el Área de Sanidad Animal (SERIDA - Gijón) El SERIDA y la Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Ordenación del Territorio e Infraestructuras del Principado de Asturias suscribieron en 2001 un convenio por el que el SERIDA asesora en el diagnóstico de las enfermedades de los mamíferos, aves y salmónidos silvestres de Asturias. Hasta el momento se realizaron, en lo que respecta a los mamíferos y aves silvestres, 502 necropsias, 1.334 análisis serológicos, 85 estudios histológicos y 56 ...

  12. Uso de la fauna silvestre del Lago de Tota. Peces, herpetos, aves y mamíferos.

    OpenAIRE

    Moncaleano Niño, Angela Margarita; Calvachi Zambrano, Byron Alonso

    2011-01-01

    En este estudio, se realiza una aproximación a la identificación de la fauna silvestre de Lago de Tota (Aquitania-Boyacá), particularmente de los grupos de peces, herpetos, aves y mamíferos. Además, se hacen aportes importantes para el conocimiento de la relación de las comunidades de habitantes aledañas con la fauna silvestre, en cuanto a su uso comercial o artesanal. Se realizaron los listados de las especies presentes en lago para cada uno de los grupos de la fauna, a partir de información...

  13. Fauna silvestre y productos derivados decomisados durante el período 2000-2007, Lima – Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Quevans, Nathaly; Falcón, Néstor; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima; Elías, Roberto; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos: Describir las características del decomiso de animales silvestres y productos derivados realizado por la Administración Técnica Forestal y de Fauna Silvestre (ATFFS) durante el período 2000 – 2007 en la ciudad de Lima – Perú. Material y métodos: Para ello, se revisó la base de datos de decomisos de la ATFFS para el período de estudio. Resultados: se encontró 17 932 animales vivos y 81 564 productos derivados decomisados en el período 2000-2007. Entre los animales vivos, el 47,3% (8...

  14. CONOCIMIENTO TRADICIONAL SOBRE LOS HONGOS SILVESTRES EN LA COMUNIDAD OTOMÍ DE SAN PEDRO ARRIBA; TEMOAYA, ESTADO DE MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Fidel Lara-Vázquez; Alejandro T. Romero-Contreras; Cristina Burrola-Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    Los hongos silvestres hoy en día constituyen, en diferentes comunidades campesinas, un recurso forestal no maderable en temporada de lluvias, debido a su gran importancia cultural, alimenticia y económica. La presente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de identificar el conocimiento tradicional y manejo familiar de las principales especies de hongos silvestres en la comunidad de San Pedro Arriba, Temoaya, Estado de México. En el tianguis de la cabecera municipal se aplicaron entrevistas...

  15. Abundancia y distribución de juveniles de Farfantepenaeus aztecus (Ives 1891, F. duorarum (Burkenroad 1939 y Litopenaeus setiferus (Linnaeus 1767 en la Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas, México Juveniles abundance and distribution of Farfantepenaeus aztecus (Ives 1891, F. duorarum (Burkenroad 1939 and Litopenaeus setiferus (Linnaeus 1767 in Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ocaña-Luna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la distribución y abundancia de los juveniles de camarones peneidos en Laguna Madre, en base a las recolectas realizadas en los meses de octubre (1997 y enero, mayo, julio (1998, con una red cónica de 50 cm de diámetro y 505 de apertura de malla, con un flujómetro adaptado a la misma. Además se tomaron datos de salinidad y temperatura superficial. Se realizó un análisis de varianza (ANOVA y una prueba de rangos múltiples (SNK para comparar las tallas entre las especies. La especie más abundante fue Farfantepenaeus aztecus con el 84.5% de la abundancia total, seguida por Litopenaeus setiferus con el 10.6% y Farfantepenaeus duorarum con el 3.4%, en el invierno la abundancia de F. aztecus y L. setiferus fue mayor. Se observaron diferencias significativas entre las tallas de juveniles de F. aztecus (11.7 mm y L. setiferus (11.8 mm con respecto a la talla de F. duorarum (11.0 mm (F = 7.81, p = 0.05; SNK = 0.71, p = 0.05; SNK = -0.83, p = 0.05.The Penaeid shrimp planktonic juvenile distribution and abundance from Laguna Madre were analyzed, based in samples collected in the months of October 1997, January, May and July 1998 with a conical net of 50 cm diameter and 505 mesh size, with an adapted flowmeter; moreover water salinity and superficial temperture data were recorded. The size among species was compared with a variance analysis (ANOVA and a multiple ranks test (SNK. Farfantepenaeus aztecus was the most abundant species with 84.5% of the total abundance, following by L. setiferus with 10.6% and F. duorarum with 3.4%. The abundance of F. aztecus and L. setiferus was greatest during the winter. Significant differences were observed between the sizes of juveniles of F. aztecus (11.7 mm and L. setiferus (11.8 mm with respect to the size of F. duorarum (11.0 mm (F = 7.81, p = 0.05; SNK = 0.71, p = 0.05; SNK = -0.83, p = 0.05.

  16. Métodos de estudio de la reproducción en hembras de ungulados silvestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riveros F., José Luis.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente trabajo tiene por objetivo describir el estado actual yproyecciones de las técnicas de estudio de la reproducción en hembras de ungulados silvestres. Inicialmente se caracteriza su estrategia reproductiva y las limitaciones en el conocimiento de su fisiología, dadas por las dificultades en la aplicación de las técnicas utilizadas en especies domésticas. Posteriormente, se describen las técnicas de estudio más utilizadas en ungulados silvestres, comenzando con estudios etológicos, que permiten caracterizar la estación reproductiva mediante la observación de frecuencias de cortejo, monta y partos.SummaryThe present review is focused on the recent advances and perspectives on female ungulates reproduction research techniques. First the reproductive strategy and the reproduction knowledge limitation given by application difficulties of techniques used in domestic species are characterized. Second the mean methods for studies on reproductive morphology and physiology are described beginning with behavior studies that allow reproductive season characterization by the observation of courtship, mate and birth frequencies.

  17. Uso tradicional de fauna silvestre por el grupo mayangna de Musawás en la Reserva de Biosfera Bosawas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon José López González

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación Se llevó a cabo en la comunidad de Musawás, municipio de Bonanza, Región Autónoma Atlántico Norte, en la Reserva Bosawas. Se realizó una descripción de los principales usos de la fauna silvestre por parte de los indígenas mayangnas. Se encontró que el 100% de los entrevistados hacen uso de la fauna silvestre para la alimentación, un 12% para artesanía, un 55% para el comercio, un 53% para medicina, un 20% para diversión y un gran porcentaje hace un uso mítico de la fauna silvestre. Esta gama de usos cobra una gran importancia en la preservación del recurso fauna. En los mitos se encontraron formas específicas de explicación y ordenamiento de los sucesos con la fauna silvestre; de esta manera responden y explican los fenómenos naturales y las actividades de sobrevivencia consideradas como sobrenaturales.

  18. Reproducción de cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Homóptera: Dactylopiidae) Reproduction of wild cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Por sus características, la cochinilla silvestre ofrece perspectivas de aprovechamiento como fuente de carmín y para el mejoramiento genético de la grana fina. Por lo anterior, se estableció una multiplicación y crianza de cochinilla silvestre, proveniente de la zona árida del norte de México para caracterizarla, utilizando como hospedero a Opuntia megacantha Salm Dyck. Los resultados indican que la especie silvestre pertenece al género-especie Dactylopius opuntia. Se determinó la presencia d...

  19. Arbovírus Ilheus em aves silvestres (Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Luiz Eloy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o isolamento do vírus Ilheus no Estado de São Paulo e avaliar o seu impacto para a saúde pública. MÉTODOS: O isolamento de vírus foi realizado em camundongos albinos Swiss, a partir de sangue de aves silvestres, capturadas com redes de espera tipo mist net, armadas no nível do solo, no Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo. A identificação das cepas isoladas foi feita pelos testes de inibição da hemaglutinação, fixação de complemento e neutralização em camundongos. Amostras de plasma de aves e de mamíferos silvestres foram submetidas à pesquisa sorológica para detecção de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação. RESULTADOS: Foram isoladas duas cepas do vírus Ilheus em sangue de aves das espécies Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis e detectados anticorpos em aves das espécies Columbina talpacoti, Geopelia cuneata, Molothrus bonariensis e Sicalis flaveola, em sagüis das espécies Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix penicillata e no quati Nasua nasua. CONCLUSÕES: O isolamento do vírus Ilheus e a detecção de anticorpos específicos em aves residentes, migratórias e de cativeiro, em sagüis e quatis, comprovam a presença desse agente no Parque Ecológico do Tietê. O comportamento migratório de aves silvestres pode determinar a introdução do vírus em outras regiões. Considerando-se a patogenicidade para o homem e a confirmação da circulação desse agente viral em área urbana, freqüentada para atividade de lazer e de educação, o risco de ocorrência de infecção na população humana não pode ser descartado.

  20. Deep-water shrimp fisheries in Latin America: a review Pesquerías de camarones de aguas profundas en América Latina: una revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo S Wehrtmann

    2012-09-01

    á expandiendo sus actividades hacia aguas profundas. Las características del ciclo de vida de estos recursos de aguas profundas los hacen más vulnerables a la explotación que la mayoría de los recursos de aguas someras. Además, la falta de información sobre la ecología de la mayoría de las especies de aguas profundas constituye una limitación importante para el desarrollo e implementación de estrategias de manejo. Este escenario ha causado preocupación sobre la sustentabilidad de estos recursos y de los posibles impactos ambientales en los ecosistemas de aguas profundas. La pesca comercial en América Latina se extiende también hacia aguas profundas y, considerando las preocupaciones anteriormente mencionadas, se requiere la necesidad de compilar la información disponible sobre los recursos de camarones de aguas profundas y la situación actual de estas pesquerías en América Latina. Esta revisión se enfoca en México, Centro América, Perú, Chile y Brasil y describe las especies explotadas, la flota pesquera (siempre cuando sea disponible, las estadísticas pesqueras y las estrategias de manejo. Un total de 17 especies (10 spp. de Penaeoidea y 7 spp. de Caridea son de interés comercial en América Latina; sin embargo, camarones de aguas profundas solo se pescan actualmente en Costa Rica, Colombia y Chile. Un plan de manejo implementado existe en Chile y Colombia, mientras que en Brasil se aprobaron regulaciones sobre la pesca de camarones de la familia Aristeidae, pero éstas nunca han sido implementadas. Considerando la falta de información sobre la biología de los camarones de aguas profundas, lo que dificulta el desarrollo de estrategias adecuadas de manejo, se requiere urgentemente mejorar la comunicación y colaboración entre los diferentes actores en Latinoamérica. Se sugiere establecer un banco de datos abierto para búsquedas y actualizarlo constantemente, lo que servirá como fuente valiosa de información para investigadores y quienes deben tomar

  1. Orientalismos peninsulares en el levante andaluz. Nombres y usos de algunas plantas silvestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Montes, Francisco

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The author describes sorne wild plants from the provinces of Almería, Granada and Jaén (Andalusia, Spain that have folk names from Eastern Iberia. For each plant he provides the scientific and folk name, the isoglottic line and the lexical arca. He also informs about the use of these plants in folk and household medecine, religious rites, animal husbandry, etc.En este estudio se presentan algunas plantas silvestres de Almería, Granada y Jaén cuyos nombres vulgares proceden del oriente peninsular. De cada planta se da, junto al nombre vulgar y científico, la isoglosa o límite de los orientalismos y sus correspondientes áreas léxicas. Al mismo tiempo se hace el estudio etnográfico de sus usos en la medicina popular o doméstica, ritos religiosos, ganadería, etc.

  2. Psychromicrobium silvestre gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from alpine forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Peter; Zhang, De-Chao; Franca, Luís; Albuquerque, Luciana; da Costa, Milton S; Margesin, Rosa

    2016-11-21

    Two Gram-stain-variable, non-motile, catalase-positive and cytochrome c oxidase-negative bacteria, designated AK20-18T and AM20-54, were isolated from forest soil samples collected in the Italian Alps. Growth occurred at a temperature range of 5-30 °C, at pH 6-9 and in the presence of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains AK20-18T and AM20-54 was 100 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that AK20-18T had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strain of Arthrobacter psychrochitiniphilus (96.9 %). The cell-wall peptidoglycan structure of strain AK20-18T was of the type A3alpha L-Lys - L-Thr - L-Ala2 (A11.27). The whole-cell sugars were galactose, ribose and lower amounts of mannose. The major respiratory quinone of the two strains was menaquinone 9(H2) (MK-9 [H2]), whereas MK-10(H2) was a minor component. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and unknown glycolipids. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The genomic DNA G+C content was 59.9 mol%. Combined data of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analysis demonstrated that strains AK20-18T and AM20-54 represent a novel genus and species, for which the name Psychromicrobium silvestre gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Psychromicrobium silvestre is AK20-18T (DSM 102047T = LMG 29369 T).

  3. CARACTERIZACIÓN MOLECULAR DE ACCESIONES CULTIVADAS Y SILVESTRES DE FRIJOL COMÚN DE HONDURAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino Santiago Guachambala-Cando

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar la diversidad genética de las accesiones de Phaseolus que se conservan en el Banco de Germoplasma, un grupo de 69 accesiones de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y de P. coccineus de Honduras, fueron evaluadas con 30 cebadores mediante la técnica de marcadores moleculares RAPD (Polimorfismos de ADN Amplificados al Azar, generándose 341 fragmentos polimórficos de ADN. Las distancias genéticas fueron determinadas según el coeficiente (o índice de similaridad de Dice y el método UPGMA. Estos análisis moleculares identificaron dos grupos a partir de un coeficiente de Dice (CD de 0,48, uno perteneciente a P. vulgaris y el otro a P. coccineus. Las accesiones de P. vulgaris, mostraron una división marcada (CD de 0,64 entre las pertenecientes a los reservorios andino y mesoamericano. Por otro lado, las accesiones mesoamericanas se separaron (CD de 0,76 en cuatro grupos, correspondientes a las accesiones silvestres, las variedades de la raza Jalisco, y las variedades mejoradas y criollas de la raza Mesoamérica. Los resultados confirmaron las distancias genéticas esperadas, incluyendo mayor distancia entre las especies de Phaseolus, seguidas de la separación entre las accesiones del reservorio andino y el mesomericano de P. vulgaris. En el reservorio mesoamericano, las dos accesiones de la raza Jalisco presentaron menor similitud que las de la raza Mesoamérica, y dentro de la raza Mesoamérica, los silvestres separados de los cultivados; adicionalmente, las mejoradas relativamente diferentes a las criollas.

  4. Composición proximal y perfil de ácidos grasos de juveniles silvestres y cultivados de Totoaba macdonaldi

    OpenAIRE

    L.M. López; E. Durazo; A. Rodríguez-Gómez; C. D. True; Viana,M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Se determinaron la composición proximal y el perfil de ácidos grasos en el tejido muscular y vísceras de juveniles silvestres y cultivados de Totoaba macdonaldi, encontrándose diferencias en composición debido al origen de sus dietas. El ácido graso 20:4n-6 y la razón n-3/n-6 en el músculo de las totoabas silvestres resultaron significativamente mayores que los encontrados en las totoabas cultivadas; además, el nivel del ácido graso 18:2n-6 en el tejido muscular y vísceras de los peces cultiv...

  5. Leishmaniose tegumentar alviericana na Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro: III. reservatórios silvestres e comensais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A. de Araújo Filho

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 203 animais silvestres e comensais examinados na Praia Vermelha, Ilha Grande, município de Angra dos fíeis, RJ, durante o estudo de um surto de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana, foram encontrados 2 exemplares de Proechimys dimidiatus, com lesões hipocrômicas nas extremidades das orelhas, e 1 exemplar de Rattus norvegicus norvegicus, com úlcera de dorso, cuja histopatologia revelou a presença de Leishmania sp. nos 3 exemplares.

  6. Aislamiento de Vibrio sp. a partir de órganos internos de Dormitator latifrons (Richarson, 1844 silvestres – Reporte preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Mendoza-Rodríguez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se informa el hallazgo de Vibrio sp.utilizando medio de cultivo selectivoTCBS de muestras de tracto intestinal deejemplares de “monengue” Dormitatorlatifrons silvestres, especie que sealimenta principalmente de detritus enambientes inundados de zonas costeras.This report it shows the finding results ofVibrio sp. using selective culture TCBSfrom intestine samples of fishes “Pacificfat sleepers” Dormitator latifronssavages, species that is fed mainly ondetritus in flooded environments ofcoastal zones.

  7. Enfermedad de la mancha del caparazón en el camarón de cultivo Litopenaeus vannamei - Brown spot disease in aquaculture shrimp litopenaeus vanname.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rubio Limonta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa presencia de manchas color café a negro en el camarón Litopenaeus vannamei constituye un síndrome relacionado con infecciones bacterianas o fúngicas en cutícula, apéndices o branquias, causante de depreciación comercial del producto.AbstractThe presence of brown to black spots on shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a syndrome related to bacterial or fungal cuticle, appendages or gills, causing commercial depreciation of the product.

  8. Enfermedad de la mancha del caparazón en el camarón de cultivo Litopenaeus vannamei - Brown spot disease in aquaculture shrimp litopenaeus vanname.

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Rubio Limonta; Raquel Silveira Coffigny; Lourdes Pérez Jar; Norma González Herrate

    2012-01-01

    ResumenLa presencia de manchas color café a negro en el camarón Litopenaeus vannamei constituye un síndrome relacionado con infecciones bacterianas o fúngicas en cutícula, apéndices o branquias, causante de depreciación comercial del producto.AbstractThe presence of brown to black spots on shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a syndrome related to bacterial or fungal cuticle, appendages or gills, causing commercial depreciation of the product.

  9. Evaluation of the pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension associated to heart failure in Camarones town. Evaluación del tratamiento farmacológico de la hipertensión arterial asociada a insuficiencia cardiaca en el poblado de Camarones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Vázquez Montero

    2006-12-01

    muestra de 43 pacientes, cifra que representó el 35,2 % del universo de estudio, en seis Consultorios Médicos de la Familia del área urbana del Policlínico Comunitario de Camarones, Palmira, Cienfuegos, durante el primer semestre de 2004. Resultados: El 51,2 % de los pacientes se incluyeron en la clase II de la clasificación de la New York Heart Asociation y el 55,8 % fueron considerados hipertensos grado II. Los antihipertensivos más utilizados fueron el captopril y la clortalidona y dentro de los fármacos asociados a los antihipertensivos se incluyó el dinitrato de isosorbide, la digoxina y el ácido acetil salicílico. El 87,3 % de los pacientes recibían una dosis correcta y en el 88,9 % se siguió un adecuado intervalo de administración. Se consideró adecuada la prescripción en un 65,1 % de los pacientes del estudio. Conclusiones: Los avances en el tratamiento de estas enfermedades se deben a diversos factores. Aunque el estudio muestra que el tratamiento de los pacientes de la serie es adecuado, debe mejorarse siempre que sea posible.

  10. Febre amarela silvestre: reemergencia de transmissao no estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil, 2009

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    Melissa Mascheretti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Descrever a investigação do surto de febre amarela silvestre e as principais medidas de controle realizadas no estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS Estudo descritivo do surto de febre amarela silvestre na região sudoeste do estado, entre fevereiro e abril de 2009. Foram avaliados casos suspeitos e confirmados em humanos e primatas não humanos. A investigação entomológica, em ambiente silvestre, envolveu captura em solo e copa de árvore para identificação das espécies e detecção de infecção natural. Foram realizadas ações de controle de Aedes aegypti em áreas urbanas. A vacinação foi direcionada para residentes dos municípios com confirmação de circulação viral e nos municípios contíguos, conforme recomendação nacional. RESULTADOS Foram confirmados 28 casos humanos (letalidade 39,3% em áreas rurais de Sarutaiá, Piraju, Tejupá, Avaré e Buri. Foram notificadas 56 mortes de primatas não humanos, 91,4% do gênero Alouatta sp . A epizootia foi confirmada laboratorialmente em dois primatas não humanos, sendo um em Buri e outro em Itapetininga. Foram coletados 1.782 mosquitos, entre eles Haemagogus leucocelaenus , Hg. janthinomys/capricornii , Sabethes chloropterus , Sa. purpureus e Sa. undosus . O vírus da febre amarela foi isolado de um lote de Hg. leucocelaenus procedente de Buri. A vacinação foi realizada em 49 municípios, com 1.018.705 doses aplicadas e o registro de nove eventos adversos graves pós-vacinação. CONCLUSÕES Os casos humanos ocorreram entre fevereiro e abril de 2009 em áreas sem registro de circulação do vírus da febre amarela há mais de 60 anos. A região encontrava-se fora da área com recomendação de vacinação, com alto percentual da população suscetível. A adoção oportuna de medidas de controle permitiu a interrupção da transmissão humana em um mês, assim como a confirmação da circulação viral em humanos, primatas não humanos e mosquitos. Os isolamentos

  11. Mating systems in caridean shrimp (Decapoda: Caridea and their evolutionary consequences for sexual dimorphism and reproductive biology Sistemas de apareamiento en camarones carideos (Decapoda: Caridea y sus consecuencias evolutivas en el dimorfismo sexual y biología reproductiva

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    CRISTIÁN CORREA

    2003-06-01

    species with search & attend the situation is variable, and only some males benefit by acquiring large size while others do better by searching or changing sex. In contrast to other crustaceans free-living shrimp do not exhibit precopulatory mate guarding and they are relatively unaggressive. The characteristic and efficient escape behavior of shrimp using their contractile abdomen might be one important trait that has constrained the evolution of such behaviors. Our review indicates that the mating systems of caridean shrimp depend both on environmental and on biological characteristicsEn este articulo revisamos relaciones funcionales y evolutivas entre los sistemas de apareamiento de camarones carideos, y características específicas tales como biología/ecología general, sistemas sexuales, conducta y morfología. Basados en reportes bibliográficos se describió cuatro sistemas de apareamiento, y un quinto fue reconocido pero la informaci��n disponible fue insuficiente para describirlo en detalle. `Monogamia' ocurre en muchas especies que habitan en refugios monopolizables o huéspedes, especialmente cuando las condiciones ambientales restringen la probabilidad de encuentros entre conespecíficos. En contraste, las especies de vida libre experimentan encuentros más frecuentes y los machos pueden dominar o buscar: En el sistema de apareamiento `dominancia vecinal' los machos más grandes rinden mayor éxito reproductivo porque son los que tienen el mejor desempeño en la competencia agresiva por las hembras receptivas. En el sistema `pura búsqueda' son los machos pequeños los que lo hacen mejor porque su agilidad les permite buscar pareja eficazmente entre la población. El cuarto sistema de apareamiento es `búsqueda & compañía' que ocurre en simbiontes solitarios que experimentan condiciones demográficas y ecológicas variables: dependiendo de las condiciones ambientales y del estado ontogenético, puede ser conveniente para los machos buscar o permanecer

  12. Isoenzymatic variability in wild potatoes Variabilidade isoenzimática em batata silvestre

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    Beatriz Helena Gomes Rocha

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Two species of wild potato Solanum commersonii, subspecies commersonii and malmeanum, and S. chacoense, subspecies muelleri occur in southern Brazil. Their rusticity and easy adaptation to extreme climatic conditions make them valuable for breeding programs. The objective of this work was to analyze the isoenzymatic variability of 113 clones of wild potato subspecies. They were collected and maintained at Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Clima Temperado, at Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Enzymes involved in energetic (group I or in peripherical (group II metabolism constituted the material used. Polyacrylamide horizontal gel electrophoresis was used to analyze peroxidase, aspartate transaminase, phosphoglucomutase and isocitrate dehydrogenase isoenzymes. Solanum spp. has considerable genetic variability for isoenzymatic patterns. Cluster analysis classified the clones into 51 subgroups, based on electrophoretic variants of group I enzymes, and into 89, when group II enzyme variants were added. Genotypic differentiation of S. chacoense muelleri in relation to S. commersonii commersonii and S. commersonii malmeanum is evident when expressed through similarity and cluster analysis.No sul do Brasil ocorrem apenas duas espécies silvestres de batata, Solanum commersonii, com as subespécies commersonii e malmeanum, e S. chacoense, com a subespécie muelleri, de interesse aos programas de melhoramento, pela rusticidade e fácil adaptação a condições climáticas extremas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a variabilidade isoenzimática de 113 clones de batata silvestre. O material foi coletado e mantido na Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Clima Temperado, em Pelotas, RS. Foram usadas enzimas envolvidas nos metabolismos energético (grupo I e periférico (grupo II. Eletroforese horizontal em gel de poliacrilamida foi empregada para análise de isoenzimas de peroxidase, aspartato transaminase, fosfoglucomutase e isocitrato

  13. Análisis histopatológico en Litopenaeus vannamei infectado con Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

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    Nelson Peña-Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir los principales resultados histopatológicos obtenidos de las diversas respuestas inmunológicas y efectos citopáticos en L. vannamei, después de una infección inducida con V. parahaemolyticus. La inoculación bacterial se realizó en el Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología de la Universidad de Costa Rica, entre junio y agosto del 2011. Para la investigación se utilizaron 40 camarones extraídos de fincas ubicadas en la Península de Nicoya; a cada uno se le inyectó en promedio 2,0x106 UFC de V. parahaemolyticus. Al finalizar el periodo de infección, se realizaron los análisis histopatológicos en branquias, epitelio subcuticular, hepatopáncreas, intestino, órgano linfoide, tejido hematopoyético, músculo estriado, tejido nervioso, corazón, entre otras. Los principales hallazgos a nivel histológico fueron hemocitos melanizados, infiltración hemocítica, melanosis, esferoides tipo A, B y C, mionecrosis coagulativa, fagocitosis, picnosis, entre otras, útiles para determinar el estado sanitario de los camarones y en particular, el efecto citopático de V. parahaemolyticus en infecciones sistémicas.

  14. Humoral and Haemocytic Responses of Litopenaeus vannamei to Cd Exposure

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    Juan C. Bautista-Covarrubias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available White shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, subadults were exposed to four dilutions of the 96 h cadmium LC50 reported for postlarvae (PL12 of this species, and the effects were evaluated after 5, 48, and 96 h of exposure. While treatments did not affect survival and hemolymph clotting time increased with time, but not as a response to Cd exposure, the intensity of other responses was related to concentration, to time of exposure, and to their interaction. Hemocyanin decreased with time in all metal concentrations but increased in the control treatment, and an almost similar trend was observed with hemocyte numbers. As an initial response, phenoloxidase activity decreased with all metal concentrations, but it increased later to values similar or higher than the control treatment.

  15. Characterization of four hemocyanin isoforms in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jingxiang; RUAN Lingwei; LI Zhen; YU Xiaoman; LI Sedong; SHI Hong; XU Xun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the gene encoding hemocyanin subunit L, LvHcL, was cloned from Litopenaeus vannamei and the genomic organization was characterized. This gene was diverse with many SNPs and also had at least four isoforms, while one of them (LvHcL4) only had two exons and the exon2 was missed. Transcription analysis showed that these isoforms of LvHcL were up-regulated after WSSV challenge in WSSV-resistant shrimp, while the transcriptions were decreased constantly in WSSV-susceptible shrimp. It is suggested that the hemocyanin had rich polymorphism and was involved in the antiviral response. These results could extend our previous findings and provide insights into the immune feature of hemocyanin, which would be helpful for further studies aimed at antiviral mechanism in inver-tebrate.

  16. Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella and Vibrio Associated with Farmed Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Sanjoy Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed individual and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns. Five Vibrio species having individual and multiple antibiotic resistance were also identified. They were Vibrio cholerae (18.3%, V. mimicus (16.7%, V. parahaemolyticus (10%, V. vulnificus (6.7%, and V. alginolyticus (1.7%. Farm owners should be concerned about the presence of these pathogenic bacteria which also contributes to human health risk and should adopt best management practices for responsible aquaculture to ensure the quality of shrimp.

  17. Antibiotic resistant Salmonella and Vibrio associated with farmed Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy; Ooi, Mei Chen; Shariff, Mohamed; Khatoon, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed individual and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns. Five Vibrio species having individual and multiple antibiotic resistance were also identified. They were Vibrio cholerae (18.3%), V. mimicus (16.7%), V. parahaemolyticus (10%), V. vulnificus (6.7%), and V. alginolyticus (1.7%). Farm owners should be concerned about the presence of these pathogenic bacteria which also contributes to human health risk and should adopt best management practices for responsible aquaculture to ensure the quality of shrimp.

  18. Secuencia parcial de un fragmento de ADN de patos silvestres homologo al Complejo Mayor de

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    González-Guzmán Sofía

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa variación individual de la respuesta inmune esta ligada a ladiversidad funcional y estructural del MHC (por sus siglas en inglesMajor Histocompatibility Complex, TcR (Receptores de células T,inmunoglobulinas (anticuerpos, citoquininas, TNF (por sus siglas eningles Tumor Necrosis Factor, entre otras proteínas. Estas proteínasestán codificadas por múltiples y polimórficos genes, la variabilidad de estos genes constituyen las principales bases, en las variaciones de la resistencia a determinada enfermedad o enfermedades. Estascaracterísticas se han documentado en la gallina doméstica, pero no enel pato. En el presente trabajo se amplifico por PCR un fragmento denucleótidos de ADN genómico de pato doméstico que compartió un100% de similitud con un fragmento del MHC clase II de pollo, quecorrespondió a una secuencia similar a DAB1 (Disabled 1.La secuencia DAB1 también fue amplificada en nueve especies de patos silvestres del género Anas que posterior a un análisis por el polimorfismo del largo de los fragmentos de restricción (PLFR con las enzimas RsaI, BsrI y HindIII, se observó que la especie Anas americana,Anas platyrhynchos diazi y Anas platyrhynchos domesticus fueronsutilmente diferentes a la especie Anas discors, Anas crecca, Anascyanoptera, Anas acuta, Anas streptera y Anas clypeata. Hasta dondesabemos, este es el primer reporte que indica la presencia desecuencias similares a DAB1 en patos silvestres. Este estudio podríaayudar a entender porque los patos podrían ser menos susceptibles apresentar neoplasias que en las gallinas.SummaryThe individual response of the immune system is linked to the functional and structural diversity of the MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex, TcR (T cell receptor, inmunoglobulines (antibodies, citokines, TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor, among other proteins. These proteins are coded for multiple and polymorphic genes, the variability of these genes constitutes the main bases, in the

  19. Augusto Boal en la educación social: del teatro del oprimido al psicodrama silvestre

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    Manuel F. Vieites García

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available La obra de Augusto Boal Teatro del Oprimido se suele situar entre las aportaciones más transcendentales del teatro del siglo XX, en tanto sus dictados teóricos y sus propuestas metodológicas y prácticas han calado en ámbitos de la educación social y teatral relacionados con el desarrollo de la democracia cultural. Pasados cuarenta años desde sus primeras experiencias, en este trabajo se propone una genealogía del teatro del oprimido a partir de una lectura crítica de sus textos fundacionales y de alguna experiencia considerada paradigmática en su desarrollo, para mostrar su naturaleza, aportes, fortalezas y debilidades. Igualmente se muestra el tránsito entre una dimensión más educativa y teatral y otra más centrada en la terapia y el desarrollo personal, para concluir que las técnicas y recursos empleados en teatro del oprimido, que proceden de fuentes muy diversas, siguen teniendo potencialidades indudables en propuestas de intervención social, cultural y educativa propias de la pedagogía teatral y la pedagogía social.Cómo referenciar este artículoVieites García, M. F. (2015. Augusto Boal en la educación social: del teatro del oprimido al psicodrama silvestre. Foro de Educación, 13(18, pp. 161-179. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2015.013.018.009 

  20. Caracterización morfológica de accesiones silvestres de guayaba

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    Muñoz florez Jaime Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la caracterización morfológica de 22 accesiones silvestres de guayaba Psidium guajava L. 14 colectadas en el municipio de Restrepo (Valle del Cauca, seis en Armenia (Quindío y dos en Pereira (Risaralda. Se utilizaron 12 descriptores cuantitativos y 10 cualitativos de tallo, hojas y frutos; el análisis de agrupamiento se hizo mediante el coeficiente de Dice-Nei-Li y el promedio aritmético no ponderado (UPGMA. La mayor variabilidad se halló en los descriptores peso de la pulpa (CV = 55.92%, peso (CV = 45.23%, y acidez del fruto (CV = 44.75%. El análisis de agrupamientos con base en caracteres cuantitativos permitió establecer cuatro grupos: las accesiones del grupo A (Armenia, presentaron valores promedio de los descriptores de la calidad del fruto (grados Brix, acidez del fruto y relación grados Brix/acidez y valores altos de contenido de pulpa. La mayoría de accesiones del grupo C (Restrepo tuvieron altos valores de calidad del fruto y bajo contenido de pulpa. El grupo B, constituido por accesiones de Armenia y Pereira, se diferenció por valores bajos en los descriptores de rendimiento del fruto (peso del fruto, de la pulpa y diámetro de la cavidad seminal. Las accesiones del grupo D (Restrepo mostraron valores promedios en calidad y rendimiento del fruto. Los descriptores cuantitativos se reunieron en tres variables sintéticas para rendimiento y calidad del fruto que representaron 76.86% de la variabilidad total.

  1. Caracterización morfológica de accesiones silvestres de guayaba

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    Liliana Jiménez Lozano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la caracterización morfológica de 22 accesiones silvestres de guayaba Psidium guajava L. 14 colectadas en el municipio de Restrepo (Valle del Cauca, seis en Armenia (Quindío y dos en Pereira (Risaralda. Se utilizaron 12 descriptores cuantitativos y 10 cualitativos de tallo, hojas y frutos; el análisis de agrupamiento se hizo mediante el coeficiente de Dice-Nei-Li y el promedio aritmético no ponderado (UPGMA. La mayor variabilidad se halló en los descriptores peso de la pulpa (CV = 55.92%, peso (CV = 45.23%, y acidez del fruto (CV = 44.75%. El análisis de agrupamientos con base en caracteres cuantitativos permitió establecer cuatro grupos: las accesiones del grupo A (Armenia, presentaron valores promedio de los descriptores de la calidad del fruto (grados Brix, acidez del fruto y relación grados Brix/acidez y valores altos de contenido de pulpa. La mayoría de accesiones del grupo C (Restrepo tuvieron altos valores de calidad del fruto y bajo contenido de pulpa. El grupo B, constituido por accesiones de Armenia y Pereira, se diferenció por valores bajos en los descriptores de rendimiento del fruto (peso del fruto, de la pulpa y diámetro de la cavidad seminal. Las accesiones del grupo D (Restrepo mostraron valores promedios en calidad y rendimiento del fruto. Los descriptores cuantitativos se reunieron en tres variables sintéticas para rendimiento y calidad del fruto que representaron 76.86% de la variabilidad total.

  2. Diagnóstico da fauna silvestre em empresas florestais brasileiras Diagnosis of wild fauna in brazilian forest companies

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    Giovanna Debortoli Medeiros

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer a situação atual da fauna silvestre em empresas florestais brasileiras, foram pesquisadas 42 razões sociais, entre Associadas e Co-Participantes da Sociedade de Investigações Florestais (SIF, as quais possuem plantios florestais próprios. As informações foram obtidas com base em questionário enviado às referidas empresas, via correio eletrônico, sendo as respostas obtidas também por esse mecanismo. Entre os vários resultados, destaca-se o fato de que 90,9% das empresas associadas já realizaram levantamentos qualitativos da fauna silvestre. No entanto, de modo geral há notória carência de infra-estrutura nas empresas pesquisadas para atender a trabalhos específicos de manejo e conservação da fauna silvestre.Forty-two companies, associates and co-participants of the Forest Investigation Society (SIF and owners of private forest plantations, were assessed to determine the current situation of wild fauna in Brazilian forest companies. Information was obtained through a questionnaire sent to and received from the companies by e-mail. One of the several results obtained was that 90.9% of the associate companies had already carried out qualitative surveys on wild fauna stands.. On the other hand, in general, there is a total lack of infrastructure in the surveyed companies, to specifically assist in the management and conservation of wild fauna.

  3. CARACTERIZAÇÃO DAS APREENSÕES DE FAUNA SILVESTRE NO ESTADO DO AMAPÁ, AMAZÔNIA ORIENTAL, BRASIL

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    Miguel Benedito Ferreira Dias Junior

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetivou caracterizar as apreensões de fauna silvestre no estado do Amapá. Foram analisados registros constantes dos Autos de Infração Ambiental lavrados pelos órgãos de fiscalização ambiental (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis, Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente, Instituto de Meio Ambiente e Ordenamento Territorial do Amapá e Batalhão de Polícia Militar Ambiental no período de 2005 a 2009. Os resultados mostraram que foram apreendidos 1.986 animais silvestres que geraram R$ 694.937,00 em multas. As apreensões ocorreram em 13 dos 16 municípios amapaenses, com destaque para Macapá e Santana que concentraram 87% das autuações. As infrações mais cometidas foram a posse ou manutenção de animais em cativeiro e o transporte de carne e de animais vivos com 38,14% e 30,77%, respectivamente. Répteis e aves foram os mais apreendidos com 48% e 45%, enquanto os mamíferos foram os menos apreendidos com 7% das apreensões. Do total de espécimes apreendidos, 736 pertencem a nove espécies constantes da lista de espécies ameaçadas, das quais, sete constam simultaneamente nas listas da IUCN e da CITES. Concluiu-se que a fauna silvestre tem sido utilizada de forma indiscriminada para fins de criação e consumo alimentar nas áreas rurais e urbanas do Estado e, que deficiências na execução das atividades de fiscalização dificultam a coibição dessa atividade ilícita. Palavras-chave: Animais silvestres, espécies ameaçadas, fiscalização, órgãos ambientais. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n1p65-73

  4. Aspectos Generales de la Evaluación Hematológica en Fauna Silvestre y no Convencional

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Copete-Sierra

    2013-01-01

    El uso de la evaluación hematológica en animales silvestres y no convencionales es fundamental para la evaluación general del estado de salud de estas poblaciones. La estandarización de los procedimientos de laboratorio, el conocimiento y la experiencia del analista en la identificación de las diferencias morfológicas, son fundamentales para obtener resultados confiables que proporcionan la mayor utilidad clínica. El objetivo de este documento es recopilar información básica para la realizaci...

  5. Aplicaciones del Triage en la Medicina de Fauna Silvestre, Exótica y de Zoológico

    OpenAIRE

    Nestor Varela

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo el autor revisa los elementos conceptuales y metodológicos del triage como herramienta en la atención médica de animales silvestres y exóticos, con objeto de compendiar los aspectos esenciales para que el clínico veterinario realice la evaluación y categorización inicial de los pacientes que ingresan por emergencia a las clínicas, zoológicos, centros de rehabilitación, o que son atendidos en el campo durante accidentes naturales, así como la metodología para establecer las ne...

  6. Contribución a la patología de los carnívoros silvestres.

    OpenAIRE

    Sobrino Menchero, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    España cuenta con una rica comunidad de carnívoros silvestres terrestres. Esta tesis parte de las siguientes hipótesis: (1) los carnívoros terrestres, por su ubicación en la cúspide de la pirámide trófica, pueden ser buenos indicadores de la presencia y frecuencia de enfermedades que afectan a distintos taxones animales. (2) la diversidad paisajística de la Península Ibérica, que se asocia con diferentes comunidades de carnívoros terrestres, podría determinar diferencias en la distribución y ...

  7. Ecología de la fauna silvestre de la sierra nevada y la Sierra del Ajusco

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Hernández García; Sánchez González, A; D. Granados Sánchez; G. F. López Ríos

    2004-01-01

    Se presenta un estudio sobre la fauna silvestre de la Sierra del Ajusco y la Sierra Nevada, localizadas dentro de la Faja Volcánica Transmexicana (FVT), en la porción oriental del límite meridional de la Cuenca de México. La enorme riqueza biológica de esta zona que rodea la zona metropolitana de la ciudad de México, uno de los mayores complejos urbanos del mundo, ha sobrevivido durante décadas al impacto de la urbanización de las áreas forestales, explotación de recursos naturales, contamina...

  8. LAS CODORNICES DE BOSQUES Y SELVAS. RETOS DE MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN DE LA FAUNA SILVESTRE

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Chávez-León

    2014-01-01

    Las codornices que habitan en bosques y selvas representan un buen modelo para analizar los retos que representan tanto el manejo como la conservación de la fauna silvestre, debido a su estrecha dependencia hacia esos ecosistemas. Las políticas gubernamentales de uso y protección de los recursos naturales repercuten en las condiciones en las que se mantiene la vegetación como hábitat, por lo que aquí se examinan esos factores y su posible influencia en estas aves, como un caso de estudio. De ...

  9. DIAGNÓSTICO JURÍDICO SOBRE EL DECOMISO Y MANEJO POSTDECOMISO DE FAUNA SILVESTRE EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DEL CHOCÓ

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    Lisneider Hinestroza Cuesta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un estudio de carácter descriptivo sobre los decomisos y el manejo postdecomiso de fauna silvestre en el departamento del Chocó utilizado como corredor para el tráfico y comercialización ilegal; se analizan, a partir del marco jurídico colombiano, la definición de fauna silvestre, decomiso y sus consecuencias jurídicas. Entre el 2005 y marzo del 2011 se realizaron en el Chocó 904 decomisos: 316 aves, 321 reptiles y 264 de mamíferos, 1 anfibio, 1 arácnido y 1 pez. La tendencia ha sido el aumento. La principal opción de disposición de fauna decomisada es la Liberación. Se han impuesto solamente sanciones de tipo administrativo sin reporte en el Registro Único de Infractores Ambientales y no se ha adelantado ninguna investigación de tipo penal

  10. Vibrio harveyi effect under survival of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Aguirre-Guzmán

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The culture of aquatic organisms show a high relevance in the human feeding and the culture activities can create artificial conditions that increase the growth and selection of specific bacteria. Vibrio species are normal bacteria’s from microflora of penaeid shrimp, those are opportunistic pathogens that can take advantage of the ecological changes generated for the culture of aquatic organisms and which may cause diseases, low survival and economic losses in the shrimp production. The aim of this research was to determine the variation in the survival of different larval substages (nauplius, zoea I-III, mysis I-III and postlarvae 1, of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed at three doses [103 , 105 , and 107 colony-forming unit (CFU ml-1 [ of V. harveyi, by immersion (30 min as infection method. This species generated a significant low survival in larvae (p < 0.05 only in high doses (105 and 107 CFU ml-1 , where higher doses show the lowest values of survival. Larval substages and postlarvae 1 of shrimp showed sensitivity associate to the increase of Vibrio doses and this sensitivity decreased with the growth of larval substages and postlarvae 1. This information has high significance for the fisheries and aquaculture industry, which help to generate strategies to reduce the effects of V. harveyi with positive effect in growth and survival of the shrimp larvae and postlarvae 1.

  11. The effects of boiling on the allergenic properties of tropomyosin of shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimp play an important role in human nutrition, and is responsible for severe hypersensitivity reactions. The thermal stability of raw and boiled shrimp tropomyosins (TM) has never been reported. The aims of the study were to compare the stability of raw and boiled shrimp TM of Litopenaeus vanname...

  12. Evaluating a quantitative methionine requirement for juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 10-wk feeding trial was conducted as a third study (all conducted in our laboratory) to determine a quantitative requirement of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei for sulfur amino acid methionine. Juvenile shrimp (mean weight 0.61 +/- 0.13 g) were reared in 110-L aquaria in a seawater recirculating sy...

  13. [Suya es la radio : 50 aniversario de Radio Alcoy, entrevista a Mario Silvestre, Antonio Doménech y Tomás Gisbert

    OpenAIRE

    Radio Alcoy; Rubio Orsi, Lorenzo; Gallego Fernández, María Llanos; Gisbert, Tomás; Doménech, Antonio; Cremades Zaragoza, Remigio; Esplugues Jordá, Francisco; Silvestre Pons, Mario

    1981-01-01

    Grabación conmemorativa por el cincuentenario de la emisora EAJ-12, Radio Alcoy en base a los recuerdos de tres locutores históricos de la emisora: Mario Silvestre, Antonio Doménech y Tomás Gisbert

  14. Neonatal cannibalism in cage-bred wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Canibalismo neonatal en conejos silvestres (Oryctolagus cuniculus alojados en jaula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P González-Redondo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the occurrence of neonatal cannibalism by individually outdoors cage-bred wild rabbit does (Oryctolagus cuniculus. Ninety eight parturitions that were gathered from 19 female cage-born wild rabbits during five consecutive years were monitored for cannibalism incidence. This alteration in maternal behaviour, which was exclusively limited to the peripartum period, had a high incidence (13.3% of parturitions and was significantly associated with inadequate maternal behaviour such as not using straw or hair in nestbuilding or giving birth outside the nest box. In 84.6% of the parturitions with occurrence of cannibalism the does did not introduce hair into the nest boxes, and in 92.3% of the parturitions with cannibalised kits the does did not introduce straw into the nest boxes. Cannibalism was also associated with a large proportion of rabbits that gave birth outside the nest boxes (53.8%. It is discussed that cannibalism practiced by wild rabbit does in captivity is a manifestation of the failure of maternal behaviour, a consequence of the stress they experience in captivity.El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la práctica de canibalismo neonatal por conejas silvestres (Oryctolagus cuniculus alojadas individualmente en jaulas ubicadas al aire libre. Se controló la incidencia de canibalismo en 98 partos producidos durante cinco años consecutivos por 19 conejas silvestres nacidas en jaula. Esta alteración de la conducta maternal, que estuvo limitada exclusivamente al periparto, tuvo una elevada incidencia (13,3% de los partos y estuvo asociada significativamente con una inadecuada conducta maternal, tal como la no introducción de pelo y paja en los nidales por parte de las conejas o los partos fuera del nidal. En el 84,6% de los partos en los que ocurrió canibalismo las conejas no introdujeron pelo en los nidales, y en el 92,3% de los partos con gazapos canibalizados las conejas no introdujeron paja en

  15. Febre amarela silvestre no Brasil: um desafio nos últimos anos - YELLOW FEVER IN BRAZIL: A CHALLENGE IN RECENT YEARS

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Thiago Vinicius Neves de; Sisley Neves de Menezes e Ailton Lopes de Menezes; Pereira, Sirlene de F.; Enfermeira, Ministério da Saúde/Secrvetaria de Vigilância de Saúde/DEVEP; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes

    2009-01-01

    A febre amarela silvestre é uma doença infecciosa viral aguda, de curta duração cujo agente etiológico é um Flavivírus presente principalmente entre os primatas não-humanos que são os principais hospedeiros do vírus amarílico. O desmatamento causa desequilíbrio na interação entre patógeno e seu ambiente, proporciona a proliferação de vetores e parasitas e cria oportunidade para as epidemias. Este estudo teve por base a análise de dados de morbimortalidade por febre amarela, dados de vacinação...

  16. Diagnóstico del Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Caño Negro, Arenal - Huetar Norte, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Caño Negro (Grup de recerca)

    2009-01-01

    Se ha elaborado un diagnóstico a partir de un exhaustivo análisis del Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Caño Negro. Esta zona pertenece al Área de Conservación Arenal Huetar Norte, situado al norte de Costa Rica. El refugio forma parte de la cuenca de río Frío y consiste en un sistema de humedales continentales. El diagnóstico contiene la descripción de los aspectos biofísicos, socioeconómicos y administrativo-institucionales del área. La metodología utilizada se basa en un estudio de la bib...

  17. Are camouflaged seeds less attacked by wild birds? Sementes camufladas são menos atacadas por aves silvestres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat, corn and rice crops in Brazil use seeds treated with systemic insecticide/nematicide carbofuran, mixed to rhodamine B red dye. Carbofuran is toxic and rhodamine B is attractive to wild birds that eat up these seeds, resulting in notable mortality during planting. A field experiment was performed in southeast Brazil to evaluate if camouflaged seeds would be less consumed by wild birds in comparison to commercial seeds with red-colored rhodamine B and aposematic blue seeds. Camouflaged seeds were less removed than seeds with rhodamine B and natural colors. The camouflaging was more effective in the presence of irregularities and litter. There was no removal of blue-colored seeds. As legislation requires treated seeds to receive a different color to avoid accidents with humans, camouflaging may be used as replacement of rhodamine B to reduce mortality rates of wild birds.Plantações de trigo milho e arroz no Brasil utilizam sementes tratadas com o inseticida e nematicida sistêmico carbofuran, associado ao corante vermelho rodamina B. O carbofuran é tóxico e a rodamina B é atrativa às aves silvestres, as quais consomem estas sementes, resultando em notável mortalidade durante o plantio. Um experimento realizado em campo agrícola no sudeste do Brasil mostrou que sementes camufladas foram menos removidas por aves silvestres do que sementes com rodamina B. A camuflagem foi potencializada em presença de irregularidades e serrapilheira no solo. Não houve remoção de sementes de cor azul, mas a formulação granular de cor azul tem causado mortalidade de aves nos USA e Canadá. Como sementes tratadas com agrotóxicos devem, de acordo com a legislação, receber coloração diferenciada para evitar acidentes com humanos, a camuflagem pode ser utilizada, substituindo a rodamina B.

  18. Ácidos grasos y parámetros de calidad del aceite de semilla de uva silvestre (Vitis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Franco-Mora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available México es centro de origen de varias especies de Vitis. La gran mayoría de ellas no son empleadas en la agricultura e industrias derivadas. Como parte de la exploración de su potencial agroindustrial se identificó y cuantificó a los ácidos grasos del aceite de semilla de vid silvestre (Vitis spp. de frutos de Temascaltepec, México y de la accesión E-201, cultivada en Zumpahuacán, México. El contenido promedio de aceite en la semilla fue de 16,7%, encontrando ácido linoleico (71,5%, oleico (17,2%, palmítico (6,6% y esteárico (4,3%. En el aceite obtenido en vides de Temascaltepec se determinó índice de yodo (57,9 g/100 g, índice de saponificación (170,7 mg/g e índice de peroxidos (30 mEq/kg, valores relacionados posiblemente al contenido de ácidos grasos insaturados. Sin embargo, ese mismo grado de insaturación no concordó con el punto de humeo observado (211 °C, lo cual posiblemente está relacionado con el contenido de ácidos palmítico y esteárico. El aceite de semilla de vid silvestre cumple parcialmente con los estándares establecidos para el aceite de semilla de V. vinifera, lo cual implica su potencial culinario, agroindustrial y cosmetológico.

  19. Evidences of abundant hemocyanin variants in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianliang; Guo, Lingling; Lu, Xin; Lu, Hui; Wang, Fan; Zhong, Mingqi; Chen, Jiehui; Zhang, Yueling

    2016-09-01

    Hemocyanin (HMC) is a multifunctional immune molecule present in mollusks and arthropods and functions as an important antigen non-specific immune protein. Our previous evidences demonstrated that Litopenaeus vannamei HMC might display extensive molecular diversities. In this study, bioinformatics analysis showed dozens of variant sequences of the HMC subunit with higher molecular weight from L. vannamei (LvHMC). Three variant fragments, named as LvHMCV1-3, which shared 85-99% nucleotide identity with that of the classical form of LvHMC (AJ250830.1), were cloned and characterized. Spatial expression profiles showed that LvHMCV1-3 had different tissue-specific distribution, which were affected by stimulation with six pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli K12, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, with each variant fragment showing a specific stress pattern to different bacterial pathogens. Full length cDNA of LvHMCV3 was further cloned and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 92% identity with that of LvHMC, possessed a conserved structure characteristic of the HMC family and could be clustered into one branch along with other arthropod HMC in a phylogenetic tree. In addition, the recombinant protein of LvHMCV3 (rLvHMCV3) showed obvious agglutination activities against three aquaculture pathogenic bacteria including E. coli K12, V. parahaemolyticus and S.aureus at concentrations ranging from 31.25-62.5g/mL. It also showed obvious antibacterial activity against V. parahaemolyticus at concentrations 0.02-0.5mg/mL, and possessed the best inhibitive effects compared with those of rLvHMCV4 and rLvHMC. Co-injection of V. parahaemolyticus and rLvHMCV3 in L. vannamei showed significant decrease of the mortality rate at 24-72h after injection. Therefore, these studies suggested that L. vannamei had abundant HMC variants, which possessed obvious resistance to pathogenic

  20. Veinte años de seguimiento poblacional de ungulados silvestres de Aragón

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    Marco, J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable increase of wild ungulates populations in Aragon during the last 50 years, both in numbers and distribution, has made population monitoring a need for effective management of these species. In parallel to their raising numbers, problems related to crop damage and collisions with vehicles are growing. In this situation there has been a shift in the management goals from conservation to population control. Different methods have been used in the surveys: postal enquiries for distribution, battues, distance sampling, night spotlight surveys and indirect ones based on transect and plot counts of pellet groups. Surveys started in 1985 for red deer, 1990 for wild boar and Iberian wild goat, 1995 for chamois and 2002 for roe deer, gradually becoming a population monitoring program. The surveys are carried out by rangers and wildlife consultants under the coordination and supervision of the Fish and Game Service of the Aragon Government. The ungulate populations are still growing (wild boar, wild goat, red and roe deer, are relatively stabilised (fallow deer, feral goat, fluctuate due to diseases (chamois or show small populations limited to fenced states (Barbary sheep, mouflon. Hunting bags went from 1,100 to 36,000 during an eleven-year period (1990-2009: 303 chamois, 1,173 wild goats, 2,141 roe deer, 2,424 red deer and 29,595 wild boars, showing a trend which is still increasing. The main tool is therefore hunting quota and its verification through hunting bags declarations, damages to crops and car crashes, and population trend and abundance.

    La importante expansión de las poblaciones de ungulados silvestres en Aragón desde los años 50 del siglo XX hasta la actualidad, tanto en superficie ocupada como en abundancia de ejemplares, ha hecho necesario el seguimiento de las mismas para su adecuada gestión. Su incremento en las dos últimas décadas, junto con el importante aumento de daños agrícolas y colisiones con veh

  1. Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Chin Lin; Jiann-Chu Chen; Morni, Wan Zabidii W.; Dedi Fazriansyah Putra; Chien-Lun Huang; Chang-Che Li; Jen-Fang Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticu...

  2. Optimization of Process Parameters for Litopenaeus vannamei Seafood Sauce using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Xinyue Li; Jianfeng Sun; Xiaopeng Cui; Jie Wang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in order to determine the optimum formulation of Litopenaeus vannamei seafood sauce, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of contents of thick broad-bean sauce, sweet soybean paste and Shacha sauce on the sensory quality. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the data were adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model. The independent parameters of contents of thick broad-bean sauce, sweet soybean paste and the quadratics...

  3. Vibrios Associated with Litopenaeus vannamei Larvae, Postlarvae, Broodstock, and Hatchery Probionts

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberghe, Johan; Verdonck, Linda; Robles-Arozarena, Rocio; Rivera, Gabriel; Bolland, Annick; Balladares, Marcos; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Calderon, Jorge; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Swings, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different Litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries (in Ecuador) and shrimp farms (in Mexico). Samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juveniles and broodstock. In Ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing symptoms of zoea 2 syndrome, mysis mold syndrome, and bolitas syndrome has been...

  4. Aquacultural importance of the integumental pore pattern in postlarval whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Alberto Cabrera-Jiménez

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of integumental pore pattern has identified two intraspecific groups of postlarval shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931), a species of which three to five natural populations or groups are expected to be found from Mexico to Peru. Natural distribution and man-made redistributions have not been typified on a population basis in any penaeid, but it is important to do so in this commercially significant group. Important factors to be defined on a geographic population or group b...

  5. BUDIDAYA UDANG VANAME (Litopenaeus vannamei TEKNOLOGI INTENSIF MENGGUNAKAN BENIH TOKOLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Mangampa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu jenis udang yang cukup potensial untuk dikembangkan adalah udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei. Budidaya ini berkembang dengan teknologi intensif, namun terbatas pada golongan masyarakat menengah ke atas (padat modal. Riset ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan data dan informasi pengaruh penggunaan tokolan terhadap produksi, Rasio Konversi Pakan (RKP pada pembesaran udang vaname teknologi intensif. Riset ini dilaksanakan di tambak Punaga, Takalar, Instalasi Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau (BRPBAP, menggunakan empat petak masing masing berukuran 4.000 m2/petak. Hewan uji adalah udang vaname dengan perlakuan: (A pembesaran dengan tebar benur (PL-12, dan (B pembesaran dengan tebar tokolan (PL-27. Setiap perlakuan dengan 2 ulangan, kepadatan benur dan tokolan adalah 50 ekor/m2, dan pemeliharaan berlangsung 80 hari di tambak. Hasil yang diperoleh pada perlakuan B memperlihatkan pertumbuhan mutlak (11,114±0,258 g/ekor, sintasan (92,55±0,23%, produksi (2.087,5±88,2 kg/petak lebih tinggi daripada perlakuan A yaitu: pertumbuhan mutlak (10,085±0,120 g/ekor, sintasan (90,83±8,51%, produksi (1.831,0±149,9 kg/petak, namun ketiga peubah ini berbeda tidak nyata antara kedua perlakuan. RKP lebih rendah pada perlakuan B (1,096±0,034 berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan A (1,257±0,048. Peubah kualitas air memperlihatkan sebaran kisaran yang merata untuk kedua perlakuan, kecuali nitrit (NO2 memperlihatkan kisaran yang tinggi pada perlakuan B (0,18235 mg/L dibandingkan dengan perlakuan A (0,0328 mg/L pada akhir penelitian. Hal ini disebabkan waktu panen yang berbeda sesuai dengan kondisi musim yaitu kualitas air sumber semakin menurun. Kualitas air sumber yang menurun ini diikuti oleh meningkatnya total vibrio di air laut mencapai; 4,33104 cfu/mL dibandingkan dalam air tambak 829.102 cfu/mL. Kesimpulan memperlihatkan bahwa penggunaan tokolan (PL-27 menghasilkan produksi yang tinggi dan rasio konversi pakan yang rendah. One species of shrimps that

  6. PENDUGAAN NUTRIENT BUDGET TAMBAK INTENSIF UDANG, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmansyah Rachmansyah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan nutrient budget tambak intensif udang Litopenaeus vannamei sebagai acuan alokasi input produksi pada tingkat kapasitas asimilasi lingkungan perairan. Pendugaan nutrient budget tambak udang intensif menggunakan pendekatan mass balance, dihitung berdasarkan input nutrien nitrogen - N dan fosfor – P yang berasal dari pakan, benih, pupuk, media probiotik, inflow, dan output nutrien yang ada pada produksi udang, outflow, dan endapan lumpur di dasar tambak. Sampel air, tanah, sedimen, plankton diambil sebelum penebaran dan setiap dua minggu selama pemeliharaan dari tiga petak tambak, masing-masing 5 titik sampel per petak tambak contoh. Analisis nitrogen dan fosfor dilakukan untuk sampel pakan, karkas udang awal dan akhir. Data managemen budi daya meliputi padat penebaran benur 50 ekor m-2, produksi 1.188—1.489 kg/0,25 ha, dan FCR 1,69—2,14; maka total input nutrien tambak udang Litopenaeus vannamei antara 171,9155—179,3778 (176 ± 3,9586 kgN dan 95,2533—99,4180(97,8340 ± 2,3348 kg P. Pakan mendominasi input N sebesar 61,96% ± 0,66%; disusul inflow 30,93% ± 0,70%; pupuk 6,52% ± 0,15%, serta media probiotik dan benur masing-masing <1%. Pola yang sama terjadi pada input phosphorous dengan komposisi 87,75% ± 0,24% dari pakan; 7,73% ± 0,19% pupuk; 4,05% ± 0,25% inflow dan media probiotik < 1%. Total output nitrogen tambak udang vannamei antara 107,1279-110,1438 (108,4957 ± 1,5274 kg N dan 51,6362—63,6576 (56,1292 ± 6,5604 kg P. Komposisi output nitrogen adalah outflow sebanyak 29,82% ± 3,20%; kemudian udang yang dipanen 21,32% ± 1,33%, lumpur atau sludge 10,40% ± 0,81%. Sedangkan komposisi output phosphorous didominasi oleh lumpur 39,03% ± 6,59%; kemudian udang yang dipanen 15,22% ± 0,85% dan outflow 3,09% ± 0,26%. Efisiensi pakan dan air melalui managemen budi daya yang benar menjadi peubah dominan penentu beban limbah tambak udang. This research was aimed to find out nutrient budget

  7. Distribución, ecología y caracterzación in situ de la vid silvestre en la Reserva de la Biosfera de Urdaibai (Bizkaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranburu Albizuri, A., Gallardo Cano, A., López Martínez, M.A., Pérez Izquierdo, M.A., Ocete Rubio, R.

    2009-01-01

    Se incide sobre la necesidad de la conservación in situ y ex situ de este recurso fitogenético. Como Urdaibai ha sido una zona tradicional de producción de chacolí, se señalan posibles lineas de investigación, tanto filogenéticas como para el empleo de material silvestre en la mejora de las variedades cultivadas.

  8. Estudio preliminar de especies de micobacterias en primates colombianos no humanos en cautiverio en dos centros de rescate de fauna silvestre de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barragán Fonseca Karol Bibiana

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la presencia de diferentes especies de micobacterias en 83 primates colombianos en cautiverio en dos centros de rescate de fauna silvestre de Bogotá. Se evaluaron 166 muestras de sangre y lavado gástrico mediante amplificación por PCR-spoligotyping para micobacterias del
    complejo tuberculosis y Hsp65-PRA para micobacterias no  tuberculosas (MNT. Se obtuvo una prevalencia del 2,4% para micobacterias del complejo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, encontrando un Saimiri sciureus infectado con Mycobacterium microti tipo vole y un Saguinus leucopus infectado con
    Mycobacterium africanum, siendo el primer reporte de estas micobacterias para primates del Nuevo Mundo. La prevalencia para MNT fue de 7,2% perteneciendo a las especies Mycobacterium phlei, M. terrae, M. vaccae, M. flavescens, M. flavescens y M. zsulgaii, algunas de estas, patógenos oportunistas. No existe una diferencia a nivel descriptivo en cuanto a la edad, al sexo y al tipo de entrega de los individuos infectados con MNT y micobacterias tuberculosas con respecto a los individuos que no las presentaron. Los primates del Nuevo Mundo pueden ser portadores sanos de micobacterias tuberculosas lo que representa un riesgo para la salud humana, y con ciertas especies de micobacterias, podría ser un riesgo para las poblaciones de primates silvestres en caso de que estos primates sean liberados en el medio silvestre. Este estudio es relevante para el país, ya que integra conceptos médicos tanto epidemiológicos como microbiológicos, con aspectos relacionados con la conservación de la fauna silvestre.

  9. Reflexiones sobre el impacto y manejo de la caza de mamíferos silvestres en los bosques tropicales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Fa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available comunidades autóctonas de las selvas en América, África y Asia, la fauna es una fuente importante de proteína animal y también de ingresos deri- vados de la venta de los animales cazados. La caza comercial de fauna selvática, junto con las demandas impuestas por el intenso crecimiento de la población humana en estos ecosistemas, supone sin embargo una amenaza para la viabilidad de muchas poblaciones de mamíferos silvestres. Este impacto pone en riesgo la biodiversidad de estos ecosistemas y puede reducir las fuentes de proteínas para las poblaciones rurales. En este trabajo se presenta un análisis del volumen de carne de monte extraída en selvas tropicales a escala mundial, y se examina su importancia en las dietas y economías de las comunidades rurales y urbanas en estas regiones. Se realiza una breve revisión sobre el estado de conservación de aquellas especies afectadas por la caza, y de los procesos que han contribuido a su situación actual. Se concluye con un análisis de las soluciones propuestas para minimizar el conflicto entre la protección de la biodiversidad y las necesidades de las poblaciones humanas dependientes de ella en las selvas tropicales.

  10. MAMÍFEROS INVASORES EN LA PATAGONIA ARGENTINA: EL CONEJO SILVESTRE EUROPEO COMO CASO EMBLEMÁTICO

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    Never Antonio Bonino Vassallo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se brinda una reseña de los estudios biológicos y ecológicos realizados sobre el conejo silvestre europeo (Oryctolagus cuniculus, tal vez el más emblemático de los mamíferos exóticos introducidos en Argentina. En el sector continental argentino el conejo se encuentra establecido, y en proceso de dispersión, principalmente en las provincias de Mendoza y Neuquén (NO de la Patagonia. En esta región, el conejo ha demostrado tener un efecto negativo sobre la economía regional, especialmente en áreas ganaderas y en plantaciones comerciales de árboles frutales y maderables. No existen programas oficiales para controlar la dispersión geográfica y/o el impacto de esta especie exótica. La gente que se siente perjudicada por el conejo recurre a intentos individuales para controlar sus efectos negativos. Es necesario implementar monitoreos regulares de la dispersión del conejo para la detección temprana y el manejo de poblaciones recién establecidas; además, se requieren estudios comparativos tendientes a determinar los métodos más adecuados para controlar el impacto del conejo.

  11. Tráfico y tenencia ilegal de fauna silvestre en el departamento de Boyacá

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    Alejandro Cabrejo Bello

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de establecer cuáles son los principales grupos taxonómicos, suparticipación y las ciudades con mayores índices de tráfico y tenencia ilegal de vida silvestre en el departamento de Boyacá, jurisdicción de la Corporación Autónoma Regional de Boyacá- Corpoboyacá, se tomaron reportes de la base de datos de dicha entidad entre los años 2004 y 2008. Se hallaron registros de 398 individuos decomisados por parte de la autoridad ambiental y otros por entregas voluntarias. El grupo con mayor incidencia fue el de las aves con 58%,seguido por los reptiles con 26% y en tercer lugar los mamíferos con el 16% de los registros. Se observó que las tres principales ciudades del departamento (Tunja, Duitama y Sogamoso reportan las frecuencias más elevadas de incautaciones. Puerto Boyacá, también registra un número elevado de decomisos. Dentro de los tres grupos mencionados, las especies más afectadas correspondena los órdenes Psitaciformes, Primates y Testudínata, por lo cual merecen principal atención. Se recomienda además, implementar planes de conservación y emprender actividades de educación ambiental encaminadas a la utilización sostenible de la fauna en general.

