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Sample records for camacari petrochemical complex

  1. Source pollution control program at the Camacari Petrochemical Complex: overall and individual improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, P.A.; Neto, D.B.; Carvalho, D.M. [CETREL S.A., Camacari, BA (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Along with the technical progress experienced by the Camacari Petrochemical Complex in the last few years, new policies, following new worldwide trends, in pollution control and prevention became mandatory. This work describes some of these experiences as well as future perspectives. 3 refs., 2 fig., 13 tabs.

  2. Use of an open-path FTIR sensor at Camacari Petrochemical Complex--Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Neuza; Couto, Elizabeth d. R.; Kagann, Robert H.

    1995-05-01

    CETREL--Empresa de Protecao Ambiental, is an environmental engineering company, which is owned by the member companies in the Camacari Petrochemical Complex, the largest petrochemical complex in Brazil. CETREL operates a centralized waste treatment plant, treatment and disposal facilities, an incineration unit, groundwater monitoring and air quality monitoring networks. The air monitoring network was designed based on mathematical modeling, and the results showed that the monoitoring of hydrocarbons is important not just within the complex but also at the area surrounding the complex. There are presently no regulations for hydrocarbons in Brazil, however they are monitored due to concerns about health problems arising from human exposure. The network has eight multiparameter monitoring stations, located at the villages nearby, where hydrocarbons are sampled with Summa canisters and subsequently analyzed with a GC/MS, using a Cryogenic trap at the interface. The open-path FTIR is used to monitor at the individual plants and in the areas in between because it is more efficient and costs less than it would to attempt to achieve the same level of coverage using the canisters. Ten locations were selected based on mathematical modeling and knowledge of the likely emission sources. Since August 1993, there have been five different measurement campaigns.

  3. Project risk management in complex petrochemical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirin Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of risk in complex industrial systems, as well as evaluation of main factors influencing decision making and implementation process using large petrochemical company as an example, has proved the importance of successful project risk management. This is even more emphasized when analyzing systems with complex structure, i.e. with several organizational units. It has been shown that successful risk management requires modern methods, based on adequate application of statistical analysis methods.

  4. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-01-01

    Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management ...

  5. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. In the first stage, locating map and dispersion limits were prepared. Then, the types and amounts of industrial waste generated in were evaluated by an inventory and inspection. Wastes were classified according to Environmental Protection Agency and Basel Standards and subsequently hazards of different types were investigated. The waste management of TPC is quite complex because of the different types of waste and their pollution. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. In this study, using different sources and references, generally petrochemical sources, various solid waste management practices were investigated and the best options were selected. Some wastes should be treated before land filling and some of them should be reused or recycled. In the case of solid waste optimization, source reduction ways were recommended as well as prior incineration system was modified.

  6. Petrochemical refinery and integrated petrochemical complexes; Refinaria petroquimica e complexos petroquimicos integrados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Patricia C. dos; Seidl, Peter R.; Borschiver, Suzana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Global demand for light olefins points to strong prospects for growth, stimulating investments in overall productive capacity. With propylene demand growing slightly faster than that of ethylene, rising prices and difficulties in supplies of petrochemical feedstocks (mainly naphtha and natural gas), steam crackers alone are not able to fill the light olefins gap nor do they allow extraordinary margins. As petrochemical market dynamics also influence refining activities, there has been significant progress in the development of technologies for petrochemical refining, such as Petrochemical FCC. This petrochemistry-refining integration offers great opportunities for synergism since both industries share many common challenges, like more severe environmental requirements and optimizing the use of utilities. However, in the case of valuation of non-conventional oils (which tend to increase in importance in oil markets), to take full advantage of this opportunity to add value to low cost streams, deep conversion and treatment processes are of great significance in refining scheme to have enough feedstock for cracking. In this context, a petrochemical refinery seems to be an important alternative source of petrochemicals and may be integrated or not to a petrochemical complex. (author)

  7. Brief Introduction to CNPC Daqing Petrochemical Complex(DPC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Daqing Petrochemical Complex (DPC), as a subsidiary enterprise of China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), was founded in April,1962 and is a giant scale integrated petrochemical enterprise in China. With great efforts in the past four decades, DPC has developed four product series including oil, chemical, fibre and fertilizer according to its development strategy of construction and production being synchronously done. At the end of 1980s, it has become the integrated base for petrochemical production, scientific research and construction, which is involved in RD, design,mechanical manufacture, construction and comprehensive community service system. DPC has made great contribution to the construction for Daqing Oilfield and the economic development for Daqing area. After the reorganization in 1999, DPC has formed six systems including petrochemical extended processing, engineering technology service, production technology service, machine manufhcturing,multi-business and living base service for its employees. Its main businesses are involved in petrochemical & petrochemical extended processing, design & construction for large petrochemical plant, civil building and road, installation for petrochemical plant, engineering supervision,equipment maintenance, manufacturing & processing for machine and instrument, computer software development & application, network administration, passenger & cargo transportation, equipment & material purchase, realty management and logistic service for its employees.

  8. Ecotoxicology of waters under the influence of a petrochemical complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, R.; Zandonai, V.; Ries, M.A. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petrquimico do Sul

    1993-12-31

    This work summarizes the regular monitoring and studies conducted by SITEL - The Integrated Wastewater Treatment System of South Petrochemical Complex (South Brazil) - in order to evaluate the full environmental impact on waters in the area of influence of the effluents of the above mentioned Complex. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  9. PETROCHEMICAL SUPPLY CHAIN’S SHARE IN EMISSION OF GREEN HOUSE GASES, CASE STUDY: SHAZAND PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Moharamned

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study petrochemical supply chain shares in global warming is studied by monitoring carbon footprint during manufacturing and distribution phase. For identification and measurement of carbon emissions in petrochemical supply chain, at first step necessary data are collected. Then carbon footprint is calculated in manufacturing process. So GHG is measured during fossil fuel use for chemical productions and electricity production in exclusive power plant in production phase. Also carbon emissions are calculated during chemical process (non-energy use of fossil fuels. The other activity that has an impact on GHG emissions is transportation. In this study Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC methodology was employed. For conducting this research Shazand petrochemical complex in Iran is selected as a case study. The calculations and monitoring GHG will help to greening the petrochemical supply chain.The result shows GHG emissions in Shazad petrochemical complex supply chain is 6108960.35 tons per year. 6100434.9 tones CO2equ per year emit from manufacturing phase and 8525.4 tones CO2equ per year emit from distribution phase. Based on a comparison with statistics from United Nation Statistics division reports contribution of manufacturing phase of Shazand Petrochemical supply chain in global warming is about 0.020% and Based on a comparison with statistics from Iranian fuel Conservation Company and energy balance reports the contribution of distribution phase of Shazand Petrochemical supply chain in global warming is about 0.004%.

  10. The Republic of Tatartsan Petrochemical Complex Value Chain Structure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safina Aida Anasovna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study a redistributive process within a cluster, and the structural analysis of expenses which resulted development of a new model of finished products expenses structure analysis, and the studies of pricing by the main technological conversions on the example of petrochemical complex of the Republic of Tatarstan. It gives an economic assessment of efficiency of a petrochemical complex of the Republic of Tatarstan and quantitative calculation of reserves and the limits of products' cost reduction, as well as it reveals a financial stock of "durability" of a competitive position of a cluster in the region, that is expenses growth potential of the complex which won't cause critical loss of competitive edge. The offered technique promptly and visually analyzes the final product pricing in terms of conversions, and prime cost and profit elements.

  11. Nuclear desalination for the petrochemical complex of the Natuna project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of environmental considerations, a high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) was proposed as the heat source for the Natuna project for CO2 conversion. To convert CO2 to useful products, a large amount of high quality water is required for the chemical processes, boilers and other purposes. One LNG production train (maximum of six trains) would produce 0.4 x 109 SCF/d of saleable gas and 1.4 x 109 SCF/d of CO2 (in the case of the Exxon process). This CO2 gas would then be converted to automobile fuel (methane, methanol), which requires a large amount of water. Natural gas from an off- shore gas field is piped to the petrochemical complex on Natuna Island (about 228 km). Natuna is a small island that, apart from sea water, does not have much available water. The desalination process is considered to be the only solution to the water demand problems of the petrochemical complex. A nuclear desalination system was designed to provide high quality water for this complex. Of the commercial scale desalination processes, multi-stage flash, multi-effect distillation and reverse osmosis and hybrids are considered to be good candidates for the coupling scheme for producing high quality water. The availability of waste heat from the HTGR and an exothermic chemical reaction was also evaluated. It seems that an additional small to medium sized nuclear power plant may be required to produce water for the petrochemical complex of the Natuna project

  12. Increased risk of preterm delivery in areas with cancer mortality problems from petrochemical complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chang, Chih-Ching; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2002-07-01

    The petrochemical and petroleum industries are the main sources of industrial air pollution in Taiwan. Data in this study concern outdoor air pollution and the health of individuals living in communities in close proximity to petrochemical industrial complexes. The prevalence of delivery of preterm birth infants was significantly higher in mothers living near petrochemical industrial complexes than in control mothers living elsewhere in Taiwan. After controlling for several possible confounders (including maternal age, season, marital status, maternal education, and infant sex), the adjusted odds ratio was 1.18 (95% CI=1.04-1.34) for delivery of preterm infants in the petrochemically polluted region. The data provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect the outcome of pregnancy. PMID:12176003

  13. Urinary Heavy Metal levels of Residents in the Vicinity of a Petrochemical Complex in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan T. H.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A petrochemical complex located in central Taiwan is a major emission source of air pollutants locally. Among these air pollutants, it is concern that the health effects of exposure to heavy metal because of its toxicity and persistency. Therefore, we conducted a biological monitoring study to investigate the effect of heavy metal pollutants on inhabitants around this petrochemical complex. According to the distance and the wind direction from the petrochemical complex, the study area was divided into high exposure (HE and low exposure (LE areas, and a total of 673 study subjects who aged above 35 years old living in HE and LE areas were recruited to be collected urine sample and personal information by health screen and questionnaire administration. The concentrations of ten kinds of urinary heavy metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. After adjusting for age, gender, socioeconomic status, smoking, dietary habits and other potential confounders, the multiple linear regression models showed that the urinary levels of vanadium, manganese, arsenic and strontium of inhabitants in HE area were significantly higher than those of inhabitants in LE area. This study indicated the potential effects of emitted metal pollutants from a petrochemical complex on the residents nearby.

  14. Waste minimization promotes biophysical treatment of complex petrochemical wastes in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebel, A. [Invirotreat International Ltd., Fulleron, CA (United States); Raveh, A. [Raveh Ecology Ltd., Haifa (Israel)

    1993-12-31

    This work describes a full-scale waste treatment system which was put into operation in a petrochemical manufacturing plant in Israel for the purpose of detoxifying its complex organic waste stream. The treatment plant design incorporates an innovative waste management approach to accommodate the limited space allocated for the facility. Initial performance data indicate a high efficient inorganic waste reduction. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Petrochemical characterization of gneissic rocks from Colmeia Complex -Colmeia region - Tocantins State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gneissic rocks of the Colmeia Complex from the surrounding of the Colmeia City (Tocantins State) have been analysed in terms of their petrochemical aspects. The major and trace element chemistry has been treated through several compositional diagrams. The oxygen isotope data for whole rocks and separate minerals have also been investigated. They showed a very good isotopic equilibrium and they permit to associate these rocks to the I type granites. They also suggest no post-metamorphic isotope exchange of these rocks. (author)

  16. China petrochemical expansion progressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on China's petrochemical expansion surge which is picking up speed. A worldscale petrochemical complex is emerging at Shanghai with an eye to expanding China's petrochemical exports, possibly through joint ventures with foreign companies, China Features reported. In other action, Beijing and Henan province have approved plans for a $1.2 billion chemical fibers complex at the proposed Luoyang refinery, China Daily reported

  17. Considerations for Planning a Monitoring Campaign at Petrochemical Complexes: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuclis, A.

    2010-12-01

    An air quality monitoring campaign was developed for the late spring of 2009 near Houston area petrochemical facilities. The focus of the field campaign was to measure free radicals that contribute to the formation of ozone, however refinery and chemical plants monitored are also emitters of many different volatile organic compounds (vocs) and hazardous air pollutants (haps). The Houston area is home to the largest aggregation of petrochemical facilities in the U.S. Three specific geographical areas with industrial facilities were considered: Mont Belvieu, the Houston Ship Channel and the Texas City Industrial Complex. Previous experiences with field campaigns in the area led to the presumption that there would be little if any access inside the facilities. Considerations for which areas to focus on included: how close could the facility be approached, what were the directions of the prevailing winds, what kind of barriers to measurement existed (e.g. trees, buildings, highways, privately owned land, etc.), and what were the possible chemical interferences from other sources near the measurement sites? Close communications with the plant security, the local police, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), Homeland Security, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) were required. Substantial delays can occur due to local concerns regarding homeland security and plant safety. Also, a system of communications is essential to coordinate the participating scientists operating stationary analyzers with the scientists who have analyzers mounted in ground vehicles and in aircraft. The researchers were provided with information regarding plant operations, types of equipment and potential pollutants. A wide variety of stationery and mobile ambient air monitoring techniques were used to measure formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds. In order to identify likely formaldehyde sources the self

  18. The Petrochemical Dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article tries about the construction and setting in march of a petrochemical complex of olefins and polyethylene, in Mamonal, and to integrate it with the refinery of Cartagena of ECOPETROL and with the petrochemical industries already existent and in operation, in such way that the Promoter of Olefins of the Caribbean was founded in 1995. The central axis of this development constitutes it the petrochemical complex of olefins that acquires new life with the potential supply of raw matters resultant of the amplification of the Refinery of Cartagena with its Main Development Plan (MDP). This is the way as the managers of the petrochemical sector have caressing the dream of the integration of the productive chain that would allow the conformation of the petrochemical cluster and the development of an industry of plastics of tip technology, high added value, competitive and exporter

  19. Integration of Microalgae-Based Bioenergy Production into a Petrochemical Complex: Techno-Economic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Gonçalves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of modern society has resulted in an increased demand for energy, mainly from fossil fuels. The use of this source of energy has led to the accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2 in the atmosphere. In this context, microalgae culturing may be an effective solution to reduce the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, since these microorganisms can capture CO2 and, simultaneously, produce bioenergy. This work consists of a techno-economic assessment of a microalgal production facility integrated in a petrochemical complex, in which established infrastructure allows efficient material and energy transport. Seven different scenarios were considered regarding photosynthetic, lipids extraction and anaerobic digestion efficiencies. This analysis has demonstrated six economically viable scenarios able to: (i reduce CO2 emissions from a thermoelectric power plant; (ii treat domestic wastewaters (which were used as culture medium; and (iii produce lipids and electrical and thermal energy. For a 100-ha facility, considering a photosynthetic efficiency of 3%, a lipids extraction efficiency of 75% and an anaerobic digestion efficiency of 45% (scenario 3, an economically viable process was obtained (net present value of 22.6 million euros, being effective in both CO2 removal (accounting for 1.1 × 104 t per year and energy production (annual energy produced was 1.6 × 107 kWh and annual lipids productivity was 1.9 × 103 m3.

  20. Operational planning optimization of steam power plants considering equipment failure in petrochemical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We develop a systematic programming methodology to address equipment failure. ► We classify different operation conditions into real periods and virtual periods. ► The formulated MILP models guarantee cost reduction and enough operation safety. ► The consideration of reserving operation redundancy is effective. - Abstract: One or more interconnected steam power plants (SPPs) are constructed in a petrochemical complex to supply utility energy to the process. To avoid large economic penalties or process shutdowns, these SPPs should be flexible and reliable enough to meet the process energy requirement under varying conditions. Unexpected utility equipment failure is inevitable and difficult to be predicted. Most of the conventional methods are based on the assumption that SPPs do not experience any kind of equipment failure. Unfortunately, a process shutdown cannot be avoided when equipment fails unexpectedly. In this paper, a systematic methodology is presented to minimize the total cost under normal conditions while reserving enough flexibility and safety for unexpected equipment failure conditions. The proposed method transforms the different conditions into real periods to indicate normal scenarios and virtual periods to indicate unexpected equipment failure scenarios. The optimization strategy incorporating various operation redundancy scheduling, the transition constraints from equipment failure conditions to normal conditions, and the boiler load increase behavior modeling are presented to save cost and guarantee operation safety. A detailed industrial case study shows that the proposed systematic methodology is effective and practical in coping with equipment failure conditions with only few additional cost penalties

  1. The Effect of Social Trust on Citizens’ Health Risk Perception in the Context of a Petrochemical Industrial Complex

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    Vicente Tortosa-Edo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perceived risk of environmental threats often translates into psychological stress with a wide range of effects on health and well-being. Petrochemical industrial complexes constitute one of the sites that can cause considerable pollution and health problems. The uncertainty around emissions results in a perception of risk for citizens residing in neighboring areas, which translates into anxiety and physiological stress. In this context, social trust is a key factor in managing the perceived risk. In the case of industrial risks, it is essential to distinguish between trust in the companies that make up the industry, and trust in public institutions. In the context of a petrochemical industrial complex located in the port of Castellón (Spain, this paper primarily discusses how trust — both in the companies located in the petrochemical complex and in the public institutions — affects citizens’ health risk perception. The research findings confirm that while the trust in companies negatively affects citizens’ health risk perception, trust in public institutions does not exert a direct and significant effect. Analysis also revealed that trust in public institutions and health risk perception are essentially linked indirectly (through trust in companies.

  2. The distance-to-source trend in vanadium and arsenic exposures for residents living near a petrochemical complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Chio, Chia-Pin; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Pien, Wei-Hsu; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2016-05-01

    Biological monitoring of vanadium (V) and arsenic (As) for residents living near a big petrochemical complex has not been previously studied. This study aims to investigate distance-to-source trends in urinary levels and dispersion-estimated concentrations of V and As in areas surrounding a petrochemical complex in central Taiwan. Our study subjects were 1424 residents living in the townships up to ~40 km from the petrochemical complex, and categorized as near (Zone A), further (Zone B) and furthest (Zone C) from the complex. Urinary and ambient V and As levels were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Two-stage dispersion model was used to estimate V and As concentrations at each study subject's address. Multiple linear regression models were used to study the effects of distance-to-source and estimated air concentrations of V and As on the urinary V and As levels of study subjects. Area-wide levels of both V and As showed a high-to-low trend in urinary levels (μg/g-creatinine) from Zone A (V with 2.86±2.30 and As with 104.6±147.9) to Zone C (V with 0.73±0.72 and As with 73.8±90.8). For study subjects, urinary V and As levels were decreased by 0.09 and 1.17 μg/g-creatinine, respectively, with 1 km away from the emission source of the petrochemical complex, and urinary V levels were significantly elevated by 0.38 μg/g-creatinine with a 1 ng/m(3) increase in estimated ambient V concentrations at their addresses. Our study concludes a distance-to-source gradient in V and As exposures exists for residents living near a petrochemical complex with oil refineries and coal-fired power plants and two-stage dispersion model can predict such a trend for V when inhalation is the major exposure route, but not for As that exposure may be from multiple sources and exposure routes. PMID:25690586

  3. IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTES IN AMMONIA UNIT OF RAZI PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX AND FEASIBILITY OF WASTE MINIMIZATION

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    F. Fakheri Raouf, R. Nabizadeh and N. Jafarzadeh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemical industries are considered as strategic and important sectors in economic development of Iran. Razi petrochemical factory is one of complex in Iran, established in 1970 with 100 hectare. In this research, the possibility of waste minimization in the ammonia unit of Razi petrochemical complex with about 1000 tons per year was studied for a period of 18 months from September 2003 to April 2005. More than 20 site visits were conducted and the required information was collected. Factors such as industrial solid wastes quality and quantity, sources of generation, production period and the present management practice, were studied. Petrochemical solid wastes were classified based on the recommended method of the United Nations and appropriate policies were suggested for waste minimization. The collected results of this study show production of 185 tons of industrial solid wastes from 45 sources which contained 68.5% catalysts, 10.25% metal barrels, 18.61% aluminum ball, 2.62% plastic barrels and 0.02% paper. 93.3% of these wastes were generated as the result of catalysts change, 3.3% as the result of using chemicals and oils, 1.7% as the result of methanol solution amid application, and 1.1% because of aluminum ball changes. Based on the UNEP methods, the ammonia unit wastes classified as 19/7%hazadrous and 87,12% non hazardous. At present 87.12% of these wastes are being dumped in the area and 12.88% are sold. Proposed procedures for waste minimization contain 68.5% reuse and recycling and 31.5% recycling.

  4. THE SPIRAL-UP INNOVATION OF PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX IN GROUP OPERATION CONCERNING THE CASE OF RING (RESEARCH ASSOCIATION OF REFINERY INTEGRATION FOR GROUP-OPERATION IN JAPAN

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    Kazuya Inaba

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The circumstances that surround the oil and petrochemical industry recently have been severe. Under such a severe competitive situation, oil and petrochemical companies came up with the idea of business cooperation in the same region in order to acquire global competitiveness. In this paper, the approach and ways of the high-level integration for group operation in petrochemical complex are analyzed, the meaning of RING projects is declared, and the economy that arises from group operation business is considered. Cooperation with some businesses would be effective for energy conservation and environmental measures, and would advance the possibility to achieve economies of public profit. Also, group operation would break the stoppage and promote innovations one after another in a petrochemical complex.

  5. Assessing vanadium and arsenic exposure of people living near a petrochemical complex with two-stage dispersion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chio, Chia-Pin; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shie, Ruei-Hao [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chan, Chang-Chuan, E-mail: ccchan@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Two-stage dispersion models can estimate exposures to hazardous air pollutants. • Spatial distribution of V levels is derived for sources without known emission rates. • A distance-to-source gradient is found for V levels from a petrochemical complex. • Two-stage dispersion is useful for modeling air pollution in resource-limited areas. - Abstract: The goal of this study is to demonstrate that it is possible to construct a two-stage dispersion model empirically for the purpose of estimating air pollution levels in the vicinity of petrochemical plants. We studied oil refineries and coal-fired power plants in the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex, an area of 2,603-ha situated on the central west coast of Taiwan. The pollutants targeted were vanadium (V) from oil refineries and arsenic (As) from coal-fired power plants. We applied a backward fitting method to determine emission rates of V and As, with 192 PM{sub 10} filters originally collected between 2009 and 2012. Our first-stage model estimated emission rates of V and As (median and 95% confidence intervals at 0.0202 (0.0040–0.1063) and 0.1368 (0.0398–0.4782) g/s, respectively. In our second stage model, the predicted zone-average concentrations showed a strong correlation with V, but a poor correlation with As. Our findings show that two-stage dispersion models are relatively precise for estimating V levels at residents’ addresses near the petrochemical complex, but they did not work as well for As levels. In conclusion, our model-based approach can be widely used for modeling exposure to air pollution from industrial areas in countries with limited resources.

  6. Assessing vanadium and arsenic exposure of people living near a petrochemical complex with two-stage dispersion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two-stage dispersion models can estimate exposures to hazardous air pollutants. • Spatial distribution of V levels is derived for sources without known emission rates. • A distance-to-source gradient is found for V levels from a petrochemical complex. • Two-stage dispersion is useful for modeling air pollution in resource-limited areas. - Abstract: The goal of this study is to demonstrate that it is possible to construct a two-stage dispersion model empirically for the purpose of estimating air pollution levels in the vicinity of petrochemical plants. We studied oil refineries and coal-fired power plants in the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex, an area of 2,603-ha situated on the central west coast of Taiwan. The pollutants targeted were vanadium (V) from oil refineries and arsenic (As) from coal-fired power plants. We applied a backward fitting method to determine emission rates of V and As, with 192 PM10 filters originally collected between 2009 and 2012. Our first-stage model estimated emission rates of V and As (median and 95% confidence intervals at 0.0202 (0.0040–0.1063) and 0.1368 (0.0398–0.4782) g/s, respectively. In our second stage model, the predicted zone-average concentrations showed a strong correlation with V, but a poor correlation with As. Our findings show that two-stage dispersion models are relatively precise for estimating V levels at residents’ addresses near the petrochemical complex, but they did not work as well for As levels. In conclusion, our model-based approach can be widely used for modeling exposure to air pollution from industrial areas in countries with limited resources

  7. Assessing vanadium and arsenic exposure of people living near a petrochemical complex with two-stage dispersion models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chio, Chia-Pin; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-04-30

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate that it is possible to construct a two-stage dispersion model empirically for the purpose of estimating air pollution levels in the vicinity of petrochemical plants. We studied oil refineries and coal-fired power plants in the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex, an area of 2,603-ha situated on the central west coast of Taiwan. The pollutants targeted were vanadium (V) from oil refineries and arsenic (As) from coal-fired power plants. We applied a backward fitting method to determine emission rates of V and As, with 192 PM10 filters originally collected between 2009 and 2012. Our first-stage model estimated emission rates of V and As (median and 95% confidence intervals at 0.0202 (0.0040-0.1063) and 0.1368 (0.0398-0.4782) g/s, respectively. In our second stage model, the predicted zone-average concentrations showed a strong correlation with V, but a poor correlation with As. Our findings show that two-stage dispersion models are relatively precise for estimating V levels at residents' addresses near the petrochemical complex, but they did not work as well for As levels. In conclusion, our model-based approach can be widely used for modeling exposure to air pollution from industrial areas in countries with limited resources. PMID:24607528

  8. Petrochemical development in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation highlighted the evolution of the petrochemical industry in Venezuela. Comparative advantages for the industry such as (1) abundant low cost energy, (2) attractive geographical position, (3) good infrastructure, (4) skilled, low cost labour force, and (5) regional integration, were reviewed. A summary of national production, refining, and marketing facts for petrochemicals, coal, orimulsion, and marine transportation were presented, along with financial information concerning revenues from sales, and profits and investments. Future plans to maximize the creation of value for the nation through increased oil production and partial privatization of state petroleum enterprises, were reviewed. The current state and future plans for focused development of fertilizers, olefins and olefin derivatives, and methanol products were outlined. Production statistics for three large petrochemical complexes, - El Tablazo, Moron and Jose - were also presented. 9 figs

  9. Evaluation of phase chemistry and petrochemical aspects of Samchampi–Samteran differentiated alkaline complex of Mikir Hills, northeastern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhishek Saha; Sohini Ganguly; Jyotisankar Ray; Nilanjan Chaterjee

    2010-10-01

    The Samchampi –Samteran alkaline complex occurs as a plug-like pluton within the Precambrian granite gneisses of Mikir Hills,Assam,northeastern India and it is genetically related to Sylhet Traps.The intrusive complex is marked by dominant development of syenite within which ijolite – melteigite suite of rocks is emplaced with an arcuate outcrop pattern.Inliers of alkali pyroxenite and alkali gabbro occur within this ijolite –melteigite suite of rocks.The pluton is also traversed by younger intrusives of nepheline syenite and carbonatite.Development of sporadic,lumpy magnetite ore bodies is also recorded within the pluton.Petrographic details of the constituent lithomembers of the pluton have been presented following standard nomenclatorial rules.Overall pyroxene compositions range from diopside to aegirine augite while alkali feldspars are typically orthoclase and plagioclase in syenite corresponds to oligoclase species.Phase chemistry of nepheline is suggestive of Na-rich alkaline character of the complex.Biotite compositions are typically restricted to a uniform compositional range and they belong to ‘biotite ’field in the relevant classification scheme.Garnets (developed in syenite and melteigite)typically tend to be Ti-rich andradite,which on a closer scan can be further designated as melanites.Opaque minerals mostly correspond to magnetite.Use of Lindsley ’s pyroxene thermometric method suggests an equilibration temperature from ∼450°–600°C for melteigite/alkali gabbro and ∼400° C for syenite.Critical assessment of other thermometric methods reveals a temperature of equilibration of ∼700°–1350°C for ijolite –melteigite suite of rocks in contrast to a relatively lower equilibration temperature of ∼600° C for syenite. Geobarometric data based on pyroxene chemistry yield an equilibration pressure of 5.32 –7.72 kb for ijolite,melteigite,alkali pyroxenite,alkali gabbro and nepheline syenite.The dominant syenite member of the

  10. Oil sands and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to evaluate new feedstocks from Alberta's vast oil sands resources to supplement natural gas liquids. The long-term competitiveness of Alberta's petrochemical industry can be increased by having both gas and oil feedstock options. Several schemes were evaluated to help Alberta develop synergies for its oil sands and petrochemical industries through cost effective integration of oil sands, upgrading, refining and petrochemical development. It was shown that phased integration of oil sands and petrochemical developments is technically and economically feasible to co-produce high grade fuels and petrochemicals. Alberta has the potential to become a world-scale energy and petrochemical producer. Alberta's oil sands facilities are potentially capable of supporting new world-scale plants producing ethylene, propylene, benzene, para-xylene, and other high-value-added derivatives. The products can be produced by integrating existing and new oil sands upgrading plants, refineries and petrochemical plants. tabs., figs

  11. Financing the petrochemical industry : a banker's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risks that are associated with the petrochemical industry from a lender's perspective were described. It was suggested that the petrochemical industry is facing a downturn which will be intensified by the Asian economic crisis. In the past, petrochemicals were recognized as a major requirement for economic growth and many governments encouraged joint ventures with foreign companies. However, the Asian economic crisis has significantly slowed petrochemical demand from Canada. The three major risks associated with the petrochemical industry - cyclical nature of the business, price volatility and complexity - were examined. It was shown that a typical petrochemical company accesses multiple feedstocks and produces thousands of products. This complicates cash flow analysis and market risk for lenders. Another risk pertains to environmental issues and international environmental policies which emphasize reduction of emissions, including those from chemical manufacturing. Critical success factors such as global diversification, leading process technology, low cost operation, and focusing on core competencies were also reviewed. Prediction for the next three to five years was a further slowdown of Asian demand, competition from Asian petrochemical companies, capacity driven oversupply and industry consolidation as a way to deal with depressed markets that could last for several years. Nevertheless, the emerging markets will continue to be the hotspots. Alberta, as one of the low cost feedstock areas of the world, will continue to be in a good position to take advantage of the Asian recovery which despite the current problems, is confidently expected within the next three to five years. 5 figs

  12. Petrochemicals from oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petrochemical industry in Alberta developed rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s. However, projected diminishing gas production from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin has raised concerns about the future growth of the industry in Alberta. A joint industry/government study has been conducted to evaluate new feedstocks from Alberta's vast oil sands resources to supplement natural gas liquids. Having both gas and oil sands feedstock options should increase the long-term competitiveness of Alberta's petrochemical industry.This paper presents a framework for evaluating and optimizing schemes for helping Alberta develop synergies for its oil sands and petrochemical industries through cost effective integration of oil sands, upgrading, refining and petrochemical development from 2005 to 2020. The paper places emphasis on specific locations and market conditions. It demonstrates that phased integration of oil sands and petrochemical developments is technically and economically feasible to co-produce high grade fuels and petrochemicals, assuming a new pipeline is built between Edmonton and Vancouver. Alberta has the potential to become a world-scale energy and petrochemical cluster. Alberta's oil sands facilities are potentially capable of supporting new world-scale plants producing ethylene, propylene, benzene, para-xylene, and other high-value-added derivatives. The products can be produced by integrating existing and new oil sands upgrading plants, refineries and petrochemical plants within the next 5 to 10 years. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  13. Maximizing petrochemicals from refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, B.; Foley, T.; Frey, S. [UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2007-07-01

    New fuel quality requirements and high growth rates for petrochemicals are providing both challenges and opportunities for refineries. A key challenge in refineries today is to improve of the value of the products from the FCC unit. In particular, light FCC naphtha and LCO are prime candidates for improved utilization. Processing options have been developed focusing on new opportunities for these traditional fuel components. The Total Petrochemicals/UOP Olefin Cracking Process cracks C4-C8 olefins to produce propylene and ethylene. This process can be integrated into FCC units running at all severity levels to produce valuable light olefins while reducing the olefin content of the light FCC naphtha. Integration of the Olefin Cracking Process with an FCC unit can be accomplished to allow a range of operating modes which can accommodate changing demand for propylene, cracked naphtha and alkylate. Other processes developed by UOP allow for upgrading LCO into a range of products including petrochemical grade xylenes, benzene, high cetane diesel and low sulfur high octane gasoline. Various processing options are available which allow the products from LCO conversion to be adjusted based on the needs and opportunities of an individual refinery, as well as the external petrochemical demand cycles. This presentation will examine recent refining and petrochemical trends and highlight new process technologies that can be used to generate additional revenue from petrochemical production while addressing evolving clean fuel demands. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of liver enzyme levels in workers exposed to vinyl chloride vapors in a petrochemical complex: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolati Mandana

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyvinyl chloride is used in production and manufacturing of many essential tools (e.g. plastic pipes, photography films, etc.. Its production is impossible without the use of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM, which can cause liver damage in long-term. In this study we intend to assess the effects of mild to moderate long term exposure to VCM on liver and to assess the importance of liver enzyme measurements as a screening tool. Methods In this study, liver enzyme levels of 52 workers were compared to 48 control workers using the T-test. The cases all worked in a PVC production unit in a petrochemical complex and the controls were randomly selected from office personnel of the same complex. A questionnaire was also filled in about information such as age, weight, work history, etc. in both groups. Results Mean comparisons for ALP and GGT using T-test showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. For AST, ALT and bilirubin (total, direct the mean was higher in the case group but this difference was not statistically significant. Discussion This study showed that mild exposure to VCM can cause mild liver cholestasis. So, using cholestasis assessment tests such as ALP and GGT should be considered in periodic assessment of liver function in PVC producing units.

  15. Gasification to petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasification is often used to convert coal, petroleum coke and heavy hydrocarbons to gaseous products for hydrogenation in oil refining and upgrading. Gasification produces a variety of byproducts that can be used to produce petrochemicals. Primary petrochemical derivatives from sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen can enhance the overall economics of the gasification process, and gasification by-products can be combined with other hydrocarbon feedstocks to produce a variety of secondary and tertiary petrochemical products. This presentation examined the potential for primary, secondary and tertiary petrochemicals derived from Alberta's oil sands industry. The gasification units associated with oil sands processing plants are the largest in the world, which suggests that syngas and other gasification products will benefit from economies of scale. A proposed flow scheme for oil sands bitumen using a naphtha cracker to create ethylene and other petrochemicals was presented as well as flow schemes for the creation of light hydrocarbons, syngas and aromatics. Ammonia and methanol synthesis processes from natural gas were reviewed, as well as issues concerning acetic acid synthesis and phenol synthesis from benzene and propylene. It was concluded that all the products and feedstocks reviewed in the analysis are readily transported and have established markets. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Malaysia: oil, gas, petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petronas or Petroliam Nasional Berhad was established on 17 August 1974 as the national petroleum corporation of Malaysia. The Petroleum Development Act, passed by the Malaysian Parliament in October of that same year, vested in Petronas the entire ownership of all oil and natural gas resources in the country. These resources are considerable and Malaysia is poised to become one of the major petrochemical producers in the region. This report outlines the extent of oil, gas and petrochemicals production in Malaysia, lists companies holding licences and contracts from Petronas and provides a directory of the Malaysian oil industry. (Author)

  17. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benazzi, E.; Alario, F

    2004-07-01

    In 2003, refining margins showed a clear improvement that continued throughout the first three quarters of 2004. Oil companies posted significantly higher earnings in 2003 compared to 2002, with the results of first quarter 2004 confirming this trend. Due to higher feedstock prices, the implementation of new capacity and more intense competition, the petrochemicals industry was not able to boost margins in 2003. In such difficult business conditions, aggravated by soaring crude prices, the petrochemicals industry is not likely to see any improvement in profitability before the second half of 2004. (author)

  18. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2003, refining margins showed a clear improvement that continued throughout the first three quarters of 2004. Oil companies posted significantly higher earnings in 2003 compared to 2002, with the results of first quarter 2004 confirming this trend. Due to higher feedstock prices, the implementation of new capacity and more intense competition, the petrochemicals industry was not able to boost margins in 2003. In such difficult business conditions, aggravated by soaring crude prices, the petrochemicals industry is not likely to see any improvement in profitability before the second half of 2004. (author)

  19. Chemical and Petrochemical Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication is a background document on the global chemical and petrochemical sector for the IEA publication Energy Technology Transitions in Industry (IEA, 2009). It provides further, more detailed information on the methodology and data issues for energy efficiency indicators for the sector. The indicators discussed offer insight regarding the energy efficiency improvement potential in the short- to medium-term (by proven technologies).

  20. Thai petrochemical boom on track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Thailand continues to mark progress on the ambitious expansion of its petrochemical industry. Among recent developments: The outlook for Thailand's troubled worldscale aromatics project has improved with a major cut in its estimated cost. In addition, the project apparently has drawn the interest of other companies seeking a possible equity stake. Amoco Chemical Co., which lost a tender to build a worldscale purified terephathalic acid (PTA) complex in Thailand to Taiwan's Tuntex Co., is reviving its bid with a proposal similar to its earlier one. Amoco contends there will be enough demand to warrant a second PTA plant in Thailand. Tuntex is negotiating with several business groups to take part in its $333 million, 350,000 ton/year PTA project in Thailand. Tuntex is soliciting interest from a number of Thai companies, including Bangkok Bank and the Saha Union industrial conglomerate to acquire portions of the 51% interest in the project earmarked for Thai shareholders. The firm also is negotiating with a number of Japanese companies with whom it has long trade ties, including Mitsui and Co. and Marubeni Corp. to acquire part of the 49% foreign shareholding in the project. Thai Olefins Co. (TOC) marked further progress with feedstock contracts and financing arrangements for its proposed $720 million olefins plant, part of Thailand's second worldscale petrochemical complex (NPC II). Indian industrial giant Birla proposed a $20 million ethylene glycol (EG) project in Thailand

  1. Brief Introduction of PetroChina Fushun Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ PetroChina Fushun Pertrochemical Company (PFPC) is a large-scale integrated petrochemical complex, which owns three oil refineries, three large and medium-size chemical plants and one company for storage and transportation of oil products.

  2. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  3. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  4. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Down sharply in 2002, refining margins showed a clear improvement in the first half-year of 2003. As a result, the earnings reported by oil companies for financial year 2002 were significantly lower than in 2001, but the prospects are brighter for 2003. In the petrochemicals sector, slow demand and higher feedstock prices eroded margins in 2002, especially in Europe and the United States. The financial results for the first part of 2003 seem to indicate that sector profitability will not improve before 2004. (author)

  5. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benazzi, E

    2003-07-01

    Down sharply in 2002, refining margins showed a clear improvement in the first half-year of 2003. As a result, the earnings reported by oil companies for financial year 2002 were significantly lower than in 2001, but the prospects are brighter for 2003. In the petrochemicals sector, slow demand and higher feedstock prices eroded margins in 2002, especially in Europe and the United States. The financial results for the first part of 2003 seem to indicate that sector profitability will not improve before 2004. (author)

  6. Risk Management in the petrochemical industry - a game theoretic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The thesis studies risk management and the complex human interactions in the petrochemical industry using game theoretic methods. In a first step, the risk management problem is described as a simultaneous inspection game, in which the management of a model petrochemical company makes a decision of safety rule enforcement and the worker faces a trade-off between not violating or violating these rules. Violating leads to a gain if rules are not enforced, and to a loss if enforced. In this...

  7. Adverse pregnancy outcome in a petrochemical polluted area in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M C; Yu, H S; Tsai, S S; Cheng, B H; Hsu, T Y; Wu, T N; Yang, C Y

    2001-08-24

    The petrochemical industry is the main source of industrial air pollution in Taiwan. Reported here are the results from an ongoing study of outdoor air pollution and the health of individuals living in a community in close proximity to petrochemical industrial complexes. The prevalences of term low birth weight (LBW) in the petrochemical municipality and control municipality were 3.22%, and 1.84%, respectively. After controlling for several possible confounders (including maternal age, season, marital status, maternal education, and infant sex), the adjusted odds ratio was 1.767 (1.002-3.116) for term LBW in the petrochemical municipality. Data provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect the outcome of pregnancy. PMID:11549116

  8. China's petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is clear from the trade press that American, European, and Japanese chemical companies are making major capital investment commitments in China. They are also developing strategies to participate in the country's growth. Many people wonder how long the window of opportunity will remain open. Some questions one may ask include: What are the driving forces for such intense activity? What role is the Chinese government playing in implementing growth plans? What are the classes of chemical products receiving priority attention? To what degree is China integrating upstream into energy and basic feedstocks? What are the long-term implications for Asia and the rest of the world with respect to foreign trade? To answer these and other questions, Martech, Inc., a subsidiary of Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, recently completed a comprehensive report on China's petrochemical industry. This article is adapted from the executive summary of that report

  9. More valuable as petrochemical feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems facing the North American petrochemical industry were discussed with particular reference to the fact that high North American prices present a challenge to competitiveness in a globally traded market. A background of Dow Canada was provided, including details of its upgrading of natural gas liquids that would otherwise be combusted for electrical power generation. The value of the petrochemical industry was outlined, with details of employment, manufacturing output and exports. Alberta's relationship to the natural gas industry was reviewed. The role of petrochemicals as a nexus for bridging the resource sector with manufacturing, retail and transportation was discussed. The historic correlation between world Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ethylene demand was presented. It was noted that the petrochemical industry currently competes with power generators for smaller volumes of natural gas liquids. As a highly energy intensive industry, inequities in gas pipeline haul charges and even small increases in gas prices has compromised the success of the petrochemical industry. It was noted that while crude oil is a globally traded commodity, natural gas liquids are generally traded at a more localized level, and factors that helped build the petrochemical industry and are now inhibiting growth. Ethane is the primary feedstock in the petrochemical industry. High natural gas prices affected the industry on two levels: volatility in a weakening industry and higher prices on primary feedstocks. It was estimated that changes in current trends were likely to take place in 5 to 10 years, following Northern gas developments. It was estimated that more than 50 per cent of new capacity investment in ethylene plants would take place in the Middle East in the next 5 years. No new plants are planned in Canada. It was concluded that low-cost feedstock advantages, as well as alternative feedstocks and the sustainment of a healthy industry are necessary for the

  10. Transformation of the Czech refinery and petrochemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petrochemical and chemical industries in former Czechoslovakia in the period after World War II was built up with a purpose to create a complex whose individual subjects would be closely interlinked from the point of view of their production programmes. The separation of Slovakia as an independent state has disrupted some of these links. In spite of that the petrochemical and chemical industries are nowadays the most prosperous branches of economy of the Czech Republic. The governmental proposal for the reorganizing of the refinery and petrochemical complex elaborated in connection with the resolution of the Governmental Privatization Commission of November 6 1994 proposed the formation of a holding company Unipetrol in the way of merging Chemopetrol and Kaucuk with a new joint stock company Unipetrol established for this purpose by the National Property Fund. The updated proposal offers formation of the holding organization Unipetrol in a substantially simpler, from the point of view of time, organization and financing less demanding manner. This proposal is based on the following principles: respecting the approved privatization projects, the solution must not have influence on the rights and position of natural and juristic persons who became shareholders in accordance with the privatization projects already approved, the influence of the state on decisions of the holding and its daughter companies will be maintained with regard to the security of the state and supplying the strategically important subjects with fuels in situation of a crisis, the share of the business subjects in the shares of the holding will be such that it would enable them from the very beginning to participate effectively and not only formally in the decisions. 2 figs

  11. Brief Introduction of PetroChina Lanzhou Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ As the largest oil refining and chemical production enterprise in the western part of China, PetroChina Lanzhou Petrochemical Company is a regional company of PetroChina Company Limited, which was restructured and merged from the former Lanzhou Petroleum Processing & Chemical Complex and the former Lanzhou Chemical Industry Company.

  12. Monitoring of meteorology and air quality at influence area of COMPERJ (Rio de Janeiro Petrochemical Complex); Monitoramento meteorologico e da qualidade do ar na regiao de influencia do COMPERJ (Complexo Petroquimico do Rio de Janeiro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Edler Lins de; Villa, Felipe de Santana; Lyra, Diogenes Ganghis Pimentel de [CETREL-LUMINA Solucoes Ambientais, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Secron, Marcelo; Iorio, Patricia Freire; Mendes, Marcos Faistauer [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Rio de Janeiro Petrochemical Complex (COMPERJ) will be installed in the north region of Itaborai city. The start of COMPERJ operations is foreseen to 2012. Because of the intensification of industrialization and urbanization processes, the implantation of COMPERJ will bring environmental modifications for Itaborai city and neighbors areas. Thus, meteorological and air quality monitoring was initiated in February of 2007 with the intention of carrying out a characterization of air pollution in this area, before COMPERJ operations. In this work are presented the results found in campaigns performed of February of 2007 until April of 2008. The meteorological monitoring disclosed that the meteorological parameters have varied enough throughout the months, but these are representative of a global behavior of the studied area. Monitoring of air quality has shown that atmospheric levels of monitored pollutants has been generally below of Brazilian air quality standards. This fact corroborates the basic aspect of the present study: identification of the concentrations 'background' in the studied area. Throughout the period of monitoring, the primary air quality standard for ozone has been reached. Observations of meteorological parameters indicate that this fact is associated to the emissions originated from Sao Goncalo, Niteroi and Rio de Janeiro cities. (author)

  13. U-Pb zircon geochronology, petrochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic characteristic of Late Neoproterozoic granitoid of the Bornaward Complex (Bardaskan-NE Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherzadeh, R. Monazzami; Karimpour, M. H.; Farmer, G. Lang; Stern, C. R.; Santos, J. F.; Rahimi, B.; Heidarian Shahri, M. R.

    2015-11-01

    The Bornaward Granitoid Complex (BGC) in the Taknar Zone is located in the northeast of Central Iranian Block. The BGC consists of granite, alkaligranite, syenogranite, leucogranite, granophyre, monzogranite, granodiorite, tonalite and diorite that have intruded into the center of Taknar Zone. These intrusive rocks affected by low grade metamorphism. Because of there are no reliable isotope dating data, for the Bornaward Granitoid Complex rocks have been proposed discordant ages (Jurassic, Cretaceous or even younger ages) by many studies. In the present study, new isotopic information based on zircon U-Pb dating has revealed the origin and time of the formation of the BGC. These new results do not confirm previously proposed ages. The results obtained from zircon U-Pb dating of the BGC rocks suggest late-Neoproterozoic (Precambrian) age (540-550 Ma). The Bornaward Granitoid Complex is middle-high metaluminous to lower-middle peraluminous and belongs to tholeiite, calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline rock series with enrichment in LIL (Cs, Rb and Ba, U, K, Zr, Y, Th) and depletion in HIL (Sr and Nb, Ta, Ti) elements. Chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Elements (REE) plots indicate minor enrichment of LREE compared to HREE, and strong negative anomaly of Eu compared to other Rare Earth Elements. Furthermore, initial 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd range from 0.70351 to 0.71689 and 0.511585 to 0.512061, respectively, and initial εNd isotope values for granite, granodiorite and diorite range from -6.73 to 2.52. These all indicate that the BGC has derived from partial melting of distinct basement source regions with very high initial 87Sr/86Sr and undergoing extensive crustal contamination (S-type granite).

  14. Mortality and morbidity study of petrochemical employees in a polluted site

    OpenAIRE

    Pasetto Roberto; Zona Amerigo; Pirastu Roberta; Cernigliaro Achille; Dardanoni Gabriella; Addario Sebastiano; Scondotto Salvatore; Comba Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The area of Gela was included among the 57 Italian polluted sites of national interest for environmental remediation because of its widespread contamination from a petrochemical complex. The present study investigates mortality and morbidity of the cohort of Gela petrochemical workers with the aim of disentangling occupational from residential risk. Methods Mortality was assessed for 5,627 men hired from 1960, year of the plant start-up, to 1993; it was followed up for vit...

  15. Dalian Petrochemical Sets Ambitious Oil Refining Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    As one of PetroChina's most profitable enterprises, Dalian Petrochemical Company, located on the western bank of Pacific Occean, is remarkable for the first-class management and performance. In a recent interview with media, general manger of Dalian Petrochemical Company Jiang Fan said the

  16. Panorama 2007: Refining and Petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The year 2005 saw a new improvement in refining margins that continued during the first three quarters of 2006. The restoration of margins in the last three years has allowed the refining sector to regain its profitability. In this context, the oil companies reported earnings for fiscal year 2005 that were up significantly compared to 2004, and the figures for the first half-year 2006 confirm this trend. Despite this favorable business environment, investments only saw a minimal increase in 2005 and the improvement expected for 2006 should remain fairly limited. Looking to 2010-2015, it would appear that the planned investment projects with the highest probability of reaching completion will be barely adequate to cover the increase in demand. Refining sector should continue to find itself under pressure. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady up-trend in the naphtha price, the restoration of margins consolidated a comeback that started in 2005. All in all, capital expenditure remained fairly low in both the refining and petrochemicals sectors, but many projects are planned for the next ten years. (author)

  17. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

  18. Anging Petrochemical Co.Adopts Novel Acrvlonitrile Catalyst Developed by Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The SANC catalyst for synthesis of acrylonitrile developed by the SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute (SPRI) has been successfully applied in the 80 kt/a acrylonitrile unit at the Anqing Petrochemical Company.At present the bulk catalyst used in the acrylonitrile unit at Anqing Petrochemical Company cannot meet the requirements for increasingly elevating operating level.Starting May 2008 the novel SANC catalyst,developed by SPRI and manufactured by the SINOPEC Catalyst Branch Company

  19. Concept of ecological corridors and agroforestal systems applied for the implementation of PETROBRAS punctual and linear projects: case study of COMPERJ (Rio de Janeiro Petrochemical Complex); Conceito de corredores ecologicos e sistemas agroflorestais aplicados a implantacao de empreendimentos pontuais e lineares em ambito PETROBRAS: estudo de caso do COMPERJ (Complexo Petroquimico do Rio de Janeiro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secron, Marcelo B.; Mesquita, Ivan D.; Soares, Luiz Felipe R.; Almeida, Ronaldo Bento G. de; Fernandes, Renato; Dellamea, Giovani S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nunes, Rodrigo T.; Pereira Junior, Edson Rodrigues [SEEBLA, Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The land use and human occupation realized with an indiscriminate form across many parts of the world, including Brazil, have been causing destruction of great amount of forest mass and green areas. These actions results an isolation of a forest reminder fragment, and in such case, along the time, these fragments become weak and debilitated, characterizing general biodiversity loss or its extinction, in a worse case. This study presents basic concepts of ecological corridors and agroforestal systems, showing the case study that will be implemented in COMPERJ (Rio de Janeiro Petrochemical Complex), pointing the aspects that can be applied for PETROBRAS to offset impacts (biodiversity offsets concept) of punctual and linear projects. (author)

  20. Proceedings of the CERI 2005 petrochemical conference: competing in a global marketplace. CD-ROM ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this conference was on the Canadian petrochemical industry's global competitiveness and potential markets. Recent advances in technology were explored, as well as issues concerning transportation and infrastructure. Capital cost requirements and feedstock availability were examined, as well as opportunities in growth and product diversification. Issues currently challenging the petrochemical industry and its relationship to the energy sector were reviewed. Alberta's place in the North American energy complex was discussed, along with issues concerning feedstock from Canadian oil sands. An overview of North America's position in the world petrochemicals market was presented, and outlooks for future trade with China were discussed. Outlines of the United States and Middle East petrochemical industries were presented, and Russia's role in global energy security was examined. The conference was divided into the following 7 sessions: (1) global conditions for the petrochemical industry; (2) energy supply outlook; (3) transportation and trade; (4) pan-Canadian synergies in petrochemicals and refining; (5) maintaining competitiveness and product and market diversity; (6) capital costs and constraints; and (7) contributions towards global leadership. Twenty-three papers were presented at the conference. refs., tabs., figs

  1. Facing the petrochemical competition. Are you prepared?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors that impact petrochemical supply, demand and economics were discussed. Petrochemicals are the basis for most commodities consumed in today's society. The demand for these products is determined by the economy and by the population. Recent changes in the world's political structure will have an impact on the petrochemical industry. There is evidence that petrochemical activity is shifting to the developing regions of the world as a result of the fall of communism, the fall of some dictatorships and the privatization of state enterprises. In 1980, the world's economic strength was in Western Europe, North America, and Japan, with 78 per cent of the world's GDP. It was forecast that by 2010, these three areas will only account for 70 per cent of the world's GDP. Shifting population and economies will increase per capita incomes in Eastern Europe, South America, and Asia. These areas will see an increase in purchases of petrochemicals products. Demand for base petrochemicals is expected to increase by 106 million tons over the next ten years. However, to survive in a competitive market, companies will have to develop programs to reduce costs, integrate and be prepared to take advantage of opportunities created by the supply/demand cycles

  2. Fundamental requirements for petrochemical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of NOVA Chemicals over the past 20 years is described as an illustration of how the petrochemical industry provides markets for natural gas, natural gas liquids and the products of crude oil distillation, and functions as a conduit for upgrading products which would otherwise be sold into the fuel market. Some fundamental characteristics of the business which are foundations for competitiveness are reviewed in the process. These fundamentals help to understand why the industry locates in certain geographic regions of the world, which are often remote from end-use markets. Chief among these fundamentals is access to an adequate supply of appropriately priced feedstock; this is the single most important reason why chemical companies continue to emphasize developments in areas of the world where feedstock are advantageously priced. The cost of operations is equally significant. Cost depends not so much on location but on the scale of operations, hence the tendency towards large scale plants. Plant and product rationalization, technology and product development synergies and leverage with suppliers are all opportunities for cost reduction throughout the product supply chain. The combination of lower natural gas cost in Alberta, the lower fixed cost of extraction and the economies of scale achieved by large scale operation (five billion pounds per year of polyethylene production capacity) are the crucial factors that will enable NOVA Chemicals to maintain its competitive position and to weather the highs and lows in industry price fluctuations

  3. Data on greenhouse gases emission in condensate separation unit of a petrochemical company in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Dastorian, Mehrshad; Jafarzadeh, Nemat; Jorfi, Sahand; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2016-09-01

    Since global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions is no respecter of geographical boundaries of countries, concerted mitigation activities such as Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), are suitable. In this mechanism, some developed countries can gain certified emission reduction credits from emission reduction actions undertaken in developing countries. Thus, the data of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries would be informative for implementing of CDM. Herein, the data of greenhouse gas emissions of Bandar Imam Petrochemical Complex, one of the biggest petrochemical companies in the Middle East region is presented. The data was acquired using emission factor method and self-presented raw information of the Bandar Imam Petrochemical Complex. Overall, the data will be interesting for environmentalists, non-governmental organization (NGO), and developed countries to perform CDM. PMID:27500190

  4. Review of China's Petrochemical Industry and Market in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Resin China's resin industry is characterized with three features in 2003. First of all, the production grew significantly in 2003 because both of Shanghai Petrochemical and Yangtze Petrochemical were added with a 200,000-ton polypropylene productivity in 2002.