  12. Optimización del proceso de obtención de biodiesel a partir de colza silvestre (Brassica Campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de esta investigación fueron , optimizar el rendimiento de biodiesel a partir del aceite de colza silvestre en función de la relación molar metanol/aceite, la concentración de catalizadores homogéneos NaOH y KOH, te mperatura y tiempo de transesterificación a través de la metodología de superficie respuesta, y determinar las características fisicoquímicas del biodiesel obtenido en condiciones optimizadas. Fue aplic ado un diseño de Plackett y Burman (PB12 para la etap a d e screening y un diseño compuesto central rotacional (DCCR para la optimización final. Las condiciones que maximizan el r endimiento de biodiesel (77.8 % se obtuvieron a concentraciones de 0 – 0.2 % de NaOH y de 0.4 a 0.6 % de KOH , con tiempos de 77 a 81 minutos, manteniendo constante la relación molar metanol/aceite en 6/1 y una temperatura de 60ºC. Las propiedades fisicoquímicas del biodiesel obtenido en condiciones optimizadas cumplen con las especificaciones técnicas dadas por la ASTM D6751 – 07 y EN14214.

  13. Nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in the biofloc production of the pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Kassio Rios da; Wasielesky Junior,Wilson; Abreu, Paulo Cesar Oliveira Vergne de

    2013-01-01

    A study evaluating nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics was carried out using biofloc technology (BFT) systems employed to raise Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. The study was carried out for 42 d in three fiberglass tanks with 210 L useful volume with no water exchange. Salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, nutrients, suspended solids, and chlorophyll-a were monitored every 3 d. At the completion of the experiment, the shrimp had absorbed 39.1 and 35.0% of the total nitrogen (N) and phosph...

  14. Evaluation of different lipid sources in diet of pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei at low salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Chen; Erchao Li; Chang Xu; Xiaodan Wang; Heizhao Lin; Jian G Qin; Liqiao Chen

    2015-01-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei (1.98 ± 0.28 g) were fed diets containing soybean oil (SBO), beef tallow (BFT), fish oil (FIO), linseed oil (LNO), and an equal combination of SBO + BFT + FIO (SBF) or SBO + BFT + LNO (SBL) as dietary lipid source respectively for 8 weeks at low salinity of 3‰. The shrimp fed the SBL diet had the highest weight gain and survival rate. The whole body fatty acid composition including the EPA and DHA of L. vannamei generally reflected the composition of dietary fatty acids w...

  15. Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( Pprobiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( Pprobiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

  16. A Comparative study on the nonspecific immunity of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuying; Ding, Sen; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin

    2014-06-01

    A study on the nonspecific immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater was carried out at different molt stages by comparing their total hemocyte count (THC) and respiratory burst (RB) and activity of phenol oxidase (PO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and lysozyme (LY). Two-way ANOVA showed that salinity and molt stage independently affected THC and RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei significantly ( P vannamei were significantly lower in freshwater than in seawater; whereas THC was significantly higher in freshwater than in seawater ( P vannamei was cultured in freshwater.

  17. Direct Nitrous Oxide Emission from the Aquacultured Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    OpenAIRE

    Heisterkamp, Ines M; Schramm, Andreas; De Beer, Dirk; Stief, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is widely used in aquaculture, where it is reared at high stocking densities, temperatures, and nutrient concentrations. Here we report that adult L. vannamei shrimp emit the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) at an average rate of 4.3 nmol N2O/individual × h, which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than previously measured N2O emission rates for free-living aquatic invertebrates. Dissection, incubation, and inhibitor experiments with specime...

  18. Identification, Characterization, and Function Analysis of the Cactus Gene from Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chaozheng; Chen, Yi-Xiao; Zhang, Shuang; Lü, Ling; Chen, Yi-Hong; Chai, Jiaoting; Weng, Shaoping; Chen, Yong-Gui; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways play important roles in innate immune responses. IκB is the main cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-κB. In this study, we identified the LvCactus gene from Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the first cloned IκB homologue in subphylum Crustacea. LvCactus contains six predicted ankyrin repeats, which show similarities to those of Cactus proteins from insects. LvCactus localizes in cytoplasm and interacts with LvDorsal, an L. vannamei homologue to Drosophila mel...

  19. Replacement of fish meal with black soldier fly meal in practical diets for Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimp account for 15 percent of the total value of internationally traded fishery products, and currently are the largest single aquaculture commodity in value terms. The Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) generated USD 11 billion from a production volume of 2.7 million metric tons (mm...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of a Vibrio harveyi Strain Associated with Vibriosis in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Emille; Parks, Marci; Pinnell, Lee J.; Tallman, James J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative bacterium associated with vibriosis in penaeid shrimp. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a V. harveyi strain isolated from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during a vibriosis outbreak. The availability of this genome will aid future studies of vibriosis in shrimp aquaculture. PMID:28209836

  1. Comparison of immune response of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after multiple and single infections with WSSV and Vibrio anguillarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our previous study demonstrated that Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) infected by multiple pathogens showed higher mortality and death occurred more quickly than those infected by a single pathogen [1]. For better understanding the defense mechanism against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV...

  2. A major SNP resource for dissection of phenotypic and genetic variation in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciobanu, D.C.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Magrin, J.; Rocha, J.L.; Jiang, D.H.; Yu, N.; Geiger, B.; Deeb, N.; Rocha, D.; Gong, H.; Kinghorn, B.P.; Plastow, G.S.; Steen, van der H.A.M.; Mileham, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Bioinformatics and re-sequencing approaches were used for the discovery of sequence polymorphisms in Litopenaeus vannamei. A total of 1221 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in a pool of individuals from various commercial populations. A set of 211 SNPs were selected for

  3. Dietas practicas para el cultivo de Litopenaeus schmitti: una revisión (Practical diets for Litopenaeus schmitti shrimp culture: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime-Ceballos, Barbarito:

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se resumen los resultados del trabajo desarrollado por investigadorescubanos en el campo de la alimentación y nutrición del camarónblanco Litopenaeus schmitti, referidos a la formulación de alimentosbalanceados para las fases de precría y engorde. Aporta información sobre la respuesta de dicha especie a la inclusión de materias primasconvencionales o no en dietas prácticas, constituyendo una vía deabaratamiento de las mismas mediante el uso de ingredientes nacionales. Además se muestran los resultados obtenidos en cuanto aempleo de aglutinantes, tamaños de partículas e investigaciones básicas aplicadas a esta actividad. Estos estudios han servido de base para la obtención de alimentos comerciales eficientes que sustentan el desarrollo de la camaronicultura en Cuba, propiciando el diseño de alimentos acordes a las necesidades y posibilidades del país, constituye un valioso material para el conocimiento y desarrollo del cultivo en cuanto a Results of the research workdeveloped by Cuban investigators on feeding and nutrition of white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, referred the food formulation for nursery and grow-out phases. It contributes information on the answer of this species to the inclusion of conventional raw materials or not in practical diets, constituting a via to reduce prices trough the use of national ingredients. In addition results obtained as far as use of aglutinantes, sizes of particles and basic investigations applied to this activity are shown. These studies have served as base to obtain efficient commercial diets that have supported the development of shrimp culture in Cuba, facilitating the designof artifitial food according to the necessities and possibilities of the country, constituting a valuable material for the knowledge anddevelopment of the culture as far as feeding and nutrition.H

  4. Diversidade genética de Litopenaeus vannamei cultivado na Bahia Genetic diversity of Litopenaeus vannamei cultivated in Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Magalhães

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a variabilidade genética de estoques comerciais do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, por meio de marcadores RAPD e diferentes métodos estatísticos de análises, em Canavieiras, BA. Vinte primers foram utilizados para a obtenção de 59 marcadores polimórficos. A análise com o programa AMOVA evidenciou diferenciação genética significativa entre os estoques, com fiST = 0,186 (pq b ou = 0,002, mas considerável taxa de endogamia dentro dos estoques, em razão, provavelmente, do cruzamento entre indivíduos geneticamente mais similares (f = 0,729. Testes com bootstrap mostraram 48 como o número mínimo de marcadores RAPD adequados para estudos de variabilidade genética nessa espécie. Pelo dendrograma, gerado a partir da matriz de similaridade de Jaccard (Sj, observou-se que nos três estoques comerciais estudados existem animais geneticamente distintos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability of commercial stocks of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, using RAPD markers and different statistical methods of analysis in Canavieiras, BA, Brazil. Twenty primers were used to obtain 59 polymorphic markers. A significant differentiation among stocks, with phiST = 0.186 (pq b or = 0.002, but considerable inbreeding within stocks, possibly due to consanguineous crossings (f = 0.729. Statistical tests with bootstrap indicated 48 as the minimum number of RAPD markers suitable for studies on genetic variability of this species. By the dendrogram produced from the Jaccard similarity matrix, it was observed that the analyzed stocks are composed of genetically different individuals.

  5. Fauna silvestre asociada a ganado vacuno doble propósito en sistema de silvopastoreo, Pinto, Magdalena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime De La Ossa V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la biodiversidad faunística asociada a ganadería vacuna de doble propósito en dos potreros estructurados con Botriochloa pertusa (colosoana como herbácea dominante, uno de ellos plantado con Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae como fuente de alimento adicional y otro con escaso y disperso arbolado. Materiales y métodos. El área de estudio está ubicada en el municipio de Pinto, Magdalena. Cada potrero evaluado fue de 10 ha, se mantuvo en cada uno un lote de quince vacas (½ Cebú, ¼ Pardo y ¼ Costeño con Cuernos, la separación entre las áreas muestreadas fue de 500m. Los registros de fauna se condujeron mediante punto fijo de conteo, en diez sitios de avistamiento, durante 20 días continuos, con cubrimiento visual amplio. Al ganado vacuno adulto presente en las dos áreas de trabajo se le realizó un pesaje individual al inicio del trabajo y al final del mismo, con el fin de determinar posibles diferencias entre ellos. Resultados. Estadísticamente el número de individuos y el número de especies presentaron diferencias significativas, siendo mayor la diversidad biológica para el potrero que poseía la plantación de C. cujete, mientras que el peso corporal de las vacas sometidas a pastoreo en las dos áreas no presentó diferencias significativas. Conclusiones. Se demuestra la importancia de este modelo pecuario como promotor de la conservación faunística local al convertirse enrefugio de variadas especies silvestres, al tiempo que mantiene la productividad existente sin alterar el ambiente sustancialmente.

  6. ANÁLISIS DEL CRECIMIENTO DE UN GENOTIPO SILVESTRE DE Carica papaya L. CULTIVADO EX SITU Y CV. `MARADOL ROJA ́´

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rodríguez Cabello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La especie Carica papaya L., es nativa del trópico americano y uno de los frutales más cultivados a nivel mundial. En Cuba existen problemas que afectan la producción de este frutal, considerados los más importantes el reducido número de cultivares explotados comercialmente y la baja diversidad genética presente en el banco de germoplasma. Sin embargo, existen genotipos silvestres que constituyen una fuente importante de genes para los programas de mejoramiento y explotación local, los cuales aún no se han caracterizado. Estudios de análisis del crecimiento permiten comprender su comportamiento en diferentes periodos de siembra en condiciones ex situ eidentificar caracteres de crecimiento inicial que posibiliten el aumento del rendimiento y favorezcan los trabajos de mejoramiento en busca de genotipos más productivos. Debido a lo antes señalado, el objetivo de la presente investigación fue realizar estudios del crecimiento del genotipo papaya silvestre de la cuenca Almendares-Vento. Las semillas para los experimentos se obtuvieron de frutos colectados in situ. Las medidas directas en la planta fueron área foliar y peso seco. Para la determinación de la superficie foliar se empleó una cámara digital y un software. El análisis computarizado de las imágenes de hojas obtenidas con la cámara digital permitió estimar el área foliar de forma simple, rápida y económica. La mayor producción de área foliar del genotipo silvestre y similar comportamiento en la masa seca y resto de los indicadores evaluados, indica la disponibilidad de recursos durante toda la fase de crecimiento, lo cual se asocia con su rendimiento

  7. Viabilidad fitoclimática de las repoblaciones de pino silvestre (Pinus sylvestris L. en la Sierra de los Filabres (Almería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández Cancio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La variabilidad climática actual se caracteriza por provocar cambios bruscos en los cursos fitoclimáticos, lo que está desencadenando procesos de mortalidad de especies forestales. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la adecuación fitoclimática de las masas artificiales de Pinus sylvestris L. en la Sierra de los Filabres (Almería, para lo cual se analizaron 35 variables fitoclimáticas que determinan la estabilidad climática de la especie. El estudio de los valores interanuales de las variables climáticas indica que entre 1970 y 1980 comenzó una perturbación climática amplia, modificando la estacionalidad y la variabilidad de las precipitaciones y de las temperaturas. Como rasgos más significativos tenemos el aumento de las temperaturas, sobre todo de las máximas, el aumento de la oscilación térmica y de los extremos diarios, la disminución global de precipitación, el aumento grave de la aridez primaveral y el deterioro de todas las variables ómbricas. El estudio de las estaciones con masas repobladas de pino silvestre en Andalucía oriental indica que las estaciones están fuera de la nube de puntos de las masas de pino silvestre establecidas en España. Las masas de pino silvestre de la Sierra de los Filabres están notablemente fuera de estación en todas sus características fitoclimáticas y pueden desaparecer progresiva o bruscamente, sobre todo si se implanta un cambio climático.

  8. Dieta del perro (canis familiaris) y sus interacciones con la fauna silvestre de la cuenca alta del Río Otún-Risaralda (Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    El perro (Canis familiaris) interactúa con la fauna silvestre principalmente por medio de la depredación, competencia y transmisión de enfermedades. Sin embargo, no se conoce con mucha claridad cómo se presentan estas interacciones. Para responder a este interrogante, en este trabajo se identificó la dieta del perro y la presencia de la enfermedad de Parvovirus (CPV). A partir de esta información, contrastada con el conocimiento de los pobladores del área de estudio, se determinaron las posib...

  9. Acumulación de cromo en setas silvestres comestibles: factores que influyen en su captación y repercusiones toxicológicas

    OpenAIRE

    MA García; Alonso, J.; AJ Martín; MJ Melgar

    2008-01-01

    La polución metálica medioambiental ha incrementado notablemente el interés por los hongos por ser captadores de metales pesados. Nutricionalmente, el cromo puede considerarse incluso un oligoelemento, pero en dosis excesivas es nocivo para la salud. Los objetivos planteados son la determinación del contenido de cromo en setas comestibles silvestres, el análisis estadístico de factores que influyen en su captación, y finalmente la evaluación del riesgo toxicológico deriva...

  10. La regeneración natural del pino silvestre (Pinus sylvestris L.) en el Valle del Lozoya (Madrid): germinación y supervivencia inicial

    OpenAIRE

    Aroca Fernández, Pepa

    2016-01-01

    La fase de establecimiento del regenerado es un proceso crítico para el desarrollo posterior de la masa tanto por las elevadas tasas de mortalidad que habitualmente lleva asociadas, como por proporcionar el material de partida del que van a disponer las fases subsiguientes. Las restricciones a la germinación y establecimiento de la regeneración del pino silvestre varían enormemente entre las distintas regiones de su extensa área de distribución geográfica. La región Mediterránea constituye un...

  11. Diagnóstico del tráfico ilegal y del manejo post decomiso de fauna silvestre en nueve corporaciones autónomas regionales de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Montenefgro Olga Lucía; Mendivelso Gamboa Diego Andrés

    2007-01-01

    La fauna silvestre siempre ha estado relacionada con el hombre sirviéndole de diferentes maneras, ya sea como fuente de alimento, como compañía, como materia prima para la fabricación de accesorios (pieles y otros productos) o como diversión. Una de las causas más importantes de pérdida de diversidad la constituye el aprovechamiento no sostenible de especies de fauna y flora tanto para el consumo directo como para el comercio, lo que conlleva a la reducción en el tamaño de las poblaciones sil...

  12. Revisión del concepto biológico desarrollado en la legislación colombiana relacionada con la fauna silvestre vertebrada terrestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldonado Chaparro Adriana A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se presenta un panorama general del estado actual de la legislación en materia de fauna silvestre vertebrada terrestre en Colombia, el cual es complementado con algunas actividades de conservación y aprovechamiento del recurso faunístico, que han sido adelantadas por
    las autoridades ambientales. Además, se exponen y analizan conceptos biológicos usados dentro de la normatividad, que son considerados claves desde el punto de vista biológico para la aplicación de las normas.

  13. Opciones de gestión para reducir la cacería ilegal: El caso de la Reserva de Vida Silvestre Amazónica Manuripi, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Espinoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La cacería ilegal representa una amenaza para la conservación de la vida silvestre. Las motivaciones y efectos que puede tener son variables y aún no han sido ampliamente estudiados. Aplicando un enfoque teórico-conceptual económico analizamos los diferentes factores que pueden motivar la cacería ilegal y discutimos las implicaciones de gestión. Basándonos en el caso de la cacería ilegal que ocurre durante la recolección de castaña (Bertholletia excelsa en la Reserva de Vida Silvestre Amazónica Manuripi, Bolivia, analizamos los resultados de un extensivo estudio de incumpli- miento. En base a la revisión de fuentes primarias y secundarias de información y al marco conceptual referido a modelos económicos de disuasión, identificamos que la probabilidad de detección y sanción, la moralidad, la legitimidad y la influencia social pueden afectar el cumplimiento de la pro- hibición de caza en la Reserva Manuripi. Adicionalmente, consideramos que el conocimiento de la regulación también puede afectar la decisión de cazar y señalamos evidencia empírica que sugiere que el hábito de consumir carne silvestre y la no-disponibilidad de alternativas a la carne silvestre motivan la cacería ilegal en Manuripi. Bajo este análisis, las recomendaciones para disminuir el riesgo de cacería ilegal durante el periodo de reco- lección de castaña se enfocan en mejorar los esfuerzos de fiscalización, monitoreo y control por parte de la Autoridad Ambiental, paralelamente a la implementación de procesos de concientización dirigidos a modificar los valores éticos y hábitos culturales entre los recolectores.

  14. Hongos comestibles silvestres: especies exóticas de Suillus (Boletales, Basidiomycota y Lactarius (Russulales, Basidiomycota asociados a cultivos de Pinus elliottii del nordeste argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Niveiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos silvestres comestibles son un recurso económico importante que permite obtenerun producto deshidratado que puede comercializarse fácilmente. En el presente trabajo, y conel objeto de dar a conocer este recurso, se ilustran y describen dos especies de hongosmicorrícicos asociadas a cultivos de Pinus elliottii en el nordeste argentino que no han sidomencionadas anteriormente para la región: Lactarius deliciosus para la provincia de Misionesy Suillus granulatus para las provincias de Corrientes y Misiones

  15. Caracterización de sitios de percha del guajolote silvestre (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana) en Sierra Fría, Aguascalientes, México

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Márquez Olivas; Edmundo García Moya; Carlos González Rebeles Islas; Humberto Vaquera Huerta

    2007-01-01

    Entre octubre y noviembre del año 2001 y mayo de 2002 se localizaron 16 sitios de percha de guajolote silvestre (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana) en la Sierra Fría de Aguascalientes. El 87.5% de los sitios se encontraron en bosques de pino-encino (en rodales de pinos), en altitudes de 2500 a 2650 m. En la parte alta (2/3) de la cuesta se localizaron 8 de los sitios y 7 sobre laderas de exposición noreste, en una pendiente promedio de 38.9 ± 12.6%. El 62.5% de los sitios se usaron durante todo el...

  16. Contribución de los animales domésticos y silvestres a la contaminación de aguas superficiales por Cryptosporidium y Giardia

    OpenAIRE

    García Presedo, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Se ha establecido con mayor precisión la extensión de la cryptosporidiosis y la giardiosis en animales domésticos –bovinos y ovinos– y silvestres –corzos y jabalíes– en diferentes zonas y estaciones del año en Galicia. Se ha valorado también la contribución de estos animales a la contaminación de aguas superficiales por Cryptosporidium spp. y G. duodenalis. Además, se ha determinado el grado de contaminación de las aguas –residuales, potables y superficiales– con formas infectantes de ambos e...

  17. Nuevas cepas de duganella aisladas de la rizosfera de olivo silvestre y cultivado y su uso en la producción de violaceína

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, Blanca B.; Aranda Ocampo, Sergio; Montes Borrego, Miguel; Castillo,Pablo

    2010-01-01

    [ES] La presente invención se refiere a unas cepas bacterianas de Duganella spp. obtenidas de la rizosfera de olivos silvestres y cultivados. Preferentemente las cepas son CECT 7779, CECT 7780 y CECT 7781 y más preferentemente la cepa bacteriana es CECT 7780. Además, la presente invención se refiere a sus combinaciones con otros microorganismos y a las composiciones que comprenden los productos anteriores, así como a un procedimiento para la producción de violaceína y a la violaceína produ...

  18. Nuevas cepas de duganella aisladas de la rizosfera de olivo silvestre y cultivado y su uso en la producción de violaceína

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, Blanca B.; Aranda Ocampo, Sergio; Montes Borrego, Miguel; Castillo Castillo, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    La presente invención se refiere a unas cepas bacterianas de Duganella spp. obtenidas de la rizosfera de olivos silvestres y cultivados. Preferentemente las cepas son CECT 7779, CECT 7780 y CECT 7781 y más preferentemente la cepa bacteriana es CECT 7780. Además, la presente invención se refiere a sus combinaciones con otros microorganismos y a las composiciones que comprenden los productos anteriores, así como a un procedimiento para la producción de violaceína y a la violaceína producida par...

  19. Aphyllophorales de Sonora, México, I. Algunas Especies de la Reserva Forestal Nacional y Refugio de Fauna Silvestre Ajos-Bavispe

    OpenAIRE

    Alma Montaño; Ricardo Valenzuela; Alfonso Sánchez; Martha Coronado; Martín Esqueda

    2006-01-01

    Se estudiaron 57 especies de Aphyllophorales para la Reserva Forestal Nacional y Refugio de Fauna Silvestre Ajos-Bavispe, localizada en Sonora, México. Treinta y siete taxones son nuevas citas para la micobiota sonorense y cinco se registran por primera vez para México: Inonotus texanus, Phellinus arctostaphyli, Meruliopsis ambigua, Perenniporia fraxinophila e Hyphodontia apacheriensis. El mayor número de especies se presentó en bosque de pino-encino (32), seguido por bosque de pino-encino bo...

  20. Diagnóstico del tráfico ilegal y del manejo post decomiso de fauna silvestre en nueve corporaciones autónomas regionales de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montenefgro Olga Lucía

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La fauna silvestre siempre ha estado relacionada con el hombre sirviéndole de diferentes maneras, ya sea como fuente de alimento, como compañía, como materia prima para la fabricación de accesorios (pieles y otros productos o como diversión. Una de las causas más importantes de pérdida de diversidad la constituye el aprovechamiento no sostenible de especies de fauna y flora tanto para el consumo directo como para el comercio, lo que conlleva a la reducción en el tamaño de las poblaciones silvestres y por tanto una mayor vulnerabilidad a la extinción. El tráfico ilegal de especies silvestres es considerado a nivel mundial como una de las principales causas de disminución de las poblaciones naturales y como uno de los mercados ilegales que mayores sumas de dinero moviliza anualmente, con el fin de surtir la demanda de los mercados mundiales de la moda, las excentricidades de pequeños grupos, las investigaciones biomédicas y comportamentales, la novedad causada a turistas y las prácticas culturales o religiosas de muchas poblaciones humanas. En Colombia uno de los problemas de conservación más complejos lo representa el manejo de aquellos especímenes de fauna silvestre que son objeto de decomiso por parte de las autoridades ambientales regionales. Para lograr una adecuada disposición de la gran cantidad de animales silvestres confiscados o entregados voluntariamente en Colombia, el Ministerio del Medio Ambiente y las demás autoridades ambientales acordaron poner en marcha nueve centros regionales para el manejo de fauna decomisada o
    Centros de Atención y Valoración (CAV. Esta disposición tenía el propósito de implementar parámetros y protocolos que faciliten tomar decisiones que tanto las instituciones como los profesionales encargados enfrentan a diario. Sin embargo, el manejo de la fauna postdecomiso continua siendo uno de los problemas más complejos debido a la gran cantidad de animales decomisados y a la poca

  1. Conocimiento tradicional y aprovechamiento de los hongos comestibles silvestres en la región de Amanalco, Estado de México

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Burrola-Aguilar; Orlando Montiel; Roberto Garibay-Orijel; Lilia Zizumbo-Villarreal

    2012-01-01

    Se registró el conocimiento micológico tradicional para el municipio de Amanalco, Estado de México a partir de la recolección de macromicetos tanto en los bosques de Amanalco como en el tianguis de su cabecera municipal, de entrevistas informales a vendedoras de hongos en el tianguis y de entrevistas dirigidas a personas integrantes de 102 sistemas rurales familiares. Se registraron 56 especies de hongos comestibles silvestres de las cuales 38 soncomercializadas en el tianguis y que la poblac...

  2. Técnica de Necropsia, Interpretación de Hallazgos Macroscópicos y Toma de Muestras en Mamíferos Silvestres

    OpenAIRE

    Jahnier Caicedo; Ospina, J. C.; Avila, J.

    2012-01-01

    La correcta realización de necropsias y toma de muestras en los animales silvestres de los diferentes sistemas de conservación del país es una herramienta de alta importancia en el manejo epidemiológico de muchas enfermedades. La falta de entrenamiento en las técnicas de necropsia de estos animales dificulta la elaboración de propuestas diagnósticas y de control que repercutan en los problemas sanitarios; por lo cual, se presenta una guía de técnica de necropsia general para mamíferos silvest...

  3. Diagnóstico de animais ilegais recebidos no centro de triagem de animais silvestres de Belo Horizonte, Estado de Minas Gerais, no ano de 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Parreiras de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O centro de triagem de animais silvestres em Belo Horizonte (CETAS-BH é um dos órgãos responsáveis pelo recebimento de animais silvestres em Minas Gerais (MG. O conhecimento da fauna mantida ilegal é ferramenta importante para a conservação dos animais silvestres, pois permite o aprimoramento da educação ambiental e das ações fiscalizadoras. Objetivou-se diagnosticar as espécies da fauna silvestre apreendidas ou entregues voluntariamente no CETAS-BH e analisar espacialmente sua distribuição. As espécies foram identificadas e classificadas de acordo com a chave taxonômica e o risco de extinção. Na análise descritiva espacial, foram identificadas as coordenadas geográficas dos municípios dos animais para a construção dos mapas de distribuição e de densidade de Kernel. No ano de 2011, foram recebidos 7.426 animais vivos, dos quais 91,5% eram aves, 7% répteis e 1,5% mamíferos. Verificou-se ampla variedade de espécies (166, correspondendo às aves a maioria (79,5%. As espécies mais recebidas foram Sicalis flaveola e Saltator similis. Do total de espécies recebidas, 15% estavam ameaçadas de extinção. A principal procedência foi apreensão (82,7% e, delas, 79% foram realizadas pela Polícia Militar do Meio Ambiente. Os animais eram de 94 municípios de MG. A análise espacial identificou a Região Metropolitana de BH como o local de maior concentração de ocorrências. A partir dos resultados obtidos, espera-se o aprimoramento e a intensificação das ações de educação ambiental e de fiscalização para essas áreas específicas

  4. La investigación en torno a la concepción de vida silvestre: Una aproximación al estado del arte en el contexto educativo.Pág 51-87

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    Luis Juan Rubiano O.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión sobre el origen de la concepción de vida silvestre, rastreando su significado desde el siglo XIV hasta el presente. Aunque existen en Inglaterra referencias muy antiguas sobre la concepción de vida silvestre, es en Estados Unidos donde nace y evoluciona dicho término. Al comparar las concepciones de la vida silvestre en los Estados Unidos respecto a los países latinoamericanos, se evidencia la enorme importancia cultural, educativa, política y social dada a tales concepciones en el continente norteamericano en contraste con Latinoamérica, particularmente Colombia, en donde no se dan tales manifestaciones. Igualmente, la historia de la educación e investigación en educación sobre la vida silvestre en los Estados Unidos revela una notoria inserción de esta temática tanto en los textos divulgativos (educación no formal como en la literatura científica y en los currículos de educación básica y universitaria. En dicho país es posible conjeturar un cambio evolutivo en la concepción de vida silvestre que, de acuerdo con nuestra investigación, se inicia a finales del siglo XIX con un significado de fauna de caza deportiva y culmina, hacia la década de 1970 con la inclusión de todos los reinos de la naturaleza así como su hábitat e interrelaciones. En nuestro país, y en general para Suramérica, es muy escasa la literatura especializada sobre vida silvestre, no existiendo facultades o carreras con dicha temática a pesar de la enorme biodiversidad de este continente. Algunas de las razones aducidas por el autor, que explican esta situación, son la influencia de la visión taxonómica de la naturaleza, privilegiada en Colombia por la Expedición Botánica, y la dificultad para incorporar la educación ambiental en el contexto académico universitario. Se concluye igualmente la escasa investigación en vida silvestre y el potencial que existe para desarrollarla en el campo de las ciencias naturales y sociales

  5. Effects of cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption on serum lipoproteins of healthy normolipidemic men

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    Farzaneh Yousefi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been suggested that moderate shrimp consumption in normolipidemic subjects will not adversely affect the overall lipoprotein profile. Hence, shrimp consumption can be included in “healthy heart" nutritional guidelines. However, the effects of cultured shrimp on serum lipoproteins of normal subjects have not yet investigated. Material and Methods: Twenty-five healthy normolipidemic men who were workers of a shrimp farm in Bushehr province participated in a quasi-experimental study. In a crossover six weeks trial, the effect of three days per week diet (containing 300 g cultured shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei /day on serum lipid profile was compared with a zero-marine baseline diet. Results: After six weeks trial, serum triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly changed from the baseline levels (p>0.05. However, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels, total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratios were significantly increased (p<0.0001. Conclusion: Moderate cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption can increase total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in normolipidemic men. Although a diet containing native shrimp has many benefits for healthy persons, but we do not recommend cultured shrimp in a healthy heart diet for persons with dyslipidemia or cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Bacterial communities associated with white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei larvae at early developmental stages

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    ANTONIUS SUWANTO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial communities associated with white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei larvae at early developmental stages. Biodiversitas 11 (2: 65-68.Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP was used to monitor the dynamics of the bacterial communities associated with early developmental stages of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei larvae. Samples for analysis were egg, hatching nauplii, 24 hours old nauplii, and 48 hours old nauplii which were collected from one cycle of production at commercial hatchery. T-RFLP results indicated that the bacterial community associated with early stages of shrimp development might be transferred vertically from broodstock via egg. There was no significant difference between bacterial communities investigated, except the bacterial community of 48 hours old nauplii. Diversity analyses showed that the bacterial community of egg had the highest diversity and evenness, meanwhile the bacterial community of 48 hours old nauplii had the lowest diversity. Nine phylotypes were found at all stages with high abundance. Those TRFs were identified as γ- proteobacteria, α-proteobacteria, and bacteroidetes group.

  7. Sensitivity of Larvae and Adult and the Immunologic Characteristics of Litopenaeus vannamei under the Acute Hypoxia

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    Hailong Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most commercially important species of shrimp in the world. In this study, we performed acute hypoxia tests with Litopenaeus vannamei to estimate 12 h median lethal concentration (LC50 values at different life stages. The results indicated that the 12 h LC50 values were significantly different in different life stages of shrimp (P<0.05. The maximum value of 12 h LC50 was 2.113 mg L−1 for mysis III, and the minimum value was 0.535 mg L−1 for adult shrimp with an average total length of 6 cm. The study also determined the hemocyanin concentration (HC and the total hemocyte counts (THC in the conditions of hypoxia and reoxygenation. These results showed that the THC decreased and the HC increased under hypoxia, and the THC increased and the HC decreased in the condition of reoxygenation. These results can provide fundamental information for shrimp farming and seedling and also can guide the breeding selection, as well as being very helpful to better understand the hypoxia stress mechanism of shrimp.

  8. Culturable fungal diversity of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei boone from breeding farms in Brazil

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    Lidiane Roberta Cruz da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the most common shrimp species cultivated in the northeast of Brazil, is very susceptible to microbial diseases, and this consequently affects productivity. There are reports of bacteria, viruses and protozoa in these shrimp, but not fungi. This study aims to isolate and identify fungi present in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and in their nursery waters, at two breeding farms in Brazil. The pathogenic potential of the isolates was assessed through the qualitative detection of proteases and aflatoxin B production. The 146 isolated fungi comprised 46 species. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Furarium were the three most relevant genera and Aspergillus flavus was the predominant species with a total of 33 isolates. Most of the isolated species are known as potentially pathogenic to humans and other animals. Eighteen isolates of A. flavus and two of A. parasiticus were able to produce aflatoxin B and 33 out of the 46 species produced protease, indicating that these fungi may also become pathogenic to shrimp and their consumers.

  9. Natural infection by endoparasites among free-living wild animals Infecção natural por endoparasitas em animais silvestres de vida-livre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Holsback

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals. Fecal samples from wild mammals and birds at rehabilitation centers in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo were analyzed by sedimentation and flotation-centrifugation methods. Parasite eggs, oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites were found in 71% of the samples. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in fecal samples from oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus and scaly-headed parrots (Pionus maximiliani. Giardia cysts were identified in the feces of a gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira. Among the most common parasites found, there were eggs from Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina and Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and from Cestoda. Several Enterobius sp. eggs were found in the feces of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus. It can be concluded from this study that despite the small number of samples, the diversity of parasites found was noteworthy. Additional information about parasite endofauna in wild animals is needed, since their presence might suggest that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic animals and/or humans. In addition, further studies on parasites from free-living wild animals are of prime importance for understanding the intensity of anthropic changes in wild environments.O objetivo deste trabalho foi pesquisar a frequência de ocorrência e a variedade de parasitas intestinais de animais silvestres de vida livre. Amostras de fezes de mamíferos e aves silvestres de centros de reabilitação dos Estados do Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo, foram analisadas pelos métodos de sedimentação e de centrífugo-flutuação. Foram encontrados ovos, oocistos, cistos e/ou trofozoítos de parasitas em 71% das amostras. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp. foram detectados em amostras de fezes de gato-do-mato-pequeno (Leopardus tigrinus e maritacas (Pionus maximiliani. Cistos de Giardia

  10. Inheritance of malate dehydrogenase in wild pepper Herança da malato desidrogenase em pimenta-silvestre

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    ADILSON RICKEN SCHUELTER

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf extracts from wild pepper (Capsicum flexuosum Sendt were analysed for the presence of malate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.37; MDH isozymes using starch gel electrophoresis. Seven phenotypes for MDH isozymes were observed in the genitors. Genetic analysis in F1 progenies revealed five loci coding for MDH. Isozyme banding patterns of hybrids indicated that MDH-3 and MDH-4 genes code for monomeric enzymes, while MDH-5 for a dimeric isoform. In MDH-2 loci, one particular F1 progeny showed a significant deviation from the expected isozyme pattern. It is possible that other genes are controlling the expression of MDH-2 in pepper. Also, there are two alleles coding for MDH-2 isozyme. On the other hand, MDH-1 was monomorphic for all genotypes used in the experiment.Extratos de folhas de pimenta silvestre (Capsicum flexuosum Sendt foram analisados para a presença do sistema isoenzimático malato desidrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.37; MDH, usando a técnica eletroforese em gel de amido hidrolisado. Sete fenótipos de malato desidrogenase foram observados entre os genitores. As análises de segregação em progênies F1 revelaram que cinco locos gênicos estavam envolvidos na codificação de MDH. Os padrões de bandeamento dos híbridos indicaram que os genes MDH-3 e MDH-4 codificavam para enzimas monoméricas, enquanto o MDH-5, para uma isoforma dimérica. Para o loco MDH-2, detectou-se desvio significativo para proporção de segregação esperada. Outros genes podem estar controlando a expressão de MDH-2 em pimenta. Como nos outros locos MDH, detectaram-se dois alelos codificando para MDH-2. Por outro lado, o MDH-1 foi monomórfico para todos os genótipos avaliados no experimento.

  11. PARÁMETROS HEMATOLÓGICOS EN POLLUELOS DE PSITÁCIDOS EN CAUTIVERIO DE ORIGEN SILVESTRE

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    J. A. Herrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue describir los parámetros hematológicos en 69 polluelos en cautiverio de origen silvestre, clínicamente sanos, menores de tres meses de edad, en cuatro especies de psitácidos: Pionus senilis (n = 18, Amazona albifrons (n = 15, Amazona autumnalis (n = 25 y Amazona oratrix (n = 11, procedentes de la región central de México. Para determinar dichos parámetros, de cada ejemplar se obtuvieron 500 μl de sangre por punción de la vena braquial. En las cuatro especies citadas, el porcentaje del hematocrito fue de 56,4 ± 3,36; 51 ± 6,52; 47,6 ± 6,47 y 53,8 ± 9,26; el VCM en fl fue de 184,6 ± 13,4; 142,0 ± 25,4; 106,3 ± 11,7 y 162,3 ± 71,9; la cuenta eritrocítica fue de 4,7 ± 2,1 x10 6 /μl; 6,1 ± 8,2 x10 6 /μl; 6,9 ± 1,2 x10 6 /μl y 5,4 ± 1,1 x10 6 /μl; y la cuenta leucocitaria de 3,06 ± 0,15 x10 3 /μl; 3,62 ± 0,24 x10 3 /μl; 4,48 ± 0,36 x10 3 /μl y 3,56 ± 0,71 x10 3 /μl respectivamente para P. senilis , A. albifrons , A. autumnalis y A. oratrix . Se constató tendencia a la heterofilia en A. albifrons y A. oratrix , lo cual puede ser de gran utilidad para un diagnóstico cada vez más preciso en la clínica de aves en cautiverio.

  12. PO.EX em EXPO (ou POesia EXperimental em EXPOsição: Ernesto Melo e Castro, António Barros e Silvestre Pestana na Casa da Escrita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manaíra Aires Athayde

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Review of three exhibitions: Ernesto MELO E CASTRO, Do Leve à Luz (3 october - 2 november 2012; António BARROS, Progestos_Obgestos (30 november - 21 december 2012; Silvestre PESTANA, Povo Novo Virtual (8 february - 1 march 2013. Ciclo NAS ESCRITAS PO.EX, Casa da Escrita, Coimbra, Portugal.

  13. Comparative studies of hemolymph physiology response and HIF-1 expression in different strains of Litopenaeus vannamei under acute hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lin; Li, Yuhu; Qiu, Liguo; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-06-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei has a high commercial value and is the primary cultured shellfish species globally. In this study, we have compared the hemolymph physiological responses between two L. vannamei strains under acute hypoxia. The results showed that hemocyanin concentration (HC) of strain A6410 was significantly higher than strain Zhengda; Total hemocyte counts (THC) decreased significantly in both strains under hypoxic stress (p 0.05), but in the gills and hepatopancreas under hypoxia for 12 h (p Litopenaeus vannamei was closely correlated with the expression level of HIF-1, and the higher expression level of HIF-1 to hypoxia, the lower tolerance to hypoxia in the early stage of hypoxia. These results can help to better understand the molecular mechanisms of hypoxic tolerance and speed up the selective breeding process of hypoxia tolerance in L. vannamei.

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of a threonine/serine protein kinase lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Lingwei; Liu, Rongdiao; Xu, Xun; Shi, Hong

    2014-07-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including anti-apoptosis, protein synthesis, glucose metabolism and cell cycling. However, the role of the PI3K-AKT pathway in crustaceans remains unclear. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the AKT gene lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei. The 511-residue LVAKT was highly conserved; contained a PH domain, a catalytic domain and a hydrophobic domain; and was highly expressed in the heart and gills of L. vannamei. We found, using Real-Time Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis, that lvakt was up-regulated during early white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Moreover, the PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, reduced viral gene transcription, implying that the PI3K-AKT pathway might be hijacked by WSSV. Our results therefore suggest that LVAKT may play an important role in the shrimp immune response against WSSV.

  15. Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Sanchez, Griselda; Moreno-Félix, Carolina; Velazquez, Carlos; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Acosta, Anita; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Aldana-Madrid, María-Lourdes; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat-Marina; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Burgos-Hernandez, Armando

    2010-01-01

    An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line. PMID:21139845

  16. Influence of Probiotics on the Growth and Digestive Enzyme Activity of White Pacific Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G(o)mez R. Geovanny D.; MA Shen

    2008-01-01

    The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were de-termined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics (Bacillus spp.) supple-mented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly (P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly (P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

  17. Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Moreno-Félix

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9 and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma, respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line.

  18. Carbohydrate Moieties and Cytoenzymatic Characterization of Hemocytes in Whiteleg Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Edwin; Rodríguez-Jaramillo, Carmen; Ascencio, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Hemocytes represent one of the most important defense mechanisms against foreign material in Crustacea and are also involved in a variety of other physiological responses. Fluorescent lectin-binding assays and cytochemical reactions were used to identify specificity and distribution of carbohydrate moieties and presence of several hydrolytic enzymes, in hemocytes of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Two general classes of circulating hemocytes (granular and agranular) exist in L. vannamei, which express carbohydrates residues for FITC-conjugated lectins WGA, LEA, and PNA; UEA and Con-A were not observed. Enzymatic studies indicated that acid phosphatase, nonspecific esterase, and specific esterases were present; alkaline phosphatase was not observed. The enzymes and carbohydrates are useful tools in hemocyte classification and cellular defense mechanism studies. PMID:27833641

  19. Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice

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    Zulkiflee Kuedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from astaxanthin treatment in mice: an inhibition of paw edema induced in hind paw, an increase in mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and thermal paw withdrawal latency, and a reduction in the amount of myeloperoxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation products in the paw. Furthermore the effect was comparable to indomethacin, a standard treatment for inflammation symptoms. Due to adverse effects of indomethacin on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, our study suggests promising prospect of astaxanthin extract as an anti-inflammatory alternative against carrageenan-induced paw edema and pain behavior.

  20. Microbiota of Vibrio sp. in the hepatopancreas of cultured white pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque C.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of vibrios in the hepatopancreas of cultured shrimp. Materials and methods. Vibrios from the hepatopancreas of fifteen samples of five specimens each, of apparently healthy Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei were isolated, identified and quantified. Results. The vibrio density ranged from 430 to 2,400 MPN g-1 (rs MPN cm-1=-0.114; rs MPN g-1 = 0.211. Thirty isolations were obtained, most of which belonged to the species V. cholerae (n=11 and V. parahaemolyticus (n=7. Conclusions. The outcomes of the present study suggest that, even in the absence of symptoms of vibriosis, the microbiota of the hepatopancreas of cultured shrimp may include sucrose positive and negative vibrios.

  1. A comparative study of intensive Litopenaeus vannamei culture on four bottom substrates without water change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hongwei; Zhang, Li; Gao, Lei; Su, Yuepeng; Bao, Weiyang; Ma, Shen

    2014-08-01

    The effect of four bottom substrates, oyster shell powder (OP), sugarcane bagasse (SB), a mixture of OP and SB (OS) and fresh soil (FS), on the water quality and bacterial and zooplankton density of intensive shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) culture tanks without water change and the growth performance of cultured shrimp were compared in this study. At the end of a 110 days culturing trial, the total ammonium-N (TAN) of the water on SB and the nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N) on OS was significantly lower than that on the other substrates ( Pvannamei without water change than OP and FS. To our knowledge, this study presents the first evidence regarding the effect of different bottom substrates on intensive shrimp culture.

  2. The effect of three culture methods on intensive culture system of pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Wan, Rong; Song, Xiefa; Gao, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P vannamei.

  3. Hemocyanin-derived phenoloxidase activity is dependent on dodecameric structure in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ke-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemocyanin (Hc is a multifunctional protein in both mollusks and arthropods. Phenoloxidase (PO activities are the most important physiological functions for Hcs after conversion. In shrimp, Hc occurs as two oligomer forms, dodecamers and hexamers. Differences in the transport oxygen capacity and agglutination activity between the two oligomers of shrimp Hc have been found. In the present study, we investigated the differences in the Hc-derived PO activity between the dodecameric and hexameric Hc forms of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The two oligomers were separated by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, converted by trypsin cleavage and their PO activities were determined by oxidation of L-DOPA. The dodecamers exhibited PO activity after enzymatic conversion while the hexamers did not exhibit PO activity. This result provides new insight into the structural/functional relationships of Hcs.

  4. Carbohydrate Moieties and Cytoenzymatic Characterization of Hemocytes in Whiteleg Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Norma Estrada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemocytes represent one of the most important defense mechanisms against foreign material in Crustacea and are also involved in a variety of other physiological responses. Fluorescent lectin-binding assays and cytochemical reactions were used to identify specificity and distribution of carbohydrate moieties and presence of several hydrolytic enzymes, in hemocytes of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Two general classes of circulating hemocytes (granular and agranular exist in L. vannamei, which express carbohydrates residues for FITC-conjugated lectins WGA, LEA, and PNA; UEA and Con-A were not observed. Enzymatic studies indicated that acid phosphatase, nonspecific esterase, and specific esterases were present; alkaline phosphatase was not observed. The enzymes and carbohydrates are useful tools in hemocyte classification and cellular defense mechanism studies.

  5. Microbiome analyses of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei collected from disparate geographical locations

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    Arun S. Seetharam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the tail muscle microbiota of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei sourced from five countries across Central and South America and Southeast Asia were determined and compared. The genomic DNA was sequenced at around 10× coverage for each geographical location and was assembled de novo for comparative analysis. The assembled sequences for all the lines were classified based on their similarity to the sequences in the public database. We found that there is high correlation among the microbiota of shrimp from disparate regions, as well as the presence of some DNA from bacteria known to cause food poisoning in humans. Sequencing data has been deposited at NCBI-SRA database and can be found under the BioProject ID PRJNA282154.

  6. PCR-based VNTR core sequence analysis for inferring genetic diversity in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Freitas Patrícia Domingues de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variation in two farmed strains (F3-Panama and F17-Venezuela of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was examined based on DNA multiloci analyses. Eighteen adults of each strain were analyzed by PCR using a set of VNTR core sequence primers. Genetic similarity, mean allele frequency, mean heterozygosity and the frequency of polymorphic loci were determined for both strains. A dendrogram of genetic similarity was produced by UPGMA clustering. The results for three primers (INS, M13, YN73 revealed different levels of genetic variation within the strains. The higher genetic similarity seen within strain F17 was apparently related to inbreeding, although a bottleneck effect could not be discarded. The low level of genetic variability of this strain could account for the reduced adaptive advantage of these animals and their inability to adjust to breeding conditions in Brazil.

  7. Computational analysis and structure predictions of CHH-related peptides from Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, G Purna Chandra; Kumari, N Siva; Prasad, G L V; Naik, B Reddya; Borst, D W

    2011-03-01

    The crustaceans produce several related peptides that belong to the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family. While these peptides have similar amino acid sequences, they have diverse biological functions that must arise, in part, from differences in the 3D shape of these peptides. However, it is generally accepted that peptides with a high degree of sequence similarity also have a similar 3-D structure. We used the solution structure of one peptide in the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family, the molt-inhibiting hormone of the kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus), to predict the shape of the five known peptides related to CHH in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The high similarity of the 3-D structures of these peptides suggests a common fold for the entire family. Nevertheless, minor differences in the shape of these peptides were observed, which may be the basis for their different biological properties.

  8. Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus (Litopenaeus vannamei: perspectives for genomic selection

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    Héctor eCastillo-Juárez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus (Litopenaeus vannamei based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection.

  9. Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuedo, Zulkiflee; Sangsuriyawong, Anantita; Klaypradit, Wanwimol; Tipmanee, Varomyalin; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa

    2016-03-19

    Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from astaxanthin treatment in mice: an inhibition of paw edema induced in hind paw, an increase in mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and thermal paw withdrawal latency, and a reduction in the amount of myeloperoxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation products in the paw. Furthermore the effect was comparable to indomethacin, a standard treatment for inflammation symptoms. Due to adverse effects of indomethacin on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, our study suggests promising prospect of astaxanthin extract as an anti-inflammatory alternative against carrageenan-induced paw edema and pain behavior.

  10. Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei]: perspectives for genomic selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Campos-Montes, Gabriel R.; Caballero-Zamora, Alejandra; Montaldo, Hugo H.

    2015-01-01

    The uses of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei] based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection. PMID:25852740

  11. THE EFFECT OF FEEDING Lactobacillus ON GROWTH, SURVIVAL RATE AND PROTEASE ACTIVITY OF Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunak Nafiqoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of two Lactobacillus bacteria on protease activity and growth rate of Litopenaeus vannamei. An experiment was conducted to examine protease activity and growth rate. The experiment consisted of two treatment tanks, the first tank was provided with artemia immersed in 2.6 x 1016 cfu/mL of bacteria solution, the second tank served as the control tank. After 20 days, the L. vannamei in the tank that received Lactobacillus have significantly different in growth, survival rate and protease activity (P<0.05 compared to the control, but no significant difference between Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum treatments. Within the digestive organ, protease activity of hepatopancreas and stomach demonstrated significant higher activity (P<0.05 compared to the intestine.

  12. Teste de ELISA indireto para diagnóstico sorológico de leishmaniose visceral em canídeos silvestres

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    Paulo R.B. Ferreira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Na América do Sul, alguns canídeos silvestres são considerados reservatórios naturais da Leishmania chagasi. A resposta imunológica desses animais à Leishmania é pouco conhecida, havendo a necessidade de métodos diagnósticos adequados para esse fim. No presente estudo, é descrita a padronização do ensaio imunoenzimático indireto (ELISA para o diagnóstico sorológico de leishmaniose visceral em canídeos silvestres brasileiros. Foram estudadas amostras de soro e plasma de 12 canídeos cativos: sete lobos-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus, três raposinhas (Lycalopex vetulus e dois cachorros-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous. As amostras de um C. brachyurus e uma L. vetulus, cativos em área endêmica para LV, que apresentavam doença clínica e positividade em testes de Imunofluorescência Indireta e Reação em Cadeia de Polimerase, foram utilizadas como controles positivos. Foram comparados os conjugados anti-IgG de cão e proteína A, ambos ligados a peroxidase, cujos testes detectaram quatro (04/12 e três (03/12 C. brachyurus soropositivos para anticorpos anti-Leishmania sp., respectivamente. As médias das densidades ópticas (DOs das amostras negativas foram nitidamente mais baixas do que as médias das DOs dos positivos tanto no ELISA com anti-IgG de cão (4,8 vezes como com proteína A (15,5 vezes. Os soros de três C. brachyurus positivos no ELISA indireto foram avaliados por Western blotting e identificaram 22 bandas, sendo imunodominantes as de peso molecular de 19, 22, 24, 45 e 66 kDa. Os testes ELISA com a proteína A e o conjugado anti-IgG de cão apresentaram respectivamente concordância excelente (Kappa = 1; p<0,001 e moderada (Kappa = 0,8; p<0,0015, com o Western blotting. Ambos foram, portanto, considerados adequados a avaliações de triagem de animais cuja resposta humoral de anticorpos indica contato com o parasito, úteis para subsidiar estudos para adequação de metodologias específicas para os canídeos silvestres.

  13. Dextrosa como fuente de carbono en el cultivo de litopenaeus vannamei (boone, 1931) en un sistema sin recambio de agua

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina M Suita; Eduardo L.C Ballester; Abreu,Paulo C.; Wilson Wasielesky Jr

    2015-01-01

    This work compared the use of dextrose and molasses as carbon sources for biofloc development, water quality maintenance, microorganism composition and growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles in biofloc technology (BFT). Two treatments, dextrose and molasses, were tested with four replicates each. Carbon was added to achieve a C:N-AT (N-(NH3+NH4+)) ratio of 6:1. Physical and chemical water quality variables were monitored daily, and shrimp growth was estimated through periodic bi...

  14. Probiotic modulation of the gut bacterial community of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus CAIM 170

    OpenAIRE

    Irasema E. Luis-Villaseñor; Domenico Voltolina; Bruno Gomez-Gil; Felipe Ascencio; Ángel I Campa-Córdova; Juan M. Audelo-Naranjo; Olga O Zamudio-Armenta

    2015-01-01

    The protective effects of two probiotic mixtures was studied using the fingerprints of the bacterial community of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles exposed to probiotics and challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus CAIM 170. Fingerprints were constructed using 16S rRNA gene and the PCR-SSCP (Single strand conformation polymorphism) technique, and the probiotics used were an experimental Bacillus mixture (Bacillus tequilensis YC5-2 + B. endophyticus C2-2 and YC3-B) and the commercial probiotic Ali...

  15. Molecular characterization of infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) isolated from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei farmed in Ceará State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Verônyca Coelho-Melo; Maria Izabel Florindo-Guedes; Sergio Rodriguez-Málaga; Lia Magalhães de Almeida; Mariana de Freitas Moreira; Tatiane Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, one of the most important species in world aquaculture, has seriously affected by infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) that causes up to 70% mortalities. With the aim of improving the development of new strategies for rapid and reliable diagnosis, we isolated IMNV, from L. vannamei farmed in Brazil, through a discontinuous sucrose gradient, and sequenced cDNA fragment encoding the major capsid protein from this virus. Nucleotides sequences corresponding to the ...

  16. Management measures to control diseases reported by tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farmers in Guangdong, China

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Culture of tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) has intensified during the last decade in China with increased production, meanwhile it has also brought some problems, including diseases, increased use of antimicrobials and other chemicals for disease control and pond water quality management. This study investigated the knowledge, practices and challenges of tilapia and whiteleg shrimp farmers when preventing and controlling diseases through the use of antimi...

  17. Litopenaeus vannamei clathrin coat AP17 involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Fang; Liu, Qing-Hui; Wu, Yin; Huang, Jie

    2016-05-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the main pathogen of shrimp culture, and has brought great losses of the shrimp aquaculture industry every year since it has been found. However, the specific mechanism of the virus into the cell is not very clear. Recent research suggests that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is involved in WSSV infection. By sequence analysis, clathrin coat AP17 is an σ subunit of AP-2 complex which is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. To obtain the full-length sequence of Clathrin coat AP17 of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCCAP17), the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was performed to get the sequence of 3'and 5' end and splicing by DNAMAN. The full-length sequence of LvCCAP17 is 842 bp and expected to encoding 142 amino acids, and the amino acid sequence was analyzed by online software. The mRNA expression of LvCCAP17 in different tissues was carried out with quantitative real-time PCR and the LvCCAP17 was detected in all tested tissues of Litopenaeus vannamei. The transcriptional expression level of LvCCAP17 in epithelium and hepatopancreas was significantly up-regulated after WSSV infection. Far-Western blotting and ELISA assay showed that LvCCAP17 interacted with rVP26 and rVP37. Silencing of LvCCAP17 gene by double-strand RNA (dsRNA) interference significantly delay of cumulative mortality rate in WSSV infected shrimp and reduced the expression level of immediate early gene 1(ie1) and vp28. These results indicated that clathrin-meated endocytosis is responsible for WSSV infection.

  18. Essential roles of Cdc42 and MAPK in cadmium-induced apoptosis in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ting; Wang, Wei-Na, E-mail: weina63@aliyun.com; Gu, Mei-Mei; Xie, Chen-Ying; Xiao, Yu-Chao; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Lei

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Cd{sup 2+} induces Cdc42 and MAPKs pathway related gene of Litopenaeus vannamei up-regulation. • Reduction of THC, increase of ROS production and apoptotic cell rate were observed when the shrimps exposure to Cd{sup 2+}. • DsRNA-suppression of LvCdc42 and MAPKs during Cd{sup 2+} stress reduces the ROS production and apoptosis. • We conclude that LvCdc42 and MAPKs play key roles in Cd{sup 2+} stress responses of shrimps. - Abstract: Cadmium, one of the most toxic heavy metals in aquatic environments, has severe effects on marine invertebrates and fishes. The MAPK signaling pathway plays a vital role in stress responses of animals. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays a vital role in animals’ stress responses, including mediation of apoptosis induced by the Rho GTPase Cdc42. However, there is limited knowledge about its function in shrimps, although disorders exacerbated by environmental stresses (including heavy metal pollution) have caused serious mortality in commercially cultured shrimps. Thus, we probed roles of Cdc42 in Litopenaeus vannamei shrimps (LvCdc42) during cadmium exposure by inhibiting its expression using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference. The treatment successfully reduced expression levels of MAPKs (including p38, JNK, and ERK). Cadmium exposure induced significant increases in expression levels of LvCdc42 and MAPKs, accompanied by reductions in total hemocyte counts (THC) and increases in apoptotic hemocyte ratios and ROS production. However, all of these responses were much weaker in LvCdc42-suppressed shrimps, in which mortality rates were higher than in controls. Our results suggest that the MAPK pathway plays a vital role in shrimps’ responses to Cd{sup 2+}. They also indicate that LvCdc42 in shrimps participates in its regulation, and thus plays key roles in ROS production, regulation of apoptosis and associated stress responses.

  19. Caracterización morfológica de accesiones silvestres de guayaba Morphologic characterization of wild accesions of guava

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    Liliana Jiménez Lozano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la caracterización morfológica de 22 accesiones silvestres de guayaba Psidium guajava L. 14 colectadas en el municipio de Restrepo (Valle del Cauca, seis en Armenia (Quindío y dos en Pereira (Risaralda. Se utilizaron 12 descriptores cuantitativos y 10 cualitativos de tallo, hojas y frutos; el análisis de agrupamiento se hizo mediante el coeficiente de Dice-Nei-Li y el promedio aritmético no ponderado (UPGMA. La mayor variabilidad se halló en los descriptores peso de la pulpa (CV = 55.92%, peso (CV = 45.23%, y acidez del fruto (CV = 44.75%. El análisis de agrupamientos con base en caracteres cuantitativos permitió establecer cuatro grupos: las accesiones del grupo A (Armenia, presentaron valores promedio de los descriptores de la calidad del fruto (grados Brix, acidez del fruto y relación grados Brix/acidez y valores altos de contenido de pulpa. La mayoría de accesiones del grupo C (Restrepo tuvieron altos valores de calidad del fruto y bajo contenido de pulpa. El grupo B, constituido por accesiones de Armenia y Pereira, se diferenció por valores bajos en los descriptores de rendimiento del fruto (peso del fruto, de la pulpa y diámetro de la cavidad seminal. Las accesiones del grupo D (Restrepo mostraron valores promedios en calidad y rendimiento del fruto. Los descriptores cuantitativos se reunieron en tres variables sintéticas para rendimiento y calidad del fruto que representaron 76.86% de la variabilidad total.Quantitative and qualitative morphologic characterization of 22 wild accessions of guava Psidium guajava L. collected in Restrepo (Valle del Cauca, Armenia (Quindío and Pereira (Risaralda was done. Twelve (12 quantitative and ten (10 qualitative descriptors of stem, leaves and fruits were used. The Dice- Nei Li coefficient and the UPGMA was used for the cluster analysis. Dendrograms and principal components analysis were used. The highest variability was associated with fruit descriptors, pulp weight (CV = 55

  20. Reproducción de cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Homóptera: Dactylopiidae Reproduction of wild cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae

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    Arnoldo Flores-Hernández

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Por sus características, la cochinilla silvestre ofrece perspectivas de aprovechamiento como fuente de carmín y para el mejoramiento genético de la grana fina. Por lo anterior, se estableció una multiplicación y crianza de cochinilla silvestre, proveniente de la zona árida del norte de México para caracterizarla, utilizando como hospedero a Opuntia megacantha Salm Dyck. Los resultados indican que la especie silvestre pertenece al género-especie Dactylopius opuntia. Se determinó la presencia de partenogénesis en hembras. La duración de los estadios biológicos depende del sexo del insecto; el adulto hembra permaneció durante 38.4 días y 4.2 días para machos, los primeros estadios ninfales fueron similares en duración (18.1-19.8 días. El ciclo biológico de las hembras fue de 77 días mientras que el de los machos fue de 43 días. Para las hembras se estimó un periodo de preoviposición de 18.8 días, manteniéndose en oviposición durante 21 días con un promedio de 131 insectos por hembra. La proporción sexual hembras: machos fue 1:1. El tipo de reproducción fue predominantemente sexual, aunque hubo hembras partenogénicas. Este es el primer reporte de Dactylopius opuntiae como cochinilla silvestre asociada a la zona árida del noreste de México, específicamente en el Bolsón de Mapimí, Durango, México.Wild cochineal has characteristics that offer advantage as a source of carmine and for fine cochineal improvement. To characterize wild cochineal, we initiated a breeding effort raising wild cochineal from the arid zone of the north oh Mexico, using as a host organism Opuntia megacantha Salm dick. The results indicate that the wild specie is Dactylopius opuntiae. The presence of parthenogenesis in females was determined. The duration of ontogenetic stages depends on the sex of the insect. The adult female lasted 38.4 days and 4.2 days for males, the first stage nymphs were similar in duration (18-19.8 days. The complete

  1. Intoxicaciones intencionadas y accidentales de fauna silvestre y doméstica en España: diferencias entre Comunidades Autónomas

    OpenAIRE

    IS Sánchez-Barbudo; PR Camarero; Mateo, R

    2012-01-01

    En este estudio se han analizado 1.157 casos sospechosos de intoxicación de fauna silvestre y doméstica en el medio natural (1.800 animales y 340 cebos) procedentes de diversas Comunidades Autónomas (CCAA) españolas durante el periodo 2004-2010. Se ha detectado un 41,2% de casos positivos (40,8% de animales y 52,6% de cebos). En los carnívoros domésticos la detección del tóxico llegó al 71,4%, lo que indica su utilidad como centinelas del uso de veneno en el medio natural. El 78,3% de los ani...

  2. Determinación estructural de los metabolitos Secundarios triterpenoidales en búsqueda de Antimicrobianos de un hongo silvestre Aphyllophoral colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Correa, Miguel Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Se realizó el estudio químico del extracto crudo metanólico y de la partición en diclorometano del mismo, del cuerpo fructífero del hongo Basidiomiceto silvestre Colombiano Fomitopsis sp., en busca de compuestos triterpenoidales con posible acción antimicrobiana. Los resultados arrojaron como componentes grasos no esterólicos ésteres metílicos de ácidos grasos saturados e insaturados, así como también la presencia de ácidos grasos C16:0 y C18:1 9 e hidrocarburos alifáticos saturados C16, C18 ...

  3. Intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei without water exchange and with an artificial substrate Cultivo intensivo de Litopenaeus vannamei sin recambio de agua y con un sustrato artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Audelo-Naranjo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to determine the effect of the periphyton growing on artificial substrates, juveniles (3 g initial weight and 440 g m-3 stocking biomass of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 , were grown during 32 days in eight 1 m³ cylindrical tanks with 3.7 m² of total submerged surface. Two culture treatments (with and without artificial substrate or control were tested with four replicates each. Artificial substrate (AquamatsTM provided an additional surface area of 7.2 m². The mean dissolved ammonium (NH4+ and ammonia (NH3 concentrations for the Aquamats group were 39 and 22% lower than the respective values obtained for the control cultures. The artificial substrate stimulated nutrient recycling among the biological components (shrimp, biofilm, bottom microfauna, etc. since mean shrimp biomass yield was 13% higher for the Aquamats group, and it contained a significantly higher percentage of the total nitrogen and phosphorus inputs than the control treatment. The protein content of shrimp cultured with Aquamats was 21.4% higher than that obtained for the control group, which is explained by the higher availability (and diversity of the natural food of the periphyton. In view of these results, the use of closed cultures added this artificial substrate seems a viable alternative for shrimp culture.Con el fin de verificar el efecto del perifiton presente en sustratos artificiales sobre la calidad del agua y el reciclaje de nutrientes, se cultivaron en sistemas cerrados durante 32 días juveniles de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 (peso inicial: 3 g y biomasa inicial de 440 g m-3 en ocho estanques cilíndricos de 1 m³ y 3.7 m² de superficie sumergida total. Se utilizaron dos tratamientos (con o sin sustrato artificial, cada uno con cuatro repeticiones. En las repeticiones de uno de los tratamientos se adicionaron 7.2 m² de sustrato artificial (AquamatsTM. Los niveles medios de amonio (NH4+ y de amoniaco (NH3 en

  4. The involvement of bacterial quorum sensing in the spoilage of refrigerated Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Suqin; Wu, Haohao; Zeng, Mingyong; Liu, Zunying; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-02

    Quorum-sensing signals in refrigerated shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) undergoing spoilage were examined using bioreporter assays, thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the results revealed the presence of three types of autoinducers including acetylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) (i.e., N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone, N-oxohexanoyl-homoserine lactone and N-octanoyl-homoserine lactone), autoinducer-2, and cyclic dipeptides (i.e., cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu), cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Leu) and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe)). Autoinducer-2, rather than any AHL, was detected in extracts from pure cultures of the specific spoilage organisms (SSO), i.e., Shewanella putrefaciens (SS01) and Shewanella baltica (SA02). As for the cyclic peptides, only SA02 was determined to produce cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu). According to the transcription levels of LuxR (the master quorum-sensing regulator) in the SSO in response to exogenous autoinducers, the SSO could sense AHLs and cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Leu), rather than autoinducer-2, cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Leu) and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe). In accordance with the results of LuxR expression, the production of biofilm matrixes and extracellular proteases in the SSO was regulated by exogenous AHLs and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu), rather than 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (the autoinducer-2 precursor), cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Leu) and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe). Exogenous N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu) increased the growth rates and population percentages of the SSO in shrimp samples under refrigerated storage, and interestingly, exogenous 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione also increased the population percentages of the SSO in vivo by inhibiting the growth of the competing bacteria. However, according to the levels of TVB-N and the volatile organic components in the shrimp samples, exogenous 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione did not accelerate the shrimp spoilage process as N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu) did. In summary, our results suggest that

  5. RANGSANGAN PERKEMBANGAN OVARI UDANG PUTIH, Litopenaeus vannamei DENGAN PENYUNTIKAN ESTRADIOL-17β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarsim Tarsim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penyuntikan hormon estradiol-17β terhadap perkembangan ovari udang putih (Litopenaeus vannamei. Dosis estradiol17β yang digunakan adalah 0,05 μg/g; 0,10 μg/g; 0,25 μg/g bobot tubuh dan kontrol Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penyuntikan estradiol-17β berpengaruh terhadap perkembangan gonad. Indeks maturasi pada perlakuan dosis 0,10 μg/g and 0,25 μg/ g bobot tubuh lebih besar (75,00% dan 66,67% dibanding kontrol. Peningkatan diameter oosit terlihat nyata pada TKG I dan II. Meskipun pada TKG III dan IV peningkatan oosit tidak terlihat nyata, tetapi proporsi oosit matang lebih besar. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa pemberian estradiol-17β pada induk udang ablasi menghasilkan telur yang lebih cepat berkembang dibandingkan jika hanya menggunakan ablasi. Penyuntikan estradiol-17β sangat berpengaruh pada awal perkembangan gonad. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa estradiol-17β berperan penting dalam merangsang endogenous vitelogenesis. The present study analyzed the effect of estradiol-17 β injection on ovarian development of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Estradiol-17 β dose of 0.05 υ g/g, 0.10 μ g/g, 0.25 μ g/g body weight and the control was used, with 15 females broodstock of each. The result showed that ovarian development affected by estradiol-17 β injection. Maturation index in dose of 0.10 μ g/g and 0.25 μ g/g body weight was 75.00% and 66.67% respectively and higher than that of control. Oocytes diameter increased significantly on stage I and stage II, although oocytes diameter in stage III and IV was no significant different but the proportion of mature oocyte higher than that of control. It suggested that estradiol-17 β gave much more developed conditions in oocytes developmental stages and size, compared to control with unilateral eyestalk ablation only. The dominant effect is in early developmental stage of oocyte. It indicates that estradiol-17 β is important to induction of

  6. Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Total Phenols of Wild and Cultivated Berries in Chile Capacidad Antioxidante, Antocianinas y Fenoles Totales de Berries Silvestres y Cultivados en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Guerrero C

    2010-12-01

    ón fue determinar la capacidad antioxidante (AC, antocianinas totales (TA y el contenido de fenoles totales (TP, de berries silvestres y cultivados en diferentes localidades de la Región de La Araucanía y Región de Los Ríos (Chile. Para evaluar estos parámetros se utilizó el método de radicales libres 2,2-difenil-2- picrilhidrazilo (DPPH, pH diferencial y Folin-Ciocalteu, respectivamente. Los porcentajes de decoloración del DPPH estuvieron comprendidos entre 67,8% para zarzaparrilla roja y 95,3% para rosa mosqueta. El maqui presentó un contenido de AT significativamente mayor (2240,2 y 1445,3 mg L-1 cianidina 3-glucósido que el resto de los berries, el promedio de AT fue de 335,5 mg L-1. En cuanto al contenido FT los mayores niveles se obtuvieron en los dos cultivares de saskatoon (773,9 y 1001,9 mg L-1 ácido gálico y en rosa mosqueta silvestre (1457,0 y 1140,4 mg L-1 de ácido gálico. En este estudio se concluye que existen diferencias significativas en la capacidad antioxidante de frutos silvestres y cultivados en Chile, observándose una fuerte correlación entre el CA y el contenido de FT.

  7. Arbovírus Ilheus em aves silvestres (Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis Ilheus arbovirus in wild birds (Sporophila caerulescens and Molothrus bonariensis

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    Luiz Eloy Pereira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o isolamento do vírus Ilheus no Estado de São Paulo e avaliar o seu impacto para a saúde pública. MÉTODOS: O isolamento de vírus foi realizado em camundongos albinos Swiss, a partir de sangue de aves silvestres, capturadas com redes de espera tipo mist net, armadas no nível do solo, no Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo. A identificação das cepas isoladas foi feita pelos testes de inibição da hemaglutinação, fixação de complemento e neutralização em camundongos. Amostras de plasma de aves e de mamíferos silvestres foram submetidas à pesquisa sorológica para detecção de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação. RESULTADOS: Foram isoladas duas cepas do vírus Ilheus em sangue de aves das espécies Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis e detectados anticorpos em aves das espécies Columbina talpacoti, Geopelia cuneata, Molothrus bonariensis e Sicalis flaveola, em sagüis das espécies Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix penicillata e no quati Nasua nasua. CONCLUSÕES: O isolamento do vírus Ilheus e a detecção de anticorpos específicos em aves residentes, migratórias e de cativeiro, em sagüis e quatis, comprovam a presença desse agente no Parque Ecológico do Tietê. O comportamento migratório de aves silvestres pode determinar a introdução do vírus em outras regiões. Considerando-se a patogenicidade para o homem e a confirmação da circulação desse agente viral em área urbana, freqüentada para atividade de lazer e de educação, o risco de ocorrência de infecção na população humana não pode ser descartado.OBJECTIVE: To report the first Ilheus arboviruses isolated from wild birds and analyze its public health impact. METHODS: Wild birds and mammals were captured using mist nets and Tomahawk traps, respectively. Blood samples were drawn from these animals and inoculated intracerebrally in Swiss suckling mice found in the Parque Ecológico do Tietê, Brazil. The isolates were

  8. Ecología de enfermedades infecciosas emergentes y conservación de especies silvestres Ecology of emerging infectious diseases and wild species conservation

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    G Medina-Vogel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las recientes publicaciones científicas respecto de enfermedades infecciosas emergentes en especies silvestres están aumentando la preocupación internacional en el deterioro de la salud del ecosistema de los océanos, ambientes terrestres y límnicos. Se estudiaron investigaciones publicadas en los últimos 25 años. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: 1 determinar la importancia del hábitat y la introducción de especies alóctonas, dentro del contexto de la contaminación y el cambio climático, en el surgimiento de enfermedades infecciosas, y 2 evaluar el riesgo de extinción de especies con problemas de conservación. La evaluación de los casos escogidos, más importantes, permite concluir que los patógenos responsables de las enfermedades infecciosas en especies silvestres pueden transmitirse rápidamente entre huéspedes pudiendo llegar a producir en corto tiempo epizootias que pueden poner en peligro poblaciones vulnerables en declinación. La destrucción del hábitat y la introducción de especies alóctonas son variables ambientales que significativamente afectan la ecología de las enfermedades infecciosas emergentes. En cambio la contaminación y el cambio climático actúan como variables ambientales que favorecen la transmisión y la creación de nuevos huéspedes. Esta multicausalidad en el origen de las enfermedades genera la necesidad de un enfoque transdisciplinario para enfrentarlas. El riesgo creciente de epizootias debido a las variables ambientales y biológicas estudiadas, fuerza incluir en los planes de conservación y rescate de especies silvestres la ecología de las enfermedades infecciosas.Recent literature on emerging infectious diseases in wild species raises international concerns about ocean, terrestrial and freshwater ecosystem health. Reports documenting infectious diseases in wild species from the last 25 years were investigated. The goals of the study were to: 1 assess the importance of habitat and

  9. Dodecamer is required for agglutination of Litopenaeus vannamei hemocyanin with bacterial cells and red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jian-yi; Zhang, Yue-ling; Wang, San-ying; Peng, Xuan-xian

    2008-01-01

    Hemocyanins are multi-functional proteins, although they are well known to be respiratory proteins of invertebrate to date. In the present study, the agglutination ability of two oligomers of hemocyanin, hexamer and dodecamer, with pathogenic bacteria and red blood cells (RBCs) is investigated in pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Hexameric hemocyanin exhibits an extremely high stability even in the absence of Ca(2+) and in alkaline pH. Dodecamer (di-hexamer) is easily dissociated into hexamers in unphysiological conditions. Hexamer and dodecamer are interchanged reciprocally with environmental conditions. Both oligomers can bind to bacteria and RBCs, but agglutination is observed only using dodecamer but not using hexamer in agglutination assay. However, the agglutination is detected when hexamer is utilized in the presence of antiserum against hemocyanin. These results indicate that dodecamer of hemocyanin is required for agglutination with bacteria and RBCs. It can be logically inferred that there is only one carbohydrate-binding site to bacterial cells and RBCs in the hexamer, while at least two sites in the dodecamer. Our finding has provided new insights into structural-functional relationship of hemocyanin.

  10. Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from pond-reared Litopenaeus vannamei marketed in Natal, Brazil

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    Ligia Maria Rodrigues de Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten out of fifty fresh and refrigerated samples of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei collected from retailers in Natal (Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil tested positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The Kanagawa test and multiplex PCR assays were used to detect TDH and TRH hemolysins and the tdh, trh and tlh genes, respectively. All strains were Kanagawa-negative and tlh-positive. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for seven antibiotics by the agar diffusion technique. Five strains (50% presented multiple antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (90% and amikacin (60%, while two strains (20% displayed intermediate-level resistance to amikacin. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. Intermediate-level susceptibility and/or resistance to other antibiotics ranged from 10 to 90%, with emphasis on the observed growing intermediate-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. Half our isolates yielded a multiple antibiotic resistance index above 0.2 (range: 0.14-0.29, indicating a considerable risk of propagation of antibiotic resistance throughout the food chain.

  11. Effects of Hypoxia on Dopamine Concentration and the Immune Response of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Fawen; PAN Luqing; JING Futao

    2009-01-01

    Effects of hypoxia on the dopamine concentration and the immune response of White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were studied. The results showed that hypoxia had significant effects on the concentration of dopamine (DA) in the haemolymph, haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, phagocytic activity of haemocytes and bacteriolytic and antibacterial activity in the haemolvmph (P<0.05). The concentration of the dopamine in haemolymph reached its maximum in the 3.0 and 1.5mgL-1 DO groups at 12h and 6h, and then returned to normal after 24h and 12h, respectively. All immune parameters decreased with the reduction of dissolved oxygen. Total haemocyte count (THC), the hyaline cells and semi-granular cells in the 3.0mgL-1 DO group became stable after 12h,while granular cells did so after 24h, The THC and different haemocyte count (DHC) in the 1.5mgL-1 DO group became stable alter 24h. Phenoloxidase activity and bacteriolytic activity in the 3.0 and 1.5mgL-1 DO groups reached their stable levels after 24 h and 12 h respectively, while phagocytic activity and antibacterial activity became stable after 24 and 12, and 36 and 24 It, respec-tively. It was also indicated that the changes of dopamine concentrations in haemolymph, haemocyte count and phenoloxidase activ-ity were obviously related to the exposure time under hypoxic conditions.

  12. Heritability of body weight and resistance to ammonia in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjia; Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Sui, Juan; Kong, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Ammonia, toxic to aquaculture organisms, represents a potential problem in aquaculture systems, and the situation is exacerbated in closed and intensive shrimp farming operations, expecially for Litopenaeus vannamei. Assessing the potential for the genetic improvement of resistance to ammonia in L. vannamei requires knowledge of the genetic parameters of this trait. The heritability of resistance to ammonia was estimated using two descriptors in the present study: the survival time (ST) and the survival status at half lethal time (SS50) for each individual under high ammonia challenge. The heritability of ST and SS50 were low (0.154 4±0.044 6 and 0.147 5±0.040 0, respectively), but they were both significantly different from zero ( P0.05), suggesting that ST and SS50 could be used as suitable indicators for resistance to ammonia. There were also positive phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to ammonia and body weight, which means that resistance to ammonia can be enhanced by the improvement of husbandry practices that increase the body weight. The results from the present study suggest that the selection for higher body weight does not have any negative consequences for resistance to ammonia. In addition to quantitative genetics, tools from molecular genetics can be applied to selective breeding programs to improve the efficiency of selection for traits with low heritability.

  13. Ploidy manipulation and polyploid detection in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone 1931) (Decapoda, Penaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloise, Débora de Almeida; Maia-Lima, Francisco de Assis; de Oliveira, Ruth Medeiros; Cabral, Thiago de Melo; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2011-02-01

    Ploidy manipulation has been rarely used in the genetic improvement of cultured marine shrimps. Although polyploid induction has been proven to be successful in Penaeids, including the species Litopenaeus vannamei, the methodology still requires some improvements. In the present work, different thermal shock treatments on ploidy manipulation were tested and a protocol for detecting polyploid individuals was also established. Fertilized eggs were treated by cold (10°C) and heat (38°C) thermal shocks for 8, 12, 15, 18, 20, and 22 min to induce polyploidy. Nuclear measurements within distinct treatments revealed a significant deviation in relation to the mean diameter of nuclei in the control individuals. Triploid and tetraploid metaphases were observed within treated individuals, confirming the increase of interphasic nuclear diameter. The cold thermal shock was more efficient than the hot ones, besides leading to a higher and more homogeneous hatchery rate. A mean number of three nucleoli per nucleus were observed in diploid individuals, while treated samples usually presented up to five nucleoli per nucleus. The standardization of protocols to obtain and detect polyploid products allows further utilization of such methods on a commercial scale in order to evaluate the performance of polyploid individuals in the genetic improvement of L. vannamei.

  14. A Comparative Study on the Nonspecific Immunity of Juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei ever Inhabiting Freshwater and Seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xuying; DING Sen; WANG Fang; DONG Shuanglin

    2014-01-01

    A study on the nonspecific immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater was carried out at different molt stages by comparing their total hemocyte count (THC) and respiratory burst (RB) and activity of phenol oxidase (PO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and lysozyme (LY). Two-way ANOVA showed that salinity and molt stage independently affected THC and RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei significantly (P<0.05). The THC and RB and the activity of NOS gradually increased from the post-molt stages (A and B) to the pre-molt stages (D0-D3), which were common in shrimps inhabiting freshwater and seawater. The activity of PO peaked at the inter-molt stage (C), and touched the lowest at the post-molt stage in freshwater and pre-molt stage in seawater. The activity of LY was stable over the molt cycle. The RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei were significantly lower in freshwater than in seawater;whereas THC was significantly higher in freshwater than in seawater (P<0.05). It was concluded that the post-molt stage (especially stage A) was critical to shrimp culture, which should be intensively attended when L. vannamei was cultured in freshwater.

  15. Molecular markers for identifying a new selected variety of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Huang, Hao; Li, Yijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    Selective breeding of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the last decade has produced new varieties exhibiting high growth rates and disease resistance. However, the identification of new varieties of shrimps from their phenotypic characters is difficult. This study introduces a new approach for identifying varieties of shrimps using molecular markers of microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences. The method was employed to identify a new selected variety, Kehai No. 1 (KH-1), from three representative stocks (control group): Zhengda; Tongwei; and a stock collected from Fujian Province, which is now cultured in mainland China. By pooled genotyping of KH-1 and the control group, five microsatellites showing differences between KH-1 and the control group were screened out. Individual genotyping data confirmed the results from pooled genotyping. The genotyping data for the five microsatellites were applied to the assignment analysis of the KH-1 group and the control group using the partial Bayesian assignment method in GENECLASS2. By sequencing the mitochondrial control regions of individuals from the KH-1 and control group, four haplotypes were observed in the KH-1 group, whereas 14 haplotypes were obtained in the control group. By combining the microsatellite assignment analysis with mitochondrial control region analysis, the average accuracy of identification of individuals in the KH-1 group and control group reached 89%. The five selected microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region sequences were highly polymorphic and could be used to distinguish new selected varieties of L. vannamei from other populations cultured in China.

  16. Nitric oxide synthase-dependent immune response against gram negative bacteria in a crustacean, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, Tania; Carpio, Yamila; Bolívar, Jorge; Gómez, Leonardo; Estrada, Mario Pablo; Pendón, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived radical generated by nitric oxide synthases (NOS). NO is involved in a variety of functions in invertebrates, including host defense. In previous studies, we isolated and sequenced for the first time the NOS gene from hemocytes of Panulirus argus, demonstrating the inducibility of this enzyme by lipopolysaccharide in vitro e in vivo. Hyperimmune serum was obtained from rabbits immunized with a P. argus -NOS fragment of 31 kDa produced in Escherichia coli, which specifically detected the recombinant polypeptide and the endogenous NOS from lobster hemocytes by western blotting and immunofluorescence. In the present work, we demonstrate that the hyperimmune serum obtained against P. argus NOS also recognizes Litopenaeus vannamei NOS in hemocytes by western blotting and immunofluorescence. Our data also show that while the hemolymph of L. vannamei has a strong antibacterial activity against the Gram negative bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila, the administration of the anti NOS serum reduce the natural bacterial clearance. These results strongly suggest that NOS is required for the shrimp immune defense toward Gram negative bacteria. Therefore, the monitoring of induction of NOS could be an important tool for testing immunity in shrimp farming.

  17. Transcriptomic response to low salinity stress in gills of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongxu; Pan, Luqing; Zhao, Qun; Ren, Qin

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei), is one of the most farmed species. Salinity is an important environmental factor that affects its growth and distribution. However, the molecular mechanism of the shrimp in response to salinity stress remains largely unclear. High-throughput sequencing is a helpful tool to analyze the molecular response to salinity challenge in shrimp. In the present study, the transcriptomic responses of the gills in L. vannamei under low salinity stress were detected by Illumina's digital gene expression system. A total of 10,725,789 and 10,827,411 reads were generated from the non-changed and low salinity changed groups, respectively. 64,590 Unigenes with an average length of 764 bp were generated. Compared with the control, 585 genes were differentially expressed under low salinity. GO functional analysis and KEGG pathway analysis indicated some vital genes in response to the challenge. Ten genes related to osmoregulation and ambient salinity adaption were selected to validate the DGE results by RT-qPCR. This work provides valuable information to study the mechanism of salinity adaption in L. vannamei. Genes and pathways from the results will be beneficial to reveal the molecular basis of osmoregulation. It also gives an insight into the response to the salinity challenge in L. vannamei.

  18. Carotenoides totais em resíduos do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mont'Alverne Jucá Seabra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se o possível aproveitamento dos resíduos, provenientes do beneficiamento do camarão, realizouse, neste trabalho, a determinação da concentração de carotenoides totais dos resíduos do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei e da farinha obtida após secagem. As análises foram realizadas nos resíduos in natura e na farinha recémprocessada (dia 0 e aos 60, 120 e 180 dias de armazenamento sob congelamento. Os resíduos frescos apresentaram, no dia 0, teores de 42,74 µg/g de carotenoides totais e, a farinha recém-processada, de 98,51 µg/g. Após 180 dias de armazenamento, sob congelamento, os teores de carotenoides totais diminuíram significativamente, quando comparados com os do dia 0 (p < 0,05.

  19. Effects of hypoxia on dopamine concentration and the immune response of White Shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fawen; Pan, Luqing; Jing, Futao

    2009-03-01

    Effects of hypoxia on the dopamine concentration and the immune response of White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were studied. The results showed that hypoxia had significant effects on the concentration of dopamine (DA) in the haemolymph, haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, phagocytic activity of haemocytes and bacteriolytic and antibacterial activity in the haemolymph ( P<0.05). The concentration of the dopamine in haemolymph reached its maximum in the 3.0 and 1.5 mg L-1 DO groups at 12 h and 6 h, and then returned to normal after 24 h and 12 h, respectively. All immune parameters decreased with the reduction of dissolved oxygen. Total haemocyte count (THC), the hyaline cells and semi-granular cells in the 3.0 mg L-1 DO group became stable after 12 h, while granular cells did so after 24 h. The THC and different haemocyte count (DHC) in the 1.5 mg L-1 DO group became stable after 24 h. Phenoloxidase activity and bacteriolytic activity in the 3.0 and 1.5 mg L-1 DO groups reached their stable levels after 24 h and 12 h respectively, while phagocytic activity and antibacterial activity became stable after 24 and 12, and 36 and 24 h, respectively. It was also indicated that the changes of dopamine concentrations in haemolymph, haemocyte count and phenoloxidase activity were obviously related to the exposure time under hypoxic conditions.

  20. Comparison of the Respiratory Metabolism of Juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei Cultured in Seawater and Freshwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Sen; WANG Fang; DONG Shuanglin; LI Ying

    2014-01-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei, a euryhaline species, can be cultured at a wide range of salinities. The emergence of freshwater pond-culture of L. vannamei is an important prelude to the continued development of shrimp culture in China. In this study, we com-pared the respiratory metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei cultured in freshwater and saltwater by measuring their oxygen consump-tion rate (OCR), ammonium-type nitrogen excretion rate (AER) and pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activi-ties at different molting stages in order to physiecologically characterize juvenile L. vannamei under freshwater conditions. The re-sults showed that OCR was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater at all stages of molting cycle. However, variation of OCR among molting stages in saltwater was similar with that in freshwater, and the highest OCR was observed at post-molting stage. At all stages of molting cycle, AER was significantly higher in freshwater than in saltwater, and the highest was observed at post-molting stage. The activity of PK was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater. Conversely, the activity of LDH was higher in freshwater than in saltwater in general. Significant variation of PK and LDH activities in molting cycle was observed in saltwater and freshwater. The results indicated that aerobic metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei was more active in saltwater than in freshwater;while its protein metabolism was more active in freshwater than in saltwater.

  1. Identification and pathogenicity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates and immune responses of Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Boone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, X P; Xu, D; Zhuo, Y; Liu, H Q; Lu, L Q

    2016-09-01

    Five different Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains (SH8, SH108, SH58, AH5 and GD10) isolated from the hepatopancreas of moribund shrimp in farms of mainland China were identified and capable of inducing massive mortality of Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei. The immersion challenge results with five isolates indicated variance of virulence, while only GD10 caused massive sloughing of tubule epithelial cells which was recognized as the most significant symptom of AHPND. Differences in immune responses were detected of P. vannamei during 48 h post-infection (p.i.) by injection or immersion challenge with V. parahaemolyticus (SH8, SH108 and GD10) isolates. When injected SH8 and SH108 isolates, the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) showing statistically significant upregulation at 16 and 48 h p.i. and that of Toll-like receptors (TLR) showed statistically significant upregulation at 48 h p.i. When immersion challenge with the GD10 isolate, TLR were upregulated after 8 h p.i. challenge with 10(4)  cfu mL(-1) ; however, LSZ was downregulated when challenged with 10(3)  cfu mL(-1) . The results suggested that LSZ and TLR serve as crucial molecular markers of innate immunity in shrimp against V. parahaemolyticus infection. LSZ is a vital marker for acute bacterial infection, while TLR serves as a crucial marker for chronic infection.

  2. Standardization of sodium metabisulfite solution concentrations and immersion time for farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Trigueiro de Andrade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium metabisulfite is the main additive used in the prevention of melanosis in shrimp; however, it has currently been employed with great variation in concentration by producers. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between the concentration of the sodium metabisulfite solution and immersion time of the whole shrimp to obtain the concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2 in the edible muscle of farmed shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei in accordance with the limit established by law. For this, solutions of sodium metabisulfite at different concentrations (1%, 2 %, 3 %, 4% and 5% were prepared and samples of L. vannamei shrimp (100g were immersed during 10, 20 or 30 minutes at temperature of 7°C. For all treatment assayed the concentration of SO2 was determined in the edible muscle of farmed shrimp (L. vannamei. The results show that for the conditions used in this study, the correlations were linear, with significant increase (P<0.05 in the SO2 concentration in the edible muscle of shrimps both increasing sodium metabisulfite concentration as increasing immersion times, suggesting the immersion of shrimps in a 3% solution for a time of 13 minutes in order to obtain SO2 concentration of 100ppm in its edible muscle in accordance with Brazilian legislation

  3. Analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Weiji; Li, Weiya; Zhang, Quanqi; Kong, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Seven microsatellite markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei, which were introduced from Central and South America to China. All seven microsatellite loci were polymorphic, with polymorphism information content ( PIC) values ranging from 0.593 to 0.952. Totally 92 alleles were identified, and the number of alleles ( Na) and effective alleles ( Ne) varied between 4 and 21 and 2.7 and 14.6, respectively. Observed heterozygosity ( H o) values were lower than the expected heterozygosity ( H e) values (0.526-0.754), which indicated that the seven stocks possessed a rich genetic diversity. Thirty-seven tests were detected for reasonable significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. F is values were positive at five loci, suggesting that there was a relatively high degree of inbreeding within stocks. Pairwise F st values ranged from 0.0225 to 0.151, and most of the stock pairs were moderately differentiated. Genetic distance and cluster analysis using UPGMA revealed a close genetic relationship of L. vannamei between Pop2 and Pop3. AMOVA indicated that the genetic variation among stocks (11.3%) was much lower than that within stocks (88.7%). Although the seven stocks had a certain degree of genetic differentiation and a rich genetic diversity, there is an increasing risk of decreased performance due to inbreeding in subsequent generations.

  4. Identification and functional characterization of a solute carrier family 15, member 4 gene in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Gui; Yuan, Kai; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yue, Hai-Tao; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2016-04-01

    Innate immunity in shrimp is important in resisting bacterial infection. The NF-κB pathway is pivotal in such an immune response. This study cloned and functionally characterized the solute carrier family (SLC) 15 member A 4 (LvSLC15A4) gene in Litopenaeus vannamei. The open reading frame of LvSLC15A4 is 1, 902 bp long and encodes a putative 633-amino acid protein, which is localized in the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicular compartments. Results of the reporter gene assay showed that LvSLC15A4 upregulated NF-κB target genes, including the immediate-early gene 1 of white spot syndrome virus, as well as several antimicrobial peptide genes, such as pen4, CecA, AttA, and Mtk in S2 cells. Moreover, knocked-down expression of LvSLC15A4 reduced pen4 expression in L. vannamei. LvSLC15A4 down-regulation also increased the cumulative mortality of Vibrio parahemolyticus-infected L. vannamei. Furthermore, LvSLC15A4 expression was induced by unfolded protein response (UPR) in L. vannamei hematocytes. These results suggest that LvSLC15A4 participates in L. vannamei innate immunity via the NF-κB pathway and thus may be related to UPR.

  5. Rab from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: characterization and its regulation upon environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Liu, Jin; Chen, Chu-Xian; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-10-01

    With the destruction of the ecological environment, shrimp cultivation in China has been seriously affected by outbreaks of infectious diseases. Rab, which belong to small GTPase Ras superfamily, can regulate multiple steps in eukaryotic vesicle trafficking including vesicle budding, vesicle tethering, and membrane fusion. Knowledge of Rab in shrimp is essential to understanding regulation and detoxification mechanisms of environmental stress. In this study, we analyzed the functions of Rab from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Full-length cDNA of Rab was obtained, which was 751 bp long, with open reading frame encoding 206 amino acids. In this study, for the first time, the gene expression of Rab of L. vannamei was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR after exposure to five kinds of environmental stresses (bacteria, pH, Cd, salinity and low temperature). The results demonstrate that Rab is sensitive and involved in bacteria, pH, and Cd stress responses and Rab is more sensitive to bacteria than other stresses. Therefore we infer that Rab may have relationship with the anti-stress mechanism induced by environment stress in shrimp and Rab could be used as critical biomarkers for environmental quality assessment.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of the unfolded protein response in hemocytes of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hong; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Bi, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yue, Hai-Tao; Yuan, Kai; Chen, Yong-Gui; Wen, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

    2016-07-01

    In this study, Litopenaeus vannamei was injected with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against L. vannamei immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (LvBip) to activating UPR in the hemocytes, shirmps injected dsRNA against enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) as control group. And genes expression in hemocytes of then were analyzed using Illumina Hiseq 2500 (PE100). By comparing the analyzed results, 1418 unigenes were significantly upregulated, and 596 unigenes were significantly down-regulated upon UPR. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes against known databases indicated that the distribution of gene pathways between the upregulated and down-regulated genes were substantially different. A total of 208 genes of UPR system were obtained, and 69 of them were differentially expressed between the two groups. Results also showed that L. vannamei UPR was involved in various metabolic processes, such as glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and nucleic acid metabolism. In addition, UPR was emgaged in immune-assicoated signaling pathways, such as NF-κB signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, Hippo signaling pathway, p38 MAPK signaling pathway and Wnt signaling pathway in L. vannamei. These results improved our current understanding of the L. vannamei UPR, and highlighted its importance in cell homeostasis upon environmental stress.

  7. Effect of bioactive peptides (BPs) on the development of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangjun; Yu, Ermeng; Li, Zhifei; Yu, Deguang; Wang, Haiying; Gong, Wangbao

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of replacing fish meal (FM) with bioactive peptides (BPs) in diet of white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). The changes in growth performance, body composition, non-specific immunity, and water quality were examined after the shrimp were fed four diets, in which 0% (control), 33.3%, 66.7% and 100% of FM was replaced by BPs, respectively. The groups were designated as Con, 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs. A total of 720 shrimp with an initial body weight of 1.46 ± 0.78 g were fed the experimental diets for 56 days. The results revealed that: 1) the weight gain rate (WGR) in 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs was significantly higher than that in Con ( P vannamei; it is able to effectively promote growth performance and improve immunity. Moreover, BPs in the diets had no negative impact on water quality.

  8. Antimutagenic Compounds of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): Isolation and Structural Elucidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Saiz, Carmen-María; Hernández, Javier; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco-Javier; Velázquez, Carlos; Ocaño-Higuera, Víctor-Manuel; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Robles-Sánchez, Maribel; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Burgos-Hernández, Armando

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, cancer is the main cause of mortality worldwide; thus, the search of chemopreventive compounds to prevent the disease has become a priority. White shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) has been reported as a source of compounds with chemopreventive activities. In this study, shrimp lipids were extracted and then fractionated in order to isolate those compounds responsible for the antimutagenic activity. The antimutagenic activity was assessed by the inhibition of the mutagenic effect of aflatoxin B1 on TA98 and TA100 Salmonella tester strains using the Ames test. Methanolic fraction was responsible for the highest antimutagenic activity (95.6 and 95.9% for TA98 and TA100, resp.) and was further separated into fifteen different subfractions (M1–M15). Fraction M8 exerted the highest inhibition of AFB1 mutation (96.5 and 101.6% for TA98 and TA100, resp.) and, after further fractionation, four subfractions M8a, M8b, M8c, and M8d were obtained. Data from 1H and 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry analysis of fraction M8a (the one with the highest antimutagenic activity), suggest that the compound responsible for its antimutagenicity is an apocarotenoid. PMID:27006678

  9. Mercury content and their risk assessment in farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from NW Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Alvarez, C G; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Osuna-López, J I; Voltolina, D; Frías-Espericueta, M G

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the total mercury content in hepatopancreas and edible muscle of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei cultured along the NW coast of Mexico, and to evaluate the potential human health risk due to their consumption. Samples were obtained between May and June 2010 in 26 shrimp farms from the three most important shrimp-producing states of NW Mexico, and total Hg was analyzed after reduction with SnCl2 in a mercury analyzer. The ranges of Hg concentrations of the hepatopancreas were 0.101±0.03-0.184±0.13 μg g(-1) in Sonora, 0.077±0.055-0.813±0.363 μg g(-1) in Sinaloa and 0.139±0.037-0.791±0.33 μg g(-1) in Nayarit. In the muscle, values were from 0.078±0.02 to 0.539±0.09 μg g(-1) in Sonora, 0.154±0.03-0.861±0.423 μg g(-1) in Sinaloa and 0.121±0.041-1.48±0.44 μg g(-1) in Nayarit. Considering the concentrations of Hg in the muscle and the national consumption rate, shrimp farmed in NW Mexico does not represent a risk for human health (HQ<1).

  10. Responses of prophenoloxidase system and related defence parameters of Litopenaeus vannamei to low salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Luqing; Xie, Peng; Hu, Fawen

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of low salinity (26 and 21) on the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system and related defence parameters in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that low salinity induced a significant increase of dopamine (DA) concentration in haemolymph at 6 h of the experiment; on the other hand, total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC) and PO activity decreased over time to the lowest level at 24 h and remained low thereafter. Serine Protease (SP) and Proteinase Inhibitor (PI) activity in the two lower salinity treatments decreased to the lowest level at 12 and 24 h, respectively, and both recovered to the control level at 72 h. In contrast, α2- macroglobulin (α2M) activity in the two lower salinity treatments peaked at 24 h and then decreased to the control level at 72 h. Therefore, it may be concluded that stress-induced DA plays an important temporary role in neurotransmission and causes immune response in L. vannamei in adapting to salinity changes.

  11. Optimization of Process Parameters for Litopenaeus vannamei Seafood Sauce using Response Surface Methodology

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    Xinyue Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to determine the optimum formulation of Litopenaeus vannamei seafood sauce, Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to investigate the effects of contents of thick broad-bean sauce, sweet soybean paste and Shacha sauce on the sensory quality. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the data were adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model. The independent parameters of contents of thick broad-bean sauce, sweet soybean paste and the quadratics of contents of thick broad-bean sauce, sweet soybean paste and Shacha sauce significantly affected the sensory evaluation scores. Also the interactions between contents of thick broad-bean sauce and sweet soybean paste, sweet soybean paste and Shacha sauce had a significant effect on the sensory evaluation scores. The optimal conditions for higher sensory evaluation scores were thick broad-bean sauce 6.22%, sweet soybean paste 16.32% and Shacha sauce 10.10%. Under such conditions, the maximum predicted sensory evaluation score was 9.49; the prediction accuracy rate of model was up to 97.10%. These optimum conditions were used to evaluate the trail experiment and the maximum sensory evaluation score was recorded as 9.5±0.36.

  12. Black gill disease of Pacific white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei by Aspergillus flavus

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    Naresh Kumar Dewangan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the epidemiology of black gill disease in white leg shrimp which is a major problem being faced by the commercial shrimp farmers who are culturing Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei in India. Methods: The normal and infected shrimps were collected from shrimp pond and the gill was preserved in appropriate preservative for histopathological examination and scanning electron microscope analysis. Pathogenic fungus was isolated from black gill of L. vannamei in potato dextrose agar medium. Morphological study and fungal strain identification were done by using light microscopy and scanning electron microscope. Fungal DNA was amplified by ITS4 and ITS5 primers and gene sequencing was done by Macrogen Inc., Korea. Phylogenetic tree was prepared by using MEGA 6 software. Results: Fungal spores and hyphae were observed both in internal and external gill surface of infected shrimps. Fungal spores were round in shape and mature sporangium was observed. The histopathology study showed clearly that infected gill was damaged by the fungi. Scanning electron microscopic study showed adherence of fungi in infected gill. Internal transcribed spacer gene sequencing revealed that it was caused by Aspergillus flavus. Conclusions: The outcome of the present study would help to know the cause of black gill disease and to understand the effect of pathogenic fungi in shrimp culture. This study will initiate researchers for work in field of treatment or prevention of black gill disease in commercial L. vannamei culture.

  13. Mercury accumulation and metallothionein expression from aquafeeds by Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 under intensive aquaculture conditions

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    TM. Soares

    Full Text Available This study describes the accumulation of Hg and metallothionein gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 with aquafeeds as the major source of Hg. Trials were conducted under controlled conditions in experimental tank facilities with high (indoor tanks and low (outdoor tanks Hg aquafeeds concentrations. Aquafeeds were the sole source of Hg for the shrimps and concentrations varied from 5.4 to 124 ng.g-1 d.w.. In the three animal fractions analysed; muscle (6,3 - 15,9 ng.g-1; hepatopancreas (5,1 - 22,0 ng.g-1 and exoskeleton (3,0 - 16,2 ng.g-1, Hg concentrations were significantly lower in the outdoor trials submitted to Hg-poor aquafeeds. Maximum shrimp muscle Hg concentrations were low (36.4 ng.g-1 w.w. relative to maximum permissible concentrations for human consumption and Hg content in muscle and hepatopancreas were significantly correlated with Hg content in aquafeeds. Highest Hg concentrations in the exoskeleton of animals exposed to Hg-richer aquafeed, suggested that a detoxification mechanism is taking place. On the other hand the metallothionein suffered no variation in its relative expression in any of the experiments, meaning that the contact with feed containing the observed Hg concentrations were not sufficient to activate gene transcription. It was not possible, under the experimental design used, to infer Hg effects on the biological performance of the animals.

  14. The Effect of Three Culture Methods on Intensive Culture System of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhen; WAN Rong; SONG Xiefa; GAO Lei

    2013-01-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance.This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84d.The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks,i.e.,outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C),greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M).Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C (P <0.05).In contrast to the other two treatments,mode-M had stable pH after 50d cultivation of shrimps.In the mid-late period,the average concentrations of TAN,NO2-N,DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C (P <0.05).Despite lack of differences in the final shrimp weight among different treatments (P >0.05),mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield,survival rate and feed conversion rate (P < 0.05) than other modes.There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments (P<0.05).These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system ofL.vannamei.

  15. Encapsulated Synbiotic Dietary Supplementation at Different Dosages to Prevent Vibriosis in White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Anis Zubaidah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulated synbiotic (Bacillus sp. NP5 and oligosaccharide dietary at different dosages on growth performance, survival rate, feed conversion ratio, and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio infection. The shrimps of the main treatments were fed by the diet that contained three different dosages of encapsulated synbiotic [0.5% (A, 1% (B, and 2% (C (w/w] with feeding rate of 5% of shrimp biomass (4 times a day. The shrimps of two control treatments (negative control and positive control were fed only by commercial feed without supplementation of encapsulated synbiotic. The growth, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate were observed after 30 days of encapsulated synbiotic dietary. The shrimps were then challenged by injection of Vibrio harveyi (6 log colony forming units/mL 0.1 mL/shrimp, excluded the negative control treatment. Afterward, the survival and immune responses were observed for 9 days after experimental infection. The shrimps treated with 2% encapsulated synbiotic (treatment C in the diet showed the highest growth performance (2.98 ± 0.42%, feed conversion ratio (1.26 ± 0.19, and better immune responses i.e. total hemocyte counts, differential hemocyte count, phenoloxidase, and intestine bacteria observation compared to those of positive control treatment.

  16. Genetic variation in a closed line of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Penaeidae

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    Eloize Luvesuto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has recently boosted the Brazilian shrimp industry. However, it is well known that selection methods based solely on phenotypic characteristics, a reduced number of breeders and the practice of inbreeding may promote a significant raise in the genetic similarity of the captive populations, leading to greater disease susceptibility and impairing both the growth and final size of the shrimps. We used four microsatellite loci to investigate genetic variation in three generations (F5, F6 and F7 of a closed and reared L. vannamei lineage. Although an accentuated heterozygosis deficit was detected, we also observed that the captive propagation of this lineage did not lead to a significant loss of genetic variability over the three generations studied. One possible reason for this is that the breeding conditions of this lineage were good enough to prevent any significant loss of genetic variability. However, three generations may have been insufficient to produce detectable changes in genetic frequencies in the loci studied. Alternatively, the microsatellite loci may have been non-neutral (biased and related to the conditions in which the shrimps were kept, resulting in a similar allele pool in respect to these four microsatellites over the three generations studied. Any generalizations regarding microsatellite variation in closed shrimp lines may thus be incomplete and should be carefully analyzed.

  17. One type of VEGFR is involved in WSSV infection to the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shihao; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-05-01

    VEGF signaling pathway plays vital roles in many physiological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, survival, cell-cell communication, vessel permeability and virus-host interaction in mammalian species. However, the VEGF signaling pathway and its biological function are still poorly understood in crustaceans. In the present study, an essential member of VEGF signaling pathway, VEGF receptor (LvVEGFR), was isolated from Penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its function during virus infection was analyzed. The deduced amino acid sequence of LvVEGFR possessed all common features of VEGFRs reported in other species, including a signal peptide, six IG-like domains, one immunoglobulin subtype 2 domain, a transmembrane domain, a juxtamembrane domain, a protein kinase domain separated by a kinase insert sequence, one ATP binding site and one tyrosine-protein kinase active site. LvVEGFR is mainly expressed in hemocytes and intestine. The transcriptional level of LvVEGFR could be obviously up-regulated in hemocytes and intestine after WSSV infection. Silencing of LvVEGFR gene by double-strand RNA (dsRNA) interference could not only lead to a decrease of virus copy number in WSSV infected shrimp, but also reduce the mortality of shrimp during WSSV infection. These data suggested that VEGF signaling pathway might play an important role during viral infection to shrimp.

  18. Comparative transcriptomic characterization of the early development in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yang; Huang, Hao; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-01-01

    Penaeid shrimp has a distinctive metamorphosis stage during early development. Although morphological and biochemical studies about this ontogeny have been developed for decades, researches on gene expression level are still scarce. In this study, we have investigated the transcriptomes of five continuous developmental stages in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with high throughput Illumina sequencing technology. The reads were assembled and clustered into 66,815 unigenes, of which 32,398 have putative homologues in nr database, 14,981 have been classified into diverse functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and 26,257 have been associated with 255 pathways by KEGG pathway mapping. Meanwhile, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between adjacent developmental stages were identified and gene expression patterns were clustered. By GO term enrichment analysis, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and functional gene profiling, the physiological changes during shrimp metamorphosis could be better understood, especially histogenesis, diet transition, muscle development and exoskeleton reconstruction. In conclusion, this is the first study that characterized the integrated transcriptomic profiles during early development of penaeid shrimp, and these findings will serve as significant references for shrimp developmental biology and aquaculture research.

  19. Modified extensive pond culture of Litopenaeus vannamei for sustainable shrimp culture in the Philippines

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    Cecilia J. Jaspe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp culture industry provides huge revenues to most aquaculture producing countries,but it is also beset with problems that hamper its sustainability. In the present study, we described amodified extensive pond culture method for white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei in the Philippines duringthe wet and dry months. One hectare earthen ponds were prepared and added with organic and/orinorganic fertilizers to stimulate natural food production. The ponds were stocked with L. vannameipostlarvae (PL at a density of 4 PL m-2. A zero-water exchange system of pond management was doneduring the first two months of culture followed by a bi-weekly water exchange until harvest. No artificialfeeding was given during the culture period, instead, the ponds were applied with inorganic fertilizerevery month to ensure continuous supply of natural food. During the culture period, the shrimpsappeared healthy and no disease outbreaks were observed. All the physico-chemical parameters of thewater in the pond were within the optimum range required for shrimp farming and the phytoplanktonpopulation was predominantly green microalgae (Chlorophyta. The shrimps were harvested after 3 to3.5 months of culture or when they reached an average body weight of 13-15 g, with moderate to highsurvival rates depending on the prevailing climatic conditions.

  20. Evaluation of different lipid sources in diet of pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei at low salinity

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    Ke Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Litopenaeus vannamei (1.98 ± 0.28 g were fed diets containing soybean oil (SBO, beef tallow (BFT, fish oil (FIO, linseed oil (LNO, and an equal combination of SBO + BFT + FIO (SBF or SBO + BFT + LNO (SBL as dietary lipid source respectively for 8 weeks at low salinity of 3‰. The shrimp fed the SBL diet had the highest weight gain and survival rate. The whole body fatty acid composition including the EPA and DHA of L. vannamei generally reflected the composition of dietary fatty acids with the highest DHA and EPA found in L. vannamei fed FIO. The activities of fatty acid synthetase, acyl-CoA, diacylgycerol acyltransferase 2, elongase of long-chain fatty acids family member 6, Δ5 and Δ6 fatty acid desaturases of shrimp fed SBL were significantly lower than those fed BFT. The results indicated that fish oil could not be the only lipid source for L. vannamei cultured at low salinity, and the shrimp fed non-fish oil diet with a suitable proportion of PUFAs could obtain the same growth and survival rate as those fed diets with fish oil.

  1. Effect of salinity on regulation mechanism of neuroendocrine-immunoregulatory network in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qun; Pan, Luqing; Ren, Qin; Wang, Lin; Miao, Jingjing

    2016-02-01

    The effects of low salinity (transferred from 31‰ to 26‰, 21‰, and 16‰) on the regulation pathways of neuroendocrine-immunoregulatory network were investigated in Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that the hormones (corticotrophin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone) and biogenic amines (dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine) concentrations in lower salinity groups increased significantly within 12 h. The gene expression of biogenic amine receptors showed that dopamine receptor D4 and α2 adrenergic receptor in lower salinity groups decreased significantly within 12 h, whereas the 5-HT7 receptor significantly increased within 1d. The second messenger synthetases (adenylyl cyclase, phospholipase C) and the second messengers (cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic guanosine monophosphate) of lower salinity groups shared a similar trend in which adenylyl cyclase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate reached the maximum at 12 h, whereas phospholipase C and cyclic guanosine monophosphate reached the minimum. The immune parameters (total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, phagocytic activity, crustin expression, antibacterial activity, C-type lectin expression, hemagglutinating activity) in lower salinity groups decreased significantly within 12 h. Except for the total hemocyte count, all the parameters recovered to the control levels afterwards. Therefore, it may be concluded that the neuroendocrine-immunoregulatory network plays a principal role in adapting to salinity changes as the main center for sensing the stress and causes immune response in L. vannamei.

  2. Black gill disease of Paciifc white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) byAspergillus lfavus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naresh Kumar Dewangan; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan; Daniel Kannan; Narayanasamy Shettu; Ramakrishna Rajkumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the epidemiology of black gill disease in white leg shrimp which is a major problem being faced by the commercial shrimp farmers who are culturingLitopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) in India. Methods:The normal and infected shrimps were collected from shrimp pond and the gill was preserved in appropriate preservative for histopathological examination and scanning electron microscope analysis. Pathogenic fungus was isolated from black gill of L. vannameiin potato dextrose agar medium. Morphological study and fungal strain identification were done by using light microscopy and scanning electron microscope. FungalDNA was amplified byITS4 andITS5 primers and gene sequencing was done by Macrogen Inc., Korea. Phylogenetic tree was prepared by usingMEGA 6 software. Results:Fungal spores and hyphae were observed both in internal and external gill surface of infected shrimps. Fungal spores were round in shape and mature sporangium was observed. The histopathology study showed clearly that infected gill was damaged by the fungi. Scanning electron microscopic study showed adherence of fungi in infected gill. Internal transcribed spacer gene sequencing revealed that it was caused by Aspergillus flavus. Conclusions: The outcome of the present study would help to know the cause of black gill disease and to understand theeffectof pathogenic fungi in shrimp culture. This study will initiate researchers for work in field of treatment or prevention of black gill disease in commercial L. vannameiculture.

  3. Molecular characterization of penaeidins from two Atlantic Brazilian shrimp species, Farfantepenaeus paulensis and Litopenaeus schmitti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barracco, Margherita Anna; de Lorgeril, Julien; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachère, Evelyne

    2005-09-01

    We report here the molecular cloning of new members of the penaeidin family from two Atlantic penaeids from Brazil, Litopenaeus schmitti and Farfantepenaeus paulensis. The presence of penaeidins in the granular hemocytes of both shrimps was first evidenced by immunofluorescence, using polyclonal antibodies raised against L. vannamei penaeidin Litvan PEN3-1. cDNAs from the hemocytes of both Brazilian species were obtained by reverse transcription and the sequences encoding penaeidins were amplified by PCR, using primers based on penaeidin consensus sequences. Five penaeidin clones were obtained. According to the international penaeidin classification (PenBase, http://www.penbase.immunaqua.com), the deduced amino acid sequences of two clones from L. schmitti and two from F. paulensis belong to the PEN2 subgroup and one clone from L. schmitti to the PEN4 subgroup of penaeidins. Surprisingly, no penaeidin from the PEN3 subgroup was obtained in both shrimp species, even though this subgroup appears to be the most commonly expressed in the hemocytes of penaeids.

  4. The detoxification process, bioaccumulation and damage effect in juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to chrysene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xianyun; Pan, Luqing; Wang, Lin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chrysene (CHR) on detoxification enzymes, bioaccumulation and effect of CHR on biomolecule damage in different organs of the juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In this study, juvenile white shrimp L. vannamei were exposed to CHR for 21 days at four different concentrations as 0, 0.3, 2.1 and 14.7 μg/L. Results showed that CHR bioaccumulation increased rapidly at first then reached a plateau. The activities of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), sulfotransferase (SULT) and uridinediphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UGT) were induced and then became stable gradually. Moreover, 2.1 and 14.7 μg/L CHR treatments increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in gills and hepatopancreas, while total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and GSH/GSSG were suppressed after CHR exposure. Additionally, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, protein carbonyl (PC) contents and DNA damage were induced throughout the exposure period, and different trends were detected with time of exposure. Overall, these novel findings of CHR bioaccumulation and resulted toxicity demonstrate that CHR could affect the physical status of L. vannamei. This study will form a solid basis for a realistic extrapolation scientific data for aquaculture water monitoring and food security.

  5. EFEKTIVITAS PENGGUNAAN BAKTERI UNTUK PERBAIKAN KUALITAS AIR MEDIA BUDI DAYA UDANG VANAME (LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI SUPER INTENSIF

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    Lufisari Herdianti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture activities in coastal area potentially produced wastes which leads water pollution. In order to reduce pollution, the use of several bacteria is very promising. This study was aimed to determine the effectivity of commercial bacterial inocculants to reduce pollution in cultured water. Bacterial inocculant tested in this study was SN®, SB®, and the combination of both inocculants for water quality improvements in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei super intensive culture media. This study was conducting in two steps, namely (i preliminary study and (ii primary study. The preliminary study was aimed to determine the time required to add bacteria based on the total number of bacterial colonies. The result showed that total colonies number of media treated with addition of SN® and SB® were reached maximum within 2 days. The result of primary study showed that the combination of SN® and SB® showed best effect in maintaining water quality of the culture media. This combination are proven reduces ammonia by 96%, nitrite-N by 83%, and COD by 42%.

  6. Microbiological Investigation of Persistent Mortalities in Litopenaeus vannamei Grown in Low Saline Waters in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanathkumar, Hirekudel; Ravi, Charan; Padinhatupurayil, Suresh Babu; Mol, Mini; Prasad, Jilagam Krishna; Nayak, Binaya Bhusan

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Microbial diseases are a serious hindrance to successful shrimp aquaculture. The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is an exotic species recently introduced in India to supplement the failing aquaculture of the Asian tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon due to viral diseases. However, after a brief initial success, the aquaculture of L. vannamei is also experiencing serious problems due to microbial diseases. In this study, we conducted a microbiological investigation into the problem of persistent mortalities in selected L. vannamei farms on the southeastern coast of India. The infected shrimps were positive for the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by a nested PCR, though no visible white spots were present on the animals. The shrimps were heavily colonized by Vibrio parahemolyticus, which were isolated from the hepatopancreas, gills, and the body surface. The pond water, despite being low saline groundwater, harbored large numbers of V. parahemolyticus and other Vibrio species, and V. parahemolyticus isolated from L. vannamei were resistant to β-lactam antibiotics and cephalosporins. Our results strongly suggest that the persistent mortalities of L. vannamei were due to a co-infection by V. parahemolyticus and WSSV. Received December 16, 2013; accepted February 14, 2014.

  7. [Intestinal bacterial community is indicative for the healthy status of Litopenaeus vannamei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-feng; Xiong, Jin-bo; Wang, Xin; Qiu, Qian-ling-ling; Zheng, Jia-lai; Zhang, De-min

    2016-02-01

    High density and intensive Litopenaeus vannamei aquaculture has increased the frequency of shrimp disease, however, it remains uncertain whether change in intestinal bacteria could be indicative of shrimp health state (healthy or diseased). Therefore, we collected water and shrimp intestine samples from ponds with or without diseased shrimps. Using bacterial 16S rRNA gene as a biomarker, the bacterial community structure and diversity were evaluated with the Illumina MiSeq sequencing technique. The results showed that the variations of bacterioplankton community were primarily shaped by the levels of NO2(-)-N, chlorophyll a and PO4(3-)-P. Bacterial diversity was signif-7 icantly lower in diseased shrimps than in healthy ones. Using a response ratio analysis, we screened 28 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and their abundances significantly changed in the intestines between healthy and diseased shrimps. In general, the abundances of OTUs belonged to Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and Bacilli significantly decreased in diseased shrimps compared with those in healthy shrimps., while the OTUs affiliated to Clostridia showed an opposite pattern. In addition, we obtained 61 indicator species that primarily affiliated to Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes and Actinobacteria. Notably, the identified indicator taxa exhibited clearly discriminative patterns among habitats (water or intestine) and health status. Collectively, this study provided scientific information for development of new probiotics and disease prevention.

  8. Genesis of Hematopoietic Tissue and Its Relation with Hemocytes of Litopenaeus Vannamei (Boone, 1931 (Crustacea: Decapoda

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    Faiz Muhammad§, Zhi-Feng Zhang*, Ming-Yu Shao, Xiao-Li Shi and Muhammad Shafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Litopenaeus vannamei is a prime aquaculture species and has a worth market value all over the world. In this study, we investigated the genesis and morphology of hematopoietic tissue (HPT and types of hemocyte based on its morphology and cytochemical feature using histological and histochemical methods. The results revealed that HPT in L. vannamei is not visible histologically in mysis and early two post larvae (P1 & P2, and emerges in P3 which locates in epigastric region. The HPT showed a continuous propagation of cells in successive post larval stages. Four types of cells can be identified in the HPT from adult specimen and mitotic activity is visible in the HPT. The hemocytes have been differentiated into five types and some of these types are co-related with the HPT cells. The cytochemical studies suggested that type I and II cells of hemocytes are PAS positive while scanty presence of prophenoloxidase was observed in type I cells. Similarly the type I cells are Sudan Black B positive and rest of the cells showed weak activity against lipid detective stain. This is the first effort towards genesis of HPT and its relation with circulating hemocytes in L. vannamei.

  9. Comparative transcriptomic characterization of the early development in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

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    Jiankai Wei

    Full Text Available Penaeid shrimp has a distinctive metamorphosis stage during early development. Although morphological and biochemical studies about this ontogeny have been developed for decades, researches on gene expression level are still scarce. In this study, we have investigated the transcriptomes of five continuous developmental stages in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei with high throughput Illumina sequencing technology. The reads were assembled and clustered into 66,815 unigenes, of which 32,398 have putative homologues in nr database, 14,981 have been classified into diverse functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO annotation and 26,257 have been associated with 255 pathways by KEGG pathway mapping. Meanwhile, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs between adjacent developmental stages were identified and gene expression patterns were clustered. By GO term enrichment analysis, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and functional gene profiling, the physiological changes during shrimp metamorphosis could be better understood, especially histogenesis, diet transition, muscle development and exoskeleton reconstruction. In conclusion, this is the first study that characterized the integrated transcriptomic profiles during early development of penaeid shrimp, and these findings will serve as significant references for shrimp developmental biology and aquaculture research.

  10. PERTUMBUHAN DAN SINTASAN UDANG VANAME (Litopenaeus vannamei DENGAN KOMBINASI PAKAN BERBEDA DALAM WADAH TERKONTROL

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    Suwardi Tahe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pakan merupakan satu di antara faktor yang perlu diperhatikan dalam sistem budidaya udang di tambak, karena berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan, sintasan, dan efisiensi biaya produksi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kombinasi pakan yang tepat terhadap pertumbuhan dan sintasan udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Instalasi Perbenihan Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau. Wadah yang digunakan adalah bak fiber glass ukuran 1 m x 1 m x 0,7 m sebanyak 9 buah. Setiap bak diisi air laut salinitas 32 ppt sebanyak 500 L dan dilengkapi 1 buah aerasi. Hewan uji yang digunakan adalah tokolan udang vaname dengan bobot rata-rata 0,45 g/ekor dan ditebar kepadatan 100 ekor/bak. Penelitian diset menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan 3 perlakuan yaitu: (A pakan PV 100%, (B pakan PV 75% + pakan EB 25%, dan (C pakan PV 50% + EB 50%, masing-masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali. Selama pemeliharan 85 hari, udang diberi pakan dosis 50-5% dari total bobot biomassa/hari. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi pakan berpengaruh nyata (P<0,05 terhadap pertumbuhan, sintasan, rasio konversi pakan, dan produksi udang vaname. Pertumbuhan dan sintasan udang vaname terbaik yaitu masing-masing 6,31g dan 86% diperoleh pada perlakuan B bila dibanding perlakuan lainnya.

  11. Mercury accumulation and metallothionein expression from aquafeeds by Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 under intensive aquaculture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, T M; Coutinho, D A; Lacerda, L D; Moraes, M O; Rebelo, M F

    2011-02-01

    This study describes the accumulation of Hg and metallothionein gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 with aquafeeds as the major source of Hg. Trials were conducted under controlled conditions in experimental tank facilities with high (indoor tanks) and low (outdoor tanks) Hg aquafeeds concentrations. Aquafeeds were the sole source of Hg for the shrimps and concentrations varied from 5.4 to 124 ng.g-1 d.w.. In the three animal fractions analysed; muscle (6,3 - 15,9 ng.g-1); hepatopancreas (5,1 - 22,0 ng.g-1) and exoskeleton (3,0 - 16,2 ng.g-1), Hg concentrations were significantly lower in the outdoor trials submitted to Hg-poor aquafeeds. Maximum shrimp muscle Hg concentrations were low (36.4 ng.g-1 w.w.) relative to maximum permissible concentrations for human consumption and Hg content in muscle and hepatopancreas were significantly correlated with Hg content in aquafeeds. Highest Hg concentrations in the exoskeleton of animals exposed to Hg-richer aquafeed, suggested that a detoxification mechanism is taking place. On the other hand the metallothionein suffered no variation in its relative expression in any of the experiments, meaning that the contact with feed containing the observed Hg concentrations were not sufficient to activate gene transcription. It was not possible, under the experimental design used, to infer Hg effects on the biological performance of the animals.

  12. Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

  13. White spot syndrome virus VP12 interacts with adenine nucleotide translocase of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fang-fang; Chou, Zhi-guang; Liu, Qing-hui; Guan, Guangkuo; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

    2014-05-01

    White spot syndrome virus VP12 contains cell attachment motif RGD which is considered to be critical for host cell binding. Until now, the function of this protein remains undefined. In this study, we explored the interaction of VP12 with host cells. A new shrimp protein (adenine nucleotide translocase of Litopenaeus vannamei, LvANT) is selected by far-western overlay assay. Tissue distribution of adenine nucleotide translocase mRNA showed that it was commonly spread in all the tissues detected. Cellular localization of LvANT in shrimp hemocytes showed that it was primarily located in the cytoplasm of hemocytes and colocalized with mitochondria. ELISA and far-western blot assay confirmed that VP12 interacted with LvANT. In vivo neutralization assay showed that anti-LvANT antibody can significantly reduce the mortality of shrimp challenged by WSSV at 48h post-treatment. Our results collectively showed that VP12 is involved in host cell binding via interaction with adenine nucleotide translocase.

  14. White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

    2013-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan.

  15. Arginine kinase of Litopenaeus vannamei involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fang-fang; Liu, Qing-hui; Guan, Guang-kuo; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

    2014-04-10

    Virus-host interaction is important for virus infection. White spot syndrome virus VP14 contains transmembrane and signal peptides domain, which is considered to be important for virus infection. Until now, the function of this protein remains undefined. In this study, we explored the interaction of VP14 with host cell. A new shrimp protein (arginine kinase of Litopenaeus vannamei, LvAK) is selected and its localization in shrimp cells is also confirmed. Cellular localization of LvAK protein in shrimp hemocytes showed that LvAK was primarily located at the periphery of hemocytes and was scarcely detectable in the nucleus. Tissue distribution indicated that arginine kinase gene was spread commonly in the tissues and was highly present in shrimp muscle tissue. The expression of LvAK mRNA in muscle was significantly up-regulated after WSSV stimulation. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that LvAK interacted with VP14 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Injection of LvAK protein enhanced the mortality of shrimp infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). These results showed that LvAK is involved in WSSV infection. Future research on this topic will help to reveal the molecular mechanism of WSSV infection.

  16. Nitrogen dynamics model in zero water exchange, low salinity intensive ponds of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, at Colima, Mexico

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    Francisco A Castillo-Soriano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a mathematical model based on differential equations describing the dynamics of nitrogen (NH4+, NO2-, NO3- and organic nitrogen in phytoplankton in ponds of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, with low salinity and zero turnovers, from planting to harvest. The model predicts the results of commercial production in three ponds. We show that this culture system, without replacement, retains the nitrogen and shrimp produced a lower feed conversion in comparison with systems with replacement. The model can be used to define strategies for improved performance.

  17. Physicochemical, Proximate Composition, Microbiological and Sensory Analysis of Farmed and Wild Harvested White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 Tissues

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    M. García-ulloa Gomez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical, proximate composition, microbiological and sensory analysis of farmed and wild harvested white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei muscle were compared. The cultured white shrimp were obtained of two farms, whereas the wild shrimp were collected off the coasts of Sinaloa and Nayarit, Mexico. Both, the farmed and wild white shrimp muscle, supplied a good source of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The physicochemical composition, microbiological and sensory properties could be associated to their origin and handling. The wild shrimp tended to have a better proximate composition than the farmed shrimp, due to the availability of a greater diet variety in their environment.

  18. Genetic Characterization of Six Stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei Used in Cuba for Aquaculture by Means of Microsatellite Loci

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Pérez-Beloborodova; Adriana Artiles-Valor; Lourdes Pérez-Jar; Damir Hernández-Martínez; Missael Guerra-Aznay; Georgina Espinosa-López

    2012-01-01

    Four microsatellite loci were used to achieve genetic characterization of six stocks from Litopenaeus vannamei used for aquaculture in Cuba: second generation from first introduction (S2-1), first generation from the second one (S1-2), from the third one (S1-3), and the fourth one (S1-4) and the crossings from two parental population: first generation from the first with first generation from the third (S1-1 × S1-3) and first generation from the second with first generation from the third (S1...

  19. Molecular characterization of infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV isolated from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei farmed in Ceará State, Brazil

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    Maria Verônyca Coelho-Melo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, one of the most important species in world aquaculture, has seriously affected by infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV that causes up to 70% mortalities. With the aim of improving the development of new strategies for rapid and reliable diagnosis, we isolated IMNV, from L. vannamei farmed in Brazil, through a discontinuous sucrose gradient, and sequenced cDNA fragment encoding the major capsid protein from this virus. Nucleotides sequences corresponding to the viral capsid protein was obtained by RT-PCR and confirmed by automatic sequencing. Comparison with sequences which encode the capsid protein obtained from Indonesia isolates showed a high identity.

  20. Effects of dietary supplementation of a commercial prebiotic Previda on survival, growth, immune responses and gut microbiota of pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 35-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate growth, bacterial populations of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets containing the commercial prebiotic PrevidaTM. Four diets were formulated to contain Previda at 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.6% by we...

  1. Effects of dietary supplementation of a commercial prebiotic on survival, growth, immune responses, and gut microbiota of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 35-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate growth, bacterial populations of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets containing the commercial prebiotic PrevidaTM. Four diets were formulated to contain Previda at 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.6% by wei...

  2. Erratum to: Response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farafidy ANDRIANTAHINA; LIU Xiaolin; HUANG Hao; XIANG Jianhai

    2012-01-01

    The original version of the title of this article unfortunately contained a mistake.The spelling of the [ZResponese]was incorrect.The title should read:Response to selection,heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp,Litopenaeus vannamei.The publishing companies apologize to the authors.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis CG-B52, a Highly Virulent Bacterium of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), Isolated from a Colombian Caribbean Aquaculture Outbreak.

    OpenAIRE

    Gálvez, Eric J C; Carrillo-Castro, Katerine; Zárate, Lina; Güiza, Linda; Pieper, Dietmar H.; García-Bonilla, Erika; Salazar, Marcela; Junca, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis strain CG-B52 was isolated as the etiological agent producing a self-limited outbreak of high mortalities in commercial Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds on the Colombian Caribbean coast in 2005. Here, we report its draft genome and three novel extrachromosomal elements that it harbors.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis CG-B52, a Highly Virulent Bacterium of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), Isolated from a Colombian Caribbean Aquaculture Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Eric J C; Carrillo-Castro, Katerine; Zárate, Lina; Güiza, Linda; Pieper, Dietmar H; García-Bonilla, Erika; Salazar, Marcela; Junca, Howard

    2016-05-12

    Bacillus licheniformis strain CG-B52 was isolated as the etiological agent producing a self-limited outbreak of high mortalities in commercial Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds on the Colombian Caribbean coast in 2005. Here, we report its draft genome and three novel extrachromosomal elements that it harbors.

  5. Caracterización preliminar de los invertebrados bentónicos capturados accidentalmente en la pesca de camarones en el norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, sudeste de Brasil Preliminary characterization of benthic invertebrates caught as by-catch in the shrimp fishery in the north of the Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor David da Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para caracterizar la biodiversidad de invertebrados bentónicos que componen la fauna asociada a la pesca de camarones en el puerto del Farol de Sao Thomé, costa norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, se realizaron 11 pescas mensuales en el año 2004 con redes de arrastre de fondo, cuya área de operaciones comprende 3-5 mn desde la línea de costa, entre 22°00'S y 22°20'S. Los datos registrados de cada taxon y/o especie se refieren a la frecuencia de ocurrencia, frecuencia numérica, biomasa, índice de Importancia Relativa y abundancia. En total se registraron 27 especies de invertebrados bentónicos de Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Annelida, Crustácea, Echinodermata y Bryozoa. Crustácea fue el más representativo, tanto en número de ejemplares de Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus y Callinectes ornatos, como en biomasa de P. diogenes y H. pudibundas. En términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia en los muéstreos, 11 especies (40,7% fueron constantes; 6 (22,2% accesorias y 10 (37,0% accidentales.In order to characterize the biodiversity of the benthic invertebrate by-catch associated with the shrimp fishery at Farol de Sao Thome harbor, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, in 2004, 11 monthly trawls were conducted using bottom trawl nets between 22°00'S and 22°20'S and from 3 to 5 nm from the shoreline. The analyzed data for each talon and/or species include frequency of occurrence, numeric frequency, biomass, index of Relative Importance, and abundance. In total, 27 benthic invertebrate species were recorded, including Peripheral, Cnidarians, Mollusk, Annelid, Crustacea, Echinodermata, and Bryozoa. The most representative group was Crustacea, both in number of specimens (Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus, Callinectes ornatus and in biomass (P. diogenes, H. pudibundus. In terms of the frequency of occurrence in the samples, 11 species (40.7% were constant, 6 species (22.2% were accessories, and 10 species (37.0% were by-catch.