  5. Panorama 2012 - Petrochemicals and chemicals from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrochemicals is a mature industry which has undergone, and continues to undergo, deep changes. The historically-important producing areas of the USA, Europe and Japan have seen their share of the market contract in favour of Asia and the Middle East. The investment choices inherent in this shift of emphasis are now beginning to impact significantly on the availability and price of some petrochemical intermediates, and producers increasingly consider basing their production processes on biomass, a renewable and abundant resource. This new channel offers a more favourable greenhouse gas (GHG) balance than the benchmark fossil fuels options. (authors)

  6. Energy cogeneration for the industrial sector. Exploration of possibilities for Bahia Blanca petrochemical complex; Cogeneracion de energia para el sector industrial. Exploracion de posibilidades para el polo petroquimico de Bahia Blanca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzman, Carlos H. [Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Dept. de Electrotecnia; Baraychart, Rogelio [Tecnolatina S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-12-31

    Many industrial plants have installed gas turbines in connection with total energy schemes. By combining a gas turbine with a steam plant, through an Independent Power Producer (IPP), increasing in overall efficiency can be archived compared to a steam plant alone. The general applications and economic considerations after privatization of Argentine Network, indicates that for power supply, combined cycle with cogeneration, is appropriate for generation, because of improving quality service, lowering capital cost improving and high efficiency. Figures are shown in this paper, for a project at the petrochemical development pole in Bahia Blanca city, located in the south of Buenos Aires Province. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.; e-mail: gea at delec.fi.uba.ar; tecnolat at ssdnet.com.ar

  7. Waste minimization in a petrochemical company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anan, Marcelo [Oxiteno S.A., Industria e Comercio, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    A way to manage industrial effluents consists in reducing their generation or treating them when elimination or minimization is economically unachievable. This work aims to present the modifications adopted in a petrochemical plant to adequate and, or, reduce the generation of industrial effluent. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Potential of best practice technology to improve energy efficiency in the global chemical and petrochemical sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saygin, D.; Patel, M.K.; Worrell, E.; Tam, C.; Gielen, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for 30% of the industry's total final energy use. However, due to its complexity its energy efficiency potential is not well understood. This article analyses the energy efficiency potential on a country l

  9. Petrochemical production from oil, gas to 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seler, M.; Hadzialic, S.; Mijatovic, I.; Zambeli, M.

    Problems in the supply of the necessary raw materials to the petrochemical industry have been especially evident since the curtailment of petroleum imports. The author analyzes the situation in the petroleum and petrochemical industry over the planning period from 1986 to 1990, and makes it evident that raw materials can be furnished to a high degree if the method allocation is agreed upon and if producers of the raw materials discharge their obligations according to the agreed upon schedule. He compares available capacities and projected consumption of petroleum products in Yugoslavia between 1985-1995, then notes differences in the situation with natural gas. He concludes that the Self-Management Accord drafted by producers and consumers of raw materials is the best approach. 13 tables.

  10. Global petrochemical industry experiencing cyclic downturn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current deterioration of the petrochemical industry-particularly in the U.S. and Western Europe-is a cause of great concern to operators and analysts alike. Although the rapidly developing Asian market will continue to be a major factor into the next century, the immediate global outlook is for a weak market. Chem Systems Inc., Tarrytown, N.Y., discussed these issues at its annual petrochemical conference, held Jan. 13-14 in Houston. One of the few optimistic predictions of the meetings gas that the harbingers of the next industry cycle already can be seen in the U.S. economic recovery, and slow-down in new project planning, and a reduction in fixed costs. The paper describes the US market; market structure; the trend toward capacity integration; product forecasts; factors affecting the prices of propylene, aromatics, and benzene; the Asian market (Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Asian countries); regional trade; and the European market

  11. Petrochemicals activity in France. Data for 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication proposes a brief and synthetic overview of data which illustrate and characterize the activity of petrochemical industries in France in 2014. It notably comments and presents data on consumption of raw oil products, on production of steam crackers and olefins by refineries, on quantity of raw materials used for the production of aromatic compounds. A table indicates evolutions of these aspects from 2011 to 2014

  12. Panorama 2014 - Petrochemicals and green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petrochemical industry will experience structural and economic upheaval in the coming years, driven by the development of shale gas in the United States and increasing tensions surrounding the availability and price of certain intermediate products. A real opportunity exists to further develop a new chemical industry based on processing biomass; the basic framework is in place, but it will need several years to mature. (authors)

  13. Asia's new power : opportunities for Canadian petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and outlook of the Asian economy was discussed. In 2004, Japan had the largest share of the Asian gross domestic product (GDP) at 50.5 per cent followed by China at 15.7 per cent. Nexant forecasts that Asian growth will average 5 to 6 per cent inclusive of Japan's mature economy. The presentation included a graph comparing GDP on a purchasing power parity basis and exchange rate basis. It was noted that although China's strong growth is due in part to a stable currency fixed to the US$, there are some underlying concerns regarding efficiency improvements in state owned enterprises, non performing loans, and a lack of transparency in growth statistics and inflation. With consumers driving demand, China is the world's largest importer of petrochemicals and polymers, but the purchasing pattern is erratic. This presentation listed some of the major changes under the World Trade Organization (WTO) and illustrated the important role that trades play in importing polymers. It is expected that imported polymers and petrochemicals may be sold directly to end-users. A graph depicting delivered costs of monoethylene glycol (MEG), excluding tariffs, port charges and internal logistics, indicates that the Middle East is favoured. The implications for Canadian petrochemicals was discussed, given that China is Canada's prime MEG export market. tabs., figs

  14. Assessment of the Petrochemical Industry Pollution on the Skikda Bay, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Houria Chettibi; Noureddine Bouzerna; Boutefnouchet Nafissa

    2005-01-01

    The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effects of these pollutants and waste disposal on the vicinity of the bay, several samples were taken at different distances along the bay and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Subsequently, s...

  15. China Strengthens Macro-management in Petrochemical Branches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ China will strengthen macro-management in petrochemical branches in order to reasonably utilize the national petroleum resources and improve its competitive capacity in international refinery industrial market.

  16. Greek petrochemicals finds buyers for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greek Petrochemicals (Athens) has found buyers for two polyethylene (PE) plants it ordered from U.K. contractors 10 years ago and that are currently stored in Manchester. It is understood that Thai Polyethylene (Bangkok) has been selected to acquire the 70,000-m.t./year ICI process low-density PE plant engineered by Simon-Carves. Reliance Industries is in talks to by the 50,000-m.t./year Union Carbide Unipol process high-density PE unit. The plants are to be installed at Map Ta Put, Thailand and Hazira, India, respectively

  17. Gasoline reformulation to roil petrochem markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that reformulating gasoline in the U.S. will transform world markets for oxygenates quickly and extensively. That's the main point of a study by Probe Economics Inc., Millwood, N.Y., that assesses the effects gasoline reformulation will have on prices and supplies of methyl tertiary butyl ether, methanol, ethanol, and other oxygenates. Probe also examined how upheaval in oxygenates markets will ripple through refined products and petrochemical markets. The analyst sees world oxygenate demand possibly growing more than tenfold by 2001

  18. Key Factors for Development of China's Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Worldwide Market Volume and Development Trends of the Petrochemical Industry (1) Periodicity and Fluctuation The petrochemical industry has a typical periodicity that is shaped primarily by supply and demand on one hand and on the other hand by newly added capacity being put into production, operating rate and other uncertainty factors.

  19. Booming shale gas production drives Texas petrochemical surge

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Jesse B.

    2012-01-01

    A highly profitable petrochemical industry has reemerged in Texas from the boom in U.S. shale oil-and-gas exploration, creating an internationally competitive sector that can produce a variety of products including plastics at a lower cost.

  20. Brief Introduction of PetroChina Dalian Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina Dalian Petrochemical Company is capable of processing 20.50 million tons of crude oil once a year and manufacturing series of petrochemical products, such as gasoline,kerosene, diesel, lube oil, paraffin wax, benzene, polypropylene and fine fibre, etc. PetroChina Dalian Petrochemical Company is in the national leading position in terms of its key performance indicators,some of which are advanced in the world. As the largest oil refining base in China, it has leaped to a demonstrative refining and chemical enterprise with greatest competitiveness in PetroChina. It has become one of the important bases for exporting and transferring petrochemical products in China for its advantageous geographical position in Dalian, shore of the Yellow Sea and complete marine and land transportation facilities.

  1. Important TQM Implementation Contributors in Pakistani Petrochemical Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Latif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses quality practices in Pakistani Petrochemical sector to understand TQM practices and their implementation in Pakistan. It helps to understand the role of leadership, vision & plan statement, employee participation and education & training as important constructs of TQM. It shows how these constructs help to speed up the TQM implementation in petrochemical sector like other constructs of TQM and finally company moves towards quality approach. The responses of executives, managerial staff and workers were received using questionnaire and online surveys which are sent through Google Drive. Data of 106 respondents was taken in this study and analyzed by SPSS18. Study shows that Total Quality Management culture is less understood by employees, thus less adopted and implemented in Pakistan. Petrochemical companies fail to adopt the TQM philosophy and processes, hence reducing productivity and profits. This research paper is very helpful for executives for TQM implementation in petrochemical sector.

  2. New Petrochemical Processes Based on Direct Conversion of Methane

    OpenAIRE

    Faraguna F.; Jukić A.

    2015-01-01

    Petrochemistry is a branch of chemistry and chemical engineering that studies reactions and processes of the transformation of petroleum derivatives and natural gas into useful petrochemicals. In its beginning, petrochemistry, or rather the organic chemical industry, was based on the acetylene and Reppe chemistry. The main raw materials of the petrochemical industry nowadays are olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons, with a pronounced tendency toward development of new processes and higher usage ...

  3. Dalian Petrochemical Targets at World-class Giant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Min

    2002-01-01

    @@ As one of PetroChina's most profitable enterprises, Dalian Petrochemical Company, located on the western bank of Pacific Occean, is remarkable for the first-class management and performance. In a recent interview with media, general manger of Dalian Petrochemical Company Jiang Fan said the company has made ambitious efforts to adopt advanced information technology, establish the internal corporate website and information platform for optimization and sharing of resources and boost the management efficiency in the past few years.

  4. Energy-saving Lighting Technology of Petrochemical Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Baohu Gu

    2015-01-01

    The shortage of energy resources is a serious problem our country is facing the world today, petrochemical enterprises are the main pillar of our economy, in our country, because petrochemical companies accounted for about 30.2% of the total energy consumption of energy. This paper focuses on the traditional energy-saving lighting methods proposed intelligent energy-saving system based on a fuzzy control. The purpose is to make the electrical equipment to fully meet, under the premise of impr...

  5. UK and Thai Corporate Social Responsibility in the Petrochemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Siriwattanarungsee, Chatchai

    2009-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been studied and applied extensively in Western countries since 1950s. CSR is mainly adapted in important businesses such as banking and petrochemical industry. Companies could distribute CSR information towards the public by several means particularly by the internet. Therefore, in this study, analysis of CSR between UK and Thai petrochemical companies based on online CSR disclosure was conducted. The findings are UK companies engage in CSR deeply an...

  6. New technology for producing petrochemical feedstock from heavy oils derived from Alberta oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presented the results of a study demonstrating the feasibility of producing petrochemical feedstock or petrochemicals from vacuum gas oils derived from oil sands. A typical bitumen upgrader flow scheme was integrated with several new technologies and coupled with an ethane/propane cracker. Technologies included steam cracking, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC); and the catalytic pyrolysis process (CPP). The scheme was then integrated with the Nova Heavy Oil Cracking (NHC) technology. The NHC process uses a reactor to perform catalytic cracking followed by a main tower that separates gas and liquid products. Aromatic ring cleavage (ARORINCLE) technology was explored as a method of catalytic treatment. Experimental runs were conducted in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor. A stacked catalyst bed was used, followed by a zeolite-based noble metal catalyst. Examples from process run results were presented. Results indicated that the NHC technology should be used on an FCC unit technology platform. The ARORINCLE technology was considered for use on a hydrotreating unit technology platform. Once the catalysts are fully developed and demonstrated, the economics of the technologies will be enhanced through the construction of world-scale complexes integrating upgrading, refining and petrochemical plants. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Latin America second only to Asia in petrochemical prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opportunity in Asia for petrochemical companies generally is well known among global players in the industry. Conventional wisdom dictates that most companies at least consider investing in Asia, and for good reason, in most cases. The more aggressive, growth-oriented companies, however, already are attempting to discover the ''next Asia,'' if there is such a thing. Latin America has been nominated as one of the less developed regions that might inherit the Asia/Pacific region's enviable position. This nomination, however, was made before the Mexican financial crisis and the burgeoning pressure on the currencies of Brazil and Argentina. In light of current events, can Latin America still be considered the next Asia, and, if so, what opportunities will follow the devaluation of the Mexican peso? An analysis of the economic and political factors affecting the petrochemical industry in Latin America indicates that the region still hold excellent prospects for petrochemical companies

  8. iWitness pollution map: crowdsourcing petrochemical accident research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Risha; Hrybyk, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Community members living near any one of Louisiana's 160 chemical plants or refineries have always said that accidents occurring in these petrochemical facilities significantly impact their health and safety. This article reviews the iWitness Pollution Map tool and Rapid Response Team (RRT) approach led by the Louisiana Bucket Brigade, an environmental nonprofit group, and their effectiveness in documenting these health and safety impacts during petrochemical accidents. Analysis of a January 2013 RRT deployment in Chalmette, LA, showed increased documentation of current petrochemical accidents and suggested increased preparedness to report future accidents. The RRT model encourages government response and enforcement agencies to integrate with organized community groups to fully document the impacts during ongoing accidents, lead a more timely response to the accident, and prevent future accidents from occurring. PMID:24135064

  9. New Petrochemical Processes Based on Direct Conversion of Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraguna F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemistry is a branch of chemistry and chemical engineering that studies reactions and processes of the transformation of petroleum derivatives and natural gas into useful petrochemicals. In its beginning, petrochemistry, or rather the organic chemical industry, was based on the acetylene and Reppe chemistry. The main raw materials of the petrochemical industry nowadays are olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons, with a pronounced tendency toward development of new processes and higher usage of syngas, methane and other alkanes. Here, the reactions and new processes of direct conversion of methane into more valuable petrochemicals are reviewed. Reactions of partial oxidation of methane, dehydroaromatization of methane, oxidative and non-oxidative coupling of methane to higher hydrocarbons are also described and discussed.

  10. Thanks to shale gas, the rebirth of the petrochemical industry in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    America's competitive advantage is a strong incentive for petrochemical companies to invest in the USA. Petrochemicals are thus one of the high energy intensity sectors to benefit the most from the shale gas revolution. (author)

  11. Energy-saving Lighting Technology of Petrochemical Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohu Gu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of energy resources is a serious problem our country is facing the world today, petrochemical enterprises are the main pillar of our economy, in our country, because petrochemical companies accounted for about 30.2% of the total energy consumption of energy. This paper focuses on the traditional energy-saving lighting methods proposed intelligent energy-saving system based on a fuzzy control. The purpose is to make the electrical equipment to fully meet, under the premise of improving its functional requirements, as far as possible to reduce energy consumption and improve energy efficiency.

  12. Maturity In The Petrochemical Industry Features, Motives And Combating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrochemicals give the highest value from crude oil and natural gas but suffers from maturity like any other business. Petrochemicals companies are promoting their business in the direction from oil and gas commodities. Specialities and life science. Reasons of maturity are expired patents, low demand, over capacity, intense competition. Actions to combat maturity are to restructure capacity achieving mega sizes, do downstream, and restructuring business practices. Strategies followed by some companies to combat maturity include exit, focus on core business and exploit a competitive advantage

  13. Efficient multi-product multi-BOM batch scheduling for a petrochemical blending plant with a shared pipeline network

    OpenAIRE

    HILL, Alessandro; CORNELISSENS, Trijntje; Sörensen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    We present an effective scheduling heuristic for realistic production planning in a petrochemical blending plant? The considered model takes into account orders spanning a multi-product portfolio with multiple bills of materials per product, that need to be scheduled on shared production facilities including a complex pipeline network. Capacity constraints, intermediate storage restrictions, due dates, and the dedication of resources to specific product families have to be respected. The prim...

  14. Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

  15. Guangdong to Invest Heavily in Natural Gas and Petrochemical Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Guangdong Provincial Government has decided to focus on 10 key projects this year with a total investment of 210,2 billion yuan, including energy infrastructure projects, natural gas projects,petrochemical projects, and auto projects. It is expected to complete an investment of 40 billion yuan

  16. Performance of high nickel alloys in refinery and petrochemical environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, J.R.; Adkins, M.E.; Lipscomb, W.G.

    1986-07-01

    In certain intermediate temperature refinery and petrochemical applications, both resistance to polythionic acid and chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and high temperature strength and stability are required. The effect of simulated operating temperatures in the 900 to 1500/sup 0/F (482 to 816/sup 0/C) range on the corrosion and mechanical properties of several nickel alloys is examined.

  17. Perspectives of petroleum and petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the actual development of petroleum and petrochemical industry it is obvious that Saudi Arabia goes on to take an important place on the worldwide market; with its part in world reserves but with its determination to keep its place of first world exporter. From the point of view of its petroleum production, financial constraints can delay its expansion

  18. Maximum fossil fuel feedstock replacement potential of petrochemicals via biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Boom, R.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The search for feedstock replacement options within the petrochemical industry should logically be based upon non-fossil resources. Retaining the functionality of the biochemicals in biomass for use as chemical products and precursors can lead to a sizeable reduction of fossil fuel consumption. This

  19. Accidents at work in the period 2002-2011 in petrochemical sector workers: considerations on the phenomenon and preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Giacobbe A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, Italy has shown a reduction in the number of accidents as a whole, including fatal accidents. However, there are many factors that determine the frequency and severity of accidents: general economic conditions, technological innovation, rhythms and shift work, productive sector, company size, age of the workers, the task being performed, and others. Objectives: The objective of this study is to examine the available data in the database INAIL on accidents that occurred in the period 2002-2011 in the petrochemical industry, to assess the possible risk factors for work-related injuries in this specific production sector, and any possible preventive measures. Materials and Methods: The present study analyses the trend of injuries in workers in the petrochemical industry from 2002 to 2011, taking into account the number of events reported and recognized, the defined consequences, the geographical distribution and the task. To identify areas of research, we selected 11 classifications used by INAIL to determine rates of insurance premiums attributable to activities in the petrochemical industry (items 2191, 2193, 2194, 2195, 2196, 2197, 2154, 2145, 2141, 2146, 3620.The risk of working in the petrochemical industry can be broadly divided into two categories: I risk in refineries; II risk in petrochemical complexes. The occupational hazards in refineries depend substantially on flammability of materials; occupational hazards in the petrochemical complexes are more numerous, because of processes and classes of products that are characterized not only for flammability, but also for toxicity. Results: The data from INAIL relating to the period 2002-2011 show a dramatic decline in the overall incidence of accidents, in cases defined as temporary and without permanent consequences. However, cases with permanent disability were up to 5%; cases with permanent disability were up to more than 5% and the fatal cases appear almost

  20. Accumulation of specific pollutants in various media in the area affected by a petrochemical center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results on monitoring of oil pollution around the town of Ploiesti (South Romania), known for its petrochemical and chemical industry complexes and crude oil activity, are reported. The distribution of heavy metals, rare earth and other microelements along the wind rose profile (the oil complex ∼ 20 km distance) was examined through the analysis of soil samples. Mosses were chosen as biomonitors of local atmospheric pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements. The trace element content of vegetation growing near the territory of the plant was compared with that of the background one. The contamination of the river flowing in the vicinity of the plant was examined. Comparison of the spatial trends of different pollutants shows the influence of the same atmospheric transport phases on the uptake of trace elements by vegetation. A comparative evaluation of the results was carried out to find to what extent the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere or the amount deposited in the soil or transported by sediments contributes to pollution of the local ecosystem in the vicinity of a petrochemical center. (authors)

  1. Volatile organic compounds emission inventory of a petrochemical industry: tanks and fugitive emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Camargo de Lima Tresmondi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Paulínia, located in the state of São Paulo, has an important industrial center, and its industries represent the biggest source of volatile organic compounds (VOC emissions to the atmosphere. These compounds are emitted by fugitive emissions and some point sources and can present adverse effect in the environment and the health human being, besides exerting an important influence in the formation of photochemical oxidants, as ozone. The present work refers to a VOC emission inventory of a petrochemical industry located in the Paulínia petrochemical complex. The inventory was done based on emission factors and emission model from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA. The emission critical points in manufacture were determined as well as fugitive emissions in equipments and emissions in some VOC storage tanks. The results show that the main emission source is due to fugitive emissions (99%, being flanges the responsible for the major emissions. After the results got from this inventory, the company knowing some of the main emission sources can monitor them to verify if the results are correct, and implement modifications when necessary maintenance, in order to minimize such emissions.

  2. Accumulation of specific pollutants in various media in the area affected by a petrochemical center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southern part of Romania is a highly industrialized region, including oil refining, ferrous and non-ferrous, chemical and power point source categories. The results from monitoring oil pollution around the town Ploiesti (South Romania), known for its petrochemical and chemical industrial compounds and crude oil activity, are reported. The distribution of heavy metals, rare earth and other microelements along the wind rose profile (at 20 Km distance from the oil complex ) was examined through the analysis of soil samples. Mosses were chosen as biomonitors of local atmospheric pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements. The trace elements content of vegetation growing near the plant's area was compared with that of the background one. The contamination of the river flowing in the vicinity of the plant was examined. Comparison of the spatial trends of different pollutants shows the influence of the some atmospheric transport phases on the uptake of trace elements by vegetation. A comparative evaluation of the results was carried out to indicate at which extend the amount of pollutant in the atmosphere or the amount deposited in the soil or transported by sediment contributes to pollution of the local ecosystem in the vicinity of a petrochemical compound. (authors)

  3. Removal of hydrocarbons from petrochemical wastewater by dissolved air flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galil, N I; Wolf, D

    2001-01-01

    The dissolved air flotation (DAF) method has an important role in the removal of hydrocarbons, as well as in the protection of the biological treatment, which usually follows the DAF. The aims of this study were to evaluate the removal efficiencies of suspended solids, general organic matter, hydrocarbons and phenols by DAF, as influenced by the flocculant type, aluminum sulfate (alum) or a cationic polyelectrolyte. Laboratory batch experiments included chemical flocculation followed by DAF, controlling the flocculant dose and the air to solids ratio. The characterization of the influent and effluent was based on general analysis of organic matter (COD), suspended solids, hydrocarbons and phenols. The influent to all experiments was supplied daily from the outlet of a full scale oil-water gravitational separation unit at a petrochemical complex in Haifa, Israel. The influent contained hydrocarbons in the range of 20 to 77 mg/L. Usually less than 10% were found in "free" form, 70 to 80% were emulsified and 10 to 20% were dissolved. The DAF process enabled us to reduce the general hydrocarbon content by 50 to 90%. The effluent was characterized by stable and uniform levels of suspended solids, and oil, almost without depending on the influent concentrations. The results indicate that the chemical flocculation followed by DAF removed efficiently the emulsified phase, which could be aggregated and separated to the surface. However, it was found that the process could also remove substantial amounts of dissolved organic matter. This mechanism could be explained by the hydrophobic characteristics of some of the substances, which could bind to the solid surfaces. It was found that aggregates created by the flocculation with the cationic polyelectrolite (C-577) could remove up to 40% from the dissolved hydrocarbon. Alum flocs also indicated removal of soluble materials, mainly phenols. The results obtained in this study indicated the possibility to improve the protection

  4. Assessment of the petrochemical industry pollution on the Skikda bay, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maachia, Leila; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Nafissa, Boutefnouchet; Bouzerna, Noureddine; Chettibi, Houria

    2005-12-01

    The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effects of these pollutants and waste disposal on the vicinity of the bay, several samples were taken at different distances along the bay and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Subsequently, several chemical analyses were made to analyze the concentrations of hydrocarbons, CO[2], Ca(+2) and Mg(+2), chlorides and phosphates and the alkalinity present into the samples. Several concentrations of the above constituents are reported as a function of the different sites. PMID:16819102

  5. Assessment of the Petrochemical Industry Pollution on the Skikda Bay, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houria Chettibi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effects of these pollutants and waste disposal on the vicinity of the bay, several samples were taken at different distances along the bay and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Subsequently, several chemical analyses were made to analyze the concentrations of hydrocarbons, CO2, Ca+2 and Mg+2, chlorides and phosphates and the alkalinity present into the samples. Several concentrations of the above constituents are reported as a function of the different sites.

  6. Challenges of knowledge sharing in the petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Wei Chong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge sharing is one of the important and also challenging parts in the success of KM implementation. The objective of this paper is to find out knowledge sharing barriers in the petrochemical companies in a Middle East country. Three main categories are found to have an impact on knowledge sharing in the companies. These categories are potential individual knowledge sharing barriers, potential organizational knowledge sharing barriers and potential technological knowledge sharing barriers. Data were collected by using a convenience sampling survey method. 500 questionnaires were distributed among employees and 302 questionnaires were returned. Trust, knowledge as power, communication, organizational hierarchy and knowledge sharing technological systems are found to have relationships with knowledge sharing. However, reward and recognition system have less significant relationship with knowledge sharing in the petrochemical companies.

  7. Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited egins a New Round of Leap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shuihua; Yu Guangxian

    2000-01-01

    @@On June 18, 2000 the construction of the fourth phase project worth 6.5 billion RMB was officially kicked off at Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited (SPC) . Mr. Chen Jinghua, the vice-chairman of Chinese Peo ple's Political Consultative Conference, Mr. Jiang Yiren, member of the Standing Committee of Shanghai Communist Party and the vice-mayor of Shanghai, and Mr. Chen Tonghai, the deputy president of SINOPEC and vice-chairman of Board of China Petroleum and Chemical Corporation, attended the opening ceremony of the con struction project, symbolizing a new round of leap forward at the turn of century by Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited after having created previously brilliant achieve ments.

  8. Service experience and reliability improvement: Nuclear, fossil, and petrochemical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamford, W.H.; Cipolla, R.C.; Warke, W.R.; Onyewuenyi, O.A.; Bagnoli, D.; Phillips, J.H.; Prager, M.; Becht, C. IV (eds.)

    1994-01-01

    This publication contains papers presented at the following four symposia conducted at the 1994 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference in Minneapolis, Minnesota, June 19--23: Service Experience in Nuclear Plants; Risk-Based Inspection and Evaluation; Service Experience in Operating Fossil Power Plants; and Service Experience in Petrochemical Plants. These symposia were sponsored by the Materials and Fabrication and the Design and Analysis Committees of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division. The objective of these symposia was to disseminate information on issues and degradation that have resulted from the operation of nuclear, fossil, and petrochemical power plants, as well as related reliability issues. Thirty-nine papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF PEOPLE IN ORGANIZATIONS OF PETROCHEMICAL CAMAÇARI – BAHIA: REFLECTIONS ON ITS STRATEGIES FOR ATTRACTING, RETAINING AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildes Pitombo Leite

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation object of this research, the primary objectives was to identify and analyze what changes made in people management by the petrochemical organizations, from the trajectory of diversification in the Industrial Complex of Camaçari and their reflections into strategies for attraction, retention and professional development, much in line with the justifications, as with the question asked. The subjects involved were directors, managers and / or coordinators HR, minimum 10 and maximum of 32 years, two respondents per organization, totaling twenty-one organizations. This investigation was answered in each category and gradually increased at the junction of them all. The results show that the changes made in managing people in the petrochemical investigated are not, necessarily, computed from the trajectory of diversification: Petrochemical Pole / Industrial Complex of Camaçari. These results suggest that mergers are among the main responsible. However, there is the record that this change in context was beneficial to these organizations promote the output of the comfort zone that were since deploying Pole. It reinforces the premise that such an investigation ends innovative and contributory aspect for: the area of people management, petrochemical industry and the country.

  10. Wastewater quality control at Sarnia (Ontario, Canada) petrochemical industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna, Arlinda C. [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Souza, Eliane S.; Himmelman, William [Lambton College, Sarnia, ON (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Ontario industries are required by law to meet strict regulations under the provinces under MISA initiative (Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement). The petroleum-petrochemical area was selected as a leader in the development of new environmental objectives, and monitoring and training programs. Sarnia has become a world leader in industrial environmental control systems and the approach toward zero emissions. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. DIRECTION OF DEVELOPMENT FOR NATION'S PETROCHEMICAL PRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Baohai

    2001-01-01

    @@ As a result of remarkable advance over the past several dozen years with continuous development of technology, rapid increase of new products, and steady expansion in production scope, China's petrochemical industry has grown into a well-established industrial system composed of more than 20 trades,providing over 40,000 kinds of product which are complete in range and generally serialized in variety.

  12. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park. PMID:25826928

  13. Petrochemical producers gain advantage with novel business strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 50 years of gradual change in the petrochemicals industry, the rules of the game are rapidly being written. Parity among competitors has made strategies based on minimizing costs increasingly ineffectual. Some competitors are now finding new business approaches that may allow them to leave others behind. Although the recent upturn in the chemical cycle has brought with it high utilization rates and encouraging financial returns for manufacturers of both petrochemicals and other chemicals, chemical managers need to be aware that the next downturn may erase these gains. The industry has experienced periods of poor financial performance in the past, and there is little reason to expect that the future will bring improvements. Until recently, petrochemical companies have generally pursued strategies focused on optimizing particular portions of the value chain. For the purposes of this article, it is helpful to think of the value chain in terms of four main business segments: feedstocks, products, production processes, and service/distribution. Some chemical companies have managed to avoid a competitive stalemate by developing strategies that have fundamentally changed the way the game is played. Granted, it will still be necessary to pursue maximum efficiency, but the emerging strategies will allow the companies that adopt them to differentiate themselves further than they otherwise could have done. These strategies are discussed

  14. The petrochemical industry in Quebec : from yesterday to today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A historical account of the development of the chemical industry in Quebec from the year 1800 to the present was presented. The emphasis was on the development of the petrochemical industry after 1945. The earliest signs of chemical manufacturing in Quebec appeared in 1800 with the opening of the Wadsworth and Lyman pharmaceutical laboratories followed by several manufacturers of soap, paint, sugar, rubber, cement and explosive products. In 1900 the acetylene-based carbon chemistry industry was established in the Shawinigan region. The petrochemical industry in Quebec was born in 1952 with the opening in Montreal of a cumene and phenol plant by Shawinigan Chemicals and British American Oil, peaking in 1976 with six producing refineries in east Montreal. At that time, Montreal represented the largest refining centre in Canada with a combined capacity of 600,000 barrels per year. Since then, four of these refineries have closed but the province remains an important centre particularly in the manufacturing of oil-derived plastic products. Tables and maps showing the development and distribution of petrochemical manufacturing and the location of oil pipelines in the Montreal area, at various times since 1946, are included. 11 figs

  15. Fracture mechanics based life assessment in petrochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of thick walled pressure vessels in petrochemical plants operating at high pressure under severe service conditions could lead to catastrophic failure. In the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), initial efforts are underway to apply fracture mechanics approach for assessment of significance of defects detected during periodic in service inspection (ISI) of industrial plants. This paper outlines the integrity management strategy based on fracture mechanics and proposes a new procedure for life assessment of petrochemical plants based on ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, BSI PD 6493:1991, BSI 6539:1994, BSI Standard 7910:1999 and API 579:2000. Essential relevant data required for the assessment is listed. Several methods available for determination of fracture toughness are reviewed with limitations in their application to petrochemical plants. A new non destructive method for determination of fracture toughness based on hardness testing and normalized key roughness curve is given. Results of fracture mechanics based life assessment conducted for 100 mm thick ammonia converter of Ni r o steel and 70 mm thick plat forming reactor vessel of ASTM A 38 7 grade B steel in operational fertilizer and petroleum refining plants are presented. (Author)

  16. Petrochemical trends and the chemical company in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some trends discernible in the petrochemical industry in Quebec and world-wide -- cyclicality, increasing globalization, environmental concerns, and a high degree of integration between olefins and derivative production -- were discussed. On a global basis, the incremental feedstock for ethylene production during the 1990s will likely be naphtha and propane. The challenge for Quebec lies in its distance from low-priced olefin feedstocks and its limited petrochemical infrastructure. In practice that means that despite Quebec's well-educated and productive work force, local producers will not have the feedstock advantage that would translate to low-priced natural gas liquids such as ethane, butane and propane. Against this backdrop what would be the agenda of a world-class petrochemical company in Quebec? This author's prescription called for a clear company vision that would include an appropriate business focus and downstream integration, the development of the required core competencies and strategies, with emphasis on low-cost feedstock acquisition, feedstock flexibility, maximum by-product values, and super-efficient manufacturing. 9 figs

  17. Analysis of Energy Consumption and Energy Conservation Measures for RFCCU at Shengli Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Xu Zhenling

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces a string of energy conservation measures adopted over the past several years by the RFCC unit at Shengli Petrochemical Complex, including the optimization of feedstock properties, the adoption of high-efficiency atomizing nozzles, the revamp of CO boiler, the atomization by means of dry gas, the post-burning of flue gas as well as the application of frequency converting machines and pumps, resulting in ideal effects. The energy consumption of the RFCC unit was gradually decreased to 2984.25 MJ/t from the original level of 3716.99 MJ/t. After comparing basic energy consumption values with actual consumption values, the authors have set forward measures for further energy conservation, such as the recovery of low-temperature excess heat contained in oil/gas streams exiting from the fractionation tower top, addition of the fourth cyclone, delivery of hot oil slurry, and heat tracing with hot water.

  18. [Assessement of combined impact of hazards on petrochemical and chemical workers' health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badamshina, G G; Karimova, L K; Tkacheva, T A; Mavrina, L N; Bakirova, A É

    2013-01-01

    We have conducted a study on working conditions and health status of petrochemical workers. The main hazardous factor of work environment and manufacture process has been found to be work environment air pollution caused by Class 2-3 hazards. Depending on the composition of the current complex of hazards, the manufacture workers comprise three groups determined by the impact of aromatic hydrocarbons, olefin oxides and their combinations. It has been shown that the combined impact of aromatic hydrocarbons and olefin oxides combination may produce a more pronounced hazardous impact on workers' health compared with the impact of aromatic hydrocarbons or olefin oxides taken separately. This may be due to the summing up of biological effects. PMID:24006618

  19. Biologically resistant contaminants, primary treatment with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echegaray, Diego F. [White Martins Gases Industriais do Nordeste S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Olivieri, Nadja F. [White Martins Gases Industriais S.A., Cordovil, RJ (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Organic effluent oxidation tests were conducted in petrochemical companies, in Camacari Petrochemical Complex (Northeast Brazil), to reduce treatment costs and improve the primary treatment efficiency in each industrial process. Ozone achieved 99.96 percent benzene reduction and 100 percent ethyl benzene and toluene reduction. Process efficiency is strongly dependent on the wastewater chemical composition and concentration. For this reason it is necessary to run pilot trials for each specific case. Ozone was obtained feeding commercial oxygen through a corona discharge generator and dissolved in the effluent with a bubble column. Commercial oxygen was used instead of air to increase 250 percent the ozone production, using the same ozone generator. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Mideast Oil and Petrochem Industrial Influence on China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The petroleum and petrochemical industry in the Middle East region is exerting influence on the Chinese market because the Middle East has become an important option for China to import crude. In 2003, China imported 91.12 million tons of crude, of which the Middle East accounted for 50.7 percent. China imported 15.18 million tons of crude from Saudi Arabia in 2003, 16.7 percent of the nation's total import,and 12.39 million tons of crude from Iran, 13.6percent of the total.

  1. Colombia defines innovative plans for refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecopetrol plans to increase capacity at its Cartagena refinery to 140,000 barrels per day until 2002. The new production will be for basic streams to supply and stimulate new industries in the petrochemical sector. Investment has concentrated on exploration and production and far less on the rest of the oil sector, but now Ecopetrol will be new financing plans to develop refining in keeping with government guidelines. The Ecopetrol Board approved the development plan for the Cartagena Refinery, this consist of increasing capacity

  2. Mortality and morbidity study of petrochemical employees in a polluted site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasetto Roberto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The area of Gela was included among the 57 Italian polluted sites of national interest for environmental remediation because of its widespread contamination from a petrochemical complex. The present study investigates mortality and morbidity of the cohort of Gela petrochemical workers with the aim of disentangling occupational from residential risk. Methods Mortality was assessed for 5,627 men hired from 1960, year of the plant start-up, to 1993; it was followed up for vital status in the period 1960–2002. Morbidity was analysed for 5,431 workers neither dead nor lost to follow-up from 1960 to 2001 and was based on Hospital Discharge Records in the period 2001–2006. The work experience was classified in terms of job categories such as blue collars, white collars, and both – workers who shifted from blue to white collar (95% or vice versa. An ad hoc mobility model was applied to define qualitative categories of residence in Gela, as residents and commuters. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs and Mortality Rate Ratios (MRRs were computed, the latter by using a Poisson regression model. Morbidity was analyzed in terms of Hospital Discharge Odds Ratios (HDORs through a logistic regression model. While performing the internal comparisons, white collars was the reference category for the job analysis, and commuters was the reference category for the residential analysis. Results In the light of epidemiological evidence about health risk from petrochemical industries in both occupational and environmental settings, and/or on the basis of information about occupational and residential contamination and health risk in the area of Gela, noteworthy results are shown for lung cancer [MRR: 2.11 (CI 90%; 0.96-4.63 in blue collars; 1.71 (1.09-2.69 in residents], respiratory diseases [HDOR: 2.0 (1.0-3.0 in blue collars; 1.4 (0.96-2.06 in residents] and genitourinary diseases [HDOR: 1.34 (1.06-1.68 in blue collars; 1.23 (1.04-1.45 in

  3. Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical / petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Nadal Lomas, Martí

    2005-01-01

    Tesi: Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical/petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain).Autor: Martí NadalResum:Un dels complexos químics/ petroquímics més importants del sud d'Europa està ubicat a Tarragona. En els darrers anys, ha augmentat la preocupació pública envers els possibles efectes adversos que el complex industrial podria tenir per a la salut de la població resident a Tarragona. En resposta, el 2002 s'inicià un estu...

  4. Prevalence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in the urban area neighboring a petrochemical complex and a control area in Sao Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de tireoidite de Hashimoto na população vicinal ao Pólo Petroquímico de Capuava (área Polo e área controle (São Bernardo Campo na região metropolitana da grande São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalinda Y. A. Camargo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in 2 urban areas of metropolitan São Paulo (Brazil: Polo Area neighboring a large petrochemical complex and São Bernardo Campo Area (control area. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Subjects were randomly included from the adult population (20 to 70 years of age of both genders (women 80%, men 20% who voluntarily agreed to participate. From the Polo Area, in the vicinity of a large petrochemical industrial complex, 409 subjects were included; from the control area (São Bernardo Campo Area 420 individuals were included. All subjects were clinically examined, and a detailed record of past thyroid illness and medications was obtained. Ultrasonographic studies were performed using a portable GE Medical Systems apparatus. Blood samples were obtained for free T4, serum TSH, and serum anti-thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies. Urine specimens were collected in Monovette syringes for assaying iodine content. Salt samples were collected at households, and the iodine content was measured. RESULTS: Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis was diagnosed both echographically (marked hypoechogenicity and immunologically (presence of autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase. In the Polo Area, 15.6% of the examined population had chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, and in the control area (São Bernardo Campo Area, 19.5% of the population had evidence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (P > 0.057, not significant. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 4.9% in the Polo Area and 8.3% in the São Bernardo Campo Area (P = 0.0461 significant. Taking the 2 populations together, 6.6% had hypothyroidism (about one third of these patients were on L-T4 treatment. The mean thyroid volume was 11.2 mL. Domestic salt had a normal concentration of iodine (35.5 + 6.61 mg/kg. Urinary excretion of iodine was above 300 µg Iodine/L in 58.5% of the total population. CONCLUSION: The high iodine intake (above 300 µg Iodine/L of urine that

  5. Commercial Application of the CTV-IV Type Catalyst for Synthesis of Vinyl Acetate Developed by Shanghai Petrochemical Research Instit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The CTV-IV type catalyst for synthesis of vinyl acetate developed by the SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute (SPRI) has been successfully applied on the #2 vinyl acetate unit at SINOPEC's Shanghai Petrochemical Company.

  6. Petrochemicals from oil, natural gas, Ccoal and biomass: energy use, economics and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, T.

    2009-01-01

    The petrochemical industry is faced with the dual challenges of climate change and the security of energy supply. To deal with these challenges, it is necessary to identify technologies for the production of basic petrochemicals that could potentially improve energy efficiency and/or utilizing alter

  7. The petrochemical production capacity of the Saudi Arabian Basic Industry Corporation (SABIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development program of the SABIC (Saudi Arabian Basic Industry Co.) which has provided the building of new petrochemical units while retrofitting old units or developing the capacities of some of them. Statistical data on petrochemical production, sales and exports, contracts and joint ventures are also given. 2 tabs

  8. Integration of Petroleum Processing with Petrochemical Production—An Important Strategy for Development of Petrochemical Industry in the New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Guohua

    2000-01-01

    @@1 Foreword In the 1990s China' s petroleum processing and petrochemical industry have achieved brisk development in parallel with the sharp growth of national economy. The volume of crude oil processed in China in 1998 reached 152. 4 Mt, increasing by 13% over the 1993 level (Figure 1), and China' s refining capacity was ranked the fourth in the world. The ethylene output reached 3.77 Mt, equaling to 1.87 times the total output in 1993 (Figure 2), and China' s ethylene capacity was ranked the sixth in the world.

  9. Potential of best practice technology to improve energy efficiency in the global chemical and petrochemical sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for 30% of the industry's total final energy use. However, due to its complexity its energy efficiency potential is not well understood. This article analyses the energy efficiency potential on a country level if Best Practice Technologies (BPT) were implemented in chemical processes. Two approaches are applied and an improved dataset referring to Europe has been developed for BPT energy use. This methodology has been applied to 66 products in fifteen countries that represent 70% of chemical and petrochemical sector's energy use worldwide. The results suggest a global energy efficiency potential of 16% for this sector, excluding savings in electricity use and by higher levels of process integration, combined heat and power (CHP) and post-consumer plastic waste treatment. The results are more accurate than previous estimates. The results suggest significant differences between countries, but a cross-check based on two different methods shows that important methodological and data issues remain to be resolved. Further refinement is needed for target setting, monitoring and informing energy and climate negotiation processes. For the short and medium term, a combination of benchmarking and country level analysis is recommended. -- Highlights: → Best Practice Technologies (BPTs) offer energy savings in the chemical industry. → Two approaches are applied based on an improved BPT dataset covering 66 chemicals. → Worldwide, BPTs offer 16% energy saving potentials excluding electricity use. → Process integration, combined heat and power and recycling offer further potential. → Results need to be improved by resolving important methodological and data issues.

  10. Education in petrochemical industry as prevention from chemical terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical and technological accidents in petrochemical industry, with possible catastrophic consequences, caused by anthropogenic activity (technical or technological malfunction, terror, or war destruction ), usually accompanied by great human losses and material damage and high intensity of events in a relatively short period of time, which requires a quick action of emergency responders, process personnel and the high degree of self-organized endangered population for treatment in these kind of accidents. This implies a high qualification and skills for the treatment of accidents of all factors of rescue and protection such as: process personnel, emergency responders (fire-fighters, technical services), other workers as well as the endangered population. Managing the system of protection and rescue in communities with such risks requires maximum responsibility of local authorities and management of petrochemical plants. Petrokemija Kutina, with its many years of experience as a target for military and terrorist attacks, actively participated in the creation of laws and systems of protection and rescue in the Republic of Croatia, and also in creating standard operating procedures on local and regional level, and is also ready to share its own experiences with other similar factories using toxic substances in the production processes.(author)

  11. Risky business : outlook for financing petrochemical projects in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of the Asian economic crisis on the petrochemical industry was discussed. From 1985 to 1995 East Asian currencies that were pegged to the US dollar experienced a 40 per cent depreciation against other major currencies, such as the Japanese yen. This resulted in strong exports which stimulated rapid economic growth rates. However, during 1995-1997, the US dollar rebounded, appreciating by 20 per cent. For countries such as Indonesia, Thailand and Korea, the sharp appreciation of their US dollar-linked currencies effectively reversed their export advantage vis-a-vis China and Japan, and led to massive devaluation of their currencies. Tightening of the Japanese fiscal policy by increasing taxes produced disastrous results, leading to a drastic reduction in consumer demand. The solution, it was suggested, lies in loosening Japanese fiscal policy and stabilizing the Yen-Dollar rate. Another solution suggested was decisive action to strengthen the Japanese banking system. Despite the current difficulties, it was concluded that the future outlook for the Asian petrochemical market is bright and that steady economic growth can be expected in the long term. It was suggested that the main factor that will determine how quickly East Asian economies recover will be how quickly the Japanese economy emerges from recession. 6 figs

  12. Long term effects of irrigation with petrochemical industry wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, O.; Inam, A.; Samiullah; Siddiqi, R.H. [Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India)

    1996-11-01

    Split plot designed field trials were conducted during 1988-1995 to study the long term effects of petrochemical industry wastewater on six crops and agricultural soils. It was observed that wastewater irrigation resulted in increased seed yield of all the crops selected, viz. wheat, triticale, chickpea, lentil and pigeonpea, except summer moong which showed a decrease in seed yield. Soil receiving the wastewater showed no significant changes in pH, total organic carbon, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, micro- and macro-nutrients and SAR. Thus, it may be concluded that treated refinery wastewater met the irrigational quality requirements as its physico-chemical characteristics were within the permissible limits. The same could be said for the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil as well as in the grains making the latter safe for human consumption. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Radiation oxidation of phenol in petrochemical waste water. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate was studied of radiation destruction of phenol aqueous solutions at a concentration range of 1 to 100 ppm. Irradiated were model solutions containing additions of some organic and inorganic substances typical of the petrochemical industry. In view of the fact that the radiation destruction kinetics is determined by the amount of dissolved oxygen in the sample and by the phenol concentration, relatively low doses were used. Thus, a sufficient amount of oxygen in the sample and therefore the oxidation mechanism of radiolysis were ensured. The dose-response relationships for phenol destruction were studied using doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 J.kg-1; the limit dose was 500 J.kg-1. From the results obtained, a kinetic model was constructed of radiation phenol oxidation in aqueous solutions in the presence of various organic and inorganic additions. (B.S.)

  14. Demand for petrochem feedstock to buoy world LPG industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that use of liquefied petroleum gas as petrochemical feedstock will increase worldwide, providing major growth opportunities for LPG producers. World exports of liquefied petroleum gas will increase more slowly than production as producers choose to use LPG locally as chemical feedstock and export in value added forms such as polyethylene. So predicts Poten and Partners Inc., New York. Poten forecasts LPG production in exporting countries will jump to 95 million tons in 2010 from 45 million tons in 1990. However, local and regional demand will climb to 60 million tons/year from 23 million tons/year during the same period. So supplies available for export will rise to 35 million tons in 2010 from 22 million tons in 1990

  15. Petrochemical Expo '93 to tackle safety, environment and more

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIChE's 1993 Spring National Meeting is coming up in Houston at the end of this month. This event promises to take on many of the topics that plant and operating management need to think about these days, among them safety, the environment and environmental regulations. For the meeting's theme, open-quotes Process Plants for the '90s: Reliable, Safe and Clean,close quotes the Institute has lined up two keynote speakers, several plant tours and a full schedule of topical sessions, with more than 500 presentations. This year's keynote addresses will focus on open-quotes Investment in the Fuels and Petrochemical Industries - Here and Abroad.close quotes Dr. E. Gary Cook is senior vice president of Ethyl Corp. and president of the Chemicals Group, and Frank Y.S. Chen is chairman of Chinese Petroleum Corp. in Taipei, Taiwan

  16. [Treatment of Petrochemical Treatment Plant Secondary Effluent by Fenton Oxidation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wu, Chang-yong; Zhou, Yue-xi; Zhang, Xue; Dong, Bo; Chen, Xue-min

    2015-07-01

    Fenton oxidation was applied to treat the petrochemical treatment plant secondary effluent by the continuous flow configuration. The effect of Fenton agent dosage on the COD and phosphorus removal and the variation of the dissolved organic matter characteristics during the treatment process were investigated. The results showed the average COD and PO(4)3- -P concentrations were 64.8 mg.L-1 and 0. 79 mg.L-1, respectively. When the dosage of H2O (30%), FeSO4.7H2O and PAM were 0. 4 mL.L-1, 0. 8 mg.L-1 and 0. 9 mg.L-1 and the residence time was 30 min, the average removal rate of COD and PO(4)3- -P were 24. 3% and 95. 5% respectively. The effluent COD was lower than 50 mg.L-1. The percentage of dissolved organic matters with molecular weight less than 1 x 10(3) was 80. 4% in the raw wastewater, however, the percentage increased to 95. 6% when treated by Fenton oxidation. Three-dimensional fluorescence analysis showed that the Fenton oxidation can effectively remove protein and phenols. GC-MS results showed that there were about 117 kinds of organic matters detected in the secondary effluent, while the number reduced to 27 after oxidation by Fenton. The organics containing unsaturated bond had a better removal than those of other types of organics. Fenton oxidation can be used in the advanced treatment of petrochemical secondary effluent. PMID:26489330

  17. Long-term environmental monitoring of persistent organic pollutants and metals in a chemical/petrochemical area: Human health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal, Marti [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, Jose L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as some metals are periodically monitored in soil and vegetation samples collected in Tarragona County (Spain). We here report the temporal trends of the concentrations of the above pollutants between the initial survey (2002) and that recently (2009) performed. The area under evaluation was divided into 4 sections (chemical, petrochemical, urban/residential and unpolluted). In general terms, urban soils presented the highest concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCNs and PAHs, confirming that traffic is a very important emission source of these pollutants. In addition, substantially higher levels of PAHs and some metals were found in vegetation samples from the petrochemical complex. The assessment of health risks of these contaminants indicated that the current concentrations of micropollutants did not mean additional non-carcinogenic or cancer risks for the population living in the zone. - Highlights: > Traffic is an important emission source of persistent organic pollutants. > Oil refineries could be notable releasers of PAHs and some metals in the area. > Soil pollutant levels are notably lower than threshold values. > The air quality of Tarragona area is not greatly affected by metals and POPs. > The current exposure to micropollutants does not mean additional health risks. - Human exposure to environmental micropollutants in the industrial area of Tarragona does not mean additional health risks.

  18. Yangzi Petrochemical Company Uses Natural Gas to Supplement Steam Cracker Fuel Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A major energy conservation and retrofitting project-ap-plication of natural gas as supplementary fuel for steam crackers has been successfully put into operation starting April 30, 2008 at the SINOPEC Yangzi Petrochemical Company.

  19. Elaboration of volume norms for repair works and maintenance costs of petrochemical units in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aouachria, S. [Institut National des Hydrocarbures et de la Chimie, Boumerdes (Algeria); Steklov, O.I.

    1994-12-31

    This work is a reflexion on how to find a solution for the big repairs of petrochemical units which exceed the time estimated by the scheduling without disadvantaging the good quality of repairs. (O.L.). 9 tabs.

  20. Daqing Petrochemical Adopted Technology of Agglomeration New Energy Saving Production%Daqing Petrochemical Adopted Technology of Agglomeration New Energy Saving Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption of equipment and exhaust emission to the uttermost, Daqing Petrochemical Company has developed pre-agglomeration production flow successfully and confirmed an optimized energy-saving method of differential pressure agglomeration. For a long time, BR equipment of 80,000 tons per year in Daqing Petrochemical Company have been adopting general isobaric technology and elutriation method to separate polymer and solvent, which caused over 10 tons of steam per ton of rubber and restricted the energy conservation and emission reduction of the enterprise.

  1. Environmental comparison of biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammens, Tijs M; Potting, José; Sanders, Johan P M; De Boer, Imke J M

    2011-10-01

    Glutamic acid is an important constituent of waste streams from biofuels production. It is an interesting starting material for the synthesis of biobased chemicals, thereby decreasing the dependency on fossil fuels. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental impact of four biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents, that is, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), acrylonitrile (ACN), and succinonitrile (SCN). A consequential life cycle assessment was performed, wherein glutamic acid was obtained from sugar beet vinasse. The removed glutamic acid was substituted with cane molasses and ureum. The comparison between the four biobased and petrochemical products showed that for NMP and NVP the biobased version had less impact on the environment, while for ACN and SCN the petrochemical version had less impact on the environment. For the latter two an optimized scenario was computed, which showed that the process for SCN can be improved to a level at which it can compete with the petrochemical process. For biobased ACN large improvements are required to make it competitive with its petrochemical equivalent. The results of this LCA and the research preceding it also show that glutamic acid can be a building block for a variety of molecules that are currently produced from petrochemical resources. Currently, most methods to produce biobased products are biotechnological processes based on sugar, but this paper demonstrates that the use of amino acids from low-value byproducts can certainly be a method as well. PMID:21870885

  2. Sources of Particular Pollutants in Ambient Air at a Petrochemical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Jianliang; Zhao Dongfeng; ChengJianguang; Chen Lu; Liu Wei

    2013-01-01

    The study on source apportionment of particular pollutants in ambient air at a petrochemical enterprise is the ba-sis of the control over air pollution. Through analyzing particular pollutants in the samples collected from one petrochemi-cal enterprise in northwestern China, the sources of particular pollutants were discussed. The test results showed that con-centrations of particular pollutants in different sites were remarkably different. Results showed that the sampling sites with higher concentrations of particular pollutants, including toluene, xylenes, NH3 and H2S, were located at the boundary of the petrochemical enterprise. Instead, the concentrations of NMHC in the ambient air sampling sites were higher than those at the boundary of the petrochemical enterprise. The sampling sites with higher concentrations of particular pollutants were located in the area that was close to the petrochemical enterprise. The results obtained from the Pearson correlation co-efifcients analyses, the factor analyses, andχ2-tests of the particular pollutants had revealed that NH3, H2S, toluene and xylenes at all sampling sites came from the same source, while NMHC might come from some other sources besides the petrochemical enterprise.

  3. Investigation of process equipment in petrochemical industry using radioisotope technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of radioisotope technology have proved it self to be an effective techniques for troubleshooting and optimizing industrial process in petrochemical industry. In this study, Khartoum refinery was investigated by gamma scanning technique for better understanding of malfunctions, the scanning were carried out using 60C gamma radiation source with activity of 50 mCi on fractionator and stripper columns, obtained results showed that all trays of the fractionator column were in place but weeping was evident due to fouling or partial tray damage. For the stripper column, results obtained showed that all trays were on their positions and no process anomalies taking place. Heat exchanger was also examined using radiotracer technique with respect to leak detection and residence time distribution. The investigations were carried out using 82Br in the form of di-bromo-para-bensene (C6H4Br2) as a radiotracer. No leak was recorded and the residence time distribution results showed that the process functions were quite normal. Leak was examined using 99mTc as a radiotracer detection to demonstrate the potentials of the technique. The testing was conducted using reflux condenser. Obtained results proved that the technique is sensitive, reliable and can be adopted to investigate heat exchangers in industrial systems.(Author)

  4. Petrochemical wastewater treatment by means of clean electrochemical technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimoglo, A.; Akbulut, H.Y.; Cihan, F.; Karpuzcu, M. [Gebze Institute of Technology, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2004-09-01

    The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, phenol, hydrocarbon and grease from petrochemical wastewater (PCWW) was experimentally done by using electroflotation (EF) and electrocoagulation (EC). In the EF unit, a graphite anode and a stainless steel mesh as cathode were used. In the EC unit, iron and aluminium were used simultaneously as materials for two blocks of alternating electrodes. The reactor voltage was 12 V, current density (CD) was varied from 5 to 15 mA cm{sup -2}, and the residence time varied in the limits of 2-20 min for EF and 1-10 min for EC. The results have shown that EC removes the mentioned contaminants from PCWW more effectively than EF. Turbidity removal in the process of PCWW purification was estimated as 83% for EF and 88% for EC. The yields of phenol, hydrocarbon and grease removal by EC were examined under different values of residence time, CD, and with iron and aluminium as materials for electrodes. (orig.)

  5. Noise pollution in a Refining & Petrochemical Company in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Osarenmwinda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the concern about noise pollution is acquiring considerable importance especiallly in industrial enviroment where there exist alot of machinerys and equipment. The aim of this study was to determine the level of noise pollution generated by some plants specifically Carbon Black Plant, Power Plant & Utilities, Waste Water treatment Plant and Fuels Plant in Warri Refining & Petrochemical Company (WRPC, Warri, Nigeria and recommmend strageties for noise control. Noise level data was obtained from the environmental monitoring unit of WRPC for period April to November, 2012 .The results showed that the noise level exceeded the 85 dB(A WHO recommended limit for industrial area in the Carbon Black Plant,Power Plant & Utilities and Fuels Plant in WRPC but was lower than 85 dB(A in Waste Water treatment Plant section of WRPC.It was observed that such noise pollution can present health problems to the workers.Recommendations have been made to the company in this study to remedy this problems and challenges.

  6. The state of the petrochemical industry and how the midstream market is impacted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petrochemical industry is Canada's third largest manufacturing sector, exporting almost 2 thirds of production. Alberta's petrochemical advantage was outlined in this presentation. Alberta's abundant natural resources and progressive business climate have contributed to the growing interest of investors. Other advantages include proximity to natural gas resources; secure supplies of natural gas and gas liquids; and favourable government policies. It was suggested that the petrochemical industry took root in Alberta because of a distinct natural gas feedstock price advantage. However, high natural gas feedstock prices have brought the industry to a crossroads. Petrochemicals consume over half of Alberta's industrial gas use, and 75 per cent of the operating expenditures in petrochemical plants are tied up in feedstock costs. It was noted that Middle East gas is priced at one fifth of North American gas, and that volatility and maturing gas basins affect supply and increase cost. Excess natural gas pipeline capacity has tightened basis differentials. Nearly half of liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals are strategically placed along the U.S. Gulf coast. Transportation costs and the distance of haul inequities were discussed. It was noted that the sales volume of basic chemicals and plastics fell by 2 per cent in 2003. However, chemical export revenues rose 12 per cent in 2004. Details of World and North American ethylene demand, capacity and operating rates were provided, as well as cash costs and regional averages in 2004. Various downstream integration opportunities include the use of hydrogen in refinery integration; capturing carbon dioxide rich sources for enhanced oil recovery; capitalizing on the potential for propylene derivative plants; crude butadiene; and pyrolysis gasoline. It was concluded that a sustained global recovery in the petrochemical industry must reflect a change in business strategy. Although the Alberta petrochemical industry is still at

  7. Outlook for petrochemicals -- Y2K and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General aspects of global and regional petrochemical markets that allow a glimpse into the future of the market are highlighted by focusing on the state of the chemical industry, the global profit picture, Asia's impact on regional markets, market prospects for Canadian products and the cost curve for Alberta ethylene. Overall, it is predicted that base chemical demand will return to the 1996 trendline by 2001 or 2002. All fundamentals for such recovery are in place, although for a sustained recovery to develop several key characteristics regarding political, economic and market events need to occur. Some of these key issues include rising consumer demand in the USA and Europe, the need for Japan's economy to recover and remain strong, and for China to hold solid on currency values. Basically, the margins and earnings in the chemical industry have been severely depressed for some years, however, there are favorable indications for the reappearance of re-investment economics by 2002-2003. The historic low prices of the last few years should generate substantial demand. Considering the ethylene market, Canadian exporters will have to be relatively aggressive in marketing a larger quantity of product in the export market in the face of growing export market competition, although strong demand growth in North America will temper to some degree Canada's dependence of markets outside North America. Nevertheless, by 2001 Canada will have the capacity to export ethylene derivatives 125 per cent above its own requirements. That implies that the ultimate determinant of success will be once again based on competitive feedstock values and production costs

  8. The Impact of the Development of Shale Gas in the United States on Europe's Petrochemical Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shale gas revolution has led to strong falls in energy prices, reducing significantly the raw material costs of the US petrochemical industry. Between 2008 and 2012, US gas prices fell by two thirds. Ethane comes from natural gas liquids (NGLs) contained in shale gas, and used by the US petrochemical industry as the raw material to make ethylene. Its price fell by 55% between 2008 and 2012. These price cuts are giving the US petrochemical industry a significant competitive advantage, and profits are exploding. The United States has become the region in the world with the second lowest energy and raw material prices, just after the Middle East. This renewed competitiveness is leading to the re-birth of American petrochemicals, whereas the sector was stagnating and even experiencing waves of closures in the middle of the 2000's. An estimated $15 billion is set to be invested in the sector by 2017, generating a 40% increase in ethylene output, the leading petrochemical product. The competitive advantage makes itself felt downstream in the sector. In particular, plastics derived from the transformation of petrochemicals are used in manufacturing in three major consumer industries: packaging, construction and the automotive industry. By 2017, the output capacity of polyethylene, the polymer most used in the production of plastics, should rise by 40%. The economic spillovers of such investments are significant. The American Chemistry Council (ACC) has conducted a study of around one hundred investment projects, identified at the end of March 2013 in the US chemical industry (excluding pharmaceuticals). These projects involved $72 billion in investment, through to 2020. They will raise the turnover of the chemical industry by $67 billion (in 2012 dollars), by 2020, and will create 1.2 million jobs during the phase of construction. By 2020, additional earnings of the US economy will run to $201 billion, with tax revenues of $14 billion. The ACC estimates that these

  9. Experimental research on vibration reduction of high-rise petrochemical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wind-induced vibration of high-rise petrochemical equipment would do great harm to equipment operation and cause fatigue damage easily. Thus it is necessary to install some control device to reduce the vibration actively. Existing reinforcement methods include enlarging structural section, welding wind girder, adding braced frame system, fixing taut cable, etc. But each has some shortcomings. Therefore, the tuned mass damper (TMD), rarely used in high-rise petrochemical equipment, is studied by experiment to minimize wind-induced vibration, ensure safety operation and prolong service life. In the experiment, high-rise petrochemical equipment is properly simplified in order to verify the feasibility of the TMD. Parameters of the TMD are mainly researched, which include mass ratio and damping ratio. During the process, different mass ratios and damping ratios have been taken into account to understand the characteristics of the TMD under different conditions. By experiment, the changing tendencies of the natural frequency, damping ratio and top maximum displacement have been given after the simulator is implemented with the TMD. Experimental results show that the TMD is feasible for the wind-induced vibration control of high-rise petrochemical equipment, and that top maximum displacement of the simulator reduces by about 45% in the experimental condition. The experimental research has provided valuable preferences for practical application of the TMD in petrochemical field.

  10. The petrochemical industry and its energy use. Prospects for the Dutch energy intensive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state and the future of the Dutch petrochemical industry are discussed. First, its current energy use, technology and its markets are analysed. Competitiveness of Dutch and Western European producers compared to foreign producers is shown. Main technological developments and other key issues (e.g. environmental issues) are discussed. Based on this analysis, a future scenario is derived for petrochemical industrial energy use for the period 2000-2015. This case study can be divided into an analysis of the current situation (Chapter 2-6) and alternatives for production and energy consumption of the Dutch petrochemical industry within its Western European context (Chapter 7-11). Chapter 2 analyses the current production structure and the historical developments. Chapter 3 discusses current technologies. Chapter 4 analyses markets for Dutch petrochemical products. Chapter 5 analyses the industry economics in the Netherlands in terms of costs and revenues. Chapter 6 provides information on institutional factors that influence industrial activities. Chapter 7 discusses global competition with special emphasis on competition for the European market. Chapter 8 analyses potential technology shifts. In Chapter 9, data from the preceding chapters on markets, competition, structure and technology are combined to compare competing production options. This is followed by a sensitivity analysis in Chapter 10. Based on a production volume forecast and the development of energy intensity of production, energy consumption of the Dutch petrochemical industry is forecast in Chapter 11. Finally, Chapter 12 provides conclusions and policy recommendations. 24 figs., 48 tabs., 103 refs., 2 appendices

  11. Obtaining petrochemical products from ethanol; Obtencao de produtos petroquimicos a partir do etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverio, Carlos Augusto N.; Oliveira, Claudia Vasconcellos R. de; Joao, Rafael Richard; Hashizume, Tulio Kenji C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Currently, high oil prices, low availability of traditional raw material (natural gas and petrochemical naphtha), increasing recognition of the importance of the preservation of nature and reducing emissions of pollutants have been creating a great opportunity for the petrochemical industry to seek alternative materials from renewable resources. The ethanol, which obtained a virtuous journey as fuel, is a very promising alternative to be used for the production of petrochemical products. However, the use of ethanol as a raw material will require a considerable increase in its production, what can be achieved through the development of new production technologies based on biomass and the construction of integrated biorefineries. So, this study aims to identify and compare conventional petrochemical routes with routes from this renewable raw material in order to evaluate their technical and economic feasibility. A preliminary analysis was performed between four petrochemical products: acetic acid, acetaldehyde, the ethyl acetate and ethylene. From this initial analysis, acetic acid and ethylene were selected for a more comprehensive feasibility study considering their production using ethanol as raw material, what is called ethanol chemistry. (author)

  12. A Mathematical Model Based on Supply Chain Optimization for International Petrochemical Engineering Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Ning; Sun Wei

    2015-01-01

    Based on the study of supply chain (SC) and SC optimization in engineering projects, a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) optimization model is developed to minimize the total SC cost for international petrochemical en-gineering projects. A steam cracking project is selected and analyzed, from which typical SC characteristics in international engineering projects in the area of petrochemical industry are summarized. The MINLP model is therefore developed and applied to projects with detailed data. The optimization results are analyzed and compared by the MINLP model, indicat-ing that they are appropriate to SC management practice in engineering projects, and are consistent with the optimal price-effective strategy in procurement. As a result, the model could provide useful guidance to SC optimization of international engineering projects in petrochemical industry, and improve SC management by selecting more reliable and qualiifed part-ner enterprises in SC for the project.

  13. Proceedings of the CERI 2006 petrochemical conference : thinking outside the box : preparing tomorrow's North American industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference addressed the global competitiveness of the Canadian petrochemical industry and its potential markets. Recent advances in technology were highlighted along with issues concerning transportation and infrastructure. In addition to addressing capital cost requirements and feedstock availability, the presentations addressed opportunities for growth and product diversification. Alberta's role in the North American energy markets was also discussed, along with issues concerning feedstock from Canadian oil sands. It was noted that the survival of the North American petrochemical industry depends on the price of natural gas liquids. With feedstock at two to three times the price in the Middle East, petrochemical producers, governments, and suppliers need to adopt aggressive strategies to maintain a competitive position and profitability. The sessions of the conference addressed global competitive issues; integration and mastering competitiveness; the Alberta advantage; feedstock and technologies; and, reaching international markets. The conference featured 18 presentations, of which 7 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  14. A New Cultivation-Evolution Technology of Accident Immune Function for a Petrochemical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhenhong; Zhang Xuhua; Wang Xiangyao; Wang Zhihu; Liu Yan; Zhang Xuan

    2007-01-01

    For the purpose of developing an immune function on production accidents in a petrochemical enterprise, a new cultivation-evolution approach of preventive mechanism is suggested by analyzing various factors relating to immune deficiency syndrome and by referring to immunity genetic algorithm and relevant concepts applied in medicine science. Accident-immunity system for highly hazardous petrochemical enterprise, which is made up of its productive system's Safety Organ and Safety Organization, is typically an evolution-cultivation progress for immune function, The new B immune cell is generated after several layers' screening, clone expanding, receptor editing, organizing in immune system of work accident in petrochemical enterprise. There is a B immune cell with high appetency and a manipulative function chain for accident-immunity. Taking the antigen of accidents in industry as the target function and the immune antibody as the solution, the authors carried out a computation diagram for prediction of appetency between the antigen and antibody.

  15. CO{sub 2} Reuse in Petrochemical Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Trembly; Brian Turk; Maruthi Pavani; Jon McCarty; Chris Boggs; Aqil Jamal; Raghubir Gupta

    2010-12-31

    To address public concerns regarding the consequences of climate change from anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is actively funding a CO{sub 2} management program to develop technologies capable of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions from power plant and industrial facilities. Over the past decade, this program has focused on reducing the costs of carbon capture and storage technologies. Recently, DOE/NETL launched an alternative CO{sub 2} mitigation program focused on beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse to support the development of technologies that mitigate emissions by converting CO{sub 2} into valuable chemicals and fuels. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing an innovative beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse process for converting CO{sub 2} into substitute natural gas (SNG) by using by-product hydrogen (H{sub 2)-containing fuel gas from petrochemical facilities. This process leveraged commercial reactor technology currently used in fluid catalytic crackers in petroleum refining and a novel nickel (Ni)-based catalyst developed by RTI. The goal was to generate an SNG product that meets the pipeline specifications for natural gas, making the SNG product completely compatible with the existing natural gas infrastructure. RTI's technology development efforts focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of this novel CO{sub 2} reuse process and obtaining the necessary engineering information to design a pilot demonstration unit for converting about 4 tons per day (tons/day) of CO{sub 2} into SNG at a suitable host site. This final report describes the results of the Phase I catalyst and process development efforts. The methanation activity of several commercial fixed-bed catalysts was evaluated under fluidized-bed conditions in a bench-scale reactor to identify catalyst performance targets. RTI developed two fluidizable Ni-based catalyst formulations (Cat-1 and Cat

  16. Opportunities and challenges at the interface between petrochemicals and refinery. The OMV view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtscheidl, J. [OMV Refining and Marketing GmbH, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    OMV's refineries have been integrated into petrochemicals since the first steam cracker came on line in 1970. The refineries in Schwechat, Burghausen and Romania, especially Arpechim, have significant petrochemical capacities. In 1998 PCD was merged with Borealis, a leading producer of high grade polymers. OMV's initial 25% stake in Borealis increased to 36 in 2007. The last years have seen major investments in Schwechat and Burghausen: Schwechat's cracker was expanded by approximately 150 KTA to a nominal 500 KTA of ethylene. And in Burghausen the revamp of the cracker has been combined with a metathesis unit in order to feed a new 330 KTA polypropylene plant. The polymer market is still growing. However, the bulk of investments to increase capacity are located in the Middle East and in the Asia-Pacific region, predominately in China. As more and more products from these regions find their way to Europe, the European petrochemicals industry faces fierce competition. The response is restructuring: the creation of Arkema (Total), the takeover of BP's petrochemical assets by INEOS, the disposal of Shell-BASF subsidiary Basell to Haldia Petrochemical and Accent Industries, and the transfer of Statoil's interest in Borealis to IPIC and OMV. And most recently, Basell's acquisition of Lyondell. Compared with competitors in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, producers in Europe are burdened with serious disadvantages: fairly old, small units and high costs of labor, energy and raw materials. There is no single solution. OMV, however, will continue to follow the strategies that have been successful so far: - Ever closer integration of refining and petrochemicals; - Capturing market opportunities for profitable growth; -Remaining market orientated. (orig.)

  17. Impact of petrochemicals on the photosynthesis of Halophila ovalis using chlorophyll fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, P.J.; Burchett, M.D. [University of Sydney (Australia). Institute for Coastal Resource Management and Dept. of of Environmental Biology and Horticulture

    1998-06-01

    Laboratory-cultured Halophila ovalis showed tolerance to petrochemical exposure up to 1% (w/v) solution of Bass Strait crude oil, an oil dispersant (Corexit 9527) and a mixture of crude oil and dispersant. Quantum yield, as measured by chlorophyll fluorescence, was the most sensitive measure of the photosynthetic processes affected by petrochemical. The results indicated clearly that chlorophyll fluorescence was effective at monitoring the onset and development of stress and recovery of H. ovalis when exposed to crude oil, dispersant and a mixture of the two compounds. Photosynthetic pigment content generally confirmed the chlorophyll fluorescence response; however, several anomalies occurred. (author)

  18. Use of Low-cost Adsorbents to Chlorophenols and Organic Matter Removal of Petrochemical Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretha Moreira de Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The removal of 2,4 diclorophenol (2,4-DCF and 2,4,6 trichlorophenol (2,4,6 TCF present in  petrochemical wastewater was evaluated using low-cost adsorbents, such as chitin, chitosan and coconut shells. Batch studies showed that the absorption efficiency for 2,4 DCF and 2,4,6 TCF follow the order: chitosan > chitin > coconut shells. Langmuir and Freundlich models have been applied to experimental isotherms data, to better understand the adsorption mechanisms. Petrochemical wastewater treatment with fixed bed column system using chitinous adsorbents showed a removal of COD (75% , TOG (90% and turbidity (74-89%.

  19. Impact of petrochemicals on the photosynthesis of Halophila ovalis using chlorophyll fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory-cultured Halophila ovalis showed tolerance to petrochemical exposure up to 1% (w/v) solution of Bass Strait crude oil, an oil dispersant (Corexit 9527) and a mixture of crude oil and dispersant. Quantum yield, as measured by chlorophyll fluorescence, was the most sensitive measure of the photosynthetic processes affected by petrochemical. The results indicated clearly that chlorophyll fluorescence was effective at monitoring the onset and development of stress and recovery of H. ovalis when exposed to crude oil, dispersant and a mixture of the two compounds. Photosynthetic pigment content generally confirmed the chlorophyll fluorescence response; however, several anomalies occurred. (author)

  20. Genotoxicity biomarkers for airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) in an area under petrochemical influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Andréia Torres; Lemos, Clarice Torres de; Flores, Andressa Negreiros; Pantoja, Eduarda Ozório; Rocha, Jocelita Aparecida Vaz; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

    2016-09-01

    The effects of fine inhalable particles (PM2.5) were evaluated in an area under the influence of a petrochemical industry, investigating the sensitivity of different genotoxicity biomarkers. Organic extracts were obtained from PM2.5 samples at two sites, positioned in the first and second preferential wind direction in the area. The extracts were evaluated with Salmonella/microsome assay, microsuspension method, strains TA98, YG1021 and YG1024. The mammalian metabolization fraction (S9) was used to evaluate metabolite mutagenicity. The Comet Assay (CA) and Micronuclei Test were used in a Chinese hamster lung cell line (V79). All extracts showed mutagenicity in Salmonella, and nitrogenated compounds were strongly present. Genotoxicity were found in CA in almost all extracts and the micronuclei induction at the Site in the first (Autumn 1, Winter 1), and in the second (Spring 2) wind direction. V79 showed cytotoxicity in all samples. The three biomarkers were concordant in characterization Site NO with worse quality, compatible with the greater pollutants dispersion in the first wind direction. All PM2.5 concentrations were lower than those recommended by air quality standards but genotoxic effects were detected in all samples, corroborating that these standards are inadequate as quality indicators. The Salmonella/microsome assay proved sensitive to PM2.5 mutagenicity, with an outstanding influence of nitroarenes and aromatic amines. Analyses using CA and the micronucleus test broadened the levels of response that involve different damage induction mechanisms. Results show that the complex PM2.5 composition can provoke various genotoxic effects and the use of different bioassays is essential to understand its effects. PMID:27343868

  1. Impact of the development of shale gases in the USA on the European petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the massive development of shale gases and oils in the USA is often only considered in its energetic dimension, the author discusses the influence these raw materials have, not only on energy production, but as raw materials for the industry and more particularly for the petrochemical industry which is a high energy consumer and also transforms these products into products used by all types of manufacturing industries. In a first part, the author recalls this strong development of shale gas production in the USA, its main impacts on the US gas industry, notably its impact on energy prices on the American market. In a second part, the author reports the analysis of the contrasted evolutions of energy prices (gas, electricity, ethane, naphtha) in the USA and in Europe, and highlights the significant competitive advantage the USA took from the development of shale gas. A third part describes the revival of the American petrochemical industry through numerous investment projects of new ethylene and polyethylene production capacities which have been announced since the decrease of energy prices. The impact of this development on the European petrochemical industry is analysed in the next part which also describes adaptation strategies adopted by European petrochemical industries

  2. Status and direction of waste minimization in the chemical and petrochemical industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englande Junior, A.J. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an evaluation of the status and direction of toxic/hazardous waste reduction in chemical and petrochemical industries from an international perspective. In almost all cases studied savings have resulted. The importance of pollution prevention by `clean technologies` instead of remediation is stressed. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Basic petrochemicals from natural gas, coal and biomass: energy use and CO2 emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, T.; Patel, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    While high-value basic petrochemicals (HVCs) are mostly produced through conventional naphtha and ethane-based process routes, it is also possible to produce them through coal and biomass-based routes. In this paper, we compared these routes in terms of energy use and CO2 emissions per ton of HVCs.

  4. Development of biodegradation testing within a whole effluent assessment scheme: petrochemical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonards, P.E.G.; Postma, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed for Concawe to obtain information on the development of an approach for assessing biodegradation of petrochemical effluents and the impact on assessing the toxicity and potential to bioaccumulate of the constituents. Whole Effluent Assessments (WEA) are being investigated as

  5. E-business Sees Rapid Development in China's Oil and Petrochemical Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ A two-day high-level e-business forum on petroleum and petrochemical industry, sponsored by China Chemicals Information Center, was held in Beijing in late-April, at which Vice President of CNPC Yan Sanzhong addressed opening speech.

  6. World petrochemical outlook: Is the current weakness a trend or an aberration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the focus of this conference is methanol, a review of the general petrochemical industry might be enlightening and valuable to understanding the methanol market. Methanol is certainly a commodity with similarities to hydrocarbons such as gasoline and similarities to base petrochemicals such as ethylene. Methanol stands with one foot in the fuels market via MTBE and the other in the chemicals business for acetic acid and formaldehyde, among many others. Is the world petrochemical market moving into a new trend of weak prices and profits or is the strong growth seen in 1994 and 1995 continuing and the current situation an aberration? In order to determine whether the current market is a trend or aberration, the author looks at issues that he believes caused the current situation and then considers where the world's economies and petrochemical markets are heading. The issues discussed are: unusually high price increase in a short period; inventory increase/decrease because of price changes; reduction in demand caused by high prices; increase in capacity caused by high prices; changes in growth of world economies; and political/economic issues in China

  7. Proceedings of the CERI 2003 petrochemical conference : Framing the future. CD-ROM ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference provided an excellent networking opportunity for those involved in the petrochemical industry which is on the verge of corporate growth. Four keynote addresses and 16 papers were presented at the conference, which was divided into five sessions. The first session discussed the place of the Canadian petrochemical industry in global commerce. Topics of discussion included a global overview of the petrochemical industry, politics and the impact on energy prices. Investment growth and implications for Canada were also outlined in the first session. The second session involved a close look at the resource potential with reference to the gas supply outlook for the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, northern gas, natural gas liquids and carbon dioxide management services. The third session outlined strategies for sustainable development with reference to the impact of climate change issues on Canadian oil and gas development and the legal aspects of doing business under the Kyoto Protocol. The fourth session discussed the challenge of product movement. This included new approaches to pipeline shipments, rail transport and maritime transport. The fifth and final session dealt with the foundations for future growth and keeping Canada competitive in the global economy. The main focus of discussion in the last session was on the use of alternative feedstock for the petrochemical industry. Of the 16 papers presented at the conference 6 were indexed separately for inclusion in this database

  8. Production of synthetic liquid fuel from run-of-mine oil shales, brown coals and waste of petrochemical and chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern and perspective technologies have been developed for processing run-of-mine oil shales into liquid products foreseen for producing motor fuels and chemical feedstock. Baltic run-of-mine oil shales, high-sulfur oil shales of the Volga basin, brown coals of Kansk-Atchinsk basin, as well as heavy crude oils and oil-bearing sands, solid waste of petrochemical and chemical industry may be processed. The proposed high-efficiency technology enables to produce high yields of naphtha (gasoline fraction) and diesel fuel fraction, feedstock for catalytic and hydro cracking processes, electrode coke, different adhesive materials, refractories, anodic mass, phenols, individual hydrocarbons, Ni- and V- concentrates. The process proposed is carried out using oil shales. Their organic matter has unique hydrogen donor properties which enable them to activate the thermal conversion of brown coals, high-boiling waste of petrochemical industry etc. This complex technology is based on the thermochemical conversion process of oil shales in the hydro carbonic solvent at 333-440 deg C, under the pressure of 3-5 MPa, and volumetric rate 3-6 h-1. A paste-forming substance boiling between 200-340 deg C is used as the medium. The process runs with a deficiency (up to 30 %) of regenerated paste-forming substance and therefore respective measures have been worked out to intensify the process. It enabled to close the process with respect to regenerated paste-forming substance and to design new routes for thermochemical processing of oil shales. These procedures have the following essential advantages: 1.There is no need for previous separation of asphaltenes and metals (Ni, V) from heavy petrochemical feedstock as they precipitate on the mineral part of oil shales and are discharged together with liquid products of the process. 2. Thermal cracking is carried out without molecular hydrogen and thermal hydro cracking without catalysts. 3. Raw material is considerably desulfurized.(author)

  9. Melhor isso do que nada! Participação e responsabilização na gestão dos riscos do Pólo Petroquímico de Camaçari (BA Better this than nothing! Participation and accountability on risk management of Camaçari Petrochemical Complex, in Bahia State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Licks Almeida Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi analisar o modelo adotado na construção dos conselhos comunitários consultivos. O recorte empírico trata do Conselho Comunitário de Camaçari (BA, primeiro no país e referência para a implantação de outros. Observação participante e dezessete entrevistas foram as principais fontes de dados. O conselho se constitui num sofisticado mecanismo de docilização e responsabilização pela disseminação de uma ideologia organizacional hegemônica e de modos de governança neoliberais.This research intends to analyze the model adopted in the construction of community advisory committees. The empirical object is the Community Advisory Committee of Camaçari Complex (BA, the first one to be set up in the country and that has been used as a reference for the implementation of others. Participant observation and seventeen interviews were the main sources of data. The advisory committee constitutes itself in a sophisticated mechanism of docilization and responsabilization for the spread of an organizational hegemonic ideology and neoliberal modes of governance.

  10. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  11. Yangtze-BASF Petrochemical Project Smoothly Under Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The Yangtze-BASFPetrochemical Complex Project,the largest joint venture project between China and Germany, is smoothly under way since construction started in 2001. The project will be completed for its mechanical facilities by the end of next year and put into commercial operation in 2005.

  12. Prospects of Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Industries in the Arab Region: Opportunities and Challenges, Volume 1 and Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication has been set up as proceedings of the Chemical Engineering conference, Prospects of Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Industries in The Arab Region Opportunities and Challenges., the conference contains of the following subjects: Gas Processing; Oil Refinery Engineering; Petrochemical Industry; Fuels Technologies and Transport Phenomena; Project Management Economics and Control; Materials and Corrosion Engineering; Biochemical and Environmental Engineering; Water Treatment and Pollution Control. This conference consists of two volume and 1534 pages., figs., tabs., refs

  13. Trends in high performance compressors for petrochemical and natural gas industry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanyang; Li, Liansheng

    2015-08-01

    Compressors are the key equipment in the petrochemical and natural gas industry system. The performance and reliability of them are very important for the process system. The application status of petrochemical & natural gas compressors in China is presented in this paper. The present status of design and operating technologies of compressors in China are mentioned in this paper. The turbo, reciprocating and twin screw compressors are discussed. The market demands for different structure compressors in process gas industries are analysed. This paper also introduces the research and developments for high performance compressors in China. The recent research results on efficiency improvement methods, stability improvement, online monitor and fault diagnosis will also be presented in details.

  14. Structural characteristics and oil-removal mechanisms of the adsorbents made from petrochemical sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-bin; SANG Yi-ming; TAN Wen-jie; HE Xu-wen; LI Fa-sheng

    2004-01-01

    A new type of carbon-inorganic absorbent with good oil-removing performance is prepared by sintering and activating petrochemical sludge. Of the absorbents prepared by three different methods (non-activated, vapor /840 ℃/6 h, CO2/1 000 ℃/2 h), the one prepared by the second method is the best in oil-removing, which can remove 60% of oil from petrochemical wastewater with a concentration of 76.42 mg/L. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the constituents of the adsorbents are basically similar to those of inorganic granulating materials, such as SiO2, Al2O3, orthoclase feldspar, iron ore, etc. Composition analysis reveals that the activated absorbent has a large specific surface area with a high carbon content in activated compositions and a good oil-removing capability.

  15. Bioremediation of Pharmaceuticals, Pesticides, and Petrochemicals with Gomeya/Cow Dung

    OpenAIRE

    Gurpreet Kaur Randhawa; Jagdev Singh Kullar

    2011-01-01

    Use and misuse of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and petrochemicals by man is causing havoc with nature, as they persist as such or as their toxic metabolites. These pollutants bioaccumulate in environment, and they ultimately reach man through various means. They are hazardous because of potential toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity. To rejuvenate nature, remediation methods currently available are usually expensive and might convert one toxic pollutant to another. Biorem...

  16. Job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour, employee engagement and intention to leave in a petrochemical laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Sonet van Schalkwyk; Danie H. du Toit; Adriaan S. Bothma; Sebastiaan Rothmann

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: Engaging individuals at work plays an important role in retaining them. Job security and leadership empowerment behaviour are antecedents of employee engagement.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour (as perceived by the employees who report to leaders), employee engagement and intention to leave their jobs in a petrochemical laboratory.Motivation for the study: Knowledge of the e...

  17. Economic Performance of China's Oil and Petrochemical Industry in First Quarter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fen

    2008-01-01

    @@ International oil price continued souring in the first quarter of 2008. It was bouncing up and down above $100/barrel and even getting close to $120/barrel by the end of April. Products related to energy and resources all responded with higher prices, triggering a general increase in cost of petroleum and petrochemical industry. World's economy was seriously affected by USA's subprime lending crisis, weakening US dollar, sullen stock markets,and etc, major economies lowered their expectations for economic growth rate.

  18. Improving occupational health and safety in a petrochemical environment through culture change / R.A. Farmer

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Ruan Alexander

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the vast technological progress and improvement in the standard of management systems within hazardous industries around the world, occupational health and safety incidents and fatalities continue to devastate thousands of lives each year. Throughout the last decade, significant improvement has been achieved in the reduction of health and safety incident rates across the South African petrochemical environment. However, a persistent roller-coaster fatality rate s...

  19. FBG Temperature and Pressure Sensing System for Hot Water Pipeline of Petrochemical Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Hui Lü; Shao-Hua Shang; Xu Jiang; Jin-Ping Ou; Chao Yang; Chuan-Di Li; Wei Xu

    2008-01-01

    A spatial and wavelength division multi-plexing fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing system is reported for monitoring the temperature and the pressure (T-P) of hot water pipeline in petrochemical factory. The FBG sensing system has 72 channels independently, and it provides the capability to monitor large number sensors at same time. A resolution of 0.1 ℃ and 0.01 MPa with a measurement bandwidth of 150 Hz has been achieved.

  20. 80 kt/a Styrene Unit Put on Stream at Jinzhou Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The core unit of the 80-kt/a styrene project--the styrene unit was put on stream at the first attempt at Jinzhou Petro-chemical Company, symbolizing the completion of con-struction and startup of the 80 kt/a styrene unit comprised of the styrene section and the ethylbenzene section, the in-vestment in which totals 394 million RMB.

  1. Growth and heavy metals accumulation potential of microalgae grown in sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayan, K V; Selvaraju, M; Thirugnanamoorthy, K

    2011-08-15

    Microalgae exhibit a number of heavy metal uptake process by different metabolism. In this study, the ability of microalgae for removal of heavy metal from wastewater was studied. Growth and biochemical contents of microalgae were determined by spectrophotometer. Heavy metal analysis of wastewater effluents were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after treatment at laboratory scale. The growth of Scenedesmus bijuga and Oscillatoria quadripunctulata in sewage wastewater was higher than those grown in synthetic medium. Whereas, the growth of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata in sterilized petrochemical effluents was slightly lower than that grown in the standard synthetic medium. The chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein content of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized sewage wastewater were higher than those grown in the standard medium. Similarly S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized petrochemical effluents showed lower contents of pigments and protein than those grown in sewage and synthetic medium. Heavy metals copper, cobalt, lead and zinc were removed by 37-50, 20.3-33.3, 34.6-100 and 32.1-100%, respectively from sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluent using Ocillatoria culture. The metal absorption by S. bijuga were (Cu, Co, Pb, Zn) 60-50, 29.6-66, 15.4-25 and 42.9-50%, respectively from sewage and petrochemical effluents. Both species showed high level of heavy metal removal efficiency and metal sorption efficiency of both microalgae depended on the type of biosorbent, the physiological status of the cells, availability of heavy metal, concentration of heavy metal and chemical composition of wastewater. PMID:22545355

  2. Remediation effects of adapted bacteria cultures on water quality: an example of petrochemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Altuğ, Nilay Barlas Turan and Gülşen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this study, it was aimed to make an efficient wastewater treatment by using adapted bacteria cultures to support and strengthen the biomass in aeration basin of the wastewater treatment plant, when the treatment processes are not sufficient in biological wastewater plants (BWWTP) for industrial wastewater which contains toxic and recalcitrant organic chemicals. For this purpose, petrochemical industry was chosen for field of study. The physical, chemical (flow rate, dissolved oxyg...

  3. Assessing the sustainability of wastewater treatment technologies in the petrochemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Meerholz, A.; A C Brent, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Selecting the most suitable industrial wastewater treatment technology is not only about providing the best technical solution at the lowest cost: it is also about sustainability (including social and environmental acceptance) and institutional feasibility. This paper demonstrates and evaluates a method that may be used for wastewater treatment technology assessment and selection in an industrial context, with a specific focus on biological wastewater treatment in a petrochemical company. The...

  4. Investigating Density and Type of Bioaerosols in a Petrochemical Wastewater Treatment Plant: Mahshar - Iran, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Jahangiri; Masoud Neghab; Vahid Kahdemain; Reza Rostami; Ali Karimi; Mandana Aghabeigi; Abasali Kasayee Nasab

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Wastewater contains various pathogens including viruses, bacteria, fungi, etc. These microorganisms can easily become airborne during normal operations of wastewater treatment plant and contaminate the neighborhood environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the type and density of bioaerosols in a petrochemical wastewater treatment plant in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, bioaerosols density was measured in different units o...

  5. The toxic impact of petro-chemical and oil-refining waste on hydrobionts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramshina, N.G.; Kuramshin, E.M.; Pavlov, S.V. [Institute for Problems of Applied Ecology and Natural Resources Use, Ufa, Bashkortostan (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes research carried out on the potential impacts of petro-chemical and oil refining wastes on molluscs. The acute and chronic effects of 4,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane on gastropod molluscs are described. Studies were also conducted on the effects of diesel fuel, aviation fuel and multigrade oil. The results indicate the importance of assessing both lethal and sub-lethal effects. Sub-lethal effects noted included behavioural changes and effects on hemolymph. (Author)

  6. Corporate Social responsibility in the petrochemical industry: Exploring current trends in social and environmental disclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Current trends indicate that we are entering a new phase of corporate responsibility reporting that more emphasis is paid on social responsibility, but significant variation still remains in the maturity of reporting content and styles in industries, and even in the same industry. This study explores the current trend of corporate social and environmental reporting in petrochemical industry. It offers a detailed review of the development of corporate social responsibility reporting, and of th...

  7. Increasing a large petrochemical company efficiency by improvement of decision making process

    OpenAIRE

    Kirin Snežana D.; Nešić Lela G.

    2010-01-01

    The paper shows the results of a research conducted in a large petrochemical company, in a state under transition, with the aim to "shed light" on the decision making process from the aspect of personal characteristics of the employees, in order to use the results to improve decision making process and increase company efficiency. The research was conducted by a survey, i.e. by filling out a questionnaire specially made for this purpose, in real conditions, during working hours. The sample of...

  8. Dynamics of the European refining and petrochemical industry. Strategies, structure and change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in the market position of producers engaged in the oil refining and basic petrochemical industry on the Western European market are the central theme of this book. Analysis of this reshuffling process among these actors is conducted on three levels. First, research is carried out at the level of world regions. In order to understand the reorganization of oil refining and basic petrochemical production in Western Europe, it is necessary to explore the recent aggregate dynamics of these activities on a global scale. Second, the differences in strategic behaviour are exanuned at the level of groups of market participants, namely the major oil companies, the chemical companies, the state-owned companies from both consumer and producer countries, and the independents. Finally, the investment/disinvestment decisions in the Western European oil refining and basic petrochemical industry are investigated at the level of the individual firm. Particular emphasis is placed upon explaining why companies active in the sectors under study have followed different strategies, although they have been confronted with similar adverse market conditions in Western Europe during the last decades. 341 refs

  9. Respiratory Disorders Associated with Occupational Inhalational Exposure to Bioaerosols among Wastewater Treatment Workers of Petrochemical Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Jahangiri, M; Neghab, M; G Nasiri; M Aghabeigi; V Khademian; Rostami, R.; V Kargar; J Rasooli

    2015-01-01

    Background: Workers in wastewater treatment plants are exposed to a wide range of chemicals as well as biological contaminants.Objective: To ascertain whether exposure to bio-aerosols under the normal working conditions in wastewater treatment plants is associated with any significant changes in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lung function capacities.Methods: 198 employees of wastewater treatment plants and 99 unexposed persons were studied. American thoracic society (ATS) standar...

  10. The Assessment of Heat Stress and Heat Strain in Pardis Petrochemical Complex, Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Golbabaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is well recognized among the hazardous physical agents that might be present during work. This study aims to compare WBGT index at acclimated and unacclimated people to permissible threshold limit value and study the differences between physiological parameters at them. Twenty one healthy men were participated in the study. All of the subjects were monitored in two different weather and working conditions: the Kar site (the work site and the Paziresh site (the office site. A set of physiological and environmental parameters, namely heart rate, blood pressure, skin temperature and deep body temperature, dry temperature, wet natural temperatures, radiant temperature and relative humidity were measured and monitored simultaneously. The acclimated subjects were all of the ammonia-phase workers working in the hot-humid worksite. Other participants were selected from the work sites without risk of heat stress. Mean value of WBGT / TLV was less than one for the both acclimated and unacclimated groups at Paziresh site, while this value was more than one at Kar site and also mean of WBGT. For two groups, TWA / TLV were less than one during the working day. Mean physiological parameters were not significantly different between the acclimated and unacclimated subjects at both sites. However, physiological parameters such as heart rate and core body temperature showed statistically significant difference between two groups at Kar. Both groups of Paziresh were not exposed to heat stress, but Kar's operators continued work under conditions of heat stress.

  11. QUANTIFICATION OF FUGITIVE REACTIVE ALKENE EMISSIONS FROM PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS WITH PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SENUM,G.I.; DIETZ,R.N.

    2004-06-30

    Recent studies demonstrate the impact of fugitive emissions of reactive alkenes on the atmospheric chemistry of the Houston Texas metropolitan area (1). Petrochemical plants located in and around the Houston area emit atmospheric alkenes, such as ethene, propene and 1,3-butadiene. The magnitude of emissions is a major uncertainty in assessing their effects. Even though the petrochemical industry reports that fugitive emissions of alkenes have been reduced to less than 0.1% of daily production, recent measurement data, obtained during the TexAQS 2000 experiment indicates that emissions are perhaps a factor of ten larger than estimated values. Industry figures for fugitive emissions are based on adding up estimated emission factors for every component in the plant to give a total estimated emission from the entire facility. The dramatic difference between estimated and measured rates indicates either that calculating emission fluxes by summing estimates for individual components is seriously flawed, possibly due to individual components leaking well beyond their estimated tolerances, that not all sources of emissions for a facility are being considered in emissions estimates, or that there are known sources of emissions that are not being reported. This experiment was designed to confirm estimates of reactive alkene emissions derived from analysis of the TexAQS 2000 data by releasing perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) at a known flux from a petrochemical plant and sampling both the perfluorocarbon tracer and reactive alkenes downwind using the Piper-Aztec research aircraft operated by Baylor University. PFTs have been extensively used to determine leaks in pipelines, air infiltration in buildings, and to characterize the transport and dispersion of air parcels in the atmosphere. Over 20 years of development by the Tracer Technology Center (TTC) has produced a range of analysis instruments, field samplers and PFT release equipment that have been successfully deployed in a

  12. The hydrogen market in refining and petrochemicals in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The french hydrogen market on industrial sites can be divided into three main parts. Captive hydrogen is produced by thermofor catalytic reforming, catalytic cracking and hydrotreating of vacuum distillates, and is consumed in hydrotreating of petrol, hydrodesulfurization of gasoil and domestic fuel oil, hydrocracking and hydrofining of lubricants. By-product hydrogen is burnt in boilers and flare stacks. Merchant hydrogen is sold to users on the open market. Currently, thirteen refineries belonging to six companies produce 73 million tonnes of petroleum products each year in France and release annually a surplus of some 100,000 tonnes of hydrogen. The future of refining industry in France depends on the quality of the crude oil, the specific characteristics of the end products, and the developments in user markets. The refining process is likely to become more complex by 2005 with an increase in hydrogen requirements. Refineries could then undergo an annual deficit between 140,000 and 230,000 tonnes of hydrogen. The choice of the appropriate process to cover this shortfall depends mostly on oil companies strategy. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 3 diagrams

  13. An application of failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA to assess risks in petrochemical industry in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kangavari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemical industries have a high rate of accidents. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA is a systematic method and thus is capable of analyzing the risks of systems from concept phase to system disposal, detecting the failures in design stage, and determining the control measures and corrective actions for failures to reduce their impacts. The objectives of this research were to perform FMEA to identify risks in an Iranian petrochemical industry and determine the decrease of the risk priority number (RPN after implementation of intervention programs. This interventional study was performed at one petrochemical plant in Tehran, Iran in 2014. Relevant information about job categories and plant process was gathered using brainstorming techniques, fishbone diagram, and group decision making. The data were collected through interviews, observation, and documents investigations and was recorded in FMEA worksheets. The necessary corrective measures were performed on the basis of the results of initial FMEA. Forty eight failures were identified in welding unit by application of FMEA to assess risks. Welding processes especially working at height got the highest RPN. Obtained RPN for working at height before performing the corrective actions was 120 and the score was reduced to 96 after performing corrective measures. Calculated RPN for all processes was significantly reduced (p≤0.001 by implementing the corrective actions. Scores of RPN in all studied processes effectively decreased after performing corrective actions in a petrochemical industry. FMEA method is a useful tool for identifying risk intervention priorities and effectiveness in a studied petrochemical industry.