  6. Desenterrado os mortos: A reconstrução do passado político brasileiro na obra de Edney Silvestre

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    Gabriela Antunes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a trilogia de estreia de Edney Silvestre, composta por Se eu fechar os olhos agora (2009, A felicidade é fácil (2011, e Vidas provisórias (2013. Pretende-se fazer um breve balanço da contribuição do autor para a reabertura de um debate sobre o recente passado histórico-político brasileiro, e, relacionando os fatos abordados no romance com temas contemporâneos, ressaltar a relevância e a atualidade desse debate. Para isso, os textos serão analisados cronologicamente, o que visa mostrar o desenvolvimento do tratamento do sujeito histórico no conjunto de obras do autor.   This paper aims to analyse Edney Silvestre’s trilogy composed by If I close my eyes now (2009, Happiness is easy (2011, and Temporary lives (2013, as well as to review the author’s contribution in reopening a debate on Brazilian’s recent historical and political past. By pointing out the relationship between the facts mentioned in thenovels and contemporary Brazil, it aims to stress the importance and up-to-dateness of this discussion. In order to achieve these goals, the novels will be analysed chronologically, which also intends to reveal the development of the way the author deals with Brazilian history throughout his oeuvre.

  7. Híbridos somáticos obtenidos por fusión de protoplastos entre Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. tuberosum y la especie silvestre Solanum circaeifolium Bitter

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    Rosa Espejo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de obtener híbridos somáticos interespecíficos, se fusionaron protoplastos de la especie tetraploide Solanum tuberosum y de la especie silvestre diploide Solanum circaeifolium utilizando polietilenglicol. Los productos de fusión fueron cultivados en el medio V-KM suplementado con albúmina de suero bovino. Las primeras divisiones celulares ocurrieron a los 3 a 4 días de cultivo. Después de la formación de colonias se observó una rápida proliferación de callos, a partir de los cuales se regeneraron 19 plantas. El análisis molecular usando RAPD, confirmó que los regenerantes presentaban segmentos de ADN de ambos parentales, sugiriendo su posible naturaleza de híbridos somáticos. Las observaciones del número de cromosomas indicaron que todos los híbridos fueron aneuploides. En condiciones de invernadero, los regenerantes derivados de la fusión de protoplastos, mostraron características morfológicas intermedias entre las líneas parentales. Este estudio muestra la producción de híbridos somáticos de papa con el método de fusión presentado.

  8. Endoparasitos (Nemathelminthes y Platyhelminthes de animales de vida silvestre de la Reserva de Biósfera del Manu, Perú

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    Manuel Tantaleán

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante el año 2001, se recolectaron 8 géneros de helmintos de mamíferos y aves silvestres del Perú, en la Reserva Biosfera del Manu (Departamentos de Cusco y Madre de Dios, desde los 470 a 3780 m. Los parásitos fueron fijados con alcohol etílico en el campo y transportados al laboratorio para estudiarlos; los nemátodos se diafanizaron y los céstodos y tremátodos se colorearon con carmín de acuerdo a técnicas convencionales. La identificación específica de algunos helmintos fue imposible por el estado en que se encontraban, pero se dan a conocer por ser material de gran importancia y ser algunos de ellos algunos registros nuevos para el Perú. Nuestros hallazgos son los siguientes: Rhopalias caballeroi Kifune y Uyema, 1982, Rhopalias sp. (probable n. sp., Taenia pisiformis Bloch, 1780 (cisticerco, Mesocestoides sp. (tetratyridia, Aprocta sp., Evaginuris branicki Mc Clure, 1932, Haematospiculum sp., Protospirura sp., Diplotriaena sp., Thelazia sp. 1, Thelazia sp. 2, Thelazia sp. 3 y Subulura sp.

  9. Efecto del fotoperiodo y la temperatura sobre la composición bioquímica en reproductores silvestres de cabrilla sardinera, Mycteroperca rosacea (Streets, 1877

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    José Antonio Estrada-Godínez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó el factor de condición (K, el índice gonadosomático (IGS, hepatosomático (IHS y de grasa visceral (IGV, así como la composición bioquímica en diferentes tejidos de reproductores silvestres de cabrilla sardinera, Mycteroperca rosacea, para evaluarlos a lo largo de un ciclo reproductivo y ver la relación que presentan los cambios con respecto a la temperatura del agua y fotoperiodo de la zona de muestreo. Se capturaron 187 reproductores, 146 hembras y 41 machos en el golfo de California, México. Se observaron diferencias significativas (P < 0,005 en los IGS, IHS e IGV; en el caso de K no se encontraron diferencias. También, se observaron variaciones significativas (P < 0,05 en la mayoría de los parámetros bioquímicos, encontrándose los valores más altos durante la etapa de desove, mientras que los más bajos durante la etapa de reposo. Todos los índices estimados y los parámetros bioquímicos determinados, se correlacionaron significativamente (P < 0,05 con el fotoperiodo, mientras que solo se encontraron correlaciones significativas (P < 0,05 entre el IGS e IGV con respecto a la temperatura del agua.

  10. Abundancia y distribución de juveniles de Farfantepenaeus aztecus (Ives 1891), F. duorarum (Burkenroad 1939) y Litopenaeus setiferus (Linnaeus 1767) en la Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas, México

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Ocaña-Luna; Gabriela Hernández-Batún; Marina Sánchez-Ramírez

    2008-01-01

    Se analizó la distribución y abundancia de los juveniles de camarones peneidos en Laguna Madre, en base a las recolectas realizadas en los meses de octubre (1997) y enero, mayo, julio (1998), con una red cónica de 50 cm de diámetro y 505 de apertura de malla, con un flujómetro adaptado a la misma. Además se tomaron datos de salinidad y temperatura superficial. Se realizó un análisis de varianza (ANOVA) y una prueba de rangos múltiples (SNK) para comparar las tallas entre las especies. La espe...

  11. FONTES E NÍVEIS DE VITAMINA C PARA O CAMARÃO Litopenaeus vannamei NA FASE DE RECRIA

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    Neyva Ribeiro Ferraz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of different sources and levels of vitamin C was evaluated on growth, survival, protein retention and health of Litopenaeus vannamei with initial weight of 5.90 ± 0.57 g. Five hundred and forty individuals were distributed in 27 cages in a completely randomized design in a 4x2 factorial scheme (four sources and two levels (n = 3. The sources used were ascorbic acid crystal, coated ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid monophosphate and ascorbic acid PEG (polyethylene glycol with two levels: 180 and 260 mg kg-1. No influence was observed (P>0.05 from the source, level of vitamin C nor interaction of these factors on growth, survival, retention of protein and parameters of health of the shrimp. Necrosis was observed in the abdomen of all animals. The use of vitamin C in sources and levels estimated for the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei weighing over 5 g shows no improvement in growth, survival, protein retention and health of shrimp.

  12. Analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei transcriptome using the next-generation DNA sequencing technique.

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    Chaozheng Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, the major species of farmed shrimps in the world, has been attracting extensive studies, which require more and more genome background knowledge. The now available transcriptome data of L. vannamei are insufficient for research requirements, and have not been adequately assembled and annotated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This is the first study that used a next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technique, the Solexa/Illumina GA II method, to analyze the transcriptome from whole bodies of L. vannamei larvae. More than 2.4 Gb of raw data were generated, and 109,169 unigenes with a mean length of 396 bp were assembled using the SOAP denovo software. 73,505 unigenes (>200 bp with good quality sequences were selected and subjected to annotation analysis, among which 37.80% can be matched in NCBI Nr database, 37.3% matched in Swissprot, and 44.1% matched in TrEMBL. Using BLAST and BLAST2Go softwares, 11,153 unigenes were classified into 25 Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG categories, 8171 unigenes were assigned into 51 Gene ontology (GO functional groups, and 18,154 unigenes were divided into 220 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. To primarily verify part of the results of assembly and annotations, 12 assembled unigenes that are homologous to many embryo development-related genes were chosen and subjected to RT-PCR for electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing analyses, and to real-time PCR for expression profile analyses during embryo development. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The L. vannamei transcriptome analyzed using the next-generation sequencing technique enriches the information of L. vannamei genes, which will facilitate our understanding of the genome background of crustaceans, and promote the studies on L. vannamei.

  13. An integrin from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei mediated microbial agglutination and cell proliferation.

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    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Integrins are a family of adhesion receptors which regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, leukocyte migration, and complement receptor-dependent phagocytosis. In invertebrates, as a cell adhesion receptor, β integrins play an important role for the balanced activation of immune defense responses especially during the encounter of infections. The present study attempts to characterize the immune functions of shrimp integrin (LvIntegrin to have better understanding on the immune system and its regulation mechanisms in shrimps. METHODOLOGY: A shrimp integrin was identified from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvIntegrin. Its full-length cDNA was of 2621 bp with an open reading frame (ORF of 2439 bp encoding a polypeptide of 812 amino acids. The mRNA expression of LvIntegrin was significantly up-regulated at 3, 6 and 12 h after Listonella anguillarum challenge. The cDNA fragment encoding β integrin domains (βA and hybrid domain of LvIntegrin was recombined and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3-pLysS. The recombinant protein (rLvIntegrin could significantly agglutinate the tested microbe including E. coli JM109, L. anguillarum, Micrococcus luteus and Candida dattiladattila in the presence of divalent cations. Moreover, when NIH3T3 cells were cultured with rLvIntegrin, the proliferation rate increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: LvIntegrin, a shrimp β integrin was identified from L. vannamei, shared several highly conserved features. LvIntegrin exhibited broad-spectrum agglutination activity towards both bacteria and fungi and could improve the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, indicating that LvIntegrin is involved in the immune response against microbe challenge and regulation of cell proliferation as a cell adhesion receptor in shrimp.

  14. Selection for growth performance of tank-reared Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-05-01

    Seven growth-related traits were measured to assess the selection response and genetic parameters of the growth of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, which had been domesticated in tanks for more than four generations. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were evaluated and fitted to an animal model. Realized response was measured from the difference between the mean growth rates of selected and control families. Realized heritability was determined from the ratio of the selection responses and selection differentials. The animal model heritability estimate over generations was 0.44±0.09 for body weight (BW), and ranged from 0.21±0.08 to 0.37±0.06 for size traits. Genetic correlations of phenotypic traits were more variable (0.51-0.97), although correlations among various traits were high (>0.83). Across generations, BW and size traits increased, while selection response and heritability gradually decreased. Selection responses were 12.28%-23.35% for harvest weight and 3.58%-13.53% for size traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.34±0.09 to 0.48±0.15 for harvest weight and 0.17±0.01-0.38±0.11 for size traits. All phenotypic and genetic parameters differed between various treatments. To conclude, the results demonstrated a potential for mass selection of growth traits in L. vannamei. A breeding scheme could use this information to integrate the effectiveness constituent traits into an index to achieve genetic progress.

  15. Identification and functional characterization of an endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1-α gene in Litopenaeus vannamei.

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    Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yuan, Kai; Yue, Hai-Tao; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Bi, Hai-Tao; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2016-04-01

    In the current study, full-length sequence of endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1-α (LvERO1-α) was cloned from Litopenaeus vannamei. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that LvERO1-α was highly expressed in hemocytes, gills, and intestines. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge was performed, and the expression of LvERO1-α and two other downstream genes of the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase-eIF2α (PERK-α) pathway, namely, homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum protein (LvHERP) and acylamino-acid-releasing enzyme (LvAARE), strongly increased in the hemocytes. Flow cytometry assay results indicated that the apoptosis rate of L. vannamei hemocytes in the LvERO1-α knockdown group was significantly lower than that of the controls. Moreover, shrimps with knockdown expression of LvERO1-α exhibited decreased cumulative mortality upon WSSV infection. Downregulation of L. vannamei immunoglobulin-binding protein (LvBip), which had been proven to induce unfolded protein response (UPR) in L. vannamei, did not only upregulate LvERO1-α, LvHERP, and LvAARE in hemocytes, but also increased their apoptosis rate, as well as the shrimp cumulative mortality. Furthermore, reporter gene assay results showed that the promoter of LvERO1-α was activated by L. vannamei activating transcription factor 4, thereby confirming that LvERO1-α was regulated by the PERK-eIF2α pathway. These results suggested that LvERO1-α plays a critical role in WSSV-induced apoptosis, which likely occurs through the WSSV-activated PERK-eIF2α pathway.

  16. Molecular characterization and function of a PTEN gene from Litopenaeus vannamei after Vibrio alginolyticus challenge.

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    Xie, C-y; Kong, J-r; Zhao, C-s; Xiao, Y-c; Peng, T; Liu, Y; Wang, W-n

    2016-06-01

    PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene, suppresses cell survival, growth, apoptosis, cell migration and DNA damage repair by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In this study, the full-length Litopenaeus vannamei PTEN (LvPTEN) cDNA was obtained, containing a 5'UTR of 59bp, an ORF of 1269bp and a 3'UTR of 146bp besides the poly (A) tail. The PTEN gene encoded a protein of 422 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 48.3 KDa and a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 7.6. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that LvPTEN was distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus, and the tissue distribution patterns showed that LvPTEN was ubiquitously expressed in all the examined tissues. Vibrio alginolyticus challenge induced upregulation of LvPTEN expression. Moreover, RNAi knock-down of LvPTEN in vivo significantly increased the expression of LvAKT mRNA, while reducing that of the downstream apoptosis genes LvP53 and LvCaspase3. LvPTEN knock-down also caused a sharp increase in cumulative mortality, bacterial numbers, and DNA damage in the hemolymph of L. vannamei following V. alginolyticus challenge, together with a sharp decrease in the total hemocyte count (THC). These results suggested that LvPTEN may participate in apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in L. vannamei, and play an important role in shrimp innate immunity.

  17. Identification and functional characterization of heat shock transcription factor1 in Litopenaeus vannamei.

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    Yan, Hui; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Xiao-Yun; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Qiu, Wei; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2014-03-01

    Heat shock transcription factors belong to the heat shock factor (HSF) protein family, which are involved in heat shock protein (HSP) gene regulation. They are critical for cell survival upon exposure to harmful conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a HSF1 (LvHSF1) gene in Litopenaeus vannamei, with a full-length cDNA of 2841 bp and an open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 632 amino acids. Through multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, it was revealed that LvHSF1 was closed to insect HSF family, which contained a highly conserved DNA-binding domain, oligomerization domains with HR-A/B, and a nuclear localization signal. Tissues distribution showed that LvHSF1 was widely expressed in all tissues tested. And it was upregulated in hemocytes and gills after Vibrio alginolyticus or Staphylococcus aureus infection. Dual-luciferase reporter assays indicated that LvHSF1 activated the promoters of L. vannamei HSP70 (LvHSP70) and L. vannamei Cactus (LvCactus), while inhibited the expressions of Drosophila antimicrobial peptide (AMP) Atta, Mtk, and L. vannamei AMP PEN4 through NF-κB signal transduction pathway modification. Knocked-down expression of LvHSF1 by dsRNA resulted in downregulations of LvHSP70 and LvCactus, as well as cumulative mortality decreasing under V. alginolyticus or S. aureus infection in L. vannamei. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that LvHSF1 is involved in LvHSP70 regulation, therefore plays a great role in stress resistance. And it also takes part in LvCactus/LvDorsal feedback regulatory pathway modification of L. vannamei, which is in favor of V. alginolyticus or S. aureus infection.

  18. Cloning and characterization of a novel hemocyanin variant LvHMCV4 from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

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    Lu, Xin; Lu, Hui; Guo, Lingling; Zhang, Zehui; Zhao, Xianliang; Zhong, Mingqi; Li, Shengkang; Zhang, Yueling

    2015-10-01

    Recently, we found 3 variants of hemocyanin subunit with higher molecular weight in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Named as LvHMCV1-3). In this study, a novel L. vannamei hemocyanin variant (Named as LvHMCV4) was further cloned and characterized. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that LvHMCV4 contains one open reading frame of 2137 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 678 amino acids. It shares 84-99% cDNA sequences identity to that of the classical form of L. vannamei hemocyanin (LvHMC, AJ250830.1) and LvHMCV1-3. LvHMCV4 possesses a conserved structure characteristic of the hemocyanin family and can be clustered into one branch along with other arthropod hemocyanins in a phylogenetic tree. Further, the full-length DNA of LvHMCV4 contains 2660 bp and two introns, which are located at the 80-538 bp and 2063-2227 bp regions, respectively. In addition, the mRNA transcript of LvHMCV4 was expressed highly in the hepatopancreas, lymphoid, brain and hemocytes, and weakly in the heart, intestine and gill, while no expression was found in the muscle, stomach and gut. Infection by Escherichia coli K12, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, Streptococcus pyogenes or Staphylococcus aureus up-regulated significantly LvHMCV4 mRNA expression in the hepatopancreas. Furthermore, the recombinant protein of LvHMCV4 (rLvHMCV4) was prepared, which showed agglutination activities against six pathogenic bacteria at concentrations ranging from 15.6 to 125 μg/ml. When co-injected with V. parahaemolyticus in L.vannamei, rLvHMCV4 significantly increased the survival rate after 48 h injection. Together, these studies suggested that hemocyanin variant, LvHMCV4, might be involved in shrimp resistance to pathogenic infection.

  19. Identification and functional characterization of the TAB2 gene from Litopenaeus vannamei.

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    Wang, Sheng; Li, Haoyang; Qian, Zhe; Song, Xuan; Zhang, Zijian; Zuo, Hongliang; Xu, Xiaopeng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng

    2015-10-01

    In Drosophila, TAB2, an important intermediate in the IMD signaling pathway, plays critical roles in the innate immune response in response to bacterial and viral infection. However, the role of TAB-related proteins in the immune response of shrimp has not yet been established. Here, we reported the identification of a TAB2-like gene in Litopenaeus vannamei designated as LvTAB2. The full-length cDNA of LvTAB2 was 2160 bp with an open reading frame of 1827 bp, which encoded a putative protein of 608 amino acids including a ubiquitin binding domain (CUE) at the N-terminal and a Zinc Finger domain (ZnF) at the C-terminus. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that LvTAB2 was expressed in all tested tissues and the expression levels of LvTAB2 in gills and hemocytes were positively induced in response to LPS, Vibrio parahemolyticus and White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) challenges. Dual luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that LvTAB2 was able to induce the expression of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes, including Drosophila Attacin A and shrimp Penaeidins. Interestingly, over-expression of LvTAB2 could up-regulate the promoter activities of L. vannamei Vago1, Vago3 and Vago4 genes in S2 cells. To our knowledge, it was the first report that TAB2 participated in innate immune signaling to regulate the expression of Vago genes in invertebrates. Moreover, RNAi-mediated knockdown of LvTAB2 enhanced sensitivity of L. vannamei to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection and caused elevated virus loads after WSSV infection. We suggested that the LvTAB2 may play important roles in the shrimp innate immunity.

  20. Pellino protein from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei positively regulates NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaozheng; Chai, Jiaoting; Li, Haoyang; Zuo, Hongliang; Wang, Sheng; Qiu, Wei; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2014-06-01

    Pellino, named after its property that binds Pelle (the Drosophila melanogaster homolog of IRAK1), is a highly conserved E3 class ubiquitin ligase in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Pellino interacts with phosphorylated IRAK1, causing polyubiquitination of IRAK1, and plays a critical upstream role in the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway. In this study, we firstly cloned and identified a crustacean Pellino from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPellino). LvPellino contains a putative N-terminal forkhead-associated (FHA) domain and a C-terminal ring finger (RING) domain with a potential E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity, and shows a high similarity with D. melanogaster Pellino. LvPellino could interact with L. vannamei Pelle (LvPelle) and over-expression of LvPellino could increase the activity of LvDorsal (a L. vannamei homolog of NF-κB) on promoters containing NF-κB binding motifs and enhance the expression of arthropod antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). The LvPellino protein was located in the cytoplasm and nucleus and LvPellino mRNA was detected in all the tissues examined and could be up-regulated after lipopolysaccharides, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Staphylococcus aureus challenges, suggesting a stimulation response of LvPellino to bacterial and immune stimulant challenges. Knockdown of LvPellino in vivo could significantly decrease the expression of AMPs and increase the mortality of shrimps caused by V. parahaemolyticus challenge. However, suppression of the LvPellino expression could not change the mortality caused by WSSV infection, and dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that over-expression of LvPellino could enhance the promoters of WSSV genes wsv069 (ie1), wsv303, and wsv371, indicating a complex role of LvPellino in WSSV pathogenesis and shrimp antiviral mechanisms.

  1. Cloning of Litopenaeus vannamei CD63 and it's role in white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guang-Kuo; Liu, Qing-Hui; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is currently the most serious shrimp pathogen, which has brought huge losses to shrimp industry worldwide. CD63 of shrimp belongs to the tetraspanin superfamily, which plays an important role in signal transduction and immune process. In this paper, CD63 cDNA sequence of Litopenaeus vannamei was cloned using RACE method. The amplified sequence is 1472 bp, with its ORF 744 bp, encoding 247 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the sequence of LvCD63 has 93% similarity with Penaeus monodon and 92% similarity with Fenneropenaeus chinensis. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of LvCD63 expressed in the tissues of hemocytes, gill, epithelial tissue, heart, lymphoid, hepatopancreas, stomach, intestines, muscle and nerve. Among these tissues the highest expression level was showed in the tissue of haemolymph, followed by epithelial tissue, hepatopancreas, and nerve. The lowest expression level of LvCD63 was appeared in the muscle tissue. After WSSV challenge, the expression levels of LvCD63 were both up-regulated in the tissues of gill and epithelial. However the expression level of LvCD63 in hepatopancreas was down-regulated. Far-western blot analysis showed that LvCD63 interacts with VP28, and both VP28N and VP28C fragments interact with LvCD63. Flow cytometry analysis showed that LvCD63 was present on the surface of hemocytes and it is required for binding of WSSV virions. Neutral experiments in vivo showed that LvCD63LEL delayed WSSV infection in shrimp.

  2. Identification and characterization of a mitochondrial unfolded protein response transcription factor ATFS-1 in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Gui; Yue, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Bi, Hai-Tao; Yuan, Kai; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2016-07-01

    A mitochondrial specific stress response termed mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) is activated in responding to disturbance of protein homeostasis in mitochondria. The activating transcription factor associated with stress-1 (designated as ATFS-1) is the key regulator of UPR(mt). To investigating the roles of ATFS-1 (LvATFS-1) in Litopenaeus vannamei mitochondrial stress remission and immunity, it's full length cDNA was cloned. The open reading frame of LvATFS-1 was 1, 557 bp in length, deducing to a 268 amino acids protein. LvATFS-1 was highly expressed in muscle, hemocytes and eyestalk. Subcellular location assays showed that N-terminal of LvATFS-1 contained a mitochondrial targeting sequence, which could directed the fused EGFP located to mitochondria. And the C-terminal of LvATFS-1, which had a nuclear localization signal, expressed in nucleus. The in vitro experiments verified that LvATFS-1 could reduced the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). And results of real-time RT-PCR indicated that LvATFS-1 might scavenge excess ROS via ROS-eliminating genes regulation. Reporter gene assays showed that LvATFS-1 could upregulated the expression of the antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells. Results of real-time RT-PCR showed that Vibrio alginolyticus or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection induced the expression of LvATFS-1. And knocked-down LvATFS-1 by RNAi resulted in a higher cumulative mortality of L. vannamei upon V. alginolyticus or WSSV infection. These results suggested that LvATFS-1 not only rolled in mitochondrial specific stress responding, but also important for L. vannamei immunologic defence.

  3. Analysis of digital gene expression profiling in hemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under nitrite stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Xian, Jian-An; Wang, An-Li

    2016-09-01

    Accumulation of nitrite in water is highly toxic to aquatic animals. To understand immune responses in shrimp under such environmental stress, a digital gene expression (DGE) technology was applied to detect the gene expression profile of the Litopenaeus vannamei hemocytes in response to nitrite for 48 h. A total of 1922 differently expressed unigenes were generated. Of these transcripts, 1269 and 653 genes were up- or down-regulated respectively. Functional categorization and pathways of the differentially expressed genes revealed that immune defense, xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism, amino acid and nucleobase metabolic process, apoptosis were the differentially regulated processes occurring during nitrite stress. We selected 19 differential expression transcripts (DETs) to validate the sequencing results by real time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) of the 19 DETs was 0.843, which confirmed the consistency and accuracy between these two approaches. Subsequently, we screened 10 genes to examine the changes in the time course of gene expression in more detail. The results indicated that expressions of ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC transporter), caspase10, QM protein, C type lectin 4 (CTL4), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), serine protease inhibitor 8 (SPI8), transglutaminase (TGase), chitinase1, inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAP) and cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP450) were induced to participate in the anti-stress defense against nitrite. These results will provide a reference for follow-up study of molecular toxicology and valuable gene information for better understanding of immune response in L. vannamei under environmental stress.

  4. LvDJ-1 plays an important role in resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingzhu; Liu, Yuan; Xie, Chenying; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-05-01

    DJ-1 was first identified as an oncogene that transformed mouse NIH3T3 cells in cooperation with activated Ras. It has since exhibited a variety of functions in a range of organisms. In this study, the DJ-1 gene in Litopenaeus vannamei (LvDJ-1) was identified and characterized. A recombinant protein LvDJ-1 was produced in Pichia pastoris. LvDJ-1 expression in vivo was knocked down by dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi), which led to significantly decreased levels of LvDJ-1 mRNA and protein. When the L. vannamei were challenged with RNAi and Vibrio alginolyticus, the transcription and expression of copper zinc superoxide dismutase (LvCZSOD) in the hepatopancreas were dramatically lower in shrimp with knocked down LvDJ-1 than in controls. Transcription and expression of P53 (LvP53) were significantly higher in shrimp lacking LvDJ-1 than in controls. Hepatopancreas samples were analyzed using real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Moreover, blood samples from the shrimp, assessed with flow cytometry, showed significant increases in respiratory burst and apoptosis in those lacking LvDJ-1 compared to the controls. Cumulative mortality in the shrimp lacking LvDJ-1 was significantly different from that in the control group after challenge with V. alginolyticus. Altogether, the results prove that LvDJ-1 regulates apoptosis and antioxidant activity, and that these functions play an important role in L. vannamei resistance against V. alginolyticus.

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of the Hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under Acute Ammonia Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xia; Kong, Jie; Luan, Sheng; Dai, Ping; Meng, Xianhong; Cao, Baoxiang; Luo, Kun

    2016-01-01

    In the practical farming of Litopenaeus vannamei, the intensive culture system and environmental pollution usually results in a high concentration of ammonia, which usually brings large detrimental effects to shrimp, such as increasing the susceptibility to pathogens, reducing growth, decreasing osmoregulatory capacity, increasing the molting frequency, and even causing high mortality. However, little information is available on the molecular mechanisms of the detrimental effects of ammonia stress in shrimp. In this study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis between ammonia-challenged and control groups from the same family of L. vannamei to identify the key genes and pathways response to ammonia stress. The comparative transcriptome analysis identified 136 significantly differentially expressed genes that have high homologies with the known proteins in aquatic species, among which 94 genes are reported potentially related to immune function, and the rest of the genes are involved in apoptosis, growth, molting, and osmoregulation. Fourteen GO terms and 6 KEGG pathways were identified to be significantly changed by ammonia stress. In these GO terms, 13 genes have been studied in aquatic species, and 11 of them were reported potentially involved in immune defense and two genes were related to molting. In the significantly changed KEGG pathways, all the 7 significantly changed genes have been reported in shrimp, and four of them were potentially involved in immune defense and the other three were related to molting, defending toxicity, and osmoregulation, respectively. In addition, majority of the significantly changed genes involved in nitrogen metabolisms that play an important role in reducing ammonia toxicity failed to perform the protection function. The present results have supplied molecular level support for the previous founding of the detrimental effects of ammonia stress in shrimp, which is a prerequisite for better understanding the molecular

  6. Molecular characterization of an adiponectin receptor homolog in the white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Ran; Alam, Md Jobaidul; Yoon, Tae-ho; Lee, Soo Rin; Park, Hyun; Kim, Doo-Nam; An, Doo-Hae; Lee, Jae-Bong; Lee, Chung Il

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin (AdipoQ) and its receptors (AdipoRs) are strongly related to growth and development of skeletal muscle, as well as glucose and lipid metabolism in vertebrates. Herein we report the identification of the first full-length cDNA encoding an AdipoR homolog (Liv-AdipoR) from the decapod crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei using a combination of next generation sequencing (NGS) technology and bioinformatics analysis. The full-length Liv-AdipoR (1,245 bp) encoded a protein that exhibited the canonical seven transmembrane domains (7TMs) and the inversed topology that characterize members of the progestin and adipoQ receptor (PAQR) family. Based on the obtained sequence information, only a single orthologous AdipoR gene appears to exist in arthropods, whereas two paralogs, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, have evolved in vertebrates. Transcriptional analysis suggested that the single Liv-AdipoR gene appears to serve the functions of two mammalian AdipoRs. At 72 h after injection of 50 pmol Liv-AdipoR dsRNA (340 bp) into L. vannamei thoracic muscle and deep abdominal muscle, transcription levels of Liv-AdipoR decreased by 93% and 97%, respectively. This confirmed optimal conditions for RNAi of Liv-AdipoR. Knockdown of Liv-AdipoR resulted in significant changes in the plasma levels of ammonia, 3-methylhistine, and ornithine, but not plasma glucose, suggesting that that Liv-AdipoR is important for maintaining muscle fibers. The chronic effect of Liv-AdipoR dsRNA injection was increased mortality. Transcriptomic analysis showed that 804 contigs were upregulated and 212 contigs were downregulated by the knockdown of Liv-AdipoR in deep abdominal muscle. The significantly upregulated genes were categorized as four main functional groups: RNA-editing and transcriptional regulators, molecular chaperones, metabolic regulators, and channel proteins. PMID:27478708

  7. Effects of different enzymatic hydrolysis methods on the bioactivity of peptidoglycan in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xiaoling; ZHANG Yue; WEI Song; HUANG Jie

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different hydrolysis methods on peptidoglycan (PG) were assessed in terms of their impact on the innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp,Litopenaeus vannamei.PG derived from Bifidobacterium thermophilum was prepared in the laboratory and processed with lysozyme and protease under varying conditions to produce several different PG preparations.A standard shrimp feed was mixed with 0.05% PG preparations to produce a number of experimental diets for shrimp.The composition,concentration,and molecular weight ranges of the soluble PG were analyzed.Serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity in the shrimp were determined on Days 6-31 of the experiment.The protective activity of the PG preparations was evaluated by exposing shrimp to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).Data on the composition of the PG preparations indicated that preparations hydrolyzed with lysozyme for 72 h had more low-molecular-weight PG than those treated for 24 h,and hydrolysis by protease enhanced efficiency of hydrolysis compared to lysozyme.SDS-PAGE showed changes in the molecular weight of the soluble PG produced by the different hydrolysis methods.Measurements of serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity levels in the shrimp indicated that the PG preparations processed with enzymes were superior to the preparation which had not undergone hydrolysis in enhancing the activity of the two serum enzymes.In addition,the preparation containing more low-molecular-weight PG enhanced the resistance of the shrimp to WSSV,whereas no increased resistance was observed for preparations containing less low-molecular-weight PG.These findings suggest that the immunity-enhancing activity of PG is related to its molecular weight and that increasing the quantity of low-molecular-weight PG can fortify the effect of immunity enhancement.

  8. Biochemical changes of Litopenaeus vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus in the different stages of WSSV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Methods: Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph. Results: The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe & 16.87% (low] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low. Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.

  9. Biochemical changes of Litopenaeus vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus in the different stages of WSSV infection

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    Ramachandran Shalini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Methods: Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph. Results: The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe & 16.87% (low] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low. Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.

  10. Litopenaeus vannamei immunestimulated with Macrocystis pyrifera extract: improving the immune response against Vibrio campbellii

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    Liliana Noemi Sánchez Campos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei after different treatments with a hot water extract of Macrocystis pyrifera (M. pyrifera and a subsequent challenge with Vibrio campbellii (V. campbellii. Methods: A total of 184 adult white shrimp that were infected with V. campbellii (1×10 6 CFU/ shrimp were immunostimulate by the hot-water extract from M. pyrifera via either injection (10 µg or immersion (350 mg/L, the experimental controls were injected with either saline solution or V. campbellii (1×10 6 CFU/shrimp. The bacterial DNA depuration rate, antimicrobial activity and total hemocyte count were evaluated in hemolymph samples at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h postinfection. Results: Injected shrimp (10 µg M. pyrifera extract demonstrated the best clearance of bacterial infection, with 82% survival at 72 h post-infection (cellular response. Hemolymph from the immersed organisms had the best antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli growth; specifically, the most efficient antimicrobial activity was observed at 24 h post-infection. Both types of immunostimulated shrimp had similar total hemocyte counts at 24 h post-infection (1.63- 1.59 million/mL; however, after 72 h, injected shrimp had higher total hemocyte counts than immersed animals (2.59 v.s. 0.56 million/mL. Conclusions: The injection of the M. pyrifera hot-water extract facilitated a more efficient response to V. campbellii infection due to the stimulation of the hemocytes of the shrimp. In other words, the cellular immune response was more efficient to eliminate bacterial infection than the humoral response in shrimp.

  11. Using microsatellite markers to identify heritability of Pacific whiteleg shrimpLitopenaeus vannamei

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    ANDRIANTAHINA Farafidy; LIU Xiaolin; HUANG Hao

    2015-01-01

    Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is an economically relevant shrimp species in many Asian countries. The specific objective of the current research was to assess microsatellite markers in screening the fast-growth of domesticatedL. vannamei stocks to establish a founder population for breeding-selection plans. The postlarvae produced by the reproduction of second generation broodstock were cultured in the same conditions throughout a five months growing period. Ninety juvenile shrimp were selected from the slow-, medium- and the fast-growth groups, and ten microsatellite markers were used to investigate their genetic diversity, and to understand the improvement of a breeding-selection scheme. Ten polymorphic loci (markers) (M1–M10) were produced at ten loci in this sample, among them Primer M8 was the highest polymorphic locus and M7 was the lowest one. A specific locus was found in the fast-growth group using Primer M5. The longest genetic distance (0.481) was determined between the fast- and medium-growth groups and the shortest (0.098) was between the slow- and medium-growth groups; therefore, the largest genetic identity (0.946) was observed between the slow-and medium-growth groups and the smallest (0.667) was observed between the medium- and fast-growth groups. The Unweighted Paired Group with Arithmetic Average (UPGMA) dendrogram based on Nei’s genetic distances provided two different groups; the first consist of the slow- and medium-growth groups and the second the fast-growth group. Selection response and realized heritability for growth were 11.55% and 31.26%, respectively. Therefore, this set of microsatellite markers would provide a useful tool in shrimp breeding schemes.

  12. Whole Transcriptome Analysis Provides Insights into Molecular Mechanisms for Molting in Litopenaeus vannamei.

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    Gao, Yi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wei, Jiankai; Sun, Xiaoqing; Yuan, Jianbo; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    Molting is one of the most important biological processes in shrimp growth and development. All shrimp undergo cyclic molting periodically to shed and replace their exoskeletons. This process is essential for growth, metamorphosis, and reproduction in shrimp. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying shrimp molting remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated global expression changes in the transcriptomes of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, the most commonly cultured shrimp species worldwide. The transcriptome of whole L. vannamei was investigated by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) throughout the molting cycle, including the inter-molt (C), pre-molt (D0, D1, D2, D3, D4), and post-molt (P1 and P2) stages, and 93,756 unigenes were identified. Among these genes, we identified 5,117 genes differentially expressed (log2ratio ≥1 and FDR ≤0.001) in adjacent molt stages. The results were compared against the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant protein/nucleotide sequence database, Swiss-Prot, PFAM database, the Gene Ontology database, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database in order to annotate gene descriptions, associate them with gene ontology terms, and assign them to pathways. The expression patterns for genes involved in several molecular events critical for molting, such as hormone regulation, triggering events, implementation phases, skelemin, immune responses were characterized and considered as mechanisms underlying molting in L. vannamei. Comparisons with transcriptomic analyses in other arthropods were also performed. The characterization of major transcriptional changes in genes involved in the molting cycle provides candidates for future investigation of the molecular mechanisms. The data generated in this study will serve as an important transcriptomic resource for the shrimp research community to facilitate gene and genome annotation and to characterize key molecular processes

  13. Selection for growth performance of tank-reared Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANDRIANTAHINA Farafidy; LIU Xiaolin; HUANG Hao; XIANG Jianhai

    2013-01-01

    Seven growth-related traits were measured to assess the selection response and genetic parameters of the growth of Pacific white shrimp,Litopenaeus vannamei,which had been domesticated in tanks for more than four generations.Phenotypic and genetic parameters were evaluated and fitted to an animal model.Realized response was measured from the difference between the mean growth rates of selected and control families.Realized heritability was determined from the ratio of the selection responses and selection differentials.The animal model heritability estimate over generations was 0.44±0.09 for body weight (BW),and ranged from 0.21±0.08 to 0.37±0.06 for size traits.Genetic correlations of phenotypic traits were more variable (0.51-0.97),although correlations among various traits were high (>0.83).Across generations,BW and size traits increased,while selection response and heritability gradually decreased.Selection responses were 12.28%-23.35% for harvest weight and 3.58%-13.53% for size traits.Heritability estimates ranged from 0.34±0.09 to 0.48±0.15 for harvest weight and 0.17±0.01-0.38±0.11 for size traits.All phenotypic and genetic parameters differed between various treatments.To conclude,the results demonstrated a potential for mass selection of growth traits in L.vannamei.A breeding scheme could use this information to integrate the effectiveness constituent traits into an index to achieve genetic progress.

  14. Biochemical changes of Litopenaeus vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus in the different stages of WSSV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramachandran Shalini; Abdul Razack Nazar; Mohideen Abdul Badhul Haq; Selvaraju Shanker

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus) infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).Methods:Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph.Results:The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe) infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe) & 16.87% (low)] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low). Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.

  15. Identification of cold responsive genes in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinxia; Wei, Pinyuan; Chen, Xiuli; Zeng, Digang; Chen, Xiaohan

    2016-01-10

    The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is one of the most widely cultured shrimp species in the world. Despite L. vannamei having tropical origins, it is being reared subtropically, with low temperature stress being one of the most severe threats to its growth, survival and distribution. To unravel the molecular basis of cold tolerance in L. vannamei, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) platform was employed to identify cold responsive genes in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei. Both forward and reverse cDNA libraries were constructed, followed by dot blot hybridization, cloning, sequence analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. These approaches identified 92 cold induced and 48 cold inhibited ESTs to give a total of 37 cold induced and 17 cold inhibited contigs. Some of the identified genes related to stress response or cell defense, such as tetraspanins (TSPANs), DEAD-box helicase, heat shock proteins (HSPs) and metallothionein (MT), which were more abundant in the forward SSH library than in the reverse SSH library. The most abundant Est was a tetraspanin-8 (TSPAN8) homolog dubbed LvTSPAN8. A multiple sequence alignment and transmembrane domain prediction was also performed for LvTSPAN8. LvTSPAN8 expression was also examined in the gills, muscle, heart and hepatopancreas following cold exposure and showed the highest expression levels in the hepatopancreas. Overall, this study was able to identify several known genes and novel genes via SSH that appear to be associated with cold stress and will help to provide further insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating cold tolerance in L. vannamei.

  16. Effect of thermal processing on astaxanthin and astaxanthin esters in pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu; Zhou, Qingxin; Yang, Lu; Xue, Yong; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu

    2015-01-01

    The red color of processed shrimp, one of the most attractive attributes and an important criterion for consumers, is often limited by thermal processing (microwaving, boiling and frying), due to astaxanthin degradation. The effect of thermal processing on astaxanthin in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were investigated. A High-performance liquid chromatographic - atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-(APCI)-MS/MS) method was used to identify and quantify all-trans- and cis-isomers of astaxanthin, and molecular species of astaxanthin esters in fresh and thermal processed shrimps. Total astaxanthin loss ranged from 7.99% to 52.01% in first 3 min under three thermal processing. All-trans-astaxanthin was most affected, with a reduction from 32.81 to 8.72 μg kg(-1), while 13-cis-astxanthin had a rise (from 2.38 to 4.58 μg kg(-1)). Esterified astaxanthin was shown to hydrolyze and degrade, furthermore astaxanthin diesters had a better thermostability compare to astaxanthin monoesters. Astaxanthin monoesters with eicosapntemacnioc acid (EPA, C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6), had a lower thermal stability than those with saturated fatty acids, however, it was the opposite of astaxanthin diesters. The findings suggested that the method of thermal processing should be carefully used in the manufacturing and domestic cooking of shrimps. The results also could be useful in calculating the dietary intake of astaxanthin and in assessing astaxanthin profiles and contents of shrimp containing products.

  17. Evaluation of coexposure to inorganic arsenic and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Lucas; Müller, Larissa; Gelesky, Marcos A; Wasielesky, Wilson; Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco; Monserrat, José Marìa; Ventura-Lima, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    The acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) that occur concomitantly in the aquatic environment with other contaminants such as arsenic (As) is little known in crustaceans. The objective of the present study is to evaluate whether coexposure to nTiO2 can influence the accumulation, metabolism, and oxidative stress parameters induced by arsenic exposure in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Organisms were exposed by dissolving chemicals in seawater (salinity = 30) at nominal concentrations of 10 μg/L nTiO2 or As(III), dosed alone and in combination. Results showed that there was not a significant accumulation of As in either tissue type, but the coexposure altered the pattern of the metabolism. In the hepatopancreas, no changes were observed in the biochemical response, while in the gills, an increase in the glutamate-cysteine-ligase (GCL) activity was observed upon exposure to As or nTiO2 alone, an increase in the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels was observed upon exposure to As alone, and an increase in the total antioxidant capacity was observed upon exposure to nTiO2 or nTiO2 + As. However, these modulations were not sufficient enough to prevent the lipid damage induced by nTiO2 exposure. Our results suggest that coexposure to nTiO2 and As does not alter the toxicity of this metalloid in the gills and hepatopancreas of L. vannamei but does alter its metabolism, favoring its accumulation of organic As species considered moderately toxic.

  18. INFECTIOUS MYONECROSIS VIRUS (IMNV IN PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP, Litopenaeus vannamei IN INDONESIA

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    Taukhid Taukhid

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aquaculture industry in Indonesia has been growing rapidly and plays an important role in rural development and export earning. Penaeid shrimp culture in Indonesia has become a leading export earning in fisheries sector. The main constraint encountered with shrimp culture has always been associated with disease outbreaks, especially, caused by viral agents. The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was unofficially introduced to Indonesia in 1999, and officially approved by Indonesian government in 2001. By the end of 2007, the Pacific white shrimp has been cultured in more than 17 provinces. The Taura Syndrome (TS disease was detected in Indonesia in 2002, and the disease is currently found in at least 10 provinces. The Infectious Myonecrosis (IMN is an emerging disease for L. vannamei in Indonesia, first detected in May-June 2006, causing significant mortalities in grow-out ponds. The IMN is characterized by an acute onset of gross signs: focal to extensive whitish necrotic areas in the striated muscle, especially on the distal abdominal segments and tail fan. White necrotic areas become reddened similar to the color of cooked shrimp. The outbreak resulted in elevated mortalities was initially associated with a chronic course of persistent low level mortalities. Up to date, IMN was detected in East Java, Bali, and West Nusa Tenggara provinces. This paper is a brief review of the epidemiological study of IMN disease of Pacific white shrimp in Indonesia: the status of outbreaks, surveillance, and disease diagnosis, and control measures.

  19. Molecular characterization of an adiponectin receptor homolog in the white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Ah Ran Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin (AdipoQ and its receptors (AdipoRs are strongly related to growth and development of skeletal muscle, as well as glucose and lipid metabolism in vertebrates. Herein we report the identification of the first full-length cDNA encoding an AdipoR homolog (Liv-AdipoR from the decapod crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei using a combination of next generation sequencing (NGS technology and bioinformatics analysis. The full-length Liv-AdipoR (1,245 bp encoded a protein that exhibited the canonical seven transmembrane domains (7TMs and the inversed topology that characterize members of the progestin and adipoQ receptor (PAQR family. Based on the obtained sequence information, only a single orthologous AdipoR gene appears to exist in arthropods, whereas two paralogs, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, have evolved in vertebrates. Transcriptional analysis suggested that the single Liv-AdipoR gene appears to serve the functions of two mammalian AdipoRs. At 72 h after injection of 50 pmol Liv-AdipoR dsRNA (340 bp into L. vannamei thoracic muscle and deep abdominal muscle, transcription levels of Liv-AdipoR decreased by 93% and 97%, respectively. This confirmed optimal conditions for RNAi of Liv-AdipoR. Knockdown of Liv-AdipoR resulted in significant changes in the plasma levels of ammonia, 3-methylhistine, and ornithine, but not plasma glucose, suggesting that that Liv-AdipoR is important for maintaining muscle fibers. The chronic effect of Liv-AdipoR dsRNA injection was increased mortality. Transcriptomic analysis showed that 804 contigs were upregulated and 212 contigs were downregulated by the knockdown of Liv-AdipoR in deep abdominal muscle. The significantly upregulated genes were categorized as four main functional groups: RNA-editing and transcriptional regulators, molecular chaperones, metabolic regulators, and channel proteins.

  20. RNAi-based inhibition of infectious myonecrosis virus replication in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Rubens Galdino; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Cunha Martins, Pedro Carlos; de Abreu, Keuly Ladislau; Oliveira-Neto, João Mafaldo; Guertler, Cristhiane; Justino, Emily Bruna; Perazzolo, Luciane Maria; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2015-05-21

    Disease in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei caused by the infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) causes significant socioeconomic impacts in infection-prone shrimp aquaculture regions. The use of synthetic dsRNA to activate an RNA interference (RNAi) response is being explored as a means of disease prophylaxis in farmed shrimp. Here, survival was tracked in L. vannamei injected with long synthetic dsRNAs targeted to IMNV open reading frame (ORF) 1a, ORF1b, and ORF2 genome regions prior to injection challenge with IMNV, and real-time RT-PCR was used to track the progress of IMNV infection and mRNA expression levels of the host genes sid1, dicer2, and argonaute2. Injection of dsRNAs targeting the ORF1a and ORF1b genes but not the ORF2 gene strongly inhibited IMNV replication over a 3 wk period following IMNV challenge, and resulted in 90 and 83% shrimp survival, respectively. Host gene mRNA expression data indicated that the Sid1 protein, which forms a transmembrane channel involved in cellular import/export of dsRNA, increased in abundance most significantly in shrimp groups that were most highly protected by virus-specific dsRNA injection. Subclinical IMNV infections present in the experimental L. vannamei used increased markedly in the 2 d between injection of any of the 4 virus-specific or non-specific dsRNAs tested and IMNV challenge. While handling and injection stress are implicated in increasing IMNV replication levels, the underlying molecular factors that may have been involved remain to be elucidated.

  1. Expansion of the Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon peptidomes using transcriptome shotgun assembly sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E

    2014-09-15

    The shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon are arguably the most important commercially farmed crustaceans. While expansion of their aquaculture has classically relied on improvements to rearing facilities, these options have largely been exhausted, and today a shift in focus is occurring, with increased investment in manipulating the shrimp themselves. Hormonal control is one strategy for increasing aquaculture output. However, to use it, one must first understand an animal's native hormonal systems. Here, transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) data were used to expand the peptidomes for L. vannamei and P. monodon. Via an established bioinformatics workflow, 41 L. vannamei and 25 P. monodon pre/preprohormone-encoding transcripts were identified, allowing for the prediction of 158 and 106 distinct peptide structures for these species, respectively. The identified peptides included isoforms of allatostatin A, B and C, as well as members the bursicon, CAPA, CCHamide, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, FLRFamide, GSEFLamide, intocin, leucokinin, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, orcomyotropin, pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, SIFamide, short neuropeptide F and tachykinin-related peptide families. While some of the predicted peptides are known L. vannamei and/or P. monodon isoforms (which vet the structures of many peptides identified previously via mass spectrometry and other means), most are described here for the first time. These data more than double the extant catalogs of L. vannamei and P. monodon peptides and provide platforms from which to launch future physiological studies of peptidergic signaling in these two commercially important species.

  2. Impact of ammonia exposure on coagulation in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhong-Wen; Chiang, Pei-Chi; Cheng, Winton; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2015-08-01

    Ammonia (un-ionized plus ionized ammonia as nitrogen), the end product of protein catabolism, is produced by decomposing organic matter. In aquaculture, shrimp are commonly exposed to high concentrations of ammonia that induces immunological and histological changes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on hemolymph coagulation time, transglutaminase (TG) activity as well as TG and clottable protein (CP) genes expressions in Litopenaeus vannamei when exposed to ambient ammonia-nitrogen (N) at 0, 1, 5, and 10mg/L for 0, 2, and 7 days. The actual concentrations in control and tests solution were 0.001, 1.15, 5.11, and 11.68mg/L for ammonia-N, and 7×10(-5), 0.080, 0.357, and 0.815mg/L for NH3-N (unionized ammonia). Delayed coagulation time following exposure to 5 and 10mg/L of ambient ammonia-N for 7 days, and increased transglutaminase (TG) activity following exposure to 5 and 1mg/L of ambient ammonia-N for 2 and 7 days, respectively, were observed. Downregulated TG expression and upregulated clottable protein (CP) expression in the hemocytes of L. vannamei exposed to 10 and 5mg/L of ambient ammonia-N for 2 and 7 days, respectively, were shown. These results indicated that ambient ammonia-N (>5mg/L) and NH3-N (>0.357mg/L) interrupted coagulation and down-regulated TG gene expression in L. vannamei, which caused ecotoxicity on immune deficiencies and may contribute the increased susceptibility to infection by pathogens.

  3. Effects of Water Temperature on the White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Postlarvae Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Sutee WONGMANEEPRATEEP

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of high water temperature (32 ± 1 °C on the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection in Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae (PL15. WSSV challenge was done by immersion. One group of PL15 was continuously maintained at 32 ± 1 °C until the end of the experiment after challenge and a control group of PL15 was constantly maintained at 28 ± 1 °C until the end of the experiment after challenge. Other groups were kept at 32 ± 1 °C until temperature was altered from 32 ± 1 °C to 28 ± 1 °C at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after infection. Gross signs and mortality were monitored every 12 h until the end of the experiment. WSSV infections were confirmed by nested-PCR, histopathology, immunohistochemistry and bioassay methods. Challenged shrimp were kept at 32 ± 1 °C for 0, 1, 3 and 5 days before the temperature was reduced to 28 ± 1 °C revealing that maintaining the temperature at 32 ± 1 °C for a longer period could delay clinical signs and onset of mortalities. Nevertheless, 100 % mortalities occurred in all groups and the control group within 7 days. All moribund PL15 were WSSV-positive by nested-PCR assay as well as histopathology, immunohistochemistry and bioassay methods. In contrast, PL15 constantly maintained at 32 ± 1 °C until the end of the experiment, and for 7 days after challenge before switching to 28 ± 1 °C did not show clinical signs and mortality. Surviving PL15 from both groups were WSSV-negative by nested-PCR assay as well as histopathology, immunohistochemistry and bioassay methods. This study clearly indicated that postlarvae maintained constantly at 32 ± 1 °C for 7 days were able to eliminate/clear WSSV infection.

  4. Polyculture of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp and Mugil platanus mullet in earthen ponds

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    Léa Carolina de Oliveira Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the growth performance of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and the mullet Mugil platanus in earthen ponds (200 m² located in the Laboratory of Continental Aquaculture of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG, in both polyculture and monoculture systems. The study consisted of three replicates, as follows: shrimp monoculture (SM, shrimp and mullet polyculture (PO and mullet monoculture (MM. The stocking density was 10 post-larvae shrimp (PL m−2 and 0.67 mullet m−2. Fish and shrimp were fed commercial shrimp meal (38% crude protein once a day. Initially, the amount of feed to shrimp was 20% of their total biomass which was later reduced to 5%. Mullets were fed at 5% of their stocked biomass. The experiment lasted 79 days during the summer of 2007/2008. At harvest, shrimp in monoculture had weight gain (15.59 g, specific growth rate (8.40% day−1, apparent feed conversion (0.88, survival (91% and production (1.454 kg ha−1 significantly higher than in polyculture (1.039 kg ha−1. Mullets in polyculture had significantly better weight gain (42.72 g and specific growth rate (3.99 % day−1 than those in monoculture (31.04 g and 3.69% day−1, respectively, while the mullet condition factor was significantly smaller in polyculture (1.06 than in monoculture (1.13. The apparent feed conversion of the mullets did not present significant differences between monoculture (2.50 and polyculture (2.40. The physical and chemical water parameters were not significantly different in any of the experiments, except for the transparency, which was higher in earthen ponds with mullet monoculture. Polyculture of shrimp and mullet reared together in earthen ponds negatively affects the shrimp production and favors the production of mullets.

  5. PERFORMANSI FISIOLOGIS UDANG VANAME, Litopenaeus vannamei YANG DIPELIHARA PADA MEDIA AIR TAWAR DENGAN APLIKASI KALIUM

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    Aan Fibro Widodo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Kalium sangat penting bagi udang terutama yang dipelihara pada media air tawar. Kalium merupakan mineral mikro yang penting bagi udang terutama dalam menjaga keseimbangan elektrolit cairan tubuh, penghantaran impuls saraf, serta pembebasan tenaga yang berasal dari protein, lemak, dan karbohidrat pada proses metabolisme. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui performansi udang vaname, Litopenaeus vannamei, yang dipelihara pada media air tawar dengan aplikasi kalium. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Basah Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau, Maros. Hewan uji yang digunakan adalah udang vaname umur 62 hari dengan bobot awal rata-rata 5,80±0,02 g. Penelitian dirancang dengan pola rancangan acak lengkap (RAL yang terdiri atas 4 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Perlakuan yang diujikan adalah aplikasi KCl sebagai sumber kalium pada air tawar pengencer media bersalinitas 1-0 ppt, masingmasing konsentrasi kalium pada perlakuan A, B, C, dan D secara berurutan adalah 25, 50, 75, dan 0 mg/L (kontrol. Sebelum penelitian berlangsung, udang diadaptasikan di air payau dengan salinitas 25 ppt selama 10 hari. Selanjutnya salinitas diturunkan sampai 1 ppt selama 3 hari, dilanjutkan pemeliharaan pada salinitas 0 ppt sampai akhir penelitian (30 hari. Peubah yang diamati adalah tingkat kerja osmotik, laju konsumsi oksigen, konsentrasi glukosa darah, sintasan, laju pertumbuhan bobot, dan panjang spesifik harian serta peubah kualitas air. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi kalium 25-75 mg/L pada media pemeliharaan air tawar dapat meningkatkan kemampuan osmoregulasi dan mengurangi tingkat stres udang vaname sehingga dapat meningkatkan laju pertumbuhan dan sintasannya. Uji statistik terhadap tingkat kerja osmotik, tingkat konsumsi oksigen, dan konsentrasi glukosa darah berbeda nyata (P<0,05 antar perlakuan, namun performansi fisiologis udang vaname terbaik dengan tingkat osmotik, laju konsumsi oksigen, dan konsentrasi glukosa darah terendah diperoleh pada

  6. dsRNA provides sequence-dependent protection against infectious myonecrosis virus in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, J Dustin; Mogler, Mark A; Loy, Duan S; Janke, Bruce; Kamrud, Kurt; Scura, Edward D; Harris, D L Hank; Bartholomay, Lyric C

    2012-04-01

    Viral diseases are significant impediments to the sustainability of shrimp aquaculture. In addition to endemic disease, new viral diseases continue to emerge and cause significant impact on the shrimp industry. Disease caused by infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) has caused tremendous losses in farmed Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) since it emerged in Brazil and translocated to Indonesia. There are no existing antiviral interventions, outside of pathogen exclusion, to mitigate disease in commercial shrimp operations. Here, we describe an iterative process of panning the genome of IMNV to discover RNA interference trigger sequences that initiate a robust and long-lasting protective response against IMNV in L. vannamei. Using this process, a single, low dose (0.02 µg) of an 81 or 153 bp fragment, with sequence corresponding to putative cleavage protein 1 in ORF1, protected 100 % of animals from disease and mortality caused by IMNV. Furthermore, animals that were treated with highly efficacious dsRNA survived an initial infection and were resistant to subsequent infections over 50 days later with a 100-fold greater dose of virus. This protection is probably sequence dependent, because targeting the coding regions for the polymerase or structural genes of IMNV conferred lesser or no protection. Interestingly, non-sequence specific dsRNA did not provide any degree of protection to animals as had been described for other shrimp viruses. Our data indicate that the targeted region for dsRNA is a crucial factor in maximizing the degree of protection and lowering the dose required to induce a protective effect against IMNV infection in shrimp.

  7. Embriões liofilizados e flocos de Artemia no cultivo pós-larval de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 = Use of freeze-dried embryos and Artemia flakes in the post-larval culture of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hercílio de Oliveira Cavalcante

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o crescimento e sobrevivência de 1pós-larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei que receberam embriões liofilizados (EMB e flocos (FLO de Artemia como suplementos alimentares a uma dieta microparticulada (DMP. Nos tratamentos T1,T2 e T3, os camarões receberam DMP e após 2h, acréscimos de FLO (T1; de EMB (T2; e da mesma DMP, anteriormente, ofertada (T3. No T4, as pós-larvas foram alimentadas com DMP, mas sem suplementações posteriores. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 na sobrevivência dos camarões após o período experimental de 21 dias. Por outro lado, o ganho de peso absoluto (mg peso seco das pós-larvas, cuja dieta foi suplementada com BEM, foi significativamente superior (p The objective of the study was to evaluate the growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae fed with freeze-driedembryos and Artemia flakes as feeding supplements to a microparticulate diet (DMP. In treatments T1, T2 and T3, the shrimp were fed with DMP and after 2 hours, received supplements of FLO (T1; EMB (T2; and the same DMP previously offered (T3. In T4,post-larvae were fed with DMP but without additional supplementation. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 in shrimp survival after the experimental period of 21 days. On the other hand, the absolute weight gain (mg of dry weight of post-larvae whose dietwas supplemented with EMB (T2 was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than growth found in the other experimental groups (T1, T3 and T4. Shrimp fed with DMP and EMB obtained a significantly higher absolute weight gain (6.7 mg than those found in treatments that used DMP and FLO (5.4 mg or DMP alone (5.8 mg in T3 and 5.7 mg in T4. Theseresults underline the nutritional value of freeze-dried Artemia embryos and recommend their inclusion in the post-larval diet of Litopenaeus vannamei.

  8. Ecología trófica del jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa silvestre en Chile Trophic ecology of the wild boar (Sus scrofa in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÓSCAR SKEWES

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Documentamos la dieta del jabalí silvestre en el centro-sur de Chile basados en el examen de 20 estómagos colectados en los faldeos de volcán Mocho-Choshuenco (39°54' S, 72°02' O y en el Parque Nacional Vicente Pérez Rosales (41°03' S, 71°54' O. La dieta está representada por animales, vegetales y hongos. Entre los vegetales y hongos son consumidas tanto las partes epígeas como hipógeas, lo mismo que frutos y semillas. Hongos y rizomas de Gunnera tinctoria constituyen ítemes vegetales cuantitativamente importantes en la alimentación. El jabalí forrajea en general en ambiente boscoso, pero las especies vegetales más frecuentes en la dieta se encuentran en espacios abiertos o fuera del bosque. El ambiente dominado por Chusquea spp. constituye un importante sitio de alimentación. Los roedores de la familia Muridae dominan entre los animales determinados en la dieta del jabalí. Esta situación, sin embargo, parece obedecer a la ocurrencia de una ratada producto de la semillación masiva de Chusquea spp. durante la época de muestreo. Las aves de la familia Rhinocryptidae e invertebrados (en especial larvas del coleóptero Chiasognathus grantii constituyen parte frecuente de los ítemes animales de la dieta del jabalí. En comparación a estudios en otras partes del mundo, el jabalí silvestre en Chile consume hongos en porcentaje de ocurrencia similar (65 % a su dieta en Estados Unidos de América pero bastante más alta que su dieta en Europa (5-32 %. En relación al volumen del componente animal, el jabalí en Chile consume más (16,1 % que en Estados Unidos de América (6 % y que en Europa (7-13 %We document the diet of wild boar in south-central Chile based on analysis of 20 stomachs collected on the outskirts of Mocho-Choshuenco volcano (39°54' S, 72°02' W and of Vicente Pérez Rosales National Park (41°03' S, 71°54' W. The diet incorporates animals, plants and fungi. Among the latter two, both epigeal and hypogeal parts

  9. Frutos tropicais silvestres e polpas de frutas congeladas: atividade antioxidante, polifenóis e antocianinas Wild fruits and pulps of frozen fruits: antioxidant activity, polyphenols and anthocyanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Marta Kuskoski

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Os sucos de frutas tropicais conquistam cada vez mais o mercado consumidor, sendo o Brasil um dos principais produtores. Existe grande diversidade de produtos derivados de frutos e constante inserção de novos produtos no mercado de consumo, os quais, na maioria das vezes, ainda não foram devidamente pesquisados com respeito às suas propriedades e atividades benéficas à saúde. Neste trabalho, objetiva-se determinar algumas propriedades de frutos tropicais silvestres in natura e polpas de frutos comercializados congelados. Para determinar a atividade antioxidante, utilizou-se o método do radical 2,2-difeniL-1-picrilhidrazilo (DPPH·; para determinar os polifenóis totais, o método de Folin-Ciocalteu e, para as antocianinas, o método da diferença de pH. As polpas de frutas analisadas foram de amora, uva, açaí, goiaba, morango, acerola, abacaxi, manga, graviola, cupuaçu e maracujá; e os frutos silvestres, jambolão e baguaçu. Representada em TEAC (atividade antioxidante equivalente a Trolox, a atividade antioxidante global das polpas oscila entre mínimos e máximos 0,5 e 53,2mimol g-1, enquanto que, representada em VCEAC (atividade antioxidante equivalente a vitamina C, entre mínimos e máximos de 64,8 e 1198,9mg100g-1. Para os extratos de polpa dos frutos in natura, a atividade antioxidante oscila entre 13,3 e 111,2mimol g-1 (TEAC e entre 42,8 e 2533,1mg 100g-1 (VCEAC. Em ordem decrescente de capacidade antioxidante, encontra-se: acerola> manga> morango> uva> açaí> goiaba> amora> graviola> maracujá> cupuaçu> abacaxi. Os frutos de baguaçu apresentam maior atividade antioxidante que os de jambolão.The tropical fruit juices are gaining ever greater space in the consumer market, and Brazil is one of the main producer countries in this market. There is a great diversity of products derived from fruits and new products for consumption are launched constantly, often without the necessary research into their active properties and

  10. Observações sobre calazar em Jacobina, Bahia. VI - Investigações sobre reservatórios silvestres e comensais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Sherlock

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante os anos de 1982 a 1986, a investigação sobre mamíferos comensais e silvestres, da periferia da cidade de Jacobina, Bahia, mostrou, ao lado do escasso número de exemplares, uma reduzida variedade específica dessa fauna. Capturou-se apenas 11 espécies, entre as quais, predominou o Didelphis albiventris, que abrangeu 44% dos 213 espécimens capturados. Entre os 193 com exames já concluídos, 84 eram exemplares de D. albiventris e 2 estavam infectados pela Leishmania donovani senso lato, 1 por L. mexicana amazonensis, 1 por L. braziliensis, subespécie e 3 por Trypanosoma cruzi Também foram observadas formas suspeitas de serem amastigotas de leishmanics, nos esfregaços de órgãos de 3 exemplares de Dasyprocta aguti, 1 Cercomys cunicularius - e 1 Oryzomys eliurus. 0 restante dos exemplares, inclusive 14 de Lycalopex vetulus, estava negativo para flagelados. Apesar de reforçado por outros indicadores epidemiológicos, como a predominância específica, a freqüência domiciliar, a atratividade para a vetora Lutzomyia longipalpis, e a concomitância com casos humanos nos mesmos locais, o índice de 2,3% de infecção natural do Didelphis albiventris, não autoriza a conclusão definitiva de ser o marsupial o mais importante reservatório natural da leishmaniose visceral em Jacobina.