  14. Bioprospection and selection of bacteria isolated from environments contaminated with petrochemical residues for application in bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Vanessa S; Hollenbach, Emanuel B; Maboni, Franciele; Camargo, Flávio A O; Peralba, Maria do Carmo R; Bento, Fátima M

    2012-03-01

    The use of microorganisms with hydrocarbon degrading capability and biosurfactant producers have emerged as an alternative for sustainable treatment of environmental passives. In this study 45 bacteria were isolated from samples contaminated with petrochemical residues, from which 21 were obtained from Landfarming soil contaminated with oily sludge, 11 were obtained from petrochemical industry effluents and 13 were originated directly from oily sludge. The metabolization capability of different carbon sources, growth capacity and tolerance, biosurfactant production and enzymes detection were determined. A preliminary selection carried out through the analysis of capability for degrading hydrocarbons showed that 22% of the isolates were able to degrade all carbon sources employed. On the other hand, in 36% of the isolates, the degradation of the oily sludge started within 18-48 h. Those isolates were considered as the most efficient ones. Twenty isolates, identified based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, were pre-selected. These isolates showed ability for growing in a medium containing 1% of oily sludge as the sole carbon source, tolerance in a medium containing up to 30% of oily sludge, ability for biosurfactant production, and expression of enzymes involved in degradation of aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Five bacteria, identified as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila BB5, Bacillus megaterium BB6, Bacillus cibi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus BS20 were shown to be promising for use as inoculum in bioremediation processes (bioaugmentation) of areas contaminated with petrochemical residues since they can use oily sludge as the sole carbon source and produce biosurfactants. PMID:22805841

  15. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A.; Lance, P.E.; Downs, A.; Kier, Brian P. [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  16. Process improvement technology for petrochemical plant; Sekiyu kagaku puranto ni okesu purosesu kaizen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Shin

    1999-05-05

    Before, GTC technology Co. was a manufacturer of the tray as a Greenwich technology. It is the subsidiary, which undertakes technology and licence of the engineering firm in U.S.A. at present. It carries out besides the technology licence support in the startup for the prolonged driving of technical service, operating condition of the plant of improvement and optimization and, etc. Has made separation and purification technology, which made extractive distillation to be a beginning good and has the process improvement technology to the PTA (high-pure terephthalic acid) from BTX (benzene toluene xylene) of petrochemical plant. (NEDO)

  17. Treatment of petrochemical secondary effluent by an up-flow biological aerated filter (BAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L Y; Wu, C Y; Zhou, Y X; Zuo, J E; Ding, Y

    2016-01-01

    In this study, petrochemical secondary effluent was treated by a 55 cm diameter pilot-scale biological aerated filter (BAF) with a media depth of 220 cm. Volcanic rock grains were filled as the BAF media. Median removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) was 29.35 and 57.98%, respectively. Moreover, the removal profile of the COD, NH3-N, total nitrogen and total organic carbon demonstrated that the filter height of 140 cm made up to 90% of the total removal efficiency of the final effluent. By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, removal efficiencies of 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane, and benzonitrile, indene and naphthalene were obtained, ranging from 30.12 to 63.01%. The biomass and microbial activity of the microorganisms on the filter media were in general reduced with increasing filter height, which is consistent with the removal profile of the contaminants. The detected genera Defluviicoccus, Betaproteobacteria_unclassified and the Blastocatella constituted 1.86-6.75% of the identified gene, enhancing the COD and nitrogen removal in BAF for treating petrochemical secondary effluent. PMID:27120658

  18. Oil policies and privatization strategies in Mexico: implications for the petrochemical sector and its production spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through a retrospective analysis of Mexico's oil history, this work examines the privatization processes that occurred in the petrochemical sector, from the abolishment of the government's monopoly, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) during the 1980s, until the restructuring and open liberalization in the early 1990s, focusing on the areas incorporated to production processes, particularly along the Gulf coast. As a result of the industrial policies and regional development strategies promoted by the government from the sixties, oriented towards strengthening production in areas with the highest potential, attractive business investment areas were developed. These included southern Tamaulipas, a strategic region where a number of industrial factors facilitated access to raw materials at competitive prices, as well as their processing and distribution to local and international markets, all of these within a single location. The strategic nature of the petrochemical location and production have made southern Tamaulipas a key factor for the territorial shaping and industrial development linked to the behavior of transnational companies that, seeking comparative advantages, have relocated parts of their production capacity in this region

  19. New technology to reduce fugitive emissions in drilling, production and petrochemical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petroleum and petrochemical industry has embraced new technology to meet the fugitive emission standards by D.O.T., the E.P.A. and the various air pollution quality standards of the individual states. The regulatory agencies themselves have encouraged the use of this new technology. Fortunately, in the case of relief devices, required fugitive emission solutions are simple and cost effective. This paper reviews the limitations and problems of conventional rupture disc relief and of conventional spring loaded relief systems. A new technology, pioneered for NAM (Shell and Exxon) in Holland (1987), A.S.M.E. approved in 1990 code case number-sign 2091, is rapidly moving to solve fugitive emission problems in the drilling, production, and petrochemical fields using a simple, precise pin that acts as a mechanical flip-flop. The pin acts as a slender column. At a precise axial force, the pin buckles and a safety device is activated. The basic principle behind the Rupture Pin Safety System is simple. Hold a piston, subject to the system pressure, on seat by a pin that precisely senses axial force. When the axial force reaches a critical, exact value governed by Euler's Law, the pin buckles and the piston instantly moves to a full open position. The resulting Rupture Pin Device is precise, reliable, rugged and meets safety requirements

  20. Environmental values in the petrochemical industry: A Q-method study in South West Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghoochani Omid M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieving sustainable development in different regional and cultural contexts is dependent, in part, upon an understanding of key actors’ underlying environmental, social and economic values. The social research technique called Q-methodology presents an effective means to explore such values as a matter of discourse: revealing the typologies of stakeholder perspectives within a given debate. Q-method involves factor analysis of participant rank-ordered preselected statements on a topic. The resultant factors are then reinterpreted as social discourses. In this study we use Q-methodology to explore the environmental values of Health Safety and Environmental (HSE managers in petrochemical companies in Khuzestan province in southwest Iran. Khuzestan is a key region of petrochemical product development, with significant associated environmental pollution effects. Understanding HSE managers’ attitudes to environmental protection is of value in predicting broader environmental impacts to the region, given the relative importance of their role in regulating the environmental performance of this industry. Our results reveal four distinct and varied perspectives on environmental protection labelled: ‘Environmental stewardship’, ‘Environmental presentism’, ‘Technological optimism’ and ‘Enlightened anthropocentrism’. We then discuss how these four emergent perspectives correspond to broader environmental discourses as categorized by John Dryzek: i.e. green rationalism, economic rationalism, prometheanism and ecological modernization respectively.

  1. In-depth analysis of the causal factors of incidents reported in the Greek petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a statistical analysis of all reported incidents in the Greek petrochemical industry from 1997 to 2003. A comprehensive database has been developed to include industrial accidents (fires, explosions and substance releases), occupational accidents, incidents without significant consequences and near misses. The study concentrates on identifying and analyzing the causal factors related to different consequences of incidents, in particular, injury, absence from work and material damage. Methods of analysis include logistic regression with one of these consequences as dependent variable. The causal factors that are considered cover four major categories related to organizational issues, equipment malfunctions, human errors (of commission or omission) and external causes. Further analyses aim to confirm the value of recording near misses by comparing their causal factors with those of more serious incidents. The statistical analysis highlights the connection between the human factor and the underlying causes of accidents or incidents. - Highlights: → The research work is original, based on field data collected directly from the petrochemical industry. → It deals with the in-depth statistical analysis of accident data on human-organizational causes. → It researches underlying causes of accidents and the parameters affecting them. → The causal factors that are considered cover four big taxonomies. → Near misses are worth recording for comparing their causal factors with more serious incidents.

  2. Electromagnetic acoustic transducers for wall thickness applications in the petrochemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C.; Dixon, S.; Widdowson, A.; Palmer, S. B.

    2000-05-01

    Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) are now becoming widely used in the field, for example for boiler tube wall thickness surveys in Power Generation plant. In general EMATs work efficiently on steel components with a surface oxide layer, where the oxides can be residual mill scale from the steel manufacturing process due to in-service growth in boilers or chemical processing plant. Very often these oxides have rough surfaces and have to be removed prior to conventional ultrasonic inspection. This can be both time consuming and costly, in addition the removal of the protective oxide layer accelerates the future wall lose rate of the pipe or vessel. As well as the Power Generation application, EMATs can also be used for ultrasonic inspection of petrochemical tubulars without having to remove oxides giving the same associated benefits. This paper presents results obtained from laboratory trials of EMAT thickness monitoring of petrochemical plant pipe samples and real EMAT surveys carried out on-site on refinery plant. In parallel with the practical application of EMATs we are studying the underlying physics of operation with the aim of predicting the EMAT performance for steels with and without oxide layers.

  3. Petrochemical characteristics of leucogranite and a case study of Bensbu leucogranites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO SuShu; LI ShuGuang

    2009-01-01

    Leucogranites have a relatively narrow variation in SiO2 content (70.5%-75.5%). Giving similar SiO2 content, leucogranites have relatively higher Al2O3 (>13.5%) and lower TFeO + MgO (<2.5%) contents than those of normal granites. These petrochemical characteristics suggest that leucogranites are de-rived from partial melting at relatively low temperature and are not significantly affected by fractional crystallization. In the present study, we propose that the A2O3 vs SiO2 and TFeO + MgO vs SiO2 dia-grams can be used to distinguish leucogranites from normal granites. In addition, we report the major element compositions of the Jurassic granitic intrusions from Jingshan-Tushan-Mayishan in the Bengbu area, east-central China. Using the A2O3 vs SiO2 and TFeO + MgO vs SiO2 diagrams and the comparison with the High Himalayan leucogranites in mineralogical and petrochemical characteristics, we suggest that the Jingshan-Tushan-Mayishan intrusions belong to a leucogranite belt. Similar to those of the High Himalayan leucogranites, the Bengbu leucogranites have low Mg# values, indicating that they resulted from low temperature dehydration partial melting of the subducted continental crust of the South China Block at the crustal depth.

  4. Dynamic modeling of uncertainty in the planned values of investments in petrochemical and refining projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a large gap between the planned value of investment in a project and its financial implementation. This fact creates a mismatch between the planned and effectively achieved net present value (NPV) of the project. Considering the project portfolio of a company, this could even threaten your solvency in the future. Therefore, a quantitative-risk analysis that takes into account different possible scenarios for these values of investment is extremely important to measure statistically the real value of a project. The aim of this paper is to present the reasons for this mismatch between planned and executed investments and, from this study, obtain a suitable stochastic process to generate different scenarios for these investments in the oil industry. Although the results are valid for projects in the petrochemical and refining sector, also called in the oil industry as downstream, the methodology can be applied to the upstream or even other branches of industry. - Highlights: • We measure statistically the real value of an investment project. • We present the reasons for the mismatch between planned and executed investments. • We obtain a stochastic process to generate scenarios for oil industry investments. • Results are valid for projects in the petrochemical and refining sector, downstream. • The methodology can be applied to the upstream or even other branches of industry

  5. Job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour, employee engagement and intention to leave in a petrochemical laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonet van Schalkwyk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Engaging individuals at work plays an important role in retaining them. Job security and leadership empowerment behaviour are antecedents of employee engagement.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour (as perceived by the employees who report to leaders, employee engagement and intention to leave their jobs in a petrochemical laboratory.Motivation for the study: Knowledge of the effects of job insecurity and leadership on employee engagement and turnover intention will contribute to improved talent management.Research design, approach and method: A correlational design was used. A total of 169 employees in a petrochemical laboratory were studied. The measuring instruments included the Job Insecurity Index, the Leadership Empowerment Behaviour Questionnaire, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Two questions were used to measure intention to leave.Main findings: The results showed that job insecurity was not statistically significantly related to employee engagement and turnover intention. Leadership empowerment behaviour contributed statistically significantly to employee engagement and low turnover intention. Employee engagement partially mediated the relationship between leadership empowerment behaviour and turnover intention.Practical implications: Leaders should be developed to show empowerment behaviour, because it affects employee engagement, which in turn affects their turnover intentionContribution: This was the first study that demonstrated the effect of empowerment behaviour of leaders on the engagement and turnover intention of employees.

  6. Laboratory testing protocol for the impact of dispersed petrochemicals on seagrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Seagrass were exposed to dispersed and non-dispersed crude and fuel oil. ► Dispersed oil led to significant reductions in photosynthetic health of seagrass. ► Non-dispersed oil resulted in only minor reductions in seagrass health. ► Testing protocol developed enables rapid comparisons of oil spill mitigation options. - Abstract: To improve the effectiveness of oil spill mitigation, we developed a rapid, logistically simple protocol to detect petrochemical stress on seagrass. Sections of leaf blades from Zostera muelleri subsp. capricorni were exposed to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of non-dispersed and dispersed Tapis crude oil and fuel oil (IFO-380) for 5 h. Photosynthetic health was monitored by assessing changes in effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΔF/Fm′) and chlorophyll a pigment concentrations. Loss of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was measured using an oil-in-water fluorometer, whilst GC–MS analyses quantified the hydrocarbon components within each treatment. Few significant differences were detected in the chlorophyll a pigment analyses; however, ΔF/Fm′ appeared sensitive to petrochemical exposure. Dispersing both types of oil resulted in a substantial increase in the TPH of the WAF and was generally correlated with a greater physiological impact to the seagrass health, compared with the oil alone.

  7. Impact of Spiritual Intelligence on the Staff Happiness (Case Study: Golpayegan Petrochemical Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nasr Isfahani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Spiritual intelligence as a infrastructure of individuals beliefs, have a basic role in the various fields particularly in the promotion and provision of mental health and the other hand, importance of happiness in the mental health, physical health, efficiency and social participation are the most important priorities in the psychology. The aim of this study is investigation of relationship between spiritual intelligence and staff happiness of Golpayegan Petrochemical Company. This study is descriptive survey and of correlation branch with the functional nature. The statistical population includes employees of Golpayegan Petrochemical Company and questionnaire was used for data collection. Formal justifiability was used to determine questionnaire justifiability. Cronbach's alpha reliability amount of 94% was confirmed. In this study, software SPSS and AMOS was used for data analysis. Component of spiritual intelligence: transcendental consciousness, spiritual experience, patience and forgiveness were tested with the staff happiness and it is determined that there is a significant relationship between spiritual intelligence variable with the staff happiness variable.

  8. Feasibility Study of Implementing Process Safety Management (PSM Requirements in an Iranian Petrochemical Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Narimannejad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of good process safety management (PSM is widely considered as the most effective means of improving safety levels in process industries. This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of establishing and implementing PSM requirements based on Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18001 standards (OHSAS 18001 and Health, Safety and Environment management systems (HSE-MS in an Iranian petrochemical plant. Firstly, the requirements of PSM, OHSAS 18001 standards and HSE-MS were compared via literature review and their levels of agreement were determined. Next, the degree of implementation of PSM requirements at a selected petrochemical site was investigated. The study’s results show that PSM requirements complied with HSE-MS to a greater degree than with OHSAS 18001 standards. Although the plant studied had not yet formally applied process safety management requirements, based on the HSE-MS and OHSAS 18001 it had already applied, 67% of PSM requirements had in effect been put in place. By revising certain requirements of existing management systems, including PSM requirements in them, and providing the outstanding necessary documentation, this study concludes that the establishment of a PSM system in the plant is feasible.

  9. Comparative Life Cycle Studies on Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-Based Composites as Potential Replacement for Conventional Petrochemical Plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietrini, M.; Roes, A.L.; Patel, M.K.; Chiellini, E.

    2007-01-01

    A cradle-to-grave environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of a few poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) based composites has been performed and was compared to commodity petrochemical polymers. The end products studied are a cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor housing (conventionally produced from high-impact

  10. Developing Measures for Assessing the Causality of Safety Culture in a Petrochemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses safety culture in the petrochemical sector and the causes and consequences of safety culture. A sample of 520 responses selected by simple random sampling completed questionnaires for this survey, the return rate was 86.75%. The research instrument comprises four sections: basic information, the safety leadership scale (SLS), the safety climate scale (SCS), and the safety performance scale (SPS). SPSS 12.0, a statistical software package, was used for item analysis, validity analysis, and reliability analysis. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that (1) SLS abstracted three factors such as safety caring, safety controlling, and safety coaching; (2) SCS comprised three factors such as emergency response, safety commitment, and risk perception; and (3) SPS was composed of accident investigation, safety training, safety inspections, and safety motivation. We conclude that the SLS, SCS, and SPS developed in this paper have good construct validity and internal consistency and can serve as the basis for future research.

  11. Application of Olefin-Reducing Catalyst in FCC Unit at Daqing Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinfeng; Yang Daoxue; Zhang Guojing; Yao Hua

    2003-01-01

    This article refers to the application of DOCO olefin-reducing catalyst developed by RIPP and manufactured by the Catalyst Factory of Changling Refining and Chemical Company in the 1.4 Mt/a RFCCU at Daqing Petrochemical Company. Results of operation over two months had revealed that this catalyst had good olefin-reducing ability and heavy oil converting ability adapted to paraffinic feedstock. The gasoline olefin yield had been reduced to 36.1 v% from 54.2 v% with gasoline RON rating decreased by 1.4 units. The induction period of gasoline had significantly increased to 952 mm, while the coke yield was increased by 0.05 percentage point with light oil yield dropping by only 0.02 percentage point. The FCC product distribution is favorable.

  12. Modeling the Spill in the Songhua River after the Explosion in the Petrochemical Plant in Jilin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Wenjing; Fu, Huijin; Skøtt, Karen; Yang, Min

    2008-01-01

    An explosion in a petrochemical plant in Jilin in the northeast of China on 13 November 13 2005 was responsible for the discharge of large quantities of benzene and nitrobenzene into Songhua River. This endangered the water supply of Harbin city and influenced the daily life for millions of people....... The model results are quite close to the results obtained by measurements at monitoring stations. Arrival time of the pollutant wave, peak concentrations and end of the pollutant wave at Harbin and along the river were predicted successfully. The peak concentrations of nitrobenzene at Harbin were more...... than 30 times above the permissible limits for drinking water. This paper describes the distribution of benzene and nitrobenzene in the Songhua River after the accident in Jilin....

  13. Applying object technology principles to business reengineering in the oil, gas, and petrochemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil, gas, and petrochemical industries face a dilemma, to be financially competitive while complying with strict and expanding environmental, safety, and health regulation. Companies need new tools and techniques, indeed a completely new paradigm for organizing and performing work. They must build efficient and flexible business processes, ones that rely on advanced information systems for improved decision making and productivity. And they must adopt a culture of change and improvement to permit the business to change as the business climate changes. Fortunately, two industry developments are changing the traditional business paradigm in a dramatic way; business reengineering and object technology. Applying principles of object technology in the performance of business reengineering makes available a new form of business modeling that transforms the technique of modeling a business while directly supported the development of its enabling information systems. This modeling technique is called Object Modeling and is becoming an important force in improving business competitiveness

  14. An analysis of the inter-project knowledge transfer in the petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Müller Beuren

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a knowledge transfer (KT analysis in an operational project management environment of the petrochemical industry. The main objective of this paper is to identify the major barriers and to suggest improvements activities aiming to foster the KT process. To this end, interviews with members of the project department were conducted by means of a questionnaire. Results were analyzed to identify the most problematic barriers and to propose improvements. The study concluded that the greatest difficulties are related to the transfer of tacit knowledge between different teams. The main contribution of this paper is that it presents an analysis of an unexplored environment and it proposes an improvement of the adapted method for KT study, by using a relationship matrix between the questionnaire and the barriers, so that problems can be identified in an easier manner.

  15. SINOPEC's Countermeasure to Withstand the Impact on Petrochemical Industry after China's Accession to WTO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jianmin

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1 Profile of SINOPEC SINOPEC is the first Chinese company, which was listed in Hong Kong, New York, London and Shanghai. The business portfolio of SINOPEC covers oil exploration and development,petroleum refining, petrochemical and oil products marketing,with a total sales revenue of 324.2 billion RMB and a net profit of 22 billion RMB. SINOPEC is the second largest oil and gas producer in China and is also the biggest oil refiner of China with its crude processing capacity ranked number five in the world. With 24,000 wholly controlled gas stations and 4,127 authorized gas stations, SINOPEC owns an extensive oil products marketing network. It is the largest in China oil products distributor and sales company, and is ranked the sixth largest company in the world.

  16. The API methodology for risk-based inspection (RBI) analysis for the petroleum and petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one petroleum and petrochemical companies are currently sponsoring a project within the American Petroleum Institute (API) to develop risk-based inspection (RBI) methodology for application in the refining and petrochemical industry. This paper describes that particular RBI methodology and provides a summary of the three levels of RBI analysis developed by the project. Also included is a review of the first pilot project to validate the methodology by applying RBI to several existing refining units. The failure for pressure equipment in a process unit can have several undesirable effects. For the purpose of RBI analysis, the API RBI program categorizes these effects into four basic risk outcomes: flammable events, toxic releases, major environmental damage, and business interruption losses. API RBI is a strategic process, both qualitative and quantitative, for understanding and reducing these risks associated with operating pressure equipment. This paper will show how API RBI assesses the potential consequences of a failure of the pressure boundary, as well as assessing the likelihood (probability) of failure. Risk-based inspection also prioritizes risk levels in a systematic manner so that the owner-user can then plan an inspection program that focuses more resources on the higher risk equipment; while possibly saving inspection resources that are not doing an effective job of reducing risk. At the same time, if consequence of failure is a significant driving force for high risk equipment items, plant management also has the option of applying consequence mitigation steps to minimize the impact of a hazardous release, should one occur. The target audience for this paper is engineers, inspectors, and managers who want to understand what API Risk-Based Inspection is all about, what are the benefits and limitations of RBI, and how inspection practices can be changed to reduce risks and/or save costs without impacting safety risk. (Author)

  17. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Employees of Iranian Petrochemical Industries: October 2009 to December 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Haghayegh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs are a common health problem throughout the world and a major cause of disability in the workplace.Objective: To determine the prevalence rate of MSDs, assessment of ergonomics working conditions and identification of major risk factors associated with MSDs symptoms among employees of Iranian petrochemical industries between October 2009 and December 2012.Methods: In this study, we studied 1184 randomly selected employees of 4 Iranian petrochemical companies with at least one year of work experience in office or operational units. For those with office jobs, data were collected using Nordic Musculoskeletal disorders Questionnaire (NMQ and ergonomics checklist for the assessment of working conditions. For those with operational jobs, NMQ and Quick Exposure Check (QEC method were used for data collection.Results: The most prevalent MSD symptoms were reported in lower back (41.5% and neck (36.5%. The prevalence of MSDs in all body regions but elbows and thighs of the office staff was significantly higher than that of operational workers. Assessment of working conditions in office staff revealed that the lowest index was attributed to workstation. QEC technique among operational workers showed that in 73.8% of the workers studied, the level of exposure to musculoskeletal risks was “high” or “very high.” MSDs were associated with type of job, age, body mass index, work experience, gender, marital status, educational level and type of employment.Conclusion: The prevalence of MSDs in the office staff was higher than that of operational workers. Level of exposure to MSDs risk was high in operational workers. Corrective measures are thus necessary for improving working conditions for both office and operational units.

  18. [Application of Micro-aerobic Hydrolysis Acidification in the Pretreatment of Petrochemical Wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chen; Wu, Chang-yong; Zhou, Yue-xi; Fu, Xiao-yong; Chen, Xue-min; Qiu, Yan-bo; Wu, Xiao-feng

    2015-10-01

    Micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification technology was applied in the reconstruction of ananaerobic hydrolysis acidification tank in a north petrochemical wastewater treatment plant. After put into operation, the monitoring results showed that the average removal rate of COD was 11.7% when influent COD was 490.3-673.2 mg x L(-1), hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 24 and the dissolved oxygen (DO) was 0.2-0.35 mg x L(-1). In addition, the BOD5/COD value was increased by 12.4%, the UV254 removal rate reached 11.2%, and the VFA concentration was increased by 23.0%. The relative molecular weight distribution (MWD) results showed that the small molecule organic matter ( 100 x 10(3)) percentage was decreased from 31.8% to 14.0% after micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification. The aerobic biodegradation batch test showed that the degradation of petrochemical wastewater was significantly improved by the pretreatment of micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification. The COD of influent can be degraded to 102.2 mg x L(-1) by 48h aerobic treatment while the micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification effluent COD can be degraded to 71.5 mg x L(-1) on the same condition. The effluent sulfate concentration of micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification tank [(930.7 ± 60.1) mg x L(-1)] was higher than that of the influent [(854.3 ± 41.5) mg x L(-1)], indicating that sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) was inhibited. The toxic and malodorous gases generation was reduced with the improvement of environment. PMID:26841606

  19. The relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership styles in the South African petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Pillay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Although research on emotional intelligence in the context of leadership has remained a recurrent area of interest in theory and practice during the past decade, ongoing debate continues regarding the contribution of emotional intelligence to the understanding of leadership.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between self-reported emotional intelligence and leadership styles in a South African context and to determine whether emotional intelligence can predict an effective leadership style.Motivation for the study: Research is needed in order to determine a more detailed relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership in the dynamic and globalising South African petrochemical context.Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted in terms of a positivist paradigm, using quantitative research instruments. Leaders (N = 161 were selected from a business unit in a South African petrochemical organisation. Self-reports from the emotional quotient inventory and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ Form 5X, Version 2009 were analysed. Correlation analyses indicated statistically-significant relationships between emotional intelligence and transformational and laissez-faire leadership.Main findings: Findings indicated positive correlations between self-reported emotional intelligence (specifically adaptability and transformational leadership. Negative correlations were obtained between emotional intelligence (specifically intrapersonal skills and laissez-faire leadership. The research also showed differences between specific demographic variables.Practical/managerial implications: This study provides valuable significance for organisations’ endeavours in improving, training and identifying alternative selection and assessment procedures for evaluating leaders’ strengths.Contribution/value-add: This research contributes to the South African research on emotional

  20. [Study on the quantitative estimation method for VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks based on tanks 4.0.9d model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Shao, Xia

    2013-12-01

    VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks is one of the important emission sources in the petrochemical industry. In order to find out the VOCs emission amount of petrochemical storage tanks, Tanks 4.0.9d model is utilized to calculate the VOCs emission from different kinds of storage tanks. VOCs emissions from a horizontal tank, a vertical fixed roof tank, an internal floating roof tank and an external floating roof tank were calculated as an example. The consideration of the site meteorological information, the sealing information, the tank content information and unit conversion by using Tanks 4.0.9d model in China was also discussed. Tanks 4.0.9d model can be used to estimate VOCs emissions from petrochemical storage tanks in China as a simple and highly accurate method. PMID:24640914

  1. Green Chemistry, Green Engineering and Eco-Innovation Towards a More Sustainable Petrochemical Industry: Determinants of Brazilian Petrochemical Companies´ Engagement in GCE-Based Eco-Innovation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Freire da Silva, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ It is the general wisdom, within the petrochemical industrial sector, that technological changes, for the development of cleaner products, processes and services, is a basic requirement for companies to achieve advanced states of environmental and economic sustainability in the 21st century. It is also agreed that to innovate is essential for this industry make the necessary advancements and to reconcile the firms´ interests of being profitable, in the short-term,...

  2. The petrochemical industry versus the transformers. Allays or enemies?; A industria petroquimica versus transformadores. Aliados ou inimigos?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigner, Gabriel [Girassol Industria e Comercio de Plasticos Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    The existing different realities between the two companies environment focused, on one side the big petrochemical plants and on the other side, the transformer ones, most of them small and middle companies produces unlike views in terms of the management of these companies. The present economical conjuncture requires an urgent alteration of this procedure, in order to favour improvements in rentability and competitivity in both segments, as well as to provide a more adjusted basis of business expansion and development. (author)

  3. Proceedings of the 3. International conference on waste management in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Volume 1 and 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Francisco F.; Pereira Filho, Francisco A.; Almeida, Sergio A.S. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    To produce without pollution is today a mandate for the preservation of our society. To produce cleaner means to conserve energy and natural resources, to reduce the use of toxic substances, to invest in the evolution of products and production processes towards a minimum of residues. The Third International Conference on Waste Minimization in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries addresses these challenging questions regarding waste minimization

  4. Industrial cluster governance in a developing country context: evidence from the petrochemical sector in the Mexican state of Veracruz

    OpenAIRE

    Duhalt Gomez, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    This thesis combines analysis of the political economy of Mexico with the global value chain approach to study the trajectory of the development of the Veracruz cluster and the governance structure of vertical inter-firm relationships in the locality. The petrochemical cluster located in the state of Veracruz is formed by a pool of state-owned and local private companies and is arguably the largest agglomeration of industrial firms in southern Mexico. These firms are linked to one another ...

  5. Analysing value-based management as decision-making tool in a petrochemical company / Zonwabele Zweli Tom

    OpenAIRE

    Tom, Zonwabele Zweli

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate the understanding of value – based management (VBM) as a decision making tool, how it is embraced in all management levels and its impact on the performance of a petrochemical company. The application of VBM links business strategy, finance, performance management and management processes all together to create value. VBM is a powerful management framework with the aim to focus all managerial processes on shareholder value creation. It encourages employees at all...

  6. A study on the effect of recent financial turmoil on performance of petrochemical industries: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Babak Eslami; Mohammad Hemmati; Fatemeh Namvar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study to investigate the effect of world’s financial turmoil on performance of petrochemical firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE). The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 87 selected people from 250 existing experts who were active in TSE. The study considers four groups of questions associated with liquidity ratios, operating ratios, leverage and profitability ratios. The questions consider whether financial turmoil has influenc...

  7. Pyrolysis and oxy-fuel combustion characteristics and kinetics of petrochemical wastewater sludge using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbiao; Mu, Lin; Cai, Jingcheng; Yao, Pikai; Song, Xigeng; Yin, Hongchao; Li, Aimin

    2015-12-01

    The pyrolysis and oxy-fuel combustion characteristics of petrochemical wastewater sludge (PS) were studied in air (O2/N2) and oxy-fuel (O2/CO2) atmospheres using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Pyrolysis experiments showed that the weight loss profiles were almost similar up to 1050K in both N2 and CO2 atmospheres, while further weight loss took place in CO2 atmosphere at higher temperatures due to char-CO2 gasification. Compared with 20%O2/80%N2, the drying and devolatilization stage of PS were delayed in 20%O2/80%CO2 due to the differences in properties of the diluting gases. In oxy-fuel combustion experiments, with O2 concentration increasing, characteristic temperatures decreased, while characteristic combustion rates and combustion performance indexes increased. Kinetic analysis of PS decomposition under various atmospheres was performed using Coats-Redfern approach. The results indicated that, with O2 concentration increasing, the activation energies of Step 1 almost kept constant, while the values of subsequent three steps increased. PMID:26386413

  8. Effects of Shift Work on Cognitive Performance, Sleep Quality, and Sleepiness among Petrochemical Control Room Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Reza; Haidarimoghadam, Rashid; Motamedzadeh, Majid; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Soltanian, Alireza; Zoghipaydar, Mohamad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is associated with both sleepiness and reduced performance. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive performance, sleepiness, and sleep quality among petrochemical control room shift workers. Sixty shift workers participated in this study. Cognitive performance was evaluated using a number of objective tests, including continuous performance test, n-back test, and simple reaction time test; sleepiness was measured using the subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS); and sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. ANCOVA, t-test, and repeated-measures ANOVA were applied for statistical analyses, and the significance level was set at p cognitive performance, except for omission error, significantly decreased at the end of both day and night shifts (p cycle of sleep, induced cognitive performance decline at the end of both day and night shifts, and increased sleepiness in night shift. It, thus, seems necessary to take ergonomic measures such as planning for more appropriate shift work and reducing working hours. PMID:27103934

  9. Mineralkogical and Petrochemical Characterisitics and Genesis of Laoniugou Geneiss in Jiapigou Gold Mine,Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓明; 徐克勤; 等

    1992-01-01

    Detailed mineralogical and petrochemical studies show that the Laoniugou gneiss of the Jiapigou gold mine is composed mainly of plagioclase gneiss and irregular to lentiform plagioclase amphibolite melanic enclaves.The major element contents show an obvious bimodal and trondhjemitic series evolutional trend.This situation is significantly different from that encountered in bimodal calc-alkalic volcanic rocks in the rift-type Archaean greenstone belt.The contents of Rb,Sr and Ba are 7-21 ppm,153-363ppm and 201-1451 ppm respectively ,close to those of common Archaean grey gneisses.All the samples of plagioclase gneisses show positive Eu anomalies (even up to 4.6).The protoliths of the plagioclase gneiss are high-Al2O3 trondhjemitic series rocks,belonging to typical TTG of Archaean high-grade metamorphic terrain .The gneiss is quite similar to the B-type Amitsoq gneiss of W.Greenland .The authors believe that the plagioclase amphibolite enclaves are the relics of ancient oceanic crust while the plagioclase gneiss is the TTG ancient intrusive rock resulting from partial melting of the oceanic crust.

  10. Occupational Stress and Mental Health of Employees of a Petrochemical Company before and after Privatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mahdad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many countries make many of their governmental sectors private. This transition, however, may affect their employees in numerous ways.Objective: To determine the level of occupational stress and mental health of employees of a petrochemical company in Isfahan, Central Iran, before and 3 months after privatization.Methods: Out of the 700 employees of the studied company, using a stratified random sampling technique, 140 persons were selected. We used Steinmetz occupational stress and GHQ-28 questionnaires to determine the level of stress and mental health status of participants.Results: The reliability of the questionnaires used was acceptable (Chronbach alpha coefficients: 0.85 and 0.86, respectively. Job stress level was significantly increased 3 months after privatization; the mean±SD job stress score before and after privatization were 22.9±10.43 and 28.3±12.25, respectively (p<0.001. The mean±SD mental health score after privatization (17.57±11.63 was also significantly (p<0.001 higher than that before the privatization (13.8±6.0. There was a significant (p<0.001 positive correlation between the mental health status score and job score (r=0.476.Conclusion: After privatization, the job stress of employees increased significantly. This increase was associated with a decrease in mental health. To lessen the side effects of privatization, the process should be performed cautiously.

  11. Removal of phenolic compounds from the petrochemical effluent with a methanogenic consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specific petrochemical effluent was treated with a methanogenic consortium enriched for its ability to degrade phenolic compounds. The aim of using a well defined consortium, rather than undefined anaerobic sludges, was an interest in isolation of the bacterium responsible for the initial transformation of phenol into benzoic acid. The effluent was determined, and the degradation of the phenol was followed while the consortium was adapted by successive transfers in serum bottles with increasing concentrations of effluent. An assessment was made of the significance of some of the culture medium components on phenol removal. A study was carried out, after developing an upflow fixed-film anaerobic bioreactor, of the degradation of the various phenolic compounds present in two different batches of the same specific chemical effluent. The toxicity of batch A effluent was reduced by a factor of 2 after being treated in in the bioreactor, which is partially due to phenol and o-cresol removal. The biofilm was still active after exposure to the more concentrated and toxic B effluent, as evidenced by the the excellent phenol removal obtained with this effluent. Gas production was observed after exposure of the biofilm to effluent B, which showed that the methanogenic bacteria was still active. While there are other more efficient biological means for treating global petroleum refinery wastewaters, the anaerobic reactor indicates a good potential for the treatment of phenolic compounds in this specific effluent for the improvement of, at low cost, an existing wastewater treatment process. 25 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Technology transfer through a network of standard methods and recommended practices - The case of petrochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Karvounis, Sotirios

    2012-12-01

    Technology transfer may take place in parallel with cooperative action between companies participating in the same organizational scheme or using one another as subcontractor (outsourcing). In this case, cooperation should be realized by means of Standard Methods and Recommended Practices (SRPs) to achieve (i) quality of intermediate/final products according to specifications and (ii) industrial process control as required to guarantee such quality with minimum deviation (corresponding to maximum reliability) from preset mean values of representative quality parameters. This work deals with the design of the network of SRPs needed in each case for successful cooperation, implying also the corresponding technology transfer, effectuated through a methodological framework developed in the form of an algorithmic procedure with 20 activity stages and 8 decision nodes. The functionality of this methodology is proved by presenting the path leading from (and relating) a standard test method for toluene, as petrochemical feedstock in the toluene diisocyanate production, to the (6 generations distance upstream) performance evaluation of industrial process control systems (ie., from ASTM D5606 to BS EN 61003-1:2004 in the SRPs network).

  13. Petrochemical wastewater treatment with a pilot-scale bioaugmented biological treatment system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In solving the deterioration of biological treatment system treating petrochemical wastewater under low temperatures,bioaugmentation technology was adopted by delivering engineering bacteria into a pilot-scale two-stage anoxic-oxic (A/O)process based on previous lab-scale study. Experimental results showed that when the concentrations of COD and NH4+-N of the influent were 370~910 mg/L and 10~70 mg/L, the corresponding average concentrations of those of effluent were about 80 mg/L and 8 mg/L respectively, which was better than the Level I criteria of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996). According to GC-MS analysis of the effluents from both the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the pilot system, there were 68 kinds of persistent organic pollutants in the WWTP effluent, while there were only 32 in that of the pilot system. In addition, the amount of the organics in the effluent of the pilot system reduced by almost 50% compared to that of the WWTP. As a whole, after bioaugmentation, the organic removal efficiency of the wastewater treatment system obviously increased.

  14. DI-(2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION BY FENTON PROCESS IN SYNTHETIC AND REAL PETROCHEMICAL WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Esmaeli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Di-(2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP belongs to the class of phthalate esters and is used as an additive in many products including plastics, paints and inks or as a solvent in industrial formulations. The degradation of DEHP in aqueous solution using oxidative Fenton reaction (H2O2/Fe2+ was carried out in this study. It was found that H2O2 concentration, Fe2+ concentration, and pH were the three main factors that could significantly influence the degradation rates of DEHP. The highest degradation percentage (85.6 % of DEHP was observed within 60 min at pH 3 in H2O2/Fe2+ system. The results of our study suggested that the concentration with 90 mg/L H2O2, 5 mg/L Fe2+, and 20 mg/L DEHP in the solution at pH 3 were the optimal conditions. The optimized reaction parameters were preceded for treatment of real wastewater obtained from a petrochemical plant.

  15. Design issues of a reinforcement-based self-learning fuzzy controller for petrochemical process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, John; Wang, Haojin; Daugherity, Walter C.

    1992-01-01

    Fuzzy logic controllers have some often-cited advantages over conventional techniques such as PID control, including easier implementation, accommodation to natural language, and the ability to cover a wider range of operating conditions. One major obstacle that hinders the broader application of fuzzy logic controllers is the lack of a systematic way to develop and modify their rules; as a result the creation and modification of fuzzy rules often depends on trial and error or pure experimentation. One of the proposed approaches to address this issue is a self-learning fuzzy logic controller (SFLC) that uses reinforcement learning techniques to learn the desirability of states and to adjust the consequent part of its fuzzy control rules accordingly. Due to the different dynamics of the controlled processes, the performance of a self-learning fuzzy controller is highly contingent on its design. The design issue has not received sufficient attention. The issues related to the design of a SFLC for application to a petrochemical process are discussed, and its performance is compared with that of a PID and a self-tuning fuzzy logic controller.

  16. Microbial surfactant activities from a petrochemical landfarm in a humid tropical region of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, B.M.; Dias, J.C.T.; Santos, A.C.F.; Argolo-Filho, R.C.; Fontana, R.; Loguercio, L.L.; Rezende, R.P. [Univ. Estadual de Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2007-08-15

    Studies have suggested that biosurfactants can enhance the biodegradation of almost insoluble organics by increasing cell uptake availability. In this study, micro-organisms were isolated from a soil sample from a Brazilian petrochemical waste landfarm and grown in petroleum as a carbon source in order to assess their surfactant potential. Isolated colonies were inoculated into tubes, and a drop-collapse method was used to select micro-organisms with surfactant activity. Surfactant activity of the isolates was assessed when the activity was detected for the first time in each culture. The supernatant of each micro-organism was then diluted. The surfactant activity of each dilution was then observed via micelles formation. DNA was then extracted from the samples. A total of 60 microbial strains were selected. Results showed that a variety of petroleum-grown micro-organisms obtained from the landfarm soil showed surfactant activity. Results showed that the micro-organisms were able to use petroleum as a sole carbon source. The production of surfactant compounds occurred during the declining stages of microbial culture curves, which suggested that the nutritional stress achieved on the fourth day of the culture induced the synthesis and secretion of biosurfactants by the isolates. It was concluded that micro-organisms derived from soils polluted with hydrocarbons can be used in bioremediation processes. 21 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. The Cenelec EEx'e' concept in oil and petrochemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although a long established practice throughout Europe initially covered by the individual standards of what is now the European community and now harmonized under Cenelec (Comite Europeen de Normalisation Electrotechnique) under standards EN 50-014-039 the EEx'e' concept for hazardous atmospheres is little known, little understood and, because of differing standards, little used on the North American Continent. This is a pity because the application of the concept can make the engineering design of an oil or petrochemical plant, oil-rig etc. simpler and more cost-effective in that zone classification can be significantly less onerous, cheaper and virtually maintenance free apparatus can be used. This means, particularly on offshore oil and gas platforms that substantial savings in cost can be effected by means of the possible top-side weight reduction achieved by its use. These factors which are to the benefit of all should no longer be ignored by the major oil producing companies and the many competent engineers, consultants and contractors who serve them. References, figures, and bibliography appear at the end of the paper

  18. Conversion of carbon dioxide to valuable petrochemicals:An approach to clean development mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farnaz Tahriri Zangeneh; Saeed Sahebdelfar; Maryam Takht Ravanchi

    2011-01-01

    The increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global warming due to its greenhouse effect resulted in worldwide concerns. On the other hand, carbon dioxide might be considered as a valuable and renewable carbon source. One approach to reduce carbon dioxide emissions could be its capture and recycle via transformation into chemicals using the technologies in C1 chemistry. Despite its great interest, there are difficulties in CO2 separation on the one hand, and thermodynamic stability of carbon dioxide molecule rendering its chemical activity low on the other hand. Carbon dioxide has been already used in petrochemical industries for production of limited chemicals such as urea.The utilization of carbon dioxide does not necessarily involve development of new processes, and in certain processes such as methanol synthesis and methane steam reforming, addition of CO2 into the feed results in its utilization and increases carbon efficiency. In other cases,modifications in catalyst and/or processes, or even new catalysts and processes, are necessary. In either case, catalysis plays a crucial role in carbon dioxide conversion and effective catalysts are required for commercial realization of the related processes. Technologies for CO2 utilization are emerging after many years of research and development efforts.

  19. In situ impact of petrochemicals on the photosynthesis of the seagrass Zostera capricorni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used photosynthetic activity (measured as chlorophyll a fluorescence) and photosynthetic pigment concentrations to assess the effect of pulsed exposures of aged crude oil (Champion Crude), dispersant (VDC) and an oil + dispersant mixture on the seagrass Zostera capricorni Aschers in laboratory and field experiments, using custom-made chambers. Samples were exposed for 10 h to 0.25% and 0.1% concentrations of aged crude oil and dispersant as well as mixtures of 0.25% oil + 0.05% dispersant and 0.1% oil + 0.02% dispersant. During this time and for the subsequent four day recovery period, the maximum and effective quantum yields of photosystem II (Fv/Fm and ΔF/Fm' respectively) were measured. In the laboratory experiments, both values declined in response to oil exposure and remained low during the recovery period. Dispersant exposure caused a decline in both values during the recovery period, while the mixture of aged crude oil + dispersant had little impact on both quantum yields. In situ samples were less sensitive than laboratory samples, showing no photosynthetic impact due to dispersant and oil + dispersant mixture. Despite an initial decline in ΔF/Fm', in situ oil-exposed samples recovered by the end of the experiment. Chlorophyll pigment analysis showed only limited ongoing impact in both laboratory and field situations. This study suggests that laboratory experiments may overestimate the ongoing impact of petrochemicals on seagrass whilst the dispersant VDC can reduce the impact of oil on seagrass photosynthesis

  20. In situ impact of petrochemicals on the photosynthesis of the seagrass Zostera capricorni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macinnis-Ng, Catriona M.O.; Ralph, Peter J

    2003-11-01

    We used photosynthetic activity (measured as chlorophyll a fluorescence) and photosynthetic pigment concentrations to assess the effect of pulsed exposures of aged crude oil (Champion Crude), dispersant (VDC) and an oil + dispersant mixture on the seagrass Zostera capricorni Aschers in laboratory and field experiments, using custom-made chambers. Samples were exposed for 10 h to 0.25% and 0.1% concentrations of aged crude oil and dispersant as well as mixtures of 0.25% oil + 0.05% dispersant and 0.1% oil + 0.02% dispersant. During this time and for the subsequent four day recovery period, the maximum and effective quantum yields of photosystem II (Fv/Fm and {delta}F/Fm{sup '} respectively) were measured. In the laboratory experiments, both values declined in response to oil exposure and remained low during the recovery period. Dispersant exposure caused a decline in both values during the recovery period, while the mixture of aged crude oil + dispersant had little impact on both quantum yields. In situ samples were less sensitive than laboratory samples, showing no photosynthetic impact due to dispersant and oil + dispersant mixture. Despite an initial decline in {delta}F/Fm{sup '}, in situ oil-exposed samples recovered by the end of the experiment. Chlorophyll pigment analysis showed only limited ongoing impact in both laboratory and field situations. This study suggests that laboratory experiments may overestimate the ongoing impact of petrochemicals on seagrass whilst the dispersant VDC can reduce the impact of oil on seagrass photosynthesis.

  1. Strategies for the development of Quebec`s petrochemical industry: education and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, J.A. [Canadian Chemical Producer`s Association (Canada)

    1992-12-31

    One of the key challenges not only for the Quebec but for the Canadian petrochemical industry will be the challenge to increase the number of students pursuing science or engineering as fields of study. According to this author, there is a crisis in science and technology education in Canada. The ability of Canadian students to compete with their peers around the world is steadily diminishing as a result of the undue emphasis on student attitudes and self-esteem in Canadian schools, as opposed to European and Asian schools which focus on conveying specific skills. He advocates a shift in attitude away from simply more money spent on education towards concern with what and how well students are learning. It was suggested that the educational system must take into account the demands of the market place in fashioning the curricula. If students are to function in the real world where performance is evaluated, the educational system will have to change to reflect the fact that the market and society reward people in proportion to their contribution. The relationship between environmental concern and education was also explored, and the inclusion of environmental issues in the classroom curriculum was recommended. As a topic for curricula, the environment is subject to broad-ranging and often conflicting views regarding its problems and their causes, effects and remedies. Nevertheless, it is not a transient issue to be dismissed as a fad. Rather, it is an issue here to stay, hence it should play a more formalized role at all levels of the curriculum from primary schools to colleges and universities.

  2. Strategies for the development of Quebec's petrochemical industry: education and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the key challenges not only for the Quebec but for the Canadian petrochemical industry will be the challenge to increase the number of students pursuing science or engineering as fields of study. According to this author, there is a crisis in science and technology education in Canada. The ability of Canadian students to compete with their peers around the world is steadily diminishing as a result of the undue emphasis on student attitudes and self-esteem in Canadian schools, as opposed to European and Asian schools which focus on conveying specific skills. He advocates a shift in attitude away from simply more money spent on education towards concern with what and how well students are learning. It was suggested that the educational system must take into account the demands of the market place in fashioning the curricula. If students are to function in the real world where performance is evaluated, the educational system will have to change to reflect the fact that the market and society reward people in proportion to their contribution. The relationship between environmental concern and education was also explored, and the inclusion of environmental issues in the classroom curriculum was recommended. As a topic for curricula, the environment is subject to broad-ranging and often conflicting views regarding its problems and their causes, effects and remedies. Nevertheless, it is not a transient issue to be dismissed as a fad. Rather, it is an issue here to stay, hence it should play a more formalized role at all levels of the curriculum from primary schools to colleges and universities

  3. On-line, real-time monitoring for petrochemical and pipeline process control applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Russell D.; Eden, D.C.; Cayard, M.S.; Eden, D.A.; Mclean, D.T. [InterCorr International, Inc., 14503 Bammel N. Houston, Suite 300, Houston Texas 77014 (United States); Kintz, J. [BASF Corporation, 602 Copper Rd., Freeport, Texas 77541 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Corrosion problems in petroleum and petrochemical plants and pipeline may be inherent to the processes, but costly and damaging equipment losses are not. With the continual drive to increase productivity, while protecting both product quality, safety and the environment, corrosion must become a variable that can be continuously monitored and assessed. This millennium has seen the introduction of new 'real-time', online measurement technologies and vast improvements in methods of electronic data handling. The 'replace when it fails' approach is receding into a distant memory; facilities management today is embracing new technology, and rapidly appreciating the value it has to offer. It has offered the capabilities to increase system run time between major inspections, reduce the time and expense associated with turnaround or in-line inspections, and reduce major upsets which cause unplanned shut downs. The end result is the ability to know on a practical basis of how 'hard' facilities can be pushed before excessive corrosion damage will result, so that process engineers can understand the impact of their process control actions and implement true asset management. This paper makes reference to use of a online, real-time electrochemical corrosion monitoring system - SmartCET 1- in a plant running a mostly organic process media. It also highlights other pertinent examples where similar systems have been used to provide useful real-time information to detect system upsets, which would not have been possible otherwise. This monitoring/process control approach has operators and engineers to see, for the first time, changes in corrosion behavior caused by specific variations in process parameters. Process adjustments have been identified that reduce corrosion rates while maintaining acceptable yields and quality. The monitoring system has provided a new window into the chemistry of the process, helping chemical engineers improve their process

  4. The Sarnia complex: synergies and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to examine ways in which the oil refiners and petrochemical producers in the Sarnia Complex in Ontario could become more competitive with their counterparts in the United States through joint actions. Methods by which the petroleum industry could meet the challenges posed by changing environmental regulations were proposed. Five suggestions were advanced, i. e., (1) increase pipeline capacity and reduce refining and petrochemical feedstock shipping costs to Ontario, (2) joint ventures in existing or new facilities to produce higher value products, mainly petrochemicals, (3) major joint process integrations involving investment in significant new facilities to meet demand growth and maximize value of the product slate, (4) major joint process integrations to manufacture cleaner fuels, and (5) joint services and utilities integration. Of the joint actions identified by experts, those which were judged to be most plausible and had the greatest profit potential were: further cogeneration, distillate desulfurization, hydrogen production and pipelining, cryogenic recovery of light ends, styrene production and sharing services and utilities.68 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs

  5. Risk of Respiratory Health Impairment among Sus¬ceptible Population Living near Petrochemical Indus¬try- A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Ashikin SOPIAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Petrochemical industry emits air pollutants in abundance, which may harm human health, especially the population living near the industry. Children are reported to be the population group of main concern since this susceptible population spends the majority of their time outdoors and their active lifestyle can increase their breathing rate, which then leads to a greater inhalation dose of air pollutants and greater risk of health effects.Method: The materials for this review were obtained from several on-line databases such as PubMed, Proquest, Scopus and Science Direct (year 1990-2015. In this review, we highlighted several relevant studies on respiratory health effects from petrochemical air pollutant exposure among children living in the neighborhood and highlighted the factors, which contributed to the severity of the health outcomes.Results: Short term petrochemical air pollutant exposure increases respiratory symptom, reduces lung function and incidence of asthma especially for those who living within 5 km radius from the industry.Conclusion: This review will provide a compilation of potential respiratory health outcomes that arises from the inhalation of petrochemical air pollutants among children. Keywords: Petrochemical industry, Respiratory health effects, Children

  6. Environmental Risk Assessment of the Olefin plant in Arya Sasol Petrochemical Complex using Fault Tree Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Jozi

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: Most likely occurrence of the final event was related to the gasket unsuitable material (2×10-2. Control action to prevent the occurrence of leakage could be supplying high quality gaskets and the failure is classified in the hardware failure category.

  7. System for alarms analysis and optimization in petrochemicals plants; Sistema para analise e otimizacao de alarmes em plantas petroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, Gustavo; Pifer, Aderson; Guedes, Luiz Affonso [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Saito, Kaku; Aquino, Leonardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The present work presents a group of algorithms, techniques and functionalities on alarms management which can be used efficiently on the treatment of 'disturbances' caused by the informal management of the alarm systems. Among the disturbances handled by these techniques, there is the recognition of intermittent alarms and false alarms, location of alarm floods and correlation between alarms, aiming the identification of communal root causes. The results will be presented through a case study on petrochemical alarm plants. At last, the results obtained by the utilization of such functionalities will be presented and discussed. (author)

  8. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  9. Perceptions of Private Sector towards the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register: A Case Study on Petrochemical Industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, Rayong, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Kondo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 as well as other international agreements, Thailand is currently in the process of adopting the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR through a pilot project in Rayong province with assistance from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA. This research aimed to study perceptions of private sector towards the PRTR through a case study on petrochemical industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate. Through semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews, the study found that the petrochemical industry viewed that benefits of the PRTR for the government and civil society is quite clear, while each petrochemical company has different understanding on such benefit for private sector to be as sustainable industrial management. Various incentive measures and concerns on the PRTR were also indicated in this study.

  10. Challenges and Development Opportunities for Catalytic Technologies in Petrochemical Industry in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-ling

    2004-01-01

    The propellent drive and development opportunities for future catalytic technologies in petrochemical industry in the 21st century are reviewed in this paper. It focuses on the following five aspects:(1) The environmentally-friendly catalytic technologies, such as new technologies for the production of organic chemicals changing the raw material and synthetic process, the chemicals production replacing phosgene and hydrogen cyanide toxicant, and the conversion and utilization of organic wastes etc.(2) Utilization and development of cheaper light alkanes, for example, the chemical use of natural gas and the development technologies of methane chain, the production of acetic acid, ethylene and vinyl chloride from selective oxidation of ethane, as well as the manufacture of acrolein and acrylonitrile from the oxidation and ammoxidation of propane.(3) The new propylene-plus technologies of the low value higher olefins, such as catalytic cracking of C4,C5 olefins and metathesis of C4 olefin.(4) The technologies of high selective oxidation, e.g. production of propylene oxide with TS-1 molecular sieve, oxidation process by lattice oxygen and direct oxidation of benzene to phenol etc.(5) Development and application of novel catalytic materials, especially, mesopore molecular sieve materials for a larger molecule reaction, zeolite catalyst with MWW structure for alkylation of benzene and propylene, ionic liquid, and membrane reactor catalyst etc.Meanwhile,the challenging research subjects for future industrial catalysis and the several viewpoints for development strategy of new catalytic technologies are proposed. These viewpoints are as follows:(1) Catalysis discipline must be integrated with many other disciplines and should be multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary.(2) New preparation methods of catalytic materials must be originally developed.(3) The instrumentation having better time resolution and spatial resolution and applying under reaction conditions must be

  11. Detection and reduction of diffuse liquid and gas emissions in chemical and petrochemical industries; Ermittlung und Verminderung diffuser fluessiger und gasfoermiger Emissionen in der chemischen und petrochemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppke, K.E. [Witten-Herdecke Univ. gGmbH, Witten (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Management; Cuhls, C. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik

    2002-09-01

    In order to improve environmental protection, VOC emissions from diffuse sources are of growing importance. For the first time in Germany the present research report gives a detailed presentation of: constructive measures for the avoidance and reduction of diffuse emissions, adequate assembling procedures for equipments and installations, technical possibilities of leak detection and, different methods for the estimation of total emissions from chemical and petrochemical production plants. On the basis of own investigations and monitoring measures taken at various plants of chemical and petrochemical industries different measuring techniques for leak detection as well as methods for the estimation of total emissions from diffuse sources are analysed and their limits are described. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of DI, WBGT, and SWreq/PHS Heat Stress Indices for Estimating the Heat Load on the Employees of a Petrochemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMADREZA MONAZZAM; FARIDEH GOLBABAEI; RASOUL HEMATJO; MOSTAFA HOSSEINI; PARVIN NASSIRI; SOMAYEH FAHANG-DEHGHAN

    2015-01-01

     Heat stress is a common occupational health hazard at outdoor workplaces especially in a hot-humid climate. Overheating of the body can cause a number of problems, including heat rash, heat cramps, dizziness, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke. The present study aimed to assess heat stress indices including DI, WBGT, and SWreq/PHS, as a mean to estimate the heat load on the employees of a petrochemical industry. The study was conducted in Pardis Petrochemical Company. All of the ammonia-phase ...

  13. Surface modification of the core-shell type 198Au SiO2 Nano particles for an organic process media tracing study in refinery/petrochemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the surface of the Au SiO2 nano particle was modified from a hydrophilic type to hydrophobic by introducing 3,5-diphenylisocyanate in order to make use of the particle as a radiotracer in the flow dynamics study for petrochemical process units. The partitioning ratio of the hydrophobic particles between water and toluene was measured and compared as a function of time. It was observed that the partitioning ratio into an organic phase has been dramatically increased after the surface modification reaction. Consequently, the potential of its applicability to petrochemical: process diagnosis was enhanced

  14. Used solid catalysts from chemical and petrochemical industries; Les catalyseurs solides uses de l`industrie chimique et du raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    A comprehensive survey of the solid catalysts used in the chemical and petrochemical industries is presented; information on solid catalyst market demand prospective for 1998, the nature of solid catalysts used in the various industrial sectors and for the various chemical products production, the european catalysts manufacturers, solid catalyst poisons and inhibitors according to the various types of chemical reactions, mean compositions of used solid catalysts, an assessment of the volume of used solid catalysts generated by chemical and petrochemical industries, the various ways of solid catalyst regeneration and disposal, the potential for off-site regeneration of used catalysts, and French and European regulations, is presented

  15. The Reality of Project Management Office for Construction Organization in the Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Industry of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Izadpanah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the Project Management Office (PMO has become a prominent feature in many organizations. Despite the proliferation of PMO in practice, our understanding of this phenomenon remains sketchy at best. The objective of this study is describing the reality of PMOs for Construction Organization in the Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Industry of Iran at 2010 year. Nine major Iranian oil, gas and petrochemical organizations were participated in this survey. The study examines the reality of PMOs, the age of PMOs, the reason for their implementation and challenges during their implementation. Research concludes that PMO are a new concept and nearly 60% of PMOs have been in existence for 3 years. Monitoring project performance, supporting project management software tools and preparing project management methodology are the most used functions. Organizations are using PMOs to achieve the golden triangle project objectives (cost/time/quality. The study found that the most significant challenges in PMO implementation are the risk of changing organizational culture and the lack of professional staff.

  16. The use of lidar as optical remote sensors in the assessment of air quality near oil refineries and petrochemical sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Juliana; Landulfo, Eduardo; Guardani, Roberto; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudio A.; Moreira, Andréia

    2008-10-01

    Petrochemical and oil refining facilities play an increasingly important role in the industrial context. The corresponding need for monitoring emissions from these facilities as well as in their neighborhood has raised in importance, leading to the present tendency of creating real time data acquisition and analysis systems. The use of LIDAR-based techniques, both for air quality and emissions monitoring purposes is currently being developed for the area of Cubatao, Sao Paulo, one of the largest petrochemical and industrial sites in Brazil. In a partnership with the University of SÃ#o Paulo (USP) the Brazilian oil company PETROBRAS has implemented an Environmental Research Center - CEPEMA - located in the industrial site, in which the development of fieldwork will be carried out. The current joint R&D project focuses on the development of a real time acquisition system, together with automated multicomponent chemical analysis. Additionally, fugitive emissions from oil processing and storage sites will be measured, together with the main greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4), and aerosols. Our first effort is to assess the potential chemical species coming out of an oil refinery site and to verify which LIDAR technique, DIAL, Raman, fluorescence would be most efficient in detecting and quantifying the specific atmospheric emissions.

  17. Petrochemical variation of Topopah Spring tuff matrix with depth (stratigraphic level), drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, F.M. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    This study describes and interprets petrochemical variation of the matrix (excluding fractures and large gas cavities) of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. This tuff includes the candidate host rock for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Cored hole USW G-4, near the site of a potential exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, penetrated 359.4 m (1179 ft) of the member within the unsaturated zone. This study shows that petrographic textures and chemistry of the matrix vary systematically within recognizable lithologic subunits related to crystallization (cooling) zones, welding (compaction) zones, and compositional zones (rhyolite versus quartz latite). The methods used for this study include petrographic modal thin section analysis using an automated counter and electron microprobe analysis of the groundmass. Distinctive textural categories are defined, and they can be ranked from finest to coarsest as vitrophyre (glass), cryptocrystalline groundmass, spherulites, granophyre, lithic fragments, and phenocrysts. The two main groundmass compositions are also defined: rhyolite high silica) and quartz latite. The value of these petrochemical studies lies in providing microscopic criteria for recognizing the zonal subunits where they may have greatly limited exposure, as in mined drifts and in core from horizontal drill holes. For example, the lower nonlithophysal zone can be distinguished microscopically from the middle nonlithophysal zone by (1) degree of compaction, (2) amount of quartz, and (3) amount of lithic fragments. The variability between these textural categories should also be considered in designing physical and chemical tests of the Topopah Spring.

  18. Petrochemical variation of Topopah Spring tuff matrix with depth (stratigraphic level), drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes and interprets petrochemical variation of the matrix (excluding fractures and large gas cavities) of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. This tuff includes the candidate host rock for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Cored hole USW G-4, near the site of a potential exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, penetrated 359.4 m (1179 ft) of the member within the unsaturated zone. This study shows that petrographic textures and chemistry of the matrix vary systematically within recognizable lithologic subunits related to crystallization (cooling) zones, welding (compaction) zones, and compositional zones (rhyolite versus quartz latite). The methods used for this study include petrographic modal thin section analysis using an automated counter and electron microprobe analysis of the groundmass. Distinctive textural categories are defined, and they can be ranked from finest to coarsest as vitrophyre (glass), cryptocrystalline groundmass, spherulites, granophyre, lithic fragments, and phenocrysts. The two main groundmass compositions are also defined: rhyolite high silica) and quartz latite. The value of these petrochemical studies lies in providing microscopic criteria for recognizing the zonal subunits where they may have greatly limited exposure, as in mined drifts and in core from horizontal drill holes. For example, the lower nonlithophysal zone can be distinguished microscopically from the middle nonlithophysal zone by (1) degree of compaction, (2) amount of quartz, and (3) amount of lithic fragments. The variability between these textural categories should also be considered in designing physical and chemical tests of the Topopah Spring

  19. Waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. 1978-June 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1978-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-07-01

    These citations from Federally funded research cover many aspects of waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. The bibliography includes emissions, economics, control processes, pollution effects, and abatement strategies. (This updated bibliography contains 280 citations, 89 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  1. Monitoring of phenol and 4-chlorophenol in petrochemical sewage using solid-phase microextraction and capillary gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djozan, Dj.; Bahar, S. [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Univ. of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran)

    2003-11-01

    The efficiency of polyaniline (PANI) coated gold wire as a fiber of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was investigated for the extraction of phenol and 4-chlorophenol from gaseous samples and headspace of aqueous samples. Polymerization and extraction time, sample humidity, temperature, salt addition, sample pH and stirring speed were optimized. Extraction at room temperature for 80 min in the presence of 8 g NaCl at constant stirring speed yields maximum efficiency. Using the proposed microsolid phase as an efficient sampling device and capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, reliable determination of these compounds at parts-per-billion and parts-per-million concentrations was achieved for the extraction from gaseous samples and headspace (HS) of aqueous samples, respectively. The calibration graphs were linear for both methods. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of phenol and 4-chlorophenol in real sample such as petrochemical sewage. (orig.)

  2. Prospects for application of high-temperature helium reactor (HTHR) to provide for power needs in refineries and petrochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis performed shows that heat supply from High Temperature Helium Reactor (HTHR) located several miles from crude oil refining units, operating at 360-400 deg. C, can be arranged to use organic heat-carriers. At higher operating temperatures most acceptable are saline carriers. However the final choice of heat carries requires extra research including that on a large scale basis in order to improve the technology and equipment of the heat-supply system. The following problems can be solved by implementing HTHRs at the crude oil processing and petrochemical plants: improving pollution control, making more hydrocarbon fuel available for other uses, intensifying the operation of process units, and making them less fire hazardous, increasing the power efficiency of process plants

  3. Application of fractional control techniques in petrochemical process; Aplicacao de tecnicas de controle fracionario para processos petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isfer, Luis A.D.; Lenzi, Marcelo K. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Lenzi, Ervin K. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work deals with the study of petrochemical process modeling and control using fractional differential equations. This kind of equation has been successfully used in modeling/identification, due to its powerful phenomenological description capability, generalizing conventional/classical models commonly used. Experimental data from literature were used for process identification and the mathematical model obtained, based on fractional differential equations, was the study of servo closed-loop control. Owing to its simplicity, the proportional type controller was used for this task, being able to control the process, keeping its stability, despite off-set. Different controller gains were used for simulation purposes, indicating that the higher the value of K{sub c}, the lower the off-set. (author)

  4. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for the removal of Hg2+ and Cd2+ from synthetic petrochemical factory wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We assessed SBR performances to treat synthetic wastewater containing Hg2+ and Cd2+. → SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg2+ and 96-98% of Cd2+. → COD removal efficiency and MLVSS was affected by Hg2+ and Cd2+ concentrations. → Removal was not only biological process but also by biosorption process of sludge. - Abstract: Petrochemical factories which manufacture vinyl chloride monomer and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) are among the largest industries which produce wastewater contains mercury and cadmium. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) to treat a synthetic petrochemical wastewater containing mercury and cadmium. After acclimatization of the system which lasted 60 days, the SBR was introduced to mercury and cadmium in low concentrations which then was increased gradually to 9.03 ± 0.02 mg/L Hg and 15.52 ± 0.02 mg/L Cd until day 110. The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total and Volatile Suspended Solids as well as Sludge Volume Index. At maximum concentrations of the heavy metals, the SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg2+ and 96-98% of Cd2+. The COD removal efficiency and MLVSS (microorganism population) in the SBR was affected by mercury and cadmium concentrations in influent. Different species of microorganisms such as Rhodospirilium-like bacteria, Gomphonema-like algae, and sulfate reducing-like bacteria were identified in the system. While COD removal efficiency and MLVSS concentration declined during addition of heavy metals, the appreciable performance of SBR in removal of Hg2+ and Cd2+ implies that the removal in SBR was not only a biological process, but also by the biosorption process of the sludge.

  5. Determination and Emission Factories of SO2, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, NOx Gases in the Fanavaran Petrochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ghanavati Hormozi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackground and Objectives:Fanavaran petrochemical company is located on the shore of Persian Gulf on west south of Iran, Imam Khomeini Bandar, petrochemical special economic zone with of 25 hectares area. Two units of this company, methanol unit with production capacity 1000000 tons/years and monoxide carbon unit with 140000 tons/years were studied for determination and emission factories of SO2, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, NOx Gases."nMaterials and methods: With attention to project goals, for implementation of this project 14 months took into from April 2008 till June2009.For goals provide of mentioned research on this basis,case sampling were done from 3 emission sources by using of direct reading device of gas concentration according to standard methods of United State Environmental Protection Agency."nResults: Results of the study indicate that concentration of issued pollutant gases from these units is in the level lower than Iran department of environment standard level. The total amount of emission Factory of SO2, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, NOx gases diffused from these units are11.7×10-6 , 81/8×10-6, 0.14×10-6, 431.5×10-6, 19.2×10-6 , 681.2×10-6kg /tons million production in a year respectively."nConclusion:Parameters which optimization is performed in accordance with them, include of additional air percentage, exit air temperature from pre heater, and fuel type, in fact with regarding these 3 factors. effects, the work is done in a manner that the amount of pollutants diffusion is near to minimum and the selected best fuel.

  6. 色谱在复杂体系分析中的进展%Advances of Chromatography in Analysis of Complex Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉奎

    2004-01-01

    The separation and identification of complex samples is an urgent task that analytical chemistry has to face. Chromatography, as an important analysis technique, has been widely applied to many fields, such as life science, environment, medicine, food and petrochemical engineering.Recently, with the progress of science and tech-

  7. 基于改进MVC的石化装置防腐综合管理系统%Petrochemical equipment anti-corrosion management system based on improved MVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟鸣; 陈晓龙

    2014-01-01

    石化企业中的炼化装置结构复杂,影响因素众多,设备腐蚀程度难以控制。为保证企业的生产安全,必须对石化企业在生产和检修中积累的数据记录进行信息化管理,并在此基础上建立数学模型,对炼化装置的腐蚀程度进行预测。%Petrochemical equipment of petrochemical enterprise is complicated, affected element is very much; it is difficult to control the corrosion degree of device. To ensure product safety, it is necessary to manage the product data and inspection data of petrochemical enterprise with computer information management system, and building the mathematical model, to predict the corrosion degree of Petrochemical equipment.

  8. Meteorologically estimated exposure but not distance predicts asthma symptoms in schoolchildren in the environs of a petrochemical refinery: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Wesley

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community concern about asthma prompted an epidemiological study of children living near a petrochemical refinery in Cape Town, South Africa. Because of resource constraints and the complexity of refinery emissions, neither direct environmental measurements nor modelling of airborne pollutants was possible. Instead a meteorologically derived exposure metric was calculated with the refinery as the putative point source. The study aimed to determine whether (1 asthma symptom prevalences were elevated compared to comparable areas in Cape Town and (2 whether there was an association between asthma symptom prevalences and the derived exposure metric. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out of all consenting school children aged 11 to 14 years attending schools in a defined area, utilizing the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC written and video questionnaires. Information was collected on potential confounders, e.g. parental history of atopic disease, active and passive smoking by the participant, birth order, number of children in the home and distance from a major road. The exposure metric combined residential distance of each child from the refinery with a wind vector in the form of wind speed, wind direction and proportion of the year blown. Results A total of 2,361 children from 17 schools met the criteria for inclusion. In multivariate analysis, meteorologically estimated exposure (MEE, but not simple distance from the refinery, was positively associated with having to take an inhaler to school [odds ratio per interquartile range (OR 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.06-1.40], and with a number of video elicited asthma symptoms, including recent waking with wheezing (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.06-1.66 and frequent wheezing at rest (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05 - 1.54. Symptom prevalences were higher than in other areas of the city, with frequent waking with wheezing being in great excess (OR 8.92, 95% CI

  9. Efficacy and reliability of upgraded industrial treatment plant at Porto Marghera, near Venice, Italy, in removing nutrients and dangerous micropollutants from petrochemical wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlicchi, Paola; Cattaneo, Serena; Marciano, Ferdinando; Masotti, Luigi; Vecchiato, Giuseppe; Zaffaroni, Carlo

    2011-08-01

    Chemical and petrochemical wastewaters contain a host of contaminants that require different treatment strategies. Regulation of macropollutants and micropollutants in the final discharge from industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have become increasingly stringent in recent decades, requiring many WWTPs to be upgraded. This article presents an analysis of a WWTP treating petrochemicals in Porto Marghera, Italy, that recently was upgraded following legislative changes. Because of strict legal limits for macropollutants and micropollutants and a lack of space necessary for a full-scale WWTP overhaul, the existing activated sludge tank was converted into a membrane biological reactor. The paper presents experimental data collected during a five-month investigation showing the removal rates achieved by the upgraded plant for macropollutants (particularly nitrogen compounds) and micropollutants (heavy metals and organic and inorganic toxic compounds). PMID:21905411

  10. Try to Talk About Green Petrochemical Production Technology Progress of Sustainable Development%绿色可持续发展石油化工生产技术新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Has been in the petrochemical industry is to create a large environmental pollution, with the gradual development of the concept of sustainable development, implementing green petrochemical process improvement has become a modern petrochemical industry one of the key research problems. Green petrochemical process designed to make the waste gas petrochemical production, minimize waste, waste water pollution degree and realize the recycling of waste polymer. The following briefly discusses the related contents for petrochemical production technology, for reference only.%石化工业从出现开始就一直伴随着环境污染,随着可持续发展理念的逐渐深入,实行绿色石化工艺改进成为了当代石化工业的重点研究问题之一。绿色石化工艺其目的在于使石化生产中产生的废气、废物、废水的污染程度尽量降低,实现废弃聚合物的回收利用。

  11. Guide of social and ambient responsibility for projects of enterprises of refiners and petrochemicals; Guia de responsabilidade social e ambiental para projetos de empreendimentos de refinarias e petroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruella, Nildemar Correa [PETROBRAS, Cubatao, SP (Brazil). Refinaria Presidente Bernardes Cubatao; Richa, Newton M.M. [Instituto Brasileiro de Petroleo, Gas e Biocombustiveis (IBP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to provide practical guidelines for environmental, social accountability, occupational safety and health for all stages of the life cycle of projects (identification of opportunities, conceptual design, basic design, detail design, deployment (construction and assembly), pre-operation, operation, maintenance and deactivation) in large enterprises of the industry of refining and petrochemicals. This work was based on the legal requirements, guidelines Safety, Environment and Health of PETROBRAS, standards and international publications and the experience of the authors. (author)

  12. Exergetic analysis of the operation of a petrochemical pole cogeneration system; Analise exergetica da operacao de uma planta de cogeracao de um polo petroquimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ednildo A. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]. E-mail: ednildo@ufba.br; Gallo, Waldyr L. R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: gallo@unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents an exergy analysis for a petrochemical cogeneration system (the greater operating in Brazil). The system is described, the method employed to simulate the system is presented, and the exergy efficiencies are defined. The analysis presents the exergy efficiencies and irreversibility for each sub-system. The results obtained from real data were used to compare operation strategies which are not clear from energy balances. (author)

  13. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities...

  14. Job insecurity, job satisfaction, social support and intention to leave of process controllers in a South African petro-chemical company / Lize Bam.

    OpenAIRE

    Bam, Lize

    2010-01-01

    With South Africa currently experiencing a skills shortage, companies need to take job insecurity, job satisfaction and social support into consideration as part of their retention strategy. There is also tremendous pressure being placed on organisations to improve their performance and to become increasingly competitive, which has resulted in job insecurity becoming a reality in South Africa. A petro-chemical company in South Africa was studied to determine the possible relationships between...

  15. Element composition of insoluble fraction of aerosols in snow in the vicinity of oil chemistry refinery (Pavlodar City, Kazakhstan) and petrochemical plant (Tomsk City, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talovskaya, Anna V.; Filimonenko, Ekaterina A.; Yazikov, Egor G.; Shakhova, Tatyana S.; Parygina, Irina A.

    2015-11-01

    Tomsk petrochemical plant (Russia) and Pavlodar oil chemistry refinery (Kazakhstan) are the sources of air contamination in Tomsk and Pavlodar respectively. Therefore, it is very important to study the level of air contamination with particulate matter as well as ultimate composition of these particles. Disposable solid particles fall out to the snow cover, so snow is an accumulator of the particles. The article deals with the study results of dust load and concentrations of Br, Sb, La, Ce, Sm and Nd in insoluble fraction of aerosols in snow in the vicinity of Pavlodar oil chemistry refinery and Tomsk petrochemical plant. The instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the ultimate composition detection. Results were shown that the dust load in the vicinity of Tomsk petrochemical plant is higher than in Pavlodar. We have detected high concentrations of La, Br and Sm in insoluble fraction of aerosols in snow in the vicinity of Pavlodar refinery and high concentrations of Sb and Ce in Tomsk. Moreover, we have detected high Br concentration in insoluble fraction of aerosols in snow of the vicinity of both plants. Gas burning on the flares of these enterprises is likely a potential source of Br. La to light lanthanoids ratio have shown La is of anthropogenic origin. In addition, enrichment factor estimation reflects an anthropogenic origin of La, Sm, Br, Ce and Sb as well. These elements might be emitted from different production facilities of the plants.

  16. Development of sustainable waste management toward zero landfill waste for the petrochemical industry in Thailand using a comprehensive 3R methodology: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usapein, Parnuwat; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2014-05-13

    Sustainable waste management was introduced more than ten years ago, but it has not yet been applied to the Thai petrochemical industry. Therefore, under the philosophy of sustainable waste management, this research aims to apply the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R) concept at the petrochemical factory level to achieve a more sustainable industrial solid waste management system. Three olefin plants in Thailand were surveyed for the case study. The sources and types of waste and existing waste management options were identified. The results indicate that there are four sources of waste generation: (1) production, (2) maintenance, (3) waste treatment, and (4) waste packaging, which correspond to 45.18%, 36.71%, 9.73%, and 8.37% of the waste generated, respectively. From the survey, 59 different types of industrial wastes were generated from the different factory activities. The proposed 3R options could reduce the amount of landfill waste to 79.01% of the amount produced during the survey period; this reduction would occur over a period of 2 years and would result in reduced disposal costs and reduced consumption of natural resources. This study could be used as an example of an improved waste management system in the petrochemical industry. PMID:24824168

  17. Appling hydrolysis acidification-anoxic-oxic process in the treatment of petrochemical wastewater: From bench scale reactor to full scale wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changyong; Zhou, Yuexi; Sun, Qingliang; Fu, Liya; Xi, Hongbo; Yu, Yin; Yu, Ruozhen

    2016-05-15

    A hydrolysis acidification (HA)-anoxic-oxic (A/O) process was adopted to treat a petrochemical wastewater. The operation optimization was carried out firstly by a bench scale experimental reactor. Then a full scale petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (PCWWTP, 6500 m(3) h(-1)) was operated with the same parameters. The results showed that the BOD5/COD of the wastewater increased from 0.30 to 0.43 by HA. The effluent COD was 54.4 mg L(-1) for bench scale reactor and 60.9 mg L(-1) for PCWWTP when the influent COD was about 480 mg L(-1) on optimized conditions. The organics measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) reduced obviously and the total concentration of the 5 organics (1,3-dioxolane, 2-pentanone, ethylbenzene, 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane and indene) detected in the effluent was only 0.24 mg L(-1). There was no obvious toxicity of the effluent. However, low acute toxicity of the effluent could be detected by the luminescent bacteria assay, indicating the advanced treatment is needed. The clone library profiling analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the system were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. HA-A/O process is suitable for the petrochemical wastewater treatment. PMID:26894292

  18. Strategic Thinking on Industrial Structure Development of Sinopec Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited%上海石化产业结构发展的战略思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张经明

    2012-01-01

    Based on the global and domestic macroeconomic environment and its development trend, the development trend of petrochemical industry both at home and abroad was analyzed, and strategic thinking was raised for SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited (SPC) in aspects of cost leadership, regionalization, differentiation, environmental protection and low carbon. With implementation of the strategic targets, SPC can become a large - scale vertically integrated petrochemical enterprise being domestically advanced and internationally first class.%根据上海石化所处的国内外宏观经济环境及发展趋势,分析国内外石化行业的发展趋势,提出上海石化在低成本、区域化、差异化和绿色低碳等方面的战略思考。通过战略目标的实施,使上海石化成为国内领先和国际一流的大型炼化企业。

  19. Association between occupational exposure to benzene and chromosomal alterations in lymphocytes of Brazilian petrochemical workers removed from exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rozana Oliveira; de Almeida Melo, Neli; Rêgo, Marco Antônio Vasconcelos

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between chronic exposure to benzene and genotoxicity in the lymphocytes of workers removed from exposure. The study included 20 workers with hematological disorders who had previously worked in the petrochemical industry of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; 16 workers without occupational exposure to benzene served as the control group. Chromosomal analysis was performed on lymphocytes from peripheral blood, to assess chromosomal breaks and gaps and to identify aneuploidy. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the mean values between two groups, and Student's t test for comparison of two independent means. The frequency of gaps was statistically higher in and the exposed group than in the controls (2.13 ± 2.86 vs. 0.97 ± 1.27, p = 0.001). The frequency of chromosomal breaks was significantly higher among cases (0.21 ± 0.58) than among controls (0.12 ± 0.4) (p = 0.0002). An association was observed between chromosomal gaps and breaks and occupational exposure to benzene. Our study showed that even when removed from exposure for several years, workers still demonstrated genotoxic damage. Studies are still needed to clarify the long-term genotoxic potential of benzene after removal from exposure. PMID:27155858

  20. Technical Reviews on the Petroleum Refining Industry and the Petrochemical Industry for the Development of Industrial Application of Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung-Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum; Lee, Na-Young; Kwon, Taek-Yong

    2008-09-15

    Petroleum is the major energy source that supplies 35% of the total power all over the world. And the petrochemical industry generates a 120 times higher value from naphtha, and in cooperates new technology in order to keep its business prosperous. These large plant industries require in-service diagnosis technology for an optimal and efficient operation and maintenance. Since diagnosis information obtained from an on-line plant can be used for a correct operation and maintenance workplan in the case of a deteriorated product quality as well as a mechanical abnormality, this technology can contribute to a huge cost benefit and a product competitiveness. The gigantic plants equipped with heavy materials can hardly be evaluated with conventional techniques due to their harsh environment of a high temperature and a pressure. Radiation and radioisotope application technology has been studied to meet the demand of the industry, but has yet to be developed further. In spite of its usefulness, the strategic support is not enough to carry out the research activities on advanced industrial testing technology using radioisotopes. It is of importance to secure a national competitiveness by intensifying the support for the newly emerging technologies such as an industrial gamma tomography and a process visualization and validation incorporated with a CFD.

  1. Transformational leadership in business organisations ascending to world-class status: A case study in the petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. De Kock

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important prerequisites for economic competitiveness in the global economy, is the delivery of a unique product or service. In order to achieve this level of competitiveness, transformational rather than transactional leadership should be a core element in organisation’s ascent to ‘world-class’ status. Inline with other researching results, the most important finding of this study, which was conducted in a petrochemical industry, is that transformational leadership is not up to standard. Opsomming Een van die belangrikste voorvereistes vir ekonomiese kompetering in die globale ekonomie, is die lewering van ‘n unieke produk of diens. ‘n Voorvereiste wat slegs kan realiseer indien transformasionele leierskap eerder as transaksionele leierskap ‘n kernboublok in organisasies se strewe na ‘wêreldklas’ status vorm. Inlyn met die bevindinge van verskeie ander studies, is die vernaamste bevinding van ook die studie wat in ‘n petrochemiese bedryf gedoen is, dat transformasionele leierskap nog nie op standaard is nie.

  2. Human resource development formulation and evaluation in an Iranian Petrochemical Company using ANP and grey relational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Ghasemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, human capital is considered a key factor of achieving the competitive advantage in different industries. The present study, as an applied and descriptive research, aims at providing formulation and evaluation of human resource development of an Iranian Petrochemical Company (APC. The human resource experts and managers of APC together with university professors of human capital and familiar with local conditions of Khuzestan province, Iran, made up the statistical population of this research. In this connection, first the internal factors (including advantages and disadvantages were identified using human resource excellence indicators. Then, the opportunities and threats of human resource system were found via PESTEL approach. In the next step, the primary strategies were formulated using the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats (SWOT Matrix. The next phases of the study were included evaluation and ranking of human resource development strategies based on analytical network process (ANP multi-criteria decision making method and grey systems theory. According to results of the research, defensive strategies (WT are suggested as the best and most appropriate strategies in human resource area. In other words, the internal and external factors of APC are problematic. Accordingly, APC is expected to adopt WT strategy, minimize the weaknesses, and avoid threats. Subsequent to the above policy, the strategies of WO, ST, and SO are advised to employ.

  3. INVESTIGATING THE LEVEL OF BURNOUT AND INFLUENCING FACTORS ON IT AMONG THE WORKERS: CASE STUDY THE PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES NATIONAL COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan DARVISH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is done with the purpose of investigation the level of burnout andinfluencing factors on it. The method used is measuring or filed-finding,descriptive studies type and the statistic society is made of the entire officialand non-official workers in the petrochemical industries national company inthe year (2009 including 6901people in the main office and 12 subsidiarycompanies who are working. The estimation of the sample volume is madeusing the cochran formula by the volume of 1742 people and the accidentalclass and the domesticated form of the Maslach Burn Out Inventory has beenused for gathering the dependant variant data of the study. In this study therelevance or effect of 20 independent variables on the burnout and itsconstituents was investigated. In the two variable tests, the emotionalcommitment had a reverse relation with burnout. So that with the increase ofthe interest and bind of the workers to the organization, the level of burnoutdecreased. In analyzing the step by step regression of the burnout accordingto the expected variables, 41percent of the explained burnout (R 2 =41%,and ranking the amount of the standard coefficient, the main elements likethe nature of the job, emotional commitment, work environment, job security,coworkers, education, job type, salary and the premium and jobindependence in the remaining regression equation and on the burnoutvariable have been influencing.

  4. Technical Reviews on the Petroleum Refining Industry and the Petrochemical Industry for the Development of Industrial Application of Radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum is the major energy source that supplies 35% of the total power all over the world. And the petrochemical industry generates a 120 times higher value from naphtha, and in cooperates new technology in order to keep its business prosperous. These large plant industries require in-service diagnosis technology for an optimal and efficient operation and maintenance. Since diagnosis information obtained from an on-line plant can be used for a correct operation and maintenance workplan in the case of a deteriorated product quality as well as a mechanical abnormality, this technology can contribute to a huge cost benefit and a product competitiveness. The gigantic plants equipped with heavy materials can hardly be evaluated with conventional techniques due to their harsh environment of a high temperature and a pressure. Radiation and radioisotope application technology has been studied to meet the demand of the industry, but has yet to be developed further. In spite of its usefulness, the strategic support is not enough to carry out the research activities on advanced industrial testing technology using radioisotopes. It is of importance to secure a national competitiveness by intensifying the support for the newly emerging technologies such as an industrial gamma tomography and a process visualization and validation incorporated with a CFD

  5. Economic feasibility of district heating delivery from industrial excess heat: A case study of a Swedish petrochemical cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work discusses the potential and the economic feasibility of DH (district heating) delivery using industrial excess heat from a petrochemical cluster at the Swedish West Coast. Pinch Analysis was used for estimating the DH capacity targets and for estimating the cost of heat exchanger installation. A discounted cash flow rate of return of 10% was used as a criterion for identifying the minimum yearly DH delivery that should be guaranteed for a given DH capacity at different DH sales prices. The study was conducted for the current scenario in which no heat recovery is achieved between the cluster plants and for a possible future scenario in which 50% of the fuel currently used for heating purposes is saved by increasing the heat recovery at the site. The competition between excess heat export and local energy efficiency measures is also discussed in terms of CO2 emission consequences. The maximum capacity of DH delivery amounts today to around 235 MW, which reduces to 110 MW in the future scenario of increased site heat recovery. The results of our analysis show that feasible conditions exist that make DH delivery profitable in the entire capacity range. - Highlights: • Pinch Analysis targeting approach and short-cut cost accounting procedure. • Economic analysis for different DH delivery capacities up to maximum targets. • Sensitivity analysis of heat sales prices. • Parallel plants and cluster wide heat collection systems considered. Competition between cluster internal heat recovery and excess heat export is discussed

  6. Operational Improvements of Continuous Process with Tools of Lean Production - A Case Study in a Brazilian Petrochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Uchoa Passos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to evaluate operational improvements in Brazilian petrochemical company Braskem, which has been using lean production management tools to monitor its processes. There was some improvement in plant efficiency, measured from the beginning of implementation of management tools Six Sigma and TPM. Thus, we investigated three efficiency indicators considered by the company of great importance for the competitiveness of the business: the physical loss of products, plant’s energy efficiency, and the utilization rate of assets. The differences observed in these indicators, before and after the use of the tools, were tested for its statistical significance, which revealed that the physical losses of ethylene and plant’s energy efficiency improved, almost reaching the performance considered as class world. As for the utilization rate of assets, although it has evolved positively, still is at a considerable distance from that performance standard. By registering operational improvements in a continuous process plant, with lean production tools, this study indicates that these instruments, even if they have no causal relation with the improvements, are suitable for continuous processes and could have a much broader use, oriented, first of all, by the general approach of process optimization and, somehow, regardless of the nature of productive activity.

  7. Entomological study of sand flies (Diptera:Psychodidae:Phlebotominae) in Asalouyeh, the heartland of an Iranian petrochemical industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamzeh Alipour; Hossien Darabi; Tahere Dabbaghmanesh; Mehdi Bonyani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the fauna and seasonal activity of different species of sand flies (Diptera:Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Asalouyeh, the heartland of an Iranian petrochemical industry, Southern Iran, as a oil rich district. Sand flies are the vectors of at least three different kinds of disease, the most important of which is leishmaniasis, and it is a major public health problem in Iran with increased annual occurrence of clinical episodes.Methods:cleared in puris medium and identified morphologically, twice a month from April to March 2008.Results:A total of 3 497 sand flies of rural regions were collected by sticky traps fixed, and Sinton, 1928, Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, 1910, Phlebotomus bergeroti Parrot and Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot) and one of genus Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia tiberiadis Alder, Theodor & Lourie, 1930). The most prevalent species was Phlebotomus papatasi, presented 56.4% of the identified flies. The others were Phlebotomus sergenti (22.5%), Phlebotomus alexandri (4.5%), Phlebotomusbergeroti Predominant species included four of genus Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus alexandri than that of males (32%). The abundance of sand flies represented two peaks of activity; one in early May and the other one in the first half of September in the region. (12%) and Sergentomyia tiberiadis (5%) as well. The percentage of females (68%) was more Conclusion: Phlebotomus papatasi is the probable vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the region. Further molecular studies are needed to determine the definite vector of the region.

  8. Selection of pipe material for drainage system of petrochemical enterprises%浅谈石油化工企业排水系统管道材质的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华东; 郭俊玲; 路严伟; 李清

    2011-01-01

    石油化工企业在生产过程中产生的废水量多、成分复杂、物化性质各异,在设计工作过程中,应综合考虑被输送介质的成分、腐蚀性、温度、压力、埋深以及管道本身的内在因素等方面,选择安全、环保及节能的排水系统管材,做到既经济耐久又安全可靠.%As the wastewater from petrochemical production is characterized by large volume, complex ingre-dient, and various physical and chemical properties, the components and causticity of the transported substance, temperature, pressure, burying depth of pipe, and some intrinsic factors of the pipe should be comprehensively consi-dered when designing the treatment system; and then, proper drainage pipe materials which are safe, environmental protection and energy saving should be chosen so as to meet the requirement for economicality, durability and safety.

  9. The importance of the treatment of the unsafe acts for the prevention of accidents in petrochemical industry; A importancia do tratamento dos atos inseguros para a prevencao de acidentes na industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneguetti, Alexander A.; Santos, Helio R.F.; Alevato, Hilda; Lima, Luciana S. [Dupont do Brasil S.A., Paulinia, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the fact that, the workers' behavior is characterized by its complexity and diversity, this issue has been seen as a great 'black box' in discussions regarding the Management Systems of SHE. Associated with this issue other arises: How conscious people? How to engage them with the process? How to improve the risk control? How to motivate the prevention? Most of these responses are discussed in the Social and Human Sciences for many years. However, it is necessary to closer the technical-operational knowledge and the human aspects, applying in the organizations' daily work, to make the working environment more safe. The purpose of this study, therefore, is examining the possibility of reducing accidents through the identification and treatment of deviations (unsafe acts and unsafe conditions), cause the whole accident, be it serious or not, begins with a small deviation. It was used as a reference tool, the Behavior audit and it is based on field's observations, applied into a production unit of a large petrochemical industry in northern Brazil, during the years 2006 and 2007. (author)

  10. Characterization of natural adsorbent material for heavy metal removal in a petrochemical site contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite of over 25 years of intensive technological efforts, sub-surface environment cleanup still remains a challenge, especially in case of highly contaminated sites. In this context, ion exchanger technologies could provide simple and effective solutions for heavy metal removal in water treatment. The challenge is finding exchanger able to operate in extreme natural environments or in situations involving natural interfering species such as inorganic ions. In this paper we exam the use of natural zeolites as versatile exchanger for environmental protection of coastal refinery's groundwater against pollution of Ni, Cd, Pb. The influence of particle diameter on clinoptilolite performances toward heavy metal removal is studied. Also, we evaluate the exchanger activities in condition of high ionic strength, commonly present in groundwater located under coastal petrol industries. The obtained results confirmed that ion exchangers could provide an effective solutions for remediation in complex environmental conditions.

  11. Musa massif: mapping, petrology and petrochemical, Rio Maria, SE from Para State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petrological, geochemical and geochronological studies allow some insight on the genesis and evolution of the Musa Massif. The different facies of the granitic body are cogenetic, although each of these facies presents some peculiarities in its genesis and evolution. These data suggests that the granite magma evolution was complex or, alternatively, that the facies were generated by liquids derived from different sources. A model of magmatic emplacement, genesis and differentiation is proposed and discussed. The granitic facies show a calc-alkaline compositions, exhibiting strong analogies with cordilleran granites or magnetite granites. An age of 1692 +- 11 Ma (Rb/Sr) with IR of 0,70777 +- 0,00023 was obtained for different facies of Massif. A preliminary attempt to individualize geochronology the principal facies was done and showed that there is a coincidence between the ages and the emplacement sequence of these facies of the pluton. (author)

  12. Petrochemical characteristics of Serra do Meio alkaline granite (Campo Alegre de Lourdes - Bahia State)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Serra do Meio granite outcrops near the town of Campo Alegre de Lourdes, north-northeast of Bahia State. The granite is intrusive into micachists, which are correlatives of the Salgueiro-Cachoeirinha Group (Early Proterozoic), during early to the syn-tectonic shear phase. The geological setting also comprises a phosphatic rock-bearing carbonatitic complex and gabbroid complexes with one of the main world resources of Fe-Ti-V. The granite mineralogical composition grades from Aegerine-augite alkali-feldspar granite/syenites to Leuco alcali-feldspar granite. The geochemical analysis shows SiO2-enrichment (67 to 76%), in alkalis (Na2+K2O, 7,5 to 12,5%), Nb (up to 680ppm), Zr (up to 2,390ppm), Y (up to 250ppm) e REE (up to 796ppm). The geochemical behaviour is peculiar to alkaline series, denoting a silica-oversaturated, potassium-rich, magma. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns display a first group with smooth slopes from the La to Lu, and a second one with negative slopes. Negative Eu anomalies are displayed in all the patterns. The first group is HREE-enriched, with low fractionation ratios. Samples with milonytic fabrics and higher fractionation ratios are related to the second group, suggesting the interaction of metassomatic fluids and the alkaline magma. Discriminant diagrams for Nb, Y and Rb, coupled with geophysical data, point to an intrusive granite in an extensional within a plate tectonic setting of attenuated continental crust. (author)

  13. 2012年我国石油化工行业进展及展望%Progress of China's petrochemical industry in 2012 and outlook for 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪定一

    2013-01-01

    转型和建设世界一流石化建设等方面取得实质性的新进展.%The progress of China's petrochemical industry under the conditions of high crude oil price and slowdown in economy in 2012 was summarized. Firstly, the running of petrochemical industry was slow but turning to smooth and steady; production output and value and gross profit were all increasing, but compared to the last year, the pace was slower. Secondly, in building a world-class petrochemical industry, crude oil processing volume, ethylene production output maintained the world second, chemical production compared with USA was roughly the same, synthetic resin production was in the forefront, synthetic rubber production ranked the first in the world. Thirdly, about the transformation and upgrading of petrochemical industry, modern coal chemical industry was smoothly integrated into petrochemical production system; petrochemical industry was involved in biomass utilization, and succeeded in trial production of aviation kerosene from biomass; a new progress was made in upgrading to high-end products. And finally, about technical progress, a batch of industrial units were built using proprietary technology, including two sets of diesel liquid phase circulation hydrogenation units in Shijiazhuang refinery and Jiujiang refinery, a new generation of S-Zorb unit for producing EU V grade gasoline, 800 kt/a ethylene cracking plant in Wuhan, S-MTO coal to olefin unit, FCC regeneration flue gas SCR denitrification unit in Zhenhai; a batch of technologies independently developed, including conversion of super heavy oil to light fractions, megaton per year integrated aromatics unit and syn-gas to ethylene glycol synthesis were ready for commercialization; the ebullated bed heavy residual oil hydrogenation technology was being commercial-scale verified; research on production differentiation technology was stepping up aiming at a number of special chemicals and new chemical materials. The petrochemical

  14. Biological anoxic treatment of O{sub 2}-free VOC emissions from the petrochemical industry: A proof of concept study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Raúl; Souza, Theo S.O. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Glittmann, Lina [Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Department of Supply Engineering, Wolfenbüttel (Germany); Pérez, Rebeca [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Quijano, Guillermo, E-mail: gquijano@iq.uva.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The treatment of O{sub 2}-free VOC emissions can be done by means of denitrifying processes. •Toluene vapors were successfully removed under anoxic denitrifying conditions. • A high bacterial diversity was observed. • Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla. • The nature and number of metabolites accumulated varied with the toluene load -- Abstract: An innovative biofiltration technology based on anoxic biodegradation was proposed in this work for the treatment of inert VOC-laden emissions from the petrochemical industry. Anoxic biofiltration does not require conventional O{sub 2} supply to mineralize VOCs, which increases process safety and allows for the reuse of the residual gas for inertization purposes in plant. The potential of this technology was evaluated in a biotrickling filter using toluene as a model VOC at loads of 3, 5, 12 and 34 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} (corresponding to empty bed residence times of 16, 8, 4 and 1.3 min) with a maximum elimination capacity of ∼3 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. However, significant differences in the nature and number of metabolites accumulated at each toluene load tested were observed, o- and p-cresol being detected only at 34 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}, while benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and phenol were detected at lower loads. A complete toluene removal was maintained after increasing the inlet toluene concentration from 0.5 to 1 g m{sup −3} (which entailed a loading rate increase from 3 to 6 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}), indicating that the system was limited by mass transfer rather than by biological activity. A high bacterial diversity was observed, the predominant phyla being Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria.

  15. Health Risk Assessment of Xylene through Microenvironment Monitoring Data: A Case Study of the Petro-Chemical Industries, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pensri Watchalayann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of environmental health epidemiology, risk managers, policy makers and health-care authorities usually rely on estimates of human exposure level of proximity to hazardous waste site or regional ambient air quality data. Based on ambient concentrations without considering time-activity patterns, the estimation of personal exposure may be overor underestimated. Twelve villages surrounding the petro-chemical industries located in the eastern region of Thailand were randomly selected to be a representative study area. In each village, air samples were collected at thirty-one microenvironments including indoor and outdoor of a household and workplace. The time-activity patterns of the commuters were also recorded. The ambient xylene concentrations were determined by thermal desorption gas chromatograhy/mass spectrometry. The indoor samples were determined by gas chromatography flame ionization detector. Commuters living in the vicinity of the industrial areas spent most of the time indoor (93.2%, especially at home (66.8%. Individuals spent a significant fraction of the day indoors. The concentrations of xylene ranged from less than 1 μg/m3 to 291.3 μg/m3. The highest level was found at the auto repair shop (291.3 μg/m3. Given micro-environmental concentrations and activity times, the average concentrations of xylene to which commuters may be exposed daily ranged from 90.62 to 134.75 μg/m3. The long term exposure level via inhalation was found to be very low. Collectively, no hazard was indicated by the hazard quotient and the results were found to be similar in all villages.

  16. Chemical, molecular, and proteomic analyses of moss bag biomonitoring in a petrochemical area of Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortis, Pierluigi; Vannini, Candida; Cogoni, Annalena; De Mattia, Fabrizio; Bracale, Marcella; Mezzasalma, Valerio; Labra, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Hypnum cupressiforme moss bags were used to examine the atmospheric deposition of trace elements in the oil refinery region of Sardinia (Italy) compared with surrounding natural zones. The concentrations of 13 elements [arsenic (As), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)] were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. A significant accumulation of pollutants was detected using active biomonitoring with moss bags compared with a control site. The most relevant contaminants for all of the tested sites were Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Moreover, the accumulation of Cr and Zn in the refinery industrial areas, IA1 and IA2, was more than five times greater than that detected at the control site. Levels of Cd, Mg, and Pb were also higher at all of the monitored sites compared with the control site. Both genomic and proteomic methods were used to study the response of H. cupressiforme to air pollution. No DNA damage or mutations were detected using the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) method. At the protein level, 15 gel spots exhibited differential expression profiles between the moss samples collected at the IA1 site and the control site. Furthermore, among the 14 spots that showed a decrease in protein expression, nine were associated with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and proteins of the light-harvesting complexes of photosystem (PS) II, three were associated with protein synthesis, and three were stress-related proteins. Thus, some of these proteins may represent good moss biosensors which could be used as pre-alert markers of environmental pollution. PMID:26408120

  17. 炼化企业作业许可体系探析%Study on permit-to-work system of petrochemical enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于菲菲; 王廷春; 蔡宝华; 张晓华; 高雪琦

    2012-01-01

    As the most direct management method for managing the link of direct operation in petrochemical enterprises , permit-to-work is the premise and assurance to carry out hazard identification and risk analysis before starting work in the link of direct operation, and also is an important measure to reduce and prevent incidents. In this paper, through investigating and analysing domestic and overseas permit-to-work management in petrochemical enterprises , the main points of permit-to-work system in petrochemical enterprises were proposed, which included compiling permit-to-work, permit-to-work management process, defining responsibilities, training requirement, permit-to-work management requirements and permit-to-work audit. And, also, some examples for permit-to-work system audit checklist were prosented.%作业许可管理作为炼化企业直接作业环节最直接的管理方法,是直接作业环节开展危害识别和作业前风险分析的前提和保障,是减少和避免事故发生的重要措施之一.本文通过调研和分析国内外炼化企业的作业许可体系,根据基于风险的HSE管理理论,提出了炼化企业作业许可体系的主要内容,包括:作业许可证编制、作业许可管理流程、职责界定、培训要求、作业许可管理要求及作业许可证和作业许可体系审核,并给出了作业许可体系审核检查表的示例.

  18. Evaluation of DI, WBGT, and SWreq/PHS Heat Stress Indices for Estimating the Heat Load on the Employees of a Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMADREZA MONAZZAM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Heat stress is a common occupational health hazard at outdoor workplaces especially in a hot-humid climate. Overheating of the body can cause a number of problems, including heat rash, heat cramps, dizziness, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke. The present study aimed to assess heat stress indices including DI, WBGT, and SWreq/PHS, as a mean to estimate the heat load on the employees of a petrochemical industry. The study was conducted in Pardis Petrochemical Company. All of the ammonia-phase workers (10 men working in the hot-humid condition were selected and other 11 men workers were chosen from the work sites without risk of heat stress. The physiological parameters such as heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and deep and skin temperatures and weather parameters, including: Discomfort Index, Wet Bulb Globe Temperature and Required Sweat Rate based on Predicted Heat Strain were measured simultaneously. All of the subjects in two groups as acclimated and unacclimated were monitored in two different weather and working conditions: the work-site and the rest-room. The mean values of the indices and the physiological parameters for both acclimated and unacclimated groups were significantly higher at the work-site than at the rest-room. For WBGT and DI indices, the highest correlation was found with heart rate (0.731, 0.725, respectively. However; the strongest linear relationship existed between SWreq/PHS and deep body temperature (0.766 among the under study heat stress indices. With regard to the data obtained, the SWreq/PHS index had the greatest correlation with deep body temperature, so, it can be served as a quick tool to evaluate heat stress for a petrochemical industry like Pardis and appraise the approximate amount of heat strain imposed to the employees.

  19. A novel "wastes-treat-wastes" technology: role and potential of spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst assisted ozonation of petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunmao; Yu, Ji; Yoza, Brandon A; Li, Qing X; Wang, Gang

    2015-04-01

    Catalytic ozonation is a promising wastewater treatment technology. However, the high cost of the catalyst hinders its application. A novel "wastes-treat-wastes" technology was developed to reuse spent fluid catalytic cracking catalysts (sFCCc) for the ozonation of petrochemical wastewater in this study. Multivalent vanadium (V(4+) and V(5+)), iron (Fe(2+) and Fe(3+)) and nickel (Ni(2+)) oxides that are distributed on the surface of sFCCc and poisoned FCC catalysts are the catalytic components for ozonation. The sFCCc assisted catalytic ozonation (sFCCc-O) of nitrobenzene indicated that the sFCCc significantly promoted hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation. The degradation rate constant of nitrobenzene in sFCCc-O (0.0794 min(-1) at 298 K) was approximately doubled in comparison with that in single ozonation (0.0362 min(-1) at 298 K). The sFCCc-O of petrochemical wastewater increased chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency by three-fold relative to single ozonation. The number of oxygen-containing (Ox) polar contaminants in the effluent (253) from sFCCc-O treatment decreased to about 70% of the initial wastewater (353). The increased oxygen/carbon atomic ratio and decreased number of Ox polar contaminants indicated a high degree of degradation. The present study showed the role and potential of sFCCc for catalytic ozonation of petrochemical wastewater, particularly in an advantage of the cost-effectiveness through "wastes-treat-wastes". PMID:25617869

  20. A evolução da indústria petroquímica brasileira The evolution of the brazilian petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mc Mannis Torres

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Petrochemical Industry is about to turn fifty years old, and endures profound changes. In less than four years, it has moved from a system of centralized decisions and a national lever of planning, to another which is spread, without massive actions and with less integration with the raw material supplying company. On this issue it is presented, briefly, a small history of the development of this industrial type, including issues on how the growth of this activity, so important to the development of Brazil, shall be lead.

  1. Application of Hydrocracking Process for Upgrading Tail Oil Quality in 1.0 Mt/a Hydrocracker Unit at SINOPEC Yangzi Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Haichun; Dong Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the hydrocracking technology for upgrading the quality of tail oil and the first commercial application of the RN-32V/RHC-1 catalysts in the 1.0 Mt/a hydrocracker at the Yangzi Petrochemical Company, which was started up successfully in September 2008. One month after start-up of the hydrocracking unit, an evaluation opera-tion has been conducted for assessing the catalysts performance. The technical calibration results showed that the RN-32V/RHC-1 catalysts had high activity, and the product yield distribution was reasonable. The hydrocracker can provide abundant feedstocks for the downstream aromatic production unit and ethylene production unit.