  11. Santuario de fauna silvestre cuevas de Paraguaná, Venezuela: lineamientos técnicos para su diseño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Delfín

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, se describen los lineamientos técnicos utilizados para el diseño del Santuario de Fauna Silvestre Cuevas de Paraguaná, estado Falcón, Venezuela, cuyo objetivo contempla la protección de un conjunto de cavernas o simas que actúan como refugios y sitios de reproducción de colonias de murciélagos insectívoros y nectarívoros; estos animales desempeñan un papel clave en la ecología y socioeconomía de ambientes xerofíticos en el norte de Venezuela y otras regiones vecinas. La figura incluye cuatro núcleos, cada uno representado por una caverna circundada por una zona de amortiguamiento de forma cuadrada; dos de estas cavernas se ubican en el sector oriental de la península de Paraguaná y el resto en el lado occidental. Se discuten los principales aspectos ecológicos vinculados con la quiropterofauna que habita el Santuario (los cuales fundamentan su decreto, así como los instrumentos legales que sustentan la propuesta y el escenario socioeconómico que caracteriza al área de estudio; adicionalmente, se describen algunos procedimientos seguidos para la incorporación de actores locales en un programa de sensibilización y educación que sirvió como plataforma para la creación de la figura, presentada en un documento técnico, que fue sometido a consideración de las instituciones gubernamentales con competencia en esta materia

  12. Epidemiología molecular de la rabia urbana en Colombia, 1994-2004. La rabia en ecosistemas silvestres como amenaza para la población humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Boshell

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    En Colombia la rabia ocurre en dos ciclos epidemiológicos principales: la rabia urbana con el perro como principal reservorio y transmisor principalmente a humanos, y la rabia silvestre con especies animales de la vida silvestre como los quirópteros y zorros entre otros, como reservorios y transmisores principalmente a especies ganaderas y eventualmente a humanos que se convierten en víctimas accidentales. Durante los últimos años la rabia silvestre en Colombia ha cobrado mayor relevancia como problema de salud pública que la rabia urbana, a juzgar por el número de víctimas humanas. Con el fin de perfeccionar el diagnóstico y la tipificación del virus de la rabia en Colombia, el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia del Instituto Nacional de Salud estandarizó técnicas para amplificar y secuenciar un fragmento de ADN complementario (cADN a una fracción de 902 nucleótidos seleccionados del ARN del virus, con el fin de adelantar estudios de epidemiología molecular. La fracción mencionada contiene secuencias que codifican para los aminoácidos 447-525 de la glicoproteína y 1-35 de la proteína L. Además contiene la región intergénica no codificante conocida como Pseudogen Psi.

    Las técnicas estandarizadas fueron las siguientes: a extracción de ARN total a partir de cerebro de ratón infectado. b amplificación molecular por transcripción reversa y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. c secuenciación del fragmento amplificado.

    Mediante estas técnicas de epidemiología molecular viral se determinó que durante 1994-2004, la rabia urbana se concentró en tres regiones geográficas definidas, con epizootias en el antiplano cundiboyacense, departamento de Arauca y la región Caribe. Las dos primeras se controlaron

  13. Associação entre isoenzimas e matéria seca em batata silvestre Isoenzymes and dry matter content in wild potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIZ HELENA GOMES ROCHA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Clones de batata silvestre (Solanum spp. foram analisados quanto aos teores de matéria seca em tubérculos e isoenzimas de aspartato transaminase e isocitrato desidrogenase em folhas, com o objetivo de identificar associação entre estas características. Os resultados obtidos em uma amostra de 50 clones indicam grande variabilidade do teor de matéria seca. Clones de S. commersonii malmeanum apresentaram maior teor que os de S. commersonii commersonii, S. chacoense muelleri e de outros cuja espécie não foi identificada. Os padrões isoenzimáticos de folhas de 38 clones da amostra mostraram 15 variantes eletroforéticas de aspartato transaminase e sete de isocitrato desidrogenase. Comparações efetuadas através de tabelas de contingência 2 x 2, usando o teste de chi², com correção para continuidade, permitiram concluir que existe associação significativa entre o teor de matéria seca e as bandas de mobilidade relativa 1,00 de aspartato transaminase e de isocitrato desidrogenase.Wild potato clones (Solanum spp. were analysed for tuber dry matter content, leaf aspartate transaminase and leaf isocitrate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in order to identify association between these characteristics. The results indicate that there is great variability for dry matter content among 50 clones analysed. S. commersonii malmeanum clones had higher dry matter levels than S. commersonii commersonii, S. chacoense muelleri and the clones whose species were not identified. Fifteen aspartate transaminase and seven isocitrate dehydrogenase bands were observed in the gels of 38 clones. Tests of chi², using 2 x 2 contingency table, revealed a significant association between dry matter content and the bands of relative mobility 1.00 of both aspartate transaminase and isocitrate dehydrogenase isoenzymes.

  14. Diversidad y aspectos biológicos de abejas silvestres de un ambiente urbano y otro natural de la región central de Santa Fe, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros DALMAZZO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue relevar el elenco de abejas silvestres en la región central de Santa Fe y comparar la diversidad de especies y aspectos biológicos en dos ambientes de una misma región. Las abejas fueron colectadas en el estrato herbáceo de la Reserva Universitaria “Escuela Granja” de la localidad Esperanza, y en la zona urbana de la localidad Susana, ambas ubicadas dentro de la Provincia Fitogeográfica del Espinal. La colecta se realizó en octubre, noviembre y diciembre de 2004 y en enero, febrero y marzo de 2005, registrando las especies vegetales sobre las que se capturaron. Se colectaron 277 ejemplares en total, de los cuales se identificaron 62 especies (27 géneros en 5 familias. Las curvas de rarefacción indican una tasa de acumulación de especies mayor para la Reserva Ecológica, los índices de diversidad de Shannon son 3,25 para la Reserva Ecológica y 2,64 para la Zona Urbana. Para la comparación de las comunidades en ambos sitios, las abejas fueron clasificadas en tres categorías según la especialización en el uso del recurso floral, sustrato de nidificación y comportamiento social. Se observó una asociación entre los grupos especialistas y de nidificación en el suelo con el ambiente natural, y por otro lado, las especies generalistas y de nidificación en cavidades con el ambiente urbano. No se identificaron diferencias, en cuanto al tipo de comportamiento social de las especies, entre ambos sitios.

  15. Intoxicación por munición de plomo en aves silvestres en España y medidas para reducir el riesgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mateo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La intoxicación por ingestión de munición de plomo en aves silvestres es conocida en España desde finales del siglo pasado. Elevadas densidades de perdigones de plomo en diversos humedales de importancia internacional producen tasas de ingestión de perdigones cercanas al 70 % en es- pecies como el ánade rabudo (Anas acuta y el plumbismo llega a ser una de las principales causas de mortalidad de la amenazada malvasía ca- beciblanca (Oxyura leucocephala. El plumbismo también ha sido descrito en diversas especies de aves rapaces y se ha comprobado que la exposición al plomo es elevada en las especies más carroñeras y oportunistas. La contaminación de la carne de caza también ha sido objeto de es- tudio, debido a que en España se da la particularidad de cocinarla en escabeche, lo que incrementa la transferencia de plomo de la munición a la carne. Por el momento, la única acción llevada a cabo para reducir el riesgo de exposición al plomo de la munición en aves y humanos ha sido la prohibición desde 2001 del uso de perdigones de plomo en humedales protegidos. En esta revisión se hace un repaso a los estudios llevados a cabo en España sobre la contaminación por el plomo de la munición y el efecto que están teniendo las medidas hasta el momento adoptadas para reducir este riesgo.

  16. Análisis de la dinámica de poblaciones silvestres de Chigüiros Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 como herramienta de manejo hacia el aprovechamiento sostenible y la conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Arévalo Hugo Fernando

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el comportamiento de la dinámica de poblaciones silvestres de chigüiros bajo diferentes condiciones del hábitat y presiones antrópicas, y se formuló una herramienta técnica para apoyar la gestión de manejo que realiza la autoridad ambiental regional relacionada con el aprovechamiento sostenible y la conservación de la especie. Se generó un modelo de simulación determinístico que representa la dinámica de poblaciones silvestres de chigüiros, como resultado de procesos biológicos de natalidad y mortalidad, y del aprovechamiento extractivo anual de individuos en hatos de los municipios de Paz de Ariporo y Hato Corozal (Casanare, Colombia. Una interfase fue diseñada para facilitar el uso del modelo y construir escenarios para simular diferentes alternativas de manejo. El modelo fue usado para evaluar el efecto a largo plazo de la cosecha o extracción de individuos mediante la caza comercial, la cosecha selectiva de adultos por sexos, la presencia de adecuaciones y la variación del área de hábitat adecuado disponible sobre la tendencia de abundancia de tres poblaciones silvestres de chigüiros en la zona de estudio. Las simulaciones realizadas bajo los diferentes escenarios permitieron establecer las distintas respuestas de cada población a los cambios realizados en la tasa de cosecha y el área de hábitat y así recomendar acciones de manejo. Los escenarios evaluados destacan la importancia de hacer una extracción selectiva de adultos por sexos para realizar un aprovechamiento sostenible de la población y garantizarsu conservación. Así mismo, se destaca la importancia de mantener mayores áreas con hábitat adecuado.

  17. Estudio Retrospectivo del Ingreso de Animales Provenientes del Tráfico Ilegal a la Unidad de Rescate y Rehabilitación de Animales Silvestres (URRAS), entre febrero de 1996 y agosto de 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Milena Lamprea-Maldonado; P A Moreno; O. SÁNCHEZ; Ximena Gómez; Nelson Jurado

    2009-01-01

    Este estudio da a conocer las cifras de animales provenientes del  tráfico y tenencia ilegal que ingresaron a la Unidad de Rescate y Rehabilitación de Animales Silvestres  (URRAS) de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, en el período comprendido entre Febrero de 1996 y Agosto de 2006. A partir de la información recopilada en la base de datos y actas de ingreso, se establecieron las principales taxas afectadas por el ilícito, tipos de ingreso ...

  18. Caracterización de sitios de percha del guajolote silvestre (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana) en Sierra Fría, Aguascalientes, México Roost sites characteristics of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana) in Sierra Fria, Aguascalientes, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Márquez-Olivas; Edmundo García-Moya; Carlos González-Rebeles Islas; Humberto Vaquera-Huerta

    2007-01-01

    Entre octubre y noviembre del año 2001 y mayo de 2002 se localizaron 16 sitios de percha de guajolote silvestre (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana) en la Sierra Fría de Aguascalientes. El 87.5% de los sitios se encontraron en bosques de pino-encino (en rodales de pinos), en altitudes de 2500 a 2650 m. En la parte alta (2/3) de la cuesta se localizaron 8 de los sitios y 7 sobre laderas de exposición noreste, en una pendiente promedio de 38.9 ± 12.6%. El 62.5% de los sitios se usaron durante todo el...

  19. Epidemiovigilância das infeções por Leishmania spp. no efetivo cinotécnico da Guarda Nacional Republicana e em mesocarnívoros silvestres

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Hugo Manuel Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada na Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Genética Molecular e Biomedicina As leishmanioses são um grupo de doenças de transmissão essencialmente vetorial, causadas por protozoários intracelulares do género Leishmania, que afetam humanos, animais domésticos e silvestres. A leishmaniose canina tem elevada incidência e distribuição alargada em Portugal continental, onde a espécie Leishmania infantum é o age...

  20. Conocimiento hortícola y de recolección de recursos silvestres en comunidades rurales y semi-rurales del Noroeste de la Patagonia: Saber-cómo (know-how) y resiliencia

    OpenAIRE

    Eyssartier, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    En la presente tesis estudiamos el conocimiento ecológico tradicional, ligado a la horticultura y recolección de plantas silvestres, en cuatro comunidades locales del Noroeste patagónico. Dado que la actividad de cultivar y recolectar implica procesos cognitivos asociados a patrones de percepción-acción, íntimamente imbricados en contextos ecológicos y socio-culturales dinámicos, abordamos esta temática considerando el marco teórico de la cognición corporizada y la resiliencia. Se indagó sobr...

  1. Espesura crítica y regeneración en un pinar natural de silvestre de elevada complejidad estructural (monte “Cabeza de Hierro”, Rascafría, Madrid)

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Cuadrado, Álvaro; Vivar Sanz, Alejandro; Sadornil Arenas, Enrique; Aroca Fernández, Mª José; Serrada Hierro, Rafael; Bravo Fernandez, Jose Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    El monte privado “Cabeza de Hierro” (Rascafría, Madrid), con 2.016,5 ha de superficie total y 1.886,4 ha de superficie arbolada, presenta una masa de pino silvestre de origen natural con abundante melojo, de elevado valor económico y ecológico, sobre la que se realizan aprovechamientos maderables desde hace al menos 150 años. La mayor parte del monte está incluido en la Zona Periférica de Protección del Parque Natural de la Cumbre, Circo y Lagunas de Peñalara. Ordenado desde 1957, se si...

  2. Ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii em aves silvestres de três Unidades de Conservação Federais da Paraíba e da Bahia

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    Leontina H.M. Andrade

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A vigilância e monitoramento de doenças em animais silvestres são imprescindíveis no contexto ambiental e de saúde pública, pois estes animais agem como sentinelas, refletindo alterações ambientais precocemente, o que proporciona maior eficácia no monitoramento ambiental e permite o acesso rápido a informações sobre as condições da área. Neste contexto, as aves são importantes no ciclo biológico do Toxoplasma gondii e na epidemiologia da toxoplasmose, principalmente porque seus tecidos representam importantes fontes de proteína na alimentação de felídeos e humanos. Objetivou-se detectar anticorpos anti-T. gondii, por meio do teste de aglutinação modificada em aves silvestres de três Unidades de Conservação (UC Federais dos Estados da Paraíba e Bahia. No período de dezembro de 2011 a outubro de 2013 foram capturadas com redes de neblina 222 aves silvestres pertencentes a 67 espécies, 27 famílias e 12 ordens. Após a captura, foi colhido sangue de cada animal e separado o soro, que foi submetido ao Teste de Aglutinação Modificada (MAT≥1:25 utilizando taquizoítos inativados na formalina e 2-mercaptoetanol. Dentre as 222 amostras analisadas, três (1,3% foram sororreagentes: 1 de 16 (6,2% pipira-preta Tachyphonus rufus (título 50, 1 de 5 (20% juriti-gemedeira Leptotila rufaxilla (título 50 e 1 de 1 (100% caneleiro-enxofre Casiornis fuscus (título 25. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de anticorpos anti-T. gondii nas referidas espécies de aves silvestres de vida livre nas duas UC Federais estudadas.

  3. CRESCIMENTO E SOBREVIVÊNCIA DO CAMARÃO BRANCO DO PACIFÍCO Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931 EM DIFERENTES SALINIDADES GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931 IN DIFFERENT SALINITIES

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    Carlos Henrique dos Anjos dos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento de pós-larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei cultivadas em diferentes salinidades. Realizou-se o experimento no Centro de Tecnologia em Aquicultura da Universidade Federal do Ceará, durante o período de 1.o de setembro de 2006 a 31 de outubro de 2006. Em vinte aquários com volume útil de 30L foram distribuídos, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, cinco tratamentos (controle – 35%, 30‰, 20‰, 10‰ e 0‰ com quatro repetições cada. Foi utilizada a densidade de trinta indivíduos/aquário. As pós-larvas, em fase de PL 10, apresentavam peso e comprimento médio total inicial de 0,008 ± 0,001g e 11,00 ± 0,05mm, respectivamente. Os animais foram, gradativamente, aclimatados nas salinidades experimentais. Para as análises estatísticas, aplicou-se a análise de variância (ANOVA e, posteriormente, caso se verificassem diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos, o teste Tukey de separação de médias (? = 0,001. Os parâmetros de qualidade de água analisados mantiveram-se dentro dos padrões aceitáveis para o cultivo da espécie. As pós-larvas cultivadas em 0‰ apresentaram os melhores valores de peso final, incremento em peso, incremento relativo diário de biomassa e taxa de sobrevivência (P<0,001. Todavia, os animais cultivados em 10% mostraram os melhores valores de comprimento total e incremento em comprimento (P<0,001. Os resultados do presente estudo sugerem que pós-larvas de L. vannamei apresentam taxas similares de crescimento e sobrevivência quando cultivadas em diferentes salinidades.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Gradiente salino, laboratório Litopenaeus vannamei, osmorregulação.
    The aim of this work was to evaluate the development of Litopenaeus vannameiat post-larvae (PL at different salinities. This experiment was carried out at the “Centro de Tecnologia em Aqüicultura/UFC” at the period from 01/09/2006 to 31/10/2006. Twenty

  4. Vaccination enhances early immune responses in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after secondary exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus.

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    Yong-Chin Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE and secondary exposure (SE to Vibrio alginolyticus. METHODOLOGY: Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7∼35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp. RESULTS: HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days. CONCLUSIONS: HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve

  5. The known two types of transglutaminases regulate immune and stress responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chang, Hao-Che; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Cheng, Winton

    2016-06-01

    Transglutaminases (TGs) play critical roles in blood coagulation, immune responses, and other biochemical functions, which undergo post-translational remodeling such as acetylation, phosphorylation and fatty acylation. Two types of TG have been identified in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and further investigation on their potential function was conducted by gene silencing in the present study. Total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph clotting time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus were measured when shrimps were individually injected with diethyl pyrocarbonate-water (DEPC-H2O) or TG dsRNAs. In addition, haemolymph glucose and lactate, and haemocytes crustin, lysozyme, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), transglutaminaseI (TGI), transglutaminaseII (TGII) and clotting protein (CP) mRNA expression were determined in the dsRNA injected shrimp under hypothermal stress. Results showed that TG activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were significantly decreased, but THC, hyaline cells (HCs) and haemolymph clotting time were significantly increased in the shrimp which received LvTGI dsRNA and LvTGI + LvTGII dsRNA after 3 days. However, respiratory burst per haemocyte was significantly decreased in only LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp. In hypothermal stress studies, elevation of haemolymph glucose and lactate was observed in all treated groups, and were advanced in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp following exposure to 22 °C. LvCHH mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated, but crustin and lysozyme mRNA expressions were significantly down-regulated in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp; moreover, LvTGII was significantly increased, but LvTGI was significantly decreased in LvTGI silenced shrimp

  6. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormones directly modulate the immune response of hemocytes in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Chen, Hao; Xu, Jianchao; Xu, Qingsong; Wang, Mengqiang; Zhao, Depeng; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2017-03-01

    A robust immune response against invading pathogens is crucial for host to survive, which depends greatly on the well balance of metabolism. Increasing evidence has indicated that some metabolic hormones, such as insulin, could modulate immune responses directly. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family is a group of ecdysozoans-specific peptide hormone involved in glucose metabolism and other biological events. In the present study, two members of CHH family (designated as LvCHH I and LvCHH II) in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei with one and two crustacean neurohormone domains respectively were chosen to investigate their putative modulatory roles in both glucose metabolism and immune response. LvCHH I and LvCHH II were both expressed in the sinus gland and lamina ganglionalis of eyestalks and were significantly induced after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Meanwhile, significant increases of hemolymph glucose levels were observed in shrimp at 12 and 24 h after WSSV infection while the glucose inside the hemocytes decreased at 6 h and then increased at 12 h. Gain-of-function of rLvCHHs was subsequently conducted in vivo by injecting the recombinant proteins (rLvCHH I and rLvCHH II). The hemolymph glucose increased significantly from 0.5 h to 3 h after the shrimps received an injection of rLvCHH I, while it decreased at 0.5 h and increased afterward at 3 h post rLvCHH II injection. At the meantime, significant decreases of reactive oxygen species level in hemocytes were observed at 3 h and 6 h post rLvCHH I injection, while it remained unchanged in rLvCHH II injection group. rLvCHH I and rLvCHH II could bind to the cytomembrane of primary shrimp hemocytes in vitro, and the expressions of superoxide dismutase and LvRelish increased when the hemocytes were incubated with rLvCHH I for 3 h. Meanwhile, the expression of antimicrobial peptides, crustin and penaeidin-4, were also induced by rLvCHH I and rLvCHH II. These results demonstrated that

  7. Does zero-water discharged technology enhance culture performance of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone.)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suantika, Gede; Anggraeni, Jayanty; Hasby, Fahri Azhari; Yanuwiarti, Ni Putu Indah

    2014-03-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei or white leg shrimp is an introduced shrimp which has successfully cultured in Indonesia. In Indonesia, L. vannamei is commonly cultured on outdoor/earthen pond that requires renewal of water, less control in term of water quality and disease and attributed to unpredictable yield production. Based on the existing culture condition, a system that enable to minimize water consumption, improve the hygiene of the culture and at the same time maintain a more stable yield production is urgent to be developed by using a zero water discharge system. The system consists of: (a) culture tank - to retain and culture the shrimp; (b) CaCO3 grained - buffering agent and substrate of nitrifying bacteria; (c) aeration line - to provide O2 and homogenize the culture; (d) ancho (feeding) - to control an appropriate feed; (e) nitrifying bacteria adding - to consume ammonium and nitrite then convert it to nitrate, and also control pathogen Vibrio sp.; (f) diatom microalgae (Chaetoceros gracilis) - to uptake nitrate, bacteriostatic agent, feed source, provide O2 and shading. In this study, there were 2 treatments: the static culture (batch) system was set as control (K) (in 70 PL/m2), and culture system with zero-water discharge system which was inoculated by 0.02% v/v 106 CFU/ml of mixed culture nitrifying bacteria and diatom microalgae in 70 PL/m2 (P1). The white leg shrimp used in this experiment was at post larvae (PL) 10 and cultured in a batch system (1 × 1 × 0.5 m3 pond) during 2 months. Several parameters including survival rate, mean body weight, and water quality (salinity, temperature, pH, DO, ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate) were measured. Based on the results, biomass of P1 (237.12 ± 31.11) gram is significantly higher than control (K) (180.80 ± 12.26) gram (Pculture period in all treatments were still in tolerance range of white leg shrimp post larvae, except ammonium concentration in control (K) (2.612 ± 0.56) mg/L which is significantly

  8. Regulation of water quality and growth characteristics of indoor raceway culture of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG Weiling; YANG Ming; DAI Xilin; HOU Wenjie; LIU Yongshi; DING Fujiang

    2009-01-01

    Two modes of regulating the water quality of experimental ponds in indoor raceway culture of Litopenaeus vannamei were evaluated using simple water treatment facilities. A self-made water purifying net, aeration stone, composite microbe preparation, and Ceratophyllum demersum were placed in the experimental ponds and the culture water was circulated along the raceway inside the pond using a paddle wheel aerator. In addition, the water quality in the experimental pond was improved by draining effluent from the pipeline at the bottom of ponds 7 and 8 (mode I) and exchanging the circulating water in pond 10 (mode II) with the reservoir water in pond 9 using a pump and pipeline. The water quality in the experimental ponds was similar in response to regulation using mode I or mode II. Water quality parameters in the experimental ponds were controlled within a suitable range by simple facilities during culture period without using any chemical treatments. The rich content of dissolved oxygen was maintained by the circular flow and continuous aeration of the pond water. The respective average values of the main water parameters in experimental ponds 7 and 10 in response to regulation of the water quality using modes I and II were as follows: pH 8.17 and 7.99; DO 5.16 mg/L and 5.97 mg/L; CODMn 18.45 and 12.61 mg/L; TAN (NH_3-N) 0.854 mg/L (0.087 mg/L) and 0.427 mg/L (0.012 mg/L); NO_2-N 0.489 mg/L and 0.337 mg/L. Moreover, the average body length and body weight of harvested shrimp of pond 7 and pond 10 were 7.56 cm and 8.99 cm, 5.10 g and 8.33 g, respectively. Furthermore, the survival rate, average biomass yield and average condition factor of the shrimp harvested were 70% and 60%, 2.54 kg/m~2 and 2.14 kg/m~2, and 0.675 g/cm and 0.927 g/cm, respectively. Linear equations describing the relationship between body length and culture time and cubic or power functions describing the relationship between body weight and body length were obtained based on evaluation of the

  9. PENGARUH STARVASI RANSUM PAKAN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN, SINTASAN, DAN PRODUKSI UDANG VANAMEI (Litopenaeus vannamei DALAM WADAH TERKONTROL

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    Suwardi Tahe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pengurangan ransum pakan secara periodik terhadap pertumbuhan, sintasan, produksi, rasio konversi pakan, dan efisiensi pakan pada pemeliharaan udang vanamei dalam wadah terkontrol. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan 12 akuarium berukuran 50 cm x 75 cm x 60 cm dan dilengkapi dengan sistem aerasi. Hewan uji adalah pascalarva udang vanamei dengan bobot awal rata-rata 0,18 ± 0,02 g yang ditebar dengan kepadatan 50 ekor/akuarium. Rancangan penelitian adalah rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan yang masing-masing perlakuan terdiri atas tiga ulangan. Perlakuan yang diujikan adalah starvasi (pemuasaan melalui pengurangan ransum pakan secara periodik yaitu A pengurangan ransum pakan 75%, B pengurangan ransum pakan 50%, C pengurangan ransum pakan 25%, dan D kontrol (tanpa pengurangan ransum pakan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengurangan ransum pakan secara periodik tidak berpengaruh nyata (P > 0,05 terhadap pertambahan bobot biomassa, laju pertumbuhan harian, sintasan, produksi, dan rasio konversi pakan serta mampu meningkatkan efisiensi pakan sekitar 16,04%—21,97%. Penghematan penggunaan pakan untuk udang vanamei dapat dilakukan dengan pengurangan ransum pakan hingga 75% bobot biomassa/minggu. The aim of this study was to know the effect of starvation period by a gradual decrease in feed amounts on the growth, survival rate, productivity, food conversion ration (FCR, and food efficiency rate of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei in controlled containers. Twelve of 50 cm x 75 cm x 60 cm aquaria with aeration systems were used in this experiment. In each aquarium, we stocked 50 post larvae (PL with average weight of 0.18 ± 0.02 g. Four treatments, comprising, A a 75% decrease in feed, B a 50% decrease in feed, C a 25% decrease in feed, and D control (without feed reduction with three replications were employed in the experiment following complete randomized design (DSG. The results

  10. BUDI DAYA UDANG VANAMEI (Litopenaeus vannamei DI TAMBAK DENGAN PADAT TEBAR BERBEDA MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM PEMUPUKAN SUSULAN

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    Gunarto Gunarto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Budi daya udang putih, Litopenaeus vannamei dengan sistem teknologi intensif sulit dikembangkan oleh masyarakat petani kecil. Hal ini disebabkan oleh kebutuhan biaya produksi yang sangat tinggi. Untuk itu, teknologi budi daya udang pola tradisional dengan sistem pemupukan susulan perlu dikembangkan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui padat tebar yang optimal pada budi daya udang vanamei pola tradisional plus dengan sistem pemupukan susulan. Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan menggunakan tambak ukuran 500 m2/petak sebanyak 12 petak. Sebelum penebaran dilakukan persiapan tambak meliputi: pemberantasan hama, pengeringan, dan pengapuran. Hewan uji yang digunakan adalah udang vanamei PL 22 dengan padat tebar yang diuji yaitu 1 ekor/m2 (A, 3 ekor/m2 (B, 5 ekor/m2 (C, dan 7 ekor/m2 (D. Masing-masing perlakuan dengan tiga kali ulangan. Dosis pemupukan susulan menggunakan urea dan TSP, sebanyak 750 g urea dan 375 g SP-36/petak, yang diaplikasikan setiap minggu sekali pada bulan pertama pemeliharaan dan setiap dua minggu sekali pada bulan kedua dan ketiga selama pemeliharaan udang dalam tambak. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata ukuran udang hingga umur pemeliharaan 76 hari di tambak telah mencapai ukuran konsumsi (rata-rata 20—21g. Sintasan udang paling tinggi diperoleh pada perlakuan A dan menunjukkan berbeda nyata (P0,05, tetapi ketiga-tiganya menunjukkan perbedaan yang nyata dengan perlakuan C (P0,05 dengan perlakuan B, tetapi berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan C dan A. Pertumbuhan udang di semua perlakuan sangat nyata (P0.05, but there were significantly different (P0.05 with treatment B, but both of them were significantly different (P<0.05 with treatment C and A. Shrimp growth in all treatments most significantly (P<0.01 influenced by salinity, nitrate, ammonium, Total Organic Matter (TOM, and klekap production, while nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and klekap production are also most  dominant factors (P<0.01 influences to the shrimp

  11. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN KALIUM PADA MASA ADAPTASI PENURUNAN SALINITAS TERHADAP PERFORMA PASCALARVA UDANG VANAMEI (Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Ferdinand Hukama Taqwa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan kalium selama masa adaptasi penurunan salinitas terhadap performa pascalarva udang vanamei. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan untuk mendapatkan kadar kalium optimal yang dapat menurunkan tingkat stres dan meningkatkan sintasan pascalarva udang vanamei setelah melalui masa adaptasi penurunan salinitas. Hewan uji yang digunakan adalah PL20 udang vanamei. Rancangan percobaan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan perlakuan yang diterapkan adalah penambahan kalium ke air tawar pengencer masing-masing sebanyak 0 mg/L (A, 25 mg/L (B, 50 mg/L (C, dan 75 mg/L (D. Penurunan salinitas dilakukan secara gradual selama 4 hari dari salinitas 25 ppt hingga mencapai 2 ppt. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penambahan kalium sebanyak 25 mg/L hingga kadar kalium media menjadi 51 mg/L dapat mengurangi pembelanjaan energi untuk osmoregulasi, tingkat stres, dan laju metabolisme standar sehingga meningkatkan sintasan pascalarva udang vanamei setelah melalui masa adaptasi penurunan salinitas selama 96 jam (4 hari. The objective of this research was to study the effect of potassium addition during salinity acclimatization from 25 ppt down to 2 ppt on the performance of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae. This experiment was done to determine optimal dosage of potassium which can reduce stress level and increase survival rate of L. vannamei postlarvae after salinity acclimatization. Specimen test used was PL20 of white shrimp (0.001 g. Experimental design used completely randomized design with four treatments and three replications of different potassium addition levels to freshwater: 0 mg/L (A, 25 mg/L (B, 50 mg/L (C, and 75 mg/L (D. Dilution of salinity was done gradually using freshwater during 4 days from 25 ppt down to 2 ppt. The result of this experiment indicated that the addition of 25 mg/L potassium (potassium level in media was 51 mg/L reduced the energy cost for osmoregulation, level of stress and

  12. Effects of water temperature and dietary carbohydrate levels on growth and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingqiang; Ma, Shen; Dong, Shuanglin

    2006-09-01

    A 3×3 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of water temperature (22 °C, 27°C and 32°C) and dietary carbohydrate ( CBH) levels (15.47%, 29.15% and 41.00%) on growth, food consumption, feed efficiency, apparent digestibility coefficient and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that, at each dietary CBH level, specific growth rate, food consumption and apparent digestibility coefficient generally increased, while feed efficiency decreased with increasing water temperatures. Specific growth rate and food consumption were the highest in the shrimps fed with diet of 29.15% CBH, closely followed by those with 15.47% CBH, and those with 41.00% CBH had the lowest value.

  13. Digital gene expression analysis in hemocytes of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in response to low salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qun; Pan, Luqing; Ren, Qin; Hu, Dongxu

    2015-02-01

    The white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has been greatly impacted by low salinity stress. To gain knowledge on the immune response in L. vannamei under such stress, we investigated digital gene expression (DEG) in L. vannamei hemocytes using the deep-sequencing platform Illumina HiSeq 2000. In total, 38,155 high quality unigenes with average length 770 bp were generated; 145 and 79 genes were identified up- or down-regulated, respectively. Functional categorization and pathways of the differentially expressed genes revealed that immune signaling pathways, cellular immunity, humoral immunity, apoptosis, cellular protein synthesis, lipid transport and energy metabolism were the differentially regulated processes occurring during low salinity stress. These results will provide a resource for subsequent gene expression studies regarding environmental stress and a valuable gene information for a better understanding of immune mechanisms of L. vannamei under low salinity stress.

  14. Ammonia exposure induces oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in hepatopancreas of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhongxiu; Liu, Rui; Zhao, Depeng; Wang, Lingling; Sun, Mingzhe; Wang, Mengqiang; Song, Linsheng

    2016-07-01

    Ammonia is one of major environmental pollutants in the aquatic system that poses a great threat to the survival of shrimp. In the present study, the mRNA expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker and unfolded protein response (UPR) related genes, as well as the change of redox enzyme and apoptosis were investigated in hepatopancreas of the pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei after the exposure of 20 mg L(-1) total ammonia nitrogen (TAN). Compared with the control group, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in hepatopancreas decreased significantly (p vannamei after exposure to ammonia by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The results indicated that ammonia exposure could induce oxidative stress, which further caused ER stress and apoptosis in hepatopancreas of L. vannamei.

  15. Nursery Culture Performance of Litopenaeus vannamei with Probiotics Addition and Different C/N Ratio Under Laboratory Condition

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    WIDANARNI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of bioflocs technology and probiotics has improved water quality and production of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei culture. This experiment was to verify the effect of probiotic bacteria addition and different carbon:nitrogen (C:N ratio on water quality and performance of Pacific white shrimp nursery culture. Nursery culture was carried out for 25 days in an aquarium under laboratory condition with stock density of one Post-Larvae (PL (poslarval per liter (24 PL/aquarium of PL16 shrimp. Different C:N ratio resulted a significant difference on shrimp production performance. Treatment of 10 C:N ratio demonstrated the best shrimp growth (20.37 + 0.48% per day in weight and 6.05 + 0.41% per day in length, harvesting yield (1180 + 62 g/m3 and feed efficiency (121 + 6%. There was however no significant difference observed between treatments in water quality.

  16. Effects of water temperature and dietary carbohydrate levels on growth and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xingqiang; MA Shen; DONG Shuanglin

    2006-01-01

    A 3×3 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of water temperature (22 ℃, 27℃ and 32℃) and dietary carbohydrate (CBH) levels (15.47%, 29.15% and 41.00%) on growth, food consumption, feed efficiency, apparent digestibility coefficient and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that, at each dietary CBH level, specific growth rate, food consumption and apparent digestibility coefficient generally increased, while feed efficiency decreased with increasing water temperatures. Specific growth rate and food consumption were the highest in the shrimps fed with diet of 29.15% CBH, closely followed by those with 15.47% CBH, and those with 41.00% CBH had the lowest value.

  17. Evaluation of the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) along the Persian Gulf coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadar, Maryam; Peyghan, Rahim; Memari, Hamid Rajabi

    2014-09-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals in Persian Gulf are low, but petrochemical and refinery activities have caused an increase in heavy metal wastes, especially in coastal regions. The present study was done to determine the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the muscle of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The experiment was conducted in four important coastal regions of the Persian Gulf: Bushehr, Deylam, Mahshahr, and Abadan. Amounts of seven heavy metals such as Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd), and Cobalt (Co), were measured as µg/g heavy metal in dry weight in the muscle of white shrimp from the afore-mentioned regions during 2011. This study revealed information that the primary risk for human health and the marine life chain was lead in the muscles of white shrimp in Mahshahr, where intense petrochemical and refinery activities are conducted. Concentrations of other heavy metals were lower than world standards.

  18. Potential Bacillus probiotics enhance bacterial numbers, water quality and growth during early development of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrat, Subuntith; Suksawat, Sunisa; Boonthai, Traimat; Vuthiphandchai, Verapong

    2012-10-12

    Epidemics of epizootics and occurrence of multiresistant antibiotics of pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture have put forward a development of effective probiotics for the sustainable culture. This study examined the effectiveness of forms of mixed Bacillus probiotics (probiotic A and probiotic B) and mode of probiotic administration on growth, bacterial numbers and water quality during rearing of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in two separated experiments: (1) larval stages and (2) postlarval (PL) stages. Forms of Bacillus probiotics and modes of probiotic administration did not affect growth and survival of larval to PL shrimp. The compositions of Bacillus species in probiotic A and probiotic B did not affect growth and survival of larvae. However, postlarvae treated with probiotic B exhibited higher (Pvannamei. This investigation showed that administration of mixed Bacillus probiotics significantly improved growth and survival of PL shrimp, increased beneficial bacteria in shrimp and culture water and enhanced water quality for the levels of pH, ammonia and nitrite of culture water.

  19. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  20. Phytoplanktonic composition of three cultivation systems used in Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931) marine shrimp farms - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.4816

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Michelle Pereira; UFPB; Carvalheiro, José Marcelino Oliveira; UFPB; Cordeiro, Tarcísio Alves; UFPB; Queiroz, Andressa Ribeiro; UFPB; Prado, João Paulo; UFPB; Borges, Ivone Ferreira; UFPB

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the different compositions of phytoplankton in three cultivation systems of marine shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931), denominated as organic, intensive and semi intensive. The samples were done fortnightly, when phytoplankton was collected by a net for phytoplankton, 65 µm mesh, being then filtrated in a total volume of water of 100 L, and preserved in formaldehyde solution at 4% and identified according to the methodology of Cordeiro et al. (1997). ...

  1. 凡纳对虾溶菌酶基因的克隆与性质研究%Gene Cloning and Characterization of Lysozyme Gene in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志强; 王建英

    2013-01-01

      凡纳对虾先天免疫系统中的抗菌肽效应分子是发挥抗菌作用的关键分子,其中,溶菌酶分子在对抗细菌的侵染过程中,发挥着重要的清除细菌的作用。以凡纳对虾溶菌酶基因作为研究对象,通过进行基因克隆、氨基酸序列比对、系统进化关系分析以及分子结构的初步预测,推测该溶菌酶基因在凡纳对虾先天免疫系统中发挥着重要的抗菌作用。%  Antimicrobial peptide effectors played the key and important antibacterial role in the Litopenaeus vannamei innate immunity system. And the lysozyme also played an important part in the clearance of bacteria during the bacteria infection process. In this paper , Litopenaeus vannamei lysozyme gene was the research object. And the gene cloning, the amino acids sequence alignment, the phylogenetic relationship analysis, and the preliminary forecasts for molecular structure were done. We speculated that the lysozyme gene played an important part in the antibacterial function in the Litopenaeus vannamei innate immunity system.

  2. Genetic Relationships of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Race Chile with Wild Andean and Mesoamerican Germplasm Relaciones Genéticas entre el Germoplasma de Poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Raza Chile y Silvestres Andinos y Mesoamericanos

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    Viviana Becerra V

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. belongs to the cultivated race Chile and its origin is presumably Andean. The objective of this study was to identify the origin of a group of Chilean accessions based on their genetic relationship with wild material from the Mesoamerican and Andean common bean gene pool. To achieve this objective, universal primers of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA were used to detect polymorphism using Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Thirty-two genotypes were analyzed, including wild material from Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina, as well as Chilean cultivated genotypes belonging to endemic Chilean accession types (Tórtola, Coscorrón, and Cuyano and naturalized commercial lines (Frutilla, Bayo, Manteca, and Blanco grande. Results showed a low level of polymorphism for cpDNA (23% and mtDNA (24% in wild and cultivated Chilean common bean accessions. Some universal primers and restriction enzyme combinations were more efficient than others in detecting polymorphism. The Chilean materials were closely related to wild accessions collected in Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru indicating their Andean origin. The wild accessions from Ecuador were located in a intermediate position between the Mesoamerican and Andean accessions.El poroto chileno (Phaseolus vulgaris L. pertenece a la raza Chile, cuyo origen es desconocido y presumiblemente andino. El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar el origen de un grupo de genotipos chilenos basado en sus relaciones genéticas con material silvestre perteneciente a los acervos genéticos mesoamericano y andino. Para lograr este objetivo se usaron partidores universales de ADNcp y ADNmt con la metodología de la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa-Fragmentos de Restricción Polimórficos. (PCR-RFLP. Se analizó un total de 32 genotipos de P. vulgaris, los cuales incluyeron materiales silvestres de M

  3. Estudio de la composición en ácidos grasos del aceite de las semillas en algunas plantas silvestres españolas

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    Vioque, J.

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of 34 species of plants from a variety of families that grow wild in the Iberian Peninsula was analysed. The aim to the survey was to indentify oils that contain a mix of fatty acids that from a qualitative or quantitative point of view have a commercial value. Because of the diverse taxonomic origin of the samples, the oil content between species was very variable, fluctuating between an average value of 3.4% in the Caryophyllaceae and 31.1% in Euphorbiaceae. Like the oil content, the fatty acid composition was quite variable, but, in general, the main fatty acids were palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid, while in the Brassicaceae and in the Apiaceae erucic acid and petroselinic acid were the principal fatty acids respectively.

    Se ha estudiado la composición en ácidos grasos del aceite de las semillas en 34 plantas silvestres de la Península Ibérica. Se pretende la obtención de aceites con una composición en ácidos grasos que cualitativa o cuantitativamente puedan resultar de interés desde un punto de vista comercial. Debido al origen taxonómico tan diverso de las muestras, el contenido en aceite resulta muy variable, oscilando entre un valor medio del 3.4% en las Caryophyllaceae y el 31.1% de media en las Euphorbiaceae. Como el contenido en aceite, la composición en ácidos grasos es también bastante Variable, pero en general los principales ácidos grasos son palmítico, oleico, linoleico y linolénico, mientras que en las Brassicaceae domina el ácido erúcico y en las Apiaceae el ácido petroselínico.

  4. Fenología de la floración en tomate cultivado y especies silvestres relacionadas Flowering phenology in cultivated tomato and related wild species

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    Edwin Fernando Restrepo Salazar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar se comparó la fenología de la floración de doce accesiones silvestres de Solanum sección Lycopersicum con la del tomate cultivado tipo “chonto”. Los tratamientos se repitieron tres veces. Se evaluó la aparición de las 12 primeras inflorescencias y el tipo de inflorescencia. Las fenologías de las accesiones de la variedad glabratum de S. habrochaites (PI 134417, PI134418 y PI126449, las accesiones LA1624, LA2092 de la variedad typicum de S. habrochaites y la accesión LA 444-1 de S. peruvianum coincidieron con la del tomate “chonto”. No se presentaron diferencias significativas en la variable días a inicio de floración entre las accesiones de la variedad glabratum y el tomate cultivado. Las accesiones de la variedad glabratum de S. habrochaites y el tomate cultivado presentaron inflorescencias simples; mientras que las accesiones de la variedad typicum de S. habrochaites y de la especie S. peruvianum presentaron inflorescencias bifurcadas.The flowering phenology of twelve wild accesions of Solanum section Lycopersicum were compared with those of the cultivated tomato type of “chonto” by using the randomized complete block design. The treatments were repeated three times. The appearance initiate of the first twelve inflorescences and kind of inflorescence were evaluated. The phenologies of the accesions of the glabratum variety from S. habrochaites (PI 134417, PI134418 y PI126449, LA1624 y LA2092 of the typicum variety from S. habrochaites and LA 444-1 from S. peruvianum coincided with those of the “chonto” tomato. There were no significant differences between the glabratum variety accessions and cultivated tomato in the starting days of flowering variable. The accesions of the glabratum variety from S. habrochaites and the cultivated tomato presented simple inflorescences; while the accesions of the typicum variety from S. habrochaites and S. peruvianum specie showed

  5. Comportamento reológico de méis de florada de silvestre Rheological behavior of honey from Serjania glabrata flowers

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    Alexandre J. de M. Queiroz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento reológico de méis de Apis mellifera produzidos no estado do Piauí, no semi-árido brasileiro, elaborados com florada predominante de silvestre (Serjania glabrata. As amostras foram coletadas ao longo do ano 2000, a partir de coletas realizadas por apicultores, associações e cooperativas de apicultura da região abrangida pelos municípios de Picos, Itainópolis, Vera Mendes e Isaías Coelho. Após as coletas as amostras passaram pelos processos de centrifugação, filtragem e decantação. As medidas reológicas foram feitas nas temperaturas de 20 a 40 ºC utilizando-se um viscosímetro Brookfield, modelo RVT. As leituras de velocidade de rotação e torque foram transformadas em valores de taxa de deformação e tensão de cisalhamento. Os dados de taxa de deformação e tensão de cisalhamento foram ajustados pelas equações da Lei-da-Potência e de Herschel-Bulkley. As amostras apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico. As equações se ajustaram adequadamente aos resultados experimentais de tensão de cisalhamento em função da taxa de deformação. O aumento de temperatura reduziu a viscosidade aparente em níveis próximos de 80%. Os valores de viscosidade aparente foram bem ajustados por uma equação do tipo Arrhenius.The rheological behavior of Apis mellifera honey produced in the State of Piauí, in the Brazilian semi-arid, obtained with predominance of Serjania glabrata flowers was studied. The samples were collected in the year 2000 by beekeepers and associations and cooperatives of beekeepers in the area covered by the municipal districts of Picos, Itainópolis, Vera Mendes and Isaías Coelho. The samples were centrifuged, filtered, decanted and the rheological measures at temperatures of 20 to 40 ºC using a Brookfield Viscometer RVT model were made. The readings of rotation speed and torque were transformed in shear rate and shear stress values. The data of shear rate and shear stress were fitted

  6. Dynamic behavior of sylvatic yellow fever in Brazil (1954-2008 Comportamento dinâmico da febre amarela silvestre no Brasil (1954-2008

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    Fernando Portela Câmara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sylvatic yellow fever (SYF is enzootic in Brazil, causing periodic outbreaks in humans living near forest borders or in rural areas. In this study, the cycling patterns of this arbovirosis were analyzed. METHODS: Spectral Fourier analysis was used to capture the periodicity patterns of SYF in time series. RESULTS: SYF outbreaks have not increased in frequency, only in the number of cases. There are two dominant cycles in SYF outbreaks, a seven year cycle for the central-western region and a 14 year cycle for the northern region. Most of the variance was concentrated in the central-western region and dominated the entire endemic region. CONCLUSIONS: The seven year cycle is predominant in the endemic region of the disease due the greater contribution of variance in the central-western region; however, it was possible identify a 14 cycle that governs SYF outbreaks in the northern region. No periodicities were identified for the remaining geographical regions.INTRODUÇÃO: A febre amarela silvestre (FAS é enzoótica no Brasil, causando surtos periódicos em humanos que vivem próximos às áreas florestais ou em áreas rurais. Neste estudo, foram analisados os padrões de periodicidade desta arbovirose. MÉTODOS: Utilizamos a análise espectral de Fourier para capturar os padrões de periodicidades da FAS em séries temporais. RESULTADOS: Os surtos de FAS aparentemente não aumentaram em frequência, mas em número de casos. Há dois ciclos dominantes na FAS, um de sete anos predominando na região centro-oeste, e um de 14 anos predominando na região norte. A maior parte da variância concentrou-se na região centro-oeste e dominava toda região endêmica. CONCLUSÕES: O ciclo de sete anos é predominante para a região endêmica da doença devido a maior contribuição da variância do centro-oeste. No entanto, foi possível identificar um ciclo de 14 que rege a FAS na região norte. Não foram detectadas periodicidades nas demais

  7. Dispersión endozoócora de leguminosas silvestres: desde la recuperación hasta el establecimiento en campo

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    María Eugenia Ramos-Font

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dispersión endozoócora de leguminosas silvestres: desde la recuperación hasta el establecimiento en campoLa dispersión de semillas mediante el tracto digestivo de los animales constituye un mecanismo esencial para la colonización de nuevos nichosecológicos, el mantenimiento de poblaciones vegetales, y para evitar la fragmentación de hábitats. Este trabajo evalúa la capacidad real de dispersiónendozóoora por ganado ovino de Adenocarpus decorticans (AD, A. telonensis (AT, Cytisus fontanesii (CF, C. striatus (CS, Genista florida (GF yG. versicolor (GV mediante el análisis de: recuperación de semillas en heces, germinación en cámara, emergencia en invernadero y establecimientoy supervivencia en campo durante dos años. Nuestros resultados sugieren que el ganado ovino es un agente de dispersión efectivo para la mayoríade las especies, excepto para CF. La recuperación de semillas osciló entre el 32% (AT y GV y el 3.4% (CS. Se observó que el paso por el tractodigestivo estimulaba o no afectaba a la germinación de las semillas en laboratorio. En invernadero, la mayoría de las especies incrementaban oigualaban su emergencia en las heces respecto a las semillas control. Sin embargo, el estiércol dificultó la germinación de la mitad de las especiesen condiciones naturales. A pesar de ello, la probabilidad de reclutamiento de las semillas dispersadas fue similar o superior a la de semillas intactas,excepto para CF. En conclusión, la oveja puede ser un dispersador eficaz de la mayoría de las especies estudiadas y esta capacidad podría utilizarseen planes de gestión y/o restauración forestal.

  8. Intoxicaciones intencionadas y accidentales de fauna silvestre y doméstica en España: diferencias entre Comunidades Autónomas

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    IS Sánchez-Barbudo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se han analizado 1.157 casos sospechosos de intoxicación de fauna silvestre y doméstica en el medio natural (1.800 animales y 340 cebos procedentes de diversas Comunidades Autónomas (CCAA españolas durante el periodo 2004-2010. Se ha detectado un 41,2% de casos positivos (40,8% de animales y 52,6% de cebos. En los carnívoros domésticos la detección del tóxico llegó al 71,4%, lo que indica su utilidad como centinelas del uso de veneno en el medio natural. El 78,3% de los animales que fueron positivos a los análisis toxicológicos han sido considerados como intoxicaciones intencionadas. Las aves rapaces diurnas fueron el grupo más afectado por las intoxicaciones (43,6% del total de animales positivos, seguido de los mamíferos carnívoros (27,1%. Los tóxicos más frecuentemente detectados fueron insecticidas anticolinesterásicos (cebos/animales: 80,4%/65,8%, seguidos de rodenticidas anticoagulantes (5%/19,6%, estricnina (2,2%/6,5% y arsénico (4,5%/2,3%. De las diferencias observadas entre CCAA destaca la preponderancia en el uso de estricnina en Asturias, rodenticidas anticoagulantes en Castilla y León, insecticidas organofosforados en Aragón, insecticidas carbamatos en Castilla-La Mancha y Madrid, y la aparición de otros venenos, como á-cloralosa o barbitúricos, en Cataluña. En resumen, el 82,3% de las intoxicaciones intencionadas fueron debidas a anticolinesterásicos y el 85,5% de las accidentales a rodenticidas anticoagulantes. En futuras regulaciones de plaguicidas y biocidas se debería tener en cuenta el riesgo del uso ilegal en la preparación de cebos envenenados que comporta la comercialización de formulados con alta riqueza de ingredientes activos con baja DL .

  9. 凡纳滨对虾新过敏原烯醇化酶的鉴定%Identification of a new shrimp allergen enolase from Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈思怡; 黄建芳; 孙一帆; 郭成斌; 向军俭

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To identify enolase,47 kD allergen,from Litopenaeus vannamei by Mass spectrometry. Methods: The proteins were extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei tissue with acetone precipitation method. The protein components were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. By using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization time of flight mass spectrometry ( MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) ,the 47 kD allergen from Litopenaeus vannamei was identified as enolase. Results:By SDS-PAGE,we proved that the native protein components from Litopenaeus vannamei were completely. According to the Western blot result more than 14 components could react with the positive serum. MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis results showed that the suspected proteins were enolase. A sensitization frequency was 55%. Conclusion:Enolase was identified as a new allergen of Litopenaeus vannamei.%目的:鉴定凡纳滨对虾分子量为47 kD过敏原的性质。方法:采用丙酮沉淀法提取凡纳滨对虾总蛋白,通过SDS-PAGE、11例虾过敏患者血清IgE的Western blot 分析凡纳滨对虾中过敏原组份,运用基质辅助激光解析串联飞行时间质谱仪( Matrix-Assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectrometry,MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS)鉴定凡纳滨对虾47 kD未知过敏原组分。结果:通过 SDS-PAGE电泳证明所提取的凡纳滨对虾总蛋白组分完全。 Western blot 结果显示,凡纳滨对虾至少有14种与阳性血清反应的组分,其中,55%的虾过敏患者IgE与分子量为47 kD的蛋白分子发生特异性反应,质谱分析结果显示47 kD蛋白为烯醇化酶。结论:烯醇化酶是凡纳滨对虾的一种新的过敏原。

  10. Mixed Culture of Litopenaeus vannamei and Epinephelus malabaricus and Its Effects%凡纳滨对虾与点带石斑鱼的混养模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张嘉晨; 刘建勇; 袁瑞鹏; 胡志国; 尤王海

    2015-01-01

    对凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)与点带石斑鱼(Epinephelus malabaricus)进行90 d 的混养试验,研究点带石斑鱼混养密度、规格对凡纳滨对虾生长、成活率和产量的影响。结果表明,点带石斑鱼混养密度、规格均对凡纳滨对虾生长、成活率和平均产量的影响有统计学意义(P <0.05)。在混养密度相同的条件下,混养小规格点带石斑鱼的凡纳滨对虾成活率比混养大规格点带石斑鱼提高15.1%~23.2%,平均产量比混养大规格点带石斑鱼提高19.0%~40.6%。随着点带石斑鱼混养密度增加,凡纳滨对虾成活率和平均产量呈下降趋势。小规格点带石斑鱼混养密度分别为0.4•尾 m-2时,凡纳滨对虾成活率和平均产量最高,分别为66.25%%±7.24%、(1181.0±101.8)kg,较单一养殖凡纳滨对虾成活率提高5.46%,平均产量提高16.2%;大规格点带石斑鱼混养密度为0.2尾•m-2时,凡纳滨对虾成活率和平均产量最高,分别为(52.04±6.11)%、(959.8±89.1)kg,但较单一养殖凡纳滨对虾成活率下降8.75%,平均产量下降5.88%%Experiment on polyculture of Litopenaeus vannamei with Epinephelus malabaricus has been conducted for 90 days so as to study the influence of polyculture density and size of Epinephelus malabaricus on the growth, survival rate and yield of Litopenaeus vannamei. The results show that polyculture density and size of Epinephelus malabaricus have great effect on the growth, survival rate and yield of Litopenaeus vannamei (P < 0.05). The yield and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei which are cultivated with Epinephelus malabaricus on a small scale are higher than the yield and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei cultivated with Epinephelus malabaricus on a large scale by 15.1% - 23.2% and 19.0% - 40.6% under the same polyculture density. The yield and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei have reduced with the increase of

  11. SURVEY OF VIRAL DISEASES OF PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP, Litopenaeus vannamei IN INDONESIA

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    Taukhid Taukhid

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Penaeid shrimp culture is a major contributor to foreign exchange earning in Indonesia. It has significant impact on economic development of fisheries sector, and leads to be one of prime mover to improve social prosperity. However, shrimp industry particularly black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon has been facing unpredictable situation due to disease problem. The main constrain in correlation to the development of shrimp industry is disease outbreak, especially caused by viral agents. White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV occurred in 1994, causing mass mortality of black tiger shrimp almost in all of the middle and western part of Indonesia. Due to the disease problem, it is estimated that in year 2000, more than 50% of shrimp pond were idle. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei or “udang vanamei” was introduced to Indonesia at the end of 1999, and released officially in July, 2001. Response of shrimp farmers to the shrimp rapidly accepted and distributed to many provinces in the country. At the end of 2006, distribution of white shrimp culture was encountered in more than 15 provinces. The seeds are mainly produced from hatcheries located in East Java and Lampung. The information of TSV in Indonesia was reported firstly from East Java at the end of 2002, without a clear history. Since then, survey of TSV distribution was conducted intensively in white shrimp production areas. Beside TSV, population of white shrimp coming to Indonesia also susceptible to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV infection. A survey with the aim to know significant viral diseases of white shrimp is needed to set up an alternative strategy to control them. The survey was conducted, firstly in the main production centers of white shrimp; and planned to be continued throughout the country. Samples collection, diagnostic method and data compiled in this study were collected from both

  12. Uso do metabissulfito de sódio no controle de microorganismos em camarões marinhos Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 = Use of sodium metabisulfite to control microorganism’s population in shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

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    Lílian Maria Nery de Barros Góes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O camarão cultivado destaca-se como um dos principais itens responsáveis pelo superávit da balança comercial do pescado brasileiro. Seu escoamento tem sido realizado para a América do Norte e Europa, onde as exigências de qualidade, especialmente quanto àcarga microbiana no camarão, são extremamente altas. Dadas as exigências dos importadores, objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia do conservante metabissulfito de sódio como agente antimicrobiano na carcinicultura. Camarões Litopenaeus vannamei de classificação 81/100 foram submetidos a 10 concentrações do metabissulfito de sódio (de 1% a 10%, durante 10 e 20 minutos. Foram realizadas contagens de bactérias aeróbias mesófilas, sendo as colônias isoladas submetidas ao teste bacterioscópico pelo método de Gram e a provas bioquímicas. Foram isoladas sete espécies de víbrio e observou-se que o número deunidades formadoras de colônias decresceu em função do uso de metabissulfito, ficando demonstrada a sua ação inibitória sobre as bactérias mesófilas aeróbias em todas as concentrações utilizadas.The cultivated shrimp comes if highlighting as one of the main responsible items for the superavit of the Brazilian’s fish trade balance. Its drainage has been accomplished for North America and Europe, where the quality demands is extremely high, especially for microbial load existent at shrimp. Given the demands of importers, the aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of conservator sodium metabisulfite as an antimicrobial agent in the shrimp culture. Shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei classified as 81/100 (10 to 12 g were submitted to 10 concentrations of sodium metabisulfite (from 1 to 10%, during 10 and 20 minutes. The aerobic mesophilic bacteria were counted and the isolated colonies were submitted to a bacterioscopic test using the Gram method and biochemical tests. It was observed that the number of colony-former units decreased due to metabisulfite use, thus demonstrating

  13. Tratamiento de efluentes del cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei mediante procesos de sedimentación, filtración y absorción Treatments of effluents from Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp cultures through sedimentation, filtration and absorption

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    Roberto Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La eficiencia de remoción de materia particulada y nutrientes disueltos de efluentes de estanques de reproductores de Litopenaeus vannamei fue evaluada a escala de laboratorio, empleando tratamientos de sedimentación, filtración por Crassostrea rhizophorae y absorción por Ulva fasciata. En cada tratamiento se empleó un tiempo de residencia hidráulica del efluente de seis horas. En la etapa de sedimentación se utilizaron estanques con 90 L del efluente. Para la etapa de filtración, se emplearon estanques con 20 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de sedimentación. En la absorción se utilizaron estanques con 15 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de filtración. Al final de cada etapa se colectaron muestras de 500 mL para los análisis de calidad de agua. Los resultados indicaron que en la sedimentación, la turbidez, clorofila-a y sólidos suspendidos totales presentaron una remoción de 93,8%, 94,5% y 65,9%, respectivamente. La filtración alcanzó eficiencias de 89,3% y 100% para bacterias totales y clorofila a, respectivamente. En la absorción, fosfato (PO4-3 , amonio (N-NH4- y nitrato (N-NO3 fueron reducidos en 53,6%, 49,6% y 70,2%, respectivamente, en relación a los valores del estanque control. Los tratamientos combinados de sedimentación, filtración y absorción, bacterias totales (95,1%, turbidez (97,1% sólidos suspendidos totales (81,3%, clorofila-a (99,1%, amonio (54,1%, nitrito (58,0%, nitrato (69,2% y fosfato (52,9%, presentaron una alta eficiencia de remoción, en relación a los valores del efluente bruto. Se concluye que la combinación de tratamientos mejora significativamente la calidad de los efluentes del cultivo del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei.

  14. QUALITY OF THE WATER IN SHRIMP FARM Litopenaeus vannamei WITH SYSTEM OF PARTIAL RECIRCULATION SYSTEM. QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA EM FAZENDA DE CAMARÃO MARINHO Litopenaeus vannamei COM SISTEMA DE RECIRCULAÇÃO PARCIAL.

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    Luiz Otávio Brito

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aim to characterize the quality of the water affluent and effluent of a shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei farm , which operates with system of partial recirculation system. The samples were accomplished during the low water and high tide periods of the day. The analyzed variables were: dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, salinity, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate. They samples were seven points, distributed strategically in way to characterize the water from the entrance going by the inside of the to your exit farm. ANOVA and Tukey test (P<0,05 were used in statistical analysis. Was observed the pH and dissolved oxygen stayed presenting averages of 7.72 and 6.58mg.L-1, respectively. The final averages went from 1.40 mg.L-1 to ammonia, 0.76 mg.L-1 for nitrate, 0.08 mg.L-1 for nitrite and 1.63 mg.L-1 for the phosphate.

    KEY WORDS: Quality of the water, recirculation, shrimp, vannamei.
    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a qualidade da água afluente e efluente de uma fazenda de camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei, que opera com sistema de recirculação parcial de água. As coletas foram realizadas durante os períodos de baixamar e preamar, diurnas, nos dias de lua. Analisaram-se as seguintes variáveis: oxigênio dissolvido, temperatura, pH, salinidade, amônia, nitrato, nitrito e fosfato. Escolheram-se sete pontos de coleta, distribuídos estrategicamente, de modo a caracterizar a água desde a entrada, passando pelo interior da fazenda até sua saída. Para análise estatística, utilizaram-se análise de variância (ANOVA e teste de Tukey (P<0,05. Observou-se que o pH e o oxigênio dissolvido apresentaram uma média de 7,72 e 6,58mg.L-1, respectivamente. As médias finais foram de 1,40mg.L-1 para amônia, 0,76mg.L-1 para nitrato, 0,08mg.L-1 para nitrito e 1,63mg.L-1 para o fosfato.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Camarão, vannamei, qualidade da água, recirculação

  15. Ocorrência de linhagens humana e silvestre de Schistosoma mansoni, na pré-amazônia: I - estudo em moluscos Occurrence of wild and human strains of Schistosoma mansoni in lower Amazonia: I - study in moluscs

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    Othon de Carvalho Bastos

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram isoladas na região da Baixada Maranhense (Brasil, linhagens humana (H e silvestre(S de Schistosoma mansoni a partir de miracídios eclodidos de ovos encontrados em fezes de doentes humanos autóctones da Região e de fígados de roedores silvestres naturalmente infectados. Biomphalaria glabrata, descentes de caramujos coletados no campo, foram expostos, isoladamente, aos miracídios H e S, mantidos isolados em moluscário e observados durante 100 dias. Moluscos normais foram mantidos nas mesmas condições de ambiente em que foram submetidos os infectados e tomados como controle da experiência. Foram anotados os indices de infecção dos moluscos, as datas da eliminação de cercárias, quantidade de larvas eliminadas e mortalidade dos moluscos. Os dados sugeriram melhor adaptação do esquistossomo da linhagem H à B. glabrata. A linhagem S, por sua vez, foi três vezes mais virulenta do que a linhagem H. Estes dados foram comparados com os encontrados na literatura especializada e verificado diversidades nos comportamentos parasitológicos das linhagens em estudo, quando comparados com os encontrados nas linhagens H e S oriundas do Vale do Rio Paraíba do Sul, no Estado de São Paulo (Brasil.The wild (W and human (H strains of Schistosoma mansoni were isolated in the Lowland Region of the Maranhão State (Brazil. The snail progenies from Biomphalaria glabrata collected from that region were exposed to the W miracidia, obtained from livers of wild rodents, and H miracidia from eggs in human stools. A control gruop of normal snails was kept in the same conditions as the infected one. The date of the elimination of cercariae, the quantity of eliminated larvae, the infection index of the moluscs and the mortality rate of the snails were recorded. These data suggested better adaptation of the H strain to B. glabrata. The W strain presented three times more virulence to snails than the H strain. These results were compared with published

  16. VARIABILIDADE GENÉTICA PARA TEOR DE AÇÚCARES REDUTORES EM BATATAS SILVESTRES QUE OCORREM NO SUL DO BRASIL GENETIC VARIABILITY FOR REDUCING SUGAR CONTENT IN WILD POTATOES THAT OCURR IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Carla Simone de Almeida Chalá

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Açúcares redutores e matéria seca são características muito importantes em batata para processamento. Duas espécies de batata silvestre, Solanum commersonii, subespécies commersonii e malmeanum, e S. chacoense, subespécie muelleri, ocorrem no Sul do Brasil. Essas espécies são importantes para programas de melhoramento, pois apresentam variabilidade para diversas características importantes, tais como, tolerância à seca e geada, resistências a doenças e insetos e teor de matéria seca. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram verificar a variabilidade genética e estimar a herdabilidade para teor de açúcares redutores em clones de batata silvestre, que ocorrem no Sul do Brasil. Cinqüenta clones de batata silvestre, tomados ao acaso, da coleção mantida na EMBRAPA - Clima Temperado foram cultivados, sob telado, no outono e na primavera de 1996. No outono, 30 e, na primavera, 40 clones produziram tubérculos para análise de açúcares redutores. Os teores de açúcares redutores dos tubérculos foram determinados pelo método de Lane Enyon e identificados pelo método de Somogyi, modificado por NELSON (1944. Os resultados indicaram que as espécies estudadas apresentam variabilidade para teor de açúcares redutores, com alta herdabilidade, principalmente no outono.Reducing sugar and dry matter are very important traits in potatoes for processing. Two wild potato species, Solanum commersonii, subspecies commersonii and malmeanum, and S. chacoense, subspecie mu, occur in the South of Brazil. These species are important for breeding programs, since they have variability for several important traits, such as drought and frost resistance, disease and insect resistance, and dry matter content.. The objectives of this research were to verify the genetic variability for reducing sugar content in wild potato clones of species that occur in this region and to estimate its heritability. Fifty wild potato clones, aleatorily chosen, of Embrapa

  17. Efecto de ensilados de pescado e hígado de tiburón en el crecimiento de Litopenaeus schmitti, en sustitución de la harina y el aceite de pescado(Effect of fish silage and liver of sharks in the growth of Litopenaeus schmitti in place of fish meal and fish oil

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    Fraga-Castro, Iliana E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenDos diseños experimentales completamente aleatorizado se desarrollaron durante 6 semanas, para evaluar el efecto de dietas con ensilados de pescado (EP e hígado de tiburón (EHT, en el crecimiento de juveniles de camarón blanco Litopenaeus schmitti (peso inicial 1.3 ± 0.12 g. El EP con desechos de tilapia se incluyó en las dietas a niveles de 0, 16.5, 27.5 y 31 %, en sustitución de la harina de pescado.AbstractIn order to evaluate the effect of diets with fish silage (EP and shark liver (EHT, the growth of juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti (mean initial weight 1.3 ± 0.12, developed a laboratory scale two completely randomized design for 6 weeks.

  18. Phytoplanktonic composition of three cultivation systems used in Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931) marine shrimp farms = Composição fitoplanctônica em três sistemas de cultivo do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931)

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    Michelle Pereira Melo; José Marcelino Oliveira Carvalheiro; Tarcísio Alves Cordeiro; Andressa Ribeiro Queiroz; João Paulo Prado; Ivone Ferreira Borges

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the different compositions of phytoplankton in three cultivation systems of marine shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931), denominated as organic, intensive and semi intensive. The samples were done fortnightly, when phytoplankton was collected by a net for phytoplankton, 65 ƒÊm mesh, being then filtrated in a total volume of water of 100 L, and preserved in formaldehyde solution at 4% and identified according to the methodology of Cordeiro et al. (1997)....

  19. Embriões liofilizados e flocos de Artemia no cultivo pós-larval de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1424 Use of freeze-dried embryos and Artemia flakes in the post-larval culture of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1424

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    Pedro Hercílio de Oliveira Cavalcante

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o crescimento e sobrevivência de pós-larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei que receberam embriões liofilizados (EMB e flocos (FLO de Artemia como suplementos alimentares a uma dieta microparticulada (DMP. Nos tratamentos T1, T2 e T3, os camarões receberam DMP e após 2h, acréscimos de FLO (T1; de EMB (T2; e da mesma DMP, anteriormente, ofertada (T3. No T4, as pós-larvas foram alimentadas com DMP, mas sem suplementações posteriores. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 na sobrevivência dos camarões após o período experimental de 21 dias. Por outro lado, o ganho de peso absoluto (mg peso seco das pós-larvas, cuja dieta foi suplementada com BEM, foi significativamente superior (p Artemia e recomendam sua inclusão na dieta pós-larval de Litopenaeus vannameiThe objective of the study was to evaluate the growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae fed with freeze-dried embryos and Artemia flakes as feeding supplements to a microparticulate diet (DMP. In treatments T1, T2 and T3, the shrimp were fed with DMP and after 2 hours, received supplements of FLO (T1; EMB (T2; and the same DMP previously offered (T3. In T4, post-larvae were fed with DMP but without additional supplementation. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 in shrimp survival after the experimental period of 21 days. On the other hand, the absolute weight gain (mg of dry weight of post-larvae whose diet was supplemented with EMB (T2 was significantly higher (p Artemia embryos and recommend their inclusion in the post-larval diet of Litopenaeus vannamei

  20. Observações sobre calazar em Jacobina, Bahia. VI - Investigações sobre reservatórios silvestres e comensais

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    I. A. Sherlock

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante os anos de 1982 a 1986, a investigação sobre mamíferos comensais e silvestres, da periferia da cidade de Jacobina, Bahia, mostrou, ao lado do escasso número de exemplares, uma reduzida variedade específica dessa fauna. Capturou-se apenas 11 espécies, entre as quais, predominou o Didelphis albiventris, que abrangeu 44% dos 213 espécimens capturados. Entre os 193 com exames já concluídos, 84 eram exemplares de D. albiventris e 2 estavam infectados pela Leishmania donovani senso lato, 1 por L. mexicana amazonensis, 1 por L. braziliensis, subespécie e 3 por Trypanosoma cruzi Também foram observadas formas suspeitas de serem amastigotas de leishmanics, nos esfregaços de órgãos de 3 exemplares de Dasyprocta aguti, 1 Cercomys cunicularius - e 1 Oryzomys eliurus. 0 restante dos exemplares, inclusive 14 de Lycalopex vetulus, estava negativo para flagelados. Apesar de reforçado por outros indicadores epidemiológicos, como a predominância específica, a freqüência domiciliar, a atratividade para a vetora Lutzomyia longipalpis, e a concomitância com casos humanos nos mesmos locais, o índice de 2,3% de infecção natural do Didelphis albiventris, não autoriza a conclusão definitiva de ser o marsupial o mais importante reservatório natural da leishmaniose visceral em Jacobina.From 1982 to 1986, investigations on the natural infection with leishmanias of the sylvatic and commensal mammals were carried out around the city of Jacobina, Bahia, one of the oldest endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. The species of Marsupialia Didelphis albiventris predominated, with the rate of 44%, over the total of 213 specimens belonging to only 11 different species of mammals collected there. Among the 84 specimens of D. albiventris examined, 2(2.3% were infected with Leishmania donovani sensu lato; 1 with L. mexicana amazonensis, 1 with L. braziliensis sub species, and 3 with Trypanosoma cruzi. Also, amastigote suspected bodies were

  1. Flowering phenology in cultivated tomato and related wild species Fenología de la floración en tomate cultivado y especies silvestres relacionadas

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    Lobo Arias Mario

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The flowering phenology of twelve wild accesions of Solanum section Lycopersicum were compared with those of the cultivated tomato type of “chonto” by using the randomized complete block design. The treatments were repeated three times. The appearance initiate of the first twelve inflorescences and kind of inflorescence were evaluated. The phenologies of the accesions of the glabratum variety from S. habrochaites (PI 134417, PI134418 y PI126449, LA1624 y LA2092 of the typicum variety from S. habrochaites and LA 444–1 from S. peruvianum coincided with those of the “chonto” tomato. There were no significant differences between the glabratum variety accessions and cultivated tomato in the starting days of flowering variable. The accesions of the glabratum variety from S. habrochaites and the cultivated tomato presented simple inflorescences; while the accesions of the typicum variety from S. habrochaites and S. peruvianum specie showed compound inflorescences.Key words: Solanum lycopersicum; S. habrochaites; S. peruvianum; kind of inflorescence.En un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar se comparó la fenología de la floración de doce accesiones silvestres de Solanum sección Lycopersicum con la del tomate cultivado tipo “chonto”. Los tratamientos se repitieron tres veces. Se evaluó la aparición de las 12 primeras inflorescencias y el tipo de inflorescencia. Las fenologías de las accesiones de la variedad glabratum de S. habrochaites (PI 134417, PI134418 y PI126449, las accesiones LA

  2. Procedencia y uso de madera de pino silvestre y pino laricio en edificios históricos de Castilla y Andalucía

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    Rodríguez Trobajo, Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The productive cycle of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. within the medieval Castilian and Andalusian carpentry is here analysed. New criteria to identify both timbers and its dendrochronological date are shown as previous facts to determine their geographical origin. Historical names of these species and other names, such as alerce, with a vague allocation are also studied. Main historical areas of resource and river ways of Tajo and Guadalquivir used to transport the wood (black pine to interior cities (Sevilla, Toledo, Madrid … are thus identified. On the other hand, wood’s diversification and its selective use is analysed regarding its resistance value. Availability also determines that a sort of wood becomes fossil-guide (especie-guía, which is proposed as chronological indicator for several periods and constructive contexts. Some timber remains dating to the first millennium are studied in detail. They belong to the Mosque of Cordoba and four early medieval churches sited in the Duero valley (La Nave, Baños, Quintanilla and Barriosuso. The empiric dating and analysis of this material offer a post quem chronology for the building of these churches and new facts about the distribution of theses wood’s species in the north-western Iberian peninsula.Se realiza un recorrido a través del ciclo constructivo de las maderas de pino silvestre (Pinus sylvestris L. y pino laricio (Pinus nigra Arn. en el ámbito de la carpintería medieval de Castilla y Andalucía. Nuevos criterios para diferenciar las dos especies de madera y su datación dendrocronológica, son aportados como datos previos para determinar el origen geográfico del material. Son objeto de discusión los nombres históricos de estas especies y otras voces, como alerce, que tienen una imprecisa asignación. Se identifican así las principales áreas históricas de aprovechamiento y las vías fluviales del Tajo y Guadalquivir utilizadas para el

  3. Las abejas silvestres de Colombia: Por qué y cómo conservarlas The Colombian wild bees: Why and how to preserve them

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    González Víctor Hugo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Las abejas silvestres de Colombia, al igual que las del resto del mundo, están sufriendo los rigores de las actividades desarrolladas por el hombre y así se catalogan como organismos en peligro. El conocimiento actual de las abejas en nuestro país, como muchos otros insectos, todavía se encuentra en una fase muy incipiente; es fragmentado, local y carece de una síntesis. Tan sólo se conoce racionalmente 5% de las abejas del país, especialmente las especies corbiculadas de la familia Apidae. Muy poco trabajo taxonómico ha sido realizado por investigadores colombianos y prácticamente no existen trabajos por autores extranjeros enfocados en la fauna colombiana. La carencia de especialistas, las dificultades para el envío de material al exterior y la falta de recursos han dificultado la tarea. Sin embargo, la alta riqueza de especies que creemos se encuentra en el país representa una razón más para avanzaren el conocimiento y entendimiento de la biodiversidad de éste grupo. En esta revisión se analizan las principales causas que ponen en riesgo las poblaciones y especies de la apifauna nativa: deforestación, pastoreo, la abeja africanizada y la explotación irracional de las abejas, entre otras. Se proponen algunas acciones a ser emprendidas conjuntamente con centros académicos, agricultores, campesinos, indígenas y la sociedad en general que permitan proteger las especies, teniendo en cuenta que median-te la polinización, se tornan en eslabones esenciales dentro de los ecosistemas permitiendo la conservación de muchas especies vegetales y otras comunidades.The Colombian wild bees, as well as those in the rest of the whole world are undergoing the rigor of human activities and so are considered to be under threat of extinction. The current knowledge about Colombian bees, like other insects, is still in its beginnings, is fragmentated and a synthesis is desirable. Only 5% of the Colombian bees are well known, especially the

  4. Effect of copper on the growth of shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei: water parameters and copper budget in a recirculating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng; Song, Yi; Li, Xian

    2014-09-01

    Shrimps ( Litopenaeus vannamei) were intensively cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system for 98 days to investigate effects of 0.3 mg/L Cu on its performance, Cu budget, and Cu distribution. Shrimps in Cu-treated systems had greater mean final weight (11.10 vs 10.50 g), body length (107.23 vs 106.42 mm), survival rate (67.80% vs 66.40%), and yield (6.42 vs 5.99 kg/m3), and lower feed conversion ratio (1.20 vs 1.29) than those in control systems but the differences were not significant. Vibrio numbers remained stable (104-106 colony forming units/mL) in the rearing tanks of both control and treated systems. Total ammonium-N, nitrite-N, nitrate-N, pH, chemical oxygen demand, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids were similar in controls and treatments. Dissolved Cu concentration in the treated systems decreased from 0.284 to 0.089 mg/L while in the control systems it increased from 0.006 2 to 0.018 mg/L. The main sources of Cu in the treated systems were the artificially added component (75.7% of total input), shrimp feed (21.0%), water (2.06%), and shrimp biomass (1.22%). The major outputs of Cu occurred via the mechanical filter (41.7%), water renewal (15.6%), and draining of the sediment trap (15.1%). The foam fractionator removed only 0.69% of total Cu input. Harvested shrimp biomass accounted for 11.68% of Cu input. The Cu concentration of shrimps in the Cu-treated systems (30.70 mg/kg wet weight) was significantly higher than that in control systems (22.02 mg/kg). Both were below the maximum permissible concentration (50 mg/kg) for Cu in seafood for human consumption in China. Therefore, recirculating systems can be used for commercial on-growing of Litopenaeus vannamei without loss of shrimp quality, even in water polluted by 0.30 mg/L Cu. The mechanical filter is the main route for Cu removal.

  5. Characterization of rust, early and late leaf spot resistance in wild and cultivated peanut germplasm Caracterização da resistência à ferrugem, mancha preta e mancha castanha em germoplasma silvestre e cultivado de amendoim

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    Alessandra Pereira Fávero

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea has an AB genome and is one of the most important oil crops in the world. The main constraints of crop management in Brazil are fungal diseases. Several species of the genus Arachis are resistant to pests and diseases. The objective of our experiments was to identify wild species belonging to the taxonomic section Arachis with either A or B (or " non-A" genomes that are resistant to early leaf spot (Cercospora arachidicola, late leaf spot (Cercosporidium personatum and rust (Puccinia arachidis. For the identification of genotypes resistant to fungal diseases, bioassays with detached leaves were done in laboratory conditions, with artificial inoculation, a controlled temperature of 25ºC and a photoperiod of 10 h light/14 h dark, for 20-42 days, depending on the fungi species. Most of the accessions of wild species were more resistant than accessions of A. hypogaea for one, two or all three fungi species studied. Arachis monticola, considered to be a possible tetraploid ancestor or a derivative of A. hypogaea, was also more susceptible to Cercosporidium personatum and Puccinia arachidis, as compared to most of the wild species. Therefore, wild germplasm accessions of both genome types are available to be used for the introgression of resistance genes against three fungal diseases of peanut.O amendoim (Arachis hypogaea possui genoma AB e é uma das mais importantes culturas oleaginosas em todo o mundo. Os principais problemas da cultura no Brasil são as doenças fúngicas. Várias espécies do gênero Arachis são resistentes a pragas e doenças. Este trabalho visou a identificar espécies silvestres pertencentes à seção Arachis associadas aos genomas A ou B (ou " não-A" do amendoim que são resistentes à mancha castanha (Cercospora arachidicola, mancha preta (Cercosporidium personatum e ferrugem (Puccinia arachidis. Para a identificação de genótipos resistentes a doenças fúngicas, bioensaios utilizando

  6. Composição química e propriedades antioxidantes de duas espécies silvestres de camomila do Nordeste de Portugal: camomila-alemã e camomila-romana

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    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; FERREIRA, ISABEL C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    As plantas são uma fonte importante de compostos bioativos e um exemplo de diversidade molecular, com potencial documentado para a descoberta e desenvolvimento de nutracêuticos e fármacos [1]. A camomila-alemã (Matricaria recutita L.) e a camomila-romana (Chamaemelum nobile L.) são duas espécies silvestres existentes na região de Trás-os-Montes (Nordeste de Portugal) e que têm ações etnofarmacológicas descritas. As decocções e infusões da primeira são utilizadas para constipações, bronquite, ...

  7. Application of Wet Waste from Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with or Without Sea Mud to Feeding Sea Cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yanfeng; HU Chaoqun; RENChunhua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) (P>0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no sig-nificant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments (P>0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  8. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2015-06-05

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

  9. Molecular Characterization and Antibacterial Activity Analysis of Two Novel Penaeidin Isoforms from Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhi-Qiang; Jin, Yan-Hui

    2015-12-01

    Penaeidins were important immunity effector molecules, which played a crucial role in innate immunity system of penaeid shrimp. Here, we reported two penaeidin isoforms from Litopenaeus vannamei, which were named as Lva-PEN 2 and Lva-PEN 3 according to the respective structure features. The results of amino acid sequence multiple alignments showed that high similarities existed among these penaeidins. A signal peptide sequence and a cysteine-rich domain which contained six cysteine amino acid residues existed in each penaeidin at the same time. Besides, there was a proline-rich motif which was composed of eight proline residues existed in each penaeidin. After the expression profile analysis was studied, we found that both Lva-pen 2 and Lva-pen 3 transcripts were up-regulated at 48 h after bacteria challenge. Except for the antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria like other penaeidins, these two penaeidins could strongly bind to bacteria and possessed antiproteinase activity. It was speculated that these two penaeidins could prevent bacteria pervasion through bacteria-binding activity and antiproteinase activity. Meantime, the proline-rich motif played a crucial role in these biological processes.

  10. Hypoxia drives apoptosis independently of p53 and metallothionein transcript levels in hemocytes of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix-Portillo, Monserrath; Martínez-Quintana, José A; Arenas-Padilla, Marina; Mata-Haro, Verónica; Gómez-Jiménez, Silvia; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2016-10-01

    The cellular mechanisms used by the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to respond to hypoxia have been studied from the energetic metabolism and antioxidant angles. We herein investigated the participation of p53 and metallothionein (MT) in the apoptotic process in response to hypoxia in shrimp hemocytes. The Lvp53 or LvMT genes were efficiently silenced by injection of double stranded RNA for p53 or MT. The effects of silencing on apoptosis were measured as caspase-3 activity and flow cytometry in hemocytes after 24 and 48 h of hypoxia (1.5 mg DO L(-1)). Hemocytes from unsilenced animals had significantly higher apoptosis levels upon both times of hypoxia. The apoptotic levels were diminished but not suppressed in dsp53-silenced but not dsMT-silenced hemocytes after 24 h of hypoxia, indicating a contribution of Lvp53 to apoptosis. Apoptosis in normoxia was significantly higher in dsp53-and dsMT-silenced animals compared to the unsilenced controls, pointing to a possible cytoprotective role of LvMT and Lvp53 during the basal apoptotic program in normoxia. Overall, these results indicate that hypoxia augments apoptosis in shrimp hemocytes and high mRNA levels of Lvp53 and LvMT are not necessary for this response.

  11. Effect of shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) farming waste on the growth, digestion, ammonium-nitrogen excretion of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Luo, Peng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-06-01

    In this study, specific growth rate (SGR), ingestion rate (IR), food conversion ratio (FCR), apparent digestion ratio (ADR) and ammonium-nitrogen excretion were determined for sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) reared in plastic containers (70 L; 4 containers each diet treatment). Sea cucumbers were fed with five diets containing different amounts of farming waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0) and a formulated compound (20% sea mud and 80% powdered algae). Sea cucumbers grew faster when they were fed with diet D (25% shrimp waste and 75% formulated compound) than those fed with other diets. Although IR value of sea cucumber fed with diet A (shrimp waste) was higher than those fed with other diets, both the lowest SGR and the highest FCR occurred in this diet group. The highest and the lowest ADR occurred in diet E (formulated compound) and diet A group, respectively, and the same to ammonium-nitrogen excretion. The contents of crude protein, crude lipid and total organic matter (TOM) in feces decreased in comparison with corresponding diets. In the feces from different diet treatments, the contents of crude protein and TOM increased gradually as the contents of crude protein and TOM in diets increased, while crude lipid content decreased gradually as the crude lipid content in diets increased.

  12. Identification and functional characterization of a glucose regulated protein 94 gene in Litopenaeus vannamei and its responsiveness in WSSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hai-Tao; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Yuan, Kai; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2016-05-01

    In the current study, a cDNA of glucose regulated protein 94 (LvGRP94) was cloned from Litopenaeus vannamei. Subcellular localization assay revealed that LvGRP94 expressed in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). And results of reported gene assays demonstrated that the promoter of LvGRP94 was activated by L. vannamei leucine zipper domain transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 (LvXBP1) or heat shock treatment. Furthermore, LvGRP94 was found to highly express in hemocytes as well as in epidermis by real-time RT-PCR. In addition, it was shown that LvGRP94 inhibited by LvXBP1 knocked-down in the hemocytes, was induced by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, or unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway activation. Importantly, decreasing LvGRP94 reduced the cumulative mortality of WSSV-infected shrimps and WSSV copies in shrimp muscle. These results suggested that LvGRP94 might involve in shrimp UPR pathway as well as WSSV infection.

  13. Predictive ability of genomic selection models for breeding value estimation on growth traits of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanchao; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2016-10-01

    Genomic selection (GS) can be used to accelerate genetic improvement by shortening the selection interval. The successful application of GS depends largely on the accuracy of the prediction of genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV). This study is a first attempt to understand the practicality of GS in Litopenaeus vannamei and aims to evaluate models for GS on growth traits. The performance of GS models in L. vannamei was evaluated in a population consisting of 205 individuals, which were genotyped for 6 359 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers by specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) and phenotyped for body length and body weight. Three GS models (RR-BLUP, BayesA, and Bayesian LASSO) were used to obtain the GEBV, and their predictive ability was assessed by the reliability of the GEBV and the bias of the predicted phenotypes. The mean reliability of the GEBVs for body length and body weight predicted by the different models was 0.296 and 0.411, respectively. For each trait, the performances of the three models were very similar to each other with respect to predictability. The regression coefficients estimated by the three models were close to one, suggesting near to zero bias for the predictions. Therefore, when GS was applied in a L. vannamei population for the studied scenarios, all three models appeared practicable. Further analyses suggested that improved estimation of the genomic prediction could be realized by increasing the size of the training population as well as the density of SNPs.

  14. Effects of rapid temperature changes on HK, PK and HSP70 of Litopenaeus vannamei in different seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Biao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Chunqiang

    2010-09-01

    Activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and levels of HSP70 were measured to evaluate the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to rapid temperature changes under controlled laboratory conditions. Shrimps were subjected to a quick temperature change from 27°C to 17°C for the summer case (Cold temperature treatment), or from 17°C to 27°C for the winter case (Warm temperature treatment). After 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure time, shrimps were sampled and prepared for further analysis. The results showed that the effect of acute temperature changes on activities of HK was significant. Patterns of variations of the two glycolytic enzymes suggested that enzymes in the glycolysis cycle could adjust their activities to meet the acute temperature change. The HSP70 level increased in both cold and warm temperature treatments, suggesting that the rapid temperature changes activated the process of body’s self-protection. But the difference in expression peak of HSP70 might be related to the different body size and the higher thermal sensitivity to temperature increase than to temperature decrease of L. vannamei.

  15. Effects of artificial infection of Litopenaeus vannamei by Micrococcus lysodeikticus and WSSV on the activity of immunity related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng-Bo; Wang, Gang; Chan, Siuming F

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the activities of 5 immunity related enzymes namely acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), phenoloxidase (PO), peroxidase (POD) and lysozyme phosphatase (LZM)) of Litopenaeus vannamei after they have been injected with different concentrations of Micrococcus lysodeikticus and the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) were examined. The cumulative mortality at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 h was obtained. Copy numbers of WSSV in L. vannamei after a single infection, secondary infection and concurrent infection were measured. Hemolymph samples of M. lysodeikticus and WSSV injected shrimp were collected at 0, 6, 12 24, 48, 72, 78, 84, 96 and 120 h. The results were: (i) The cumulative mortality of L. vannamei increased as the shrimp were infected with higher concentration of the bacteria; (ii) The most sensitive changes of ACP, AKP and LZM were in the 6.2 × 10(5), 6.2 × 10(6), 6.2 × 10(7) cfu/mL M. lysodeikticus group; (iii) ACP but LZM were more sensitive to M. lysodeikticus than WSSV, and AKP, PO and POD is more sensitive to WSSV; (iv) The copies of WSSV in the co-injected group were higher than WSSV-single infection and WSSV-bacteria-secondary infection group at 48 h. The amount of WSSV in L. vannamei of concurrent infection and WSSV-bacteria-secondary infection groups were higher than that of the WSSV-single infection group.

  16. A Janus Kinase in the JAK/STAT signaling pathway from Litopenaeus vannamei is involved in antiviral immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuan; Zhang, Zijian; Wang, Sheng; Li, Haoyang; Zuo, Hongliang; Xu, Xiaopeng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng

    2015-06-01

    The JAK/STAT signaling pathways are conserved in evolution and mediate diversity immune responses to virus infection. In the present study, a Janus kinase (designated as LvJAK) gene was cloned and characterized from Litopenaeus vannamei. LvJAK contained the characteristic JAK homology domain (JH domain) from JH1 to JH7 and showed 19% identity (34% similarity) and 21% identity (35% similarity) to Drosophila Hopscotch protein and Human JAK2 protein, respectively. The mRNA of LvJAK was highly expressed in hepatopancreas of L. vannamei and its expression level was prominently upregulated after the stimulation of Poly (I:C) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges. There were 10 putative STAT binding motifs in the promoter region of LvJAK, and it could be regulated by LvJAK self or (and) LvSTAT, suggesting that LvJAK is the JAK/STAT pathway target gene and could function as a positive regulator to form a positive feedback loop. In addition, the silencing of LvJAK caused higher mortality rate and virus load, suggesting that LvJAK could play an important role in defense against WSSV. This is the first report about the complete set of JAK/STAT proteins in shrimp and the results provide the evidence of the positive feedback loop mediated by JAK protein present in the JAK/STAT pathway in invertebrates.

  17. The Dorsal/miR-1959/Cactus feedback loop facilitates the infection of WSSV in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaopeng; Yuan, Jia; Yang, Linwei; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Zuo, Hongliang

    2016-09-01

    miR-1959, a novel microRNA identified from Litopenaeus vannamei, mediates a positive feedback loop between Dorsal and Cactus that can continuously maintain the activation of the NF-κB pathway. It has been known that miR-1959 is involved in antibacterial immunity in shrimp, but its function in antiviral responses is still unknown. In this study, we focused on the role of miR-1959 in infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the major viral pathogen in shrimp worldwide. The expression of miR-1959 in shrimp hemocytes, gill, and hepatopancreas was significantly up-regulated upon WSSV infection. Dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-1959 could enhance the activity of the promoter of WSSV immediate early gene ie1. In vivo experiments also showed that inhibition of miR-1959 led to decrease of the mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp and the genome copies of WSSV in tissues, meanwhile the expression of WSSV ie1 and VP28 genes was down-regulated. In contrast, increase of the miR-1959 level in shrimp by injection of miR-1959 mimics produced opposite results. These suggested that the Dorsal/miR-1959/Cactus feedback loop could favor the infection of WSSV in shrimp. Thus, our study helps further reveal the interaction between WSSV and shrimp immune system.

  18. TAT improves in vitro transportation of fortilin through midgut and into hemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Ai, Qinghui; Wang, Xiaojie

    2012-06-01

    Fortilin is a multifunctional protein implicated in many important cellular processes. Since injection of Pm-fortilin reduces shrimp mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), there is potential application of fortilin in shrimp culture. In the present study, in order to improve trans-membrane transportation efficiency, the protein transduction domain of the transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide was fused to fortilin. The Pichia pastoris yeast expression system, which is widely accepted in animal feeds, was used for production of recombinant fusion protein. Green fluorescence protein (GFP) was selected as a reporter because of its intrinsic visible fluorescence. The fortilin, TAT and GFP fusion protein were constructed. Their trans-membrane transportation efficiency and effects on immune response of shrimp were analyzed in vitro. Results showed that TAT peptide improved in vitro uptake of fortilin into the hemocytes and midgut of Litopenaeus vannamei. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity of hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin or GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly increased compared with that in the control without expressed fortilin. The PO activity of hemocytes incubated with 200 μg mL-1 GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly higher than that in the group with the same concentration of GFP-Fortilin. Hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin-TAT at all concentrations showed significantly higher nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity than those in the control or in the GFP-Fortilin treatment. The present in vitro study indicated that TAT fusion protein improved the immune effect of fortilin.

  19. Comparison of immune response in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after knock down of Toll and IMD gene in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjie; Song, Lei; Sun, Yuhang; Liu, Tao; Hou, Fujun; Liu, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) pathways are essential for inducing immune related genes during invasion of pathogens. In the present study, transcripts of eight pathway-related genes in Litopenaeus vannamei, including Toll, IMD, Pelle, IAP1, TRAF6, ALF, Crustin and Penaeidin3 were analyzed to further understand the potential relationship between Toll and IMD pathway. The high transcription levels of TRAF6, Pelle, Toll, IMD and IAP1 in selected tissues indicates their functional roles in Toll and IMD pathways. The increased mRNA expression of Toll and IMD detected in the early stage might suggest the inducible role of Toll and IMD upon bacterial infection. Moreover, the continuous increase of IMD and the high level of Pelle and TRAF6 in Vibrio anguillarum challenged group indicated that Gram-negative bacterium can activate both the Toll and IMD signaling pathway. Silencing of Toll by a dsRNA-mediated RNAi strongly increased the transcripts of IMD, Pelle, TRAF6, IAP1 and Akirin, knocking down of IMD also markedly increased the transcripts of Toll, Pelle, IAP1 and Akirin. Furthermore, ALF expression was significantly increased in response to V. anguillarum and Micrococcus lysodeikticus challenge, while the transcripts of Crustin and Pen3 in hemocytes were significantly reduced in V. anguillarum group, but rose significantly following M. lysodeikticus infection. In summary, we speculate that Toll and IMD pathway are not independent in shrimp, but linked to defense against bacterial infection.

  20. Effect of salinity on the biosynthesis of amines in Litopenaeus vannamei and the expression of gill related ion transporter genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Luqing; Liu, Hongyu; Zhao, Qun

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the effect of salinity on the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) α-subunit and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) β-subunit gene in the gill of Litopenaeus vannamei. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay showed that the expression of NKA α-subunit and V-ATPase β-subunit gene was significantly influenced by salinity. It was found that the NKA activity significantly varied with salinity in time and dose dependent manner; whereas the V-ATPase activity did not. The abundance of NKA α-subunit gene transcript increased rapidly when the salinity decreased from 26b to 21, and slowly when the salinity decreased from 26 to 31 within the first 24 h. When the salinity decreased from 26 to 21, the transcription of NKA α-subunit gene in gill epithelium was higher at 12 h than that at 0 h, which was consistent with the result of immunoblotting assay of NKA α-subunit. In addition, salinity had a significant time- and dose-dependent effect on the concentration of biogenic amines in both hemolymph and gill. As compared to other parameters, the concentration of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) varied in different patterns when the salinity decreased from 26 to 21 or increased from 26 to 31, suggesting that DA and 5-HT played different regulatory roles in osmotic adaption and modulation of shrimp when salinity varies.

  1. Optimal content and ratio of lysine to arginine in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhengfu; Dong, Chaohua; Wang, Linlin; Hu, Yanjiang; Zhu, Wei

    2013-07-01

    The optimal quantity of dietary lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg), and the optimal ratio of dietary Lys to Arg for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were investigated. Coated Lys and Arg were added to a basal diet (37.99% crude protein and 7.28% crude lipid) to provide graded levels of Lys and Arg. The experimental diets contained three Lys levels (2.51%, 2.11%, and 1.70% of total diet), and three Arg levels (1.41%, 1.80%, and 2.21% of total diet) and all combinations of these levels were tested. Pacific white shrimp, with a mean weight of 3.62±0.1 g, were randomly distributed in 36 fiberglass tanks with 30 shrimp per tank and reared on the experimental diets for 50 days. After the feeding trial, the growth performance, survival, feed conversion rate (FCR), body composition and protease and lipase activities in the hepatopancreases of the experimental shrimps were determined. The results show that weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), FCR, body protein, body Lys and Arg content were significantly affected by dietary Lys and Arg ( P 0.05). Therefore, according to our results, the optimal Lys and Arg quantities in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, L. vannamei, were considered to be 2.11%-2.51% and 1.80%-2.21%, respectively, and the optimal ratio to be 1:0.88-1:1.05.

  2. De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of osmoregulation in Litopenaeus vannamei under three cultivated conditions with different salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Lu, Yunliang

    2016-03-10

    Litopenaeus vannamei, one of the most important euryhaline crustaceans, is cultured in seawater, brackish water, and freshwater worldwide. We performed Illumina RNA sequencing of L. vannamei gills, generating 124,914,870; 119,250,450; and 105,487,350 raw reads from the shrimps cultured in seawater, brackish water, and freshwater, respectively. From these reads, 466,293 transcripts were de novo assembled and annotated. Comparative genomic analysis showed that 1752 genes were significantly differentially expressed in the freshwater group compared with the seawater group, including 1242 upregulated and 510 downregulated genes. In addition, 1246 genes were differentially expressed in the brackish group vs. the seawater water group, including 659 upregulated and 587 downregulated genes. These differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in energy metabolism, substance metabolism, ion transport and signal transduction, and genetic process. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis were used to analyze the functional significance of the differentially expressed genes, included those responding to salinity through diverse biological functions and processes and numerous potential genes associated with the osmotic response. L. vannamei responses to the three cultivated salinities were analyzed using next-generation sequencing. The transcriptional database established from the current research adds to the information available on L. vannamei and the findings expand our knowledge of the molecular basis of osmoregulation mechanisms in this species.

  3. Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  4. BAC end sequencing of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: a glimpse into the genome of Penaeid shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Chengzhang; Huan, Pin; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai; Huang, Chao

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the genome of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). To address this, we conducted BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) end sequencing of L. vannamei. We selected and sequenced 7 812 BAC clones from the BAC library LvHE from the two ends of the inserts by Sanger sequencing. After trimming and quality filtering, 11 279 BAC end sequences (BESs) including 4 609 pairedends BESs were obtained. The total length of the BESs was 4 340 753 bp, representing 0.18% of the L. vannamei haploid genome. The lengths of the BESs ranged from 100 bp to 660 bp with an average length of 385 bp. Analysis of the BESs indicated that the L. vannamei genome is AT-rich and that the primary repeats patterns were simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and low complexity sequences. Dinucleotide and hexanucleotide repeats were the most common SSR types in the BESs. The most abundant transposable element was gypsy, which may contribute to the generation of the large genome size of L. vannamei. We successfully annotated 4 519 BESs by BLAST searching, including genes involved in immunity and sex determination. Our results provide an important resource for functional gene studies, map construction and integration, and complete genome assembly for this species.

  5. Down-regulation apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 gene reduced the Litopenaeus vannamei hemocyte apoptosis in WSSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Feng-Hua; Chen, Yong-Gui; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yue, Hai-Tao; Bi, Hai-Tao; Yuan, Kai; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, is crucial in various cellular responses. In the present study, we identified and characterized an ASK1 homolog from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvASK1). The full-length cDNA of LvASK1 was 5400 bp long, with an open reading frame encoding a putative 1420 amino acid protein. LvASK1 was highly expressed in muscle, hemocyte, eyestalk and heart. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of the LvASK1 was upregulated during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The knocked-down expression of LvASK1 by RNA interference significantly reduced the apoptotic ratio of the hemocytes collected from WSSV-infected L. vannamei. Furthermore, the down-regulation of LvASK1 also decreased the cumulative mortality of WSSV-infected L. vannamei. These results suggested that down-regulation of LvASK1 decreased the apoptotic rate of hemocytes in WSSV-infected shrimp, and that it could contribute to the reduction of cumulative mortality in WSSV-infected L. vannamei.

  6. ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-03-01

    To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.

  7. Silencing of Gonad-Inhibiting Hormone Transcripts in Litopenaeus vannamei Females by use of the RNA Interference Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Rubens G; Braga, André L; Lanes, Carlos F C; Figueiredo, Márcio A; Romano, Luis A; Klosterhoff, Marta C; Nery, Luis E M; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Wasielesky, Wilson; Marins, Luis F

    2016-02-01

    The method usually employed to stimulate gonadal maturation and spawning of captive shrimp involves unilateral eyestalk ablation, which results in the removal of the endocrine complex responsible for gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) synthesis and release. In the present study, RNAi technology was used to inhibit transcripts of GIH in Litopenaeus vannamei females. The effect of gene silencing on gonad development was assessed by analyzing the expression of GIH and vitellogenin, respectively, in the eyestalk and ovaries of L. vannamei females, following ablation or injection with dsRNA-GIH, dsRNA-IGSF4D (non-related dsRNA), or saline solution. Histological analyses were performed to determine the stage of gonadal development and to assess the diameter of oocytes throughout the experimental procedure. Only oocytes at pre-vitellogenesis and primary vitellogenesis stages were identified in females injected with dsRNA-GIH, dsRNA-IGSF4D, or saline solution. Oocytes at all developmental stages were observed in eyestalk-ablated females, with predominance of later stages, such as secondary vitellogenesis and mature oocytes. Despite achieving 64, 73, and 71% knockdown of eyestalk GIH mRNA levels by 15, 30, and 37 days post-injection (dpi), respectively, in dsRNA-GIH-injected females, the expected increase in ovary vitellogenin mRNA expression was only observed on the 37th dpi. This is the first report of the use of RNAi technology to develop an alternative method to eyestalk ablation in captive L. vannamei shrimps.

  8. High prevalence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in shrimps Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei sampled from slow growth ponds in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Narayanan; Sathiyaraj, Ganesan; Raj, Mithun; Shanmugam, Venu; Baskaran, Babu; Govindan, Umamaheswari; Kumaresan, Gayathri; Kasthuriraju, Karthick Kannan; Chellamma, Thampi Sam Raj Yohannan

    2016-08-09

    Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis in cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon is caused by the newly emerged pathogen Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP). It has been detected in shrimp cultured in China, Vietnam and Thailand and is suspected to have occurred in Malaysia and Indonesia and to be associated with severely retarded growth. Due to retarded shrimp growth being reported at farms in the major grow-out states of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha in India, shrimp were sampled from a total of 235 affected ponds between March 2014 and April 2015 to identify the presence of EHP. PCR and histology detected a high prevalence of EHP in both P. monodon and L. vannamei, and infection was confirmed by in situ hybridization using an EHP-specific DNA probe. Histology revealed basophilic inclusions in hepatopancreas tubule epithelial cells in which EHP was observed at various developmental stages ranging from plasmodia to mature spores. The sequence of a region of the small subunit rDNA gene amplified by PCR was found to be identical to EHP sequences deposited in GenBank. Bioassays confirmed that EHP infection could be transmitted orally to healthy shrimp. Histology also identified bacterial co-infections in EHP-infected shrimp sampled from slow-growth ponds with low-level mortality. The data confirm that hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis caused by EHP is prevalent in shrimp being cultivated in India. EHP infection control measures thus need to be implemented urgently to limit impacts of slowed shrimp growth.

  9. Effects of periodical salinity fluctuation on the growth, molting, energy homeostasis and molting-related gene expression of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Guo, Xiantao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin

    2016-10-01

    To determine the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to periodical salinity fluctuation, a 30-day experiment was conducted in laboratory. In this experiment, two salinity fluctuation amplitudes of 4 (group S4) and 10 (group S10) were designed. The constant salinity of 30 (group S0) was used as the control. Levels of shrimp growth, molting frequency (MF), cellular energy status (ATP, ADP and AMP), as well as the expression of genes encoding molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), ecdysteroid-regulated protein (ERP), and energy-related AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were determined. The results showed that periodical salinity fluctuation significantly influenced all indicators except MF which ranged from 13.3% in group S10 to15.4% in group S4. In comparison with shrimps cultured at the constant salinity of 30, those in group S4 showed a significant elevation in growth rate, food conversion efficiency, cellular energy status, ERP and MIH gene transcript abundance, and a significant reduction in CHH and AMPK transcript abundance ( P < 0.05). However, salinity fluctuation of 10 only resulted in a significant variation in MIH and CHH gene expression when compared to the control ( P < 0.05). According to our findings, L. vannamei may be highly capable of tolerating salinity fluctuation. When ambient salinity fluctuated at approx. 4, the increased MF and energy stores in organisms may aid to promoting shrimp growth.

  10. Dextrose as carbon source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 in a zero exchange system

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    Sabrina M Suita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work compared the use of dextrose and molasses as carbon sources for biofloc development, water quality maintenance, microorganism composition and growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles in biofloc technology (BFT. Two treatments, dextrose and molasses, were tested with four replicates each. Carbon was added to achieve a C:N-AT (N-(NH3+NH4+ ratio of 6:1. Physical and chemical water quality variables were monitored daily, and shrimp growth was estimated through periodic biometry. After 30 days, survival, final biomass, and feeding conversion rate (FCR were determined. Dissolved organic carbon, chlorophyll-a, floc volume, total ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate concentrations, and microorganisms (qualified by groups, were measured every three days. Water quality variables remained within acceptable levels throughout the experimental period, except for nitrite, which reached higher levels than recommended for this species. The use of dextrose resulted in higher water transparency, which influenced the remaining centric diatoms. A superior shrimp performance was observed at this treatment, presumably because of variations on the microbial community. Therefore, it is concluded that the addition of dextrose results in a superior growth performance of L. vannamei when cultured in BFT systems.

  11. Identification of Bacterial Community Composition in Freshwater Aquaculture System Farming of Litopenaeus vannamei Reveals Distinct Temperature-Driven Patterns

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    Yuyi Tang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Change in temperature is often a major environmental factor in triggering waterborne disease outbreaks. Previous research has revealed temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial population in several aquatic ecosystems. To date, very little information is available on aquaculture environment. Here, we assessed environmental temperature effects on bacterial community composition in freshwater aquaculture system farming of Litopenaeus vannamei (FASFL. Water samples were collected over a one-year period, and aquatic bacteria were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Resulting DGGE fingerprints revealed a specific and dynamic bacterial population structure with considerable variation over the seasonal change, suggesting that environmental temperature was a key driver of bacterial population in the FASFL. Pyrosequencing data further demonstrated substantial difference in bacterial community composition between the water at higher (WHT and at lower (WLT temperatures in the FASFL. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the highest abundant phyla in the FASFL, however, a large number of unclassified bacteria contributed the most to the observed variation in phylogenetic diversity. The WHT harbored remarkably higher diversity and richness in bacterial composition at genus and species levels when compared to the WLT. Some potential pathogenenic species were identified in both WHT and WLT, providing data in support of aquatic animal health management in the aquaculture industry.

  12. BAC end sequencing of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: a glimpse into the genome of Penaeid shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Cui; ZHANG Xiaojun; LIU Chengzhang; HUAN Pin; LI Fuhua; XIANG Jianhai; HUANG Chao

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the genome of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).To address this,we conducted BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) end sequencing of L.vannamei.We selected and sequenced 7 812 BAC clones from the BAC library LvHE from the two ends of the inserts by Sanger sequencing.After trimming and quality filtering,11 279 BAC end sequences (BESs) including 4 609 pairedends BESs were obtained.The total length of the BESs was 4 340 753 bp,representing 0.18% of the L.vannamei haploid genome.The lengths of the BESs ranged from 100 bp to 660 bp with an average length of 385 bp.Analysis of the BESs indicated that the L.vannamei genome is AT-rich and that the primary repeats patterns were simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and low complexity sequences.Dinucleotide and hexanucleotide repeats were the most common SSR types in the BESs.The most abtmdant transposable element was gypsy,which may contribute to the generation of the large genome size of L.vannamei.We successfully annotated 4 519 BESs by BLAST searching,including genes involved in immunity and sex determination.Our results provide an important resource for functional gene studies,map construction and integration,and complete genome assembly for this species.

  13. Genetic Characterization of Six Stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei Used in Cuba for Aquaculture by Means of Microsatellite Loci

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    Anna Pérez-Beloborodova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four microsatellite loci were used to achieve genetic characterization of six stocks from Litopenaeus vannamei used for aquaculture in Cuba: second generation from first introduction (S2-1, first generation from the second one (S1-2, from the third one (S1-3, and the fourth one (S1-4 and the crossings from two parental population: first generation from the first with first generation from the third (S1-1 × S1-3 and first generation from the second with first generation from the third (S1-2 × S1-3. 66% (16/24 of genetic systems in total loci were in genetic disequilibrium. The four microsatellite loci were polymorphic for all six stocks. Major quantities of allelic variants correspond to locus Pvan 1758, which is at the same time that one where there are private alleles from first generation of the third. All Fst comparisons were significant. This indicates big differences between stocks. The highest values are those in which there is presence of the second introduction. This introduction and its descendants are also more consanguineous.

  14. Effect of culture intensity and probiotics application on microbiological and environmental parameters in Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prasanna Kumar; Muralidhar, M; Solanki, Haresh G; Patel, Pretesh P; Patel, Krishna; Gopla, Chavali

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the complex interaction among stocking density and extent of probiotic use with production and environmental parameters in Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds to suggest suitable management strategies. The study was conducted inL. vannamei culture ponds with stocking density of 35 nos sq m(-1) (Group I) and 56 nos sq m(-1) (Group II) and probiotic application @16.5 kg ha(-1) and 157 kg ha(-1), respectively. There was no significant difference noted between the two groups of ponds in respect to ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in sediment and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in water samples, whereas significantly higher levels of AOB in water samples of high intensity culture ponds (Group II) and NOB in sediment samples of Group I were observed. The levels of sulphur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and sulphur reducing bacteria (SRB) in Group I pond water and in Group II sediment were significantly higher than their corresponding levels in the other group. In both the groups, ammonia, nitrite and sulphide concentrations were below toxic limits prescribed for shrimp farming. Comparing the production parameters at harvest revealed that low intensity culture ponds (Group I) had higher growth rate, average body weight and significantly lower FCR and higher survival rate than high intensity culture ponds (Group II). The results indicated that application of microbial products in higher quantities did not benefit significantly, and there is a need to regulate quantum and schedule of biological product usage for economically sustainable shrimp culture.

  15. Evidences of SNPs in the variable region of hemocyanin Ig-like domain in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lingling; Zhao, Xianliang; Zhang, Yueling; Wang, Zehuan; Zhong, Mingqi; Li, Shengkang; Lun, Jingsheng

    2013-11-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the commonest mode of genetic variation in invertebrate immune-related genes. Hemocyanin presents in the hemolymph of both mollusks and arthropods and functions as an important antigen non-specific immune protein. But people know very little about its gene polymorphism so far. In current study, bioinformatics, molecular biology and environmental challenge approaches were used to identify the SNPs within hemocyanin Ig-like domain in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. A total of 11 SNPs were found in a variable region of Ig-like domain from L. vannamei hemocyanin large subunit (1258-1460 bp, HcLV1), 5 of which (1272, 1315, 1380, 1410 and 1450) were confirmed present in both genomic DNA and cDNA by clone sequencing. Furthermore, HcLV1 showed 3, 5 and 5 SSCP bands, respectively, in 16, 25 and 30 °C-treated shrimps, suggesting that the SSCP pattern of HcLV1 could be modulated by environmental stress. In addition, HcLV1 displayed two extra bands with different mobility when shrimps treated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus for 6-24 h, which was not observed in the control group. In conclusion, our data suggest that shrimp L. vannamei hemocyanin Ig-like domain possesses SNPs, which may be associated with environmental stress or pathogenic challenge.

  16. Cathepsin B from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: cDNA sequence analysis, tissues-specific expression and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, A; Rojo, L; Araujo-Bernal, S; Garcia-Carreño, F; Muhlia-Almazan, A

    2012-01-01

    Cathepsin B is a cystein proteinase scarcely studied in crustaceans. Its function has not been clearly described in shrimp species belonging to the sub-order Dendrobranchiata, which includes the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and other species from the Penaeidae family. Studies on vertebrates suggest that these lysosomal enzymes intracellularly hydrolize protein, as other cystein proteinases. However, the expression of the gene encoding the shrimp cathepsin B in the midgut gland was affected by starvation in a similar way as other digestive proteinases which extracellularly hydrolyze food protein. In this study the white shrimp L. vannamei cathepsin B (LvCathB) cDNA was sequenced, and characterized. Its gene expression was evaluated in various shrimp tissues, and changes in the mRNA amounts were compared with those observed on other digestive proteinases from the midgut gland during starvation. By using qRT-PCR it was found that LvCathB is expressed in most shrimp tissues except in pleopods and eye stalk. Changes on LvCathB mRNA during starvation suggest that the enzyme participates during intracellular protein hydrolysis but also, after food ingestion, it participates in hydrolyzing food proteins extracellularly as confirmed by the high activity levels we found in the gastric juice and midgut gland of the white shrimp.

  17. ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp,Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farafidy ANDRIANTAHINA; LIU Xiaolin; HUANG Hao; XIANG Jianhai

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the response to selection,heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei,the body weight (BW),total length (TL),body length (BL),first abdominal segment depth (FASD),third abdominal segment depth (TASD),first abdominal segment width (FASW),and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspring were measured by calculating seven body measurings of offspring produced by a nested mating design.Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L.vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire,and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis.The results show that heritabilities among various traits were high:0.515+0.030 for body weight and 0.394+0.030 for total length.After one generation of selection,the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth.In the 5th month,the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspring generation.Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable.The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied during breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly,simultaneously with increased production.

  18. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing

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    Yu-Yuan Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰ containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE at 0 (control, 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen, and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs, granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells, total hemocyte count (THC, phenoloxidase (PO activity, respiratory bursts (RBs, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP, peroxinectin (PX, cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis in the Hepatopancreas Tissue of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Fed Different Lipid Sources at Low Salinity.

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    Ke Chen

    Full Text Available RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptomic response of hepatopancreas in juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei fed three diets with different lipid sources, including beef tallow (BT, fish oil (FO, and an equal combination of soybean oil + BT + linseed oil (SBL for 8 weeks at 3 practical salinity unit (psu. A total of 9622 isogenes were annotated in 316 KEGG pathways and 39, 42 and 32 pathways significantly changed in the paired comparisons of FO vs SBL, BT vs SBL, or FO vs BT, respectively. The pathways of glycerolipid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, fatty acid elongation, fatty acid degradation, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid were significantly changed in all paired comparisons between dietary lipid sources, and the pathways of glycerolipid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism significantly changed in the FO vs SBL and BT vs SBL comparisons. These pathways are associated with energy metabolism and cell membrane structure. The results indicate that lipids sources affect the adaptation of L. vannamei to low salinity by providing extra energy or specific fatty acids to change gill membrane structure and control iron balance. The results of this study lay a foundation for further understanding lipid or fatty acid metabolism in L. vannamei at low salinity.

  20. cDNA cloning, expression and antibacterial activity of lysozyme C in the blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijun Mai; Chaoqun Hu

    2009-01-01

    The gene coding for lysozyme in blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) was cloned, sequenced and expressed in pET-32a vector. The deduced amino acid sequence of F. Merguiensi lysozyme showed 37-93% similarity with the mouse, human, chicken, and tiger prawn counterparts. The lysozyme was purified to homogeneity and observed as a band of approximately 15 kDa in 15% SDS-PAGE. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that mRNA transcripts of lysozyme could be mainly detected in the tissues of haemocytes, gill, gonad and the lymphoid organ of unchallenged shrimps, whereas the expression of lysozyme transcripts was increased in all the tested tissues after the heat-killed Vibrio alginolyticus challenge. The temporal expression of lysozyme mRNA in haemolymph challenged by Micrococcus luteus and V. Alginolyticus was both up-regulated and reached the maximum level at 8 and 16 h post-stimulation, respec-tively, and then dropped back to the original level. Bacteriolytic activity of the lysozyme against different bacterial cultures was deter-mined by the solid phase and turbidimetric assays. The results demonstrated that the lysozyme we obtained was not only against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but also against shrimp pathogens V. Alginolyticus and V. Parahemolyticus. In addition, the study of the inhibition mechanism revealed that the antibacterial activity of the lysozyme was a result of the bactericidal effect.

  1. Effect of Salinity on the Biosynthesis of Amines in Litopenaeus vannamei and the Expression of Gill Related Ion Transporter Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Luqing; LIU Hongyu; ZHAO Qun

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of salinity on the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) α-subunit and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) β-subunit gene in the gill of Litopenaeus vannamei. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay showed that the expression of NKAα-subunit and V-ATPaseβ-subunit gene was significantly influ-enced by salinity. It was found that the NKA activity significantly varied with salinity in time and dose dependent manner;whereas the V-ATPase activity did not. The abundance of NKAα-subunit gene transcript increased rapidly when the salinity decreased from 26b to 21, and slowly when the salinity decreased from 26 to 31 within the first 24 h. When the salinity decreased from 26 to 21, the transcription of NKAα-subunit gene in gill epithelium was higher at 12 h than that at 0 h, which was consistent with the result of immunoblotting assay of NKAα-subunit. In addition, salinity had a significant time-and dose-dependent effect on the concentration of biogenic amines in both hemolymph and gill. As compared to other parameters, the concentration of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) varied in different patterns when the salinity decreased from 26 to 21 or increased from 26 to 31, sug-gesting that DA and 5-HT played different regulatory roles in osmotic adaption and modulation of shrimp when salinity varies.

  2. Evaluation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei health during a superintensive aquaculture growout using NMR-based metabolomics.

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    Tracey B Schock

    Full Text Available Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc. The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production.

  3. Population genetic structure of Brazilian shrimp species (Farfantepenaeus sp., F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis and Litopenaeus schmitti: Decapoda: Penaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Gusmão

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Penaeid shrimps are important resources for worldwide fisheries and aquaculture. In the Southwest Atlantic, Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, F. paulensis, F. subtilis, Farfantepenaeus sp. and Litopenaeus schmitti are among the most important commercially exploited species. Despite their high commercial value, there is little information available on the different aspects of their biology or genetics and almost no data on their stock structure. We used allozymes to estimate variability levels and population genetic structure of F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis, L. schmitti and the recently detected species Farfantepenaeus sp. along as much as 4,000 km of Brazilian coastline. No population heterogeneity was detected in F. brasiliensis or L. schmitti along the studied area. In contrast, F ST values found for Farfantepenaeus sp. and F. paulensis indicate that the populations of those two species are genetically structured, comprising different fishery stocks. The largest genetic differences in F. paulensis were found between Lagoa dos Patos (South and the two populations from Southeast Brazil. In Farfantepenaeus sp., significant differences were detected between the population from Recife and those from Fortaleza and Ilhéus.

  4. Evaluation of medicinal plants and colloidal silver efficiency against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei cultured at low salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Covarrubias, María Soledad; García-Aguilar, Noemí; Bolan-Mejía, María Del; Puello-Cruz, Ana Carmela

    2016-11-22

    In shrimp aquaculture, reduction in the use of synthetic antibiotics is a priority due to the high incidence of resistant bacteria (Vibrio) in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. An increasing number of studies show bactericidal activity of natural treatments in aquaculture. The effectiveness of neem (Azadirachta indica) and oregano (Lippia berlandieri) aqueous extracts and colloidal silver against V. parahaemolyticus were evaluated in low salinity shrimp culture. Results show that aqueous extracts of oregano and neem each present a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 62.50 mg ml-1 and inhibitory halos of 12.0 to 19.0 mm. Colloidal silver gave a MIC of 2 mg ml-1, and the inhibitory halos were found to be between 11.8 and 18.8 mm, depending on treatment concentrations. An in vivo challenge test was conducted on white shrimp postlarvae cultured at low salinity (5 practical salinity units, PSU), and a significant increase (p colloidal silver 90%), when compared to the control (0%) in the challenge test. However, no significant differences were observed between treatments, suggesting that they all act as alternative bactericidal source agents against V. parahaemolyticus infections for L. vannamei postlarvae when cultured at 5 PSU.

  5. Effect of Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Farming Waste on the Growth, Digestion, Ammonium-Nitrogen Excretion of Sea Cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yanfeng; LUO Peng; HU Chaoqun; REN Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    In this study, specific growth rate (SGR), ingestion rate (IR), food conversion ratio (FCR), apparent digestion ratio (ADR) and ammonium-nitrogen excretion were determined for sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus) reared in plastic con-tainers (70L; 4 containers each diet treatment). Sea cucumbers were fed with five diets containing different amounts of farming waste from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0) and a formulated compound (20% sea mud and 80% powdered algae). Sea cucumbers grew faster when they were fed with diet D (25% shrimp waste and 75% formulated compound) than those fed with other diets. Although IR value of sea cucumber fed with diet A (shrimp waste) was higher than those fed with other diets, both the lowest SGR and the highest FCR occurred in this diet group. The highest and the lowest ADR occurred in diet E (formulated compound) and diet A group, respectively, and the same to ammonium-nitrogen excretion. The contents of crude protein, crude lipid and total organic matter (TOM) in feces decreased in comparison with corresponding diets. In the feces from different diet treatments, the contents of crude protein and TOM increased gradually as the contents of crude protein and TOM in diets increased, while crude lipid content decreased gradually as the crude lipid content in diets increased.

  6. Identification and function of leucine-rich repeat flightless-I-interacting protein 2 (LRRFIP2 in Litopenaeus vannamei.

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    Shuang Zhang

    Full Text Available Leucine-rich repeat flightless-I-interacting protein 2 (LRRFIP2 is a myeloid differentiation factor 88-interacting protein with a positive regulatory function in toll-like receptor signaling. In this study, seven LRRFIP2 protein variants (LvLRRFIP2A-G were identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. All the seven LvLRRFIP2 protein variants encode proteins with a DUF2051 domain. LvLRRFIP2s were upregulated in hemocytes after challenged with lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Dual-luciferase reporter assays in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells revealed that LvLRRFIP2 activates the promoters of Drosophila and shrimp AMP genes. The knockdown of LvLRRFIP2 by RNA interference resulted in higher cumulative mortality of L. vannamei upon V. parahaemolyticus but not S. aureus and WSSV infections. The expression of L. vannamei AMP genes were reduced by dsLvLRRFIP2 interference. These results indicate that LvLRRFIP2 has an important function in antibacterials via the regulation of AMP gene expression.

  7. Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV Interact with Litopenaeus vannamei Peritrophin-Like Protein (LvPT.

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    Shijun Xie

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a major pathogen in shrimp cultures. The interactions between viral proteins and their receptors on the surface of cells in a frontier target tissue are crucial for triggering an infection. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H library was constructed using cDNA obtained from the stomach and gut of Litopenaeus vannamei, to ascertain the role of envelope proteins in WSSV infection. For this purpose, VP37 was used as the bait in the Y2H library screening. Forty positive clones were detected after screening. The positive clones were analyzed and discriminated, and two clones belonging to the peritrophin family were subsequently confirmed as genuine positive clones. Sequence analysis revealed that both clones could be considered as the same gene, LV-peritrophin (LvPT. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between LvPT and VP37. Further studies in the Y2H system revealed that LvPT could also interact with other WSSV envelope proteins such as VP32, VP38A, VP39B, and VP41A. The distribution of LvPT in tissues revealed that LvPT was mainly expressed in the stomach than in other tissues. In addition, LvPT was found to be a secretory protein, and its chitin-binding ability was also confirmed.

  8. Quality changes during frozen storage of blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris with antioxidant, α-tocopherol, under different conditions

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    Adriana Zulema Valencia-Perez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fresh blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris muscle was stored with antioxidants under different conditions: ANTIOX 2%, packed in bilayer film of polyamide-low density polyethylene film (PA-LDPE with 2% α-tocopherol; ANTIOX 4%, packed in PA-LDPE film with 4% α-tocopherol; and ANTIOX-GLAZED, samples stored glazed with 2% α-tocopherol. Shrimps packed in PA-LDPE without α-tocopherol were used as CONTROL. All samples were stored at –20 °C for 120 days. As compared to the CONTROL, the shrimp stored with the antioxidant showed lower lipid oxidation (0.10-0.14 vs 1.58 mgMA/kg of muscle, lost less firmness and astaxanthin content. ANTIOX 2% and ANTIOX-GLAZED showed the lowest concentrations of formaldehyde (0.081-0.083 μM/g. There were no significant differences in color and sensory properties, but differences in the integrity of the muscle fibers were observed. The treatments with α-tocopherol maintained the shrimp muscle quality during frozen storage. However, no significant differences were found between these treatments.

  9. Characterization of two types of vascular endothelial growth factor from Litopenaeus vannamei and their involvements during WSSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Shihao; Li, Fuhua; Yang, Hui; Yang, Fusheng; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are important signaling proteins in VEGF signaling pathway which play key roles in inducing endothelial cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, vascular permeability, inhibition of apoptosis and virus infection. In the present study, we isolated and characterized two VEGF genes, LvVEGF1 and LvVEGF2 from Litopenaeus vannamei. The deduced amino acid sequences of both LvVEGF1 and LvVEGF2 contained a signal peptide, a typical PDGF/VEGF domain and a cysteine knot motif (CXCXC). Tissue distribution analysis showed that LvVEGF1 was predominantly expressed in lymphoid organ (Oka) while LvVEGF2 was mainly detected in gill and hemocytes. The transcriptional levels of LvVEGF1 in Oka and LvVEGF2 in gill or hemocytes were apparently up-regulated during WSSV infection. Double-stranded RNA interference was used for further functional studies. The data showed that silencing of LvVEGF1 and LvVEGF2 caused a decrease of the copy numbers of the virus in WSSV infected shrimp and a reduction of the cumulative mortality rate of shrimp during WSSV infection. The present study indicated that LvVEGF1 and LvVEGF2 might facilitate WSSV infection, which provided new evidence to understand the function of VEGF signaling pathway during WSSV infection in shrimp.

  10. A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

  11. The immune responses triggered by CpG ODNs in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei are associated with LvTolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Lingling; Yue, Feng; Yi, Qilin; Huang, Mengmeng; Liu, Rui; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2014-03-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) represent a kind of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as well as a novel adjuvant that activate the innate immune system through interaction with Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in mammals. In the present study, the synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, CpG ODN 2395, was employed to investigate the interactive mode of CpG ODNs with three known Tolls (LvToll1-3) from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The mature peptides of extracellular domains of LvTolls (LvToll-ECDs) were recombinant expressed and their binding activities to CpG ODN 2395 were further examined by ELISA. rLvToll1-ECD and rLvToll3-ECD exhibited affinity to CpG ODN 2395 in a dose-dependent manner when their concentrations ranged from 0.25 to 2.00 μmol/L, while rLvToll2-ECD did not show any binding activities to CpG ODN 2395 in tested concentrations. Additionally, after the stimulation of CpG ODN 2395, the luciferase activities of HEK293T cells transfected with LvToll1-mosaic or LvToll3-mosaic were significantly increased to 2.38-fold (pvannamei were indispensable for the triggering of immune responses by CpG ODNs, and the results provided a foundation for the application of CpG ODNs as the novel immunostimulants in aquaculture.

  12. Proteomic identification of the related immune-enhancing proteins in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei stimulated with vitamin C and Chinese herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jie; Du, Zhiheng; Zhang, Yueling; Du, Hong; Guo, Lingling; Zhong, Mingqi; Cao, Jingsong; Wang, Xiuying

    2011-12-01

    Recently, strong interest has been focused on immunostimulants to reducing the diseases in shrimp aquaculture. However, information regarding to the related immune-enhancing proteins in shrimps is not available yet. In this study, vitamin C (Vc), Chinese herbs (CH), and the mixture of vitamin C and Chinese herbs (Mix) were tested for their enhancement on shrimp's immune activity. Compared with those in the control group, values of phenoloxidase (PO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and antibacterial (Ua) activity in the Mix-treated group were improved significantly 12 or 24 days after the treatment. The cumulative mortality was also lower in the Mix-treated group after infection with Vibrio parahemolyticus. Furthermore, comparative proteomic approach was used to assess the protein expression profile in shrimps. Approximately 220-290 and 300-400 protein spots were observed in the 2-DE gels. Among them, 29 and 28 altered proteins from hemocytes and hepatopancreas, respectively, were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis. The results revealed that the main altered proteins showed high homologies with Litopenaeus vannamei hemocyanin, hemolymph clottable protein, hemoglobin beta, cytosolic MnSOD, trypsin, cathepsin I(L) and zinc proteinase Mpc1. Together, these studies found Vc and CH were suitable immunostimulants to shrimp L. vannamei, and 7 altered proteins could be involved in the enhanced immune activities.

  13. Evaluation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) health during a superintensive aquaculture growout using NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Tracey B; Duke, Jessica; Goodson, Abby; Weldon, Daryl; Brunson, Jeff; Leffler, John W; Bearden, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc). The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production.

  14. Identification of bacterial community composition in freshwater aquaculture system farming of Litopenaeus vannamei reveals distinct temperature-driven patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuyi; Tao, Peiying; Tan, Jianguo; Mu, Haizhen; Peng, Li; Yang, Dandan; Tong, Shilu; Chen, Lanming

    2014-08-07

    Change in temperature is often a major environmental factor in triggering waterborne disease outbreaks. Previous research has revealed temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial population in several aquatic ecosystems. To date, very little information is available on aquaculture environment. Here, we assessed environmental temperature effects on bacterial community composition in freshwater aquaculture system farming of Litopenaeus vannamei (FASFL). Water samples were collected over a one-year period, and aquatic bacteria were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Resulting DGGE fingerprints revealed a specific and dynamic bacterial population structure with considerable variation over the seasonal change, suggesting that environmental temperature was a key driver of bacterial population in the FASFL. Pyrosequencing data further demonstrated substantial difference in bacterial community composition between the water at higher (WHT) and at lower (WLT) temperatures in the FASFL. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the highest abundant phyla in the FASFL, however, a large number of unclassified bacteria contributed the most to the observed variation in phylogenetic diversity. The WHT harbored remarkably higher diversity and richness in bacterial composition at genus and species levels when compared to the WLT. Some potential pathogenenic species were identified in both WHT and WLT, providing data in support of aquatic animal health management in the aquaculture industry.

  15. Influence of the Artificial Substrates on the Attachment Behavior of Litopenaeus vannamei in the Intensive Culture Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of artificial substrates on the attachment behavior of Litopenaeus vannamei reared in the intensive culture condition. L. vannamei were grown from PL60 (60-day-old postlarvae for 8 weeks at high density (500 shrimp per m2 in 12 independent aquaria (1.0×1.0×1.5 m, water surface area 1 m-2, water volume 1000 l. The experimental design consisted of four treatments: Group A (GA, artificial substrates were immersed in water all the time; Group B (GB, artificial substrates immersed in water were taken out of water weekly and returned immediately; Group C (GC, artificial substrates were exchanged weekly by new one, and Group D (GD without artificial substrates. With a longer rearing time, the increase of the percentage of shrimp attachment on artificial substrates demonstrated continuous in GA but discontinuous in GB and GC. Meanwhile, based on the mean of weeks, the percentage of shrimp attachment on artificial substrates in GA was significantly higher than those in GB and BC from the second week. The final weight, survival rate and final biomass of the shrimp reared in the treatment with artificial substrates were significantly higher than those in other treatment without artificial substrates. However, there was not significant difference in Food Conversion Rate (FCR among different experimental treatments. So, we suggested that the differences of shrimp growth parameters were affected mainly by the living space added with the addition of artificial substrates.

  16. Comparison of immune response of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after multiple and single infections with WSSV and Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Guo; Xu, De-Hai; Wang, Zishen; Jang, In-Kwon; Qi, Zhitao; Zhang, Mingming; Kim, Su-Kyoung

    2015-05-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) infected by multiple pathogens showed higher mortality and death occurred more quickly than those infected by a single pathogen (Jang et al., 2014). For better understanding the defense mechanism against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio anguillarum, immune responses of shrimp were evaluated in this study. The mRNA expression levels of five immune-related genes were analyzed by quantitative reverse real-time PCR, which included proPO-activating enzyme 1 (PPAE1), PPAE2, proPO activating factor (PPAF), masquerade-like serine proteinase (Mas) and ras-related nuclear gene (Ran). Results demonstrated that the transcription was suppressed more intensively in the multiple infection group than those in single infection groups. The transcriptional suppression was directly related to the higher mortality. The hypoimmunity could benefit pathogen invasion, replication and release of toxin in vivo. Results in this study will help to understand immune defense mechanism after shrimp were infected by multiple pathogens in aquaculture.