  2. Environmental degradation as the result of NATO air-raids against Pancevo chemical plants - oil refinery/petrochemical plant/azotara fertilizer plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long period of sanctions followed by the NATO air raids against the chemical plants of Pancevo caused ecological disaster of enormous proportions in the district, leaving the consequences to the population of the region,making it a transboundary issue of utmost urgency and importance. Due to the impossibility to organize the running under normal conditions during a decade of sanctions imposed on our country, the mentioned companies were constantly facing difficulties concerning the purchasing of the raw materials, devices and equipment since the export to FRY was banned. Thus the companies have been prevented from the realization of the environmental programs and plans including the introduction and implementation of new technologies having as the objectives the remediation of the already existing environmental problems, instead the environmental degradation was increased. During the period from 4th April-7th June 1999, Pancevo was targeted by the NATO on seven occasions. The area where the chemical plants are located was targeted with 35 missiles causing not only the damages but also endangered the environment of Pancevo and the consequences remain to be monitored in the coming years. Three employees of the Oil Refinery were killed at work while more than 50 were injured. Approximately 58.500 tons of crude oil, oil derivates, vinylchloride monomer and other petrochemical products and components were burnt in fire. Serious spills of approximately 5.000 tons of crude oil, oil derivates, 23.000 tons of 1,2 dichloroethane (EDC), 600 tons of HCl, 8 tons of mercury, 3000 tons of NaOH, 230 tons of ammonia water and ammonia and large quantities of other toxic substances contaminated the surrounding soil, ground water, the waste water canal and the river Danube.The sewerage systems were seriously damaged and blocked. A considerable damage was caused to the wastewater treatment facilities resulting in pollution of HIP-Azotara wastewater canal and the river Danube. The

  3. Research on energy conservation in petrochemical and steelmaking industries in a developing country (India); Hatten tojokoku (Indo) ni okeru sekiyu kagaku kogyo tekkogyo no energy shohi koritsuka ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Current state of energy conservation in petrochemical and steelmaking industries in India was surveyed to estimate energy consumption and demand, and discuss possible international cooperation. Recently India has grown rapidly, and its growth rate of energy consumption is higher than a rise in GDP. In order to examine the current state of energy conservation in India, major energy consumption levels in India was surveyed together with production outputs of steelmaking, oil refining and petrochemical industries. Energy consumption and the potential of current energy-saving programs were also surveyed in modern factories. As a result, for energy conservation in petrochemical and steelmaking industries in India, the following were pointed out: improvement of operation conditions in current facilities, improvement of management systems in current facilities such as introduction of computers, and modification of production processes. Improvement of energy efficiency by introducing advanced technologies from developed countries such as Japan was essential. 37 figs., 45 tabs.

  4. Caracterização de amostras petroquímicas e derivados utilizando cromatografia gasosa bidimensional abrangente (GCxGC Characterization of petrochemical samples and their derivatives by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin von Mühlen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to discuss the application of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC to petrochemical samples. The use of GCxGC for petroleum and petroleum derivatives characterization, through group type analysis, or BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, total aromatic hydrocarbons, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur-containing, oxygen-containing, and nitrogen-containing compounds is presented. The capability of GCxGC to provide additional specific chemical information regarding petroleum processing steps, such as dehydrogenation of linear alkanes, the Fischer-Tropsch process, hydrogenation and oligomerization is also described. In addition, GCxGC analyses of petrochemical biomarkers and environmental pollutants derived from petrochemicals are reported.

  5. The Relationship between Earnings before Interest and Taxes and Operating Cash Flow and Stock Return under the Condition of Information Asymmetry in Abadan and Arak Petrochemical Companies through Markov-Switching Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Masihabadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the relationship between earnings before interest and taxes and operating cash flow and shareholders’ return in Abadan and Arak Petrochemical Companies. This relationship was tested under the condition of information asymmetry. Nonlinear Markov-Switching approach was adopted to test the hypotheses. The results of empirical tests through the data in 2001-2010 indicated that in Arak Petrochemical Company, both variables of earnings before interest and taxes and operating cash flow had significant relationship with stock return of company. However, in Abadan Petrochemical Company, only the variable of earnings before interest and taxes had significant and positive relationship with stock return of company. Increase in information asymmetry showed that variable of operating cash flow had a stronger relationship with stock return of companies than the variable of earnings before interest and taxes. In other words, under the condition of information asymmetry, cash flow variables had higher correlation with stock return of companies than accrual variables.

  6. Study and Application of Coal Purchase Policy in Petrochemical Enterprise%石化企业煤炭采购策略研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔巍

    2011-01-01

    煤炭是重要的战略性能源,在我国能源结构中居主体地位,同时也是石化企业不可间断的大宗消耗性物资。通过分析煤炭价格构成及影响因素,结合石化企业煤炭需求特点,研究制定科学的煤炭采购策略,在保证安全供应的基础上实现性价比最优和采购总成本最低。%Coal is an important strategic energy resource, occupying main and also an unbreakable giant consuming material for petrochemical enterprise. position in our energy resources structure, Through analyzing formation and influence factors of coal price, combined with coal demand features in petrochemical enterprise, we studied and worked out scientific coal purchase policy, so as to realize optimum quality price ratio on the basis of safe supply.

  7. 石化企业实施全面预算管理方案探讨%Discussion on implementation of comprehensive budget management plan in petrochemical enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓理

    2015-01-01

    文中对某石化企业建立财务预算管理体系进行了分析。探讨了石化企业的全部收支都纳入到预算管理范畴,严格预算的申报和审批,杜绝一切预算外开支方案实施的可行性和必要性,提升了财务预测在企业生产经营中的指导作用。%Analysis was made to the establishment of financial budget management system in a petrochemical company. This paper made discussion on bringing all incomes of petrochemical company into budget management category,strictly performing budget declaration,examination and approval,completely eradicating the possibility and necessity of plan implementation of all expenditures outside the budget,and promoted the guiding function of financial prediction in enterprise production and management.

  8. Brief Analysis of Lightning Protection of Distribution Network for Petrochemical Enterprises%石化企业配电网防雷措施浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史少帅; 梁端庆

    2014-01-01

    Distribution network was the important component of transmission and distribution system for petrochemical enterprise.The lightning over -voltages would make the distribution line trip and then lead to the power supply interruptions , which often caused serious harm to petrochemical production safety , even resulted in serious injury , economic losses and social impacts.In order to ensure the safety and reliability service of distribution network and to reduce stroke-incidence rate of the electric line , integrated measures must be taken to prevent the harm of the lightning over-voltages and improve the reliability of the power supply system.%配电网是石化企业输配电系统的重要组成部分,雷电过电压会使配电线路跳闸进而导致供电中断事件,这往往给石化企业的安全生产造成严重危害,甚至造成严重的人员伤害、经济损失以及社会影响。为确保配电网安全、可靠运行并有效的降低线路雷击跳闸率,需采取综合性措施以防止雷电过电压的危害,提高供电的可靠性。

  9. Challenges Facing China's Petrochemical Industry and Their Countermeasure Suggestions%我国石化产业面临的挑战及对策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王基铭

    2015-01-01

    阐述了当前我国石化产业面临着原油低价格、市场化进程加快、科技革命兴起等新形势,同时也面临着市场竞争加剧、环保要求日益严格等严峻挑战,指出我国石化工业面对新的机遇和挑战,必须走创新驱动、转型升级、绿色发展之路.%The article expounds on the new situation facing China's petrochemical industry such as low oil price, continuously accelerated commercialization process and accelerated advances in science & technological revolution, as well as severe challenges facing it such as aggravated market competition and increasingly strict environmental protection requirements. It points out that, being faced with new chances and challenges, China's petrochemical industry must walk along the road of innovation drive, transformation and upgrading as well as green development.

  10. NMR shielding and a thermodynamic study of the effect of environmental exposure to petrochemical solvent on DPPC, an important component of lung surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajjemi, M.; Afsharnezhad, S.; Jaafari, M. R.; Abdolahi, T.; Nikosade, A.; Monajemi, H.

    2007-12-01

    The chemical and petrochemical industries are the major air polluters. Millions of workers are exposed to toxic chemicals on the job, and it is becoming more toxic, causing much damage to respiratory system, today. One of the main components of lung alveoli is a surfactant. DPPC (Dipalmitolphosphatidylcholine) is the predominant lipid component in the lung surfactant, which is responsible for lowering surface tension in alveoli. In this article, we used an approximate model and ab initio computations to describe interactions between DPPC and some chemical solvents, such as benzene, toluene, heptane, acetone, chloroform, ether, and ethanol, which cause lung injuries and lead to respiratory distress such as ARDS. The effect of these solvents on the conformation and disordering of the DPPC head group was investigated by calculations at the Hatree-Fock level using the 6-31G basis set with the Onsager continuum solvation, GAIO, and frequency models. The simulation model was confirmed by accurate NMR measurements as concerns conformational energy. Water can be the most suitable solvent for DPPC. Furthermore, this study shows that ethanol has the most destructive effect on the conformation and lipid disorder of the DPPC head group of the lung surfactant in our model. Our finding will be useful for detecting the dysfunction of DPPC in the lung surfactant caused by acute or chronic exposures to air toxics from petrochemical organic solvent emission source and chronic alcohol consumption, which may lead to ARDS.

  11. Petrochemical and Mineralogical Constraints on the Source and Processes of Uranium Mineralisation in the Granitoids of Zing-Monkin Area, Adamawa Massif, NE Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zing-Monkin area, located in the northern part of Adamawa Massif, is underlain by extensive exposures of moderately radioactive granodiorites, anatectic migmatites, equigranular granites, porphyritic granites and highly radioactive fine-grained granites with minor pegmatites. Selected major and trace element petrochemical investigations of the rocks show that a progression from granodiorite through migmatite to granites is characterised by depletion of MgO, CaO, Fe2O3, Sr, Ba, and Zr, and enrichment of SiO2 and Rb. This trend is associated with uranium enrichment and shows a chemical gradation from the more primitive granodiorite to the more evolved granites. Electron microprobe analysis shows that the uranium is content in uranothorite and in accessories, such as monazite, titanite, apatite, epidote and zircon. Based on petrochemical and mineralogical data, the more differentiated granitoids (e.g., fine-grained granite) bordering the Benue Trough are the immediate source of the uranium prospect in Bima Sandstone within the Trough. Uranium was derived from the granitoids by weathering and erosion. Transportation and subsequent interaction with organic matter within the Bima Sandstone led to precipitation of insoluble secondary uranium minerals in the Benue Trough.

  12. Effects of probiotics on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors in petrochemical workers: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the current study was to determine effects of probiotic yoghurt and multispecies probiotic capsule supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors in petrochemical workers. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done among petrochemical workers. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups to receive 100 g/day probiotic yogurt (n = 12 or one probiotic capsule daily (n = 13 or 100 g/day conventional yogurt (n = 10 for 6 weeks. The probiotic yoghurt was containing two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis with a total of min 1 Χ 10 7 CFU. Multispecies probiotic capsule contains seven probiotic bacteria spices Actobacillus casei 3 Χ 10 3 , L. acidophilus 3 Χ 10 7 , Lactobacillus rhamnosus 7 Χ 10 9 , Lactobacillus bulgaricus 5 Χ 10 8 , Bifidobacterium breve 2 Χ 10 10 , Bifidobacterium longum 1 Χ 10 9 and Streptococcus thermophilus 3 Χ 10 8 CFU/g. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning and end of the trial to quantify biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors. Results: Although a significant within-group decrease in plasma protein carbonyl levels was seen in the probiotic capsule group (326.0 ± 308.9 vs. 251.0 ± 176.3 ng/mL, P = 0.02, the changes were similar among the three groups. In addition, significant within-group decreases in plasma iso prostaglandin were observed in the probiotic supplements group (111.9 ± 85.4 vs. 88.0 ± 71.0 pg/mL, P = 0.003 and in the probiotic yogurt group (116.3 ± 93.0 vs. 92.0 ± 66.0 pg/mL, P = 0.02, nevertheless there were no significant change among the three groups. Conclusions: Taken together, consumption of probiotic yogurt or multispecies probiotic capsule had beneficial effects on biomarkers of oxidative stress in petrochemical workers.

  13. Increment of the operational stability of the NGL I plant located in the Tablazo Petrochemical Complex, working with a low feed gas flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Alejandro

    2004-07-01

    The function of the plant NGL I is to extract the ethane and the liquids of the current of natural gas coming from Maracaibo Lake, emphatically in the ethane and propane for being a raw material for the olefins synthesis. The needed temperature for the condensation takes place cooling the dehydrated feed gas, by means of the heat exchange with two currents, cooling propane and the other cold methane gas. In 1998 some improvements to the plant were made, which are known as (MERE) (Ethane Recovery Improvements Project), these modifications were made in order to enhance the ethane recovery during the process, however, when it started to work under this modifications high instability in the performance of the compressor located in the refrigeration system was observed, which produced the shutdown of the ethane recovery process when working with feed gas stream flow rates (under 130 MMSCFD). Moreover, during the last years a decrease in the feed gas flow has been observed, in a mean of 120 MMSCFD, which has had a negative effect on the plant, because it has worked in a non-continuous state. Thanks to several improvements implemented in the actuality, we have achieved to diminish the minimal flow of operation of the plant to 95 MMPCSD, allowing the ethane production at this flow of feeding and increased the operational stability of the plant of LNG I. (author)

  14. Public health assessment for Mattiace Petrochemical Company, Glenwood Landing, Nassau County, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD000512459. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-28

    The Mattiace Petrochemical Site, which is on the National Priorities List, is on the north shore of Nassau County, near Hempstead Harbor, in the City of Glen Cove. On-site soils and groundwater are contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. Metals are elevated in groundwater. The site is next to several one-story, industrial-commercial buildings. Glen Cove Creek, a tributary to the Hempstead Harbor portion of Long Island Sound, is about 500 feet from the site. The contaminated soil and shallow groundwater may result in contamination of the vapor-phase of soil (soil gas) and may affect indoor-air quality in the industrial-commercial buildings. Runoff from the site may have contaminated the driveway and storm drains. Employees of adjacent businesses may be exposed to contaminated soils from the site.

  15. Gamma-ray application to the measurement of a media distribution at the catayst cooler of a residue fluid catalytic cracking unit (RFCCU) in the petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic behavior of the process media in the petrochemical industry can hardly be observed during its operation. Because the information on the process media is directly related to the processes efficiency, therefore it is necessary to establish what is actually happening inside the process unit. For this purpose, a field experiment was performed to study the fluidized catalyst patterns and confirm the internal conditions by using a sealed gamma-ray source. From the results, the areas showing a different pattern from the surrounding vicinity were found successfully. Especially at the upper part of the connection point at which the pipeline from are generator was joined, a relatively low amount of catalyst was distributed. Sealed gamma-ray application to the catalyst cooler is considered as a worthwhile technique for a measurement of the catalyst distribution at the RFCCU.

  16. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for the removal of Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} from synthetic petrochemical factory wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malakahmad, Amirhossein, E-mail: amirhossein@petronas.com.my [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Studies, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Hesarak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Hasani, Amirhesam [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Studies, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Hesarak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eisakhani, Mahdieh [School of Social, Development and the Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed Hasnain [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} We assessed SBR performances to treat synthetic wastewater containing Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}. {yields} SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg{sup 2+} and 96-98% of Cd{sup 2+}. {yields} COD removal efficiency and MLVSS was affected by Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} concentrations. {yields} Removal was not only biological process but also by biosorption process of sludge. - Abstract: Petrochemical factories which manufacture vinyl chloride monomer and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) are among the largest industries which produce wastewater contains mercury and cadmium. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) to treat a synthetic petrochemical wastewater containing mercury and cadmium. After acclimatization of the system which lasted 60 days, the SBR was introduced to mercury and cadmium in low concentrations which then was increased gradually to 9.03 {+-} 0.02 mg/L Hg and 15.52 {+-} 0.02 mg/L Cd until day 110. The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total and Volatile Suspended Solids as well as Sludge Volume Index. At maximum concentrations of the heavy metals, the SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg{sup 2+} and 96-98% of Cd{sup 2+}. The COD removal efficiency and MLVSS (microorganism population) in the SBR was affected by mercury and cadmium concentrations in influent. Different species of microorganisms such as Rhodospirilium-like bacteria, Gomphonema-like algae, and sulfate reducing-like bacteria were identified in the system. While COD removal efficiency and MLVSS concentration declined during addition of heavy metals, the appreciable performance of SBR in removal of Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} implies that the removal in SBR was not only a biological process, but also by the biosorption process of the sludge.

  17. 石油化工项目社会后评价研究%Study on Social Post-evaluation of Petrochemical Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋杰鲲; 张凯新; 曹子建

    2015-01-01

    界定了石油化工项目后评价的涵义,构建了包括社会影响后评价、社会互适性后评价以及社会风险后评价3个准则24个指标的石油化工项目社会后评价指标体系,建立了基于层次分析法赋权的石油化工项目社会后评价的模糊综合评价模型。实例结果表明,该指标体系与评价方法适用、可行,有助于石油化工项目明晰其社会方面的不足和改进完善思路。%The meaning of social post-evaluation of petrochemical project is defined,and the evaluation index system is constructed,which includes three aspects,i.e.,social impact post-evaluation,social mutual adaptability post-evaluation and social risk post-evaluation,and 24 indicators. The weights of indicators are given by AHP method,and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model is constructed. The result of an example shows that the index system and evaluation method are applicable and feasible,which can help petrochemical project clarify its social deficiency of and the improvement idea.

  18. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workers in petrochemical industries: baseline values and dermal uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, P J; van Sittert, N J

    1995-02-24

    The suitability of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker for the assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in petrochemical industries was evaluated in 562 workers involved in various operations in petrochemical industries. The median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration in 121 of these workers (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAH was 0.11 mumol/mol creatinine. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval was 0.51 mumol/mol creatinine. During activities with a low potential exposure to PAH, such as loading bitumen and the handling of clarified slurry oils and furfural extracts, 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were only marginally increased compared with the values measured in the 121 workers with no recent occupational exposure to PAH. Despite the substantially higher potential exposure to PAH during clean-out operations of various oil refinery installations, the concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene in the workers involved were in the same range. This suggests that personal protection equipment was generally adequate to prevent excessive exposure. However, in workers digging PAH-contaminated soil and workers engaged in the production of needle coke from ethylene cracker residue, significantly increased urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured. A major decrease in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene following the application of dermal protective equipment in the ground workers suggested that skin absorption plays a major role in occupational exposure to PAH. The excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene by the workers of the needle coke plant was investigated in relation to potential determinants of exposure to PAH. It was indeed found that not only inhalatory but also dermal exposure was a significant determinant of occupational exposure to PAH. PMID:7716500

  19. 石油化工工程质量监督系统网络信息平台的设计%Design of Network Information Platform on Petrochemical Project Quality Supervision System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明辉

    2015-01-01

    With the development of science and technology management level unceasing enhancement,the emergence of the Internet technology,the information exchange platform and the database is gradually applied to the modern office automation on the basis of interactive information platform and database. To promote the petroleum chemical industry construction engineering quality supervision work better,improve the level of service for the enterprise,and to make the petrochemical industry get better manage key projects and ensure project quality better,the author combined with nearly 10 years of experience in petrochemical project management,according to the petrochemical construction and expansion of the characteristics of petrochemical projects designed a set of petrochemical construction project information platform system. Practice has proved that using the Internet as a auxiliary petrochemical project quality management of channels the network information platform made the petrochemical enterprises filing procedures of quality supervision shorten, further standardized and managed the petrochemical enterprises in Hebei province construction and expansion of the project,built a convenient highway for surveillance and petrochemical companies.%随着科技管理水平的不断提高,互联网技术的出现,以信息交换平台和数据库为基础,数据处理及分析程序为手段的互动信息平台,也逐渐应用到了现代办公自动化领域。为促进石油化工建设工程质量监督工作更好地开展,提高为企业服务的水平,使石油化工重点项目得到更好的管理,工程质量得到更好的保证,本文结合近10年的石油化工项目管理经验,根据石油化工新建、扩建石油化工项目的特点,设计了一套石油化工建设工程项目信息平台系统。实践证明,该网络信息平台利用互联网作为辅助石油化工工程质量管理的渠道,缩短了石油化工

  20. SWOT Analysis of Fujian Province's Undertaking Petrochemical Industry from Taiwan District%福建承接台湾石化产业转移的SWOT分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛建雄

    2012-01-01

    闽台五缘相连,石化产业区际转移合力有利于福建承接台湾石化产业转移。在前人研究的基础上,从区际产业转移力入手,综合考虑经济因素和非经济因素,应用SWOT量化分析法对影响闽台石化产业转移对接的潜在竞争对手的优势、劣势、机会、挑战等因素进行分析,确定福建省在争取承接台湾石化产业过程中应采取SO发展策略。福建省应对内继续提升产业承接拉力,对外加强对台招商引资力度,把握海西建设和闽台石化产业转移的战略机遇,尽力争取承接台湾石化产业转移并发展壮大,在未来闽台跨海石化产业整合中抢占先机。%Fujian province,geographically and culturally,closely related with Taiwan district,is advantageous of undertaking the Taiwan petrochemical industry transferring.Based on the former research and the consideration of economic factors and non-economic factors,as well as the joined forces between petrochemical industry districts,the quantitative SWOT is applied to analyze the advantages and disadvantages,opportunities and challenges of the potential competitors,who have effects on petrochemical industry transferring between Fujian province and Taiwan district,in order to adopt SO development strategy in Fujian province's undertaking petrochemical industry from Taiwan.Fujian province should promote the industrial undertaking forces as well as attract more investment in order to seize the strategic opportunities in the building of Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone,accomplish the development after undertaking Taiwan petrochemical industry and grab the opportunities in advance with regard to the petrochemical industry reconstruction between Fujian province and Taiwan district.

  1. Complex Beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschet, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Complex systems and their underlying convoluted networks are ubiquitous, all we need is an eye for them. They pose problems of organized complexity which cannot be approached with a reductionist method. Complexity science and its emergent sister network science both come to grips with the inherent complexity of complex systems with an holistic strategy. The relevance of complexity, however, transcends the sciences. Complex systems and networks are the focal point of a philosophical, cultural ...

  2. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation on Petrochemical Construction and Installation Engineering Quality%石化安装工程质量模糊综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连永斌

    2015-01-01

    Quality Assessment petrochemical installation project mainly depends on the quality of the passing rate of the entity as well as engineering and other technical documents related to the reinspection, there was not much the means of quality management and monitoring involved in the installation process,and lack of in-depth study on installation project quality evaluation method. This paper established a relatively complete,system of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method based on the life cycle theory and analytic hierarchy process.%石化安装工程的质量评价主要依靠对工程实体质量的合格率以及相关技术文件等的复验,涉及安装过程质量管理和监控的手段不多,缺乏对安装工程质量评价方法的深入研究.本文结合生命周期理论和层次分析法建立了较为完整、系统的模糊综合评价方法.

  3. Public health assessment for Petrochem Recycling Corporation/Ekotek, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Utah, Region 8. CERCLIS No. UTD093119196. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Petrochem/EkoTek site was operated by several owners as a refinery from 1953 until 1978 and as a hazardous waste storage/treatment facility and a petroleum recycling facility from 1978 through 1988. Removal of essentially all petroleum products and hazardous wastes in tanks and drums was accomplished from 1988 - 1991. The process that will lead to the complete clean-up of the facility is ongoing. The site was added to the National Priorities List (NPL) in October 1992. Contaminants in the soil are arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, chlordane, dieldrin, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, pentachlorophenol, and heptachlor epoxide. Children who ingest regularly large amounts (five grams or more a day) of soil contaminated with the highest levels of arsenic and cadmium have some risk for adverse health effects. The arsenic levels are typical for the Salt Lake City area. The maximum levels of barium could also cause health effects in children according to animal studies. There are four ways that humans may have been exposed: surface water, groundwater, soil gas, and waste materials. Surface-water runoff probably transported unknown concentrations of site contaminants to businesses west of the site. Residences and businesses within 1 mile of the site use municipal water for drinking water

  4. Identification and classification of open book accounting dimensions by considering inter-organizational cost management: A case study of petrochemical companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sadeghi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify and to classify Open book accounting (OBA dimensions according to inter-organizational cost management (IOCM in petrochemical companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. In this research, there are 18 statistical society financial and accounting experts listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. By studying the theoretical literature and conducted investigations inside and outside of the country and also the experts’ comments, the OBA dimensions were identified and then classified by analytical hierarchy process technique. According to the studies and experts’ ideas, four dimensions including nature of data and accounting data disclosure practices, uses of disclosed accounting data, conditions of OBA, cost implementation of OBA were identified as OBA dimensions. The results of examinations were shown that, considering the comments on dimensions of nature of data and accounting data disclosure practices, the form of data disclosure plays a more important role. In uses of disclosed accounting data dimension, coordination and planning among team members play the most important role. According to conditions of OBA dimension, trust is the most important one and in cost implementation of OBA dimension, the cost of the other party plays the most important role.

  5. Hybrid environment for software sensors design applied to the petrochemical industry problems; Ambiente hibrido para a concepcao de sensores de software aplicados aos problemas da industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Bruno X.; Ramalho, Leonardo S.G.; Rodrigues, Igor O.; Martins, Daniel L.; Doria Neto, Adriao D.; Melo, Jorge D.; Oliveira, Luiz A.H.G.G. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article will show a hybrid environment for the conception of software sensors in Foundation Fieldbus (FF) industrial network. These sensors are focused on the measurement and control problems in the petroleum industry, more specifically in oil and gas refining, contributing for the efficiency increase and operation costs decrease of a refining process. The software sensors are based on intelligent algorithms, as neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. These algorithms need input data, in this case the historical variables data associated to industrial petrochemical plant. One option allowed by the environment is the data acquisition from a simulated process by the FF network. Then, the environment presents a hybrid feature, since it is composed by a real (the industrial network) and a simulated (the process) part, with the use of real control and measurements signals. The environment is flexible, allowing typical dynamics of industrial process reproduction without necessity of the physical network amendment and enabling the creation of several situations from a real industrial environment. (author)

  6. The Analysis of a Microbial Community in the UV/O3-Anaerobic/Aerobic Integrated Process for Petrochemical Nanofiltration Concentrate (NFC) Treatment by 454-Pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao; He, Wenjie; Wei, Li; Li, Chunying; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, high-throughput pyrosequencing was applied on the analysis of the microbial community of activated sludge and biofilm in a lab-scale UV/O3- anaerobic/aerobic (A/O) integrated process for the treatment of petrochemical nanofiltration concentrate (NFC) wastewater. NFC is a type of saline wastewater with low biodegradability. From the anaerobic activated sludge (Sample A) and aerobic biofilm (Sample O), 59,748 and 51,231 valid sequence reads were obtained, respectively. The dominant phylotypes related to the metabolism of organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biodegradation, assimilation of carbon from benzene, and the biodegradation of nitrogenous organic compounds were detected as genus Clostridium, genera Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, class Betaproteobacteria, and genus Hyphomicrobium. Furthermore, the nitrite-oxidising bacteria Nitrospira, nitrite-reducing and sulphate-oxidising bacteria (NR-SRB) Thioalkalivibrio were also detected. In the last twenty operational days, the total Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiencies on average were 64.93% and 62.06%, respectively. The removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen and Total Nitrogen (TN) on average were 90.51% and 75.11% during the entire treatment process. PMID:26461260

  7. Analysis on the new mode of safety management of petrochemical enterprises%炼化企业安全管理新模式的分析探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永林

    2015-01-01

    炼化企业作为高危行业,做好安全管理工作是企业面临的首要课题.文中从明确企业各部门的职责、全员参与安全管理入手,分析了发挥企业各部门齐抓共管安全工作的优势.安全管理新模式有效提升了企业安全管理职能,开创了企业安全管理工作的新局面.%Petrochemical enterprises as a high-risk industry, good safety management is the most important issue facing enterprises. In this paper, the full participation in safety management is the beginning of the full participation of all departments, and the advantages of each department to manage the safety work of the enterprises, effectively improve the safety management functions, and create a new situation of enterprise security management.

  8. Study of the schedule control in the EPC petrochemical tank project%EPC总承包石化罐区工程进度控制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张方良; 房锡存; 韩丽影

    2015-01-01

    以某EPC石化工程为研究对象,借助于大型项目管理软件P6和PIP管理系统实现项目的进度控制管理,搭建起便捷的项目信息交流平台;运用CPM关键路径法实现进度计划的编制和工期优化,通过进度反馈和进度审批及时更新项目进度情况,最终实现项目的高效管理,推进项目管理的信息化.%The information project exchange platform is built up by taking the example of a petrochemical project and with the help of large-scale project management software P6 and PIP project management system;the progress plan drawing and schedule optimization are realized by CPM critical path method;the efficient management is implemented by means of progress feedback and approval as well as updating progress timely to promote infomationization of it.

  9. Management of safety, environment and health in expansion of the Petrochemical industry; Gestao de seguranca, meio ambiente e saude na ampliacao da industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Sonia Marta Carpinelli; Abreu, Igor Melo de [UTC Engenharia S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The UTC Engineering S.A. search for excellence results to develop the Health, Environmental, and Safety Integrated Management System (SMS) which is addressed to the Petrochemical Uniao S.A. Project for Productivity Capacity Expansion. Despite challenges to set and maintain the System and besides risks associated to electro-mechanical industrial assembly and civil construction, the plan is being implemented. Due to activity changes associated with distinct enterprise steps execution there is a need of tight control related to alteration and immediate blockage actions as procedure to prevent accidents. Innovative programs as the 'Motivation Program for Prevention of Losses' and the 'Qualification Program and Training of Work', bring up to the workers sense of responsibilities and professional values related to SMS issues. As an aid, the Programs supplied by DuPont as STOP{sup TM} - (Program of Safety for Observation) and IAS (Index of Safe Actions) constituted important tools. But, its production leadership taking part, concerned SMS commitment and responsibilities, was crucial. The good results achievements are expressed by reduction of SMS distortions and by reduction of labor accidents as man hour exposed to the risk. (author)

  10. Source fingerprint monitoring of air pollutants from petrochemical industry and the determination of their annual emission flux using open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yih-Shiaw Huang; Shih-Yi Chang; Tai-Ly Tso [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (China)

    1996-12-31

    Toxic air pollutants were investigated in several petrochemical industrial park in Taiwan using a movable open-path Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show the qualitative and quantitative analysis of emission gases from plants, and also provide the emission rates of various compounds. More than twenty compounds under usual operation were found from these industrial park. The concentration variation with time could be correlated exactly with the distances from the emission source along the wind direction. This means that by changing the measuring points the source of emission could be unambiguously identified. The point, area and line source (PAL) plume dispersion model has been applied to estimate the emission rate of either a point or an area source. The local atmospheric stability was determined by releasing an SF{sub 6} tracer. The origin of errors came mainly from the uncertainty of the source configuration and the variation of the meteorological condition. Through continuous measurement using a portable open-path Fourier transform infrared (POP-FTIR) spectrometer, the maximum value of the emission rate and the annual amount of emission could be derived. The emission rate of the measured toxic gases was derived by the model technique, and the results show that the emission amount is on the order of ten to hundred tons per year.

  11. The Analysis of a Microbial Community in the UV/O3-Anaerobic/Aerobic Integrated Process for Petrochemical Nanofiltration Concentrate (NFC Treatment by 454-Pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wei

    Full Text Available In this study, high-throughput pyrosequencing was applied on the analysis of the microbial community of activated sludge and biofilm in a lab-scale UV/O3- anaerobic/aerobic (A/O integrated process for the treatment of petrochemical nanofiltration concentrate (NFC wastewater. NFC is a type of saline wastewater with low biodegradability. From the anaerobic activated sludge (Sample A and aerobic biofilm (Sample O, 59,748 and 51,231 valid sequence reads were obtained, respectively. The dominant phylotypes related to the metabolism of organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH biodegradation, assimilation of carbon from benzene, and the biodegradation of nitrogenous organic compounds were detected as genus Clostridium, genera Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, class Betaproteobacteria, and genus Hyphomicrobium. Furthermore, the nitrite-oxidising bacteria Nitrospira, nitrite-reducing and sulphate-oxidising bacteria (NR-SRB Thioalkalivibrio were also detected. In the last twenty operational days, the total Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and Total Organic Carbon (TOC removal efficiencies on average were 64.93% and 62.06%, respectively. The removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen and Total Nitrogen (TN on average were 90.51% and 75.11% during the entire treatment process.

  12. Effects of carbon taxes on different industries by fuzzy goal programming: A case study of the petrochemical-related industries, Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of a carbon tax is one of the major ways to mitigate CO2 emission. However, blanket taxes applied to all industries in a country might not always be fair or successful in CO2 reduction. This study aims to evaluate the effects of carbon taxes on different industries, and meanwhile to find an optimal carbon tax scenario for Taiwan's petrochemical industry. A fuzzy goal programming approach, integrated with gray prediction and input-output theory, is used to construct a model for simulating the CO2 reduction capacities and economic impacts of three different tax scenarios. Results indicate that the up-stream industries show improved CO2 reduction while the down-stream industries fail to achieve their reduction targets. Moreover, under the same reduction target (i.e. return the CO2 emission amount to year 2000 level by 2020), scenario SWE induces less impact than FIN and EU on industrial GDP. This work provides a valuable approach for researches on model construction and CO2 reduction, since it applies the gray envelop prediction to determine the boundary values of the fuzzy goal programming model, and furthermore it can take the economic interaction among industries into consideration. (author)

  13. Biodegradation of BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes) composites present in the petrochemical effluents industries; Biodegradacao dos compostos BTX (Benzeno, Tolueno e Xilenos) presentes em efluentes petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minatti, Gheise; Mello, Josiane M.M. de; Souza, Selene M.A. Guelli Ulson de; Antonio Augusto Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The compounds BTX inside of the petrochemical effluent have presented a high potential of pollution, representing a serious risk to the environment and to the human. The great improvements in the field of biological treatment of liquid effluent were reached through the process using biofilm capable of degrading toxic compounds. The objective of this paper is to determine the degradation kinetics of BTX using biofilm. The experimental data were compared with two kinetic models, kinetic of first order and model of Michaelis-Menten. The kinetic parameters of BTX compounds were experimentally obtained in a bioreactor in batch with biomass immobilized in activated-carbon, being fed daily with solution of nutrients and BTX. For the kinetic models studied in this paper, the best performance was achieved with the model of Michaelis-Menten showing a good correlation coefficient for the three compounds. The biomass amount in these bioreactors was 49.18, 28.35 and 5.15 mg of SSV per gram of support for the toluene, benzene and o-xylene, respectively. The experimental tests showed that the biomass inside of bioreactor is capable to degrade all compounds in a time of approximately 300 minutes. (author)

  14. Asimilación del Almacén de Datos en las Organizaciones Corporativas Petroquímicas Data Warehouse Assimilation in the Petrochemical Corporative Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo que se presenta fue analizar el proceso de asimilación del almacén de datos en las organizaciones corporativas petroquímicas en el estado de Tamaulipas-México. Se evaluó el efecto del grado de adopción de la tecnología por el capital humano de la organización, y en la toma de decisiones. El proceso de asimilación del almacén de datos en el caso estudiado, disminuye el tiempo, traduciéndose en un incremento de la exactitud y precisión para la toma de decisiones. Esto se refleja en un 93.9% en la rentabilidad. Sin embargo, el estudio muestra también que no se explotan al máximo las potencialidades del almacén de datos.The purpose of this work was to analyze the data warehouse assimilation process in the petrochemical corporative organizations in the state of Tamaulipas-Mexico. The effect of the adoption degree among the personnel, and in making decisions was evaluated. The process of adoption of the data warehouse in the case studied in this work reduces time, which causes an increase in the accuracy and precision of decision making. This is shown by the 93.9% profit. However, the study also shows that the maximum potentialities of the data warehouse are not fully used.

  15. Complex chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-15

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  16. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  17. Trading and price risk managment of petrochemical companies%石油炼制企业如何应对石油贸易价格风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙琼玲

    2012-01-01

    According to the sharp increase demand of crude oil import of China, it shows that we must solve the problem of how to avoid the risk of trad- ing and . In China, the business of crude oil purchasing and paper hedging of the crude oil precessing and petroleum products production companies is strictly controlled by the government and policy, producer' s ability of controlling the cost and risk is very weak without enough hedging. This thesis point out the situ- ation of petroleum trade tend to "financialisation" if we just accept the oil price passively without risk management ,risk exposure would occur. Since the crude oil cost occupy 95 percent of the petrochemical or refinery, it is important to use the oil trade financial derivatives to manage the market risk. This thesis use descriptive research and illustrational method to discover the way for petrochemical or refinery to use appropriate hedging to avoid market and price fluctuations, adjust valuation type and time period, adjust absolute price ,and lots of operations. So it can provide flexible mechanisms for trading operators to manage the risk position of crude oil, and make more room for manoeuvre of the physical transactions. This thesis point out it is very important to pursue risk management of the petroleum refineries and companies who expect to win the international competitive- ness. For the controlling of oil risk, particularly for the refineries in China mainland, they should use the approach of risk management and financial instruments to develop the ability of risk controlling and resources obtaining.%随着中国对原油进口依存度急剧加大,规避石油贸易价格风险已成为我们必须解决的问题。中国政府对下属炼油企业在原油采购期纸货保值等方面的操作有严格要求,在采购过程中对原油成本控制能力比较薄弱。本文指出,在目前石油贸易日趋金融化的情况下,如果只是被动接受原油价格而不采取

  18. Bucolic Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Brešar, Bostjan; Chepoi, Victor; Gologranc, Tanja; Osajda, Damian

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we introduce and investigate bucolic complexes, a common generalization of systolic complexes and of CAT(0) cubical complexes. This class of complexes is closed under Cartesian products and amalgamations over some convex subcomplexes. We study various approaches to bucolic complexes: from graph-theoretic and topological viewpoints, as well as from the point of view of geometric group theory. Bucolic complexes can be defined as locally-finite simply connected prism complexes satisfying some local combinatorial conditions. We show that bucolic complexes are contractible, and satisfy some nonpositive-curvature-like properties. In particular, we prove a version of the Cartan-Hadamard theorem, the fixed point theorem for finite group actions, and establish some results on groups acting geometrically on such complexes. We also characterize the 1-skeletons (which we call bucolic graphs) and the 2-skeletons of bucolic complexes. In particular, we prove that bucolic graphs are precisely retracts of Ca...

  19. "Zero Discharge" Process for Reverse Osmosis-Concentrated Petrochemical Wastewater%石化污水反渗透浓水“零排放”技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正; 彭海珠; 孙杰; 赵辉; 龚小芝; 侯秀华

    2012-01-01

    采用微滤—反渗透(RO)—蒸发—结晶工艺处理某石化企业的RO浓水,实现了RO浓水的“零排放”.试验结果表明:经加碱、微滤后,污水硬度平均减小率为98.8%,排出的滤渣平均质量分数为9.4%,减少了污水中有机物和微生物对后续RO膜的污染;微滤产水无需降低pH,可直接进入RO系统,电导率减小率可达98.0%;蒸发可将总固体质量浓度由13 290 mg/L增至172 155 mg/L,产水电导率为66 μS/cm.%Reverse osmosis(RO) concentrated wastewater from a petrochemical plant was treated by microfiltration-RO-evaporation-crystallization process realizing "zero discharge" . The test results show that: After alkali addition and microfiltration, the average decreasing rate of the wastewater hardness is 98.8%, the average mass fraction of the filter residue is 9,4%, therefor the fouling of RO membrane due to organic compounds and microorganism in the wastewater is reduced; The microfiltration effluent can flow into the RO system without pH reducing, the decreasing rate of RO effluent conductivity can reach 98.0%; In the evaporation process, the total solid mass concentration is increased from 13 290 mg/L to 172 155 mg/ L, its effluent conductivity is 66 μS/cm.

  20. 石化作业可穿戴式智能应急信息装备系统研究%Study on Wearable Intelligent Emergency Information Equipment System for Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锟湃; 柯文德

    2015-01-01

    This study mainly takes the STM 32 microcontroller as the control core,and the design includes the intelligent information helmet, the intelligent wireless control watches and the PC software for real-time transmission with helmet.As the core of intelligent information equipment of petrochemical emergency system,the intelligent information helmet and intelligent wireless control watches have many functions including acquisition and display of environmental information for petrochemical,photographic of petrochemical environment,real-time monitoring of workers heart rate,risk alarm for petrochemical dynamic environment together with gas,positioning of precise GPS,as well as two-way assistance of emergency calling for help when workers are in danger,and so on.Remote real-time monitor of PC software in the computer port can be completed by means of wireless communication transmission.The effectiveness of the method is verified by the experi-ments.%以STM32单片机为控制核心板,设计智能信息头盔、智能无线控制手表和用于实时与头盔传输的上位机软件,构建起以智能信息头盔和智能信息手表为核心的可穿戴式的石化应急智能信息装备系统,用于对石化环境监测及拍摄、工作者脉搏心率实时监测、动态石化环境毒气危险报警、精确GPS定位系统定位以及协助工作者险情应急双向通话呼救等功能,并通过无线通讯传输技术,实现计算机端上位机软件对石化环境的远程实时监控.实验验证了方法的有效性.

  1. Tropical complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    We introduce tropical complexes, which are Delta-complexes together with additional numerical data. On a tropical complex, we define divisors and linear equivalence between divisors, analogous to the notions for algebraic varieties, and generalizing previous work for graphs. We prove a comparison theorem showing that divisor-curve intersection numbers agree under certain conditions.

  2. Medical Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of the Medical Complex. This project covers the construction of a new Hong Kong University Medical Complex on Sassoon Road, Pokfulam. The complex will comprise two buildings, one will house laboratories and a car park, while the other will contain lecture halls

  3. Communication complexity and information complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  4. Petrochemical and Sr-Nd isotope investigations of Cretaceous intrusive rocks and their enclaves in the Togouchi-Yoshiwa district, northwest Hiroshima prefecture, SW Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrographic, petrochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data are presented for granitoids and microdioritic enclaves from two Cretaceous stocks (Togouchi granodiorite and Tateiwayama granite porphyry) from the Togouchi-Yoshiwa district, northwest Hiroshima prefecture, SW Japan. The data are used to examine the genetic relationships between the microdioritic enclaves and their granitoid hosts. The granodiorite, granite porphyry and the microdioritic enclaves are all calc-alkaline in nature, and belong to the I-type ilmenite series. The Togouchi graniodiorite has a Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of 85.6±4.7 Ma with an initial Sr isotope ratio (SrI) of 0.70634±0.00012 (2σ). The Tateiwayama granite porphyry has a slightly younger Rb-Sr whole isochron age (77.4±3.1 Ma) but similar SrI of 0.70653±0.00015, suggesting that both stocks may have been derived from the same source. Despite diverse whole rock chemistry, the microdioritic enclaves in the respective intrusives have quite similar initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios, suggesting that they formed by fractional crystallization of a single magma, and also that the source of the enclaves in both intrusives had similar geochemical characteristics. In both stocks, however, the enclaves have distinctly lower initial Sr isotope ratios than their respective host rocks, indicating that they were derived from a different source than their hosts. In view of the geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope data, we infer that the enclave magmas were derived from a similar LILE- and LREE-enriched source to that of the Cretaceous basalts and gabbroic-dioritic rocks that are sporadically distributed in SW Japan. Such mafic to intermediate magmas were probably derived from the upper mantle, and transferred both heat and material to the lower crust, thus producing granitic magmas by partial melting. Successive mafic magmas or their differentiates could then have been injected into the granitic magma chamber, trapped and quenched, resulting in the formation

  5. 石油化工企业凝结水回收及净化处理技术探讨%Discussion on technologies for condensate water recovery and purification in petrochemical corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐

    2011-01-01

    在石油化工企业生产过程中,由于存在设备泄漏及腐蚀,常造成凝结水含油、含铁量超标.凝结水大量排放不但造成经济损失,而且也增加废水处理压力,因此回收凝结水具有重要意义.分析了凝结水受到污染的原因,介绍了石油化工企业凝结水的处理工艺流程及工艺特点.%The condensate water in petrochemical corporation often contains oil and iron-ion whose concentration exceed the standard due to the existing leakage and corrosion of equipments. The massive discharge of the said condensate water may not only cause the economical loss but also increase the difficulty of wastewater treatment; therefore, the condensate water recovery had great significance. The reasons caused the pollution of condensate water were analyzed, and then, the process flow and characteristics of condensate water treatment in petrochemical corporation were introduced.

  6. Testing of Usually Used Valves Manufactured by API Standards of Piping Works for Watersupply and Drainage in Petrochemical Industry%石油化工给排水管道常用API标准制造阀门的试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成义祥

    2014-01-01

    该文介绍了石油化工给排水管道常用API标准制造阀门—闸阀、截止阀、蝶阀的试验项目及试验比例,通过在某大型石油化工项目的成功实践,证明了严格执行该阀门试验项目及试验比例对保证石油化工给排水管道施工质量的必要性、合理性。%Testing items and proportion of Usually Used Valves namely gate valve,globe valve, butterfly valve manufactured by API standards of piping worksfor watersupply and drainage in petrochemical industry is introduced. It is proved that strictly performing the testing items and proportion is essential and reasonable to ensure construction quality of piping works for watersupply and drainage in petr- ochemical industry through practicing in some large petrochemical project.

  7. Strategy on Environmental Protection Management of Dayawan Petrochemical Industrial Park in Huizhou%惠州大亚湾石化工业区环境保护现状与策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟生; 纪红兵

    2012-01-01

    The main problem existed in environmental protection was analyzed in view of present situation of environmental development in Dayawan Petrochemical Industrial Park. Some strategy and suggestions for environmental management in Dayawan Petrochemical Industrial Park, including scientific planning and construction of the park, developing a circular economy, taking ecoindustrialization, increasing investment in environmental protection, creating innovation in environmental management philosophy, personnel security and the popularity of environmental knowledge, were given to keep sustainable development of the district and deal with the relationship between economic growth, environmental protection and social responsibility.%结合大亚湾石化工业区的发展概况,分析了该园区存在的主要环境保护现状、问题,并从科学规划,积极发展循环经济,走生态工业化道路,加大环保投入、创新环保管理理念,人才保障和群众环保知识的普及等角度提出了相应的策略及措施建议,为促进园区的可持续发展,处理好经济增长、环境保护和社会责任的关系提供参考。

  8. The Study of Petrochemical Plant Piping Corrosion and Anticorrosive Countermeasures%石油化工装置配管的腐蚀及防腐对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯飞龙

    2012-01-01

    配管是石油化工行业中必不可少的设备之一,在长时间运行的过程中常因受管道内部流体的性质、温度、压力、流速及滞留时间等因素的影响而发生腐蚀,甚至导致泄漏而引发事故。本文对石油化工装置配管的腐蚀原因进行了分析,并且研究了相应的防腐措施。%Piping in petrochemical industry was one of the essential equipment, which was often corroded because of the pipeline internal fluid properties, temperature, pressure, flow, residence time and other factors in the long time run- ning process, and even lead to accident caused by leakage. The reasons of petrochemical piping corrosion were analyzed and the corresponding measures of corrosion prevention were proposed.

  9. Application of water mist fire extinguishing system in the heat-oil pump zone of petrochemical corporation%高压细水雾灭火系统在石化企业热油泵区的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭虎城

    2011-01-01

    The theory of making fog of water mist fire extinguishing system, fire-fighting mechanism, performance, merits and special technology were described.The advantages come from replacing steam extinguishing system with water mist fire extinguishing system in heat-oil pumps district of catalytic equipments were introduced based on the situation of petrochemical enterprises, the fire plan, design parameters and applicatian results are briefly introduced too.The future application of water mist fire extinguishing system in the petrochemical industry was described.%简述细水雾灭火系统的成雾原理、灭火机理、性能、优点和特殊技术的应用,并结合石油化工企业热油泵区的实际状况,对细水雾灭火系统在催化装置热油泵区替代蒸汽灭火系统的优势及其灭火方案、设计参数和应用效果作简要介绍,展望细水雾灭火系统在石油化工企业的工程应用前景.

  10. The complexity of automation and user: the Human Centered Design as integration of this paradigm; A complexidade da automacao e o usuario: o Human Centered Design como paradigma dessa integracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barateiro, Carlos Eduardo R.B.; Farias Filho, Jose Rodrigues de; Campagnac, Luiz Antonio da Paz [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider that the growing technological development has a number of benefits to society, we can also observe that there is an increased complexity in the implementation of modern life activities. The increased complexity is unavoidable and is even desirable in certain aspects. What should be avoided is the complication in the execution of any of such activities. The article discusses the concept of project implementation focused on the human being who will operate or use the product of the project, and the control process automation of petrochemical plants as examples of the use of this technique. (author)

  11. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. 贵州罗甸玉岩石化学特征及成因意义%PETROCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND GENESIC SIGNIFICANCE OF LUODIAN JADE FROM GUIZHOU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 林金辉; 王雷; 谭靖; 王兵

    2012-01-01

    以XRF、ICP-MS及常规化学分析方法为主要研究手段,对贵州罗甸玉的岩石化学特征进行研究,玉石常量化学特征表明,罗甸玉中透闪石的形成经历了Mg相对饱和及不饱和两个阶段,Mg相饱和的成矿阶段形成了白色罗甸玉中接近理想透闪石晶体化学组成的透闪石,其晶体化学通式为A0.01 B2.00 C5.34 T8O22(OH)2;而在Mg不饱和阶段,则形成了青色系列罗甸玉中具有高Ca低Mg特点的透闪石,相应的晶体化学通式A0.01B2.35C4.13T8O22(OH)2.微量元素研究表明,罗甸玉中的白色与青色系列,由不同微量元素组合所表征的三个主因子有所差异,同时,罗甸玉中青色主要由其化学组成中微量的V,Cr引起;罗甸玉的稀土元素配分具有δCe和δEu异常的特点,稀土配分模式与围岩辉绿岩及灰岩均较为一致.在罗甸玉岩石化学特征研究的基础上,认为罗甸玉的形成是罗甸玉为岩床状辉绿岩顺层侵入时带来气液流体,与灰岩围岩发生长期的交代蚀变所形成的,灰岩提供成矿所需的Ca,Mg,而气液流体则主要提供了Si,为一种新类型的软玉矿体.%Petrochemical characteristics of Luodian Jade from Guizhou Province were studied by using XRF, ICP-MS and conventional chemical analysis. Tremolite in Luodian Jade experienced two stages of relative saturated and unsaturated in Mg. Tremolite formed in Mg saturated phase is mainly white jade series,close to the standard crystal chemical composition with general formula of A0.01B2.35C4.13T8O22(OH)2. whereas, relatively green jade series may appear in Mg unsaturated stage and is rich in Ca and poor in Mg with general formula of A0.01B2.35C4.13T8O22(OH)2. Analy-sis of trace elements shows that the formation of white jade series and green jade series is affected by different trace element associations,especially,Cr-V,Co-Ni and Mn-Sr. It is indicated that Cr and V ions in chemical composition are responsible for the green color of

  13. 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application-study report: Geismar, Loisiana, and Orange, Texas refinery/chemical complex applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the application of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) which operates in a process steam/cogeneration (PS/C) mode in supplying heat and electricity to a large complex of refineries and petrochemical plants. The technical and economic merits of an 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C are compared with those of a coal-fired plant and existing oil-fired facilities for this application. The safety and licensing issues of the nuclear plant were reviewed, and a comparative assessment of the energy alternatives was performed

  14. Engaging complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gys M. Loubser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I discuss studies in complexity and its epistemological implications for systematic and practical theology. I argue that engagement with complexity does not necessarily assurea non-reductionist approach. However, if complexity is engaged transversally, it becomes possible to transcend reductionist approaches. Moreover, systematic and practical the ologians can draw on complexity in developing new ways of understanding and, therefore, new ways of describing the focus, epistemic scope and heuristic structures of systematic and practical theology. Firstly, Edgar Morin draws a distinction between restricted and general complexity based on the epistemology drawn upon in studies in complexity. Moving away from foundationalist approaches to epistemology, Morin argues for a paradigm of systems. Secondly,I discuss Kees van Kooten Niekerk�s distinction between epistemology, methodology andontology in studies in complexity and offer an example of a theological argument that drawson complexity. Thirdly, I argue for the importance of transversality in engaging complexity by drawing on the work of Wentzel van Huyssteen and Paul Cilliers. In conclusion, I argue that theologians have to be conscious of the epistemic foundations of each study in complexity, and these studies illuminate the heart of Reformed theology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Therefore, this article has both intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications. When theologians engage studies incomplexity, the epistemological roots of these studies need to be considered seeing thatresearchers in complexity draw on different epistemologies. Drawing on transversality wouldenhance such considerations. Furthermore, Edgar Morin�s and Paul Cilliers� approach tocomplexity will inform practical and theoretical considerations in church polity and unity.