  17. INFLUENCE OF FISH MEAL REDUCTION, ALGAE ADDITION, AND ENZYME USE IN SHRIMP FEEDS ON THE TISSUE COMPOSITION OF Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kaspers

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available At the Leibniz-Center for Tropical Marine Ecology in Bremen, Germany, shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei fed feeds with reduced fish meal content, algae and enzyme additions were analysed for their tissue composition. Contents of protein, glycogen, total lipid, linoleic acid (LA, alpha linolenic acid (ALA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA of the shrimp abdomen and of the respective feeds were determined. Reduction of fish meal (FM content in shrimp feed and its substitution with “mash” (grain distillery waste-”Schlempe”, corn gluten, pea or coarse colza meal did not influence the tissue composition. Additional inclusion of an algae mixture out of Spirulina spp., Phaeodactylum spp., and Tetraselmis spp. to shrimp feeds as well as the single inclusions of Phaeodactylum spp. or Spirulina spp. had no effect on the tissue composition. Furthermore no improvement of the quality of the shrimps due to an enhanced digestibility of mash by enzymes (mixture of corolase, phytase, xylanase could be detected. In contrast the quality of shrimps seemed to be negatively affected by enzymes in this study. These findings could contribute to making shrimp aqua farming more economic as reduction of feed costs without reduction of the quality of the shrimps would be a large benefit.

  18. A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhou

    Full Text Available Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905 was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN, white tail disease (WTD or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD. To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

  19. A novel C-type lectin from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei possesses anti-white spot syndrome virus activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Ying; Yin, Zhi-Xin; Xu, Xiao-Peng; Weng, Shao-Ping; Rao, Xia-Yu; Dai, Zong-Xian; Luo, Yong-Wen; Yang, Gan; Li, Zong-Sheng; Guan, Hao-Ji; Li, Se-Dong; Chan, Siu-Ming; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2009-01-01

    C-type lectins play key roles in pathogen recognition, innate immunity, and cell-cell interactions. Here, we report a new C-type lectin (C-type lectin 1) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCTL1), which has activity against the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LvCTL1 is a 156-residue polypeptide containing a C-type carbohydrate recognition domain with an EPN (Glu(99)-Pro(100)-Asn(101)) motif that has a predicted ligand binding specificity for mannose. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that LvCTL1 mRNA was specifically expressed in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei. Recombinant LvCTL1 (rLvCTL1) had hemagglutinating activity and ligand binding specificity for mannose and glucose. rLvCTL1 also had a strong affinity for WSSV and interacted with several envelope proteins of WSSV. Furthermore, we showed that the binding of rLvCTL1 to WSSV could protect shrimps from viral infection and prolong the survival of shrimps against WSSV infection. Our results suggest that LvCTL1 is a mannose-binding C-type lectin that binds to envelope proteins of WSSV to exert its antiviral activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a shrimp C-type lectin that has direct anti-WSSV activity.

  20. Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Interact with Litopenaeus vannamei Peritrophin-Like Protein (LvPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shijun; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp cultures. The interactions between viral proteins and their receptors on the surface of cells in a frontier target tissue are crucial for triggering an infection. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) library was constructed using cDNA obtained from the stomach and gut of Litopenaeus vannamei, to ascertain the role of envelope proteins in WSSV infection. For this purpose, VP37 was used as the bait in the Y2H library screening. Forty positive clones were detected after screening. The positive clones were analyzed and discriminated, and two clones belonging to the peritrophin family were subsequently confirmed as genuine positive clones. Sequence analysis revealed that both clones could be considered as the same gene, LV-peritrophin (LvPT). Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between LvPT and VP37. Further studies in the Y2H system revealed that LvPT could also interact with other WSSV envelope proteins such as VP32, VP38A, VP39B, and VP41A. The distribution of LvPT in tissues revealed that LvPT was mainly expressed in the stomach than in other tissues. In addition, LvPT was found to be a secretory protein, and its chitin-binding ability was also confirmed.

  1. Bacillus subtilis spores expressing the VP28 antigen: a potential oral treatment to protect Litopenaeus vannamei against white spot syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh T V; Pham, Cuong K; Pham, Huong T T; Pham, Hang L; Nguyen, Anh H; Dang, Lua T; Huynh, Hong A; Cutting, Simon M; Phan, Tuan-Nghia

    2014-09-01

    The envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is considered a candidate antigen for use in a potential vaccine to this important shrimp pathogen (the cause of white spot syndrome, WSS). Here, we used spores of Bacillus subtilis to display VP28 on the spore surface. Trials were conducted to evaluate their ability to protect shrimps against WSSV infection. The gene cotB-vp28 was integrated into the chromosome of the laboratory strain B. subtilis PY79, and expression of CotB-VP28 was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Expression of CotB-VP28 was equivalent to 1000 molecules per spore. PY79 and CotB-VP28 spores were mixed with pellets for feeding of whiteleg shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei), followed by WSSV challenge. Superoxidase dismutase (SOD), phenoloxidase activities and mortality rates of the two shrimp groups were evaluated. Groups fed with PY79 and CotB-VP28 spores at day 7 had increased SOD activities of 29% and increased phenoloxidase activities of 15% and 33%, respectively, compared to those of the control group. Fourteen days postchallenge, 35% of vaccinated shrimps had died compared to 49% of those fed naked spores (PY79) and 66% untreated, unchallenged animals. These data suggest that spores expressing VP28 have potential as a prophylactic treatment of WSS.

  2. Effects of biofloc promotion on water quality, growth, biomass yield and heterotrophic community in Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) experimental intensive cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Irasema E. Luis-Villaseñor; Domenico Voltolina; Juan M. Audelo-Naranjo; María R. Pacheco-Marges; Víctor E. Herrera-Espericueta; Emilio Romero-Beltrán

    2015-01-01

    Six 1.2-m3 tanks were stocked with an initial biomass of 500 g m-3 of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (individual weight: 1.0±0.3 g), to evaluate the effect of biofloc promotion on water quality and on shrimp growth and production, and to identify the dominant taxa in the heterotrophic communities present in experimental closed cultures. Feeding was ad libitum twice daily with 35% protein shrimp feed. Three tanks were managed as biofloc technology (BFT) systems, adding daily an amount of cornm...

  3. Efeito das altas densidades de estocagem no crescimento e sobrevivência de Litopenaeus vannamei na fase final de engorda, cultivados em sistemas de bioflocos (BFT)

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Ferreira Silva; Gabriele Rodrigues Lara; Eduardo Cupertino Ballester; Dariano Krumennauer; Paulo Cesar Abreu; Wilson Wasielesky Jr

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de altas densidades de estocagem na sobrevivência, crescimento e na taxa de conversão alimentar de camarões Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase final de engorda em sistema de Biofloc Technology (BFT), mantendo os mesmos parâmetros de água para todos os tratamentos. Os camarões (11,96 ± 1,14g) foram estocados em microcosmos (tanques de 0,50 m2 ), conectados a um raceway de cultivo BFT. O experimento teve duração de 45 dias. Os c...

  4. Análise comparativa do cultivo do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei em sistemas com biofloco e convencional no litoral sul de Pernambuco.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Augusto Soares Rego

    2012-01-01

    Dentre as novas tecnologias de manejo que vem sendo propostas para a carcinocultura, o sistema BFT (Bio-Floc Technology) destaca-se por permitir o cultivo com altas densidades de estocagem, maior biosegurança e reduzida troca de água. O estudo teve como objetivo analisar o desempenho zootécnico, qualidade da água e aspectos microbiológicos no cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei em larga escala, em sistemas super-intensivo com formação de biofloco (BFT) e convencional (CON) no litoral sul de Perna...

  5. Evaluación in vivo del efecto cicatrizante de un gel a base de quitosano obtenido de exoesqueleto de camarón blanco litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Heimy Franceline Martínez Sánchez; Amada Yerén Escobedo Lozano; Evaristo Méndez-Gómez; Alfredo Emmanuel Vázquez; Manuel de Jesús Sol Hernández; Anahí Elizabeth Osuna Lizárraga

    2014-01-01

    Healing effect of a chitosan-based gel obtained from the exoskeleton of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its evaluation in vivoTítulo corto: Evaluación del quitosano como cicatrizanteResumen:  En México alrededor del 62 % de la población sufre de accidentes causantes de alteraciones en la piel como quemaduras, heridas y diabetes principalmente. Para atender esta problemática, se propone el uso de un gel de quitosano, obtenido del exoesqueleto de camarón ya que presenta actividad antimicr...

  6. Optimization of thermophysical properties of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) previously treated with freezing-point regulators using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Zunying; Zhao, Yuanhui; Dong, Shiyuan; Zeng, Mingyong; Yang, HuiCheng

    2014-01-01

    Three freezing-point regulators (glycine, sodium chloride and D-sorbitol) were employed to optimize thermophysical properties of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using response surface methodology (RSM). The independent variables were glycine content (0.250–1.250 %), sodium chloride content (0.500–2.500 %) and D-sorbitol content (0.125–0.625 %) and analysis of variance showed that the effects of glycine, sodium chloride and D-sorbitol on the thermophysical properties were statistic...

  7. Morfología del sistema reproductor y del espermatóforo de Litopenaeus vannamei , camarón blanco del Pacífico

    OpenAIRE

    María de los Ángeles Peralta Martínez; Imelda Martínez Morales; Marco Linné Unzueta Bustamante; Hugo H. Montaldo; Héctor Castillo-Juárez

    2013-01-01

    Con el objetivo de aportar información al conocimiento del sistema reproductor en machos de Litopenaeus vannamei , se elaboró la descripción anatómica de su sistema reproductor, empleando para ello machos sexualmente maduros, obtenidos de un laboratorio productor de larvas ubicado en Sinaloa, México. Para hacer la descripción, se obtuvieron por disección: a) los órganos reproductores completos de 8 machos; b) 10 espermatóforos compuestos que fueron extraídos de hembras inseminadas naturalment...

  8. AvaliaÃÃo da qualidade do camarÃo litopenaeus vannamei tratado com inibidores de melanose e estocado em gelo

    OpenAIRE

    Ianna Wivianne Fernandes de AraÃjo

    2007-01-01

    A qualidade do pescado à um tÃpico de grande interesse dos produtores do setor pesqueiro, tendo em vista o aumento nos mercados internacionais para produtos frescos de pescado. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a eficiÃncia do Ãcido ascÃrbico e do metabissulfito de sÃdio sobre o tempo de conservaÃÃo e inibiÃÃo de melanose de camarÃes acondicionados em gelo. Foram adquiridos camarÃes vivos da espÃcie Litopenaeus vannamei cultivados em fazendas do Estado do CearÃ. Imed...

  9. 南美白对虾池塘养殖高产技术%High - yield Aquaculture Techniques in Ponds for Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈胜国

    2001-01-01

    @@ 中国素来是食虾大国,随着人们生活水平的不断提高,虾类市场需求越来越大,而中国对虾在养殖过程中出现的严重病害,制约了虾产量的增加.南美白对虾Litopenaeus vannamei是当今生长速度最快的三大对虾之一,且体型和肉质与中国对虾相似,大力发展其养殖具有重要意义.

  10. Efecto de la inulina y de plantas medicinales en el crecimiento, supervivencia, microbiota intestinal, sistema inmune y prevalencia de WSSV en Litopenaeus vannamei, cultivado en el laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Beltrán, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto del prebiótico inulina y las plantas medicinales en polvo: Rhoeo discolor (Rd) y una mezcla de Echinacea purpurea y Uncaria tomentosa (EU), adicionadas al alimento, en el crecimiento, supervivencia, microbiota intestinal, sistema inmune y prevalencia de WSSV en Litopenaeus vannamei. Se realizaron tres bioensayos con tratamientos por triplicado. Bioensayo 1 (peso, 0.74±0.25 g): I) Control, alimento comercial (AC) + celulosa (4 g/kg); II) AC + Rd (0.5 g/kg); I...

  11. Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal, alone or in combination with distiller’s dried grains with solubles in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, grown in a clear-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  12. Processing Technologies for Ready-to-Eat Litopenaeus vannamei and Changes in Its Properties during Storage%南美白对虾即食虾仁加工工艺和贮藏研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔宏博; 薛勇; 宿玮; 薛长湖

    2012-01-01

    Key processing techniques for producing long lasting ready-to-eat Litopenaeus vannamei products were investigated. In addition, the changes in texture properties, the contents of protein, free amino acids and astaxanthin, TBA, and microstmcture of ready-to-eat Litopenaeus vannamei were measured during storage. The storage life of ready-to-eat Litopenaeus vannamei produced by steaming, curing and high pressure steam sterilization at 115℃ was up to more than 30 days at 40 ℃. The texture of Litopenaeus vannamei deteriorated obviously during storage and the changes were associated with the decomposition of proteins and structural damage of muscle fibers. Moreover, lipid oxidation could cause the decomposition of astaxanthin and changes in the color of Litopenaeus vannamei.%为了获得贮藏期长的即食南美白对虾制品,对其关键加工工艺进行研究,并对其贮藏过程中质构、蛋白质、游离氨基酸、虾青素含量、TBA值以及微观结构的变化进行测定。经蒸汽蒸制加工,腌渍调味,115℃高压蒸汽灭菌处理的虾仁,40℃条件可贮藏30d以上。贮藏过程中虾仁质构下降明显,其质构变化与蛋白质的降解、肌纤维的结构破坏有关,脂肪的氧化引起虾青素的降解和虾仁色泽的变化。

  13. Oxygen consumption of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles in heterotrophic medium with zero water exchange Consumo de oxigênio de juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei em meio heterotrófico sem renovação de água

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    Luis Vinatea

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at determining the dissolved oxygen consumption rate of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles maintained in a microbial biofloc raceway system at high density with no aeration. Three 4 L bottles were filled for each treatment, sealed hermetically, and placed in an enclosed greenhouse raceway system. Four shrimp (13.2±1.42 g were assigned to two sets of the bottles, which underwent the following treatments: light conditions with no shrimp; dark conditions with no shrimp; light conditions with shrimp; and dark conditions with shrimp. Dissolved oxygen content was measured every 10 min for 30 min. A quadratic behavior was observed in dissolved oxygen concentration over time. Significant differences for oxigen consumption were observed only at 10 and 20 min between shrimp maintained in the dark and those under light conditions. At 10 min, a higher value was observed in shrimp maintained under light, and at 20 min, in the dark. Significant differences between 10 and 20 min and between 10 and 30 min were observed when oxygen consumption was analyzed over time in the presence of light. Under dark conditions there were significant differences only between 20 and 30 min. Lethal oxygen concentration (0.65 mg L-1 would be reached in less than one hour either under light or dark conditions with no aeration.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o consumo de oxigênio dissolvido (OD de juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei mantidos em sistema de cultivo de bioflocs bacterianos em alta densidade e ausência de aeração. Três garrafas de 4 L foram preenchidas para cada tratamento, fechadas hermeticamente e colocadas em sistema de cultivo fechado. Quatro camarões (13,2±1,42 g foram colocados em dois dos conjuntos de garrafas. Os tratamentos aplicados foram: luminosidade, sem camarões; escuro, sem camarões; luminosidade, com camarões; escuro, com camarões. A concentração de oxigênio dissolvido foi determinada a cada 10 min durante 30 min. Foi

  14. Efeito do tipo de sedimento na eficiência alimentar, crescimento e sobrevivência de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 = Effect of sediment type on feed efficiency, growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

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    Daniele Bezerra dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o desempenho zootécnico do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei em diferentes tipos de substratos não consolidados. Juvenis (0,97 ± 0,27 g foram aclimatados na densidade de 52 m-2, em 21 caixas de polietileno com biofiltros individuais, emum sistema fechado de filtração contínua, sendo submetidos aos tratamentos: 1 A = 25% silte + 25% argila + 25% areia muito fina + 25% areia fina; 2 B = 50% areia fina + 50% areia muito fina e 3 Controle = sem substrato, em um delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com três tratamentos e sete repetições cada. Os animais foram alimentados com 12% da biomassa/dia com ração peletizada (35% de proteína bruta, ofertada em bandejas e parceladaem duas ofertas diárias (8 e 16h. O estudo teve duração de 48 dias, sendo avaliados: consumo aparente de ração, eficiência alimentar, taxa de crescimento específico, sobrevivência e ganho de peso. Foram acompanhados diariamente salinidade, pH, amônia e temperatura da água. A análise estatística dos dados se deu por meio dos testes Anova ou Kuskal-Wallis, em função da sua parametricidade. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas com relação aos fatores avaliadosnas diferentes granulometrias de sedimento testadas, indicando que estas não exerceram influência sobre o desempenho zootécnico de L. vannamei juvenil.This study aimed to evaluate the zootechnical performance of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp at different types of unconsolidated substrate. Juvenile shrimp (0.97 ± 0.27 g were acclimatized, in a stocking density of 52 m-2, to 21 polyethylene boxes (50 L connected individually to biofilters in a closed water exchange system. The animals were submitted to the treatments: 1 A = 25% silt + 25% clay + 25% very fine sand + 25% fine sand; 2 B = 50% fine sand + 50% very fine sand and 3 Control = no sediment, with seven replications each. Photoperiod was set on 12L: 12D. Shrimps were fed twice a day (at08:00 and

  15. Acute toxicity of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and permethrin to juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei =Toxicidade aguda de pirazossulfurom-etílico e permethrin em juvenis de camarão branco Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Giovanni Lemos de Mello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the LC50 (96h of two pesticides: SiriusR 250 SC herbicide of the pyrazosulfuron-ethyl group, and TalcordR insecticide of the permethrin group, on juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp total hemocyte count (THC was also determined as an indication of physiological alterations caused by the pesticides. Juvenile shrimp (5.0 } 0.5 g were exposed to the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 and 1000 ƒÊg L-1 SiriusR 250 SC; and 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 ƒÊg L-1 TalcordR. The TalcordR LC50 (96h was of 0.00933 ƒÊg L-1 or 9.33 ng L-1. There were no significant changes in the THC between control and test groups. No SiriusR 250 SC concentrations tested killed more than 50%of the shrimp; therefore, the herbicide was considered not toxic to the juveniles. However, the THC showed significant differences between the control and test groups, suggesting sublethal effects to L. vannamei juveniles. According to the results, the insecticide TalcordR is highly lethal for L. vannamei and the herbicide SiriusR 250 SC was not lethal in the concentrations tested but showed sublethal effects as lower THC. The results demonstrate the risks involved in farming L. vannamei shrimp near rice cultures where these pesticides are routinely used.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a CL50 (96h dos agroquimicos SiriusR 250 SC, herbicida a base de pirazossulfurom-etilico, e TalcordR, inseticida a base de permethrin, em juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei, bem como avaliar possiveis alteracoes fisiologicas por meio da contagem total de hemocitos (CTH dos camaroes. Juvenis de L. vannamei (5,0 } 0,5 g foram expostos as seguintes concentracoes dos agroquimicos: SiriusR 250 SC, 0; 0,1; 1; 10; 100 e 1.000 ƒÊg L-1, e TalcordR, 0; 0,001; 0,01; 0,1; 1 e 10 ƒÊg L-1. A CL50 (96h do inseticida TalcordR foi de 0,00933 ƒÊg L-1 ou 9,33 ng L-1. Nao houve alteracoes significativas da CTH entre as medias dos grupos

  16. Desempeño reproductivo de dos líneas de reproductores de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei introducidos en Cuba - Reproductive behaviour of broodstocks from lines of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei introducing in Cuba

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    Lic. Missael Guerra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUno de los mayores problemas en los laboratorios de producción depostlarvas es el “inbreeding”, el que puede afectar las características reproductivas de los animales y tener un impacto negativo en la producción. En este trabajo se evaluaron los registros reproductivos de los progenitores de dos introducciones (I1 e I3 de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei provenientes del mismo lugar mantenidos en ciclo de producción cerrado. Para el estudio se tomaron los resultados del número de hembras maduras diarias (Mad/día; Porciento de cópula (% Cop y nauplios por desove (Nau/Des. Todos estos indicadores fueron comparados entre meses y entre introducciones. El número de hembras maduras fue el único que mostró una distribución normal variando de 119 a 178 y de 43 a 70 para cada una de las introducciones respectivamente. Se observó que existen diferencias significativas entre los meses en todos para los indicadores. Se observó un comportamiento similar de loscaracteres reproductivos, el segundo y tercer mes fueron los mejoresdurante el período de producción. No existieron diferencias significativas en el porciento de cópula ni en el número de nauplios por desoves, pero en el número de hembras maduras si hubo diferencias mostrando valores de 160 para I1 y de 62 para I3; esto probablemente se debe a problemas de manejo, el número de animales que se encontraban en la nave o a condiciones ambientales. Estos parámetros son muy importantes para la diferenciación genética entre líneas, además de ser muy útiles en un posible tratamiento de loci cuantitativo (QTL, por sus siglas en ingles que permitan mejoras los caracteres reproductivos y así obtener reproductores más eficientes.SummaryOne of the major concerns in hatcheries is inbreeding, which can affect fitness-related traits, and may have a significant negative impact on production. We present the analysis of reproductive records for broodstocks from two different

  17. Optimización del procedimiento del cálculo del alimento en estanques de engorde para la eficiencia del cultivo del camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei en Cuba (Optimization of the procedure of calculating the fattening food in

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    Jiménez Cabrera, Redney

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa alimentación es una práctica de manejo importante si se considera su costoelevado y su efecto nocivo en el ecosistema del estanque. El método másutilizado para alimentar camarones en cultivos es por voleo y la dosis dealimento proporcionada por este método, se determina por tablas dealimentación.SummaryFood is an important management practice considering its high cost and itsharmful impact on the ecosystem of the pond. The method used to feed shrimpcrop is broadcast and the dose of food provided by this method is determinedby feeding tables.

  18. Growth and Feed Efficiency of Juvenile Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Fed Formulated Diets Containing Different Levels of Poultry by-Product Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Shuyan; TAN Beiping; MAI Kangsen; ZHENG Shixuan

    2009-01-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture ofLitopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower (P0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litopenaeus vannamei.

  19. Indoor Ecological Breeding Technologies of Litopenaeus vannamei%凡纳滨对虾室内生态育苗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆大鹏; 何玉贵; 杨明秋; 邢诒炫; 刘庆明

    2015-01-01

    介绍了凡纳滨对虾室内生态育苗技术,包括设施与材料、育苗车间消毒处理、育苗用水处理、无节幼体投放、培育管理、生物饵料培养、常见疾病的防治方法等方面内容。最后,对凡纳滨对虾室内生态育苗的关键技术进行了讨论。%The paper introduced indoor ecological breeding technology of Litopenaeus vannamei,including facilities and materials,disinfection of nursery plant,breeding water treatment,nauplii delivery,the cultivation and management,cultivation of biological feed,prevention and treatment of common diseases and so on.Finally,the key technologies of indoor ecological breeding of Litopenaeus vannamei were discussed.

  20. Characterization and experimental infection of Flexibacter maritimus (Wakabayashi et al. 1986 in hatcheries of post-larvae of Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931

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    JLP. Mouriño

    Full Text Available A preliminary study to characterize filamentous bacteria, whose presence is related to high mortality of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae cultured in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, is reported. The extract of infected larvae was diluted in different concentrations, cultured in marine agar (DifcoTM, Marine Agar 2216 and incubated at 30 °C for 48 hours. The biochemical characterization included hydrolytic reactions of starch, gelatin and tyrosine, growth in TCBS agar, growth in 0 and 37‰ salinity, pigment production in tyrosine agar, production of H2S, nitrate reduction, congo red reaction, oxidase and catalase. The isolated bacteria belong to the species Flexibacter maritimus, Gram-negative bacilli of 0.4-0.5 µm width and 15 µm length. Experiments were carried out on pathogenicity of F. maritimus in post-larvae of L. vannamei. Survival and symptoms in L. vannamei post-larvae 24 hours after inoculation with F. maritimus and its growth in marine agar were evaluated. Mortality was detected around 92,5% as well as symptoms like melanized lesions in several parts of body, discolouration of gills, bad formation of appendages and of the last abdominal segment, low motility and feeding reduction. The experimental infection results suggested that isolated bacteria of the genus Flexibacter are pathogenic to the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae.

  1. 南美白对虾与羽毛藻生态养殖研究%Study on Ecological Aquaculture of Litopenaeus vannamei and Feather Algea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫东; 王荣霞; 沈铭辉; 王永波; 李向民

    2015-01-01

    Our group found that the feather algea growed quickly,had strong adaptability and the capacity in water purification.In this study,Litopenaeus vannamei and feather algea were studied and proceeded the ecological aquaculture.Results showed that it was faster of mixed culture than the signals in size and weight,and it was higher in survival rate.So that,this study would provide some valuable informations for ecological aquaculture of Litopenaeus vannamei.%研究中发现羽毛藻生长速度快,适应性强,且在净化水质方面具有较强能力。该文以南美白对虾为研究对象,开展循环水模式下与羽毛藻的混养研究。结果表明:南美白对虾与羽毛藻混养的情况下,平均体长和体重比南美白对虾单养模式增速都明显,成活率也明显高于单养模式。因此,该研究为南美白对虾的生态养殖提供一定的数据参考。

  2. Probiotic modulation of the gut bacterial community of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus CAIM 170

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    Irasema E Luis-Villaseñor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of two probiotic mixtures was studied using the fingerprints of the bacterial community of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles exposed to probiotics and challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus CAIM 170. Fingerprints were constructed using 16S rRNA gene and the PCR-SSCP (Single strand conformation polymorphism technique, and the probiotics used were an experimental Bacillus mixture (Bacillus tequilensis YC5-2 + B. endophyticus C2-2 and YC3-B and the commercial probiotic Alibio. The DNA for PCR-SSCP analyses was extracted directly from the guts of shrimps treated for 20 days with the probiotics and injected with 2.5*10(5 CFU g-1 of V. parahaemolyticus one week after suspension of the probiotic treatment. Untreated shrimps served as positive (injected with V. parahaemolyticus and negative (not injected controls Analysis of the bacterial community carried out after inoculation and 12 and 48 h later confirmed that V. parahaemolyticus was present in shrimps of the positive control , but not in the negative control or treated with the probiotic mixtures. A significant difference in the diversity of the bacterial community was observed between times after infection. The band patterns in 0-12 h were clustered into a different group from that determined after 48 h, and suggested that during bacterial infection the guts of whiteleg shrimp were dominated by gamma proteobacteria represented by Vibrio sp. and Photobacterium sp. Our results indicate that the experimental and the commercial mixtures are suitable to modulate the bacterial community of L. vannamei and could be used as a probiotic to control vibriosis in juvenile shrimp.

  3. RESPONS PERTUMBUHAN DAN EKSPRESI GEN UDANG VANAME, Litopenaeus vannamei SETELAH DIRENDAM DALAM LARUTAN HORMON PERTUMBUHAN REKOMBINAN IKAN KERAPU KERTANG

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    Siti Subaidah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pertumbuhan ikan dapat ditingkatkan menggunakan hormon pertumbuhan rekombinan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji respons pertumbuhan dan ekspresi gen udang vaname, Litopenaeus vannamei setelah direndam dengan hormon pertumbuhan rekombinan ikan kerapu kertang, Epinephelus lanceolatus (rElGH. Pada percobaan pertama, post larva stadia 2 (PL-2 sebanyak 1.500 ekor direndam selama 1 jam dalam 1 liter air laut yang mengandung rElGH lima dosis berbeda, yaitu 150; 15; 1,5; 0,15; dan 0,015 mg/L dan bovine serum albumin 0,01%. Setiap perlakuan diulang 3 kali. Perendaman dilakukan dalam kantong plastik ditambah oksigen (volume air :oksigen = 1:5. Udang dipelihara dalam akuarium volume 60 liter dengan kepadatan 25 ekor/litersampai PL-14. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dosis 15 mg/L memberikan peningkatan bobot badan, panjang badan, dan sintasan tertinggi (P<0,05 masing-masing sebesar 37,77%; 12,75%; dan 9,45% dibandingkan dengan kontrol. Ekspresi mRNA single insulin binding domain (SIBD pada PL-14 yang dianalisis dengan realtime PCR menunjukkan kenaikan sebesar 3,3 kali pada udang yang direndam rElGH dibandingkan dengan kontrol, dan dapat dinyatakan bahwa SIBD berperan penting dalam induksi pertumbuhan. Tingkat ekspresi moult inhibiting hormone meningkat sekitar 13%, sedangkan ekspresi cyclopilin A pada udang yang direndam rElGH sama dengan kontrol. Pada percobaan kedua, perendaman PL-2 dalam larutan rElGH dosis 15 mg/L dengan lama waktu 3 jam meningkatkan bobot badan sebesar 62,18% lebih tinggi daripada perendaman 1 jam. Dengan demikian, perendaman udang dalam larutan rElGH meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan ekspresi gen SIBD, dan metode ini dapat berguna dalam peningkatan produksi budidaya.

  4. An activating transcription factor of Litopenaeus vannamei involved in WSSV genes Wsv059 and Wsv166 regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yun; Yue, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Bi, Hai-Tao; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; Chan, Siuming; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2014-12-01

    Members of activating transcription factor/cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate response element binding protein (ATF/CREB) family are induced by various stress signals and function as effector molecules. Consequently, cellular changes occur in response to discrete sets of instructions. In this work, we found an ATF transcription factor in Litopenaeus vannamei designated as LvATFβ. The full-length cDNA of LvATFβ was 1388 bp long with an open reading frame of 939 bp that encoded a putative 313 amino acid protein. The protein contained a basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) domain that was a common feature among ATF/CREB transcription factors. LvATFβ was highly expressed in intestines, gills, and heart. LvATFβ expression was dramatically upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Pull-down assay revealed that LvATFβ had strong affinity to promoters of WSSV genes, namely, wsv059 and wsv166. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that LvATFβ could upregulate the expression of wsv059 and wsv166. Knocked down LvATFβ resulted in decreased expression of wsv059 and wsv166 in WSSV-challenged L. vannamei. Knocked down expression of wsv059 and wsv166 by RNA interference inhibited the replication and reduce the mortality of L. vannamei during WSSV challenge inoculation. The copy numbers of WSSV in wsv059 and wsv166 knocked down group were significant lower than in the control. These results suggested that LvATFβ may be involved in WSSV replication by regulating the expression of wsv059 and wsv166.

  5. Cloning, identification and functional analysis of a β-catenin homologue from Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Shi, Lili; L, Kai; Li, Haoyang; Wang, Sheng; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng

    2016-07-01

    Wnt signaling is known to control multiple of cellular processes such as cell differentiation, communication, apoptosis and proliferation, and is also reported to play a role during microbial infection. β-catenin is a key regulator of the Wnt signaling cascade. In the present study, we cloned and identified a β-catenin homologue from Litopenaeus vannamei termed Lvβ-catenin. The full-length of Lvβ-catenin transcript was 2797 bp in length within a 2451 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a protein of 816 amino acids. Lvβ-catenin protein was comprised of several characteristic domains such as an N-terminal region of GSK-β consensus phosphorylation site and Coed coil section, a central region of 12 continuous Armadillo/β-Catenin-like repeat (ARM) domains and a C-terminal region. Real-time PCR showed Lvβ-catenin expression was responsive to Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Dual-reporter analysis showed that over-expression of Lvβ-catenin could induce activation of the promoter activities of several antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as shrimp PEN4, suggesting that Lvβ-catenin could play a role in regulating the production of AMPs. Knockdown of Lvβ-catenin enhanced the sensitivity of shrimps to V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV challenge, suggesting Lvβ-catenin could play a positive role against bacterial and viral pathogens. In summary, the results presented in this study provided some insights into the function of Wnt/β-catenin of shrimp in regulating AMPs and the host defense against invading pathogens.

  6. Injected phage-displayed-VP28 vaccine reduces shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei mortality by white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Lucero, G; Manoutcharian, K; Hernández-López, J; Ascencio, F

    2016-08-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important viral pathogen for the global shrimp industry causing mass mortalities with huge economic losses. Recombinant phages are capable of expressing foreign peptides on viral coat surface and act as antigenic peptide carriers bearing a phage-displayed vaccine. In this study, the full-length VP28 protein of WSSV, widely known as potential vaccine against infection in shrimp, was successfully cloned and expressed on M13 filamentous phage. The functionality and efficacy of this vaccine immunogen was demonstrated through immunoassay and in vivo challenge studies. In ELISA assay phage-displayed VP28 was bind to Litopenaeus vannamei immobilized hemocyte in contrast to wild-type M13 phage. Shrimps were injected with 2 × 10(10) cfu animal(-1) single dose of VP28-M13 and M13 once and 48 h later intramuscularly challenged with WSSV to test the efficacy of the vaccine against the infection. All dead challenged shrimps were PCR WSSV-positive. The accumulative mortality of the vaccinated and challenged shrimp groups was significantly lower (36.67%) than the unvaccinated group (66.67%). Individual phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was assayed on 8 and 48 h post-vaccination. No significant difference was found in those immunological parameters among groups at any sampled time evaluated. For the first time, phage display technology was used to express a recombinant vaccine for shrimp. The highest percentage of relative survival in vaccinated shrimp (RPS = 44.99%) suggest that the recombinant phage can be used successfully to display and deliver VP28 for farmed marine crustaceans.

  7. Flightless-I (FliI) is a potential negative regulator of the Toll pathway in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Qiu, Wei; Chen, Yong-gui; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Li, Chao-Zheng; Yan, Hui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

    2015-02-01

    Flightless-I (FliI) is a protein negatively modulates the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway through interacting with Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). To investigate the function of FliI in innate immune responses in invertebrates, Litopenaeus vannamei FliI (LvFliI) was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvFliI is 4, 304 bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 1292 amino acids, including 12 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains at the N-terminus and 6 gelsolin homology (GEL) domains at the C-terminus. The LvFliI protein was located in the cytoplasm and LvFliI mRNA was constitutively expressed in healthy L. vannamei, with the highest expression level in the muscle. LvFliI could be up-regulated in hemocytes after lipopolysaccharide (LPS), poly I:C, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges, suggesting a stimulation response of LvFliI to bacterial and immune stimulant challenges. Upon LPS stimulation, overexpression of LvFliI in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells led to downregulation of Drosophila and shrimp antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes. Knockdown of LvFliI by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in an increase of the expression of three shrimp AMP genes (PEN2, crustin, and Lyz1). However, the mortality rates of LvFliI-knockdown shrimp in response to V. parahaemolyticus, S. aureus or WSSV infections were not significantly different from those of the control group. Taken together, all the results suggested that LvFliI may play a negative role in TLR signaling response in L. vannamei.

  8. Nitric oxide as an antimicrobial molecule against Vibrio harveyi infection in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Wong, Nai-Kei; Jiang, Xiao; Luo, Xing; Zhang, Lvping; Yang, Dan; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key effector molecule produced in the innate immune systems of many species for antimicrobial defense. However, how NO production is regulated during bacterial infection in invertebrates, especially crustaceans, remains poorly understood. Vibrio harveyi, a Gram-negative marine pathogen, is among the most prevalent and serious threats to the world's shrimp culture industry. Its virulence typically manifests itself through shrimp hepatopancreas destruction. In the current study, we found that NO generated by an in vitro donor system (NOC-18) could rapidly and effectively kill V. harveyi. In addition, injection of heat-killed V. harveyi increased the concentration of NO/nitrite and the mRNA expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the commercially most significant shrimp species. Live V. harveyi challenge also induced NO/nitrite production and NOS gene expression in primary L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Co-incubation of l-NAME, an inhibitor selective for mammalian constitutive NOSs, dose-dependently blocked V. harveyi-induced NO/nitrite production, without affecting V. harveyi-induced NOS mRNA expression. Furthermore, l-NAME treatment significantly increased the survival rate of infecting V. harveyi in cultured primary hepatopancreatic cells of L. vannamei. As a whole, we have demonstrated that endogenous NO produced by L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells occurs in enzymatically regulated manners and is sufficient to act as a bactericidal molecule for V. harveyi clearance.

  9. Daxx from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is involved in activation of NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Muting; Tang, Junliang; Liang, Qianhui; Zhu, Guohua; Li, Haoyang; Li, Chaozheng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2015-08-01

    Death domain-associated factor 6 (Daxx) is a Fas-binding protein that mediates the activation of Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway and Fas-induced apoptosis. In this study, a crustacean Daxx (LvDaxx) was firstly cloned and identified from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The LvDaxx cDNA was 2644 bp in length with an Open Reading Frame (ORF) of 2217 bp. Sequence analysis indicated that LvDaxx contained a single Daxx domain and two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) and shared a similarity with Drosophila melanogaster Daxx. LvDaxx was a nuclear-localized protein that was expressed highest in hemocytes and could be up-regulated in pathogen- and stimulant-challenge shrimps. LvDaxx could activate the artificial promoter containing an NF-κB binding site and the promoters of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) ie1 gene and arthropod antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), suggesting LvDaxx could be involved in the activation of the NF-κB pathway. Knock-down of LvDaxx in vivo resulted in down-regulation of shrimp AMPs and reduction of WSSV copies in tissues. Furthermore, suppression of LvDaxx significantly decreased the mortality of WSSV-infected shrimps, but increased the mortality of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus-infected shrimps. Thus, these suggested that LvDaxx could play a role in the innate immunity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in L. vannamei, while in the antiviral response, LvDaxx may be hijacked by WSSV and play a complex role in WSSV pathogenesis.

  10. Glucosamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: characterization and regulation under alkaline and cadmium stress.

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    Liu, Y; Cai, D X; Wang, L; Li, J Z; Wang, W N

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metal residues and chemical contaminators considered as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants have a generally immunosuppressive effect on aquatic organisms, depressing metabolic activities and immune response. Glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (GFAT, EC2.6.1.16) is the first, and rate-limiting, enzyme in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, and is involved in the regulation of chitin biosynthesis and glycosylation of proteins. We have isolated and characterized GFAT from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Amino acid sequence similarity of the Lv-GFAT (L.vannamei-GFAT) was highest to GFATs isolated from insects and mammals (83 % similarity to that of Haemaphysalis longicornis). The open-reading frame of the Lv-GFAT codes for a protein of 41.6 kDa with a calculated isoelectric point of 5.03. RT-PCR assays showed that endogenous Lv-GFAT mRNA is most strongly expressed in the intestine. Further analysis of Lv-GFAT gene expression in hepatopancreas by quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that Lv-GFAT transcript levels increased when the shrimp were exposed to alkaline pH (9.3) and cadmium stress, but the time when its mRNA expression level peaked differed under these stresses. We also first expressed the recombinant protein of GFAT from shrimps in Escherichia coli. Western blot analyses confirmed that the Lv-GFAT protein was strongly expressed in the hepatopancreas after exposure to the LC-Cd stress. These results suggest that Lv-GFAT expression is stimulated by alkaline pH and cadmium stress and that it may play important roles in resistance of shrimp to environmental stresses.

  11. Hemolymph cells apoptosis in imported shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from Hawaii to Iran, exposed to white spot virus

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    Zeliha Selamoglu Talas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To show hemolymph apoptosis in imported shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from Hawaii to Iran. Methods: One hundred and eighty shrimps [(7.98±0.54 g] which were collected from a research shrimp farm located in Heleh site in north of Bushehr Province were distributed equally to 6 glass aquariums (50 cm×50 cm×60 cm as group A in triplicate (imported batch in 2011, without crossing with other generations with well clean aerated sea water (100 L per aquarium, salinity of 40 ‰ and temperature of 29 °C. Shrimps of group B (produced by crossing the adults of imported batches in 2009 up to 2011 were distributed also among 6 aquariums with the same conditions. Both shrimp groups were injected with concentration of LD50=1×10 5.4 white spot virus. Results: The results showed that in group A, the mortality began approximately 24 h after exposure and reached 100% after 36 h but no mortality was occurred up to 15 d in shrimps of group B. The slide evaluation of hemolymph of group B showed an increasing trend of apoptosis occurrence in all three types of hemolymph cells, hyalinocytes, semi-granulocytes and granulocytes from 24 h to 72 h in contrary to group A that not any apoptosis was observed during the course of the study (15 d. Conclusions: It is concluded that crossing among the specific pathogen free generations could induce the increasing immunity level through apoptosis to protect them against white spot disease.

  12. Combining in silico transcriptome mining and biological mass spectrometry for neuropeptide discovery in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingming; Gard, Ashley L; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Junhua; Davoodian, Naveed; Lenz, Petra H; Malecha, Spencer R; Christie, Andrew E; Li, Lingjun

    2010-01-01

    The shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is arguably the most important aquacultured crustacean, being the subject of a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide. To extend our knowledge of peptidergic control in this species, we conducted an investigation combining transcriptomics and mass spectrometry to identify its neuropeptides. Specifically, in silico searches of the L. vannamei EST database were conducted to identify putative prepro-hormone-encoding transcripts, with the mature peptides contained within the deduced precursors predicted via online software programs and homology to known isoforms. MALDI-FT mass spectrometry was used to screen tissue fragments and extracts via accurate mass measurements for the predicted peptides, as well as for known ones from other species. ESI-Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry was used to de novo sequence peptides from tissue extracts. In total 120 peptides were characterized using this combined approach, including 5 identified both by transcriptomics and by mass spectrometry (e.g. pQTFQYSRGWTNamide, Arg(7)-corazonin, and pQDLDHVFLRFamide, a myosuppressin), 49 predicted via transcriptomics only (e.g. pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF and pQIRYHQCYFIPVSCF, two C-type allatostatins, and RYLPT, authentic proctolin), and 66 identified solely by mass spectrometry (e.g. the orcokinin NFDEIDRAGMGFA). While some of the characterized peptides were known L. vannamei isoforms (e.g. the pyrokinins DFAFSPRLamide and ADFAFNPRLamide), most were novel, either for this species (e.g. pEGFYSQRYamide, an RYamide) or in general (e.g. the tachykinin-related peptides APAGFLGMRamide, APSGFNGMRamide and APSGFLDMRamide). Collectively, our data not only expand greatly the number of known L. vannamei neuropeptides, but also provide a foundation for future investigations of the physiological roles played by them in this commercially important species.

  13. Impact of the O2 concentrations on bacterial communities and quality of modified atmosphere packaged Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

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    Qian, Yun-Fang; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Xie, Jing; Xiong, Qing; Gao, Zhi-Li

    2013-12-01

    The importance of spoilage-related bacteria in fresh Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under different modified atmospheres (MAs) at 4 °C and the effect of O2 were demonstrated in the current study. The changes of bacterial communities in MA-packed shrimp during cold storage were studied by a combined method of plate counts with isolation and identification. Three gas mixtures were applied: 80% CO2 /5% O2 /15% N2, 80% CO2 /10% O2 /10% N2 and 80% CO2 /20% O2, and unsealed packages of shrimp were used as the control. In addition, the TVB-N, pH, whiteness index, and sensory scores were also determined to evaluate the quality changes of shrimp. MA packaging effectively inhibited the increase of total psychrotrophic bacteria counts and H2 S-producing bacteria counts by about 1.7 and 2.1 log cycles, respectively. The growth of Gram-negative spoilage bacteria in shrimp, including Shewanella spp., Aeromonas spp., and Pseudomonas spp., was inhibited by MA packaging, but the growth rate of Gram-positive bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix spp. were less affected by MA as effectively as Gram-negative bacteria. In comparison with the MA-packaged samples, the counts of H2 S producers in shrimp under a CO2 -enriched atmosphere with 20% O2 were slightly lower than the count in samples under an atmosphere with 5% O2 . However, MA with 20% O2 led to higher concentrations of TVB-N, and lower whiteness values and sensory scores. The shelf life of shrimp under 80% CO2 /10% O2 /10% N2 has been prolonged by > 6 d in comparison with the control according to the sensory scores.

  14. Effects of ammonia-N stress on metabolic and immune function via the neuroendocrine system in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanting; Ren, Xianyun; Li, Jian; Zhai, Qianqian; Feng, Yanyan; Xu, Yang; Ma, Li

    2017-03-16

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunological responses, such as phenoloxidase (PO), antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities, and metabolic variables, such as oxyhemocyanin, lactate, and glucose levels, of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to ambient ammonia-N at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/L for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, and determine the effects of the eyestalk hormone on the metabolic and immune functions of unilateral eyestalk-ablated L. vannamei exposed to ambient ammonia-N at 10 mg/L. The actual concentrations of the control and test solutions were 0.04, 2.77, 6.01, 8.30, and 11.36 mg/L for ammonia-N and 0.01, 0.15, 0.32, 0.44, and 0.60 mg/L for NH3-N (unionized ammonia). The results showed a significant decrease in the PO, antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities in the plasma as well as a significant increase in the glucose and lactate levels and decreased oxyhemocyanin levels in the hemolymph of L. vannamei exposed to elevated ammonia-N levels. These findings indicated that L. vannamei exposed to ammonia-N might demonstrate weakened metabolic and immunological responses. Moreover, eyestalk removal caused a dramatic decrease in PO, antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities, which indicated that the eyestalk hormone in L. vannamei exhibited a higher immune response due to the induction of protective mechanisms against ammonia-N stress. Eyestalk removal also caused a dramatic decrease in glucose and lactate levels, suggesting that the eyestalk hormone is involved in glucose metabolism to meet the energy requirements under ammonia-N stress conditions.

  15. A Dicer-1 gene from white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: expression pattern in the processes of immune response and larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xuemei; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng; Zhang, Huan; Dong, Chaohua; Zhang, Ying; Qiu, Limei; Shi, Yaohua; Zhao, Jianmin; Bi, Yongkun

    2010-10-01

    Dicer is a member of the RNAase III family which catalyzes the cleavage of double-stranded RNA to small interfering RNAs and micro RNAs, and then directs sequence-specific gene silencing. In this paper, the full-length cDNA of Dicer-1 was cloned from white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvDcr1). It was of 7636 bp, including a poly A tail, a 5' UTR of 136 bp, a 3' UTR of 78 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 7422 bp encoding a putative protein of 2473 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence comprised all recognized functional domains found in other Dicer-1 homologues and showed the highest (97.7%) similarity to the Dicer-1 from tiger shrimp Penaeus mondon. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to investigate the tissue distribution of LvDcr1 mRNA, and its expression in shrimps under virus challenge and larvae at different developmental stages. The LvDcr1 mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues with the highest expression level in hemocyte, and was up-regulated in hemocytes and gills after virus injection. These results indicated that LvDcr1 was involved in antiviral defense in adult shrimp. During the developmental stages from fertilized egg to postlarva VII, LvDcr1 was constitutively expressed at all examined development stages, but the expression level varied significantly. The highest expression level was observed in fertilized eggs and followed a decrease from fertilized egg to nauplius I stage. Then, the higher levels of expression were detected at nauplius V and postlarva stages. LvDcr1 expression regularly increased at the upper phase of nauplius, zoea and mysis stages than their prophase. The different expression of LvDcr1 in the larval stages could provide clues for understanding the early innate immunity in the process of shrimp larval development.

  16. Virus replication cycle of white spot syndrome virus in secondary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfeng; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; De Gryse, Gaëtan M A; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Van Tuan, Vo; Van Thuong, Khuong; Bossier, Peter; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2015-09-01

    The replication cycle of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was investigated in secondary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ of Litopenaeus vannamei. The secondary cells formed a confluent monolayer at 24 h post-reseeding, and this monolayer could be maintained for 10 days with a viability of 90 %. Binding of WSSV to cells reached a maximum (73 ± 3 % of cells and 4.84 ± 0.2 virus particles per virus-binding cell) at 120 min at 4 °C. WSSV entered cells by endocytosis. The co-localization of WSSV and early endosomes was observed starting from 30 min post-inoculation (p.i.). Double indirect immunofluorescence staining showed that all cell-bound WSSV particles entered these cells in the period between 0 and 60 min p.i. and that the uncoating of WSSV occurred in the same period. After 1 h inoculation at 27 °C, the WSSV nucleocapsid protein VP664 and envelope protein VP28 started to be synthesized in the cytoplasm from 1 and 3 h p.i., and were transported into nuclei from 3 and 6 h p.i., respectively. The percentage of cells that were VP664- and VP28-positive in their nuclei peaked (50 ± 4 %) at 12 h p.i. Quantitative PCR showed that WSSV DNA started to be synthesized from 6 h p.i. In vivo titration of the supernatants showed that the progeny WSSV were released from 12 h p.i. and peaked at 18 h p.i. In conclusion, the secondary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ were proven to be ideal for examination of the replication cycle of WSSV.

  17. STUDI PENGGUNAAN PRODUK KIMIA DAN BIOLOGI PADA BUDIDAYA UDANG VANAME (Litopenaeus vannamei DI TAMBAK KABUPATEN PESAWARAN PROVINSI LAMPUNG

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    Akhmad Mustafa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kemerosotan kualitas lingkungan menyebabkan terjadinya serangan penyakit udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei, sehingga penggunaan produk kimia dan biologi  menjadi penting sebagai konsekuensi dalam mempertahankan produksi di tambak. Oleh karena itu, studi ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui produk kimia dan biologi yang digunakan di tambak udang vaname Kabupaten Pesawaran Provinsi Lampung sebagai upaya awal untuk mengantisipasi dampaknya terhadap lingkungan. Produk kimia dan biologi serta karakteristik budidaya tambak diketahui melalui pengajuan kuisioner secara terstruktur kepada responden di 29 usaha budidaya tambak di Kecamatan Padang Cermin dan Punduh Pidada Kabupaten Pesawaran. Pengukuran dan pengambilan contoh air dilakukan pada siklus hujan dan kemarau. Statistik deskriptif digunakan untuk mengetahui gambaran umum data penggunaan produk kimia dan biologi serta kualitas air. Uji-T digunakan untuk mengetahui perbedaan karakteristik budidaya tambak intensif dan super-intensif. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa ada 48 jenis produk kimia dan biologi yang digunakan di tambak dan dapat dibagi atas 5 kelompok yaitu: disinfektan, pestisida, pupuk, perbaikan tanah, dan air serta tambahan pakan yang masing-masing dibagi lagi menjadi beberapa sub-kelompok. Pestisida organik dan kapur adalah sub-kelompok produk yang banyak digunakan dan sebaliknya pestisida anorganik adalah sub-kelompok produk yang paling sedikit digunakan di tambak udang vaname. Produk kimia dan biologi yang bersifat sangat beracun, sulit terurai, dapat terakumulasi dalam tubuh organisme dan berbahaya bagi keselamatan makanan ternyata tidak digunakan dalam budidaya tambak udang vaname. Dengan berdasar pada produksi dan luasan tambak udang vaname intensif dan super-intensif maka dihasilkan beban limbah sebesar 21.349-35.582 kg N dan 3.050-6.100 kg P pada setiap siklus budidaya yang memiliki potensi sebagai pencemar untuk budidaya udang vaname itu sendiri di Kabupaten Pesawaran

  18. Transcriptome analysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei hepatopancreas in response to Taura syndrome Virus (TSV experimental infection.

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    Digang Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is a worldwide cultured crustacean species with important commercial value. Over the last two decades, Taura syndrome virus (TSV has seriously threatened the shrimp aquaculture industry in the Western Hemisphere. To better understand the interaction between shrimp immune and TSV, we performed a transcriptome analysis in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei challenged with TSV, using the 454 pyrosequencing (Roche technology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained 126919 and 102181 high-quality reads from TSV-infected and non-infected (control L. vannamei cDNA libraries, respectively. The overall de novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 15004 unigenes, with an average length of 507 bp. Based on BLASTX search (E-value <10-5 against NR, Swissprot, GO, COG and KEGG databases, 10425 unigenes (69.50% of all unigenes were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, or metabolic pathways. In addition, we identified 770 microsatellites and designed 497 sets of primers. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that 1311 genes differentially expressed in the infected shrimp compared to the controls, including 559 up- and 752 down- regulated genes. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are involved in various animal immune functions, such as antiviral, antimicrobial, proteases, protease inhibitors, signal transduction, transcriptional control, cell death and cell adhesion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides valuable information on shrimp gene activities against TSV infection. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in shrimp immunity, and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large amount of transcripts reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp.

  19. Sequencing and de novo analysis of the hemocytes transcriptome in Litopenaeus vannamei response to white spot syndrome virus infection.

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    Shuxia Xue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a causative pathogen found in most shrimp farming areas of the world and causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture. The mechanism underlying the molecular pathogenesis of the highly virulent WSSV remains unknown. To better understand the virus-host interactions at the molecular level, the transcriptome profiles in hemocytes of unchallenged and WSSV-challenged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei were compared using a short-read deep sequencing method (Illumina. RESULTS: RNA-seq analysis generated more than 25.81 million clean pair end (PE reads, which were assembled into 52,073 unigenes (mean size = 520 bp. Based on sequence similarity searches, 23,568 (45.3% genes were identified, among which 6,562 and 7,822 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG mapped 14,941 (63.4% unigenes to 240 KEGG pathways. Among all the annotated unigenes, 1,179 were associated with immune-related genes. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile was slightly changed in the early infection (5 hours post injection of the virus, while large transcriptional differences were identified in the late infection (48 hpi of WSSV. The differentially expressed genes mainly involved in pattern recognition genes and some immune response factors. The results indicated that antiviral immune mechanisms were probably involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided a global survey of host gene activities against virus infection in a non-model organism, pacific white shrimp. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in white shrimp, and help to improve the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions.

  20. Hemolymph cells apoptosis in imported shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from Hawaii to Iran, exposed to white spot virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeliha Selamoglu Talas; Mehmet Fuat Gulhan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To show hemolymph apoptosis in imported shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from Hawaii to Iran. Methods: One hundred and eighty shrimps [(7.98±0.54) g] which were collected from a research shrimp farm located in Heleh site in north of Bushehr Province were distributed equally to 6 glass aquariums (50 cmí50 cmí60 cm) as group A in triplicate (imported batch in 2011, without crossing with other generations) with well clean aerated sea water (100 L per aquarium), salinity of 40 ‰ and temperature of 29 °C. Shrimps of group B (produced by crossing the adults of imported batches in 2009 up to 2011) were distributed also among 6 aquariums with the same conditions. Both shrimp groups were injected with concentration of LD50=1í105.4 white spot virus.Results:exposure and reached 100% after 36 h but no mortality was occurred up to 15 d in shrimps of group B. The slide evaluation of hemolymph of group B showed an increasing trend of apoptosis occurrence in all three types of hemolymph cells, hyalinocytes, semi-granulocytes and granulocytes from 24 h to 72 h in contrary to group A that not any apoptosis was observed during the course of the study (15 d). The results showed that in group A, the mortality began approximately 24 h after Conclusions: It is concluded that crossing among the specific pathogen free generations could induce the increasing immunity level through apoptosis to protect them against white spot disease.

  1. Morfologia e viabilidade de grãos de pólen de acessos silvestres de abacaxi Morphology and viability of pollen grains from wild varieties of pineapple

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    Taliane Leila Soares

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade de grãos de pólen de acessos silvestres de abacaxi mediante a percentagem de germinação in vitro, crescimento do tubo polínico em duas temperaturas de incubação e uso de carmim acético. Além disso, o trabalho busca reconhecer os padrões da morfologia polínica de algumas variedades de abacaxi. Foram utilizadas amostras de pólen coletadas de seis acessos de abacaxi: Silvestre-25, I-26/803 (Ananas macrodontes, Igor (A. comosus var. erectifolius, Ananás Santo Amaro, FRF-22 e FRF-32 (A. comosus var. bracteatus. Os grãos de pólen foram inoculados em meio de cultura contendo 10% de sacarose, 0,01% H3BO3, 0,01% KNO3, 0,03% Ca(NO32.4H2O, solidificado com 1% de ágar e pH ajustado para 6,5. Foram testadas as temperaturas de incubação de 25°C e 30°C. A viabilidade do pólen foi avaliada pela coloração com carmim acético a 2%. Todas as variedades de A. comosus apresentaram grãos de pólen de tamanho médio, simetria radial, âmbito ovalado a esferoidal, 2-porados, subprolatos, exina eutectada, reticulada, heterobrocada, lumens variando de arredondados a poligonais, sem granulações, com exceção dos dois acessos de A. macrodontes que apresentaram tamanho grande. Melhores taxas de germinação foram obtidas para A. macrodontes em comparação com o erectifolius e bracteatus. A maioria dos acessos apresentou viabilidade com carmim acético acima de 76%.The aim of this research was to evaluate the pollen grains viability from accessions of wild pineapple using in vitro pollen germination and the growth of the polinic tube in two different temperatures and acetic carmine. In addition, the study aimed to recognize the pattern of pollen morphology of some pineapple varieties. Samples from six pineapple's accessions: Silvestre-25, I-26/803 (Ananas macrodontes, Igor (A. comosus var. erectifolius, Ananás Santo Amaro, FRF-22 and FRF-32 (A. comosus var. bracteatus were used. The pollen grains

  2. Storage protein profile and amino acid content in wild rice Oryza glumaepatula Perfil da proteína de reserva e conteúdo de aminoácidos no arroz silvestre Oryza glumaepatula

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    Karina Freire D'eça Nogueira Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available - The objective of this work was to determine the total protein profile and the contents of the four major protein fractions (albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin and of the amino acids in the endosperm of the rice wild species Oryza glumaepatula. The experiment was performed with 29 accessions of this species, collected from 13 Brazilian locations, and two commercial cultivars. Protein samples were prepared using dried, polished, and ground grains to obtain homogeneous, dry flour used in the preparation of extracts. Oryza glumaepatula accessions were identified with the highest levels of total protein, albumin and glutelin protein fractions, and amino acids (with the exception of tryptophan in comparison to the two analized rice cultivars. The albumin and glutelin profiles in SDS-Page were distinct between rice cultivars and O. glumaepatula. This wild species has the potential to increase the nutritional quality of rice storage protein through interspecific crosses.- O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os perfis de proteína total e o conteúdo das quatro principais frações proteicas (albumina, globulina, prolamina e glutelina e de aminoácidos no endosperma da espécie de arroz silvestre Oryza glumaepatula. O experimento foi realizado com 29 acessos dessa espécie, coletados em 13 locais no Brasil, e duas cultivares comerciais. Amostras de proteínas foram preparadas com grãos secos, polidos e moídos, para obtenção de uma farinha seca e homogênea, usada no preparo dos estratos. Acessos de O. glumaepatula foram identificados com os maiores níveis de proteína total, frações proteicas de albumina e glutelina, e aminoácidos (com exceção do triptofano, em comparação às duas cultivares de arroz avaliadas. Os perfis de albumina e glutelina em SDS-PAGE foram distintos entre as cultivares de arroz e O. glumaepatula. Essa espécie silvestre tem o potencial de aumentar a qualidade nutricional da proteína de reserva do arroz por

  3. Aclimatação do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 à água doce com diferentes estratégias de alimentação e calagem = Acclimatization of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 to the freshwater with different feeding and liming strategies

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    Paulo de Paula Mendes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pós-Larvas do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase de PL9-10 e PL25-26 foram aclimatadas à água doce (0,0 ‰, objetivando promover cultivos em regiões interioranas. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos conduzidos em aquários com capacidade útil de 44 litros e densidade de estocagem de 11,36 pós-larvas/L. No experimento 1, foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cal hidratada (0,018 g a 0,031 g e 2 dietas, formuladas à base de ração comercial para camarão e biomassa de artêmia. No experimento 2, foram testadas 5dietas com diferentes concentrações de biomassa de artêmia (0% a 100%, inseridas em rações de peixes e camarões. No final do processo de aclimatação, a sobrevivência das póslarvas variou de 40,44% a 98,04%. Concluiu-se que pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei podem ser aclimatadas à água doce e que o aumento da concentração de cal e de artêmia na ração melhoraram significativamente (pLitopenaeus vannamei postlarvae with 9-10 (PL9-10, 25-26 days old (PL25-26 were acclimated to freshwater (0 ppt for the purpose of attending the inland cultures. Two experiments were conducted in 44 liter aquariums with stocking density of 11.36 postlarvae/L. In experiment 01, different concentrations of hydrated lime (0.018 g a 0.031 g and two diets, formulated with commercial shrimp ration and artemia biomass, were tested. In experiment 02, five diets, withdifferent concentrations of artemia biomass (0 to 100% inserted in fish and shrimp rations, were tested. At the end of the acclimatization process, the postlarvae survival varied from40.44 to 98.04%. Results showed that Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae can be acclimated to freshwater. Also, the increase of lime concentration and the artemia biomass in the ration improved (p<0.05 the zootechnic parameters of the species in a significant way.

  4. Biorremediación de los efluentes de cultivo del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 utilizando tapetes microbianos en un sistema de recirculación Bioremediacion of effluents ones of the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 using microbial mats in a recirculating system

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    Carlos Lezama-Cervantes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un sistema de recirculación (SR integrando el cultivo del camarón con tapetes microbianos buscando mitigar los impactos ambientales de los subproductos del cultivo del camarón y avanzar hacia la biorremediación del agua de cultivo. Los consorcios microbianos obtenidos de ambientes naturales (TaM estuvieron constituidos por bacterias (55,6%, cianófitas (18,4%, diatomeas (9%, nemátodos (5,6% y clorófitas (1,4%, entre los grupos taxonómicos principales. La remoción de nutrientes y sólidos se evaluó en un SR (2 ciclos/hora conteniendo (n = 3 60 y 120 ind m-2 de Litopenaeus vannamei. Los resultados demostraron que los TaM redujeron los niveles de nitrógeno amoniacal por encima del 71% diariamente; la demanda bioquímica de oxígeno (DBO5 se redujo más de 68% y los sólidos suspendidos (SST hasta en 62% al compararse con los sistemas control (p 0,05. El agua bio-remediada tiene un efecto positivo en el cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei, y promueve el crecimiento y sobrevivencia en presencia de TaM en el SR.We developed a recirculating system integrating shrimp culture with microbial mats aiming to mitigate the environmental impacts of by-products from shrimp culture and to advance toward the bioremediation of the shrimp culture water. The microbial consortia collected from natural environments (TaM was constituted by bacteria (55.6%, Cyanophyte (18.4%, diatoms (9%, nematods (5.6% and Chlorophyte algae (1.4% among the major taxonomic groups. The removal of nutrients and solids by these mats was assessed in a recirculating system (2 cycles/hour (n = 3 containing 60 and 120 ind m-2 of Litopenaeus vannamei. Results showed that the microbial mat reduces daily up to 71% of ammonia nitrogen, decreases around 68% of the biochemical oxygen demand (DBO5 and up to 62% of suspended solids (SST when comparing to the control systems (p 0.05. The Bioremediated culture water had a positive effect on the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei, and

  5. Acesso ao alimento artificial e enchimento do trato digestivo de juvenis do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae durante as fases clara e escura do período de 24 horas Artificial food access and digestive tract filling of juvenil marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae during light and dark phases in 24-hour period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele S. Pontes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de dados acerca do comportamento alimentar do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 com relação ao alimento artificial ofertado em bandejas poderá induzir a uma alimentação inadequada, resultando no desperdício da ração, no aporte desnecessário de nutrientes, e conseqüente aumento dos custos com a alimentação e da poluição ambiental potencial desta atividade. Objetivando fornecer subsídios para a melhoria do manejo alimentar praticado nas fazendas, foram realizados estudos comportamentais utilizando 64 juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei (7,57 ± 1,01g, mantidos em densidade populacional de 33 m², submetidos a fotoperíodo artificial, em ciclo invertido, para observação durante as fases clara e escura. A ração foi ofertada em intervalos pré-estabelecidos, registrando-se posteriormente através de método focal contínuo: a latência para chegada à bandeja, b latência para consumo do alimento e c Índice de Enchimento do Trato Digestivo. Os animais foram mais rápidos para chegar à bandeja e também para iniciar o consumo do alimento nos horários da fase clara. O enchimento do trato digestivo mostrou-se superior na meia hora subsequente à oferta do alimento, especialmente nos horários da fase clara.The few data on the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 behavior related to feed offer in trays can result inadequate feeding by the animal, feed wastage and unnecessary nutrient input, increasing feed costs and potential environmental pollution of that culture. In order to provide tools for improved feed management methods in shrimp farms, a behavioral study was conducted, using 64 Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (7,57 ± 1,01g, one animal per 33 m². They were submitted to artificial photoperiods, half of them in reversed cycle, in order to register behavior during light and dark phases. The following variables were registered (continuous sampling after feed exposition: a latency to access the

  6. Migraciones en el chaco semiárido de salta: su relación con la ganadería, la explotación forestal y el uso de la fauna silvestre en el departamento rivadavia

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    F. Barbar\\u00E1n

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que la Colonia Rivadavia se fundó en 1862, con el objetivo principal de aprovechar los pastizales del Chaco Semiárido para exportar ganado al Norte de Chile, analizamos desde una perspectiva histórica y demográfica, la relación existente entre las migraciones humanas y las principales actividades económicas del Departamento Rivadavia. Usando el método residual, se calcularon los saldos migratorios entre los censos nacionales de población y vivienda de 1914, 1947, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991 y la población proyectada a 1998, resultando todos negativos. La expulsión constante de población, obedece al retroceso de la actividad ganadera por sobrepastoreo, lo que condujo a la degradación del ecosistema y la caída del ingreso, induciendo a los pobladores locales a presionar mas sobre el bosque y la fauna silvestre. La pobreza, consecuencia directa de un problema ambiental, obligó a emigrar de Rivadavia. Esta conclusión se sustenta en la evolución de distintos indicadores socio-económicos que se comparan para distintos períodos de los últimos treinta años: necesidades básicas insatisfechas, desnutrición infantil y el fracaso de distintos proyectos de desarrollo dirigidos principalmente a aborígenes en el período 1969 – 1992

  7. DIAGNÓSTICO PARTICIPATIVO DE LAS CONDICIONES SOCIOCULTURALES ASOCIADAS A LA CONSERVACIÓN DE LOS CHILES SILVESTRES (Capsicum spp. EN LA DEPRESIÓN CENTRAL DE CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

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    R. A. A. Bran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los recursos fitogenéticos son la base de la seguridad alimentaria de la población mundial. México constituye uno de los centros de origen y diversidad de varias especies vegetales, entre ellas diversos tipos de Capsicum. Sin embargo, el mal manejo de ellos está afectando su conservación, fundamentalmente por la acción depredadora del hombre, el uso excesivo de agroquímicos y la deforestación; todo esto explica el esfuerzo de las instituciones científicas y gubernamentales por su cuidado y conservación. El trabajo se realizó en cinco municipios de la región Frailesca de la Depresión Central de Chiapas, México. Se inició con la aplicación de una encuesta a 386 pobladores de la región rural. La información fue evaluada mediante el análisis de frecuencia. Los resultados demostraron que la población rural tiene conocimientos sobre la utilización de los chiles silvestres y semisilvestres como alimento y condimento, no así en los aspectos relacionados con su conservación, la cual es realizada por los campesinos en pequeños huertos.