  15. Carney Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Carney complex are Cushing’s syndrome and multiple thyroid nodules (tumors). Cushing’s syndrome features a combination of weight gain, ... with Carney complex include adrenocortical carcinoma , pituitary gland tumors , thyroid , colorectal , liver and pancreatic cancers . Ovarian cancer in ...

  16. Simplifying complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemput, van de I.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I use mathematical models to explore the properties of complex systems ranging from microbial nitrogen pathways and coral reefs to the human state of mind. All are examples of complex systems, defined as systems composed of a number of interconnected parts, where the systemic behavior

  17. Hamiltonian complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years we have seen the birth of a new field known as Hamiltonian complexity lying at the crossroads between computer science and theoretical physics. Hamiltonian complexity is directly concerned with the question: how hard is it to simulate a physical system? Here I review the foundational results, guiding problems, and future directions of this emergent field.

  18. 2013年我国石油化工行业进展回顾与展望%Progress of China’s petrochemical industry in 2013 and outlook for 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪定一

    2014-01-01

    有的贡献。%The progress of China’s petrochemical industry under the conditions of high crude price and slowdown in economy in year 2013 is summarized. Firstly,the running of petrochemical industry was smooth and steady,then turning to better;output value and gross profit achieved double-digit growth. Because refinery production ran smoothly and ethylene production turned to better,a significant increase in profits was achieved. Secondly,performance of China's petrochemical production in 2013 was satisfactory. Crude oil processing volume reached 478.6 million tons,an increase of 3.3%. Ethylene production reached 16.23 million tons,an increase of 8.5%. Propylene production reached 14.6 million tons,an increase of 11%. Synthetic resin production reached 58.37 million tons,an increase of 11%. Synthetic rubber production reached 4.09 million tons,an increase of 6.3%. Synthetic fibers production reached 37.39 million tons,an increase of 7.1%. Fertilizers production reached 71.54 million tons,an increase of 4.9%. Thirdly,progress was made in building a world-class petrochemical industry. Crude oil processing volume and ethylene production output were continually keeping the world’s second. Aromatics chain ranked world-class. Production of three synthetic materials was in the forefront. Large refining and ethylene plants for the first time realized an overhaul once every four years. Fourthly,new progress was made in the transformation and upgrading of petrochemical industry. Modern coal chemical industry was smoothly integrated into the petrochemical production system. Petrochemical industry was intervening to biomass chemical,and aviation kerosene was successfully produced by using biomass and obtained airworthiness passport. Fifthly,about technology progress, 2000kt/a high efficiency (SHEER) hydrogenation package technology was successfully developed. A 2000kt/a diesel liquid circulation hydrogenation unit can produce refined diesel fuel with a total sulfur content of 3mg/kg. The second

  19. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia;

    2013-01-01

    and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing.......This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...

  20. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  1. Complex Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Kleefeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to some generalized correspondence principle the classical limit of a non-Hermitian quantum theory describing quantum degrees of freedom is expected to be the well known classical mechanics of classical degrees of freedom in the complex phase space, i.e., some phase space spanned by complex-valued space and momentum coordinates. As special relativity was developed by Einstein merely for real-valued space-time and four-momentum, we will try to understand how special relativity and covariance can be extended to complex-valued space-time and four-momentum. Our considerations will lead us not only to some unconventional derivation of Lorentz transformations for complex-valued velocities, but also to the non-Hermitian Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, which are to lay the foundations of a non-Hermitian quantum theory.

  2. 石油化工工人职业应激因素对工作满意感和心理健康的影响%Appraisal of occupational stressor in petrochemical industry workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓萍; 王羽; 刘文贺; 田宏迩; 黄童; 李志媛; 胡柯铭; 葛锡泳; 金蕾; 高奇; 张静静

    2009-01-01

    Objective To discuss the origin of occupational stress among petrochemical industry workers and to access the main occupational stressors that impact job satisfaction and mental health of petrochemical industry workers. Methods A survey on occupational stressor was carried out by Occupational Stress Indicator(OSI) in 532 petrochemical industry workers(345 chemical and 187 logistic workers). Results The environment in workplace of chemical group was worse than that of contrast. The chemical workers had less control over job and they experienced more hazards, monotonous as well as role stressors than the logistic group. The scores of job satisfaction and mental health of chemical group (36.867±0.656, 43.734±0.542, respectively) were higher than that of contrast (40.321 ±0.901, 46.714±0.745, respectively) (P<0.05). Conclusion The occupational stressors exist in chemical workers which affect chemical workers 'job satisfaction and mental health with different levels.%目的 探讨石油化工企业工人职业应激的来源及影响其工作满意感和心理健康的主要职业应激因素.方法 采用职业紧张量表(OSI),对某市石油化工企业532名职工进行职业应激因素的调查,其中化工组345人,后勤部门职工187人作为对照组.结果 化工组工作场所中物理环境差,工作缺乏控制,工作危险性大,工作单调,角色冲突、角色模糊较对照组严重;化工组的工作满意感和心理健康得分(分别为36.867±0.656,43.734±0.542)低于对照组(40.321±0.901,46.714±0.745),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 化工工人工作中存在职业应激因素,这些因素不同程度地影响着化工工人的工作满意感和心理健康.

  3. Simplifying complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Leemput, van de, J.C.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I use mathematical models to explore the properties of complex systems ranging from microbial nitrogen pathways and coral reefs to the human state of mind. All are examples of complex systems, defined as systems composed of a number of interconnected parts, where the systemic behavior leads to the emergence of properties that would not be expected from behavior or properties of the individual parts of the system. Although the full behavior of the systems I address will probably...

  4. Complex networks: Patterns of complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-07-01

    The Turing mechanism provides a paradigm for the spontaneous generation of patterns in reaction-diffusion systems. A framework that describes Turing-pattern formation in the context of complex networks should provide a new basis for studying the phenomenon.

  5. 石化类央企履行社会责任评价指标体系研究%The Study on the Evaluation Index System for Central Petrochemical Enterprises to Fulfill Social Responsibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    步淑段; 崔瑜茹

    2011-01-01

    央企应该成为企业积极履行社会责任的表率。通过设计4类一级指标、17类二级指标和218个三级指标对石化企业履行社会责任进行评价,以期对我国央企加强社会责任管理以及编写责任报告和评价指标体系提供参考依据。%The central enterprises have become a model that actively fulfills social responsibility.This paper evaluates the social responsibility of petrochemical enterprise by 218 indicators in 17 categories in order to provide reference for central enterprises to strengthen management of the social responsibility and to compile the responsibility report and evaluation index system.

  6. Migração, trabalho na indústria petroquímica e consumo de bebidas alcoólicas Recent migration, petrochemical industry jobs and alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma S. Santana

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se testar testar a hipótese de uma associação entre migração recente, trabalho na indústria petroquímica e o consumo excessivo de bebidas alcoólicas, avaliando o papel de variáveis socioeconômicas e demográficas como confundidores ou modificadores de efeito. Foi empregada uma amostra aleatória de 452 chefes de família entre 18 e 60 anos de idade, proveniente de um inquérito de saúde conduzido com famílias que residiam em uma área industrial da Região Metropolitana de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Apenas os trabalhadores do setor industrial foram incluídos na análise (n = 299. Consumidores de bebidas alcoólicas foram identificados com o Questionário de Morbidade Psiquiátrica de Adultos, QMPA, aplicado por entrevistadores treinados a informantes chave de cada família selecionada. Migrantes recentes foram definidos como aqueles que tinham até dois anos de residência no local. A prevalência de consumo exagerado de álcool foi maior entre trabalhadores da indústria petroquímica e entre migrantes recentes, em comparação aos trabalhadores de outras indústrias e não migrantes recentes, respectivamente. Petroquímicos migrantes recentes apresentaram uma prevalência de consumo de bebidas alcoólicas 3,4 vezes superior ao grupo de referência. Migração recente e trabalho na indústria petroquímica são fatores de risco potenciais para o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, por um efeito sinérgico entre essas duas variáveis. Os resultados sugerem a escolaridade como fator de proteção para o consumo de álcool, apenas entre não migrantes recentes nessa população de estudo.This study is aimed at to evaluate the hypothesis that recent migration and work in the petrochemical industry are associated with heavy alcohol consumption, and that education and family income are relevant effect modifiers of this association. The study was based on a random sample of 452 head of families, from 18-60 years of age, drawn from a

  7. Application of OCT-M Technology in FCC Gasoline Hydrogenation Unit of Guangzhou Petrochemical Company%OCT-M技术在广石化催化汽油加氢生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟宇峰

    2012-01-01

    The operation of Guangzhou petrochemical company FCC gasoline hydrogenation unit with OCT-M series catalytic gasoline hydrogenation desulftirization technology developed by FRIPP was introduced. OCT-M process and OCT-MD process were compared, the unqualified reason of gasoline mercaptan content and doctor test in real operation in accordance with the OCT-MD process was analyzed, and process optimization suggestions were also pointed out.%介绍FRIPP开发的OCT-M系列催化汽油加氢脱硫技术在广州分公司加氢(一)A装置运行情况,对OCT-M和OCT-MD流程进行对比,分析了实际运行中按照OCT-MD流程运行出现产品汽油硫醇和博士试验不合格的原因,并提出流程优化的建议.

  8. The Design and Implementation of petrochemical monitoring system based on robot%基于机器人的石化监测系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊辉; 王晓虹; 苏春丽

    2015-01-01

    在石化行业中,管道、罐体、塔体等介质的监测一直是课题研究热点。基于机器人的石化监测系统采用ARM处理器控制智能移动机器人,深入到人员不便进入的介质中,全方位、多角度监测介质的内部情况,准确地监测重要指标的数据,并能及时对图像、指标等数据进行处理。监测人员可在远离现场的地方查看现场情况,监测灵活、便捷。现场测试准确性高,有很高的推广价值。%In petrochemical industry,monitoring of pipes,tanks,and the tower body medium has been a research hot spot.Petrochemical monitoring system based on robot adopts ARM processor to control the intelligent mobile robot,go deep into the inconvenience into medium,all-round,multi-angle monitoring medium internal situation,important index accurately monitoring data,and in a timely manner to deal with image data,indicators,etc.Monitoring personnel can be away from the scene to see the scene situation, flexible and convenient to monitor.Field test accuracy is high,has a high popularization value.

  9. Key Points in Atmospheric Environmental Impact Assessment of Elevated Flare Pollution Sources in Petrochemical Plants%石化高架火炬污染源的大气环境影响评价要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马卫东; 仝纪龙; 潘峰; 王鹏波

    2013-01-01

    针对石化企业高架火炬污染源大气环境影响评价中存在的难点与问题,结合现行有关技术导则、工程规范和环境影响评价实践,提出了高架火炬大气环境影响评价的工作内容和评价原则,并对技术难点给出了解决方案,结合案例从环境影响和预测评价、环保措施、平面布置合理性等方面探讨了石化企业高架火炬污染源大气环境影响评价中的要点.%Aiming at the difficulties and problems in atmospheric environmental impact assessment of elevated flare pollution sources in petrochemical plants,and according to the current relevant technical guidelines,engineering norms and environmental impact assessment practices,the work contents and evaluation principles of atmospheric environmental impact assessment of elevated flare are put forward systematically,the solution schemes for technical difficulties are proposed,and combined with cases,the key points of atmospheric environmental impact assessment of elevated flare pollution sources in petrochemical plants are discussed in the aspects of environmental impact and forecast evaluation,environmental protection measure,plan layout rationality and so on.

  10. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  11. Identification of statistical patterns in complex systems via symbolic time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shalabh; Khatkhate, Amol; Ray, Asok; Keller, Eric

    2006-10-01

    Identification of statistical patterns from observed time series of spatially distributed sensor data is critical for performance monitoring and decision making in human-engineered complex systems, such as electric power generation, petrochemical, and networked transportation. This paper presents an information-theoretic approach to identification of statistical patterns in such systems, where the main objective is to enhance structural integrity and operation reliability. The core concept of pattern identification is built upon the principles of Symbolic Dynamics, Automata Theory, and Information Theory. To this end, a symbolic time series analysis method has been formulated and experimentally validated on a special-purpose test apparatus that is designed for data acquisition and real-time analysis of fatigue damage in polycrystalline alloys. PMID:17063932

  12. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  13. Anticoking Coatings for High Temperature Petrochemical Reactors Revêtements pour réacteurs pétrochimiques à cokage réduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropital F.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Coke deposition is a major problem for several refinery and petrochemical processes, among which steam cracking for ethylene production. Decreasing coking rates will reduce decoking frequency and will also decrease heat transfer degradation. For these processes, a means of reducing coking phenomena is the application of anticoking coatings on the reactor walls. For this purpose a methodology was developed under a CEC Brite-Euram project with steam cracking as the main application. A first selection of the coatings and their techniques of deposition was performed according to their composition (non catalytic compounds, their resistance to carburization and oxidation and also according to the nature of the substrate. The feasibility of coating deposition was studied for small diameter furnace tubes and the techniques were perfected in particular with respect to the physicochemical characterization of the coatings and their resistance during thermal cycling and coking-decoking cycles. For the thermal cycling and the coking evaluation, industrial conditions were reproduced as closely as possible. For coking tests, a microreactor with complete mixing of the gas phase was developed for temperatures up to 950°C. The coking behavior of the coated samples was compared with conventional refractory alloys: reduction of the coking rate by a factor of 3 was measured with the most promising coating. This work was completed by the kinetic modelling of coking on uncoated materials. La formation de coke est un problème crucial pour de nombreux procédés pétrochimiques. Ralentir le cokage permet de réduire la fréquence des décokages et de limiter la dégradation du transfert thermique. Un des moyens envisageables pour réduire le cokage est le dépôt d'un revêtement à la paroi de ces réacteurs. La mise au point de tels revêtements a fait l'objet d'un projet de recherche européen Brite-Euram, pour lequel le vapocraquage a été la principale

  14. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  15. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  16. Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum instanton (QI approximation is recently proposed for the evaluations of the chemical reaction rate constants with use of full dimensional potential energy surfaces. Its strategy is to use the instanton mechanism and to approximate time-dependent quantum dynamics to the imaginary time propagation of the quantities of partition function. It thus incorporates the properties of the instanton idea and the quantum effect of partition function and can be applied to chemical reactions of complex systems. In this paper, we present the QI approach and its applications to several complex systems mainly done by us. The concrete systems include, (1 the reaction of H+CH4→H2+CH3, (2 the reaction of H+SiH4→H2+SiH3, (3 H diffusion on Ni(100 surface; and (4 surface-subsurface transport and interior migration for H/Ni. Available experimental and other theoretical data are also presented for the purpose of comparison.

  17. The Research of Source Accounting of Fugitive Emissions of Petrochemical Tank Area%石化企业储罐区无组织排放的源强核算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红旭; 张鹏

    2013-01-01

      石化企业无组织排放源强的核算是设置防护距离的重要前提,而储罐区在整个石化企业的无组织排放量中占了很大一部分。为进一步研究各核算方法核算储罐区无组织排放源强的应用情况,分别采用了《石油库节能设计导则》推荐公式、美国石油学会(API)推荐公式、中国石油化工(CPCC)推荐公式和地面浓度反推法对某石化企业储罐区进行了无组织排放烃类的核算,计算结果分别为95.50 t/a、201.30 t/a、86.73 t/a 和94.92 t/a。通过分析讨论,最终以《石油库节能设计导则》推荐公式的计算结果95.50 t/a 为最终结果。并建议石化企业储罐区以《石油库节能设计导则》推荐公式和中国石油化工推荐公式的计算结果为基础,并结合地面浓度反推法等其他方法进行复核,最终再根据罐区自身特点决定最终源强。%The source accounting of fugitive emissions in petrochemical enterprises is an essential premise in determining the protection zone. The tank area is a major source of fugitive emissions which takes a big part of total emissions. In order to research on the application of different kinds of accounting methods for tanks area fugitive emissions, four methods which were “Design guideline for energy conservation of petroleum depots” formula, American Petroleum Institute (API) formula, China Petroleum Chemical Corporation (CPCC) formula and the ground concentration reverse calculation method were used to calculate a specific tank area of one petrochemical enterprise. The calculation results were 95.50 t/a, 201.30 t/a, 86.73 t/a and 94.92 t/a, respectively. After analysis, the result of “Design guideline for energy conservation of petroleum depots” formula was chosen as the final result, which was 95.50 t/a. At last, the suggestion was made that the “Design guideline for energy conservation of petroleum depots” and CPCC formula should be used to

  18. Analysis on hygienic surveillance results of pastry in Qilu petrochemical area from 2007-2011%2007-2011年齐鲁石化地区糕点卫生检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仁明; 李秀波

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the sanitary status of pastry in Qilu petrochemical area, guide food hygiene supervision, and ensure the food safety. [Methods] The samples of pastry in Qilu petrochemical area from 2007-2011 were detected and evaluated according to related standards, and the surveillance results were analyzed. [ Results] A total of 286 pastry samples were tested, the qualified rate was 85.66% , the contents of lead and arsenic met the standards, and the pathogenic bacteria were not found. The qualified rates of different types of pastry were different, while the qualified rate of Qilu jubilee cake was the highest (96.43% ), and that of cakes was the lowest (72.00% ). The qualified rates increased year by year, but there was no significant difference in annual qualified rate (P >0. 05). [ Conclusion] The sanitary quality of pastry in Qilu petrochemical area has increased year by year, but there are some problems. The health supervision department should strengthen management and find out the causes of unqualified indexes, so as to improve the sanitary quality of pastry and ensure the health of consumers.%目的 了解齐鲁石化地区糕点食品的卫生状况,指导食品卫生监督,保障消费者食用安全.方法 对齐鲁石化地区2007-2011年糕点食品按照相关标准进行检验和评价,对监测结果进行分析.结果 齐鲁石化地区2007-2011年共检测糕点食品286份,合格率为85.66%;铅、砷检测均合格,致病菌均未检出;不同种类的糕点合格率不同,齐鲁禧饼合格率最高(96.43%),蛋糕合格率最低(72.00%);合格率呈逐年上升趋势,但各年间合格率的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 齐鲁石化地区糕点食品的卫生质量在逐年提高,但也存在一些问题;卫生监督部门应加大监督力度,加强管理,针对主要不合格指标,查找原因,提高糕点食品的卫生质量,保障消费者的身体健康.

  19. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  20. Complex silumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study presents the results of investigations carried out on silumins with additions of Mg, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mo and W. The silumins containing Mg, Cu and Ni are well-known and commonly used in construction of machines and equipment.Design/methodology/approach: Additions of Cr, Mo and W have not been thoroughly investigated yet. They are considered a new family of innovative cast aluminium alloys.Findings: In Al-Si systems they form silicides, like Cr3Si, Mo3Si, W3Si and intermetallic phases of Al13Cr4Si4, Al12Mo, Al12W and AlWSi. The silicides crystallise in cubic lattice of parameters similar to aluminium and silicon.Research limitations/implications: Therefore they can act as crystallisation substrates and occur as separate phases. The examinations under the microscope and X-ray microanalysis of the linear and point distribution of elements confirmed the presence of the above mentioned phases. A combination of two elements, e.g. Cr and Mo, or Cr and W, was observed to cause the formation of complex silicide layers of Mo3Si and (Cr, Mo3Si, or Cr3Si as well as (W, Cr3Si.Originality/value: The presence of the silicides has been indicated as a possible source of the refinement of α(Al and β(Si phases. The precipitations of these phases and of the intermetallic phases favour a high degree of the silumins hardening. A characteristic feature is the fact that nucleation and crystallisation of the successive phases takes place at the phase boundaries formed between the previously precipitated phase and solid solution α. The studies carried out so far have indicated that in complex silumins at high temperatures crystallise the silicides and peritectic phases of Al12W, AlWSi, Al12Mo and Al13Cr4Si4. Phases α or β are the next ones to crystallise, followed by complex eutectic α + β +Al(Si, Cr, Mo, W, Fe. Further crystallise the phases of Mg2Si, Al3Ni and Al2Cu. The silumins presented here are characterised by high mechanical properties: Rp0

  1. 石油化工业钢结构的大气腐蚀与防护措施%Corrosion and Protection of Steel Structures in Atmospheric Environment of Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓明; 周学杰; 王玮; 纪方奇; 张琳; 林志坚; 胡章枝

    2013-01-01

    Four kinds of standard metals were tested in exposed atmosphere of petrochemical industry so as to determine the corrosive grade of the corrosive atmosphere. In the meantime, eight kinds of anticorro -sive systems were also tested in the exposed corrosive atmosphere so as to evaluate their protective effect. It was found that high concentrations of corrosive mediums such as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide were present in the atmosphere of petrochemical industry. The atmospheric corrosion grade was from C4 to C5, corresponding to serious corrosion of carbon steel. Moreover, in terms of various protective systems, the one consisting of sprayed Al primer or Zn-rich primer, epoxy micaceous iron oxide intermediate paint, and fluorocarbon resin finish (or acrylic polyurethane coating) possessed the best corrosion resistance and weatherability.%化工大气环境中含有较多的腐蚀性介质,对钢结构腐蚀严重.为了评价石油化工大气环境的腐蚀性,采用4种标准金属材料进行石油化工大气环境现场暴露试验,对石油化工大气环境腐蚀性进行评级;同时选用8种防腐蚀体系试样进行暴露试验,以评价其防护效果.结果表明:石油化工大气环境中含有较高浓度的二氧化硫、硫化氢等腐蚀介质,腐蚀等级属C4~C5级;保护层体系中,由喷铝或富锌底漆、环氧云铁中间漆、氟碳树脂(或丙烯酸聚氨酯)面漆组成的防护体系的综合耐蚀性和耐候性较好.

  2. Un modèle de production associée des secteurs du raffinage et de la pétrochimie de base An Associated Production Model for the Refining and Basic Petrochemical Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennegues G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une application du modèle de production et de transformation de l'énergie de l'Institut Français du Pétrole (lFP. La présente étude de modélisation s'attache plus précisément à l'analyse par programmation linéaire dynamique des conditions optimales de production des secteurs français du raffinage et de la pétrochimie de base. S'armant de scénarios d'approvisionnement et de demandes de produits, cette étude se propose de décrire les investissements optimaux de ces deux secteurs pour les deux décennies à venir. Des hypothèses particulières de diésélisation du parc des véhicules routiers et d'introduction d'hydrocarbures oxygénés dans les carburants automobiles ont été formulées, ainsi que des tendances contrastées de consommation des produits pétrochimiques de base. Une brève étude de paramétrisation clôt cet article, en présentant une approche statique de l'influence que pourrait avoir une substitution propylène-éthylène au niveau de la demande, sur les outils de production des deux secteurs. This article describes an application of the lFP energy production and transformation model. The present mode-ing study specifically aims to use dynamic linear programming to analyze the optimum production conditions for the French refining and basic petrochemical sectors. On the basis of product supply and demand scenarios, this study attempts to describe optimum investments for these two sectors for the next two decades. Special assumptions concerning the dieselization of road vehicles and the inclusion of oxygenated hydrocarbons in automotive fuels have been formulated along with contrasting trends in the consumption of basic petrochemical products. The article concludes with a brief parameterization study giving a static approach to the influence that a propylene/ethylene substitution might have, at the level of the demand, on the production facilities of both sectors.

  3. 炼化装置法兰接头泄漏风险的源头控制%Source Control of Leaking Risk of Flange Joints in Petrochemical Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李崇勇; 张雅新; 张光

    2016-01-01

    It is an important problem of HSE to control the leaking risk for petrochemical industry and others in the science of sustainable development. To solve this problem, it should begin from the process equipment design. Taking the three factors of lfange joints design as the breakthrough point on the basis of the engineering examples and regulations, this paper discusses and analyzes the seal leakage of tube-sheet joints held by channel lfange and shell lfange of HTM evaporator, design changes are devised for lfange joints. It is suggested that lfange construction and gasket and fasteners should be reasonably matched for the control of leaking risk of lfange joints in petrochemical unit. For lfange joints design under severe working condition, not only ifrst select standard welding neck lfange and gasket and fasteners properly with the successful application experiences, but also provide bolt design loads and technical requirements of bolt tightening to instruct users in the safe usage.%泄漏风险控制是炼油化工等工业面临的科学永续发展中HSE的重要课题,解决这一问题要从过程设备的设计做起。依据工程实例和规程标准从法兰接头设计的三要素切入,通过对热媒蒸发器的管箱法兰与壳体法兰所夹持的管板连接密封面泄漏进行分析讨论,给出了蒸发器法兰接头的设计改进方案,建议炼化装置中法兰接头泄漏风险的控制应注重法兰结构与垫片及紧固件的合理匹配:对于苛刻工况的法兰接头设计,应优先选用标准长颈对焊法兰和已有成功应用经验的标准垫片,合理选择紧固件并在设计文件中给出螺栓的设计载荷及拧紧技术要求,以指导用户安全使用。

  4. 石化废水处理中MBR工艺的运行管理%Operational management of the membrane bioreactor process in the treatment of wastewater from petrochemical industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 钟捷

    2011-01-01

    使用MBR工艺处理石化废水,需要针对石化废水的特点,并结合工艺运行的实际情况,采取相应的运行管理措施.通过对产水周期、产水量、曝气量、污泥浓度等运行参数的调整,提高了工艺系统处理能力,降低了处理成本,产水水质完全符合排放标准的要求.在调整运行参数的同时,采取措施控制膜污染速率,确保了工艺系统的运行安全和稳定.%Using membrane bioreactor process for treating the wastewater from petrochemical industry, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the wastewater, combining with the actual situation of technological operation, and take corresponding management measures. Based on the adjustment of operational parameters, such as cycle and quantity of effluent, aeration and sludge concentration, the treatment capacity of technological systems has been improved, cost has been reduced,and effluent water quality has met the requirement of discharge standard. In the meanwhile, some measures have to be taken, so as to control the rate of membrane pollution, and ensure the safety and stability of the MBR system.

  5. 石化乙烯工业废水中关键毒性物质的鉴别%IDENTIFICATION OF THE KEY TOXICANTS IN THE PETROCHEMICAL ETHYLENE INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旦宇; 荣宏伟

    2012-01-01

    This article draws toxicity identification evaluation technology developed by the USEPA (TIE) , starting directly from the process of the production, in accordance with main quality indicators of wastewater for ethylene industrial wastewater of a petrochemical plant for toxicity identification testing, it has been found that benzene and sulfur compounds in wastewater to daphnia magna have significantly toxicity. Among them, benzene is the key toxicant. The 24 h-LC50 mean of wastewater to daphnia magna is 53.68% ,the content of benzene is about 30 mg/L.%借鉴美国环保署制定的毒性物质鉴别评价技术(TIE),直接从企业生产的工艺出发,结合废水的主要水质指标对某石化厂乙烯工业废水进行毒性鉴别试验,发现废水中的苯和硫化物对大型蚤具有明显的致死性,其中苯是废水中的关键毒物。所取废水对测试生物大型蚤的24 h-LC50均值为53.68%,其中主要致毒物质苯的含量大约30 mg/L。

  6. Pollution Characteristics of Groundwater from Petrochemical Enterprise in Coastal Area of Zhejiang Province%浙江沿海某石油化工类企业地下水污染特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚洪华; 郑丽波; 张达政

    2012-01-01

    A synthetic study containing investigation and assessment of groundwater pollution was carried out in a coastal petrochemical field with an area of 36 km2 in Zhejiang Province.The results indicate that pollutants such as benzene series substance,heavy metals,petroleum,and sulphide were found in the groundwater(0~5 meters in depth) under the field of majority of old factories and wetland landfills.The distribution of pollutants are impacted by human activities of soil filling form upper stratum and activities from industrial enterprises,as well as hydrological and geological conditions of the area.%以浙江沿海面积约36 km2的某石化场地为研究区域,开展了地下水污染调查、评价和综合研究,结果表明,该石化场地地下水(0 m~5 m)存在重金属、硫化物、石油类等污染,污染范围主要在老厂区和滩涂堆填区,其分布特征受到上层填土和工业企业活动等人类活动的影响,也与区域环境水文地质条件密切相关。

  7. The Application of Reverse Osmosis Technology in QingJiang Petrochemical Demineralized Water Process%反渗透技术在清江石化除盐水工艺中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周健; 华伦

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the structure,producing area and application industry of the Dow reverse osmosis membrane membrane.The technical process,the process control parameters(recovery rate,desalination rate,in-and-out water quality) and process flow and reverse osmosis desalting operation of the reverse osmosis desalting device in Qingjiang petrochemical plant are included.The use of Dow reverse osmosis membrane element,the characteristics and the application,design principle of process,process flow,parameters,and the cleaning frequency in application are also covered.At the same time,some relevant improvement measures are proposed.%综述了陶氏反渗透膜的膜结构、产地及应用行业。阐述了清江石化反渗透脱盐装置的工艺过程、工艺控制参数(回收率、脱盐率、进出水水质)及工艺流程和反渗透脱盐装置的运行情况,包括使用的陶氏反渗透膜元件的特点及应用,设计的工艺原理、流程、参数,以及应用中存在的清洗周期短、制水比居高不下等问题及相关改进措施。

  8. Construction of a bioreporter by heterogeneously expressing a Vibrio natriegens recA::luxCDABE fusion in Escherichia coli, and genotoxicity assessments of petrochemical-contaminated groundwater in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Huang, Wei E; Li, Guanghe

    2016-06-15

    Here, we constructed an Escherichia coli recA::luxCDABE bioreporter for genotoxicity assessments. The recA promoter was cloned from the marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens. This bioreporter showed a dose-response relationship following induction by mitomycin C, and other pollutants or environmental samples could be calculated as mitomycin C equivalents, which provided a way to quantitatively compare the genotoxicities of different environmental samples. This bioreporter was used to evaluate the genotoxicity under a wide range of external environmental conditions, like temperatures ranging from 15 °C to 42 °C, pH between 4.0 and 9.0, and salinity ranging from 0% to 3%. This successfully extended its application from the laboratory to the field, and allowed the bioreporter to assess the genotoxicity and bioavailability of genotoxins in various environmental media, including surface water, groundwater, seawater, and soil matrix. Expression of V. natriegens recA in E. coli indicated a LexA-like regulator in V. natriegens, and the putative SOS box of V. natriegens recA was similar to that of E. coli. The genotoxicities of groundwater samples from a petrochemical-contaminated site in northern China were evaluated by this bioreporter assay, and the genotoxic levels were in accordance with contamination levels obtained by chemical analyses. PMID:27258332

  9. Measures and Ways to Improve the Long Term Operation of Petrochemical Enterprises%提高炼化企业长周期运行的措施与途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易轶虎

    2012-01-01

    近年来,炼化装置运行周期不断延长,取得了很好的经济效益和社会效益,但与国际一流炼化企业相比,装置的长周期运行水平仍有不小的差距.总结目前炼化装置长周期运行现状,分析非计划停工因素,着重从日常管理、检修管理、专业管理等3个方面提出强化设备管理,提升长周期运行水平的经验和措施.%In recent years,the operation cycle of the refining and chemical unit continues continually increases,and good economic and social benefits have been achieved.But compared with world-class refining and chemical companies,there is still a big gap on the operation cycle of devices.In this paper,status quo of long-term operation of petrochemical enterprises was summarized,factors to cause unplanned shut-down were analyzed.Focusing on three aspects of day-to-day management,maintenance management,professional management,experiences and measures to strengthen equipment management were put forward to enhance the level of long-cycle run.

  10. Application of FC-28 Hydrocracking Catalyst in Qilu Petrochemical Company%FC-28加氢裂化催化剂在齐鲁分公司的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄新露; 于淼

    2011-01-01

    抚顺石油化工研究院开发的FC-28加氢裂化催化剂2010年在齐鲁分公司56万t/aSSOT装置成功工业应用。工业应用结果表明,FC-28催化剂具有优异的加氢性能、裂解异构性能和抗氮能力,加氢裂化所得到的产品质量优,较好的满足了用户生产清洁马达燃料和优质化工原料的需求。%FC-28 hydrocracking catalyst developed by FRIPP has gained successful application in 0.56 M t/a SSOT unit in Qilu petrochemical company in 2010. The application results show that FC-28 catalyst has good performances of hydrofining, cracking, isomerization and anti-nitrogen. Products with high quality can fully meet demands of customers to produce clean motor fuel and chemical materials.

  11. Isolation and Screening of Phenol Degrading Bacteria and its Degradation Rate in Petrochemical Industry Wastewater%石化工业污水中分离筛选苯酚降解菌及其降解率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海燕; 张国发; 武燕; 冯伟

    2015-01-01

    自然界中某些微生物具有较强的酚降解能力,利用微生物处理含酚废水的方法受到了越来越广泛的重视。该文通过梯度平板法从石化工业废水中分离筛选得到3株降解酚的细菌,苯酚降解率分别为90.9%、82.5%、74.9%。对其进一步深入研究,进而将其应用到工厂等污水处理方面,降低含苯酚的废水排出,具有一定的指导意义。%Some microorganisms in nature have a strong ability to degrade phenol. The method of treating phenol wastewater by microorganism has been paid more and more attention. In this article,three strains of bacteria were isolated and screened from the petrochemical industrial wastewater by gradient plate method. The degradation rate of phenol was 90.9%,82.5% and 74.9%. It has guiding significance for further study, and then appling to the plant and other wastewater treatment,reducing the wastewater containing phenol wastewater discharge.

  12. The Meponda alkaline complex: a new East Africa Nb-Ta-(U-RE) deposit in the popular Republic of Mozambique. Discovery, exploration and geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Meponda deposit was discovered by the BRGM during a mineral inventory of the extreme north of Mozambique. Airborne radiometric anomalies were followed up on the ground by radiometry and geochemistry. The ground radiometry confirmed and refined the airborne anomalies and prospecting by geochemistry and heavy minerals clearly showed up the mineralization, though less positively than rock chemistry. Two rock suites occur within the complex, a miaskitic and a hyperalkaline suite. The complex has been affected by both the coaxial fold phases that have affected the host orthogneisses. Nb, Ta, U and RE mineralization, principally as pyrochlore, is associated with the hyperalkaline suite, apparently related to a late stage of hyperalkaline magma evolution (petrochemical control) and to be conditions of emplacement of the magma (dynamic control). 18 references are given

  13. Reuse of a residue from petrochemical industry with portland cement Reutilización de un residuo de la industria petroquímica como adición al cemento portland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneth Torres Agredo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the possibility of using waste from the petrochemical industry,as partial replacement of Portland cement is studied, evaluating the presenceof contaminants in the waste and the encapsulation, once it is confined on the cement. This has been done, in order to find a use to this residue without cause damage to the environment. This residue, called spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC, is mainly formed by a type Y zeolite, which is dispersing in an inorganic oxides matrix. The toxicity characteristic leaching proceeding was applied, in mortars adding with 20% of FCC as Portland cement replacement. The results showed that the residue does not represent a problem from the point of view of the leaching of elements, such as As, Pb, Zn, Cr, and La, which were below to the permissible limits. Additionally, the pozzolanic activity of FCC was evaluated according to ASTM C311, where the efficiency of the residue as pozzolanic addition is demonstrated. With the results the importance of reusing a residue of the petrochemical industry is emphasized, that decreases the amount of cement to be used and improves the mechanical resistance of the materials containing it.En el presente artículo se estudia la posibilidad de utilizar un residuo de la industria petroquímica, como sustitución parcial del cemento Portland, evaluando la presencia de elementos contaminantes en el residuo y su encapsulación, una vez se haya confinado con el cemento. Lo anterior, con el fin de determinar si su uso como material de construcción, puede o no causar un efecto negativo al medio ambiente. El residuo, denominado catalizador usado de craqueo catalítico (FCC, es un material que está compuesto por una zeolita tipo Y, dispersa en una matriz de óxidos inorgánicos. Se aplicó la técnica de TCLP (del inglés Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, en morteros adicionados con un 20%, de FCC con respecto a la cantidad de cemento. Los resultados

  14. Research on the Trend of Environmental Information Disclosure of Listed Companies of the Petrochemical Industry%石化行业上市公司环境信息披露变化趋势研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗素清; 林演演

    2015-01-01

    Based on annual reports and related independent reports of listed companies of the petrochemi-cal industry from 2008 to 2013,and using the methods of keyword search,manual statistics,descriptive statis-tics analysis and normative research,this paper found that the proportions of environmental information disclo-sure of listed companies of China’s petrochemical industry had been rising for six years(2008-2013)contin-uously;there were continuous growth in contents of disclosure;there was no unified standard for disclosure modes,and the proportions of independent environmental report declined;qualitative disclosures had been given priority to,and the ratios of quantitative or of the combination of quantitative and qualitative disclosure showed a trend of slight decline. The following are the current limitations:the disclosure quality is low,which has reduced the value of information;disclosure mode has not been regulated,which has resulted in lack of comparability;disclosure has not been audited,which cannot guarantee the reliability of information;and qualitative disclosure lacks substantial contents. Finally,suggestions have been put forward for improving en-vironmental information disclosure:raise the awareness of environmental protection and sense of social respon-sibility of related personnel;improve laws and regulations on environmental information disclosure;enhance auditing environmental information disclosure;and establish surveillance system for environmental information.%文章以石化行业上市公司在2008~2013年间披露的年报和相关独立报告为研究对象,采用关键字检索和手工统计的方法,运用描述性统计分析方法和规范研究方法发现,中国石化行业上市公司环境信息的披露比例连续6年(2008~2013)呈现上升趋势;披露的内容也呈现连续增长的态势;在披露的模式上仍未达到统一标准,独立方式披露环境报告的比例下降;

  15. Biomassa, atividade microbiana e fungos micorrízicos em solo de "landfarming" de resíduos petroquímicos Biomass, microbial activity and mycorrhizal fungi in landfarming soil of petrochemical wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra M. de Paula

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se, no presente trabalho, a biomassa microbiana, atividade heterotrófica e a ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs de um solo de área de "landfarming" de resíduo petroquímico durante 15 anos. Realizaram-se análises laboratoriais e ensaios em casa de vegetação para avaliar as condições biológicas do solo e o efeito da inoculação com FMAs (Glomus clarum e Paraglomus occultum no crescimento de seis espécies vegetais com potencial para estabelecimento nesses solos. A biomassa microbiana e os indicadores de atividade bioquímica (respiração basal, respiração induzida por substrato e qCO2 apresentaram-se em valores típicos de solos não contaminados, exceto para o qCO2, que foram bem elevados. Esses resultados indicam a presença de comunidades microbianas ativas mas se verificou baixa atividade das enzimas b-glicosidase, fosfatase ácida e urease, indicando interferências nos processos bioquímicos do solo o que poderá comprometer sua capacidade de transformar os resíduos. Verificou-se também a ocorrência abundante de FMAs em plantas espontâneas ou introduzidas. Foi notória a resposta positiva da inoculação com FMAs sobre o crescimento da alfafa, braquiária e sorgo, porém sem influência no crescimento do capim-elefante. Esses resultados apontam a existência de populações microbianas tolerantes aos componentes tóxicos dos resíduos petroquímicos aplicados continuamente ao solo estudado.In the present study the microbial biomass, heterotrophic activity and the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF were evaluated in soil samples from a landfarming area that has been used for petrochemical waste treatment for the last fifteen years. Laboratory analysis and greenhouse assays were conducted in order to evaluate soil biological conditions and the effects of inoculation with AMF (Glomus clarum and Paraglomus occultum on growth of six plant species with potential to establish in soil

  16. Contribuição aos critérios de projeto organizacional para inovação na indústria petroquímica brasileira A contribution to organizational design for innovation in the Brazilian petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marotti de Mello

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A Indústria Petroquímica, incluindo-se aí a brasileira, é um setor consolidado, maduro, acostumado a inovar incrementalmente em produtos e processos. De outro lado, para manter e ampliar sua competitividade, tem a necessidade de inovar mais radicalmente. A literatura disponível recomenda que empresas que necessitem inovar, simultaneamente, de forma incremental e radical, deveriam adotar uma "Organização Ambidestra" (ou "Semiestrutura", utilizando processos, ferramentas de gestão e estruturas adequadas para cada caso. Mas como exatamente deveria ser essa organização ambidestra? Este trabalho objetiva contribuir com esta discussão, propondo critérios para o Projeto Organizacional adequado ao desenvolvimento de inovações incrementais e radicais de forma sistemática em empresas consolidadas de setores maduros. Parte-se do princípio de que não haveria um modelo único a ser prescrito neste caso. O método de pesquisa utilizado foi o estudo de múltiplos casos em três empresas inovadoras do setor, em que onze projetos de inovação foram analisados. Os resultados obtidos indicam que, ainda que haja nas empresas a preocupação de divisão de estruturas para o desenvolvimento de inovações radicais e incrementais, na prática, a forma pela qual os projetos são conduzidos não mostra diferença significativa. O modelo proposto oferece um conjunto de diretrizes e critérios para que cada empresa adapte suas estruturas e processos a diferentes desafios encontrados nos projetos de inovação, em cada etapa de seu desenvolvimento.The Petrochemical Industry (including the Brazilian Petrochemical industry is a well-established and mature sector that has always introduced product and process incremental innovation. On the other hand, in order to maintain its competitiveness, this sector needs more radical innovation. According to the literature, companies that need both incremental and radical innovation should adopt an Ambidextrous

  17. 总图设计中的影响因素分析与处理%Analysis of impact factors and handling in design of general layout of petrochemical plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀敏

    2013-01-01

    介绍了石油化工企业总图设计中各要素之间的关系及影响,如厂区用地条件与厂区总平面布置的关系;厂区竖向布置方式与场地排雨水之间的关系;厂区近期布置与远期发展之间的关系.并列举典型案例加以分析,认为较为理想的工厂用地形状是长方形,长宽比为1.6∶1 ~1.4∶1;总平面布置推荐采用四行式布置;工厂竖向采用零坡度的布置方式;对工厂发展要充分考虑远期发展的可能性.为今后大型炼化一体化项目总图设计提供参考.%The relationships between different impact factors in the design of general layout of petrochemical plants are discussed,such as the relationship between plant site conditions and overall plot plan,the relationship between plant elevation layout and site water drainage and the relationship between present site layout and the future plant development.The specific analysis by case studies concludes that the ideal layout is a rectangle with a length to width ratio of 1.6∶1 ~ 1.4∶ 1.Four-line layout is recommended,and zero-slope elevation layout is proposed.In addition,the possibility of future plant development shall be considered.These provide a good reference for the design of general layout for large integrated refinery & chemical project.

  18. 柴油在线优化调和系统在广西石化的应用%Application of on-line diesel optimization blending system in Guangxi petrochemical company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔巍; 贾舒晨; 周雪山; 赵峰; 杨华龙

    2013-01-01

    为了减少柴油质量过剩,降低生产成本,广西石化实施了柴油在线优化调和系统。该系统使用在线近红外分析仪在线测量关键组分信息,采用内含调和模型的优化控制软件实现柴油管道调和。应用该系统后,柴油的十六烷值平均值降低了0.5个单位,在保证质量前提下减少了柴油质量过剩,并有效缓解了公司储运系统罐容紧张情况和减轻了产品调和出厂压力。%In order to alleviate the excess diesel quality and product cost, an on-line diesel optimization blending system is applied in Guangxi Petrochemical Company. In this system, an on-line near infrared analyzer is used to measure the key components’ content on line, and an optimization software including a blending model controls the diesel pipeline blending process. The blending system not only guarantees the product quality, but also reduces diesel giveaway of over quality excess and product cost, for example, the average cetane number of diesel is now 0.5 units below before. In addition, the blending system can effectively cut down the occupation of storage tanks.

  19. 国产加氢催化剂在锦西石化分公司加氢改质装置的首次应用%APPLICATION OF DOMESTIC CATALYSTS IN HYDRO-UPGRADING UNIT OF JINXI PETROCHEMICAL COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江波; 朱赫礼

    2015-01-01

    介绍了 FF-36和 FC-50加氢催化剂首次在中国石油锦西石化分公司加氢改质装置的使用情况,对催化剂的硫化方法和钝化步骤进行了简要介绍,详细对比了国产催化剂与进口催化剂在操作条件、产品质量和对装置能耗影响三方面的数据。结果表明,国产催化剂相对于进口催化剂在操作条件上稍微苛刻一些,在脱硫率、脱氮率和柴油十六烷值上分别提高1.63百分点、2.6百分点和8.9个单位,而在能耗上相差不大。%The combination of hydrotreating catalyst FF-36 and hydrocracking catalyst FC-50 were first used in the hydro-upgrading unit of Jinxi Petrochemical Company. The sulfurization and passivation procedures of the catalysts are introduced. The operating conditions,product qualities and energy con-sumption of the unit using domestic catalysts were compared with the imported composite catalysts. The results show that under somewhat higher operation severity conditions the HDS rate,HDN rate and CN increment are 1.6%,2.6% and 8.9 points of the new catalysts higher than that of the reference cata-lysts,respectively. The energy consumption difference is small.

  20. 某石化企业育龄女工自然流产的病例对照研究%A case-control study of spontaneous abortion among female workers in a petrochemical enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学庆; 唐怀青

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the factors influencing spontaneous abortion among female workers in petrochemical enterprises, and provide scientific evidence for developing control measures and reducing the spontaneous abortion prevalence. [Methods] Matched case-control study was adopted in the study. A respective survey was conducted on 156 female workers in a large petrochemical enterprise of Nanjing who had spontaneously abortion in recent 3 years by trained investigator. Fertile married women who had physical examination in the Center for Disease Control and Prevention matched for age with 1:1 ratio were selected as control group. The same questionnaire was adopted in both control group and case group. [ Results] The analysis of multiple logistic regression indicated that monthly income of family, menses, pets, work intensity, benzene and benzene homologues, heavy metal, seniority , noise and vibration had significant correlation with spontaneous abortion among female workers.. Monthly income of family was protection factor, but menses, pets, work intensity, benzene and benzene homologues, heavy metal, seniority, noise and vibration were risk factors (the OR were 1. 865, 4. 603, 1. 643, 11. 445, 4. 114, 4. 740, 3. 936, 2. 765, respectively). [Conclusion]This study had identified many kinds of factors correlated with spontaneous abortion among female workers. In order to improve the reproductive health and population quality of next generation, more health education of healthy childbearing should be improved and petrochemical enterprise female workers should leave job with occupational hazards exposure in the period of pregnancy.%目的 了解石化企业育龄女工自然流产发生的影响因素,为制定防制措施、减少自然流产的发生提供科学依据.方法 采用配对病例对照研究设计,由经培训的调查员选取南京市某大型石化生产企业3年期间发生的156例自然流产者进行回顾性问卷调查.对照组在市疾病

  1. Ecological Environment Quality Assessment on Petrochemical Sewage Discharge Waters of Daya Bay in Winter%大亚湾石化排污区海域冬季生态环境质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐娇娇; 徐姗楠; 李纯厚; 刘永; 林琳

    2013-01-01

    Daya bay,a typical subtropical marine genetic resource pool in the South China Sea,is one of the most important inshore fisheries areas in Guangdong province.However,the marine environments has been threatened and effected by rapid developments of the petrochemical industry in recent years.In current study,the ecological environment quality has been assessed.Based on the ecological and environmental investigation in January 2012,the states of ecological environment quality of the Daya Bay petrochemical sewage discharge waters was assessed with four factors,including sea water quality,nutrient structure and level,sediment quality,primary productivity and food organism level.The comprehensive index method was used for integrated assessment,as well.The results show that most of the water quality factors,including dissolved oxygen,biochemical oxygen demand,chemical oxygen demand,sulfide,phosphorus,dissolved inorganic nitrogen and heavy metals of Cu,Pb and Cd,were all conforming to Grade Ⅱ of the National Sea Water Quality Standard of China.However,some factors,including petroleum hydrocarbon of 66.7% sites,pH of 91.7% sites,and Zn of several sites,exceed the Grade Ⅱ of the National Standard with the average value of water quality comprehensive index at 1.215.The status of above factors consequently reached a low-level pollution without any pollution caused by organic pollutants.What makes unoptimistic is the concentration of nutrients in sea water is relatively high.Fortunately,the quality of sediment is very good and conforming to the Grade Ⅰ of National Marine Sediment Quality Standard,with the com prehensive pollution index at 0.478.Furthermore,the status of primary productivity reached the level of medium because of the high abundance of phytoplankton,zooplankton and benthic.According to the references and data of this study,the investigated petrochemical sewage discharge waters of Daya Bay was slight polluted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs

  2. Measuring Tax Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    David Ulph

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines a number of issues relating to the measurement of tax complexity. It starts with an analysis of the concept of tax complexity, distinguishing tax design complexity and operational complexity. It considers the consequences/costs of complexity, and then examines the rationale for measuring complexity. Finally it applies the analysis to an examination of an index of complexity developed by the UK Office of Tax Simplification (OTS). Postprint

  3. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  4. Pricing complexity options

    OpenAIRE

    Malihe Alikhani; Bj{\\o}rn Kjos-Hanssen; Amirarsalan Pakravan; Babak Saadat

    2015-01-01

    We consider options that pay the complexity deficiency of a sequence of up and down ticks of a stock upon exercise. We study the price of European and American versions of this option numerically for automatic complexity, and theoretically for Kolmogorov complexity. We also consider run complexity, which is a restricted form of automatic complexity.

  5. 公司特征与企业环境投资的相关性研究--以我国石油化工类上市公司为例%Research on the Correlation between Company Characteristics and Its Environmental Investment-Based on Petrochemical Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜璇

    2015-01-01

    以我国沪深两市2009—2011年石油化工类上市公司为例,分析了我国石油化工类公司特征与企业环境投资之间的关系。结果发现:盈利能力、公司规模是影响我国石油化工类企业顺利进行环境投资的关键因素,公司偿债能力对公司环保投资能力有一定影响。而独立董事人数比例、公司注册地对环境投资没有显著影响,这为我国企业如何进行环境投资提供了理论依据和有益启示。%With the petrochemical listed companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Markets in 2009-2011 as the examples,the correlation between the characteristics of companies in petrochemical industries and their environment investment is discussed. The results show that the company profitability and company size are the key factors that influence the successful environment investment of Chinaˊs petrochemical enterprises,and that the companyˊs solvency has certain influence on its environmental protection investment ability;but the number ratio of independent directors,the registration address of companies have no obvious influence on the environment investment. This study provides some theoretical basis and beneficial enlightenment for the envi-ronment investment of Chinese enterprises.

  6. Trachytic Rock and Associated Fenitization in the Bayan Obo Ore Deposit, Inner Mongolia, China: Evidence for Magmatic-Hydrothermal Mineralization Related to a Carbonatitic Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Trachytic rock and its altered rock-FONT-fenite-in the Bayan Obo ore district, Inner Mongolia, China, were referred to as slate or feldspar rock before, and identified by the authors for the first time (in 1992). In the paper the mineral assemblages, structures and textures and petrochemical compositions of the rocks, as well as the electron microprobe analysis of feldspars in the rocks are described. The Sm-Nd isochron age of the trachytic rock is 1096±56 Ma, with INd=0.51100±4 (2σ) and e Nd(t)= - 4.4±0.7. Alterations of the trachytic rock, including microclinization, riebeckitization, aegirinization and biotitization, and accompanied rare element and REE mineralizations are discussed. Based on the occurrence of the trachytic rock and associated fenitization it is deduced that the Bayan Obo Fe-Nb-REE ore deposit is genetically related to magmatic-hydrothermal activity of an alkali carbonatite complex.

  7. 上海石化碳四资源利用现状及发展探讨%Discussion on Utilization and Development of C_4 Hydrocarbon Resources in SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩娟; 秦朝晖; 周欢华

    2012-01-01

    The sources,compositions,separation process and utilization of C4 hydroacarbon in SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited were analyzed.For the compositions in C4 hydrocarbon which were by-products of refining and chemical plants and were not utilized rationally,proposal was raised to integrate the surplus C4 resources and build a light hydrocarbon aromatization plant to produce aromatics.And for the problem of comprehensive utilization of C4 hydrocarbon in capacity expansion project of 1# ethylene plant,proposals were raised on adopting combining process of synthesizing MTBE through etherification of isobutylene-producing high purified isobutylene through MTBE cracking,and process of producing methyl-ethyl-ketone from butylene by hydration and hydrogenaion.Meanwhile,proposals were raised on developing down-stream products of butadiene and building a synthetic rubber production plant.%分析了中国石化上海石油化工股份有限公司C4烃的来源、组成、分离工艺和利用途径;针对炼油系统和化工系统副产的C4烃中未被合理利用的组分,提出了整合剩余C4资源,建设一套轻烃芳构化生产芳烃装置的建议;针对1#乙烯装置扩能改造工程C4烃综合利用问题,提出了采用异丁烯醚化合成甲基叔丁基醚(MTBE)-MTBE裂解制高纯异丁烯组合工艺、正丁烯水合脱氢制甲乙酮工艺等建议,同时提出了发展丁二烯下游产品,建设一套生产合成橡胶装置的设想。

  8. Selection of hydraulic and thermal calculation softwares for flares in refineries and petrochemical plants%炼油化工企业火炬系统水力和热力计算软件的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李津; 姚建军

    2011-01-01

    介绍了目前应用于火炬系统计算的Visual Flow和Inplant通用软件,依据某炼化企业工艺装置和火炬高低压管网布置系统及区域供电系统的实际情况,分别按不同区域变电所停电事故工况,利用Visual Flow( FlareDocument模块)和lnplant(Network Model模块)软件,对火炬高低压管网进行了水力及热力模拟计算,并对计算结果进行对比分析,指出了上述软件的应用存在着相对差异.结果表明:Visual Flow与Inplant软件水力计算数学模型是一致的,两个软件的计算结果也是一致的.但Visual Flow软件操作界面相对比较直观,方便计算人员操作.Inplant软件中的Network Model模块,可选择管道与外界的热交换型式,更加准确地进行热力模拟计算.对火炬系统进行水力和热力模拟计算应该采用不同的应用软件.%The computer softwares Visual Flow and Inplant commonly applied in the calculation of flare system are introduced. Based upon the existing conditions of the process units, high-pressure and low-pressure piping networks of the flare of a petrochemical plant as well as power-off emergencies of substations in different process areas, the simulation calculations of the high-pressure and low-pressure piping networks of flare are performed with Visual Flow ( Flare Document Model) and Inplant ( Network Model) , and calculation results are compared and analyzed. The comparison results show that both Visual Flow and Inplant softwares are consistent in hydraulic simulation model and calculation results. Whereas, the operating interface of Visual Flow is intuitive, which facilitates the technical personnel' s operation. With Network Model in Inplant, the type of heat exchange can be selected for thermal calculation. Different application softwares should be applied for the hydraulic and thermal calculations of flare system.

  9. 某石化污染场地含水层自然降解BTEX能力评估%The Assessment of Aquifer Natural Attenuation(BTEX)Capacity in a Petrochemical Contaminated Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡婧怡; 陈宗宇; 蔡五田; 高宗军; 张敏

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater pollution is one of the important environmental issues concerned in China.Monitoring and assessing natural attenuation capacity of an aquifer is not only a basic means for preventing and treating groundwater pollution,but also a hot topic in groundwater remediation technology research in abroad.In this paper,authors,taking a petrochemical site in North China Plain as a case study,estimate the aquifer natural attenuation amount of BTEX per year using microbial hydrogeological and chemical method,based on investiga-tion of hydrogeological condition and pollution status in soil and groundwater as well as monitoring of BTEX con-centration and some related chemical parameters in groundwater.This research result provides an empirical and basic data for assessment of natural attenuation capacity of petroleum contaminated sites in China.%地下水污染问题是国家关注的重要环境问题之一,监测与评估含水层自然降解污染物能力是防治地下水污染的基本手段,也是国外地下水中修复技术研究热点课题。以华北平原某石油化工类场地为案例,通过调查场地水文地质条件、土壤及地下水污染现状,监测场地地下水中苯系物(BTEX)浓度及相关化学参数变化,运用微生物水文地球化学方法和水文地质方法,估算了该场地含水层自然降解苯系物量。这一研究成果为评估我国石油类场地地下水污染的自然修复能力提供了实证和基础数据。

  10. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION ON CIRCULAR ECONOMY OF PETROCHEMICAL AND SALT CHEMICAL INTEGRATION%石化-盐化一体化循环经济模式分析与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高力国; 迟庆峰

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of circular economy system based on the integration of petrochemical and salt chemical is discussed in depth, and the situations before and after the implementation of this project are analyzed. Adopting combined process to manufacture PVC, the ethylene in dry gas and the by-product hydrogen chloride all can be used, besides, the supply of electrolytic hydrogen is less. The improved chlorohydrine process for propylene oxide (PO) production can reduce the consumption of soda, seawater and propylene significantly; furthermore, the zero discharge of wastes from PO unit is realized. The comprehensive utilization of DCC dry gas and C4 resource can promote the added value of products. On the whole, by optimizing overall process planning and applying technology innovations, the objective goal of maximum utilization of various resources, less energy consumption and waste discharge could be reached.%深入探索和研究石化-盐化一体化循环经济的特征,对比分析石化-盐化一体化项目实施前后的情况.结果表明:采用联合法制聚氯乙烯,可利用干气中的乙烯资源,使副产的氯化氢再利用,并节省外供的电解氢气;用改良氯醇法生产环氧丙烷,使纯碱生产中使用的海水、丙烯的消耗量大大减少,并实现装置环氧丙烷废水、废渣的零排放;对DCC干气和C4的综合利用,使产品的附加值得到提升.说明石化-盐化一体化循环经济模式可以通过工艺流程的总体规划、有机结合和技术创新,实现资源利用最大化和节能减排.

  11. Second Quantized Kolmogorov Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Caroline; Vedral, Vlatko; Nagarajan, Rajagopal

    2008-01-01

    The Kolmogorov complexity of a string is the length of its shortest description. We define a second quantised Kolmogorov complexity where the length of a description is defined to be the average length of its superposition. We discuss this complexity's basic properties. We define the corresponding prefix complexity and show that the inequalities obeyed by this prefix complexity are also obeyed by von Neumann entropy.

  12. Complex Multiplicative Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Bashirov, Agamirza; Riza, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we extend the concepts of multiplicative de- rivative and integral to complex-valued functions of complex variable. Some drawbacks, arising with these concepts in the real case, are explained satis- factorily. Properties of complex multiplicative derivatives and integrals are studied. In particular, the fundamental theorem of complex multiplicative calculus, relating these concepts, is proved. It is shown that complex multi- plicative calculus is not just another realizat...

  13. Les réacteurs à membranes : possibilités d'application dans l'industrie pétrolière et pétrochimique Membrane Reactors: Possibilities of Application in the Petroleum and Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article fait le point sur l'état de la recherche dans le domaine des réacteurs chimiques avec séparation par membrane intégrée et de leur applications dans le domaine du raffinage et de la pétrochimie. Trois applications potentiellement intéressantes sont identifiées et, pour chacune, les avantages de l'utilisation d'un réacteur à membrane sont discutés. Ce sont : la déshydrogénation du propane en propylène, la déshydrogénation d'un naphtène cyclohexanique et le vaporéformage du gaz naturel. Pour ces réactions, les membranes à base de palladium apparaissent les plus performantes compte tenu de leur tenue en température, de leur sélectivité et de leur perméabilité à l'hydrogène. Quelques éléments relatifs à leur développement sont présentés en conclusion. Recently, the use of membrane in reaction engineering has been more and more advocated. The selective separation of the products from the reaction mixture allows to achieve higher conversion or better selectivity or to operate under less severe conditions or with smaller units. This paper presents an update on the recent advances in the field of chemical membrane reactors and on their applications in refining and petrochemistry. Previous work. Most of the possible applications of membrane reactors in petroleum and petrochemical industry concern gaseous catalytic reactions. For this reason, gas permeation membranes are the primary component of membrane reactors. Gas permeation membranes present different types of physical structure : dense, microporous or asymmetric which is a combination of the two. Separating properties of dense membranes are function of the solubility and diffusivity of each gaseous component in the membrane material. For microporous membranes, they follow four mechanisms : Knudsen diffusion, surface diffusion, capillary condensation or molecular sieving. Although organic polymers are the common constituent of gas permeation membrane, their

  14. Complex networks analysis of language complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Amancio, Diego R; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Costa, Luciano da F; 10.1209/0295-5075/100/58002

    2013-01-01

    Methods from statistical physics, such as those involving complex networks, have been increasingly used in quantitative analysis of linguistic phenomena. In this paper, we represented pieces of text with different levels of simplification in co-occurrence networks and found that topological regularity correlated negatively with textual complexity. Furthermore, in less complex texts the distance between concepts, represented as nodes, tended to decrease. The complex networks metrics were treated with multivariate pattern recognition techniques, which allowed us to distinguish between original texts and their simplified versions. For each original text, two simplified versions were generated manually with increasing number of simplification operations. As expected, distinction was easier for the strongly simplified versions, where the most relevant metrics were node strength, shortest paths and diversity. Also, the discrimination of complex texts was improved with higher hierarchical network metrics, thus point...

  15. Petrochemical Industrial Development Flourishes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Cangzhou to construct world·class chemical industrial park To make full use of its advantages in coastline and harbors,local industries, traffic conditions and land use, Cangzhou City, Hebei Province, planned to construct the largest chemical industrial park in North China - Lingang Chemical Industrial Park, which has already captured attention of the Chinese and foreign chemicals enterprises.

  16. Latest Development of Sinopec Petrochemical Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Beijing's Yanshan oil refinery plans to shut down a crude unit for one month from the end of March to retool the facility to process Russian crude, a company source said in early March. Yanshan, a unit of China's top refiner Sinopec, will close the crude distillation unit with a capacity of 2.5 million ton

  17. Monitoring of fugitive emissions in petrochemical plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Rozilda F. [Companhia Petroquimica do Nordeste (COPENE), Camacari, BA (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Ambiental

    1993-12-31

    COPENE (Petroquimica do Nordeste S/A) has been implanting a program of fugitive emissions adapted to its reality, trying to promote a continuous improvement in its employees` working conditions and in environmental protection. This paper presents the methodology for the elaboration of this program and the conclusions of some surveys which were already completed (author). 4 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Beyond petrochemicals: The renewable chemicals industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennestrøm, P.N.R.; Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Christensen, C.H.;

    2011-01-01

    From petroleum to bioleum: Since biomass is a limited resource, it is necessary to consider its best use. The production of select chemicals from biomass, rather than its use as fuel, could effectively replace the use of petroleum in the chemical industry, but the inherent functionality of biomass...

  19. Mortality among petrochemical science and engineering employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a study of a dynamic cohort of 13,250 commercial research and development personnel for whom information on occupational and education background and smoking was available. Their age-, sex-, race-, and period-adjusted death rates were compared with New Jersey rates and with an internal comparison population. The study groups had significantly fewer deaths from most major disease categories compared with other New Jersey residents. Among white male scientists and engineers, age-adjusted overall mortality and ischemic heart disease mortality were comparable to white male managers and support staff studied, whereas mortality from leukemia and lymphatic cancer was significantly elevated. Mechanics, however, had a significantly lower leukemia and lymphatic cancer mortality rate than did the comparison group. In a Poisson regression model in which white males and females from the study population were used, and for which the effects of age, smoking, college education category, period of hire, and years employed were controlled, scientists, engineers, and research technicians had elevated (nonsignificantly) mortality rates for leukemia and lymphatic cancer compared with managers and support staff. Smoking was an independent risk factor for leukemia and lymphatic cancer. Further work is needed to asses is specific environmental factors, such as benzene, other aromatics, radiation, medical treatment, and smoking habits, might have contributed to the above findings

  20. Understanding the petrochemical cycle: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitness in the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) arena involves understanding and coping with business cycles: supply and demand. This becomes increasingly more important as the industry globalizes and matures. Competitive-edge thinking needs to look hard at the forces that influence business cycles. Recognition of potential pitfalls is very important when considering: future capacity expansion, mergers and acquisitions, market departure, plant closure, potential product substitution, etc. Understanding pricing mechanisms and the workings of hockey-stick profitability profiles help HPI operators endure cycle downturns and prepare plants to maximize profits for the next upswing. The paper discusses characteristic trends, cycles in the hydrocarbon processing industry, current conditions, and mitigating cycle effects

  1. Industrial Energy in Transition: A Petrochemical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, Ronald S.

    1978-01-01

    An industrial development involves the conversion of biomass, through fermentation, to useful chemical products and the gasification of municiple wastes to produce steam for electricity generation. These gases may also serve as chemical feedstocks. (Author/MA)

  2. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type ... at least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications ...

  3. Curve complexes are rigid

    OpenAIRE

    Rafi, Kasra; Schleimer, Saul

    2007-01-01

    Any quasi-isometry of the complex of curves is bounded distance from a simplicial automorphism. As a consequence, the quasi-isometry type of the curve complex determines the homeomorphism type of the surface.

  4. Complexity An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Parwani, R R

    2002-01-01

    This article summarises a Web-book on "Complexity" that was developed to introduce undergraduate students to interesting complex systems in the biological, physical and social sciences, and the common tools, principles and concepts used for their study.

  5. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  6. Quantum Communication Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Klauck, Hartmut

    2000-01-01

    This paper surveys the field of quantum communication complexity. Some interesting recent results are collected concerning relations to classical communication, lower bound methods, one-way communication, and applications of quantum communication complexity.

  7. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other parts of ... after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications called ...

  8. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer of the ... two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called vinca ...

  9. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  10. Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 514 Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) WHAT IS MAC? HOW DO I KNOW ... THE BOTTOM LINE WHAT IS MAC? Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) is a serious illness caused by common ...

  11. Cytarabine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytarabine lipid complex is used to treat lymphomatous meningitis (a type of cancer in the covering of the spinal cord and brain). Cytarabine lipid complex is in a class of medications called antimetabolites. ...

  12. Evolution of biological complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, Christoph; Ofria, Charles; Collier, Travis C.

    2000-01-01

    In order to make a case for or against a trend in the evolution of complexity in biological evolution, complexity needs to be both rigorously defined and measurable. A recent information-theoretic (but intuitively evident) definition identifies genomic complexity with the amount of information a sequence stores about its environment. We investigate the evolution of genomic complexity in populations of digital organisms and monitor in detail the evolutionary transitions that increase complexit...

  13. 宁波某石化企业员工牙周健康状况调查分析%Sample survey on periodontal health of people in petrochemical industry community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘恒标; 陈晖; 周娜; 金丹; 张静

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study periodontal health of people in a petrochemical industry community in East China and to provide fundamental documents and guidance for oral health care. Methods The periodontal status of 2 108 samples were selected. Each subject was examined according to the principles and fundamental methods which were used in the third national oral health epidemical survey. Results ① The periodontal healthy rate was 20.5% ; the periodontitis rate was 52.3% [ 95% CI: (52.3 ± 2.1 % ) ]; the gingi-val blood index was 61.5% ; the calculus rate was 64.2% ; the deep periodontal pocket index was 26.2% ; the prevalence rate of attachment loss ≥4 mm was 51.0%. ②The rate of attachment lost in the group aged 65-74 was 76.9% .higher than the average rate of 73.6% in East China. Conclusions ①The periodontal status was better than that in other places in East China. ?The male individuals aged 35 to 59 would be more likely to lose their periodontal attachment. Oral hygiene education should be emphasized.%目的 了解宁波某石化企业员工的牙周健康状况,为企业提供口腔职业保护信息.方法 根据第3次全国口腔健康流行病学调查所采用的《口腔健康调查基本方法》(世界卫生组织制定的第4版)的调查方法和标准,2008年3-9月,对宁波某石化企业2 108名抽样员工,进行检查牙周状况,结果 ①2 108名抽样员工的牙周健康率为20.5%,牙周炎患病率52.3%[95%CI:(52.3±2.1)%];牙龈出血检出率为61.5%,人均患牙(1.20±1.93)颗;牙结石检出率为64.2%,人均患牙(5.96±7.80)颗;牙周袋检出率为26.2%,人均患牙(0.94±2.37)颗;牙周附着丧失≥4 mm者的检出率为51.0%,人均患牙(5.63±6.88)颗.②65 ~74岁组的员工牙周附着丧失检出率为76.9%,高出全国东部的73.6%.结论 宁波石化企业员工牙周健康状况均好于全国东部同类地区的居民;35 ~59岁组的男性员工应成为牙周附着丧失的重点监控

  14. Indice d' évolution des coûts des installations industrielles chimiques et pétrochimiques en France Cost Variation Index for Chemical and Petrochemical Installations in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benchecroun N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Un indice de coût des installations chimiques et pétrochimiques pour la France avait été proposé par le Département Évaluation de I'IFP en 1984. La maintenance de celui-ci s'avérait difficile sans l'aide des moyens informatiques aujourd'hui disponibles. La mise à jour de cet indice (EVAL a été faite en y apportant une modification en ce qui concerne la base (1980 = 100 pour le mettre en conformité avec les recommendations de l'OCDE sur les séries statistiques. L'évolution des coûts reflétée par EVAL est comparée avec celle d'autres indices de coût d'installation, publics (PEI ou privés (BEICIP, ainsi qu'avec l'évolution des prix à la consommation. On note une bonne concordance avec l'indice BEICIP sur l'ensemble de la période (1975-1986 ainsi que le décrochement de l'évolution des coûts par rapport à celle des prix en 1982. La déviation présentée par l'indice PEI a conduit à bâtir un indice bicomposant (BIEVAL pour vérifier qu'un choix correct de la pondération main d'oeuvre/matériaux (67/33 ainsi que des séries d'indices élémentaires cohérentes permettaient de restituer une évolution comparable à celle donnée par les indices multicomposants. Le Département Evaluation de l'IFP dispose donc de deux indices quasi équivalents, EVAL et BIEVAL, l'avantage du second étant d'avoir un délai de réponse plus faible. Actuellement (décembre 1986, les dernières valeurs connues sont celles de juillet 1986 pour EVAL et d'octobre 1986 pour BIEVAL. A cost index for chemical and petrochemical installations in France was proposed by the IFP Process Evaluation Department in 1984, The maintenance of this index was difficult without the help of the computerized facilities now available. This index (EVAL has been updated with a change in the base (1980 = 100 to have it conform with OECD recommendations for statistical series. The variation in costs reflected by EVAL is compared with that of other public (PEI or private

  15. Complexity Near Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, Edi

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the concept of complexity near horizons to all nondegenerate black holes. For Schwarzschild black holes, we show that Rindler observers see a complexity change of $S$ during proper time $1/\\kappa$ which corresponds to the creation of a causal patch with proper length $1/\\kappa$ inside the horizon. We attempt to describe complexity in the horizon CFT and the Euclidean picture.

  16. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  17. SYSTEMS WITH COMPLEXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chenghong; ZHANG Lijun

    2004-01-01

    Science of Complexity is a newly emerging branch of natural scienceAlthoughwe still haven't a precise definition, there are some principles for justifying whether a systemis a complex systemThe purpose of this article is to reveal some of such principlesOnthe basis of them, the concept of a system with complexity is proposedThey may helpus to distinguish a real complex system from complicated objects in common senseThenwe propose some fundamental problems faced by the study of systems with complexity.

  18. Randomness, Information, and Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Grassberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We review possible measures of complexity which might in particular be applicable to situations where the complexity seems to arise spontaneously. We point out that not all of them correspond to the intuitive (or "naive") notion, and that one should not expect a unique observable of complexity. One of the main problems is to distinguish complex from disordered systems. This and the fact that complexity is closely related to information requires that we also give a review of information measures. We finally concentrate on quantities which measure in some way or other the difficulty of classifying and forecasting sequences of discrete symbols, and study them in simple examples.

  19. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhtar Hussain; Akhil R Chakravarty

    2012-11-01

    Lanthanide complexes have recently received considerable attention in the field of therapeutic and diagnostic medicines. Among many applications of lanthanides, gadolinium complexes are used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents in clinical radiology and luminescent lanthanides for bioanalysis, imaging and sensing. The chemistry of photoactive lanthanide complexes showing biological applications is of recent origin. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment modality of cancer using a photosensitizer drug and light. This review primarily focuses on different aspects of the chemistry of lanthanide complexes showing photoactivated DNA cleavage activity and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Macrocyclic texaphyrin-lanthanide complexes are known to show photocytotoxicity with the PDT effect in near-IR light. Very recently, non-macrocyclic lanthanide complexes are reported to show photocytotoxicity in cancer cells. Attempts have been made in this perspective article to review and highlight the photocytotoxic behaviour of various lanthanide complexes for their potential photochemotherapeutic applications.

  20. Isolation of individual hydrocarbons from the unresolved complex hydrocarbon mixture of a biodegraded crude oil using preparative capillary gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, P.A.; Lewis, C.A.; Rowland, S.J. [Plymouth Univ., School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-15

    We describe the isolation, using preparative capillary gas chromatography, of hydrocarbon fractions from an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of hydrocarbons isolated from a biodegraded crude oil. Some of the individual hydrocarbons in these fractions were then resolved by gas chromatography (GC) and identified using GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The mass spectra contained distinct molecular ions. As a preliminary example, after preparative open column chromatography, preparative HPLC (three columns in series) and preparative GC on two stationary phases, one of the compounds from the UCM was tentatively identified using electron impact ionisation GC-MS as a novel C{sub 26} 17-desmethyl triaromatic steroid. If the concentration of this compound (ca. 4 {mu}g g{sup -1} whole oil) is typical of other individual compounds in the UCM, the proportion of UCM represented by each compound is obviously very small (<0.0004%) and suggests that the whole oil UCM contains in the order of 250,000 mostly unidentified compounds. This suggests that oil UCMs are amongst the most complex mixtures of organic compounds on Earth and explains the difficulty of UCM component identification. Nevertheless, it also indicates that multi-step chromatography can lead to the identification of individual compounds, some of which have geochemical, petrochemical and environmental significance. Acquisition of such knowledge is fundamental if we are to improve our understanding of petroleum. (Author)

  1. Complex networks and computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuigeng ZHOU; Zhongzhi ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nowadays complex networks are pervasive in various areas of science and technology. Popular examples of complex networks include the Internet, social networks of collaboration, citations and co-authoring, as well as biological networks such as gene and protein interactions and others. Complex networks research spans across mathematics, computer science, engineering, biology and the social sciences. Even in computer science area, increasing problems are either found to be related to complex networks or studied from the perspective of complex networks, such as searching on Web and P2P networks, routing in sensor networks, language processing, software engineering etc. The interaction and mergence of complex networks and computing is inspiring new chances and challenges in computer science.

  2. Two giant stellar complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, Yu. N.; Efremov, E. Yu.

    Common star complexes are huge (0.3-1 kpc in diameter) groups of relatively young stars, associations and clusters. The complexes usually form regular chains along spiral arms of grand design galaxies, being evidently formed and supported by magneto- gravitational instability developing along an arm. Special attention is given to a few large complexes which have signatures of gravitational boundness, such as round shape and high central density. Concentrations of stars and clusters in such a complex in M51 galaxy were found in this paper; we concluded it is possible to suggest that the complex is gravitationally bound. It is also stressed that some properties of the giant complex in NGC 6946 (such as its semicircular and sharp Western edge) are still enigmatic.

  3. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  4. How evolution guides complexity

    OpenAIRE

    LARRY S. YAEGER

    2009-01-01

    Long-standing debates about the role of natural selection in the growth of biological complexity over geological time scales are difficult to resolve from the paleobiological record. Using an evolutionary model—a computational ecosystem subjected to natural selection—we investigate evolutionary trends in an information-theoretic measure of the complexity of the neural dynamics of artificial agents inhabiting the model. Our results suggest that evolution always guides complexity change, just n...

  5. Quantum Computational Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Watrous, John

    2008-01-01

    This article surveys quantum computational complexity, with a focus on three fundamental notions: polynomial-time quantum computations, the efficient verification of quantum proofs, and quantum interactive proof systems. Properties of quantum complexity classes based on these notions, such as BQP, QMA, and QIP, are presented. Other topics in quantum complexity, including quantum advice, space-bounded quantum computation, and bounded-depth quantum circuits, are also discussed.

  6. Complex Systems and Dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth

  7. Engineering Complex Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Mikos, Antonios G.; Herring, Susan W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; Elisseeff, Jennifer; Lu, Helen H.; Kandel, Rita; Schoen, Frederick J.; Toner, Mehmet; Mooney, David; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; Kaplan, David; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2006-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and ...

  8. Catalyseurs et procédés catalytiques utilisés dans la production des grands intermédiaires pétrochimiques. Situation actuelle et futur Catalysts and Catalytic Processes Used for the Production of the Major Petrochemical Building Blocks. Present Situation and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boitiaux J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La pétrochimie représente une part modeste du marché des catalyseurs, mais les dix dernières années ont vu des améliorations substantielles des catalyseurs et des procédés utilisés. Ces améliorations ont permis de mieux répondre à la demande en grands intermédiaires pétrochimiques. Cette évolution est bien illustrée par les hydrogénations, autour du vapocraquage destiné à produire des oléfines, par le reformage catalytique et les procédés satellites destinés à produire des aromatiques et par les nouveaux procédés de déshydrogénation, métathèse, oligomérisation. . . qui permettent de mieux équilibrer le marché des oléfines. Petrochemicals account for a modest share of the market for catalysts, but there have been substantial improvements in the catalysts and processes used in the last ten years. These improvements have brought about a better response to the demand for major petrochemical building blocks. This trend is clearly illustrated by hydrogenations in the field of steam cracking to produce olefins, by catalytic reforming and satellite processes to produce aromatics, and by new processes such as dehydrogenation, metathesis and oligomerization which provide better balance to the market for olefins.

  9. Effect of the exposure time in coke making atmosphere on the microstructure and properties of a refractory castable used in the petrochemical industry; Efeito do tempo de exposicao a uma atmosfera coqueificante na microestrutura e nas propriedades de um concreto refratario usado na industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrelon, M.D.; Pereira, A.H.A.; Rodrigues, J.A., E-mail: marcelodezena@gmail.com [Grupo de Engenharia de Microestrutura de Materiais - GEMM, Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais - DEMa, Universidade Federal de S. Carlos - UFSCar, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, J. [CENPES, Petroleo Brasileiro S/A - PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Toledo-Filho, R.D. [Laboratorio de Estruturas e Materiais - LABEST, COPPE, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Refractory castables used in Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU) are said to deteriorate due coke formation during the production of light hydrocarbons, causing a shortening in the operating time of the reactor. Consequently, a significant financial loss for the petrochemical will occur. Several studies have been carried out, but none of them showed clearly how much is the contribution of the coke for the concrete final deterioration. It still remains the doubt if the coke is the responsible for the damage observed macroscopically in a FCCU's riser. In this way, this work aimed to study the effect of the time in a coke making atmosphere on an anti-erosive class-C refractory castable, seeking for microstructural changes or on physical properties that indicate degradation mechanisms and give support to the understanding of the phenomenon. Samples of an industrial refractory castable used in petrochemical units were prepared and subjected to a forced coke making process in a simulation reactor. The temperature and the heating rate were kept constant at 540 deg C and 50 deg C/h, respectively. The values of 10, 60, 120, 240 and 480 h were used for the time of exposition to the propene gas. The microstructure of the samples was characterized through optical and scanning electron microscopy and its mineralogical phases through X-ray diffraction. Complementary analyses were necessary to a better understanding of the phenomenon. The results show that the surface and the microstructure are gradually impregnated by coke, which fills up pores, microcracks and cracks. Evidences of microcracking around the coke filled pores were not found. However, many aggregates present some type of deterioration related to the time of exposition to propene. Those damages are not necessarily caused by coke directly (author)

  10. Berger Engineering Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Engineering laboratory The Berger Lab Complex is a multi-purpose building with professional office, 100 seat auditorium, general purpose labs,...

  11. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.; Clemenson, P. I.; Carneiro, K.; Yueqiuan, S.; Mortensen, Kell

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  12. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.;

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  13. MULTISCALE COMPLEXITY/ENTROPY

    OpenAIRE

    Y. BAR-YAM

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the role of scale dependence of entropy/complexity and its relationship to component interdependence. The complexity as a function of scale of observation is expressed in terms of subsystem entropies for a system having a description in terms of variables that have the same a priori scale. The sum of the complexity over all scales is the same for any system with the same number of underlying degrees of freedom (variables), even though the complexity at specific scales differs due t...

  14. Phospholyl-uranium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having reported a bibliographical study on penta-methylcyclopentadienyl uranium complexes, and a description of the synthesis and radioactivity of uranium (III) and (IV) boron hydrides compounds, this research thesis reports the study of mono and bis-tetramethyl-phospholyl uranium complexes comprising chloride, boron hydride, alkyl and alkoxide ligands. The third part reports the comparison of structures, stabilities and reactions of homologue complexes in penta-methylcyclopentadienyl and tetramethyl-phospholyl series. The last part addresses the synthesis of tris-phospholyl uranium (III) and (IV) complexes.

  15. PetroChina to Expand Dushanzi Refinery on Large Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ A large-scale expansion project for PetroChina Dushanzi Petrochemical Company has been given the green light, a move which will make it one of the largest refineries and petrochemical complexes in the country.

  16. Introductory complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Richard A

    1984-01-01

    A shorter version of A. I. Markushevich's masterly three-volume Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable, this edition is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in complex analysis. Numerous worked-out examples and more than 300 problems, some with hints and answers, make it suitable for independent study. 1967 edition.

  17. Complexity dimensions and learnability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S-H. Nienhuys-Cheng (Shan-Hwei); M. Polman

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA stochastic model of learning from examples has been introduced by Valiant [1984]. This PAC-learning model (PAC = probably approximately correct) reflects differences in complexity of concept classes, i.e. very complex classes are not efficiently PAC-learnable. Blumer et al. [1989] foun

  18. The complexity of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. (Hennie Lótter

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article an alternative philosophy of science based on ideas drawn from the study of complex adaptive systems is presented. As a result of the enormous expansion in scientific disciplines, and the number of scientists and scientific institutions in the twentieth century, I believe science can be characterised as a complex system. I want to interpret the processes of science through which scientists themselves determine what is regarded as good science. This characterisation of science as a complex system can supply an answer to the question why the sciences have been so successful in solving growing numbers of problems and correcting their own mistakes. I utilise components of complexity theory to explain and interpret science as a complex system. I first explain the concept of complexity in ordinary language. The explanation of science as a complex system starts with a definition of the basic rules guiding the behaviour of science as a complex system. Next, I indicate how various sciences have resulted through the implementation of these rules in the study of a specific aspect of reality. The explanation of the growth of science through evolutionary adaptation and learning forms the core o f the article.

  19. Complexity in Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierschynski, Jarek; Louie, Belinda; Pughe, Bronwyn

    2015-01-01

    One of the key requirements of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English Language Arts is that students are able to read and access complex texts across all grade levels. The CCSS authors emphasize both the limitations and lack of accuracy in the current CCSS model of text complexity, calling for the development of new frameworks. In response…

  20. Freestanding Complex Optical Scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbie, David A.

    A complex freestanding optical mark recognition (OMR) scanner is one which is not on-line to an external processor; it has intelligence stemming from an internal processor located within the unit or system. The advantages and disadvantages of a complex OMR can best be assessed after identifying the scanning needs and constraints of the potential…

  1. Visual Complexity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  2. Urban geography and complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Pumain

    2004-01-01

    The contemporary approach of complex systems raises common questions that could be handled by a transdisciplinary theory. We demonstrate how the main concepts of urban geography could be integrated in such a theory ofcomplexity. We illustrate the complexity approach by a short presentationof the SIMPOP model that uses a multi-agents formalism for the simulationof the evolutionary properties of systems of cities.

  3. Gold trifluoromethyl complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Rubio, Juan; Vicente, José

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews the synthesis, reactivity and applications of gold trifluoromethyl complexes, which are the only isolated perfluoroalkyl complexes of gold. The most reported examples are neutral Au(i) complexes of the type [Au(CF3)L], whereas only two Au(ii) trifluoromethyl complexes have been reported, both being diamagnetic and containing a strong Au-Au bond. A number of Au(iii) trifluoromethyl complexes have been prepared by oxidative addition of halogens or iodotrifluoromethane to Au(i) complexes or, in a few cases, by transmetallation reactions. Owing to the limitations of the available synthetic methods, a lower number of examples is known, particularly for the oxidation states (ii) and (iii). Gold trifluoromethyl complexes present singular characteristics, such as thermal stability, strong Au-C bonds and, in some cases, reactive α-C-F bonds. Some of the Au(iii) complexes reported, show unusually easy reductive elimination reactions of trifluoromethylated products which could be applied in the development of gold-catalyzed processes for the trifluoromethylation of organic compounds. PMID:26169553

  4. [Complexity: an introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Carlos Alberto Palacio; Jaramillo, Francisco Luis Ochoa

    2011-01-01

    Complexity appears in the twentieth century as a way to understand many phenomena that are perceived as chaotic and complex from classical thought, which still persist in our way of explaining the world. Its purpose is to study the complex and adaptive systems that are sensitive to initial conditions. Some of the characteristics of complex thought are systemic perspective, autopoiesis, self-organization, emergent properties, unpredictability of the systems, analogic thought, and the complementarity of the phenomena, among others. Living systems respond to a complex logic, and in that sense, our vision of human populations and patients, and how we try to solve problems and human diseases, should be open to the possibilities that arise from this form of understand the world. PMID:21503430

  5. Reset Complexity of Ideal Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Maslennikova, Marina

    2014-01-01

    We present a new characteristic of a regular ideal language called reset complexity. We find some bounds on the reset complexity in terms of the state complexity of a given language. We also compare the reset complexity and the state complexity for languages related to slowly synchronizing automata and study uniqueness question for automata yielding the minimum of reset complexity.

  6. Stable Spirocyclic Meisenheimer Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Guirado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Meisenheimer complexes are important intermediates in Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions (SNAr. They are formed by the addition of electron rich species to polynitro aromatic compounds or aromatic compounds with strong electron withdrawing groups. It is possible to distinguish two types of Meisenheimer or σ-complexes, the σHcomplex or σX-complex (also named ipso, depending on the aromatic ring position attacked by the nucleophile (a non-substituted or substituted one, respectively. Special examples of σX- or ipso-complexes are formed through intermediate spiro adducts, via intramolecular SNAr. Some of these spirocyclic Meisenheimer complexes, a type of σXcomplex, are exceptionally stable in solution and/or as solids. They can be isolated and characterized using X-ray, and various spectroscopic techniques such as NMR, UV-Vis, IR, and fluorescence. A few of these stable spirocyclic Meisenheimer complexes are zwitterionic and exhibit interesting photophysical and redox properties. We will review recent advances, synthesis and potential applications of these stable spirocyclic Meisenheimer complexes.

  7. Nanofiber composites containing N-heterocyclic carbene complexes with antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzatahry AA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed A Elzatahry1,4, Abdullah M Al-Enizi1, Elsayed Ahmed Elsayed2,5, Rachel R Butorac3, Salem S Al-Deyab1, Mohammad AM Wadaan2, Alan H Cowley31Petrochemical Research Chair, Department of Chemistry, 2Chair of Advanced Proteomics & Cytomics Research, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; 4Institute of Advanced Technology and New Materials, City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Borg Alrab, Alexandria, Egypt; 5Natural & Microbial Products Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: This report concerns nanofiber composites that incorporate N-heterocyclic carbenes and the use of such composites for testing antimicrobial and antifungal activities. The nanofiber composites were produced by electrospinning mixtures of the gold chloride or gold acetate complexes of a bis(iminoacenaphthene (BIAN-supported NHC with aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. The products were characterized by scanning-electron microscopy, which revealed that nanofibers in the range of 250–300 nm had been produced. The biological activities of the nanofiber composites were tested against two Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and two fungal strains. No activity was evident against the fungal strains. However, the gold chloride complex was found to be active against all the Gram-positive pathogens and one of the Gram-negative pathogens. It was also found that the activity of the produced nanofibers was localized and that no release of the bioactive compound from the nanofibers was evident. The demonstrated antimicrobial activities of these novel nanofiber composites render them potentially useful as wound dressings.Keywords: nanofiber, electrospinning, N-Heterocyclic carbene, biopolymer, antimicrobial

  8. Complex intuitionistic fuzzy sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkouri, Abdulazeez (Moh'd. Jumah) S.; Salleh, Abdul Razak

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a new concept of complex intuitionistic fuzzy set (CIFS) which is generalized from the innovative concept of a complex fuzzy set (CFS) by adding the non-membership term to the definition of CFS. The novelty of CIFS lies in its ability for membership and non-membership functions to achieve more range of values. The ranges of values are extended to the unit circle in complex plane for both membership and non-membership functions instead of [0, 1] as in the conventional intuitionistic fuzzy functions. We define basic operations namely complement, union, and intersection on CIFSs. Properties of these operations are derived.

  9. Query complexity in expectation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaniewski, J.; Lee, Troy; Wolf,

    2014-01-01

    We study the query complexity of computing a function f:{0,1}^n-->R_+ in expectation. This requires the algorithm on input x to output a nonnegative random variable whose expectation equals f(x), using as few queries to the input x as possible. We exactly characterize both the randomized and the quantum query complexity by two polynomial degrees, the nonnegative literal degree and the sum-of-squares degree, respectively. We observe that the quantum complexity can be unboundedly smaller than t...

  10. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice. PMID:26372537

  11. Complexity for Artificial Substrates (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loke, L.H.L.; Jachowski, N.R.; Bouma, T.J.; Ladle, R.J.; Todd, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical habitat complexity regulates the structure and function of biological communities, although the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Urbanisation, pollution, unsustainable resource exploitation and climate change have resulted in the widespread simplification (and loss) o

  12. Complex tunneling dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.-D. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: cdyang@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2007-04-15

    Tunneling dynamics and tunneling trajectories are modeled exactly by complex-extended Hamilton-Jacobi formulation in this paper. It is found that the wave-like properties of tunneling particles, such as reflection, refraction, and transmission resonance, can be identified and explained in terms of particle's motion in complex space with the tunneling time defined as the usual sense of classical time. Following the complex trajectories determined by the complex Hamilton equations of motion, we can connect classical trajectories smoothly with tunneling trajectories using position and velocity continuity at the interface of the media, locate the particle's position at any instant, and find the time spent by a particle within the potential. A microscopic tunneling model is also developed to explain the probabilistic nature why a particle with the same incident conditions sometimes transmits the potential and sometimes is reflected from the potential.

  13. Management recommendations: Tewaukon Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Tewaukon Complex, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional comments are...

  14. Physical Sciences Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This 88,000 square foot complex is used to investigate basic physical science in support of missile technology development. It incorporates office space, dedicated...

  15. Complex coacervate core micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voets, Ilja K; de Keizer, Arie; Cohen Stuart, Martien A

    2009-01-01

    In this review we present an overview of the literature on the co-assembly of neutral-ionic block, graft, and random copolymers with oppositely charged species in aqueous solution. Oppositely charged species include synthetic (co)polymers of various architectures, biopolymers - such as proteins, enzymes and DNA - multivalent ions, metallic nanoparticles, low molecular weight surfactants, polyelectrolyte block copolymer micelles, metallo-supramolecular polymers, equilibrium polymers, etcetera. The resultant structures are termed complex coacervate core/polyion complex/block ionomer complex/interpolyelectrolyte complex micelles (or vesicles); i.e., in short C3Ms (or C3Vs) and PIC, BIC or IPEC micelles (and vesicles). Formation, structure, dynamics, properties, and function will be discussed. We focus on experimental work; theory and modelling will not be discussed. Recent developments in applications and micelles with heterogeneous coronas are emphasized. PMID:19038373

  16. A complex legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cristopher

    2011-11-01

    In his tragically short life, Alan Turing helped define what computing machines are capable of, and where they reach inherent limits. His legacy is still felt every day, in areas ranging from computational complexity theory to cryptography and quantum computing.

  17. On scattered subword complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Kása, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Special scattered subwords, in which the gaps are of length from a given set, are defined. The scattered subword complexity, which is the number of such scattered subwords, is computed for rainbow words.

  18. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  19. Algorithmic Problem Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    People solve different problems and know that some of them are simple, some are complex and some insoluble. The main goal of this work is to develop a mathematical theory of algorithmic complexity for problems. This theory is aimed at determination of computer abilities in solving different problems and estimation of resources that computers need to do this. Here we build the part of this theory related to static measures of algorithms. At first, we consider problems for finite words and stud...

  20. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, W; Tomasiello, A; Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    We construct a class of symplectic non--Kaehler and complex non--Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten--dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)--structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  1. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds

  2. Statistical complexity and disequilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the concept of disequilibrium as an essential ingredient of a family of statistical complexity measures. We find that Wootters' objections to the use of Euclidean distances for probability spaces become quite relevant to this endeavor. Replacing the Euclidean distance by the Wootters' one noticeably improves the behavior of the associated statistical complexity measure, as evidenced by its application to the dynamics of the logistic map

  3. Urban geography and complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary approach of complex systems raises common questions that could be handled by a transdisciplinary theory. We demonstrate how the main concepts of urban geography could be integrated in such a theory ofcomplexity. We illustrate the complexity approach by a short presentationof the SIMPOP model that uses a multi-agents formalism for the simulationof the evolutionary properties of systems of cities.

  4. Advances in network complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A well-balanced overview of mathematical approaches to describe complex systems, ranging from chemical reactions to gene regulation networks, from ecological systems to examples from social sciences. Matthias Dehmer and Abbe Mowshowitz, a well-known pioneer in the field, co-edit this volume and are careful to include not only classical but also non-classical approaches so as to ensure topicality. Overall, a valuable addition to the literature and a must-have for anyone dealing with complex systems.

  5. NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX BIOGENESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Rout, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are the sole mediators of transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. NPCs have a life cycle: they assemble, disassemble, turn over and age. The molecular mechanisms governing these different vital steps are beginning to emerge, suggesting key roles for the core structural scaffold of the NPC and auxiliary factors in the assembly of this large macromolecular complex, and connections between NPC maintenance, NPC turnover, and ageing of the cell.

  6. Tuberous sclerosis complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal dominant disorder with variable affection of the central nervous system (CNS) and many other organ systems. Radiological features include various lesions of the brain as well as lesions of the lungs, kidneys and the heart. Imaging is important for the early detection of complications. This article provides an overview of the clinical features and therapy as well as the specific imaging of tuberous sclerosis complex. (orig.)

  7. Bioindication of air pollution effects near a copper smelter in Brazil using mango trees and soil microbiological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Hintemann, Therese; Santana Lima, Josanidia; Kandeler, Ellen

    2003-12-01

    A field study near the copper smelter of a large industrial complex examined air pollution effects on vegetation and soil parameters in Camacari (northeast Brazil). Close to the smelter, soil pH-value was lower and total acidity as well as organic carbon contents were higher compared with a site far from the source and two reference sites. The acidification of top soil particularly and the drastically enhanced plant-available copper concentrations were caused by atmospheric deposition. High sulphur and copper deposition significantly reduced microbial biomass and altered functional diversity of soil microorganisms (arylsulphatase and xylanase). Large accumulations of sulphur, arsenic and copper were detected in mango leaves (Mangifera indica) growing downwind from the smelter suggesting potential food chain-mediated risk. - Atmospheric emissions in northeast Brazil have transformed soil pH, accumulated in soil and plants as sulphur and heavy metals, and affected the functional diversity of soil microorganisms.

  8. Bioindication of air pollution effects near a copper smelter in Brazil using mango trees and soil microbiological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study near the copper smelter of a large industrial complex examined air pollution effects on vegetation and soil parameters in Camacari (northeast Brazil). Close to the smelter, soil pH-value was lower and total acidity as well as organic carbon contents were higher compared with a site far from the source and two reference sites. The acidification of top soil particularly and the drastically enhanced plant-available copper concentrations were caused by atmospheric deposition. High sulphur and copper deposition significantly reduced microbial biomass and altered functional diversity of soil microorganisms (arylsulphatase and xylanase). Large accumulations of sulphur, arsenic and copper were detected in mango leaves (Mangifera indica) growing downwind from the smelter suggesting potential food chain-mediated risk. - Atmospheric emissions in northeast Brazil have transformed soil pH, accumulated in soil and plants as sulphur and heavy metals, and affected the functional diversity of soil microorganisms

  9. Modelling Complexity in Musical Rhythm

    OpenAIRE

    Liou, Cheng-Yuan; Wu, Tai-Hei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2007-01-01

    This paper constructs a tree structure for the music rhythm using the L-system. It models the structure as an automata and derives its complexity. It also solves the complexity for the L-system. This complexity can resolve the similarity between trees. This complexity serves as a measure of psychological complexity for rhythms. It resolves the music complexity of various compositions including the Mozart effect K488. Keyword: music perception, psychological complexity, rhythm, L-system, autom...

  10. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes (64Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective 64Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective 64Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential, with hypoxia

  11. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearling, J.L

    1998-11-01

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes ({sup 64}Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective {sup 64}Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective {sup 64}Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential

  12. The Orion complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with some of the most typical complexes of interstellar matter and presents a holistic view of the well studied complexes in Orion, built on information derived from various branches of modern astrophysics. A wealth of published data is presented in the form of photographs, contour maps, diagrams and numerous heavily annotated tables. Chapter 1, which is concerned with the large scale view of the Orion region, outlines the morphology of the area and examines in particular the nature of Barnard's Loop and the associated filamentary structure in addition to the origin of the I Orion OB association. Chapter 2 focuses on the Great Orion Nebula (M42 or NGC 1976) and the small H II region to the north (M43 or NGC 1982). Chapter 3 examines the Orion Complex as a whole, i.e. the H II regions M42 and M43, the associated molecular clouds OMC 1 and OMC 2 and their interrelations. Chapter 4 contains a discussion of the empirical models introduced to attempt to explain certain aspects of this very complex region, and chapter 5 investigates the second prominent H II region and molecular cloud complex, NGC 2024 (Orion B, W12). (Auth.)

  13. Algorithmic Relative Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cerra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information content and compression are tightly related concepts that can be addressed through both classical and algorithmic information theories, on the basis of Shannon entropy and Kolmogorov complexity, respectively. The definition of several entities in Kolmogorov’s framework relies upon ideas from classical information theory, and these two approaches share many common traits. In this work, we expand the relations between these two frameworks by introducing algorithmic cross-complexity and relative complexity, counterparts of the cross-entropy and relative entropy (or Kullback-Leibler divergence found in Shannon’s framework. We define the cross-complexity of an object x with respect to another object y as the amount of computational resources needed to specify x in terms of y, and the complexity of x related to y as the compression power which is lost when adopting such a description for x, compared to the shortest representation of x. Properties of analogous quantities in classical information theory hold for these new concepts. As these notions are incomputable, a suitable approximation based upon data compression is derived to enable the application to real data, yielding a divergence measure applicable to any pair of strings. Example applications are outlined, involving authorship attribution and satellite image classification, as well as a comparison to similar established techniques.

  14. Complexity of Economical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Pavlos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study new theoretical concepts are described concerning the interpretation of economical complex dynamics. In addition a summary of an extended algorithm of nonlinear time series analysis is provided which is applied not only in economical time series but also in other physical complex systems (e.g. [22, 24]. In general, Economy is a vast and complicated set of arrangements and actions wherein agents—consumers, firms, banks, investors, government agencies—buy and sell, speculate, trade, oversee, bring products into being, offer services, invest in companies, strategize, explore, forecast, compete, learn, innovate, and adapt. As a result the economic and financial variables such as foreign exchange rates, gross domestic product, interest rates, production, stock market prices and unemployment exhibit large-amplitude and aperiodic fluctuations evident in complex systems. Thus, the Economics can be considered as spatially distributed non-equilibrium complex system, for which new theoretical concepts, such as Tsallis non extensive statistical mechanics and strange dynamics, percolation, nonGaussian, multifractal and multiscale dynamics related to fractional Langevin equations can be used for modeling and understanding of the economical complexity locally or globally.

  15. Complexity: The bigger picture

    CERN Document Server

    Vicsek, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    If a concept is not well defined, there are grounds for its abuse. This is particularly true of complexity, an inherently interdisciplinary concept that has penetrated very different fields of intellectual activity from physics to linguistics, but with no underlying, unified theory. Complexity has become a popular buzzword used in the hope of gaining attention or funding -- institutes and research networks associated with complex systems grow like mushrooms. Why and how did it happen that this vague notion has become a central motif in modern science? Is it only a fashion, a kind of sociological phenomenon, or is it a sign of a changing paradigm of our perception of the laws of nature and of the approaches required to understand them? Because virtually every real system is inherently extremely complicated, to say that a system is complex is almost an empty statement - couldn't an Institute of Complex Systems just as well be called an Institute for Almost Everything? Despite these valid concerns, the world is ...

  16. Synchronization in complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  17. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  18. Thiosemicarbazone complexes of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One aproach to the design of new sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals consists in the preparation of bifunctional radio-pharmaceuticals [1]. In this approach, a bifunctional molecule is synthesized which possesses a chelating functional group (capable of forming a stable complex with sup(99m)Tc) attached to a second functional group which is expected to have a useful biological distribution. Thiosemicarbazones are compounds that possess great chelating capacity [2] and are easily obtainable by condensation of the theosemicarbazide (H2N-NH-CS-NH2) or substituted thiosemicarbazide with the carbonyl groups of aldehydes or ketones. Consequently transformation of molecules of biological interest that the carbonyl group possess in thiosemicarbazones is simple and these modified molecules could act a bifunctional radiopharmaceuticals. For this reason a series of thiosemicarbazone complexes of 99Tc was prepared. This is the first report on technetium complexes with thiosemicarbazones. (orig.)

  19. Thiosemicarbazone complexes of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grases, F.; Genestar, C.

    1985-01-01

    One aproach to the design of new sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals consists in the preparation of bifunctional radio-pharmaceuticals (1). In this approach, a bifunctional molecule is synthesized which possesses a chelating functional group (capable of forming a stable complex with sup(99m)Tc) attached to a second functional group which is expected to have a useful biological distribution. Thiosemicarbazones are compounds that possess great chelating capacity (2) and are easily obtainable by condensation of the theosemicarbazide (H/sub 2/N-NH-CS-NH/sub 2/) or substituted thiosemicarbazide with the carbonyl groups of aldehydes or ketones. Consequently transformation of molecules of biological interest that the carbonyl group possess in thiosemicarbazones is simple and these modified molecules could act as bifunctional radiopharmaceuticals. For this reason a series of thiosemicarbazone complexes of /sup 99/Tc was prepared. This is the first report on technetium complexes with thiosemicarbazones.

  20. Nonergodic complexity management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, Nicola; Lambert, David; West, Bruce J.; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Linear response theory, the backbone of nonequilibrium statistical physics, has recently been extended to explain how and why nonergodic renewal processes are insensitive to simple perturbations, such as in habituation. It was established that a permanent correlation results between an external stimulus and the response of a complex system generating nonergodic renewal processes, when the stimulus is a similar nonergodic process. This is the principle of complexity management, whose proof relies on ensemble distribution functions. Herein we extend the proof to the nonergodic case using time averages and a single time series, hence making it usable in real life situations where ensemble averages cannot be performed because of the very nature of the complex systems being studied.