  8. Bases para la elaboración del plan de ordenamiento territorial de la reserva de fauna silvestre Hueque-Sauca, municipio Píritu, estado Falcón

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    Miguel Antonio Flores

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se propone una zonificación para el ordenamiento territorial de la reserva de fauna silvestre Hueque-Sauca, ubicada en el Municipio Píritu del Estado Falcón. La misma se basó en el estudio de las potencialidades y limitaciones del medio físico-natural las cuales fueron expresadas en un atlas cartográfico de 22 mapas temáticos realizado en ARCGIS a escala 1: 25.000. Mediante la superposición y análisis de los mapas temáticos, se identificaron los usos y actividades realizados actualmente por los habitantes del RFS Hueque- Sauca y se contrastaron con los determinados por la potencialidad del área y por lo establecido en la legislación ambiental; a fin de elaborar una propuesta de zonificación que sirva de base para la elaboración de los instrumentos normativos para la gestión, conservación y manejo de esta área protegida.

  9. Contribución de Graells a la posición de España en el primer convenio internacional para la protección de ciertas especies de la fauna silvestre (1902

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    Ferrero-García, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The process followed by Spain to decide whether it should subscribe the International Convention for the Protection of Birds Useful to Agriculture, signed in 1902 is described. The fundamental role played by Mariano de la Paz Graells, one of the foremost Spanish naturalists of the 19th century, in the technical review and acceptance of the draft agreement, drawn up in 1895, is highlighted. Furthermore, a critical analysis of Graells’s position in relation to this so-called first international convention for the conservation of certain wildlife species, has been carried out.

    Se describe el proceso que siguió España para decidir si debía suscribir el Convenio Internacional para la Protección de las Aves Útiles a la Agricultura, firmado en 1902. Se pone de manifiesto el papel fundamental que tuvo Mariano de la Paz Graells, uno de los más importantes naturalistas españoles del siglo XIX, en el examen técnico y aceptación del proyecto de dicho convenio, redactado en 1895. Además, se ha realizado un análisis crítico de la postura de Graells en relación con la que puede calificarse como la primera convención internacional para la conservación de ciertas especies de la fauna silvestre.

  10. Assessing the potential toxicity of marine sediments found in petroleum industry areas: A new approach based on responses of postlarval shrimp; Evaluacion del potencial de toxicidad de sedimentos marinos en areas de la industria petrolera: Un nuevo metodo basado en respuestas de postlarvas de camarones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelista, A.J.A.; Nascimento, I.A.; Pereira, S.A.; Lopes, M.B.N.L.; Martins, L.K.P. [Laboratorio de Bio Marinha e Biomonitoramento IBIO-UFBA, Campus Universitario de Ondina, Salvador (Brazil); Fillmann, G [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, West Hoe, PL (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-15

    In this study we tested the toxicity of bulk sediment from the northeastern area of Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate environmental impact induced by 50 years of exposure to the local petroleum industry (Petrobras). Sediment samples were collected during one year, at three-month intervals, from four sites in areas of oil extraction (Ilha das Fontes, station 4), transportation (Ilhas de Madre de Deus and Pati, stations 2 and 3) and refinement (RELAM, station1). Two reference stations (5 and 6) were located outside the petroleum influence area, to the south of the bay. Static bioassays were conducted for 96 h, using 7-8 day old Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae (PL). The assays were conducted in 2.5 L plastic jars containing 200 g of surface (1 cm deep) bulk sediment covered by 2 L of dilution water (filtered seawater, 28 ppt salinity, 27 + 2 degree centigrade and DO under saturation). Fifteen exposed PL in each jar were fed daily on 60 recently hatched Artemia salina nauplii. Physico-chemical parameters were monitored. Mortality and dry weight gain were taken as end-points. The PL mortality data obtained for sediment from the Petrobras stations in comparison to the data from the reference stations were not significantly different (P > 0.05); however, the dry weight gain showed significant differences among stations. A maximum value was reached at station 5 (reference area) and a minimum at station 1 (RELAM refinery). Stations 2 and 3 in petroleum transportation areas did not show significant differences (P > 0.05). To evaluate the sensitivity of this bulk-sediment test in detecting contaminant effects generated by the petroleum industry, the toxicity data were considered in terms of the hydrocarbon levels analyzed in sediments from the same Petrobras areas and in one of the control areas, located outside the bay. The results support the assumption that the bulk-sediment bioassay on penaeid PL is a suitable methodology not only to distinguish between

  11. Effect of Dissolved Oxygen on Swimming Ability and Physiological Response to Swimming Fatigue of Whiteleg Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yan; ZHANG Xiumei; LIU Xuxu; Dhanrajsingh N. Thakur

    2014-01-01

    The swimming endurance of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, 87.66 mm ± 0.25 mm, 7.73 g ± 0.06 g) was exam-ined at various concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO, 1.9, 3.8, 6.8 and 13.6 mg L-1) in a swimming channel against one of the five flow velocities (v1, v2, v3, v4 and v5). Metabolite contents in the plasma, hepatopancreas and pleopods muscle of the shrimp were quantified before and after swimming fatigue. The results revealed that the swimming speed and DO concentration were significant factors that affected the swimming endurance of L. vannamei. The relationship between swimming endurance and swimming speed at various DO concentrations can be described by the power model (ν·tb=a). The relationship between DO concentration (mg L-1) and the swimming ability index (SAI), defined as SAI= 90000∫ vdt (cm) , can be described as SAI=27.947 DO0.137 (R2=0.9312). The level of DO concentration directly affected the physiology of shrimp, and exposure to low concentrations of DO led to the increases in lactate and energetic substrate content in the shrimp. In responding to the low DO concentration at 1.9 mg L-1 and the swimming stress, L. vannamei exhibited a mix of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism to satisfy the energetic demand, mainly characterized by the utilization of total protein and glycogen and the production of lactate and glucose. Fatigue from swimming led to severe loss of plasma triglyceride at v1, v2, and v3 with 1.9 mg L-1 DO, and at v1 with 3.8, 6.8 and 13.6 mg L-1 DO, whereas the plasma glucose con-tent increased significantly at v3, v4 and v5 with 3.8 and 6.8 mg L-1 DO, and at v5 with 13.6 mg L-1 DO. The plasma total protein and hepatopancreas glycogen were highly depleted in shrimp by swimming fatigue at various DO concentrations, whereas the plasma lactate accumulated at high levels after swimming fatigue at different velocities. These results were of particular value to under-standing the locomotory ability of whiteleg shrimp and its

  12. Effect of probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici on antioxidant defences and oxidative stress of Litopenaeus stylirostris under Vibrio nigripulchritudo challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castex, Mathieu; Lemaire, Pierrette; Wabete, Nelly; Chim, Liet

    2010-04-01

    Antioxidant defences and induced oxidative stress tissue damage of the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris, under challenge with Vibrio nigripulchritudo, were investigated for a 72-h period. For this purpose, L. stylirostris were first infected by immersion with pathogenic V. nigripulchritudo strain SFn1 and then antioxidant defences: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), Total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathiones and induced tissue damage (MDA and carbonyl proteins) were determined in the digestive gland at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection (h.p.i.). In the meantime, TAS was also measured in the blood. Infection level of the shrimps during the challenge was followed by determining V. nigripulchritudo prevalence and load in the haemolymph of the shrimps. Changes in all these parameters during the 72-h.p.i. period were recorded for control shrimps and shrimps previously fed for one month with probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M at 10(7) CFU g(-1) of feed. Our results showed that immersion with V. nigripulchritudo led to maximal infection level in the haemolymph at 24 h.p.i. preceding the mortality peak recorded at 48 h.p.i. Significant decreases in the antioxidant defences were detected from 24 h.p.i. and beyond that time infection leaded to increases in oxidative stress level and tissue damage. Compared to control group, shrimps fed the probiotic diet showed lower infection (20% instead of 45% at 24 h.p.i. in the control group) and mortality (25% instead of 41.7% in the control group) levels. Moreover, infected shrimp fed the probiotic compared to uninfected control shrimps exhibited very similar antioxidant status and oxidative stress level. Compared to the infected control group, shrimps fed the probiotic sustained higher antioxidant defences and lower oxidative stress level. This study shows that bacterial infection leads to oxidative stress in L. stylirostris and highlighted a beneficial effect of P

  13. Optimal content and ratio of lysine to arginine in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zhengfu; DONG Chaohua; WANG Linlin; HU Yanjiang; ZHU Wei

    2013-01-01

    The optimal quantity of dietary lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg),and the optimal ratio of dietary Lys to Arg for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were investigated.Coated Lys and Arg were added to a basal diet (37.99% crude protein and 7.28% crude lipid) to provide graded levels of Lys and Arg.The experimental diets contained three Lys levels (2.51%,2.11%,and 1.70% of total diet),and three Arg levels (1.41%,1.80%,and 2.21% of total diet) and all combinations of these levels were tested.Pacific white shrimp,with a mean weight of 3.62±0.1 g,were randomly distributed in 36 fiberglass tanks with 30 shrimp per tank and reared on the experimental diets for 50 days.After the feeding trial,the growth performance,survival,feed conversion rate (FCR),body composition and protease and lipase activities in the hepatopancreases of the experimental shrimps were determined.The results show that weight gain (WG),specific growth rate (SGR),FCR,body protein,body Lys and Arg content were significantly affected by dietary Lys and Arg (P<0.05) and improved when dietary Lys and Arg levels were 2.11%-2.51% and 1.80%-2.21%,respectively.Protease and lipase activities in the hepatopancreases of the shrimps appeared higher when dietary Lys and Arg quantities were 2.11%-2.51% and 1.80%-2.21%,although the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05).Therefore,according to our results,the optimal Lys and Arg quantities in the diet of Pacific white shrimp,L.vannamei,were considered to be 2.11%-2.51% and 1.80%-2.21%,respectively,and the optimal ratio to be 1:0.88-1:1.05.

  14. Roles of receptor for activated protein kinase C1 for modulating immune responses in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhong-Wen; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2015-10-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding a receptor for activated protein kinase C1 (RACK1) messenger (m)RNA of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, designated LvRACK1, consisted a 1136-bp cDNA containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 954 bp, a 111-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 71-bp 3'-UTR, which is a 36 kDa cytosolic protein, belonging to the Trp-Asp40 (WD40) family of proteins, characterized by containing seven highly conserved Trp-Asp40 (WD40) internal repeats, and a poly A tail. The WD repeat of LvRACK1 can be predicted to form a seven-bladed propeller structure with each WD repeat composed of four antiparallel β-sheets. The WD40 domains have been implicated in protein-protein interactions. A comparison of amino acid sequences showed that LvRACK1 was closely related to arthropods RACK1. LvRACK1 cDNA was synthesized in all tested tissues detected with real-time PCR including haemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, muscles, subcuticular epithelium, intestines, abdominal nervous ganglia, thoracic nervous ganglia, lymphoid organ, stomach, heart, and antennal gland, especially in subcuticular epithelium and gill. LvRACK1 mRNA transcription in haemocytes of L. vannamei injected with Vibrio alginolyticus decreased. The depletion of LvRACK1 of haemocytes in L. vannamei received its dsRNA revealed the increased respiratory bursts per haemocyte, superoxide dismutase (SOD), activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and clotting time, but showed the decreased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cells (HCs), phagocytic activity, and transglutaminase (TG) activity. LvRACK1 silenced shrimp showed the upregulated gene expressions of cyMnSOD, mtMnSOD, peroxinectin (PE), and TGI, and showed the downregulated α2-macroglobulin (α2-M), clottable protein (CP), lysozyme, and crustin gene expressions. It is therefore concluded that LvRACK1 is involved in immune defense and signaling transduction in haemocytes of L. vannamei infected with V. alginolyticus.

  15. Identification of ecdysteroid signaling late-response genes from different tissues of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhaoying; He, Shulin; Liu, Tao; Liu, Yongjie; Hou, Fujun; Liu, Qiao; Wang, Xianzong; Mi, Xiao; Wang, Ping; Liu, Xiaolin

    2014-06-01

    Ecdysteroids initiate signaling along multiple pathways that regulate various aspects of development, maturation, and reproduction in arthropods. This study was carried out to seek the late target genes of ecdysteroid signaling from different tissues of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In the present study, eight isoforms of ecdysteroid receptor (EcR), two isoforms of retinoic acid X receptor (RXR), and one homolog of E75 were characterized from L. vannamei. The overall protein sequences and specific functional sites of EcR, RXR and E75 among crustacean species were found highly conserved. Tissue-specific, development stage-specific, and molt stage-specific expression patterns of LvEcR, LvRXR, and LvE75 were detected by qPCR. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) of any one of the three genes LvEcR, LvRXR and LvE75 caused specific expression changes of the other two, and resulted in corresponding expression changes of two molting related genes Cathepsin-L (LvCHSL) and Hemocyanin (LvHCyn) in the hepatopancreas, two chitin metabolism related genes chitin synthase (LvChS) and chitinase isoenzyme (LvChi2) in the epidermis, and two muscle growth related genes LvActin and myosin heavy chain (LvMHC) in the muscle. In correspondence, after in vivo injections of 20 hydroxyecdysone, specific expression changes of LvEcR, LvRXR, LvE75, LvCHSL and LvHCyn in the hepatopancreas, LvEcR, LvRXR, LvE75, LvChS and LvChi2 in the epidermis, and LvEcR, LvRXR, LvE75, LvActin and LvMHC in the muscle were also observed, respectively. Results in our study indicate multiple functions of ecdysteroids signaling in L. vannamei and the function may be time- and space-specific; ecdysteroids may act through different pathways via its functional receptor heterodimer EcR-RXR and the early responsive gene E75 to perform specific regulation roles on the target genes in different shrimp tissues; LvCHSL and LvHCyn in the hepatopancreas, LvChS and LvChi2 in the

  16. Molecular and immune response characterizations of a novel AIF and cytochrome c in Litopenaeus vannamei defending against WSSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen-Yan; Yao, Cui-Luan

    2016-09-01

    Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and cytochrome c (CYC) are two mitochondrial apoptogenic factors. In the present study, the cDNA sequences of AIF (LvAIF) and CYC (LvCYC) were cloned from Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The LvAIF was 1664 bp, including a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 154 bp, an open reading frame (ORF) of 1323 bp encoding a polypeptide of 440 amino acids (aa) and a 3' UTR of 187 bp. The LvCYC was 582 bp, including a 50 bp 5' UTR, a 315 bp ORF encoding for 104 aa, and a 217 bp 3' UTR. The deduced protein of LvAIF contained a conserved Pyr_redox and AIF_C domain at the N-terminal and the predicted LvCYC included a conservative cytochrome_C domain, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that LvAIF belonged to AIF1 subfamily and showed a close relationship with AIF1 from vertebrates and LvCYC showed the closest relationship with its counterparts from shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus. Tissue expression profiles showed that both LvAIF and LvCYC existed in most tissues, with the most predominant expression of LvAIF in intestine, then followed muscle and the weakest expression in gill. The highest expression of LvCYC was detected in muscle, and the weakest expression was in hemocytes. Additionally, after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, the significant up-regulation of LvAIF, LvCYC and caspase 3 transcripts and the increase of pro-caspase 3 and active-caspase 3 protein were detected at most time points (P < 0.05). However, all of the three genes down-regulated in hemocytes in the early stage after WSSV infection. WSSV proliferation and shrimp mortality showed a time-dependent manner and the production of ROS in hemocytes were significantly increased at 6 and 24 h after infection. Our results showed that the apoptotic genes AIF, CYC and caspase 3 might play crucial roles in hepatopancreas, however, the production of ROS in hemocytes might be important in shrimp defense against WSSV infection.

  17. Effect of a commercial probiotic on bacterial and phytoplankton concentration in intensive shrimp farming (Litopenaeus vannamei recirculation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enox de Paiva-Maia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a commercial probiotic on the bacterial and phytoplankton concentration in intensive shrimp farming (Litopenaeus vannamei with a recirculation system, for one culture period in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Ponds, with mean area of 2.6 ha, were stocked with a density of 98 shrimp m-2. A commercial probiotic was prepared following the manufacture's specifications and sprayed on the surface of the ponds seven days prior to stocking and then on a weekly basis until harvest. The same procedures were used with all treatments (control and probiotic, with regard to feeding, liming, fertilization, use of molasses and monitoring of water quality. Field data were analyzed using ANOVA, the Tukey test and Chi-square tests. No significant differences between treatments were found for water quality data, but treatment means showed significant differences for total heterotrophic bacteria in the sediment (5.181 ± 0.34x10(4 cfu g-1 and 5.749 ± 0.67x10(4 cfu g-1, total heterotrophic bacteria in surface water (4.514 ± 0.95x 10(4 cfu m L-1 and 4.136 ± 0.81x10(4 cfu m L-1 and positive sucrose in surface water (2.438 ± 0.72x10(4 cfu m L-1 and 2.203 ± 0.76x10(4 cfu m L-1, respectively, for the control and probiotic treatment. Significant differences were also observed throughout the weeks for total heterotrophic bacteria in the sediment, positive and negative sucrose in the sediment, total heterotrophic bacteria in surface and bottom water, and Pyrrophyta percentage values between 10 and 16 weeks. These results showed that the probiotic causes changes in the total heterotrophic bacteria in the sediment and percentage values of Pyrrophyta concentration, improving the environmental quality of the sediment and water in ponds with closed recirculation systems.

  18. Impact of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) co-infection on survival of penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Song, Xiaoling; Huang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an important viral pathogen that infects farmed penaeid shrimp, and the threat of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection to shrimp farming has become increasingly severe. Viral and bacterial cross or superimposed infections may induce higher shrimp mortality. We used a feeding method to infect Litopenaeus vannamei with WSSV and then injected a low dose of V. parahaemolyticus (WSSV+Vp), or we first infected L. vannamei with a low-dose injection of V. parahaemolyticus and then fed the shrimp WSSV to achieve viral infection (Vp+WSSV). The eff ect of V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV co-infection on survival of L. vannamei was evaluated by comparing cumulative mortality rates between experimental and control groups. We also spread L. vannamei hemolymph on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar plates to determine the number of Vibrio, and the WSSV copy number in L. vannamei gills was determined using an absolute quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. LvMyD88 and Lvakt gene expression levels were detected in gills of L. vannamei by real-time PCR to determine the cause of the diff erent mortality rates. Our results show that (1) the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the WSSV+Vp group reached 100% on day 10 after WSSV infection, whereas the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the Vp+WSSV group and the WSSV-alone control group approached 100% on days 11 and 13 of infection; (2) the number of Vibrio in the L. vannamei group infected with V. parahaemolyticus alone declined gradually, whereas the other groups showed significant increases in the numbers of Vibrio ( P<0.05); (3) the WSSV copy numbers in the gills of the WSSV+Vp, Vp+WSSV, and the WSSV-alone groups increased from 105 to 107 /mg tissue 72, 96, and 144 h after infection, respectively. These results suggest that V. parahaemolyticus infection accelerated proliferation of WSSV in L. vannamei and vice versa. The combined accelerated proliferation of both V

  19. Immune related transcriptional responses and performance of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae fed on dietary probiotic PrimaLac(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Yarahmadi, Peyman; Abbasian, Mahdi

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the effects of various levels of multi-strain probiotic on the immune related gene expression, digestive enzyme activity, growth performance, body chemical composition and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae. After transferring post-larvae of L. vannamei to indoor conditions and subsequent acclimation to laboratory condition for 14 days, the shrimp were fed multi-strain probiotic at four different doses of 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g kg(-1) for eight weeks. Shrimp fed 0.5 and 1.0 g kg(-1) probiotic PrimaLac(®) exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher weight gain, specific growth rate, body crude protein as well as lower FCR compared to other groups. Feeding on 0.5 and 1 g kg(-1) dietary multi-strain probiotic significantly (p < 0.05) increased the level of body crude protein. Oral administration of 0.5 and 1.0 g kg(-1) multi-strain probiotic significantly (p < 0.05) decreased body crude lipid and body moisture respectively. 30 days after feeding, protease, amylase and lipase activity increased in groups fed 0.5 and 1.0 g kg(-1) probiotic PrimaLac(®). However, on the 60th day, specific protease and amylase activity in all treatment groups were significantly higher than control group (p < 0.05) but lipase activity was higher (p < 0.05) in groups fed 0.5 and 1.0 g kg(-1) multi-strain probiotic. Oral administration of 1.0 g kg(-1) probiotic increased (p < 0.05) the level of prophenoloxidase and g-type lysozyme gene on day 30th and 60th after treatment. On day 30th and 60th, penaeidin gene expression was significantly higher in all treatment groups compared to the control group (p < 0.05). In general, findings of this study demonstrated that oral administration of 0.5 and 1.0 g kg(-1) multi-strain probiotic improved the performance of the fish and increased the expression of immune related genes.

  20. Real time PCR quantification of WSSV infection in specific pathogen free (SPF) Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) exposed to antiviral nucleotide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Badhul Haq; K Kalai Priya; R Rajaram; R Vignesh; M Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the level of WSSV transmission from the infected tiger prawn Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) to specific pathogen free Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) in laboratory captivity condition in relation to PCR detection, histopathological observation and viral genome sequence. Methods: Viral DNA was isolated from purified virions by treatment with proteinase K (0.2 mg/mL) and Sarkosyl (1%). The purity and concentration of the DNA were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Moribund and dead shrimp were removed and processed for indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) analysis. Histological observation of infected L. vannamei shrimps were revealed by the degenerated cells which were characterized by intranuclear inclusions in the tissues of WSSV infected mid-gut gland, lymphoid organ, gill lamellae and gut epithelium. Total DNA was extracted, from shrimp hemolymph and tissues, with a High Puree PCR template preparation kit. WSSV-DNA was detected using a commercial 2-step PCR detection kit. Results:The present study compares the real-time PCR results with SYBR Green I concentration ranging from 0.2 to 0.7×. The positive standard was used in the range of 102, 104 106, 108 and 1010 copies/ng of DNA in general. The PCR analysis showed the appearance of a prominent band from the PCR amplified product of WSSV-DNA at internal control band of 848 bp. Moderate and severe levels were observed as 650 bp and 910 bp (200 & 2 000 copies) in various transmission routes. The WSSV content in moribund shrimp of all the experimental species (L. vannamei) approximately ranged in nucleotide application by quantification method from 0.000 001 WSSV copies/μg of total DNA. In whole moribund infection animal, approximately 0.02 WSSV copies/μg of DNA was detected in nucleotide applied animal. Conclusion: These results indicate that wild brood stock and native culture shrimp P. monodon may be infected with WSSV and can get transferred into the SPF L. vannamei farming

  1. NONSPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE AND RESISTANCE OF Litopenaeus vannamei FED WITH NUCLEOTIDE, β-GLUCAN, AND PROTAGEN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henky Manoppo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the nonspecific immune response and resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei fed with nucleotide, β–glucan, and protagen diets. Shrimp juveniles with an average weight of 5.39±0.56 g were reared in glass aquaria at a density of 15 shrimps/aquarium. Shrimps were fed three times a day for four weeks at a feeding rate of 3%/bw/day. Treatment diets consisted of A: basal diet (without immunostimulant, B: β–glucan, C: protagen, and D: nucleotide, each with three replicates. At the end of feeding period, the shrimps were intramuscularly injected with Vibrio harveyi 0.1 x 106 cfu.shrimp-1. Total haemocyte count (THC of shrimp fed with nucleotide-diet was significantly different compared to that of control shrimp (p=0.01, but not different compared to shrimp fed with protagen-diet. PO activity also increased significantly in shrimp fed with nucleotide-diet (p=0.02. β–glucan diet could also increase THC and PO activity, but compared to the control, the increase was not significantly different. Overall, PO activity of shrimp fed with nucleotide, β–glucan, and protagen diets was high (>0.35. Oral administration of nucleotide, β–glucan, and protagen for four consecutive weeks significantly increased resistance of shrimp to disease (<0.01 where the highest resistance rate was observed on shrimp fed with nucleotide-diet. Growth of shrimp fed with nucleotide-diet was significantly different compared to that of control shrimp (p<0.01, as well as to β–glucan, and protagen-treated shrimp. As a conclusion, supplementation of nucleotide into shrimp pellet enhanced nonspecific immune response and growth performance better than β-glucan, and protagen.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of thiamphenicol and florfenicol in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in freshwater following oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wenhong; Li, Guolie; Zhou, Shuai; Li, Xincang; Hu, Linlin; Zhou, Junfang

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic disposition of thiamphenicol (THA) and florfenicol (FLR) after oral administration of each at a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei held in freshwater at 25.0 ± 1.0°C. The THA and FLR concentrations in the hemolymph, muscle, and hepatopancreas were determined by HPLC. The profiles of hemolymph THA and FLR concentrations versus time were best described by a two-compartment open pharmacokinetic model with first-order absorption. The peak concentration (C max), peak time (T max), absorption half-life (t 1/2ka) and elimination half-life (t 1/2β) of THA in hemolymph were 7.96 μg/mL, 2 h, 0.666 h, and 10.659 h, respectively. The corresponding values for FLR were 5.53 μg/mL, 2 h, 1.069 h, and 17.360 h, respectively. After oral administration, THA and FLR were rapidly absorbed in white shrimp and THA in hemolymph was absorbed and eliminated more quickly than FLR. The parameters in muscle and hepatopancreas were calculated by a noncompartment model based on statistical moment theory. The C max, area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-t ), mean residue time (MRT0-t ), and half-life (t 1/2z) in muscle were 2.98 μg/g, 29.10 mg/kg·h, 9.77 h, and 6.84 h, respectively. The corresponding values for FLR were 1.91 μg/g, 15.97 mg/kg·h, 19.40 h, and 18.32 h, respectively. In muscle THA was eliminated more quickly than FLR. The peak concentrations of THA and FLR in the hepatopancreas were 204.25 and 164.22 μg/g, respectively, and the values for AUC0-t were 1,337.74 and 871.73 mg/kg·h, respectively, which were much higher than those in hemolymph and muscle. The in vitro protein-binding value of THA (28.38%) was lower than that of FLR (37.91%), which might be related to the finding that THA in Pacific white shrimp was absorbed and eliminated more quickly than FLR. Received July 21, 2012; accepted November 23, 2012.

  3. INFLUÊNCIA DA REFRIGERAÇÃO NA PRESERVAÇÃO DO NÚMERO TOTAL DE HEMÓCITOS DE CAMARÕES MARINHOS Litopenaeus vannamei CULTIVADOS UTILIZANDO-SE CITRATO DE SÓDIO

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    Andréa Christianne Gomes Barretto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For carrying out blood cell count, the use anti-coagulants is necessary, and in the specific case of the hemolymph in shrimp, there is still no standard solution to avoid its coagulation. Sodium citrate is frequently used as anti-coagulant, because it has been previously proven to be efficient in the preservation of the hemocytes of the sea shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In 140 samples of hemolymph with sodium citrate (10% in the ratio of 1:1, collected at 2 stages of cultivation, in dry and wet season, were examined for HTC immediately after collection and then again after storage in the refrigerator. All data were analyzed using modeling mathematics formulas (P < 0.05. After storage in the refrigerator, the number of cells decreased considerably. Therefore, the anticoagulant sodium citrate only preserved the hemolymph of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei for HTC when the count was done immediately after collection.

  4. Advances in Nutrition Needs of Litopenaeus Vannamei in Low Salinity Environment%低盐度环境下凡纳滨对虾营养需求研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文娟; 杨俊江; 迟淑艳

    2012-01-01

    凡纳滨对虾作为当今世界养殖产量最高的3大对虾品种之一,在我国淡化养殖得到了很大的发展。文章综述了国内外学者关于低盐度环境下对凡纳滨对虾营养需求的研究进展。%Litopenaeus vannamei as one of the highest of the three shrimp species in today's world aquaculture production,in our freshwater aquaculture has been a great development.This article reviewed the advances in the nutrition needs of Litopenaeus vannamei in low salinity environment.

  5. Tratamiento de efluentes del cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei por sedimentación y filtración por la ostra Crassostrea rhizophorae Treatment of Litopenaeus vannamei farming effluents by sedimentation and oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ramos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A escala de laboratorio se evaluaron las eficiencias de remoción del material particulado y nutrientes disueltos desde efluentes de cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei, utilizando un sistema combinado de dos fases, sedimentación y filtración por la ostra Crassostrea rhizophorae, empleando tres tiempos de retención hidráulica (TRH del efluente, 6, 12 y 24 h. En la fase de sedimentación, se emplearon estanques de 100 L en los cuales fueron colocados 90 L de efluente. En la fase de filtración, se utilizaron estanques de 50 L en los cuales se colocaron 20 L del efluente sobrenadante correspondiente a cada TRH de la fase de sedimentación. Cada unidad experimental de la fase de filtración fue sembrada con 15 ejemplares adultos de ostras con un peso promedio de 80 g manteniendo una biomasa de 1.200 g estanque-1 . Se utilizó un estanque control para cada TRH, conteniendo solamente conchas de ostras sin animal. Los resultados indicaron que en la fase de sedimentación el mejor desempeño fue alcanzado en el tiempo de 24 h, con 56,1% de remoción para la turbidez, 36,3% para los sólidos volátiles totales, la DB0(5 con 31,0% y el amonio con 21,4%. En la fase de filtración, la mayor eficiencia de remoción fue alcanzada en el tiempo de 6 h, con valores de 62,1% para la turbidez, 69,4% para los sólidos disueltos totales, 35,4% para los sólidos volátiles totales, 100% para la clorofila a y 17,2% para la DB0(5, en relación a los valores del estanque control. En esta fase, el amonio presentó un aumento en su concentración en todos los TRH. Calculadas las eficiencias de remoción con las dos fases integradas: sedimentación y filtración, en el tiempo de 6 h, en relación al efluente bruto, el desempeño mejoró significativamente alcanzando valores de 69,3% para la turbidez, 69,0% para los sólidos disueltos totales, 41,3% para los sólidos volátiles totales y 100% para la clorofila a.Efficiency in removing particulate matter and dissolved

  6. Utilização da espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo para o controle de qualidade do camarão (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Maria Santana Bezerra de

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de propor uma rotina metodológica simples, rápida e versátil utilizando espectroscopia de infravermelho próximo (NIR) aliada à análise multivariada para a determinação dos teores de cinzas, umidade, proteína e lipídios totais presentes no camarão cinza (Litopenaeus vannamei) que convencionalmente é realizada por gravimetria após redução a cinzas a 550 oC por gravimetria após secagem em estufa a 105 °C para a determinação de umidade, gravimetria ap...

  7. Effect of replacing fish meal with extruded soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qihui; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu

    2015-10-01

    Extruded soybean meal (ESBM) was evaluated as a protein source for partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. In the control diet (Diet 1), FM protein was replaced with increasing dietary levels of ESBM (4.28%, 8.40%, 12.62%, 16.82%, and 25.26%) at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60% levels (Diets 2 to 6, respectively). An eight-week feeding trial was conducted on 720 juvenile shrimp (0.67 g ± 0.01 g mean initial weight), and nutrient digestibility of the six diets was determined. ESBM could replace 20% of FM without causing a significant reduction in growth of shrimp, but other dietary treatments strongly affected whole body composition. Crude protein content of the whole body fed Diet 6 was significantly lower than that fed Diet 2 ( P vannamei.

  8. Standardized artificial breeding technology of Litopenaeus vannamei%凡纳滨对虾标准化人工繁育技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光凤; 李色东; 李桢

    2010-01-01

    介绍了凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)标准化人工繁育过程中的关键技术点,主要包括:标准化水处理设施和流程、标准化检测设备设施、亲本来源和质量要求,亲本促熟培育、交配、受精卵孵化和虾苗培育过程中的水质指标、环境要求、饵料要求、日常管理,以及各变态阶段幼体和虾苗的质量检测控制.为大范围推广凡纳滨对虾标准化繁育技术提供了依据.

  9. 凡纳滨对虾的遗传育种研究现状%A review of genetics and breeding of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灵侠; 沈琪; 胡超群

    2008-01-01

    凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei Boone),由于其生长快,抗环境变化能力强,对饵料的要求低,肉味鲜美、出肉率高,成为世界上公认的优良养殖对虾品种之一。凡纳滨对虾自1998年从美国夏威夷再次引进到中国华南,并相继突破集约化防病养殖和全人工繁育技术以来,已成为中国海水养殖动物中发展最快的一个种类,

  10. A hemocyte-expressed fibrinogen-related protein gene (LvFrep) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Expression analysis after microbial infection and during larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Jaqueline da Rosa; Barreto, Cairé; Silveira, Amanda da Silva; Vieira, Graziela Cleusa; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Perazzolo, Luciane Maria

    2016-09-01

    Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) comprise a large family of microbial recognition proteins involved in many biological functions in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. By taking advantage of publicly accessible databases, we have identified a FREP-like homolog in the most cultivated penaeid shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (LvFrep). The obtained sequence showed a conserved fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) and displayed significant similarities to FREP-like proteins from other invertebrates and to ficolins from crustaceans. The expression of LvFrep appeared to be limited to circulating hemocytes. Interestingly, LvFrep gene expression was induced in shrimp hemocytes only in response to a Vibrio infection but not to the White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Moreover, LvFrep transcript levels were detected early in fertilized eggs, suggesting the participation of this immune-related gene in the antimicrobial defenses during shrimp development.

  11. First report on White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV infection in white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustacea, Penaeidae under semi intensive culture condition in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunalan Balakrishnan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific shrimp culture began in India in the late eighties along the east coast particularly inAndrapradesh and Tamilnadu. Continuous success of shrimp culture was affected by mass mortalities ofcultured shrimp in 1994. Thereafter disease infection on survival and production of shrimps get itsimportance in culture. The present study is the first report on WSSV (white spot syndrome virusinfection in cultured Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 in India. WSSV infection was observed on 70thdays of culture due to cross contamination of white spot infected shrimp from the neighboring farmbecause of birds. Due to this infection within two days the mortality ratio has gone up to 25% in pond 1and 12% in pond 2. So this present study strongly recommends to every shrimp farmers to go for birdfencing & crab fencing to avoid horizontal contamination, before stocking the good quality seed, thenthey will have the risk free WSSV culture.

  12. Genetic diversity within and between broodstocks of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 (Decapoda, Penaeidae and its implication for the gene pool conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PD. Freitas

    Full Text Available Genetic variation within and between fifteen closed broodstock lines of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, reared at different hatcheries in the Brazilian coast, was assessed by RAPD analysis. Fifty two polymorphic loci were identified when a set of five decamer primers was used in PCR. The genetic diversity analysis within lines evidenced genetic variation loss probably related to bottleneck effects and inbreeding. In addition, the genetic divergence values between the different samples appear to reflect the initial founder composition of such stocks, in some cases, sharing a common origin, suggesting a putative importance of interbreeding for the establishment of genetic improvement programs for these broodstocks. The genetic variation monitoring appears to be helpful to the gene pool conservation of this aquaculture species, mainly if considered its exotic status in Brazil and the current impossibility of new introduction of wild individuals.

  13. Relationship between white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) loads and characterizations of water quality in Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds during the tropical storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. S.; Li, Z. J.; Wen, G. L.; Wang, Y. L.; Luo, L.; Zhang, H. J.; Dong, H. B.

    2016-01-01

    An in-situ experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of tropical storm on the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) loads in Litopenaeus vannamei rearing ponds. White spot syndrome virus loads, heterotrophic bacteria, Vibrio and water quality (including temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, pH, NH4-N, and NO2-N) were continually monitored through one tropical storm. The WSSV loads decreased when tropical storm made landfall, and substantially increased when typhoon passed. The variation of WSSV loads was correlated with DO, temperature, heterotrophic bacteria count, and ammonia-N concentrations. These results suggested that maintaining high level DO and promoting heterotrophic bacteria growth in the shrimp ponds might prevent the diseases’ outbreak after the landfall of tropical storm. PMID:27822254

  14. Phytoplanktonic composition of three cultivation systems used in Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931) marine shrimp farms - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.4816

    OpenAIRE

    Ivone Ferreira Borges; João Paulo Prado; Andressa Ribeiro Queiroz; Tarcísio Alves Cordeiro; José Marcelino Oliveira Carvalheiro; Michelle Pereira Melo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the different compositions of phytoplankton in three cultivation systems of marine shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931), denominated as organic, intensive and semi intensive. The samples were done fortnightly, when phytoplankton was collected by a net for phytoplankton, 65 µm mesh, being then filtrated in a total volume of water of 100 L, and preserved in formaldehyde solution at 4% and identified according to the methodology of Cordeiro et al. (1997). ...

  15. 凡纳对虾Ⅰ型溶菌酶基因的克隆与性质研究%Cloning and Characterization of Ⅰ-type Lysozyme Gene of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志强; 林涛

    2013-01-01

    以凡纳对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)Ⅰ型溶菌酶为研究对象,克隆了Ⅰ型溶菌酶基因,并进行了氨基酸序列分析、系统进化分析以及分子结构的初步预测,为进一步揭示溶菌酶基因的功能提供理论基础.

  16. 凡纳滨对虾对蛋白质和氨基酸营养需求的研究进展%A review on the requirements of protein and amino acids of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    怀明燕; 王晨辉; 李坤林

    2010-01-01

    文章综述国内外有关凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)对蛋白质和必需氨基酸需要的研究进展,并详细分析影响其定量研究结果的主要因素,以期为凡纳滨对虾的生产应用和相关研究提供科学依据.

  17. Identification and functional studies of Akirin, a potential positive nuclear factor of NF-κB signaling pathways in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fujun; Wang, Xianzong; Qian, Zhaoying; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Yongjie; He, Shulin; Mi, Xiao; Bai, Cheng; Sun, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaolin

    2013-12-01

    As conserved nuclear factors, Akirins play critical roles in regulating antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) transcription downstream of NF-κB dependent signaling pathways in insects and mammals. However, no any functional studies was reported in penaeid shrimp. The identification and functional analysis of Akirin in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei were made in this research. The 833 nucleotides cDNA of Litopenaeus vannamei Akirin (LvAkirin) was obtained with an open reading frame of 639 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 212 amino acids. The molecular weight of LvAkirin is about 23.7 kDa with theoretical pI of 9.05. Two predicted nuclear localization signals (NLSs) were found and amino acid sequence alignments showed that Akirins are highly conserved between insects and mammals. The constitutive expression of LvAkirin mRNA was confirmed in all the examined tissues and high level appeared in testis followed by hemocytes and gill. LvAkirin mRNA was strongly induced in response to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection. Silencing LvAkirin by dsRNA significantly reduced the expression of NF-κB dependent anti-lipopolysaccharide factor, crustin and penaeidin3a as well as transcription factors, Dorsal and Relish post Vibrio anguillarum (V. anguillarum) and Micrococcus lysodeikticus (M. lysodeikticus) challenge. Antibacterial activities of shrimp plasma was analyzed and high cumulative mortality was found in LvAkirin-silenced shrimps post bacteria challenge. Hence, we proposed LvAkirin might function as a positive nuclear factor of NF-κB dependent signaling pathways in shrimp innate immunity.

  18. RNAi knock-down of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Toll gene and immune deficiency gene reveals their difference in regulating antimicrobial peptides transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fujun; He, Shulin; Liu, Yongjie; Zhu, Xiaowen; Sun, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaolin

    2014-06-01

    NF-κB dependent antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are of critical importance in protecting insects or mammals from microorganisms infection. However, we still do not make clear signaling pathways in regulating AMPs expression in shrimps. In this study, RNAi approach was used to study differences between Toll signaling pathway and immune deficiency signaling pathway in regulating the transcription of NF-κB dependent AMPs post bacteria challenge. Results showed that the transcription level of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor was highly suppressed in Litopenaeus vannamei immune deficiency (LvIMD) silenced shrimps by gene specific dsRNA compared to Litopenaeus vannamei Toll (LvToll) silenced shrimps with or without Vibrio anguillarum and Micrococcus lysodeikticus challenge. Conversely the transcription level of penaeidin3a was significantly suppressed in LvToll silenced shrimps compared to LvIMD silenced shrimps. However, no obvious difference was found in regulating the transcription of CrustinP. Meanwhile, we found that silencing LvToll both down regulated the transcription of Dorsal and Relish while silencing LvIMD only down regulated the transcription of Relish. At last, shrimp survival experiment showed that post V. anguillarum challenge high mortality was found both in LvToll and LvIMD silenced groups while post M. lysodeikticus challenge we saw high mortality only in LvToll silenced group. Hence, we conclude that shrimp L. vannamei Toll pathway and IMD pathway might be different in regulating the transcription of NF-κB dependent AMPs and responding to bacteria challenge but not independent of each other.

  19. Identification of a c-Jun homolog from Litopenaeus vannamei as a downstream substrate of JNK in response to WSSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Defu; Ruan, Lingwei; Xu, Xun; Shi, Hong

    2015-04-01

    c-Jun, a major substrate of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), participates in regulating gene transcription in response to various stimuli, including cytokines, stress signals, bacterial and viral infection. Results from our previous studies suggested that Litopenaeus vannamei JNK (LvJNK) could be utilized by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) to facilitate viral replication and gene expression. In this article, a c-Jun homolog from Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as Lvc-Jun) was cloned and its role in WSSV infection was studied. Sequence analysis displayed that Lvc-Jun was a novel homolog of c-Jun family, which contained characteristic Jun and basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domains, and two conserved serine phosphorylation sites (Ser49/59). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that Lvc-Jun mRNAs were expressed in all examined tissues. Further investigation determined that Lvc-Jun was located in the nucleus through self-interaction and its phosphorylation levels could be reduced by JNK inhibitor, suggesting that Lvc-Jun could be regulated by LvJNK through phosphorylation and function as a transcription regulator in a homodimer. During the process of WSSV infection, the transcription levels of Lvc-Jun were up-regulated associating with the raising expression and phosphorylation levels of its protein. Moreover, TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), a potent inducer of c-Jun, could remarkably promote viral immediate-early gene wsv069 transcription in crayfish hemocytes. Conclusively, our results provided experimental evidences that Lvc-Jun was engaged in WSSV infection and further implied that JNK-c-Jun signaling pathway might be important for WSSV replication and viral gene expression.

  20. Caracterización de sitios de percha del guajolote silvestre (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana en Sierra Fría, Aguascalientes, México Roost sites characteristics of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana in Sierra Fria, Aguascalientes, Mexico

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    Marcelo Márquez-Olivas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre octubre y noviembre del año 2001 y mayo de 2002 se localizaron 16 sitios de percha de guajolote silvestre (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana en la Sierra Fría de Aguascalientes. El 87.5% de los sitios se encontraron en bosques de pino-encino (en rodales de pinos, en altitudes de 2500 a 2650 m. En la parte alta (2/3 de la cuesta se localizaron 8 de los sitios y 7 sobre laderas de exposición noreste, en una pendiente promedio de 38.9 ± 12.6%. El 62.5% de los sitios se usaron durante todo el periodo de estudio y el resto, de manera ocasional. La mayoría de los dormideros se encontraron cerca de comederos o cebaderos y de parcelas agrícolas. Se contabilizaron de 1 a 23 árboles de percha utilizados por sitio, distribuidos a una distancia promedio de 24.4 ± 17.8 metros. El 81.2% de los árboles (n=170 fueron pinos (Pinus teocote, P. durangensis, P. leiophylla y P. michoacana, 17.6% encinos (Quercus laurina, Q. grisea y Q. eduardii y 1.2% madroños (Arbutus arizonica. La altura promedio de los árboles fue de 16.6 ± 4.4 m y el diámetro 43.2 ± 11.5 cm. La preferencia del guajolote silvestre por utilizar pinos como dormideros en lugar de otras especies arbóreas, se debe posiblemente a que son árboles de mayor porte o a la conformación de su dosel; sin embargo, se ha observado que en lugares donde hay pocos pinos, los guajolotes utilizan para dormir otros árboles de características semejantes, como encinos, madroños o sicomoros.Sixteen roosting sites of Gould's wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana were found between October and November of 2001 and May of 2002 in Sierra Fría, Aguascalientes. A large percentage (87.5% of the roost sites was located in oak-pine forest (in pine stands, at an elevation range of 2500 to 2650 meters. Eight roost sites were on the upper portion (2/3 of the ridge, and 7 at northeast exposures with an average slope of 38.9 ± 12.6%. Most (81.2% of the roost trees (n =170 were pines (Pinus teocote, P

  1. Jungle yellow fever: clinical and laboratorial sudies emphasizing viremia on a human case Febre amarela silvestre: estudo clínico e laboratorial, enfatizando a viremia, de um caso humano

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    Elza da S. Nassar

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the clinical, laboratorial and epidemiological aspects of a human case of jungle yellow fever. The patient suffered from fever, chills, sweating, headaches, backaches, myalgia, epigastric pains, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and prostration. He was unvaccinated and had been working in areas where cases of jungle yellow fever had been confirmed. Investigations concerning the yellow fever virus were performed. Blood samples were collected on several days in the course of the illness. Three of these samples (those obtained on days 5,7 and 10 were inoculated into suckling mice in attempt to isolate virus and to titrate the viremia level. Serological surveys were carried out by using the IgM Antibodies Capture Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (MAC-ELISA, Complement Fixation (CF, Hemagglulinalion Inhibition (HI and Neutralization (N tests. The yellow fever virus, recovered from the two first samples and the virus titration, showed high level of viremia. After that, specific antibodies appeared in all samples. The interval between the end of the viremia and the appearance of the antibodies was associated with the worsening of clinical symptoms, including bleeding of the mucous membrane. One must be aware of the risk of having a urban epidemics in areas where Aedes aegypti is found in high infestation indexes.Os autores estudaram um caso humano de febre amarela silvestre, sob os aspectos clínico, laboratorial e epidemiológico. O paciente apresentava febre (39ºC, calafrios, sudorese, cefaléia, dor lombar, mialgia, dor abdominal em epigástrio, náuseas, vômitos, diarréia e prostração. Relatava permanência em área onde foram constatados casos de febre amarela silvestre e não havia histórico de vacinação anterior. Frente às suspeitas que levaram à investigação do vírus da febre amarela, foram colhidas várias amostras de sangue no curso da doença. As amostras do 5º, 7º e 10º dias foram submetidas a provas de

  2. Effect synergistic of the radiation and of the refrigeration in the conservation of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei);Efeito sinergistico da radiacao gama e de refrigeracao na conservacao do camarao-branco-do-pacifico (Litopenaeus vannamei)

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    Guimaraes-Lopes, Tatiana Giselle

    2006-07-01

    Taking into account shrimp susceptibility to autolise and bacterial decomposition, this study aimed to evaluate the different gamma irradiation doses influence over meat quality related to microbiological, physical-chemical, nutritional and sensorial aspects, during cold storage of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Samples were taken from fresh shrimps without cephalothoraxes, settled into polystyrene trays, packed with flexible plastic film and submitted to different doses of gamma irradiation (1.0 and 3.5 kGy). Samples were kept under refrigeration (5 deg C) and analyzed at the 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day of storage. Microbiological analyzes were realized (Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella ssp, coliforms, psychotropic and mesophilic population), and physical-chemical and tests (Total volatile bases (TVNB), pH, non proteic nitrogen (NNP), TBARS analysis - reactive substances to thiobarbituric acid (TBA), trimetil amine (TMA) cholesterol tenor and proximate composition). Instrumental color test were realized and hedonic test was taken to determine cooked products sensorial quality during storing period. It was noticed that the irradiation process reduced bacterial population and during storage all the irradiated samples were under the patterns established by the Brazilian legislation (Brazil, 2005a). Non-irradiated samples were inappropriate for consumption after one week of storage, since they were over Staphylococcus established limits. The pH values ranged from 6.05 to 6.39; 19.47 to 80.84 mg.100g-1 for TVNB; 2.61 to 12.85 mg.100g-1 for TMA-N; 0.22 a 1.20 mg of malonaldeide.1000g{sup -1} for TBA and 53.09 to 134.81 mg.100g-1 for cholesterol concentrations. Irradiated samples kept more stability during storage period when compared to non-irradiated samples, regarding to pH, TVNB and TMA levels. Samples irradiation resulted into cholesterol and TBA values reduction at different evaluated moments. No significant differences (p <= 0.05) were found

  3. Evaluación y valorización económica de la fauna silvestre en el río Algodón, Amazonía peruana

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    Rolando Aquino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo informa sobre los hábitats, abundancia cuantitativa y valorización económica de la fauna silvestre que habitan en la cuenca del río Algodón. El estudio está basado en la diferenciación de hábitats, entrevistas a cazadores y censos por transecto. En 7 de los 10 tipos de hábitats diferenciados fueron realizados censos, donde ocurrieron en total 327 avistamientos directos de mamíferos, aves y reptiles. Entre los mamíferos, el pecarí labiado (Tayassu pecari Link y el choro (Lagothrix lagotricha Humboldt fueron los más abundantes con 9,8 individuos/km2, equivalente a 323,4 kg/km2 de biomasa, y 18,4 individuos/km2 equivalente a 202,4 kg/km2 de biomasa, respectivamente. En aves, la mayor densidad correspondió a la pucacunga (Penelope jacquacu Spix con 5,4 individuos/km2, equivalente a 6,9 kg/km2 de biomasa. Sin considerar las especies nocturnas y algunas diurnas, en el área de estudio se estiman alrededor de 31891 animales de caza entre mamíferos y aves, cuyo valor económico fue estimado en US$ 349374. De ellos, 3479 individuos tienen el valor de comercial y pertenecen a cuatro especies de ungulados y uno de aves, el resto tienen el valor de subsistencia.

  4. EVALUACIÓN In Situ DE LA VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE LOS CHILES SILVESTRES (Capsicum spp. EN LA REGIÓN FRAILESCA DEL ESTADO DE CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

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    R. A. Alonso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio con el objetivo de hacer la evaluación in situ de la variabilidad genética de los chiles silvestres en la región Frailesca del estado de Chiapas. La muestra experimental se constituyó con el 10 % de las comunidades y productores de cada municipio. La unidad de muestreo fue el sitio donde se encontraron las plantas. La evaluación in situ se basó en las características cuantitativas y cualitativas contenidas en el descriptor de Capsicum. La variabilidad se midió utilizando los índices de diversidad de Margalef, Simpson y Sorensen. Los caracteres cuantitativos con mayor valor discriminante fueron: número de flores por axila, longitud del filamento, diámetro, longitud y peso de los frutos, longitud de la placenta, número y peso de 1000 semillas. Como resultado del análisis discriminante, se formaron tres grupos: el grupo 1, donde predominan los Capsicum annuum, con seis accesiones que poseen características de C. frutescens; el grupo 2, integrado por las accesiones de Capsicum frutescens, y el grupo 3, con los C. annuum cultivados. Se evidenció la existencia de altos niveles de variabilidad en las muestras de chile evaluadas, las cuales integraron tres grupos con características que identifican las especies: Capsicum frutescens L., Capsicum annuum L. y 12 accesiones cultivadas de Capsicum annuum. La mayor variabilidad se encontró en los municipios La Concordia y Villaflores, existiendo condiciones para la conservación de la variabilidad in situ.

  5. Conducta alimenticia, supervivencia y crecimiento de juveniles silvestres de Graus nigra Philippi, 1887 en cautiverio (Perciformes: Kyphosidae Feeding behavior, survival, and growth of wild Graus nigra Philippi, 1887 juveniles in captivity (Perciformes: Kyphosidae

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    Héctor Flores

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron juveniles silvestres de Graus nigra, que fueron aclimatados durante 30 días en estanques con flujo de agua abierto y a temperatura ambiente, siendo alimentados con alimento formulado. Los peces fueron separados en seis grupos que se mantuvieron en experimentación por 196 días. La supervivencia promedio fue de 80%. El crecimiento en longitud total mostró un incremento promedio del 93,3% para los juveniles grandes (grupos 4, 5 y 6 y 125% para los pequeños (grupos 1, 2 y 3. El crecimiento en peso total mostró un incremento promedio de 434% para los peces grandes (grupos 4, 5 y 6 y de 707% para los pequeños (grupos 1, 2 y 3. Se concluyó que G. nigra toleró el cautiverio y el manejo, con una supervivencia relativamente alta, lo que hace de ella una especie atractiva para la acuicultura chilena.Wild juveniles of Graus nigra were collected and acclimated for 30 days in ponds with open-water flow and ambient temperature; the specimens were given a formulated feed. Fish individuals were separated into six groups that were studied for 196 days. The average survival was 80%. The total length increased an average of 93.3% for large individuals (groups 4, 5, 6 and 125% for small ones (groups 1, 2, 3. The total weight showed an average increase of 434% for large fishes (groups 4, 5, 6 and 707% for small ones (groups 1, 2, 3. Graus nigra was found to tolerate captivity and handling, with a relatively high survival rate, making it an attractive species for aquaculture in Chile.

  6. Evaluación de poblaciones segregantes producidas a partir de cruzamientos entre tomate cultivado y la accesión silvestre PI134418 de Solanum habrochaites var. glabratum resistente al pasador del fruto.

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    Edwin F. Restrepo S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la evaluación de poblaciones segregantes producidas a partir de cruzamientos entre tomate S. lycopersicum L. cv. maravilla y la accesión silvestre PI134418 de S. habrochaites var. glabratum resistente al pasador del fruto N. elegantalis. Se encontró que hay dominancia de los alelos que disminuyen la expresión del caraacute;cter peso promedio de fruto. El método del retrocruzamiento resultó maacute;s eficiente que el de la autofecundación, para contrarrestar la dominancia de los alelos que codifican por el tamaño pequeño del fruto. Los tricomas y el número promedio de frutos por racimo no ejercieron ningún efecto sobre el ataque de los frutos por parte del pasador; mientras que el peso promedio de fruto sí tuvo efecto importante sobre dicho ataque, de tal manera que el insecto tiende a producir mayor daño a medida que se incrementa el peso promedio de fruto. Las poblaciones RC1 y RC2 se comportaron como las típicas segregantes para los caracteres evaluados y exhibieron amplia variabilidad en los mismos. El método del retrocruzamiento fue efectivo para romper la asociación negativa entre el peso promedio de fruto y la resistencia al insecto. El peso promedio de algunos de los frutos en los recombinantes RC2 fluctuó entre 45.1 y 68.6 g y mostraron resistencia al pasador.

  7. Preferencias en la anidación de tortugas carey (Eretmochelys imbricata y baulas (Dermochelys coriacea en el Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca Manzanillo, Limón, Costa Rica

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    Lilliana Piedra-Castro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El Caribe costarricense es importante como sitio de alimentación, copulación, anidación y desove de las tortugas marinas, por lo que el presente trabajo pretendió actualizar el patrón de anidación en las tortugas marinas Dermochelys coriacea y Eretmochelys imbricata en el sector Gandoca, del Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca Manzanillo, Limón, Costa Rica, para proponer medidas de manejo. Se realizaron recorridos nocturnos entre las 8:00 p. m. y 4:00 a. m., la playa se dividió en cinco sectores, en estos se realizaron observaciones directas y de rastros, de las tortugas que elaboraron el nido, entre febrero y agosto del 2011 y 2012. Se registraron tres especies de tortugas marinas, Dermochelys coriacea, Eretmochelys imbricata y Chelonia mydas. La anidación de tortugas baula tuvo su punto máximo entre marzo y julio; por su parte, las carey, entre mayo y junio (2011, y junio hasta agosto en el 2012. Se observó preferencia en la posición de la playa utilizada para construir sus nidos; la baula utiliza principalmente la parte media, mientras que la carey utilizó mayormente la parte baja para anidar (t = 17.2525. Se observó que la baula utilizó frecuentemente el sector C; sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias en el uso de los sectores. Se concluye que ambas especies tienen preferencias en la selección de la zona de playa en que anidan; la carey en la parte baja cerca de la línea de costa y la baula en la parte media. Además, las tortugas baula utilizan indistintamente los diferentes sectores de la playa estudiada.

  8. 凡纳滨对虾亲环素A基因的克隆及表达分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of Cyclophilins A Gene from Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁兆坤; 辛文伦; 陈秀荔; 赵永贞; 许友卿; 陈晓汉

    2011-01-01

    Cyclophilins A cDNA gene(CYPA gene) with 885 bp was firstly cloned from Litopenaeus vannamei by RT-PCR.Its open reading frame(ORF) was 35-529 bp,coding 164 amino acids.The predicted molecular weight was about 17.6×103,and its calculated isoelectric point(pI) was 8.55.The sequence of CYPA gene was compared with that of the other species through BLAST analysis,indicating that the amino acid sequence of CYPA gene cloned from Litopenaeus vannamei was highly conserved.Based on the amino acid sequences of the gene,phylogenetic tree showed that Litopenaeus vannamei was closely related to Penaeus monodon.Broad-spectrum expression was found in the CYPA gene from the tissues of Litopenaeus vannamei.However,in the antiviral population,the CYPA gene expression was the highest in the stomach and the lowest in the heart,in which the difference was about 2 folds.While in the viral-challenge population,the CYPA gene expression was the highest in the heart and the lowest in the muscle.According to the ProtFun online prediction of protein functional classification,the result demonstrated that the CYPA gene might be an immune response inhibitor participated in the immune defense response in Litopenaeus vannamei.%通过电子克隆所得基因序列设计引物,采用RT-PCR方法首次克隆得到长度为885 bp的凡纳滨对虾亲环素A(Cyclophilins A)CYPA基因cDNA序列,其开放阅读框为35~529 bp,可编码164个氨基酸.推算其分子量约为17.6×103,理论等电点为8.55.与其他物种的CYPA基因比对发现,该基因的氨基酸序列具有较高的保守性.基于氨基酸序列的聚类分析表明,凡纳滨对虾与斑节对虾的亲缘关系最近.荧光定量PCR的结果显示该基因在组织中广谱表达,在抗病组中,胃中的表达量最高,心脏中的表达量最低,差

  9. Deep Sequencing-based Transcriptome Analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei%基于高通量测序的凡纳滨对虾的转录组分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾地刚; 陈秀荔; 谢达祥; 赵永贞; 杨春玲; 马宁; 李咏梅; 陈晓汉

    2013-01-01

      Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp is the most extensively farmed crustacean species in the world. However, the genome and transcriptome data of Litopenaeus vannamei is still relatively lacking. To obtain transcriptome infor-mation of Litopenaeus vanname, the transcriptome of Litopenaeus vannamei hepatopancreas was sequenced by 454 high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 500 177 ESTs were produced, with an average length of 363 bp. De novo assembly of ESTs data generated 20 225 unigenes between 50 and 8 980 bp in length, with an average length of 507 bp. Similarity searches against the NCBI-Nr database revealed that 13 676 (68%) of these unigenes have significant matches (E-value<10-5). In addition, the unigenes were similarity search against the GO, COG and KEGG databases, and were annotated with gene functional descriptions, gene ontology terms, or pathways. By high-throughput sequencing, we obtained abundant transcriptome information that could contribute to novel gene identi-fication and genome research in Litopenaeus vannamei.%  凡纳滨对虾是世界养殖最广泛的甲壳动物,但是目前凡纳滨对虾的基因组及转录组数据还比较缺乏。为了获得凡纳滨对虾的转录组信息,本研究应用454高通量测序技术对凡纳滨对虾肝胰腺的转录组进行测序。获得了500177条凡纳滨对虾EST,平均长度363 bp。拼接获得了20225条unigene,长度范围50~8980 bp,平均长度507 bp。所有unigene与NCBI的非冗余蛋白质数据库(Nr)进行相似搜索(E值<10-5),结果一共有13676条unigene (68%)与数据库中的已知基因同源。此外,还对unigene进行了GO、COG和KEGG的功能注释、分类或通路分析。我们通过高通量测序,获得了丰富的凡纳滨对虾转录组信息,为凡纳滨对虾的新基因克隆和基因组学研究提供了有价值的数据。

  10. Aspectos do ciclo silvestre do Trypanosoma cruzi em regiões de cerrado (Município de Formosa, Estado de Goiás Aspects of the sylvatic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in the region of cerrado (Formosa municipality, State of Goias

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    D. A. Mello

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estão apresentados resultados de estudos sobre roedores, marsupiais e triatomíneos do norte do municipio de Formosa,Estado de Goiás, e sua importância no ciclo silvestre do T.cruzi. A região estudada esta localizada do ponto de vista geográfico, na "Provincia do Cerrado". Foram coletados 963 roedores, 11 marsupiais e 766 triatomíneos silvestres. O índice de infecção pelo T. cruzi entre os roedores foi de 0,1% e entre os marsupiais 36,3%, enquanto todos os triatomíneos estavam negativos. Face aos aspectos ecológicos estudados, discute-se o papel desempenhado por roedores e marsupiais na manutenção e circulação do T. cruzi em ambiente silvestre. Alguns aspectos epidemiológicos no ambiente doméstico foram também abordados.Studies were carried out on the role of rodents, marsupials and triatoma bugs in the wild cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi. The area studied, located in the county of formosa, State of Goiás, Brasil, belongs to the "Província do Cerrado". The following animals were collected and examined: 963 rodents, 11 marsupials and 766 wild triatomid bugs. The infection rates for T. cruzi were as follow: 36.3% for the marsupials, 0.1% for the rodents, while all the triatomids were negative. The role of the collected mammals in the maintenance and circulation of T. cruzi in the wild environment is discussed. In addition, some epidemiological aspects of the domestic environment were also studied.

  11. Análise cromatográfica de ácidos orgânicos em cogumelos silvestres comestíveis do Nordeste de Portugal: validação de uma técnica de UFLC-PDA

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Pereira, Carla; FERREIRA, ISABEL C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Na Península Ibérica as verduras (silvestres ou tradicionalmente cultivadas) têm sido alimentos importantes na dieta humana. O valor nutricional de verduras e os seus benefícios para a saúde têm sido reconhecidos como importantes alvos de investigação. Os grelos, inflorescências da couve-nabo (Brassica napus L. var. napus) e os espigos, inflorescências da couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC.) são exemplos de espécies tradicionalmente cultivadas e amplamente consumidas nas re...

  12. Contenido de alimento y metabolismo ceco-cólico en el tracto digestivo de poblaciones silvestres de iguana negra (Ctenosaura pectinata) en Morelos, México Cecum-colic content of food and metabolism in the digestive tract of wild population black lizard (Ctenosaura pectinata) in Morelos, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    L Vélez-Hernández; MA Cobos-Peralta; JL Arcos-García

    2012-01-01

    Se colectaron cinco tractos digestivos de iguana negra (Ctenosaura pectinata) en estado silvestre en el estado de Morelos, México, para conocer la composición botánica de la dieta y el metabolismo ceco-cólico. Se observaron frotis realizados del contenido ceco-cólico para registrar la presencia de protozoarios, bacterias y parásitos intestinales existentes. Se obtuvo la media y desviación estándar de las características evaluadas. En el contenido ceco-cólico se identificaron las especies vege...

  13. Pesquisa de anticorpos contra Leptospira spp. em animais silvestres e em estado feral da região de Nhecolândia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil: utilização da técnica de imuno-histoquímica para detecção do agente

    OpenAIRE

    Girio,Raul José Silva; Pereira,Fernando Lúcio Garcia; Marchiori Filho,Moacir; Mathias,Luís Antônio; Herreira,Rita de Cássia Pereira; Alessi, Antônio Carlos; Girio,Thaís Marino Silva

    2004-01-01

    Foram examinadas 315 amostras de soros sangüíneos de diversas espécies de animais que vivem em estado feral ou silvestre na região de Nhecolândia, Corumbá, MS, por meio da prova de soroaglutinação microscópica para leptospirose. Dessas amostras, 67 foram de bois baguás (Bos taurus indicus), 39 de porcos-monteiros (Sus scrofa), 39 de búfalos (Bubalus bubalis), nove de quatis (Nasua nasua), 41 de veados-campeiros (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), 10 de veados-mateiros (Mazama americana) e 110 amostras ...

  14. Distribución de "coxiella burnetii" en los rumiantes domésticos y en la fauna silvestre de la Comunidad Atutónoma Vasca. Evaluacióndel efecto del tratamiento antibiótico y de la vacunación en el control de la fiebre Q en rebaños ovinos naturalmente infectados

    OpenAIRE

    Astobiza Pérez, Janire

    2014-01-01

    243 p. : il. [ES]La fiebre Q es una zoonosis de distribución mundial causada por Coxiella burnetii, una bacteria intracelular capaz de infectar tanto a animales domésticos como silvestres, y que da lugar a abortos y problemas reproductivos. Las principales fuentes de infección a los humanos son el ganado ovino, caprino y bovino, que cuando están infectados eliminan esta bacteria a través de sus productos del parto, de sus fluidos vaginales, leche y heces, generando aeroso...

  15. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON BINDING ACTIVITY OF WSSV AND SHRIMP'S BRANCHIAL OF LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI AND BP53 OF BRANCHIAL MEMBRANE%凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)鳃细胞膜蛋白与WSSV的结合活性以及BP53的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical In