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Sample records for camacari petrochemical complex

  1. Underground waters management program at Camacari petrochemical complex; Programa de gerenciamento das aguas subterraneas do Polo Petroquimico de Camacari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paulo Roberto Penalva dos [Empresa de Protecao Ambiental S.A. (CETREL), Camacari, BA (Brazil); Nobre, Manoel de Melo Maia [Maia Nobre Engenharia Ltda., Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    The Camacari Petrochemical Complex, situated in the state of Bahia, is the largest and most important integrated industrial complex in Latin America. With the primary objective of preventing any environmental impact that could be caused by its processes, monitoring the quality of the air and water resources in the vicinity became common practice. In regard to the water resources, since 1992, the industries of the Camacari Complex, under the coordination of CETREL - Empresa de Protecao Ambiental S.A - have conducted an integrated program to monitor, protect and establish rational use of the groundwater resources at the region. This program complies with the conditions established by the Environmental Protection Board of Bahia State (CEPRAM). Several specific goals were already achieved by this program and others still under way. Some of them include: Elimination of most of the primary contaminant sources to groundwater; Evaluation of secondary sources based on plumes behavior and remediation of isolated areas with contaminated saturated and unsaturated zones; Interruption of production wells in the region to prevent contamination of deeper formations; Operations of a pump-and-treat system consisting of 12 extraction wells located down gradient of the Camacari Complex. (author) 7 refs.

  2. Source pollution control program at the Camacari Petrochemical Complex: overall and individual improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, P.A.; Neto, D.B.; Carvalho, D.M. [CETREL S.A., Camacari, BA (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Along with the technical progress experienced by the Camacari Petrochemical Complex in the last few years, new policies, following new worldwide trends, in pollution control and prevention became mandatory. This work describes some of these experiences as well as future perspectives. 3 refs., 2 fig., 13 tabs.

  3. ISO 9000: The challenge of Camacari petrochemical complex, Bahia State - Northeast Brazil; ISO 9000: o desafio do polo petroquimico de Camacari, BA, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcos Antonio Lima de; Carvalho Neto, Jose

    1992-12-31

    The petrochemical complex of Camacari, BA, Brazil, involves 40 companies, responsible for 55% of brazilian production. The companies were installed using the most modern techniques related to quality available at that time, strongly centered in quality control. The new industrial policy towards reducing import taxes and allowing the entrance of foreign products at competitive prices, besides the quality exigencies of international market, induced the companies to develop new techniques for quality management based in the ISO 9000 standards. The paper shows the stage of implementation of these standards in 30 companies, corresponding to 90% of global sales of all the complex. (author)

  4. Project risk management in complex petrochemical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirin Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of risk in complex industrial systems, as well as evaluation of main factors influencing decision making and implementation process using large petrochemical company as an example, has proved the importance of successful project risk management. This is even more emphasized when analyzing systems with complex structure, i.e. with several organizational units. It has been shown that successful risk management requires modern methods, based on adequate application of statistical analysis methods.

  5. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. In the first stage, locating map and dispersion limits were prepared. Then, the types and amounts of industrial waste generated in were evaluated by an inventory and inspection. Wastes were classified according to Environmental Protection Agency and Basel Standards and subsequently hazards of different types were investigated. The waste management of TPC is quite complex because of the different types of waste and their pollution. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. In this study, using different sources and references, generally petrochemical sources, various solid waste management practices were investigated and the best options were selected. Some wastes should be treated before land filling and some of them should be reused or recycled. In the case of solid waste optimization, source reduction ways were recommended as well as prior incineration system was modified.

  6. Petrochemical refinery and integrated petrochemical complexes; Refinaria petroquimica e complexos petroquimicos integrados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Patricia C. dos; Seidl, Peter R.; Borschiver, Suzana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Global demand for light olefins points to strong prospects for growth, stimulating investments in overall productive capacity. With propylene demand growing slightly faster than that of ethylene, rising prices and difficulties in supplies of petrochemical feedstocks (mainly naphtha and natural gas), steam crackers alone are not able to fill the light olefins gap nor do they allow extraordinary margins. As petrochemical market dynamics also influence refining activities, there has been significant progress in the development of technologies for petrochemical refining, such as Petrochemical FCC. This petrochemistry-refining integration offers great opportunities for synergism since both industries share many common challenges, like more severe environmental requirements and optimizing the use of utilities. However, in the case of valuation of non-conventional oils (which tend to increase in importance in oil markets), to take full advantage of this opportunity to add value to low cost streams, deep conversion and treatment processes are of great significance in refining scheme to have enough feedstock for cracking. In this context, a petrochemical refinery seems to be an important alternative source of petrochemicals and may be integrated or not to a petrochemical complex. (author)

  7. Brief Introduction to CNPC Daqing Petrochemical Complex(DPC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Daqing Petrochemical Complex (DPC), as a subsidiary enterprise of China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), was founded in April,1962 and is a giant scale integrated petrochemical enterprise in China. With great efforts in the past four decades, DPC has developed four product series including oil, chemical, fibre and fertilizer according to its development strategy of construction and production being synchronously done. At the end of 1980s, it has become the integrated base for petrochemical production, scientific research and construction, which is involved in RD, design,mechanical manufacture, construction and comprehensive community service system. DPC has made great contribution to the construction for Daqing Oilfield and the economic development for Daqing area. After the reorganization in 1999, DPC has formed six systems including petrochemical extended processing, engineering technology service, production technology service, machine manufhcturing,multi-business and living base service for its employees. Its main businesses are involved in petrochemical & petrochemical extended processing, design & construction for large petrochemical plant, civil building and road, installation for petrochemical plant, engineering supervision,equipment maintenance, manufacturing & processing for machine and instrument, computer software development & application, network administration, passenger & cargo transportation, equipment & material purchase, realty management and logistic service for its employees.

  8. Ecotoxicology of waters under the influence of a petrochemical complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, R.; Zandonai, V.; Ries, M.A. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petrquimico do Sul

    1993-12-31

    This work summarizes the regular monitoring and studies conducted by SITEL - The Integrated Wastewater Treatment System of South Petrochemical Complex (South Brazil) - in order to evaluate the full environmental impact on waters in the area of influence of the effluents of the above mentioned Complex. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  9. The process of technology acquisition by the Brazilian petrochemical industry; O processo de aquisicao de tecnologia pela industria petroquimica brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemais, Carlos A.; Barros, Henrique M.; Pastorini, Mirela T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas. Grupo de Gestao Tecnologica]. E-mail: hemais@ima.ufrj.br

    2001-12-01

    One of the most dynamic industrial sectors in Brazil, the petrochemical industry is located in three complexes (Camacari, Sao Paulo and Triunfo), and today it represents around 2 % of the Brazilian GNP. This industry was established in the country nearly 30 years ago as a governmental initiative, when the government adopted a tripartite model of a commercial society. In this model, 1/3 of the capital belonged to Petroquisa, 1/3 belonged to a Brazilian partner and 1/3 belonged to a foreign partner, usually the supplier of the technology through a joint venture. In spite of the fact that this industry is consolidated and has a large potential of exports, the petrochemical industry is still technologically dependent upon exogenous sources. Moreover, it seems that this dependency will not be eliminated in the near future. The present paper examines the process of technological acquisition by the Brazilian petrochemical industry, especially the use of joint ventures as the way chosen to obtain technology. (author)

  10. Waste minimization promotes biophysical treatment of complex petrochemical wastes in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebel, A. [Invirotreat International Ltd., Fulleron, CA (United States); Raveh, A. [Raveh Ecology Ltd., Haifa (Israel)

    1993-12-31

    This work describes a full-scale waste treatment system which was put into operation in a petrochemical manufacturing plant in Israel for the purpose of detoxifying its complex organic waste stream. The treatment plant design incorporates an innovative waste management approach to accommodate the limited space allocated for the facility. Initial performance data indicate a high efficient inorganic waste reduction. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Cleaner production and methodological proposal of eco-efficiency measurement in a Mexican petrochemical complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M A; Herrero, V M; Martínez, S A; Rodríguez, M G; Valdivieso, E; Garcia, G; de los Angeles Elías, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In the frame of the Petróleos Mexicanos Institutional Program for Sustainable Development, processes were evaluated in the manufacture operation of the petrochemical industry, with the purpose of reducing their ecological fingerprint. Thirteen cleaner production opportunities were registered in six process plants: ethylene oxide and glycols, acetaldehyde, ethylene, high density polyethylene, polypropylene switch and acrylonitrile, and 45 recommendations in the waste water treatment plant. Morelos is the second most important petrochemical complex in the Mexican and Latin American petrochemical industry. A tool was developed to obtain eco-efficiency indicators in operation processes, and as a result, potential savings were obtained based on best performance, as well as the integrated distribution of Sankey diagrams. Likewise, a mechanism of calculation to obtain economic savings based on the reduction of residues during the whole productive process is proposed. These improvement opportunities and recommendations will result in economic and environmental benefits minimising the use of water, efficient use of energy, raw materials and reducing residues from source, generating less environmental impacts during the process.

  12. Metabolic profiling of residents in the vicinity of a petrochemical complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Chung, Ming-Kei [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ching-Yu [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shu-Ting; Wu, Kuen-Yuh [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chan, Chang-Chuan, E-mail: ccchan@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-01

    No previous studies have simultaneously measured the biomarkers of environmental exposure and metabolome perturbation in residents affected by industrial pollutants. This study aimed to investigate the metabolic effects of environmental pollutants such as vanadium and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on residents in the vicinity of a petrochemical complex. The study subjects were 160 residents, including 80 high-exposure subjects exposed to high levels of vanadium and PAHs and 80 age- and gender-matched low-exposure subjects living within a 40-km radius of a petrochemical complex. The exposure biomarkers vanadium and 1-hydroxypyrene and four oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarkers were measured in these subjects. Plasma samples from the study subjects were also analyzed using {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy for metabolic profiling. The results showed that the urinary levels of vanadium and 1-hydroxypyrene in the high-exposure subjects were 40- and 20-fold higher, respectively, than those in the low-exposure subjects. Higher urinary levels of stress biomarkers, including 8-OHdG, HNE-MA, 8-isoPF2α, and 8-NO{sub 2}Gua, were also observed among the high-exposure subjects compared with the low-exposure subjects. Partial least squares discriminant analysis of the plasma metabolome demonstrated a clear separation between the high- and low-exposure subjects; the intensities of amino acids and carbohydrate metabolites were lower in the high-exposure subjects compared with the low-exposure subjects. The exposure to vanadium and PAHs may cause a reduction in the levels of amino acids and carbohydrates by elevating PPAR and insulin signaling, as well as oxidative/nitrosative stress. - Highlights: • Metabolic effects when exposure to pollutants near a petrochemical complex • V and PAHs exposure associated with elevated oxidative/nitrosative stress responses • V and PAHs exposure related to reduced amino acid and carbohydrate levels • V and PAHs affect metabolic

  13. Unit for Production of MTBE and Butene-1 from Refinery C4 Successfully Put on Stream at Guangzhou Petrochemical Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The unit for manufacture of MTBE with co-production of butene-1 was successfully put on stream at Guangzhou Pet-rochemical Complex (GPC). It is told that this is the first domestic unit that utilizes the refinery C4 fraction to make MTBE and butene-1.

  14. AspenTech to Provide VPS for CNOOC-Shell Nanhai Petrochemicals Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ AspenTech, a US supplier of software and services to the process industries, recently announced it has been awarded a contract to supply a series of operator training simulators for the US$4.3 billion Nanhai Petrochemicals Project of CNOOC-Shell Petrochemical Company (CSPC)at Daya Bay in Huizhou City in South China's Guangdong Province.

  15. 2003 assessment of PCDDs-PCDFs emissions from the Copesul/South Petrochemical complex located in southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschamps, M.; Allard, J.L. [SNC-Lavalin Environment Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Rangel, C.M.P.; Ribeiro, C.; Dos Santos, S.T.F. [Companhia Petroquimica do Sul, Triunfo (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    COPESUL is the Raw Material and Utilities Central of the South Petrochemical Complex, this, being the most modern industrial facility of its type in Brazil, and the second largest naphtha cracker in the country. Responsible for more than 40% of Brazilian olefins production, it is also among the largest crackers (on the same site) in the world. The majority of COPESUL products are transformed by downstream industries of the Complex into thermoplastics resins, synthetic rubber, styrene and solvents that are widely used in the manufacturing of packing material (food, hygiene, cleaning), electronic appliances, medical and surgical supplies, toys and in the car industries, to be consumed in Brazil and foreign countries. At the request of the state of Rio Grande do Sul Environmental Protection Agency (Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental or FEPAM), an Environmental Assessment of Priority Pollutants (EAPP) was performed by Copesul at the end of the year 2003. EAPPs have been voluntarily performed at the Petrochemical Complex since 1986 on a basis of once every three year. It is now performed as a requirement which is part of the petrochemical plant operational license. Among the different (organic and inorganic) parameters tested, PCDDs-PCDFs remained a main concern to the local State Agency with regards to the Complex activities and of it's potential impact on the human health and the environment, despite the fact that the Complex does not use nor produce any organochlorinated product.

  16. Integration of Microalgae-Based Bioenergy Production into a Petrochemical Complex: Techno-Economic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Gonçalves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of modern society has resulted in an increased demand for energy, mainly from fossil fuels. The use of this source of energy has led to the accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2 in the atmosphere. In this context, microalgae culturing may be an effective solution to reduce the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, since these microorganisms can capture CO2 and, simultaneously, produce bioenergy. This work consists of a techno-economic assessment of a microalgal production facility integrated in a petrochemical complex, in which established infrastructure allows efficient material and energy transport. Seven different scenarios were considered regarding photosynthetic, lipids extraction and anaerobic digestion efficiencies. This analysis has demonstrated six economically viable scenarios able to: (i reduce CO2 emissions from a thermoelectric power plant; (ii treat domestic wastewaters (which were used as culture medium; and (iii produce lipids and electrical and thermal energy. For a 100-ha facility, considering a photosynthetic efficiency of 3%, a lipids extraction efficiency of 75% and an anaerobic digestion efficiency of 45% (scenario 3, an economically viable process was obtained (net present value of 22.6 million euros, being effective in both CO2 removal (accounting for 1.1 × 104 t per year and energy production (annual energy produced was 1.6 × 107 kWh and annual lipids productivity was 1.9 × 103 m3.

  17. IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTES IN AMMONIA UNIT OF RAZI PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX AND FEASIBILITY OF WASTE MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fakheri Raouf, R. Nabizadeh and N. Jafarzadeh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemical industries are considered as strategic and important sectors in economic development of Iran. Razi petrochemical factory is one of complex in Iran, established in 1970 with 100 hectare. In this research, the possibility of waste minimization in the ammonia unit of Razi petrochemical complex with about 1000 tons per year was studied for a period of 18 months from September 2003 to April 2005. More than 20 site visits were conducted and the required information was collected. Factors such as industrial solid wastes quality and quantity, sources of generation, production period and the present management practice, were studied. Petrochemical solid wastes were classified based on the recommended method of the United Nations and appropriate policies were suggested for waste minimization. The collected results of this study show production of 185 tons of industrial solid wastes from 45 sources which contained 68.5% catalysts, 10.25% metal barrels, 18.61% aluminum ball, 2.62% plastic barrels and 0.02% paper. 93.3% of these wastes were generated as the result of catalysts change, 3.3% as the result of using chemicals and oils, 1.7% as the result of methanol solution amid application, and 1.1% because of aluminum ball changes. Based on the UNEP methods, the ammonia unit wastes classified as 19/7%hazadrous and 87,12% non hazardous. At present 87.12% of these wastes are being dumped in the area and 12.88% are sold. Proposed procedures for waste minimization contain 68.5% reuse and recycling and 31.5% recycling.

  18. Assessment of regional influence from a petrochemical complex by modeling and fingerprint analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuan-Chang; Chen, Sheng-Po; Tong, Yu-Huei; Fan, Chen-Lun; Chen, Wei-Hao; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chang, Julius S.

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate a strategy to investigate the influence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on its neighboring districts from a gigantic petrochemical complex. Monitoring of the VOCs in the region was achieved by a nine-station network, dubbed photochemical assessment measurement stations (PAMS), which produced speciated mixing ratios of 54 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) to represent VOCs with an hourly resolution within a 20 km radius. One-year (2013/10/1-2014/9/30) worth of PAMS data from the network were used in forms of total NMHCs (called PAMS-TNMHC) and speciated mixing ratios. Three dimensional modeling coupled with PAMS measurements successfully elucidated how the study domain was affected by the petrochemical complex and distant sources under three typical seasonal wind patterns: northeast monsoonal, southwest monsoonal, and local-circulation. More exquisite analysis of influence on the neighboring districts was permitted with the use of speciated mixing ratios of VOCs provided by the PAMS network. The ratios of ethylene/acetylene (E/A) > 3 and propylene/acetylene (P/A) > 1.5 were used as indicators to reveal the PAMS sites affected by the petrochemical emissions. Consequently, the hourly speciated data from the nine PAMS sites enabled a finer assessment of the districts affected by the complex to calculate the percent time of influence (dubbed TI%) for all the sites (districts). It was found that the region was more affected by the complex under both the northeast monsoonal and the local-circulation wind types with some of the PAMS sites greater than 5% for the TI%. By contrast, influence on the region was found minimal under the southwest monsoonal flow with the TI% small than 1.5% across all sites. This study successfully devised a method of assessment with the use of speciated measurements of selected VOCs and modeling to assess the influence of a prominent source on the neighboring districts by filtering out irrelevant sources under

  19. Evaluation of phase chemistry and petrochemical aspects of Samchampi–Samteran differentiated alkaline complex of Mikir Hills, northeastern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhishek Saha; Sohini Ganguly; Jyotisankar Ray; Nilanjan Chaterjee

    2010-10-01

    The Samchampi –Samteran alkaline complex occurs as a plug-like pluton within the Precambrian granite gneisses of Mikir Hills,Assam,northeastern India and it is genetically related to Sylhet Traps.The intrusive complex is marked by dominant development of syenite within which ijolite – melteigite suite of rocks is emplaced with an arcuate outcrop pattern.Inliers of alkali pyroxenite and alkali gabbro occur within this ijolite –melteigite suite of rocks.The pluton is also traversed by younger intrusives of nepheline syenite and carbonatite.Development of sporadic,lumpy magnetite ore bodies is also recorded within the pluton.Petrographic details of the constituent lithomembers of the pluton have been presented following standard nomenclatorial rules.Overall pyroxene compositions range from diopside to aegirine augite while alkali feldspars are typically orthoclase and plagioclase in syenite corresponds to oligoclase species.Phase chemistry of nepheline is suggestive of Na-rich alkaline character of the complex.Biotite compositions are typically restricted to a uniform compositional range and they belong to ‘biotite ’field in the relevant classification scheme.Garnets (developed in syenite and melteigite)typically tend to be Ti-rich andradite,which on a closer scan can be further designated as melanites.Opaque minerals mostly correspond to magnetite.Use of Lindsley ’s pyroxene thermometric method suggests an equilibration temperature from ∼450°–600°C for melteigite/alkali gabbro and ∼400° C for syenite.Critical assessment of other thermometric methods reveals a temperature of equilibration of ∼700°–1350°C for ijolite –melteigite suite of rocks in contrast to a relatively lower equilibration temperature of ∼600° C for syenite. Geobarometric data based on pyroxene chemistry yield an equilibration pressure of 5.32 –7.72 kb for ijolite,melteigite,alkali pyroxenite,alkali gabbro and nepheline syenite.The dominant syenite member of the

  20. Construction of 1.0 Mt/a Aromatics Unit Kicked off at PetroChina's Urumqi Petrochemical Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ One of the major aromatics projects at the PetroChina Urumqi Petrochemical Company - the construction of 1.0 Mt/a paraxylene/aromatics integrated unit was officially kicked off on May 1, 2008 in Urumqi. The investment in this unit totals 3.867 billion RMB, making this unit the larg-est single-series one-million-ton-class aromatics integrated unit among the world's similar units.

  1. China Petrochemical Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec Group) is a super-large petroleum and petrochemical enterprise group, established in July 1998 on the basis of the former China Petrochemical Corporation. Sinopec Group is a state-owned company solely invested by the state, function ing as a state-authorized investment organization in which the state holds the controlling share. Headquartered in Beijing, Sinopec Group has a registered capital of 182 billion yuan. The board chairman of Sinopec Group is its legal representative.

  2. A Study of the Unsafe Actions of Staff in the Maintenance and Overhaul Unit at a Petrochemical Complex and the Presentation of Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavipour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Today, oil, gas, and petrochemical industries are of strategic significance in the macro-development of oil-rich countries. These industries, given the nature of the work and the technical complexity of the various processes, are hazardous and susceptible to occupational accidents. More than 90% of the accidents are related to the faults and unsafe actions of personnel, either directly or indirectly. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the unsafe actions of staff working in the maintenance unit of a petrochemical complex. Materials and Methods This is a descriptive and analytical study conducted on 167 morning-shift workers at the Mahshahr petrochemical complex. The data were collected based on a checklist of unsafe actions prepared through a direct observation of their activities and an analysis of work instructions, documents, and incident reports. SPSS statistical software was also used for data analysis and relevant testing. Results According to the results of this study, the mean number of unsafe actions performed by the employees was 42%. The highest number of unsafe actions achieved in the maintenance mechanical unit was 52.8%, 47.1% in repair services, and 43.8% in machinery. The highest frequency of unsafe actions were caused by indiscretion and negligence, a failure to use a face shield and goggles, and non-compliance with safety principles. Conclusions According to the findings, there has been a rise in the number of unsafe actions in machinery and maintenance service units compared to other maintenance units. As such, training courses based on the behavior-based safety principles at the beginning of employment, close monitoring of health safety environment (HSE officials on the implementation of regulations, and provision of appropriate scheduling based on weather conditions and the nature of maintenance services are recommended. In addition, a refrainment from hastiness in performing duties, enhanced

  3. Maximizing petrochemicals from refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, B.; Foley, T.; Frey, S. [UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2007-07-01

    New fuel quality requirements and high growth rates for petrochemicals are providing both challenges and opportunities for refineries. A key challenge in refineries today is to improve of the value of the products from the FCC unit. In particular, light FCC naphtha and LCO are prime candidates for improved utilization. Processing options have been developed focusing on new opportunities for these traditional fuel components. The Total Petrochemicals/UOP Olefin Cracking Process cracks C4-C8 olefins to produce propylene and ethylene. This process can be integrated into FCC units running at all severity levels to produce valuable light olefins while reducing the olefin content of the light FCC naphtha. Integration of the Olefin Cracking Process with an FCC unit can be accomplished to allow a range of operating modes which can accommodate changing demand for propylene, cracked naphtha and alkylate. Other processes developed by UOP allow for upgrading LCO into a range of products including petrochemical grade xylenes, benzene, high cetane diesel and low sulfur high octane gasoline. Various processing options are available which allow the products from LCO conversion to be adjusted based on the needs and opportunities of an individual refinery, as well as the external petrochemical demand cycles. This presentation will examine recent refining and petrochemical trends and highlight new process technologies that can be used to generate additional revenue from petrochemical production while addressing evolving clean fuel demands. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of liver enzyme levels in workers exposed to vinyl chloride vapors in a petrochemical complex: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolati Mandana

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyvinyl chloride is used in production and manufacturing of many essential tools (e.g. plastic pipes, photography films, etc.. Its production is impossible without the use of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM, which can cause liver damage in long-term. In this study we intend to assess the effects of mild to moderate long term exposure to VCM on liver and to assess the importance of liver enzyme measurements as a screening tool. Methods In this study, liver enzyme levels of 52 workers were compared to 48 control workers using the T-test. The cases all worked in a PVC production unit in a petrochemical complex and the controls were randomly selected from office personnel of the same complex. A questionnaire was also filled in about information such as age, weight, work history, etc. in both groups. Results Mean comparisons for ALP and GGT using T-test showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. For AST, ALT and bilirubin (total, direct the mean was higher in the case group but this difference was not statistically significant. Discussion This study showed that mild exposure to VCM can cause mild liver cholestasis. So, using cholestasis assessment tests such as ALP and GGT should be considered in periodic assessment of liver function in PVC producing units.

  5. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benazzi, E.; Alario, F

    2004-07-01

    In 2003, refining margins showed a clear improvement that continued throughout the first three quarters of 2004. Oil companies posted significantly higher earnings in 2003 compared to 2002, with the results of first quarter 2004 confirming this trend. Due to higher feedstock prices, the implementation of new capacity and more intense competition, the petrochemicals industry was not able to boost margins in 2003. In such difficult business conditions, aggravated by soaring crude prices, the petrochemicals industry is not likely to see any improvement in profitability before the second half of 2004. (author)

  6. Chemical and Petrochemical Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication is a background document on the global chemical and petrochemical sector for the IEA publication Energy Technology Transitions in Industry (IEA, 2009). It provides further, more detailed information on the methodology and data issues for energy efficiency indicators for the sector. The indicators discussed offer insight regarding the energy efficiency improvement potential in the short- to medium-term (by proven technologies).

  7. Brief Introduction of PetroChina Fushun Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ PetroChina Fushun Pertrochemical Company (PFPC) is a large-scale integrated petrochemical complex, which owns three oil refineries, three large and medium-size chemical plants and one company for storage and transportation of oil products.

  8. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  9. Investigating the differences between receptor and dispersion modeling for concentration prediction and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds from petrochemical industrial complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Chen, Zheng-Bin; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Ning, Shu-Kuang

    2016-01-15

    Receptor and dispersion models both provide important information to help understand the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and develop effective management strategies. In this study, differences between the predicted concentrations of two models and the associated impacts on the estimated health risks due to different theories behind two models were investigated. Two petrochemical industrial complexes in Kaohsiung city of southern Taiwan were selected as the sites for this comparison. Although the study compares the approaches by applying the methods to this specific area, the results are expected to be adopted for other areas or industries. Ninety-nine VOC concentrations at eight monitoring sites were analyzed, with the effects of diurnal temperature and seasonal humidity variations being considered. The Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model was used for source apportionment, while the Industrial Source Complex (ISC) dispersion model was used to predict the VOC concentrations at receptor sites. In the results of receptor modeling, 54% ± 11% and 49% ± 20% of the monitored concentrations were contributed by process emissions in two complexes, whereas the numbers increased to 78% ± 41% and 64% ± 44% in the results of dispersion modeling. Significant differences were observed between two model predictions (p model was more reproducible given the smaller variances of its results. The effect of seasonal humidity variation on two model predictions was not negligible. Similar findings were observed given that the cancer and non-cancer risks estimated by the receptor model were lower but more reproducible. The adverse health risks estimated by the dispersion model exceeded and were 75.3%-132.4% of the values estimated by using the monitored data, whereas the percentages were lowered to the range from 27.4% to 53.8% when the prediction was performed by using the receptor model. As the results of different models could be significantly

  10. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benazzi, E

    2003-07-01

    Down sharply in 2002, refining margins showed a clear improvement in the first half-year of 2003. As a result, the earnings reported by oil companies for financial year 2002 were significantly lower than in 2001, but the prospects are brighter for 2003. In the petrochemicals sector, slow demand and higher feedstock prices eroded margins in 2002, especially in Europe and the United States. The financial results for the first part of 2003 seem to indicate that sector profitability will not improve before 2004. (author)

  11. Analysis of corrosion failure of petrochemical pipe elbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-yan; L(U) Tao

    2005-01-01

    Corrosive failure is frequently found in petrochemical pipelines which may lead to the leakage of the pipes and even the shutdown of the system. However, the corrosion mechanism is still not well understood due to the complex service environment, e.g. the corrosive fluids and the long term operation at higher temperature. The corrosion behaviour of a petrochemical pipe elbow was evaluated via visual examination and microanalysis with optical microscope and scanning electron microscope(SEM) together with energy dispersive analysis X-ray (EDAX). The corresponding corrosion mechanisms, the combination of grain boundary attach and the crevice attach together with the flow-accelerated corrosion, were proposed consequently.

  12. Brief Introduction of PetroChina Lanzhou Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ As the largest oil refining and chemical production enterprise in the western part of China, PetroChina Lanzhou Petrochemical Company is a regional company of PetroChina Company Limited, which was restructured and merged from the former Lanzhou Petroleum Processing & Chemical Complex and the former Lanzhou Chemical Industry Company.

  13. Monitoring of meteorology and air quality at influence area of COMPERJ (Rio de Janeiro Petrochemical Complex); Monitoramento meteorologico e da qualidade do ar na regiao de influencia do COMPERJ (Complexo Petroquimico do Rio de Janeiro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Edler Lins de; Villa, Felipe de Santana; Lyra, Diogenes Ganghis Pimentel de [CETREL-LUMINA Solucoes Ambientais, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Secron, Marcelo; Iorio, Patricia Freire; Mendes, Marcos Faistauer [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Rio de Janeiro Petrochemical Complex (COMPERJ) will be installed in the north region of Itaborai city. The start of COMPERJ operations is foreseen to 2012. Because of the intensification of industrialization and urbanization processes, the implantation of COMPERJ will bring environmental modifications for Itaborai city and neighbors areas. Thus, meteorological and air quality monitoring was initiated in February of 2007 with the intention of carrying out a characterization of air pollution in this area, before COMPERJ operations. In this work are presented the results found in campaigns performed of February of 2007 until April of 2008. The meteorological monitoring disclosed that the meteorological parameters have varied enough throughout the months, but these are representative of a global behavior of the studied area. Monitoring of air quality has shown that atmospheric levels of monitored pollutants has been generally below of Brazilian air quality standards. This fact corroborates the basic aspect of the present study: identification of the concentrations 'background' in the studied area. Throughout the period of monitoring, the primary air quality standard for ozone has been reached. Observations of meteorological parameters indicate that this fact is associated to the emissions originated from Sao Goncalo, Niteroi and Rio de Janeiro cities. (author)

  14. Sinopec to Acquire Maoming Petrochem Giant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Sinopec Corp. is considering a plan to purchase Maoming Petrochemical Company from its parent company next year, said Zhang Jiaren, director and vice president of Sinopec Corp. Maoming Petrochemical Company in Guangdong Province is one of the country's two oil refining enterprises with the production capacity exceeding 10 million tons.

  15. U-Pb zircon geochronology, petrochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic characteristic of Late Neoproterozoic granitoid of the Bornaward Complex (Bardaskan-NE Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherzadeh, R. Monazzami; Karimpour, M. H.; Farmer, G. Lang; Stern, C. R.; Santos, J. F.; Rahimi, B.; Heidarian Shahri, M. R.

    2015-11-01

    The Bornaward Granitoid Complex (BGC) in the Taknar Zone is located in the northeast of Central Iranian Block. The BGC consists of granite, alkaligranite, syenogranite, leucogranite, granophyre, monzogranite, granodiorite, tonalite and diorite that have intruded into the center of Taknar Zone. These intrusive rocks affected by low grade metamorphism. Because of there are no reliable isotope dating data, for the Bornaward Granitoid Complex rocks have been proposed discordant ages (Jurassic, Cretaceous or even younger ages) by many studies. In the present study, new isotopic information based on zircon U-Pb dating has revealed the origin and time of the formation of the BGC. These new results do not confirm previously proposed ages. The results obtained from zircon U-Pb dating of the BGC rocks suggest late-Neoproterozoic (Precambrian) age (540-550 Ma). The Bornaward Granitoid Complex is middle-high metaluminous to lower-middle peraluminous and belongs to tholeiite, calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline rock series with enrichment in LIL (Cs, Rb and Ba, U, K, Zr, Y, Th) and depletion in HIL (Sr and Nb, Ta, Ti) elements. Chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Elements (REE) plots indicate minor enrichment of LREE compared to HREE, and strong negative anomaly of Eu compared to other Rare Earth Elements. Furthermore, initial 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd range from 0.70351 to 0.71689 and 0.511585 to 0.512061, respectively, and initial εNd isotope values for granite, granodiorite and diorite range from -6.73 to 2.52. These all indicate that the BGC has derived from partial melting of distinct basement source regions with very high initial 87Sr/86Sr and undergoing extensive crustal contamination (S-type granite).

  16. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

  17. Bright Prospect Ahead for Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Shuhong

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's petrochemical industry will show better performance in the year of 2010,Feng Shili,deputy secretary general with the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association(CPCIA),recently told China's news media in Beijing.

  18. GOVERNMENT TO REGULATE COAL-PETROCHEMICALS INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Chinese Government will soon issue an industry policy to regulate the coal-chemicals sector, after a circular in August ordered local authorities to tighten their grip on the approval of new coal-to-petrochemicals projects in China.

  19. Concept of ecological corridors and agroforestal systems applied for the implementation of PETROBRAS punctual and linear projects: case study of COMPERJ (Rio de Janeiro Petrochemical Complex); Conceito de corredores ecologicos e sistemas agroflorestais aplicados a implantacao de empreendimentos pontuais e lineares em ambito PETROBRAS: estudo de caso do COMPERJ (Complexo Petroquimico do Rio de Janeiro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secron, Marcelo B.; Mesquita, Ivan D.; Soares, Luiz Felipe R.; Almeida, Ronaldo Bento G. de; Fernandes, Renato; Dellamea, Giovani S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nunes, Rodrigo T.; Pereira Junior, Edson Rodrigues [SEEBLA, Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The land use and human occupation realized with an indiscriminate form across many parts of the world, including Brazil, have been causing destruction of great amount of forest mass and green areas. These actions results an isolation of a forest reminder fragment, and in such case, along the time, these fragments become weak and debilitated, characterizing general biodiversity loss or its extinction, in a worse case. This study presents basic concepts of ecological corridors and agroforestal systems, showing the case study that will be implemented in COMPERJ (Rio de Janeiro Petrochemical Complex), pointing the aspects that can be applied for PETROBRAS to offset impacts (biodiversity offsets concept) of punctual and linear projects. (author)

  20. Data on greenhouse gases emission in condensate separation unit of a petrochemical company in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Dastorian, Mehrshad; Jafarzadeh, Nemat; Jorfi, Sahand; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2016-09-01

    Since global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions is no respecter of geographical boundaries of countries, concerted mitigation activities such as Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), are suitable. In this mechanism, some developed countries can gain certified emission reduction credits from emission reduction actions undertaken in developing countries. Thus, the data of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries would be informative for implementing of CDM. Herein, the data of greenhouse gas emissions of Bandar Imam Petrochemical Complex, one of the biggest petrochemical companies in the Middle East region is presented. The data was acquired using emission factor method and self-presented raw information of the Bandar Imam Petrochemical Complex. Overall, the data will be interesting for environmentalists, non-governmental organization (NGO), and developed countries to perform CDM.

  1. Whether integrating refining and petrochemical business can provide opportunities for development of petrochemical industry in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zoran M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of 90s of last century both the petroleum industry and petrochemical industry have operated in difficult circumstances. In particularly, margins of petroleum and petrochemical industry were exacerbated during global economic crisis in 2008-2009 years. At that time, as one option that could be the solution, the global analysts had started to more intense investigate the benefits of Refining-Petrochemical Integration. Shortly afterwards, more and more petroleum refineries and petrochemical manufacturers began to see the future in this kind of operational, managerial, marketing and commercial connection. This paper evaluates, in particular, the achieved level of integration of refinery and petrochemical businesses in Central and South-Eastern Europe. And specifically, the paper identifies current capabilities and future chances of linking this kind of integration between Serbian refining and petrochemical players. The viability of integration between possible actors and benefits of every single refining-petrochemical interface in Serbia depend on many factors, and therefore each integrated system is unique and requires prior serious Cost Benefit Analysis.

  2. Potential of best practice technology to improve energy efficiency in the global chemical and petrochemical sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saygin, D.; Patel, M.K.; Worrell, E.; Tam, C.; Gielen, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for 30% of the industry's total final energy use. However, due to its complexity its energy efficiency potential is not well understood. This article analyses the energy efficiency potential on a country l

  3. Harbor Expansion Facilitates Crude and Petrochemicals Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Douwei Harbor attracting petrochem investment Substantial progress has been made in the preliminary preparation of Douwei Harbor project in Hui'an, Fujian Province. It is one of the major four transfer ports in China planned by the Ministry of Transportation. A number of projects, with a total investment approaching 10 billion yuan,will come under construction in the harbor zone.

  4. Waste minimization in a petrochemical company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anan, Marcelo [Oxiteno S.A., Industria e Comercio, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    A way to manage industrial effluents consists in reducing their generation or treating them when elimination or minimization is economically unachievable. This work aims to present the modifications adopted in a petrochemical plant to adequate and, or, reduce the generation of industrial effluent. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Energy cogeneration for the industrial sector. Exploration of possibilities for Bahia Blanca petrochemical complex; Cogeneracion de energia para el sector industrial. Exploracion de posibilidades para el polo petroquimico de Bahia Blanca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzman, Carlos H. [Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Dept. de Electrotecnia; Baraychart, Rogelio [Tecnolatina S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-12-31

    Many industrial plants have installed gas turbines in connection with total energy schemes. By combining a gas turbine with a steam plant, through an Independent Power Producer (IPP), increasing in overall efficiency can be archived compared to a steam plant alone. The general applications and economic considerations after privatization of Argentine Network, indicates that for power supply, combined cycle with cogeneration, is appropriate for generation, because of improving quality service, lowering capital cost improving and high efficiency. Figures are shown in this paper, for a project at the petrochemical development pole in Bahia Blanca city, located in the south of Buenos Aires Province. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.; e-mail: gea at delec.fi.uba.ar; tecnolat at ssdnet.com.ar

  6. Handling Capacity of Dalian Petrochemical Port Surpasses Ten Million Tons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Li

    2007-01-01

    @@ Dalian Petrochemical Port (of Dalian Petrochemical Corporation), CNPC's biggest petrochemical port,owns 15 1-100000 ton-grade berths and has an annual throughput of 18 million tons of crude, oil products,lubrication oil, atoleine, liquefied gas, and etc.. In recent years, the port handles over 10% of the total annual cargo throughput of all major ports in Dalian city and ranks second for its berthing capacity.

  7. China Strengthens Macro-management in Petrochemical Branches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ China will strengthen macro-management in petrochemical branches in order to reasonably utilize the national petroleum resources and improve its competitive capacity in international refinery industrial market.

  8. Oil and Petrochem Sector Becomes Focus of Foreign Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Foreign investment sees a new growth in China's petroleum and petrochemical sector in 2004. It totaled between US$4 billion and US45 billion in 2003. Currently,the big-name oil and petrochemical multinationals expand their business in China.

  9. Key Polices for Development of Petroleum and Petrochemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Recently, the State Economic and Trade Commission published the 10th Five-Year Plan (2001~2005) for the development of 13 major sectorsmachinery, automobile, light Industry,building materials, chemicals,nonferrous metals, steel, textile,petroleum, power, petrochemicals,pharmaceuticals, and coal. The key policies concerning petroleum and petrochemicals are excerpted as follows:

  10. Key Factors for Development of China's Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Worldwide Market Volume and Development Trends of the Petrochemical Industry (1) Periodicity and Fluctuation The petrochemical industry has a typical periodicity that is shaped primarily by supply and demand on one hand and on the other hand by newly added capacity being put into production, operating rate and other uncertainty factors.

  11. Development of Oilfield Chemicals Based on Advantages in Petrochemical Feedstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xieqing; Peng Pu

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on the routes for development of oilfield chemicals by making use of the feedstock advantages of the petrochemical industry. The diversification of oilfield chemicals has re sulted in thousand product grades. Because there are hundred domestic producers of oilfield chemicals,mostly medium and small producers, the fluctuations of feedstock prices and product quality cannot be conducive to the application and development of oilfield chemicals. This article illustrates the feasibility of oilfield chemical production by state-run medium and large petrochemical enterprises by allowing full play to their own advantages in petrochemical feedstocks.

  12. Important TQM Implementation Contributors in Pakistani Petrochemical Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Latif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses quality practices in Pakistani Petrochemical sector to understand TQM practices and their implementation in Pakistan. It helps to understand the role of leadership, vision & plan statement, employee participation and education & training as important constructs of TQM. It shows how these constructs help to speed up the TQM implementation in petrochemical sector like other constructs of TQM and finally company moves towards quality approach. The responses of executives, managerial staff and workers were received using questionnaire and online surveys which are sent through Google Drive. Data of 106 respondents was taken in this study and analyzed by SPSS18. Study shows that Total Quality Management culture is less understood by employees, thus less adopted and implemented in Pakistan. Petrochemical companies fail to adopt the TQM philosophy and processes, hence reducing productivity and profits. This research paper is very helpful for executives for TQM implementation in petrochemical sector.

  13. Brief Introduction of PetroChina Dalian Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina Dalian Petrochemical Company is capable of processing 20.50 million tons of crude oil once a year and manufacturing series of petrochemical products, such as gasoline,kerosene, diesel, lube oil, paraffin wax, benzene, polypropylene and fine fibre, etc. PetroChina Dalian Petrochemical Company is in the national leading position in terms of its key performance indicators,some of which are advanced in the world. As the largest oil refining base in China, it has leaped to a demonstrative refining and chemical enterprise with greatest competitiveness in PetroChina. It has become one of the important bases for exporting and transferring petrochemical products in China for its advantageous geographical position in Dalian, shore of the Yellow Sea and complete marine and land transportation facilities.

  14. Latest Development in China's Oil Refining & Petrochemical Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Zuhua

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's big-three oil companies-CNPC, Sinopec and CNOOC-have intensified their competition in the domestic oil refining and petrochemical sector in recent years so as to better position themselves in the oil products market at home.

  15. A modular success story the Saudi petrochemical project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirven, J.B.; Swenson, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Saudi Petrochemical Company is referred to within this paper as ''Sadaf''. Sadaf is the phonetic spelling of the Arabic word for seashell and is a joint venture of Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) and Pecten Arabian Ltd., an affiliate of Shell Oil Comapny, U.S.A. SABIC is a joint stock corporation responsible for the development of basic industries in the Kingdom in the petrochemicals, metals and fertilizers field.

  16. New Petrochemical Processes Based on Direct Conversion of Methane

    OpenAIRE

    Faraguna F.; Jukić A.

    2015-01-01

    Petrochemistry is a branch of chemistry and chemical engineering that studies reactions and processes of the transformation of petroleum derivatives and natural gas into useful petrochemicals. In its beginning, petrochemistry, or rather the organic chemical industry, was based on the acetylene and Reppe chemistry. The main raw materials of the petrochemical industry nowadays are olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons, with a pronounced tendency toward development of new processes and higher usage ...

  17. Dalian Petrochemical Targets at World-class Giant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Min

    2002-01-01

    @@ As one of PetroChina's most profitable enterprises, Dalian Petrochemical Company, located on the western bank of Pacific Occean, is remarkable for the first-class management and performance. In a recent interview with media, general manger of Dalian Petrochemical Company Jiang Fan said the company has made ambitious efforts to adopt advanced information technology, establish the internal corporate website and information platform for optimization and sharing of resources and boost the management efficiency in the past few years.

  18. Corrosion problems and solutions in oil refining and petrochemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Groysman, Alec

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses corrosion problems and their solutions at facilities in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, including cooling water and boiler feed water units. Further, it describes and analyzes corrosion control actions, corrosion monitoring, and corrosion management. Corrosion problems are a perennial issue in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, as they lead to a deterioration of the functional properties of metallic equipment and harm the environment – both of which need to be protected for the sake of current and future generations. Accordingly, this book examines and analyzes typical and atypical corrosion failure cases and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical facilities, including problems with: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, heat exchangers, and pumps. In addition, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically induced corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion...

  19. New Petrochemical Processes Based on Direct Conversion of Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraguna F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemistry is a branch of chemistry and chemical engineering that studies reactions and processes of the transformation of petroleum derivatives and natural gas into useful petrochemicals. In its beginning, petrochemistry, or rather the organic chemical industry, was based on the acetylene and Reppe chemistry. The main raw materials of the petrochemical industry nowadays are olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons, with a pronounced tendency toward development of new processes and higher usage of syngas, methane and other alkanes. Here, the reactions and new processes of direct conversion of methane into more valuable petrochemicals are reviewed. Reactions of partial oxidation of methane, dehydroaromatization of methane, oxidative and non-oxidative coupling of methane to higher hydrocarbons are also described and discussed.

  20. Quantitative risks analysis of maritime terminal petrochemical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Leandro Silveira; Leal, Cesar A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica (PROMEC)]. E-mail: leandro19889900@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    This work consists of the application of a computer program (RISKAN) developed for studies of quantification of industrial risks and also a revision of the models used in the program. As part the evaluation made, a test was performed with the application of the computer program to estimate the risks for a marine terminal for storage of petrochemical products, in the city of Rio Grande, Brazil. Thus, as part of the work, it was performed a Quantitative Risk Analysis associated to the terminal, both for the workers and for the population nearby, with a verification of acceptability using the tolerability limits established by the State Licensing Agency (FEPAM-RS). In the risk analysis methodology used internationally, the most used way of presenting results of social risks is in the graphical form with the use of the FN curves and for the individual risk it is common the use of the iso-risk curves traced on the map of the area where is the plant. In the beginning of the study, both a historical analysis of accidents and use of the technique of Preliminary Analysis of Risks were made in order to aid in the process of identification of the possible scenarios of accidents related to the activities in the terminal. After identifying the initiating events, their frequencies or probabilities of occurrence were estimated and followed by the calculations of the physical effects and deaths, with the use, inside the computer program, of published models of Prins Mauritz Laboratory and of American Institute of Chemical Engineers. The average social risk obtained for the external populations was of 8.7x10{sup -7} fatality.year{sup -1} and for the internal population (people working inside the terminal), 3.2x10{sup -4} fatality.year-1. The accident scenario that most contributed to the social risk was death due to exposure to the thermal radiation caused by pool fire, with 84.3% of the total estimated for external populations and 82.9% for the people inside the terminal. The

  1. A demonstration of biofiltration for VOC removal in petrochemical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lan; Huang, Shaobin; Wei, Zongmin

    2014-05-01

    A biotrickling filter demo has been set up in a petrochemical factory in Sinopec Group for about 10 months with a maximum inlet gas flow rate of 3000 m3 h(-1). The purpose of this project is to assess the ability of the biotrickling filter to remove hardly biodegradable VOCs such as benzene, toluene and xylene which are recalcitrant and poorly water soluble and commonly found in petrochemical factories. Light-weight hollow ceramic balls (Φ 5-8 cm) were used as the packing media treated with large amounts of circulating water (2.4 m3 m(-2) h(-1)) added with bacterial species. The controlled empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 240 s is a key parameter for reaching a removal efficiency of 95% for benzene, toluene, xylene, and 90% for total hydrocarbons. The demo has been successfully adopted and practically applied in waste air treatments in many petrochemical industries for about two years. The net inlet concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene were varied from 0.5 to 3 g m(-3). The biofiltration process is highly efficient for the removal of hydrophobic and recalcitrant VOCs with various concentrations from the petrochemical factories. The SEM analysis of the bacterial community in the BTF during VOC removal showed that Pseudomonas putida and Klebsiella sp. phylum were dominant and shutdown periods could play a role in forming the community structural differences and leading to the changes of removal efficiencies.

  2. Maximum fossil fuel feedstock replacement potential of petrochemicals via biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Boom, R.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The search for feedstock replacement options within the petrochemical industry should logically be based upon non-fossil resources. Retaining the functionality of the biochemicals in biomass for use as chemical products and precursors can lead to a sizeable reduction of fossil fuel consumption. This

  3. Guangdong to Invest Heavily in Natural Gas and Petrochemical Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Guangdong Provincial Government has decided to focus on 10 key projects this year with a total investment of 210,2 billion yuan, including energy infrastructure projects, natural gas projects,petrochemical projects, and auto projects. It is expected to complete an investment of 40 billion yuan

  4. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF PEOPLE IN ORGANIZATIONS OF PETROCHEMICAL CAMAÇARI – BAHIA: REFLECTIONS ON ITS STRATEGIES FOR ATTRACTING, RETAINING AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildes Pitombo Leite

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation object of this research, the primary objectives was to identify and analyze what changes made in people management by the petrochemical organizations, from the trajectory of diversification in the Industrial Complex of Camaçari and their reflections into strategies for attraction, retention and professional development, much in line with the justifications, as with the question asked. The subjects involved were directors, managers and / or coordinators HR, minimum 10 and maximum of 32 years, two respondents per organization, totaling twenty-one organizations. This investigation was answered in each category and gradually increased at the junction of them all. The results show that the changes made in managing people in the petrochemical investigated are not, necessarily, computed from the trajectory of diversification: Petrochemical Pole / Industrial Complex of Camaçari. These results suggest that mergers are among the main responsible. However, there is the record that this change in context was beneficial to these organizations promote the output of the comfort zone that were since deploying Pole. It reinforces the premise that such an investigation ends innovative and contributory aspect for: the area of people management, petrochemical industry and the country.

  5. Challenges of knowledge sharing in the petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Wei Chong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge sharing is one of the important and also challenging parts in the success of KM implementation. The objective of this paper is to find out knowledge sharing barriers in the petrochemical companies in a Middle East country. Three main categories are found to have an impact on knowledge sharing in the companies. These categories are potential individual knowledge sharing barriers, potential organizational knowledge sharing barriers and potential technological knowledge sharing barriers. Data were collected by using a convenience sampling survey method. 500 questionnaires were distributed among employees and 302 questionnaires were returned. Trust, knowledge as power, communication, organizational hierarchy and knowledge sharing technological systems are found to have relationships with knowledge sharing. However, reward and recognition system have less significant relationship with knowledge sharing in the petrochemical companies.

  6. Prospects for the Structural Readjustment of China's Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Xiaoming; Mao Jiaxiang

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1.Structural Problems Facedby Domes tic Petrochemical Industry 1.1 Scattered distribution of enterprises with ostensibly small scale Currently China boasts over 130 petroleum processing enterprises, 60% of which have oil ditillation capacity less than 100 Mt/a apiece. Every province, or autonomous region or municipality directly under the Central Government with the exception of Tibet, Hainan, Yunnan and Guizhou has constructed their petroleum refineries. Eighteen sets of ethylene units are located in 15 cities of China.

  7. Wastewater quality control at Sarnia (Ontario, Canada) petrochemical industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna, Arlinda C. [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Souza, Eliane S.; Himmelman, William [Lambton College, Sarnia, ON (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Ontario industries are required by law to meet strict regulations under the provinces under MISA initiative (Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement). The petroleum-petrochemical area was selected as a leader in the development of new environmental objectives, and monitoring and training programs. Sarnia has become a world leader in industrial environmental control systems and the approach toward zero emissions. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. DIRECTION OF DEVELOPMENT FOR NATION'S PETROCHEMICAL PRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Baohai

    2001-01-01

    @@ As a result of remarkable advance over the past several dozen years with continuous development of technology, rapid increase of new products, and steady expansion in production scope, China's petrochemical industry has grown into a well-established industrial system composed of more than 20 trades,providing over 40,000 kinds of product which are complete in range and generally serialized in variety.

  9. Biomanagement of petrochemical sludge using an exotic earthworm Eudrilus eugineae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, J Rajesh; Esakkiraj, S; Nagendran, R; Logakanthi, S

    2005-01-01

    Petrochemical industry have severe problem in disposing effluent and semisolid sludge despite repeated recycling. It requires further treatment prior to disposal of sludge. In recent years biological treatment methods received much attention and considered as an efficient low-cost treatment. One such method is vermiculture treatment The end product of vermicompost is rich in essential micro and macronutrients along with microorganisms in a very simple form. Adding cast, not only improves the soil structure and fertility but also leads to improvement in overall plant growth and thus increase their yield. The present study was carried out to dispose the petrochemical sludge biologically using an exotic earthworm Eudrilus eugineae. The petrochemical sludge at various concentrations 25, 50 and 75% were subjected to vermicomposting treatment for a period of 60 days. During the period of study, data were collected on life form of earthworm and chemical analysis of the sludge before and after treatment. The microbial analysis was carried out fortnightly. The results indicate that 25 and 50% concentration of sludge was ideal for the vermicomposting, whereas the higher concentration inhibits the vermicomposting.

  10. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park.

  11. Analysis of Energy Consumption and Energy Conservation Measures for RFCCU at Shengli Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Xu Zhenling

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces a string of energy conservation measures adopted over the past several years by the RFCC unit at Shengli Petrochemical Complex, including the optimization of feedstock properties, the adoption of high-efficiency atomizing nozzles, the revamp of CO boiler, the atomization by means of dry gas, the post-burning of flue gas as well as the application of frequency converting machines and pumps, resulting in ideal effects. The energy consumption of the RFCC unit was gradually decreased to 2984.25 MJ/t from the original level of 3716.99 MJ/t. After comparing basic energy consumption values with actual consumption values, the authors have set forward measures for further energy conservation, such as the recovery of low-temperature excess heat contained in oil/gas streams exiting from the fractionation tower top, addition of the fourth cyclone, delivery of hot oil slurry, and heat tracing with hot water.

  12. Mideast Oil and Petrochem Industrial Influence on China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The petroleum and petrochemical industry in the Middle East region is exerting influence on the Chinese market because the Middle East has become an important option for China to import crude. In 2003, China imported 91.12 million tons of crude, of which the Middle East accounted for 50.7 percent. China imported 15.18 million tons of crude from Saudi Arabia in 2003, 16.7 percent of the nation's total import,and 12.39 million tons of crude from Iran, 13.6percent of the total.

  13. Commercial Application of the CTV-IV Type Catalyst for Synthesis of Vinyl Acetate Developed by Shanghai Petrochemical Research Instit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The CTV-IV type catalyst for synthesis of vinyl acetate developed by the SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute (SPRI) has been successfully applied on the #2 vinyl acetate unit at SINOPEC's Shanghai Petrochemical Company.

  14. Prevalence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in the urban area neighboring a petrochemical complex and a control area in Sao Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de tireoidite de Hashimoto na população vicinal ao Pólo Petroquímico de Capuava (área Polo e área controle (São Bernardo Campo na região metropolitana da grande São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalinda Y. A. Camargo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in 2 urban areas of metropolitan São Paulo (Brazil: Polo Area neighboring a large petrochemical complex and São Bernardo Campo Area (control area. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Subjects were randomly included from the adult population (20 to 70 years of age of both genders (women 80%, men 20% who voluntarily agreed to participate. From the Polo Area, in the vicinity of a large petrochemical industrial complex, 409 subjects were included; from the control area (São Bernardo Campo Area 420 individuals were included. All subjects were clinically examined, and a detailed record of past thyroid illness and medications was obtained. Ultrasonographic studies were performed using a portable GE Medical Systems apparatus. Blood samples were obtained for free T4, serum TSH, and serum anti-thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies. Urine specimens were collected in Monovette syringes for assaying iodine content. Salt samples were collected at households, and the iodine content was measured. RESULTS: Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis was diagnosed both echographically (marked hypoechogenicity and immunologically (presence of autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase. In the Polo Area, 15.6% of the examined population had chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, and in the control area (São Bernardo Campo Area, 19.5% of the population had evidence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (P > 0.057, not significant. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 4.9% in the Polo Area and 8.3% in the São Bernardo Campo Area (P = 0.0461 significant. Taking the 2 populations together, 6.6% had hypothyroidism (about one third of these patients were on L-T4 treatment. The mean thyroid volume was 11.2 mL. Domestic salt had a normal concentration of iodine (35.5 + 6.61 mg/kg. Urinary excretion of iodine was above 300 µg Iodine/L in 58.5% of the total population. CONCLUSION: The high iodine intake (above 300 µg Iodine/L of urine that

  15. Changxing Island in Dalian to Set up A World Class Petrochemical Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In August 2008 "The Plan on Development of Petrochemi-cal Industry in Lingang Industry Area of Changxing Island in Dalian" had been assessed and approved by the expert team.According to this plan the Changxing Island will be basi-cally turned into a world-class Lingang petrochemical in-dustry park characterized by integration of oil refining and petrochemical sectors, and an industry intensive and eco-logical and environmentally friendly region. This industry park is scheduled to be developed in three phases to form in 15 years a national petrochemical base covering a total area of 25 km2. In the late "Eleventh Five-year Plan" period a region for development of specialty chemicals will be formed to prop up the low polluting, light and deep pro-cessing chemical sectors that can manufacture fine chemi-cals and new chemical materials to preliminarily set up a framework of petrochemical industry park.

  16. Integration of Petroleum Processing with Petrochemical Production—An Important Strategy for Development of Petrochemical Industry in the New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Guohua

    2000-01-01

    @@1 Foreword In the 1990s China' s petroleum processing and petrochemical industry have achieved brisk development in parallel with the sharp growth of national economy. The volume of crude oil processed in China in 1998 reached 152. 4 Mt, increasing by 13% over the 1993 level (Figure 1), and China' s refining capacity was ranked the fourth in the world. The ethylene output reached 3.77 Mt, equaling to 1.87 times the total output in 1993 (Figure 2), and China' s ethylene capacity was ranked the sixth in the world.

  17. Applicability of anoxic-oxic process in treating petrochemical wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-jun ZHAO; Fang MA; Jing-bo GUO

    2009-01-01

    To explore the applicability of anoxic-oxic (A/O) activated sludge process for petrochemical wastewater treatment, the relationship between bacterial community structure and pollutants loading/removal efficiencies was investigated by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and other conventional techniques. It showed that when the concentrations of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) were 420~560 mg/L and 64~100 mg/L, respectively, the corresponding average effluent concentra-tions were 160 mg/L and 55 mg/L, which were 1.6 and 2.2 times higher than those of the national standards in China, respectively, demonstrating the inefficient performances of A/O process. Analysis of GC-MS indicated that refractory pollutants were mainly removed by sludge adsorption, but not by biodegradation. PCR-DGGE profile analysis suggested that the biological system was species-rich, but there was apparent succession of the bacterial community structure in different locations of the A/O system. Variations of bacterial community structure and pollutant Ioadings had obvious influences on pollutants removal efficiencies. Thus, A/O process was inapplicable for the treatment of complicated petrochemical wastewater, and strategies such as the reinforcement of pre-treatment and two-stage A/O process were suggested.

  18. Pyrolysis kinetics and residue characteristics of petrochemical industrial sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, H L; Lo, J C; Tsai, J H; Chang, G M

    2000-02-01

    This study investigated the pyrolysis characteristics of sludge from wastewater treatment plants in the petrochemical industry and focused on the pyrolysis kinetics, elemental composition of residue, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of exhaust gas. As pyrolysis temperature increased to 773 K, the increasing rate of crude oil production tended to a stable condition. The result indicated that the optimal temperature of crude oil and water mixed production was 773 K. When pyrolysis temperature increased from 673 to 973 K, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen concentrations of residue decreased and the sulfur concentration of residue increased. The concentrations of benzene, toluene,ethylbenzene, and styrene increased by the increasing pyrolysis temperature. We found that the reaction order of sludge pyrolysis was 2.5 and the activation energy of the reaction was 11.06 kJ/mol. We believe that our pyrolysis system is transitional between devolatilization and combustion.

  19. Catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation of a petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariente, M I; Melero, J A; Martínez, F; Botas, J A; Gallego, A I

    2010-01-01

    Continuous Catalytic Wet Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidation (CWHPO) for the treatment of a petrochemical industry wastewater has been studied on a pilot plant scale process. The installation, based on a catalytic fixed bed reactor (FBR) coupled with a stirred tank reactor (STR), shows an interesting alternative for the intensification of a continuous CWHPO treatment. Agglomerated SBA-15 silica-supported iron oxide (Fe(2)O(3)/SBA-15) was used as Fenton-like catalyst. Several variables such as the temperature and hydrogen peroxide concentration, as well as the capacity of the pilot plant for the treatment of inlet polluted streams with different dilution degrees were studied. Remarkable results in terms of TOC reduction and increased biodegradability were achieved using 160 degrees C and moderate hydrogen peroxide initial concentration. Additionally, a good stability of the catalyst was evidenced for 8 hours of treatment with low iron leaching (less than 1 mg/L) under the best operating conditions.

  20. Biologically resistant contaminants, primary treatment with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echegaray, Diego F. [White Martins Gases Industriais do Nordeste S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Olivieri, Nadja F. [White Martins Gases Industriais S.A., Cordovil, RJ (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Organic effluent oxidation tests were conducted in petrochemical companies, in Camacari Petrochemical Complex (Northeast Brazil), to reduce treatment costs and improve the primary treatment efficiency in each industrial process. Ozone achieved 99.96 percent benzene reduction and 100 percent ethyl benzene and toluene reduction. Process efficiency is strongly dependent on the wastewater chemical composition and concentration. For this reason it is necessary to run pilot trials for each specific case. Ozone was obtained feeding commercial oxygen through a corona discharge generator and dissolved in the effluent with a bubble column. Commercial oxygen was used instead of air to increase 250 percent the ozone production, using the same ozone generator. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Managing the ducts installed in shared band; Gestao de faixa compartilhada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luiz Carlos Xavier da; Pereira, Vera Lucia Sardo de Abreu [Braskem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In the Petrochemical Complex of Camacari, Bahia, eight companies have installed its ducts and systems for transferences of petrochemical products. The pipelines have around 30 km and crosses five communities. The companies did an agreement organized in Committees of Management and Technician with focus in Management Risk. The Committees have representatives of all the companies and are organized as following: Integrity Committee, Operational Committee, Security Committee and Environment Social Committee. The Management Committee approves all Technician Committees Plans. Two years after implantation, training all the involved, we have the following profits: Interchange technician, Reduction of costs in the planned interventions, Reduction of the operational failures number, Standardization of the procedures, Management of modifications, implantation of a contingency plan, Approach of the public agencies, Implementing NUDECs (Community Nuclei of Defense) involving communities integrating them in the management of risks. (author)

  2. Long-term environmental monitoring of persistent organic pollutants and metals in a chemical/petrochemical area: Human health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal, Marti [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, Jose L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as some metals are periodically monitored in soil and vegetation samples collected in Tarragona County (Spain). We here report the temporal trends of the concentrations of the above pollutants between the initial survey (2002) and that recently (2009) performed. The area under evaluation was divided into 4 sections (chemical, petrochemical, urban/residential and unpolluted). In general terms, urban soils presented the highest concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCNs and PAHs, confirming that traffic is a very important emission source of these pollutants. In addition, substantially higher levels of PAHs and some metals were found in vegetation samples from the petrochemical complex. The assessment of health risks of these contaminants indicated that the current concentrations of micropollutants did not mean additional non-carcinogenic or cancer risks for the population living in the zone. - Highlights: > Traffic is an important emission source of persistent organic pollutants. > Oil refineries could be notable releasers of PAHs and some metals in the area. > Soil pollutant levels are notably lower than threshold values. > The air quality of Tarragona area is not greatly affected by metals and POPs. > The current exposure to micropollutants does not mean additional health risks. - Human exposure to environmental micropollutants in the industrial area of Tarragona does not mean additional health risks.

  3. Yangzi Petrochemical Company Uses Natural Gas to Supplement Steam Cracker Fuel Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A major energy conservation and retrofitting project-ap-plication of natural gas as supplementary fuel for steam crackers has been successfully put into operation starting April 30, 2008 at the SINOPEC Yangzi Petrochemical Company.

  4. One Step In-Situ Formed Magnetic Chitosan Nanoparticles as an Efficient Sorbent for Removal of Mercury Ions From Petrochemical Waste Water: Batch and Column Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahbar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background In the recent years, mercury contamination has attracted great deal of attention due to its serious environmental threat. Objectives The main goal of this study was application of one-step synthesized magnetic (magnetite chitosan nanoparticles (MCNs in the removal of mercury ions from petrochemical waste water. Materials and Methods This study was performed in batch and column modes. Effects of various parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, temperature and agitation speed for the removal of mercury ions by MCNs investigated in batch mode. Afterwards, optimum conditions were exploited in column mode. Different kinetic models were also studied. Results An effective Hg (II removal (99.8% was obtained at pH 6, with 50 mg of MCNs for an initial concentration of this ion in petrochemical waste water (5.63 mg L-1 and 10 minutes agitation of the solution. The adsorption kinetic data was well fitted to the pseudo-second-order model. Conclusions Experimental results showed that MCNs is an excellent sorbent for removal of mercury ions from petrochemical waste water. In addition, highly complex matrix of this waste does not affect the adsorption capability of MCNs.

  5. Semi-Quantitative Assessment of the Health Risk of Occupational Exposure to Chemicals and Evaluation of Spirometry Indices on the Staff of Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Dazi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Petrochemical industry is an important industry in the economic development of the country that causes employees have exposure with several kinds of contamination. The aim of this study was Semi-quantitative assessment of the health risk of occupational exposure to chemical materials and investigation of spirometry indices between employees of petrochemical industry. Material & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in one of the petrochemical industry complex in a special area of Assaluyeh in Iran in 2016. Health risk assessment of exposure to harmful chemical agents was performed in all of units and during three stages (identification of harmful material, determination of hazard rate of the chemical material, exposure rate and estimate of risk rate. Spirometry indices were measured using spirometry. Results: The results of chemical materials risk assessment showed that Raffinate in Butadiene unit has identified the highest amount of risk rank among 27 chemical materials in investigated units. In comparison with spirometry indices in Olefine unit between age with FVC parameter and history work with FVC and FEV1 parameters has observed a significant and negative correlation (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results of risk assessment in all of the petrochemical units showed that 48.14% of materials were at low risk level, 29.62% medium risk, 18.51% high risk and 3.7% had very high risk level. The variables affecting on spirometry employees such as age and work experience play an important role in reducing the pulmonary function tests in exposed subjects.

  6. Daqing Petrochemical Adopted Technology of Agglomeration New Energy Saving Production%Daqing Petrochemical Adopted Technology of Agglomeration New Energy Saving Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption of equipment and exhaust emission to the uttermost, Daqing Petrochemical Company has developed pre-agglomeration production flow successfully and confirmed an optimized energy-saving method of differential pressure agglomeration. For a long time, BR equipment of 80,000 tons per year in Daqing Petrochemical Company have been adopting general isobaric technology and elutriation method to separate polymer and solvent, which caused over 10 tons of steam per ton of rubber and restricted the energy conservation and emission reduction of the enterprise.

  7. Environmental comparison of biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammens, Tijs M; Potting, José; Sanders, Johan P M; De Boer, Imke J M

    2011-10-01

    Glutamic acid is an important constituent of waste streams from biofuels production. It is an interesting starting material for the synthesis of biobased chemicals, thereby decreasing the dependency on fossil fuels. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental impact of four biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents, that is, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), acrylonitrile (ACN), and succinonitrile (SCN). A consequential life cycle assessment was performed, wherein glutamic acid was obtained from sugar beet vinasse. The removed glutamic acid was substituted with cane molasses and ureum. The comparison between the four biobased and petrochemical products showed that for NMP and NVP the biobased version had less impact on the environment, while for ACN and SCN the petrochemical version had less impact on the environment. For the latter two an optimized scenario was computed, which showed that the process for SCN can be improved to a level at which it can compete with the petrochemical process. For biobased ACN large improvements are required to make it competitive with its petrochemical equivalent. The results of this LCA and the research preceding it also show that glutamic acid can be a building block for a variety of molecules that are currently produced from petrochemical resources. Currently, most methods to produce biobased products are biotechnological processes based on sugar, but this paper demonstrates that the use of amino acids from low-value byproducts can certainly be a method as well.

  8. Sources of Particular Pollutants in Ambient Air at a Petrochemical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Jianliang; Zhao Dongfeng; ChengJianguang; Chen Lu; Liu Wei

    2013-01-01

    The study on source apportionment of particular pollutants in ambient air at a petrochemical enterprise is the ba-sis of the control over air pollution. Through analyzing particular pollutants in the samples collected from one petrochemi-cal enterprise in northwestern China, the sources of particular pollutants were discussed. The test results showed that con-centrations of particular pollutants in different sites were remarkably different. Results showed that the sampling sites with higher concentrations of particular pollutants, including toluene, xylenes, NH3 and H2S, were located at the boundary of the petrochemical enterprise. Instead, the concentrations of NMHC in the ambient air sampling sites were higher than those at the boundary of the petrochemical enterprise. The sampling sites with higher concentrations of particular pollutants were located in the area that was close to the petrochemical enterprise. The results obtained from the Pearson correlation co-efifcients analyses, the factor analyses, andχ2-tests of the particular pollutants had revealed that NH3, H2S, toluene and xylenes at all sampling sites came from the same source, while NMHC might come from some other sources besides the petrochemical enterprise.

  9. Noise pollution in a Refining & Petrochemical Company in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Osarenmwinda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the concern about noise pollution is acquiring considerable importance especiallly in industrial enviroment where there exist alot of machinerys and equipment. The aim of this study was to determine the level of noise pollution generated by some plants specifically Carbon Black Plant, Power Plant & Utilities, Waste Water treatment Plant and Fuels Plant in Warri Refining & Petrochemical Company (WRPC, Warri, Nigeria and recommmend strageties for noise control. Noise level data was obtained from the environmental monitoring unit of WRPC for period April to November, 2012 .The results showed that the noise level exceeded the 85 dB(A WHO recommended limit for industrial area in the Carbon Black Plant,Power Plant & Utilities and Fuels Plant in WRPC but was lower than 85 dB(A in Waste Water treatment Plant section of WRPC.It was observed that such noise pollution can present health problems to the workers.Recommendations have been made to the company in this study to remedy this problems and challenges.

  10. Petrochemical wastewater treatment by means of clean electrochemical technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimoglo, A.; Akbulut, H.Y.; Cihan, F.; Karpuzcu, M. [Gebze Institute of Technology, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2004-09-01

    The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, phenol, hydrocarbon and grease from petrochemical wastewater (PCWW) was experimentally done by using electroflotation (EF) and electrocoagulation (EC). In the EF unit, a graphite anode and a stainless steel mesh as cathode were used. In the EC unit, iron and aluminium were used simultaneously as materials for two blocks of alternating electrodes. The reactor voltage was 12 V, current density (CD) was varied from 5 to 15 mA cm{sup -2}, and the residence time varied in the limits of 2-20 min for EF and 1-10 min for EC. The results have shown that EC removes the mentioned contaminants from PCWW more effectively than EF. Turbidity removal in the process of PCWW purification was estimated as 83% for EF and 88% for EC. The yields of phenol, hydrocarbon and grease removal by EC were examined under different values of residence time, CD, and with iron and aluminium as materials for electrodes. (orig.)

  11. Production optimisation in the petrochemical industry by hierarchical multivariate modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Magnus; Furusjoe, Erik; Jansson, Aasa

    2004-06-01

    This project demonstrates the advantages of applying hierarchical multivariate modelling in the petrochemical industry in order to increase knowledge of the total process. The models indicate possible ways to optimise the process regarding the use of energy and raw material, which is directly linked to the environmental impact of the process. The refinery of Nynaes Refining AB (Goeteborg, Sweden) has acted as a demonstration site in this project. The models developed for the demonstration site resulted in: Detection of an unknown process disturbance and suggestions of possible causes; Indications on how to increase the yield in combination with energy savings; The possibility to predict product quality from on-line process measurements, making the results available at a higher frequency than customary laboratory analysis; Quantification of the gradually lowered efficiency of heat transfer in the furnace and increased fuel consumption as an effect of soot build-up on the furnace coils; Increased knowledge of the relation between production rate and the efficiency of the heat exchangers. This report is one of two reports from the project. It contains a technical discussion of the result with some degree of detail. A shorter and more easily accessible report is also available, see IVL report B1586-A.

  12. Development Trend of China's Petroleum and Petrochemical Equipment Manufacturing Industry%Development Trend of China's Petroleum and Petrochemical Equipment Manufacturing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The equipment manufacturing industry is a strategic and fundamental industry which provides equipment for all industries including the defense industry. The domestication of equipment manufacturing is a miniature of rapid development of China's national economy. For the petroleum and petrochemical industry, the quality of equipment is essential for the development of the oil and gas industry. In recent years,

  13. Effluents and Solid Waste Analysis in a Petrochemical Company- A Case Study of Eleme Petrochemical Company Ltd, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Israel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effluents and soil samples where sediments from the treated effluents are dumped were analyzed for physicochemical properties, metallic and non-metallic ions. These parameters were compared with established international standard (FEPA. Effluents were classified as process waste water (PWW, clarified water (CW, and final discharge (FD. The petrochemical effluents contained very high concentration of TDS (284.00±014 mg/L and significant concentrations of TSS (78.89±0.01 mg/L, COD (30.10±0.02 mg/L, DO (13.20±0.01 mg/L, BOD (6.12±0.00 mg/L, PO43- (4.34±0.00 mg/L, SO42- (3.59±0.00 mg/L, Cl- (55.52±0.01 mg/L and NO3- (8.40±0.01 mg/L. Low concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, cadmium, lead, nickel and cobalt was also observed. Some heavy metals were not detected at all in some of the effluent samples analyzed. Apart from temperature and total dissolved solid TDS, all the other parameters were below FEPA effluent limitations for guidelines for Petroleum Refinery, Fuel/Gasoline oil category in Nigeria.

  14. Obtaining petrochemical products from ethanol; Obtencao de produtos petroquimicos a partir do etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverio, Carlos Augusto N.; Oliveira, Claudia Vasconcellos R. de; Joao, Rafael Richard; Hashizume, Tulio Kenji C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Currently, high oil prices, low availability of traditional raw material (natural gas and petrochemical naphtha), increasing recognition of the importance of the preservation of nature and reducing emissions of pollutants have been creating a great opportunity for the petrochemical industry to seek alternative materials from renewable resources. The ethanol, which obtained a virtuous journey as fuel, is a very promising alternative to be used for the production of petrochemical products. However, the use of ethanol as a raw material will require a considerable increase in its production, what can be achieved through the development of new production technologies based on biomass and the construction of integrated biorefineries. So, this study aims to identify and compare conventional petrochemical routes with routes from this renewable raw material in order to evaluate their technical and economic feasibility. A preliminary analysis was performed between four petrochemical products: acetic acid, acetaldehyde, the ethyl acetate and ethylene. From this initial analysis, acetic acid and ethylene were selected for a more comprehensive feasibility study considering their production using ethanol as raw material, what is called ethanol chemistry. (author)

  15. Experimental research on vibration reduction of high-rise petrochemical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, W.; He, L. D.; Chang, J.; Han, W. F.; Wang, L. X.

    2012-05-01

    The wind-induced vibration of high-rise petrochemical equipment would do great harm to equipment operation and cause fatigue damage easily. Thus it is necessary to install some control device to reduce the vibration actively. Existing reinforcement methods include enlarging structural section, welding wind girder, adding braced frame system, fixing taut cable, etc. But each has some shortcomings. Therefore, the tuned mass damper (TMD), rarely used in high-rise petrochemical equipment, is studied by experiment to minimize wind-induced vibration, ensure safety operation and prolong service life. In the experiment, high-rise petrochemical equipment is properly simplified in order to verify the feasibility of the TMD. Parameters of the TMD are mainly researched, which include mass ratio and damping ratio. During the process, different mass ratios and damping ratios have been taken into account to understand the characteristics of the TMD under different conditions. By experiment, the changing tendencies of the natural frequency, damping ratio and top maximum displacement have been given after the simulator is implemented with the TMD. Experimental results show that the TMD is feasible for the wind-induced vibration control of high-rise petrochemical equipment, and that top maximum displacement of the simulator reduces by about 45% in the experimental condition. The experimental research has provided valuable preferences for practical application of the TMD in petrochemical field.

  16. 基于制造网格的石化装置运维管理系统设计研究%Design research of operation management system of petrochemical units based on manufacturing grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小梅; 李力生; 熊峰

    2011-01-01

    The current operation service to the petrochemical industry is gradually shifting from the traditional focus on technical capabilities and emergency response to the "all-weather, multi-disciplinary" and "one-stop"service.In order to accommodate this trend,by extracting the characteristics of a variety of petrochemical units, integrated device operation mode is formed for the domestic large and complex petrochemical, industry unitsAn operation management system of petrochemical units based on manufacturing grid is designed.In this system,advanced manufacturing grid technology is integrated in the off-line monitoring and intelligent equipment maintenance technology.The distributed resource management platform based on manufacturing grid is built to realize the resource management effectively/Three subsystems of preventive maintenance, emergency response,equipment management,are designed based on the distributed resource management platform based on manufacturing grid.High quality and reliable operation services are solidified into this system by a standard operation process of petrochemical units.The system is developed and implemented in petrochemical units of shanghai gaoqiao petrochemical corporation to achieve the purposes of stable operation,reduce energy consumption and pollution emissions.%当前石化行业运维服务正逐步从传统的注重专业技术能力和应急响应向“全天候、多专业”的“一站式”服务转换发展.为了顺应这一趋势,通过提取多种石化生产装置设施的特点,以先进的制造网格技术集成在离线监测技术和智能设备维护技术等,实现针对国内石化行业大型复杂装置设施形成集成化的运维模式,并通过预防性维护、应急响应、设备管理三个子系统的协同一体化运维管理,将优质可靠的运维服务固化成具有标准流程的基于制造网格的石化装置运维管理系统中.该系统在上海高桥石化公司的实施,使企业达

  17. A Mathematical Model Based on Supply Chain Optimization for International Petrochemical Engineering Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Ning; Sun Wei

    2015-01-01

    Based on the study of supply chain (SC) and SC optimization in engineering projects, a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) optimization model is developed to minimize the total SC cost for international petrochemical en-gineering projects. A steam cracking project is selected and analyzed, from which typical SC characteristics in international engineering projects in the area of petrochemical industry are summarized. The MINLP model is therefore developed and applied to projects with detailed data. The optimization results are analyzed and compared by the MINLP model, indicat-ing that they are appropriate to SC management practice in engineering projects, and are consistent with the optimal price-effective strategy in procurement. As a result, the model could provide useful guidance to SC optimization of international engineering projects in petrochemical industry, and improve SC management by selecting more reliable and qualiifed part-ner enterprises in SC for the project.

  18. A New Cultivation-Evolution Technology of Accident Immune Function for a Petrochemical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhenhong; Zhang Xuhua; Wang Xiangyao; Wang Zhihu; Liu Yan; Zhang Xuan

    2007-01-01

    For the purpose of developing an immune function on production accidents in a petrochemical enterprise, a new cultivation-evolution approach of preventive mechanism is suggested by analyzing various factors relating to immune deficiency syndrome and by referring to immunity genetic algorithm and relevant concepts applied in medicine science. Accident-immunity system for highly hazardous petrochemical enterprise, which is made up of its productive system's Safety Organ and Safety Organization, is typically an evolution-cultivation progress for immune function, The new B immune cell is generated after several layers' screening, clone expanding, receptor editing, organizing in immune system of work accident in petrochemical enterprise. There is a B immune cell with high appetency and a manipulative function chain for accident-immunity. Taking the antigen of accidents in industry as the target function and the immune antibody as the solution, the authors carried out a computation diagram for prediction of appetency between the antigen and antibody.

  19. Approximation of theoretical energy-saving potentials for the petrochemical industry using energy balances for 68 key processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, M.L.; Patel, M.K.; Bach, P.; Haije, W.G.; Blok, K.

    2007-01-01

    We prepared energy and carbon balances for 68 petrochemical processes in the petrochemical industry for Western Europe, the Netherlands and the world. We analysed the process energy use in relation to the heat effects of the chemical reactions and quantified in this way the sum of all energy inputs

  20. Opportunities and challenges at the interface between petrochemicals and refinery. The OMV view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtscheidl, J. [OMV Refining and Marketing GmbH, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    OMV's refineries have been integrated into petrochemicals since the first steam cracker came on line in 1970. The refineries in Schwechat, Burghausen and Romania, especially Arpechim, have significant petrochemical capacities. In 1998 PCD was merged with Borealis, a leading producer of high grade polymers. OMV's initial 25% stake in Borealis increased to 36 in 2007. The last years have seen major investments in Schwechat and Burghausen: Schwechat's cracker was expanded by approximately 150 KTA to a nominal 500 KTA of ethylene. And in Burghausen the revamp of the cracker has been combined with a metathesis unit in order to feed a new 330 KTA polypropylene plant. The polymer market is still growing. However, the bulk of investments to increase capacity are located in the Middle East and in the Asia-Pacific region, predominately in China. As more and more products from these regions find their way to Europe, the European petrochemicals industry faces fierce competition. The response is restructuring: the creation of Arkema (Total), the takeover of BP's petrochemical assets by INEOS, the disposal of Shell-BASF subsidiary Basell to Haldia Petrochemical and Accent Industries, and the transfer of Statoil's interest in Borealis to IPIC and OMV. And most recently, Basell's acquisition of Lyondell. Compared with competitors in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, producers in Europe are burdened with serious disadvantages: fairly old, small units and high costs of labor, energy and raw materials. There is no single solution. OMV, however, will continue to follow the strategies that have been successful so far: - Ever closer integration of refining and petrochemicals; - Capturing market opportunities for profitable growth; -Remaining market orientated. (orig.)

  1. Petrochemicals may fare better as feed costs dip and processes are improved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wett, T.

    1986-04-07

    With fewer projects under way and with lower feedstock costs, the U.S. and European petrochemical industries could fare better this year. According to a survey by the Chemical Manufacturers Association, chemical industry shipments were up nearly 3% in the U.S. in 1984, compared to a year earlier. However, basic petrochemical production did not share uniformly in that increase. Comparative polymer and aromatics output was on the positive side, as was output of acetic acid, acrylonitrile, and vinyl chloride. But production of many other materials, including ethylene and propylene, was lower than the year before. The drop in ethylene output is somewhat deceiving. Producers for the most part were running available capacity near the maximum. Demand held up well and inventories dropped throughout the year, falling from over 2 billion lb to about 970 million lb as of the end of December. U.S. demand for ethylene and propylene is expected to remain strong in 1986. Propylene, in particular, should benefit from a worldwide shift to lighter feedstock. Petrochemical demand was also strong worldwide, and U.S. exports were relatively good. The long term projection is for a drop in the U.S. balance of trade in petrochemicals for the rest of the decade. But 1985 saw mishaps at production facilities in Europe that actually prompted a healthy increase in imports from the U.S., particularly for high-density polyethylene. Still, the International Trade Commission sees a drop in the U.S. petrochemical trade balance from the current $10 billion to around $1.6 billion in 1990 as a result of the expansion of the petrochemical industry in developing countries. Falling oil prices have given European producers some breathing room, however. One producer feels that European plants based on naphtha can, at least for a time, be competitive with the Middle East's ethane-fed plants, when delivery costs are factored in.

  2. Conditions and Characteristics of Coal Water Slurry Containing Petrochemicals Ignition by Hot Particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal’chenko Nina K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of CWS containing petrochemicals ignition by single hot particle in disk shape established experimentally. The main components of fuel composition are coal 45 %, water 45 %, used engine oil 10 %. The main parameters of local heat sources are: material – steel, diameter 10–12 mm, high 4–8 mm. As a result of experimental study is established limit (minimum conditions for ignition of CWS containing petrochemicals by hot particle and the impact of local heat source parameters on the main process characteristic – ignition delay time.

  3. CO{sub 2} Reuse in Petrochemical Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Trembly; Brian Turk; Maruthi Pavani; Jon McCarty; Chris Boggs; Aqil Jamal; Raghubir Gupta

    2010-12-31

    To address public concerns regarding the consequences of climate change from anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is actively funding a CO{sub 2} management program to develop technologies capable of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions from power plant and industrial facilities. Over the past decade, this program has focused on reducing the costs of carbon capture and storage technologies. Recently, DOE/NETL launched an alternative CO{sub 2} mitigation program focused on beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse to support the development of technologies that mitigate emissions by converting CO{sub 2} into valuable chemicals and fuels. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing an innovative beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse process for converting CO{sub 2} into substitute natural gas (SNG) by using by-product hydrogen (H{sub 2)-containing fuel gas from petrochemical facilities. This process leveraged commercial reactor technology currently used in fluid catalytic crackers in petroleum refining and a novel nickel (Ni)-based catalyst developed by RTI. The goal was to generate an SNG product that meets the pipeline specifications for natural gas, making the SNG product completely compatible with the existing natural gas infrastructure. RTI's technology development efforts focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of this novel CO{sub 2} reuse process and obtaining the necessary engineering information to design a pilot demonstration unit for converting about 4 tons per day (tons/day) of CO{sub 2} into SNG at a suitable host site. This final report describes the results of the Phase I catalyst and process development efforts. The methanation activity of several commercial fixed-bed catalysts was evaluated under fluidized-bed conditions in a bench-scale reactor to identify catalyst performance targets. RTI developed two fluidizable Ni-based catalyst formulations (Cat-1 and Cat

  4. Petrochemicals from oil, natural gas, coal and biomass: production costs in 2030–2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, T.; Daniëls, B.; Patel, M.K.; Blok, K.

    2009-01-01

    Methane, coal and biomass are being considered as alternatives to crude oil for the production of basic petrochemicals, such as light olefins. This paper is a study on the production costs of 24 process routes utilizing these primary energy sources. A wide range of projected energy prices in 2030–20

  5. China’s Petrochemical Industry during the’11the Five-Year Plan’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Global oil price goes up while the domestic oil-based down-stream industry goes down in its operation. What will impact these players with the global oil-price hiking? The petrochemical global players gather in HK to address this biting challenge...

  6. Status and direction of waste minimization in the chemical and petrochemical industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englande Junior, A.J. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an evaluation of the status and direction of toxic/hazardous waste reduction in chemical and petrochemical industries from an international perspective. In almost all cases studied savings have resulted. The importance of pollution prevention by `clean technologies` instead of remediation is stressed. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. A life-cycle inventory for the production of petrochemical intermediates in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, M.; Berna, J.L.; Cavalli, L.; Renta, C.; Stalmans, M.; Thomas, H.

    1995-09-01

    The resource requirements and environmental emissions involved in the production of n-paraffins, n-olefins, benzene, ethylene and ethylene oxide from petrochemical feedstocks are presented. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Der Rohstoffbedarf und die Umweltemissionen bei der Herstellung von n-Olefin, n-Paraffin, Benzen, Ethylen und Ethylenoxid auf der Basis petrochemischer Rohstoffe werden dargestellt. (orig./SR)

  8. Ni-B/TiO2 Amorphous Catalyst Used in Heavy Arenes of Petrochemicals Hydrogenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A supported Ni-B/TiO2 amorphous catalyst was prepared by impregnation and reduction. It was characterized by XRD, SAED, DSC, XPS, etc.. The catalytic activity of catalyst was measured through the hydrogenation of heavy arenes in petrochemicals for the first time.

  9. Process intensification in the petrochemicals industry : Drivers and hurdles for commercial implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The process intensification technologies, reactive distillation, dividing wall column distillation (DWC) and reverse flow reactors (RFR) have been implemented at commercial scale in the petrochemical industry each more than 100 times. These technologies have been analysed with four drivers for innov

  10. Modeling the Spill in the Songhua River after the Explosion in the Petrochemical Plant in Jilin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Wenjing; Fu, Huijin; Skøtt, Karen

    2008-01-01

    An explosion in a petrochemical plant in Jilin in the northeast of China on 13 November 13 2005 was responsible for the discharge of large quantities of benzene and nitrobenzene into Songhua River. This endangered the water supply of Harbin city and influenced the daily life for millions of people...

  11. INTEGRATION OF REFINING AND CHEMICAL INDUSTRY ——Development Strategy for Petrochemicals in New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the rapid progress of the national economy in China, petroleum refining and petrochemical industry have grown with leaps and bounds correspondingly in 1990s. The amount of crude oil processed reached 152.39 Mt in 1998, 1.13 times that in 1993.   The refining capacity ranks the fourth in the world. Ethylene production was 3.77 Mt in 1998, 1.87 times that in 1993. The capacity of ethylene ranks the sixth in the world.   It can be expected that the petrochemical industry in China will develop faster than the refining in 21st century. The basic reason therefore is that petrochemical products can not satisfy the demand of domestic market by far so that there should be a great import. In 1998, for example, imported synthetic resin was as much as 11.71 Mt, of which five bulk plastics were 8.03 Mt. Imported synthetic rubber, synthetic fiber and fertilizer were 0.474 Mt, 1.519 Mt and 1392 Mt, respectively. The situation showed that the domestic market in China has an enormous demand for ethylene, i.e. the total demand for ethylene in 2010 is estimated as 17~18 Mt. Even if the production capacity could be 10 Mt, the self-supporting ratio will only be about 55.5%.      Please read the details of this paper in the journal of China Petroleum Processing & Petrochemical Technology.

  12. 78 FR 7442 - Accreditation and Approval of Chemical and Petrochemical Inspections, LP, as a Commercial Gauger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of Chemical and Petrochemical Inspections, LP, as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department... and Accredited Laboratories Manager, Laboratories and Scientific Services, U.S. Customs and...

  13. Application of a Zero-Valente Iron-Per Sulfate System to Treat Petrochemical Wastewater With High-Total Dissolved Solids Containing Para-Chlorophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadpour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Zero-valent iron (ZVI can effectively activate persulfate (PS generating free sulfate radicals (SO4•–, thereby presenting a promising technology to degrade recalcitrant organic contaminants such as para-chlorophenol (PCP in wastewater. Objectives The current study aimed to examine the feasibility and application of ZVI/PS system through batch experiments to degrade PCP of petrochemical effluent, which its treatment is included in The United States environmental protection agency (USEPA priority pollutant list. Materials and Methods Effects of dosages of ZVI (0.056 - 2.8 g/L, ZVI to PS molar ratio (0.1 - 5.0, PS concentration (2.5 - 25.0 mM/L, pH = (3.0 - 11.0, contact time (5 - 240 minutes, and ZVI reusability (three cycles on PCP degradation were examined. Results The results showed that the PCP degradation increased with an increase in ZVI dosage from 0.056 to 1.4 g/L, an increase in persulfate concentration from 2.5 to 15.0 mM/L, and an increase in ZVI to PS molar ratio from 0.1 to 2.5. The optimal initial pH for PCP removal was 5.0 and the maximum removal efficiency of 70% was achieved within 120 minutes. Moreover, the ZVI catalyst was reused until the third cycle to activate the persulfate and degrade PCP. However, the degradation efficiency of PCP gradually decreased to 51.7% when the ZVI reuse time increased. Conclusions The results indicate that using ZVI/PS system is not an efficient enough method to treat petrochemical effluent, due to the complexity of petrochemical wastewater matrix and high- total dissolved solids (TDS content, as well.

  14. Green Chemistry, Green Engineering and Eco-Innovation Towards a More Sustainable Petrochemical Industry: Determinants of Brazilian Petrochemical Companies´ Engagement in GCE-Based Eco-Innovation Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Freire da Silva (Paulo)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ It is the general wisdom, within the petrochemical industrial sector, that technological changes, for the development of cleaner products, processes and services, is a basic requirement for companies to achieve advanced states of environmental and economic sustainabilit

  15. Characterizing ozone pollution in a petrochemical industrial area in Beijing, China: a case study using a chemical reaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhaofeng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Zhou, Ying; Han, Lihui; Wang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    This study selected a petrochemical industrial complex in Beijing, China, to understand the characteristics of surface ozone (O3) in this industrial area through the on-site measurement campaign during the July-August of 2010 and 2011, and to reveal the response of local O3 to its precursors' emissions through the NCAR-Master Mechanism model (NCAR-MM) simulation. Measurement results showed that the O3 concentration in this industrial area was significantly higher, with the mean daily average of 124.6 μg/m(3) and mean daily maximum of 236.8 μg/m(3), which are, respectively, 90.9 and 50.6 % higher than those in Beijing urban area. Moreover, the diurnal O3 peak generally started up early in 11:00-12:00 and usually remained for 5-6 h, greatly different with the normal diurnal pattern of urban O3. Then, we used NCAR-MM to simulate the average diurnal variation of photochemical O3 in sunny days of August 2010 in both industrial and urban areas. A good agreement in O3 diurnal variation pattern and in O3 relative level was obtained for both areas. For example of O3 daily maximum, the calculated value in the industrial area was about 51 % higher than in the urban area, while measured value in the industrial area was approximately 60 % higher than in the urban area. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of photochemical O3 to its precursors was conducted based on a set of VOCs/NOx emissions cases. Simulation results implied that in the industrial area, the response of O3 to VOCs was negative and to NOx was positive under the current conditions, with the sensitivity coefficients of -0.16~-0.43 and +0.04~+0.06, respectively. By contrast, the urban area was within the VOCs-limitation regime, where ozone enhancement in response to increasing VOCs emissions and to decreasing NOx emission. So, we think that the VOCs emissions control for this petrochemical industrial complex will increase the potential risk of local ozone pollution aggravation, but will be helpful to inhibit the

  16. Melhor isso do que nada! Participação e responsabilização na gestão dos riscos do Pólo Petroquímico de Camaçari (BA Better this than nothing! Participation and accountability on risk management of Camaçari Petrochemical Complex, in Bahia State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Licks Almeida Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi analisar o modelo adotado na construção dos conselhos comunitários consultivos. O recorte empírico trata do Conselho Comunitário de Camaçari (BA, primeiro no país e referência para a implantação de outros. Observação participante e dezessete entrevistas foram as principais fontes de dados. O conselho se constitui num sofisticado mecanismo de docilização e responsabilização pela disseminação de uma ideologia organizacional hegemônica e de modos de governança neoliberais.This research intends to analyze the model adopted in the construction of community advisory committees. The empirical object is the Community Advisory Committee of Camaçari Complex (BA, the first one to be set up in the country and that has been used as a reference for the implementation of others. Participant observation and seventeen interviews were the main sources of data. The advisory committee constitutes itself in a sophisticated mechanism of docilization and responsabilization for the spread of an organizational hegemonic ideology and neoliberal modes of governance.

  17. Trends in high performance compressors for petrochemical and natural gas industry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanyang; Li, Liansheng

    2015-08-01

    Compressors are the key equipment in the petrochemical and natural gas industry system. The performance and reliability of them are very important for the process system. The application status of petrochemical & natural gas compressors in China is presented in this paper. The present status of design and operating technologies of compressors in China are mentioned in this paper. The turbo, reciprocating and twin screw compressors are discussed. The market demands for different structure compressors in process gas industries are analysed. This paper also introduces the research and developments for high performance compressors in China. The recent research results on efficiency improvement methods, stability improvement, online monitor and fault diagnosis will also be presented in details.

  18. Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate by Bacillus axaraqunsis BIPC01 using Petrochemical Wastewater as Carbon Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Mayeli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use petrochemical wastewater as the source of carbon for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA in an effort to decrease its cost of production. For this purpose, PHA producing bacteria were isolated from the petrochemical wastewater of Bandar Imam, Iran. The purified colonies were screened for PHA by Sudan Black B and Nile Blue A staining. Among positively stained bacteria, the best PHA producer was selected on the basis of cell growth, PHA content and the monomer composition of PHA. The phenotypic and genotypic identification this isolate showed it to be Bacillus axaraqunsis. The PHA was produced at a cell density of about 9.46 g/l of maximum concentration of 6.33g/l l, corresponding to 66% of cell dry weight. These results showed that B. axaraqunsis BIPC01 could be a potent PHA producer using wastewater for industrial purpose and simultaneously reducing the environmental pollution.

  19. Structural characteristics and oil-removal mechanisms of the adsorbents made from petrochemical sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-bin; SANG Yi-ming; TAN Wen-jie; HE Xu-wen; LI Fa-sheng

    2004-01-01

    A new type of carbon-inorganic absorbent with good oil-removing performance is prepared by sintering and activating petrochemical sludge. Of the absorbents prepared by three different methods (non-activated, vapor /840 ℃/6 h, CO2/1 000 ℃/2 h), the one prepared by the second method is the best in oil-removing, which can remove 60% of oil from petrochemical wastewater with a concentration of 76.42 mg/L. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the constituents of the adsorbents are basically similar to those of inorganic granulating materials, such as SiO2, Al2O3, orthoclase feldspar, iron ore, etc. Composition analysis reveals that the activated absorbent has a large specific surface area with a high carbon content in activated compositions and a good oil-removing capability.

  20. FBG Temperature and Pressure Sensing System for Hot Water Pipeline of Petrochemical Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Hui Lü; Shao-Hua Shang; Xu Jiang; Jin-Ping Ou; Chao Yang; Chuan-Di Li; Wei Xu

    2008-01-01

    A spatial and wavelength division multi-plexing fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing system is reported for monitoring the temperature and the pressure (T-P) of hot water pipeline in petrochemical factory. The FBG sensing system has 72 channels independently, and it provides the capability to monitor large number sensors at same time. A resolution of 0.1 ℃ and 0.01 MPa with a measurement bandwidth of 150 Hz has been achieved.

  1. Economic Performance of China's Oil and Petrochemical Industry in First Quarter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fen

    2008-01-01

    @@ International oil price continued souring in the first quarter of 2008. It was bouncing up and down above $100/barrel and even getting close to $120/barrel by the end of April. Products related to energy and resources all responded with higher prices, triggering a general increase in cost of petroleum and petrochemical industry. World's economy was seriously affected by USA's subprime lending crisis, weakening US dollar, sullen stock markets,and etc, major economies lowered their expectations for economic growth rate.

  2. Effect of metal ions and petrochemicals on bioremediation of chlorpyrifos in aerobic sequencing batch bioreactor (ASBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Saira; Hashmi, Imran; Jamal Khan, Sher; Qazi, Ishtiaq A; Nasir, Habib

    2016-10-01

    Application of chlorpyrifos (CP) has increased its environmental concentration. Increasing CP concentration has increased chances of adverse health effects. Its removal from environment has attained researcher's attention. CP degrading bacterial strains were isolated from wastewater and agricultural soil. Finally, selected five bacterial strains were identified using 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence analysis as Pseudomonas kilonensis SRK1, Serratia marcescens SRK2, Bacillus pumilus SRK4, Achromobacter xylosoxidans SRK5, and Klebsiella sp. T13. Interaction studies among bacterial strains demonstrated possibility for development of five membered bacterial consortium. Biodegradation potential of bacterial consortium was investigated in the presence of petrochemicals and trace metals. About 98 % CP removal was observed in sequencing batch reactors at inoculum level, 10 %; pH, 7; CP concentration, 400 mgL(-1), and HRT, 48 h. Experimental data has shown an excellent fit to first order growth model. Among all petrochemicals only toluene (in low concentration) has stimulatory effect on biodegradation of CP. Addition of petrochemicals (benzene, toluene, and xylene) in high concentration (100 mg L(-1)) inhibited bacterial activity and decreased CP removal. At low concentration i.e., 1 mg L(-1) of inorganic contaminants (Cu, Hg, and Zn) >96 % degradation was observed. Addition of Cu(II) in low concentration has stimulated CP removal efficiency. Hg(II) in all concentrations has strongly inhibited biodegradation rate except at 1 mgL(-1). In simulated pesticide, wastewater CP removal efficiency decreased to 77.5 %. Outcomes of study showed that both type and concentration of petrochemicals and trace metals influenced biodegradation of CP.

  3. Bioremediation of Pharmaceuticals, Pesticides, and Petrochemicals with Gomeya/Cow Dung

    OpenAIRE

    Gurpreet Kaur Randhawa; Jagdev Singh Kullar

    2011-01-01

    Use and misuse of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and petrochemicals by man is causing havoc with nature, as they persist as such or as their toxic metabolites. These pollutants bioaccumulate in environment, and they ultimately reach man through various means. They are hazardous because of potential toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity. To rejuvenate nature, remediation methods currently available are usually expensive and might convert one toxic pollutant to another. Biorem...

  4. Commercial Application of UFR to VRDS Unit Expansion at Qilu Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Lili

    2007-01-01

    Technology and commercial application of UFR to VRDS unit expansion at Qilu Petrochemical Comply,for which engineering work was done by SINOPEC Engineering Incorporation(the former Beijing Design Institute),were introduced.Successful experience for the first commercial application of up-flow reactor technology and debottlenecking of the unit were summarized.The findings revealed a new route for inferior residue hydrotreating and revamping the existing units of the like.

  5. Impact on surface ozone by fugitive emissons of ethylene and propylene from a petrochemical plant cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, H.; Chang, J.; Chen, S.; Wang, J.

    2010-12-01

    Ethylene and propylene are two most produced organic compounds in the world which are mainly produced from the cracking process in the oil refinery industry. In a large petrochemical plant cluster a large variety of petrochemical products are derived from these two compounds used as starting reagents. Fugitive emissions of these two compounds from storage tanks and pipelines are often inevitable, which could pose a great burden on the formation of surface ozone and thus deteriorate air quality if leakage is significant. In this study, a photochemical assessment monitoring station (PAMS) was deployed 7 kilometers south of a large petrochemical plant cluster. Concentration spikes of ethylene and propylene were frequently observed by the on-line gas chromatographic system whenever northerly prevailed. The impact of ethylene and propylene’s leakage on ozone formation was simulated by an air quality model (i.e., PAMS-AQM), of which emission inventory of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were speciated and calibrated by the PAMS measurements. Contribution to ozone formation by these two compounds in the downwind areas was able to be assessed by turning off the emissions of ethylene and propylene from this plant cluster while maintaining those of other precursors in the model. Scenarios of precursor (NMHC and NOx) reduction or increase were also simulated from the perspectives of ozone control strategies.

  6. Bioprospection and selection of bacteria isolated from environments contaminated with petrochemical residues for application in bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Vanessa S; Hollenbach, Emanuel B; Maboni, Franciele; Camargo, Flávio A O; Peralba, Maria do Carmo R; Bento, Fátima M

    2012-03-01

    The use of microorganisms with hydrocarbon degrading capability and biosurfactant producers have emerged as an alternative for sustainable treatment of environmental passives. In this study 45 bacteria were isolated from samples contaminated with petrochemical residues, from which 21 were obtained from Landfarming soil contaminated with oily sludge, 11 were obtained from petrochemical industry effluents and 13 were originated directly from oily sludge. The metabolization capability of different carbon sources, growth capacity and tolerance, biosurfactant production and enzymes detection were determined. A preliminary selection carried out through the analysis of capability for degrading hydrocarbons showed that 22% of the isolates were able to degrade all carbon sources employed. On the other hand, in 36% of the isolates, the degradation of the oily sludge started within 18-48 h. Those isolates were considered as the most efficient ones. Twenty isolates, identified based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, were pre-selected. These isolates showed ability for growing in a medium containing 1% of oily sludge as the sole carbon source, tolerance in a medium containing up to 30% of oily sludge, ability for biosurfactant production, and expression of enzymes involved in degradation of aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Five bacteria, identified as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila BB5, Bacillus megaterium BB6, Bacillus cibi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus BS20 were shown to be promising for use as inoculum in bioremediation processes (bioaugmentation) of areas contaminated with petrochemical residues since they can use oily sludge as the sole carbon source and produce biosurfactants.

  7. Yangtze-BASF Petrochemical Project Smoothly Under Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The Yangtze-BASFPetrochemical Complex Project,the largest joint venture project between China and Germany, is smoothly under way since construction started in 2001. The project will be completed for its mechanical facilities by the end of next year and put into commercial operation in 2005.

  8. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  9. Genotoxic and hematological effects in children exposed to a chemical mixture in a petrochemical area in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelallo-Martínez, Nadia Azenet; Batres-Esquivel, Lilia; Carrizales-Yáñez, Leticia; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando Martínez

    2014-07-01

    Children living in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, and in nearby surrounding areas are exposed to a mixture of pollutants from different sources. Previous studies in the area have reported genotoxic and haematotoxic compounds, such as lead (Pb), benzene, toluene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in environmental and biological samples. The final toxic effects of these compounds are unknown because the toxic behaviour of each compound is modified when in a complex mixture. This is the first study on the exposure and effect of chemical mixtures on children who live near a petrochemical area. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicity and haematological effects in children environmentally exposed to such mixtures and to determine whether the final effect was modified by the composition of the mixture composition. Biomarkers of exposure to Pb, benzene, toluene, and PAHs were quantified in urine and blood samples of 102 children. DNA damage was evaluated using comet assay, and haematological parameters were determined. Our results show that Pb and toluene did not surpass the exposure guidelines; the exposure was similar in all three localities (Allenede, Mundo Nuevo, and López Mateos). In contrast, exposure to PAHs was observed at three levels of exposure: low, medium, and high. The most severe effects of these mixtures were strictly related to coexposure to high levels of PAHs.

  10. Measurement of fugitive volatile organic compound emissions from a petrochemical tank farm using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Fu; Wu, Tzong-gang; Hashmonay, Ram A.; Chang, Shih-Ying; Wu, Yu-Syuan; Chao, Chun-Ping; Hsu, Cheng-Ping; Chase, Michael J.; Kagann, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Fugitive emission of air pollutants is conventionally estimated based on standard emission factors. The Vertical Radial Plume Mapping (VRPM) technique, as described in the US EPA OTM-10, is designed to measure emission flux by directly monitoring the concentration of the plume crossing a vertical plane downwind of the site of interest. This paper describes the evaluation results of implementing VRPM in a complex industrial setting (a petrochemical tank farm). The vertical plane was constructed from five retroreflectors and an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The VRPM configuration was approximately 189.2 m in width × 30.7 m in height. In the accompanying tracer gas experiment, the bias of the VRPM estimate was less than 2% and its 95% confidence interval contained the true release rate. Emission estimates of the target VOCs (benzene, m-xylene, o-xylene, p-xylene, and toluene) ranged from 0.86 to 2.18 g s-1 during the 14-day field campaign, while estimates based on the standard emission factors were one order of magnitude lower, possibly leading to an underestimation of the impact of these fugitive emissions on air quality and human health. It was also demonstrated that a simplified 3-beam geometry (i.e., without one dimensional scanning lines) resulted in higher uncertainties in the emission estimates.

  11. An application of failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA to assess risks in petrochemical industry in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kangavari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemical industries have a high rate of accidents. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA is a systematic method and thus is capable of analyzing the risks of systems from concept phase to system disposal, detecting the failures in design stage, and determining the control measures and corrective actions for failures to reduce their impacts. The objectives of this research were to perform FMEA to identify risks in an Iranian petrochemical industry and determine the decrease of the risk priority number (RPN after implementation of intervention programs. This interventional study was performed at one petrochemical plant in Tehran, Iran in 2014. Relevant information about job categories and plant process was gathered using brainstorming techniques, fishbone diagram, and group decision making. The data were collected through interviews, observation, and documents investigations and was recorded in FMEA worksheets. The necessary corrective measures were performed on the basis of the results of initial FMEA. Forty eight failures were identified in welding unit by application of FMEA to assess risks. Welding processes especially working at height got the highest RPN. Obtained RPN for working at height before performing the corrective actions was 120 and the score was reduced to 96 after performing corrective measures. Calculated RPN for all processes was significantly reduced (p≤0.001 by implementing the corrective actions. Scores of RPN in all studied processes effectively decreased after performing corrective actions in a petrochemical industry. FMEA method is a useful tool for identifying risk intervention priorities and effectiveness in a studied petrochemical industry.

  12. Hazard zoning around electric substations of petrochemical industries by stimulation of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Monireh; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Farhang Matin, Laleh; Khosroabadi, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    Electromagnetic fields in recent years have been discussed as one of the occupational hazards at workplaces. Hence, control and assessment of these physical factors is very important to protect and promote the health of employees. The present study was conducted to determine hazard zones based on assessment of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields at electric substations of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran, using the single-axis HI-3604 device. In measurement of electromagnetic fields by the single-axis HI-3604 device, the sensor screen should be oriented in a way to be perpendicular to the field lines. Therefore, in places where power lines are located in different directions, it is required to keep the device towards three axes of x, y, and z. For further precision, the measurements should be repeated along each of the three axes. In this research, magnetic field was measured, for the first time, in three axes of x, y, and z whose resultant value was considered as the value of magnetic field. Measurements were done based on IEEE std 644-1994. Further, the spatial changes of the magnetic field surrounding electric substations were stimulated using MATLAB software. The obtained results indicated that the maximum magnetic flux density was 49.90 μT recorded from boiler substation, while the minimum magnetic flux density of 0.02 μT was measured at the control room of the complex. As the stimulation results suggest, the spaces around incoming panels, transformers, and cables were recognized as hazardous zones of indoor electric substations. Considering the health effects of chronic exposure to magnetic fields, it would be possible to minimize exposure to these contaminants at workplaces by identification of risky zones and observation of protective considerations.

  13. Process improvement technology for petrochemical plant; Sekiyu kagaku puranto ni okesu purosesu kaizen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Shin

    1999-05-05

    Before, GTC technology Co. was a manufacturer of the tray as a Greenwich technology. It is the subsidiary, which undertakes technology and licence of the engineering firm in U.S.A. at present. It carries out besides the technology licence support in the startup for the prolonged driving of technical service, operating condition of the plant of improvement and optimization and, etc. Has made separation and purification technology, which made extractive distillation to be a beginning good and has the process improvement technology to the PTA (high-pure terephthalic acid) from BTX (benzene toluene xylene) of petrochemical plant. (NEDO)

  14. Making highly flammable liquid wastes of petrochemical works safe by combustion without burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelygin, B.L.; Bakhirev, V.I.; Gudzyuk, V.L.

    1983-11-01

    At the V.I. Lenin Energy Institute in Ivanov a technological program was implementd for combustion of highly flammable bulk wastes (for example, piperylene fractions) of petrochemical enterprises, with a moisture content of under 10% and mechanical admixtures (particles of catalyst dust) of up to 5%, without the use of burners. In devising the program, the results of mathematical theoretical analysis of pre-igniting preparation of substances to make them safe were utilized as well as the experience acquired in burning petroleum sludge in furnaces with bubbling equipment.

  15. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A.; Lance, P.E.; Downs, A.; Kier, Brian P. [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  16. Syntheses of 5-Thio-D-Mannose from Petrochemicals and a Disaccharide Analog Containing It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideya Yuasa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Per-O-acetyl-5-thio-DL-mannose was synthesized from petrochemicals in six steps and 9% overall yield. It was then derivatized into glycosyl trichloroacetimidate and subjected to glycosidation reaction with a mannosyl acceptor to give a separatable mixture of disaccharides with 5-thio-D- and L-mannosides. This is the first synthesis of an enantiomerically pure 5-thiosugar derivative from racemic chemicals. The D-glycoside was derivatized into methyl (5-thio-α-D-mannopyranosyl-2-O-α-D-mannopyranoside 6-phosphate as a potential inhibitor of a golgi α-1,2-mannosidase.

  17. U. S. Price Controls on Energy and the International Petrochemical Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    wume at reports friom yea, ho~vV.C we have inreberd our databse and find that we do not have thea in theA Coll#CtJmD an f@.l that they wouild be of bumf...subsidized U.S. petro- chemical exports, and if so, what were the effects on world petrochemical prices and U.S. and foreign production levels? We found...measure these effects, we construct an integrated model of the world petro- chemical and energy input markets. The model includes equations repre

  18. Effects of petrochemical contamination on caged marine mussels using a multi-biomarker approach: Histological changes, neurotoxicity and hypoxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisano, Maria; Cappello, Tiziana; Natalotto, Antonino; Vitale, Valeria; Parrino, Vincenzo; Giannetto, Alessia; Oliva, Sabrina; Mancini, Giuseppe; Cappello, Simone; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2016-03-31

    This work was designed to evaluate the biological effects of petrochemical contamination on marine mussels. Mytilus galloprovincialis, widely used as sentinel organisms in biomonitoring studies, were caged at the "Augusta-Melilli-Priolo" industrial site (eastern Sicily, Italy), chosen as one of the largest petrochemical areas in Europe, and Brucoli, chosen as reference site. Chemical analyses of sediments at the polluted site revealed high levels of PAHs and mercury, exceeding the national and international guideline limits. In mussels from the polluted site, severe morphological alterations were observed in gills, mainly involved in nutrient uptake and gas exchange. Changes in serotonergic and cholinergic systems, investigated through immunohistochemical, metabolomics and enzymatic approaches, were highlighted in gills, as well as onset of hypoxic adaptive responses with up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor transcript. Overall, the application of a multi-biomarker panel results effective in assessing the biological effects of petrochemical contamination on the health of aquatic organisms.

  19. The fire warning system of identical fiber Bragg grating and its application in petrochemical tank and tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ciming; Jiang, Desheng; Liao, Shenghui; Cheng, Hongbo

    2006-01-01

    A new fire warning system based on the technique of multiplexing of Identical Fiber Bragg Grating (IFBG) and its application in petrochemical tank and tower are presented in this paper. Sensors of IFBG can largely increase the multiplexing number of sensors and can reduce the cost of demodulation. The number of multiplexed FBG in the IFBG array has come to 100. The new fire warning system has been applied in some petrochemical tank and tower, such as Sinopec Zhenhai Refining and Chemical Company Limited, and has obtained a very good effect.

  20. Biodegradation of phenanthrene using adapted microbial consortium isolated from petrochemical contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbandhu, Anjali; Fulekar, M H

    2011-03-15

    In developing countries like India, there are many industrial areas discharging effluent containing large amount of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) which causes hazardous effect on the soil-water environment. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize high-efficiency PAH-degrading microbial consortium from 3 decade old petrochemical refinery field located in Nagpur, Maharashtra with history of PAH disposal. Based on biochemical tests and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis the consortium was identified as Sphingobacterium sp., Bacillus cereus and a novel bacterium Achromobacter insolitus MHF ENV IV with effective phenanthrene-degrading ability. The biodegradation data of phenanthrene indicates about 100%, 56.9% and 25.8% degradation at the concentration of 100mg/l, 250 mg/l and 500 mg/l respectively within 14 days. The consortium and its monoculture isolates also utilized variety of other hydrocarbons for growth. To best of our knowledge this is the first time that Achromobacter insolitus has been reported to mineralize phenanthrene effectively. GC-MS analysis of phenanthrene degradation confirmed biodegradation by detection of intermediates like salicylaldehyde, salicylic acid and catechol. All the results indicated that the microbial consortium have a promising application in bioremediation of petrochemical contaminated environments and could be potentially useful for the study of PAH degradation and for bioremediation purposes.

  1. In-depth analysis of the causal factors of incidents reported in the Greek petrochemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstandinidou, Myrto [Institute of Nuclear Technology-Radiation Protection, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi 15310 (Greece); Nivolianitou, Zoe, E-mail: zoe@ipta.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nuclear Technology-Radiation Protection, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi 15310 (Greece); Kefalogianni, Eirini; Caroni, Chrys [School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytexneiou Str., Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece)

    2011-11-15

    This paper presents a statistical analysis of all reported incidents in the Greek petrochemical industry from 1997 to 2003. A comprehensive database has been developed to include industrial accidents (fires, explosions and substance releases), occupational accidents, incidents without significant consequences and near misses. The study concentrates on identifying and analyzing the causal factors related to different consequences of incidents, in particular, injury, absence from work and material damage. Methods of analysis include logistic regression with one of these consequences as dependent variable. The causal factors that are considered cover four major categories related to organizational issues, equipment malfunctions, human errors (of commission or omission) and external causes. Further analyses aim to confirm the value of recording near misses by comparing their causal factors with those of more serious incidents. The statistical analysis highlights the connection between the human factor and the underlying causes of accidents or incidents. - Highlights: > The research work is original, based on field data collected directly from the petrochemical industry. > It deals with the in-depth statistical analysis of accident data on human-organizational causes. > It researches underlying causes of accidents and the parameters affecting them. > The causal factors that are considered cover four big taxonomies. > Near misses are worth recording for comparing their causal factors with more serious incidents.

  2. Job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour, employee engagement and intention to leave in a petrochemical laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonet van Schalkwyk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Engaging individuals at work plays an important role in retaining them. Job security and leadership empowerment behaviour are antecedents of employee engagement.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour (as perceived by the employees who report to leaders, employee engagement and intention to leave their jobs in a petrochemical laboratory.Motivation for the study: Knowledge of the effects of job insecurity and leadership on employee engagement and turnover intention will contribute to improved talent management.Research design, approach and method: A correlational design was used. A total of 169 employees in a petrochemical laboratory were studied. The measuring instruments included the Job Insecurity Index, the Leadership Empowerment Behaviour Questionnaire, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Two questions were used to measure intention to leave.Main findings: The results showed that job insecurity was not statistically significantly related to employee engagement and turnover intention. Leadership empowerment behaviour contributed statistically significantly to employee engagement and low turnover intention. Employee engagement partially mediated the relationship between leadership empowerment behaviour and turnover intention.Practical implications: Leaders should be developed to show empowerment behaviour, because it affects employee engagement, which in turn affects their turnover intentionContribution: This was the first study that demonstrated the effect of empowerment behaviour of leaders on the engagement and turnover intention of employees.

  3. A novel salt-tolerant bacterial consortium for biodegradation of saline and recalcitrant petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Jorfi, Sahand; Kujlu, Raheleh; Ghafari, Shokouh; Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Reza; Jaafarzadeh Haghighifard, Nematollah

    2017-04-15

    Treatment of a saline petrochemical wastewater with BOD5/COD ratio of less than 0.1 was investigated using a consortium consisted of three isolated salt-tolerant bacteria namely, Kocuria turfanesis, Halomonas alkaliphila and Pseudomonas balearica. Selected bacteria were isolated from petrochemical wastewater containing mineral salt mediums of 3% salinity. A lab-scale activated sludge bioreactor was used for startup in batch mode operation and after obtaining the MLSS concentration of about 3000 mg/L, the operation was changed to continuous flow mode to determine the biokinetic coefficients under different organic loading rates of 0.33-1.21 kg CODm(-3) d(-1). The COD removal efficiency of 78.7%-61.5% was observed for treatment of real saline wastewater with a decreasing trend along with increasing the organic loading rate. In addition, results of kinetic investigation demonstrated that the yield(Y), endogenous decay coefficient (kd), maximum reaction rate (Kmax), maximum specific growth rate (μmax) and saturation constant (Ks) were 0.54 mg VSS mg COD(-1), 0.014 day(-1), 1.23 day(-1), 0.66 day(-1), and 1315 mg L(-1), respectively.

  4. The sequencing batch reactor as an excellent configuration to treat wastewater from the petrochemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caluwé, Michel; Daens, Dominique; Blust, Ronny; Geuens, Luc; Dries, Jan

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, the influence of a changing feeding pattern from continuous to pulse feeding on the characteristics of activated sludge was investigated with a wastewater from the petrochemical industry from the harbour of Antwerp. Continuous seed sludge, adapted to the industrial wastewater, was used to start up three laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors. After an adaptation period from the shift to pulse feeding, the effect of an increasing organic loading rate (OLR) and volume exchange ratio (VER) were investigated one after another. Remarkable changes of the specific oxygen uptake rate (sOUR), microscopic structure, sludge volume index (SVI), SVI30/SVI5 ratio, and settling rate were observed during adaptation. sOUR increased two to five times and treatment time decreased 43.9% in 15 days. Stabilization of the SVI occurred after a period of 20 days and improved significantly from 300 mL·g(-1) to 80 mL·g(-1). Triplication of the OLR and VER had no negative influence on sludge settling and effluent quality. Adaptation time of the microorganisms to a new feeding pattern, OLR and VER was relatively short and sludge characteristics related to aerobic granular sludge were obtained. This study indicates significant potential of the batch activated sludge system for the treatment of this industrial petrochemical wastewater.

  5. Statistical analysis of incidents reported in the Greek Petrochemical Industry for the period 1997-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstandinidou, Myrto; Nivolianitou, Zoe; Markatos, Nikolaos; Kiranoudis, Chris

    2006-07-31

    This paper makes an analysis of all reported accidents and incidents in the Greek Petrochemical Industry for the period spanning from 1997 to 2003. The work performed is related to the analysis of important parameters of the incidents, their inclusion in a database adequately designed for the purposes of this analysis and an importance assessment of this reporting scheme. Indeed, various stakeholders have highlighted the importance of a reporting system for industrial accidents and incidents. The European Union has established for this purpose the Major Accident Reporting System (MARS) for the reporting of major accidents in the Member States. However, major accidents are not the only measure that can characterize the safety status of an establishment; neither are the former the only events from which important lessons can be learned. Near misses, industrial incidents without major consequences, as well as occupational accidents could equally supply with important findings the interested analyst, while statistical analysis of these incidents could give significant insight in the understanding and the prevention of similar incidents or major accidents in the future. This analysis could be more significant, if each industrial sector was separately analyzed, as the authors do for the petrochemical sector in the present article.

  6. Environmental values in the petrochemical industry: A Q-method study in South West Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghoochani Omid M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieving sustainable development in different regional and cultural contexts is dependent, in part, upon an understanding of key actors’ underlying environmental, social and economic values. The social research technique called Q-methodology presents an effective means to explore such values as a matter of discourse: revealing the typologies of stakeholder perspectives within a given debate. Q-method involves factor analysis of participant rank-ordered preselected statements on a topic. The resultant factors are then reinterpreted as social discourses. In this study we use Q-methodology to explore the environmental values of Health Safety and Environmental (HSE managers in petrochemical companies in Khuzestan province in southwest Iran. Khuzestan is a key region of petrochemical product development, with significant associated environmental pollution effects. Understanding HSE managers’ attitudes to environmental protection is of value in predicting broader environmental impacts to the region, given the relative importance of their role in regulating the environmental performance of this industry. Our results reveal four distinct and varied perspectives on environmental protection labelled: ‘Environmental stewardship’, ‘Environmental presentism’, ‘Technological optimism’ and ‘Enlightened anthropocentrism’. We then discuss how these four emergent perspectives correspond to broader environmental discourses as categorized by John Dryzek: i.e. green rationalism, economic rationalism, prometheanism and ecological modernization respectively.

  7. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the liquid injection incineration of petrochemical industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Wang, I-Ching; Chang, Juu-En; Lai, Soon-Onn; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-09-05

    This study investigated the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from stack flue gas and air pollution control device (APCD) effluent of the liquid injection incinerator (LII) disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater, and PAH removal efficiencies of wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) and wet scrubber (WSB). The PAH carcinogenic potency were investigated with the benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentration (BaP(eq)). The remarkably high total-BaP(eq) concentration (220 microgNm(-3)) in the stack flue gas was much higher than those of several published emission sources, and indicated the possible influence on its surrounding environment. The total-PAH emission factors of the WESP, WSB and stack flue gas were 78.9, 95.7 and 30,900 microgL(-1) wastewater, respectively. The removal efficiencies of total-PAHs were 0.254, 0.309 and 0.563% for WESP, WSB and overall, respectively, suggesting that the use of both WESP and WSB shows insignificant PAH removal efficiencies, and 99.4% of total-PAHs was directly emitted to the ambient air through the stack flue gas. This finding suggested that the better incineration efficiencies, and APCD removal efficiencies for disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater are necessary in future.

  8. Alternative refining configurations and petrochemical integration in Brazil; Configuracoes alternativas de refino e integracao com petroquimica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Gabriel Lourenco [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the results of alternative configurations for a new refinery in Brazil, with the objective of transforming national heavy oils into low sulfur derivatives and petrochemical products, until 2020. The hypothetical refinery proposed has a processing capacity of 10.000 t/year of Marlim heavy oil, through distillation and delayed coking units. Two base cases of conversion units were considered, one with a Fluid Catalytic Cracking - FCC, and another with a Hydro-cracking - HCC. Both cases also have several hydro-treating units to be able to achieve future fuel quality specifications in Brazil and for export. The refinery-petrochemical integration was considered through the use of a petrochemical FCC instead of a conventional FCC, and through the addition of a steam cracking and aromatics separation unit, included as an option to the 3 refinery cases: FCC, HCC, and Petro FCC. All the results were compared in terms of economic return. The best return on investment is obtained in the Petro FCC case. The FCC and HCC cases present lower and similar results for 2006 prices. However, the HCC has the advantage of producing a greater amount of middle distillates, with a higher expected demand growth in Brazil. Finally, the addition of a steam cracking unit reduces the return on investment of the hypothetical refinery for all cases using 2006 prices. However, the return of the petrochemical activity on the same period could still justify this investment, depending on the petrochemicals market evolution. With the steam cracking unit, the Petro FCC and HCC cases present similar returns using 2006 prices. (author)

  9. Application of Olefin-Reducing Catalyst in FCC Unit at Daqing Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinfeng; Yang Daoxue; Zhang Guojing; Yao Hua

    2003-01-01

    This article refers to the application of DOCO olefin-reducing catalyst developed by RIPP and manufactured by the Catalyst Factory of Changling Refining and Chemical Company in the 1.4 Mt/a RFCCU at Daqing Petrochemical Company. Results of operation over two months had revealed that this catalyst had good olefin-reducing ability and heavy oil converting ability adapted to paraffinic feedstock. The gasoline olefin yield had been reduced to 36.1 v% from 54.2 v% with gasoline RON rating decreased by 1.4 units. The induction period of gasoline had significantly increased to 952 mm, while the coke yield was increased by 0.05 percentage point with light oil yield dropping by only 0.02 percentage point. The FCC product distribution is favorable.

  10. An analysis of the inter-project knowledge transfer in the petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Müller Beuren

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a knowledge transfer (KT analysis in an operational project management environment of the petrochemical industry. The main objective of this paper is to identify the major barriers and to suggest improvements activities aiming to foster the KT process. To this end, interviews with members of the project department were conducted by means of a questionnaire. Results were analyzed to identify the most problematic barriers and to propose improvements. The study concluded that the greatest difficulties are related to the transfer of tacit knowledge between different teams. The main contribution of this paper is that it presents an analysis of an unexplored environment and it proposes an improvement of the adapted method for KT study, by using a relationship matrix between the questionnaire and the barriers, so that problems can be identified in an easier manner.

  11. A new tool for risk analysis and assessment in petrochemical plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Arkam Mechhoud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was the implementation of a new automated tool dedicated to risk analysis and assessment in petrochemical plants, based on a combination of two analysis methods: HAZOP (HAZard and OPerability and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis. Assessment of accident scenarios is also considered. The principal advantage of the two analysis methods is to speed-up hazard identification and risk assessment and forecast the nature and impact of such accidents. Plant parameters are analyzed under a graphical interface to facilitate the exploitation of our developed approach. This automated analysis brings out the different deviations of the operating parameters of any system in the plant. Possible causes of these deviations, their consequences and preventive actions are identified. The result is risk minimization and dependability enhancement of the considered system.

  12. The effects of intellectual capital on financial performance: A case study of petrochemical and pharmaceutical firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that traditional accounting does not provide actual value of assets since they only measure tangible assets. Intellectual capital provides a new concept for measuring actual value of the assets and we can calculate future values of the firm. In this paper, we first calculate intellectual capital based on the ratio of market value/book value for three years period. Then we investigate the relationship between intellectual capital and growth rate of intellectual capital as well as financial performance of some publicly traded petrochemical and pharmaceutical firms. The results of our survey indicate that there is a positive relationship between intellectual capital and equity growth with EVA and return of assets. However, there is no meaningful relationship between intellectual assets with net earnings.

  13. SINOPEC's Countermeasure to Withstand the Impact on Petrochemical Industry after China's Accession to WTO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jianmin

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1 Profile of SINOPEC SINOPEC is the first Chinese company, which was listed in Hong Kong, New York, London and Shanghai. The business portfolio of SINOPEC covers oil exploration and development,petroleum refining, petrochemical and oil products marketing,with a total sales revenue of 324.2 billion RMB and a net profit of 22 billion RMB. SINOPEC is the second largest oil and gas producer in China and is also the biggest oil refiner of China with its crude processing capacity ranked number five in the world. With 24,000 wholly controlled gas stations and 4,127 authorized gas stations, SINOPEC owns an extensive oil products marketing network. It is the largest in China oil products distributor and sales company, and is ranked the sixth largest company in the world.

  14. Developing Measures for Assessing the Causality of Safety Culture in a Petrochemical Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, T.-C., E-mail: tcwu@sunrise.hk.edu.t [HungKuang University, Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering (China); Lin, C.-H.; Shiau, S.-Y. [HungKuang University, Institute of Occupational Safety and Hazard Prevention (China)

    2009-12-15

    This paper discusses safety culture in the petrochemical sector and the causes and consequences of safety culture. A sample of 520 responses selected by simple random sampling completed questionnaires for this survey, the return rate was 86.75%. The research instrument comprises four sections: basic information, the safety leadership scale (SLS), the safety climate scale (SCS), and the safety performance scale (SPS). SPSS 12.0, a statistical software package, was used for item analysis, validity analysis, and reliability analysis. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that (1) SLS abstracted three factors such as safety caring, safety controlling, and safety coaching; (2) SCS comprised three factors such as emergency response, safety commitment, and risk perception; and (3) SPS was composed of accident investigation, safety training, safety inspections, and safety motivation. We conclude that the SLS, SCS, and SPS developed in this paper have good construct validity and internal consistency and can serve as the basis for future research.

  15. The relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership styles in the South African petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Pillay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Although research on emotional intelligence in the context of leadership has remained a recurrent area of interest in theory and practice during the past decade, ongoing debate continues regarding the contribution of emotional intelligence to the understanding of leadership.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between self-reported emotional intelligence and leadership styles in a South African context and to determine whether emotional intelligence can predict an effective leadership style.Motivation for the study: Research is needed in order to determine a more detailed relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership in the dynamic and globalising South African petrochemical context.Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted in terms of a positivist paradigm, using quantitative research instruments. Leaders (N = 161 were selected from a business unit in a South African petrochemical organisation. Self-reports from the emotional quotient inventory and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ Form 5X, Version 2009 were analysed. Correlation analyses indicated statistically-significant relationships between emotional intelligence and transformational and laissez-faire leadership.Main findings: Findings indicated positive correlations between self-reported emotional intelligence (specifically adaptability and transformational leadership. Negative correlations were obtained between emotional intelligence (specifically intrapersonal skills and laissez-faire leadership. The research also showed differences between specific demographic variables.Practical/managerial implications: This study provides valuable significance for organisations’ endeavours in improving, training and identifying alternative selection and assessment procedures for evaluating leaders’ strengths.Contribution/value-add: This research contributes to the South African research on emotional

  16. Assessment of soil organic contamination in a typical petrochemical industry park in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yong; Zhou, Qixing; Miao, Xinyu; Chen, Yuming

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), n-alkanes (n-C8 through n-C40), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils were determined to assess the level of organic contamination in soils from the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park with several big state-run enterprises, a recent rapid flourishing park in China. The results showed that the concentration of TPH in soil was high, up to 20 ng/g-12.8478%; in particular, the content in most sites ranged from 1 to 2%. Thus, it is clear that soil environment in the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park has been seriously polluted by TPH according to the Nemerow pollution index method. Furthermore, the average concentration of Σ(n-C>16 through n-C34) in 30 sampling sites was above the maximum limit set for F3 under all the conditions in the Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC CWS) with 43.33-93.33% soil samples exceeding F3 standards, and n-alkanes possessing higher concentrations were proved much abundant alkanes in this study. Besides, the predominance of even n-alkanes and lower carbon preference index (CPI) demonstrated that n-alkanes in surface soils were mainly caused by anthropogenic inputs, while the concentration of Σ16-PAHs was in the range of 1652.5-8217.3 ng/g and the BaA/(BaA + Chr) and Flu/(Flu + Pyr) ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs may be the dominant PAHs in most soils with the contribution of petrogenic hydrocarbons in some sites.

  17. Comparing the steam and electric heat tracing solutions for petrochemical or refining facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Joseph G.; McQueen, Greg [Tyco Thermal Controls, Belgie (Belgium)

    2012-07-01

    In this era of energy conservation and cost reduction, the ability to effectively select the optimal solution to meet the heat management system needs of petrochemical or refining facilities is becoming increasingly important. Depending on the type and location of the plant, a heat management system (HMS) can comprise a significant portion of the overall capital expenditure, as well as the ongoing operating and maintenance costs. Several important heat management system design decisions affect the financial operations of a facility, including the selection of the heat tracing technology, the utility distribution scheme, and the insulation system criteria, among others. However, most of these decisions are made early in the project life-cycle without thorough analysis of the various options available. From a high level perspective, numerous heat trace media should be considered, including electric, steam, tempered water, and glycol. These systems also have different impacts on piping systems within the plant battery limits (ISBL) and transfer lines outside of the battery limits (OSBL). This paper takes a careful look at two of the predominant heat tracing technologies - electric heat tracing and steam tracing - and compares these within the larger framework of the heat management system, and relative to petrochemical or refining facilities within the general Brazil geography. In the broader context, a heat management system is defined as the heat tracing technology itself, the utility distribution associated with that technology, the control and monitoring scheme associated with that technology, and the insulation system. We will evaluate the capital expenditure cost, operating expenditure cost, and overall reliability of the electric and steam tracing mediums in both the ISBL and OSBL environments within this broader context. (author)

  18. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Employees of Iranian Petrochemical Industries: October 2009 to December 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Haghayegh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs are a common health problem throughout the world and a major cause of disability in the workplace.Objective: To determine the prevalence rate of MSDs, assessment of ergonomics working conditions and identification of major risk factors associated with MSDs symptoms among employees of Iranian petrochemical industries between October 2009 and December 2012.Methods: In this study, we studied 1184 randomly selected employees of 4 Iranian petrochemical companies with at least one year of work experience in office or operational units. For those with office jobs, data were collected using Nordic Musculoskeletal disorders Questionnaire (NMQ and ergonomics checklist for the assessment of working conditions. For those with operational jobs, NMQ and Quick Exposure Check (QEC method were used for data collection.Results: The most prevalent MSD symptoms were reported in lower back (41.5% and neck (36.5%. The prevalence of MSDs in all body regions but elbows and thighs of the office staff was significantly higher than that of operational workers. Assessment of working conditions in office staff revealed that the lowest index was attributed to workstation. QEC technique among operational workers showed that in 73.8% of the workers studied, the level of exposure to musculoskeletal risks was “high” or “very high.” MSDs were associated with type of job, age, body mass index, work experience, gender, marital status, educational level and type of employment.Conclusion: The prevalence of MSDs in the office staff was higher than that of operational workers. Level of exposure to MSDs risk was high in operational workers. Corrective measures are thus necessary for improving working conditions for both office and operational units.

  19. On the Hydrogen Embrittlement of Commercially Pure Alpha Titanium: An Example from the Petrochemical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawancy, H. M.

    2017-02-01

    Grade 2 of commercially pure Ti consisting of α-phase has many applications in the petrochemical industry such as floaters of gauges used to indicate liquid levels in tanks and reaction vessels. A floater fabricated by welding of 3.5-mm-thick sheet of grade 2 Ti into a thick-walled cylinder to indicate the level of a liquid mixture of isobutane, neobutane and neopentane in a petrochemical plant has lost its structural integrity by puncturing, cracking and blistering particularly at the section in contact with the liquid. The damage has been most severe in the base metal adjacent to the weld. Detailed microstructural characterization of the damaged floater and unwelded section of the same material has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, and the results have been complemented by stress analysis and microhardness measurements. It is shown that the mechanical strength of the floater has been degraded by a combination of excessive absorption of hydrogen during welding and rapid cooling from the β-phase field aided by the stresses generated by the liquid pressure. Absorption of hydrogen and rapid cooling are found to alter the desirable morphology of equiaxed grains of α-phase into a multi-phase structure with fine platelet-type morphology. The base metal adjacent to the weld is found to contain the brittle δ-phase of titanium hydride in a low-ductility matrix of α-Ti with some β-Ti. However, β-Ti is found to be the predominant constituent of the weld.

  20. 浅谈新形势下如何加强石化企业思想政治工作%Study on how to strengthen the ideological and political work in petrochemical enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝书敏

    2012-01-01

    In the new situation, petrifaction enterprise is faced with production management, production of oil and gas exploration and development, more complex, more difficult task, the enterprise must carry forward the traditional advantages, continue to strengthen the ideological and political work, constantly enhance the petrochemical enterprise staff "s sense of belonging and sense of honor, to enhance the stone enterprise team cohesion, enhance petrochemical enterprises the work quality and level.%在新形势下,石化企业面临着生产经营、油气生产、勘探开发等更复杂、更艰巨的任务,企业必须发扬传统优势,不断强化思想政治工作,不断增强石化企业职工的归属感和荣誉感,才能增强石化企业队伍的凝聚力,全面提升石化企业工作质量和水平。

  1. Petrochemical industries diagnosis concerning competition, quality and productivity programs; Diagnostico de industrias petroquimicas face aos programas de competitividade, produtividade e qualidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Antunes, Adelaide Maria de; Chamas, Claudia Ines [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this study is to evaluate how brazilian petrochemical industries take technological and competitive strategies. New industrial policy emphasizes quality, productivity and competitiveness aspects. The sector company survival depends on fitting to competition patterns. (author) 6 refs.

  2. [Study on the quantitative estimation method for VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks based on tanks 4.0.9d model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Shao, Xia

    2013-12-01

    VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks is one of the important emission sources in the petrochemical industry. In order to find out the VOCs emission amount of petrochemical storage tanks, Tanks 4.0.9d model is utilized to calculate the VOCs emission from different kinds of storage tanks. VOCs emissions from a horizontal tank, a vertical fixed roof tank, an internal floating roof tank and an external floating roof tank were calculated as an example. The consideration of the site meteorological information, the sealing information, the tank content information and unit conversion by using Tanks 4.0.9d model in China was also discussed. Tanks 4.0.9d model can be used to estimate VOCs emissions from petrochemical storage tanks in China as a simple and highly accurate method.

  3. Time-Lagging Interplay Effect and Excess Risk of Meteorological/Mosquito Parameters and Petrochemical Gas Explosion on Dengue Incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ko Chang; Chaur-Dong Chen; Chien-Ming Shih; Tzu-Chi Lee; Ming-Tsang Wu; Deng-Chyang Wu; Yen-Hsu Chen; Chih-Hsing Hung; Meng-Chieh Wu; Chun-Chi Huang; Chien-Hung Lee; Chi-Kung Ho

    2016-01-01

    In Kaohsiung, a metropolitan city in Taiwan at high risk of dengue epidemic, weather factors combined with an accidental petrochemical gas explosion (PGE) may affect mosquito‒human dynamics in 2014. Generalized estimating equations with lagged-time Poisson regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of meteorological/mosquito parameters and PGE on dengue incidences (2000–2014) in Kaohsiung. Increased minimum temperatures rendered a 2- and 3-month lagging interactive effect on higher ...

  4. Industrial cluster governance in a developing country context: evidence from the petrochemical sector in the Mexican state of Veracruz

    OpenAIRE

    Duhalt Gomez, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    This thesis combines analysis of the political economy of Mexico with the global value chain approach to study the trajectory of the development of the Veracruz cluster and the governance structure of vertical inter-firm relationships in the locality.\\ud The petrochemical cluster located in the state of Veracruz is formed by a pool of state-owned and local private companies and is arguably the largest agglomeration of industrial firms in southern Mexico. These firms are linked to one another ...

  5. Ecological impact of Mahshahr petrochemical activities on abundance and diversity of macrobenthic fauna in Zangi Creek (Persian Gulf)

    OpenAIRE

    Manuchehri, Hamed

    2007-01-01

    The Moosa Creek extends from its opening into the Persian Gulf, with some sub narrow creeks leading to it. Zangi creek is one of the main branches of Moosa creek. The creek contains numerous sources of organic pollution, including sewage outlet flows and boat waste. After establishing the Petrochemical special Economic Zone (PETZONE) in 1997 near to the Zangi Creek, the pipelines, streets and railway made it distinct from eastern and western parts of this creek. Industrial acti...

  6. Proceedings of the 3. International conference on waste management in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Volume 1 and 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Francisco F.; Pereira Filho, Francisco A.; Almeida, Sergio A.S. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    To produce without pollution is today a mandate for the preservation of our society. To produce cleaner means to conserve energy and natural resources, to reduce the use of toxic substances, to invest in the evolution of products and production processes towards a minimum of residues. The Third International Conference on Waste Minimization in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries addresses these challenging questions regarding waste minimization

  7. The petrochemical industry versus the transformers. Allays or enemies?; A industria petroquimica versus transformadores. Aliados ou inimigos?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigner, Gabriel [Girassol Industria e Comercio de Plasticos Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    The existing different realities between the two companies environment focused, on one side the big petrochemical plants and on the other side, the transformer ones, most of them small and middle companies produces unlike views in terms of the management of these companies. The present economical conjuncture requires an urgent alteration of this procedure, in order to favour improvements in rentability and competitivity in both segments, as well as to provide a more adjusted basis of business expansion and development. (author)

  8. Carbonaceous materials in petrochemical wastewater before and after treatment in an aerated submerged fixed-bed biofilm reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trojanowicz Karol

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of the studies for determining fractions of organic contaminants in a pretreated petrochemical wastewater flowing into a pilot Aerated Submerged Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactor (ASFBBR are presented and discussed. The method of chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation consisted of physical tests and biological assays. It was found that the main part of the total COD in the petrochemical, pretreated wastewater was soluble organic substance with average value of 57.6%. The fractions of particulate and colloidal organic matter were found to be 31.8% and 10.6%, respectively. About 40% of COD in the influent was determined as readily biodegradable COD. The inert fraction of the soluble organic matter in the petrochemical wastewater constituted about 60% of the influent colloidal and soluble COD. Determination of degree of hydrolysis (DH of the colloidal fraction of COD was also included in the paper. The estimated value of DH was about 62%. Values of the assayed COD fractions were compared with the same parameters obtained for municipal wastewater by other authors.

  9. Quality control of process valves for EPC petrochemical projects%石油化工EPC项目工艺阀门的质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永辉

    2013-01-01

    工艺阀门是管道元件中相对复杂的一种元件,对装置的正常运行起着十分重要的作用.简要分析了石油化工装置闸阀、截止阀、止回阀、球阀、蝶阀等常用工艺阀门的结构及优缺点,介绍了阀门在石油化工装置设计及采购时所需的主要技术参数及指标.从阀门材质、端面型式及尺寸、安装前检验试验、安装方向、施工等方面阐述了石油化工项目建设现场经常发生的阀门质量问题,并从设计、采购、施工等环节提出了解决EPC项目中存在的阀门质量问题的措施,进而达到控制阀门质量的目的.%Process valves are the complex components in pipe fittings,which play an import role in the normal operation of the unit.The construction as well as the advantages and disadvantages of common process valves like globe valve,gate valve,check valve,ball valve and butterfly valve,etc are analyzed,and the main process parameters and specifications of valves required in the engineering design and procurement of petrochemical projects are described.The common quality problems of valves in the construction sites of petrochemical projects are discussed in respect of metallurgy,end types and dimensions,quality inspection and testing before installation and installation orientation,etc.Measures to solve the valve quality problems in the engineering design,procurement and construction of EPC project are proposed to control the quality of valves.

  10. Analysis on Treatment Situation of Petro-chemical Wastewater with High Concentration%高浓度石油化工废水处理现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蕾

    2015-01-01

    石油化工废水水量大,成分复杂,废水中含有大量难降解有机物和有毒有害物质,国内外学者对常用的厌氧生物处理法、好氧生物处理法以及好氧-厌氧组合处理法进行了研究并取得了很多成果,通过比较发现其中效果好、成本低的是生物处理方法。%The components of petrochemical wastewater were complex and had large refractory organic pollutants and hazardous substances. The article listed some research findings at home and abroad from the aspects of anaerobic biological treatment, aerobic biological treatment, and the combination of aerobic and anaerobic treatment. Among which anaerobic biological treatment process was a method with good effect and low cost to provide valuable reference for relevant wastewater treatment.

  11. DI-(2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION BY FENTON PROCESS IN SYNTHETIC AND REAL PETROCHEMICAL WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Esmaeli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Di-(2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP belongs to the class of phthalate esters and is used as an additive in many products including plastics, paints and inks or as a solvent in industrial formulations. The degradation of DEHP in aqueous solution using oxidative Fenton reaction (H2O2/Fe2+ was carried out in this study. It was found that H2O2 concentration, Fe2+ concentration, and pH were the three main factors that could significantly influence the degradation rates of DEHP. The highest degradation percentage (85.6 % of DEHP was observed within 60 min at pH 3 in H2O2/Fe2+ system. The results of our study suggested that the concentration with 90 mg/L H2O2, 5 mg/L Fe2+, and 20 mg/L DEHP in the solution at pH 3 were the optimal conditions. The optimized reaction parameters were preceded for treatment of real wastewater obtained from a petrochemical plant.

  12. Conversion of carbon dioxide to valuable petrochemicals:An approach to clean development mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farnaz Tahriri Zangeneh; Saeed Sahebdelfar; Maryam Takht Ravanchi

    2011-01-01

    The increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global warming due to its greenhouse effect resulted in worldwide concerns. On the other hand, carbon dioxide might be considered as a valuable and renewable carbon source. One approach to reduce carbon dioxide emissions could be its capture and recycle via transformation into chemicals using the technologies in C1 chemistry. Despite its great interest, there are difficulties in CO2 separation on the one hand, and thermodynamic stability of carbon dioxide molecule rendering its chemical activity low on the other hand. Carbon dioxide has been already used in petrochemical industries for production of limited chemicals such as urea.The utilization of carbon dioxide does not necessarily involve development of new processes, and in certain processes such as methanol synthesis and methane steam reforming, addition of CO2 into the feed results in its utilization and increases carbon efficiency. In other cases,modifications in catalyst and/or processes, or even new catalysts and processes, are necessary. In either case, catalysis plays a crucial role in carbon dioxide conversion and effective catalysts are required for commercial realization of the related processes. Technologies for CO2 utilization are emerging after many years of research and development efforts.

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Seismic Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Petrochemical Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Nateghi-A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the seismic evaluation of reinforced concrete structures in petrochemical facilities under sever conditions such as high pressure, high temperature and corrosive environment is studied. These structures were designed and constructed during 1976-78. The evaluation procedure is basically performed in two phases namely; a qualitative and b quantitative methods. In the qualitative evaluation, all possible documentations including drawings, specifications, structural calculations, new additions and test results were studied. Collected data then was summarized in an evaluation checklist. When the needed requirements did not meet the specified entries, more detailed and quantitative analysis were performed and utilized in this study. Quantitative and numerical study was performed using finite element modeling under sever loading combinations. Based on the results of this evaluation, some important RC structures in this plant were highly vulnerable to seismic forces which required immediate attention. The methodology used and results obtained can be generalized and adapted for similar facilities. This paper will present details, procedure and conclusions obtained.

  14. TG/DSC-FTIR and Py-GC investigation on pyrolysis characteristics of petrochemical wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbiao; Mu, Lin; Jiang, Bo; Yin, Hongchao; Song, Xigeng; Li, Aimin

    2015-09-01

    The pyrolysis characteristics of petrochemical wastewater sludge (PS) were evaluated using TG/DSC-FTIR and fixed-bed reactor with GC. TGA experiments indicated that the pyrolysis of PS proceeded in three phases, and the thermographs shifted to higher temperatures with increasing heating rate. Chars FTIR showed that the absorption of O-H, C-H, C=O and C-C decreased with pyrolysis temperatures increasing. Gases FTIR correspondingly showed that H2O, CO, and CH4 generated at higher temperatures. For the fixed-bed reactor tests, H2 and CO were relatively higher in the pyrolysis gases, and CH4 was negligible at 436K. The kinetic triplets of PS pyrolysis were estimated by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, and integral master-plots method. The results suggested that the most potential kinetic models for the first and second phase were the order reaction model, while the random nucleation and nuclei growth model for the third phase.

  15. Effects of Shift Work on Cognitive Performance, Sleep Quality, and Sleepiness among Petrochemical Control Room Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Reza; Haidarimoghadam, Rashid; Motamedzadeh, Majid; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Soltanian, Alireza; Zoghipaydar, Mohamad Reza

    2016-02-03

    Shift work is associated with both sleepiness and reduced performance. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive performance, sleepiness, and sleep quality among petrochemical control room shift workers. Sixty shift workers participated in this study. Cognitive performance was evaluated using a number of objective tests, including continuous performance test, n-back test, and simple reaction time test; sleepiness was measured using the subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS); and sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. ANCOVA, t-test, and repeated-measures ANOVA were applied for statistical analyses, and the significance level was set at p sleep quality on both day and night shifts, and there were significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of subjective sleep quality and quantity (p sleep, induced cognitive performance decline at the end of both day and night shifts, and increased sleepiness in night shift. It, thus, seems necessary to take ergonomic measures such as planning for more appropriate shift work and reducing working hours.

  16. Evaluation of soil gas sampling and analysis techniques at a former petrochemical plant site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hers, I; Li, L; Hannam, S

    2004-07-01

    Methods for soil gas sampling and analysis are evaluated as part of a research study on soil vapour intrusion into buildings, conducted at a former petro-chemical plant site ("Chatterton site"). The evaluation process was designed to provide information on reliability and selection of appropriate methods for soil gas sampling and analysis, and was based on a literature review of data and methods, and experiments completed as part of the research study. The broader context of this work is that soil gas characterization is increasingly being used for input into risk assessment of contaminated sites, particularly when evaluating the potential intrusion of soil vapour into buildings. There are only a limited number of research studies and protocols addressing soil gas sampling and analysis. There is significant variability in soil gas probe design and sample collection and analysis methods used by practitioners. The experimental studies conducted to evaluate soil gas methods address the permeation or leakage of gases from Tedlar bags, time-dependent sorption of volatile organic compound (VOC)-vapours onto probe surfaces and sampling devices, and analytical and quality control issues for light gas and VOC analyses. Through this work, common techniques for soil gas collection and analysis are described together with implications for data quality arising from the different methods used. Some of the potential pitfalls that can affect soil gas testing are identified, and recommendations and guidance for improved protocols are provided.

  17. Study on Expansion of Steam Cracking Unit to 660 kt/a at Yanshan Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Xianghong

    2003-01-01

    Yanshan Petrochemical Company after having expanded its 300 kt/a steam cracking unit to 450 kt/a in 1994 is still experiencing such problems as low feedstock flexibility, high energy consumption and smaller scale of ethylene unit. In order to fully improve technical capability of steam crackers, reduce energy consumption, improve feedstock flexibility and increase production capacity, a lot of technical revamp cases on steam cracking were studied and compared. Revamp of relevant facilities has expanded the ethylene capacity to the target of 660 kt/a with the actual capacity reaching 710 kt/a. This revamp project has remarkably reduced the energy consumption, which is capable of using naphtha, light diesel fuel, heavy diesel fuel and the hydrocracked tail oil as the steam cracking feedstock. This project is the first to apply refrigeration by means of a mixed cooling agent and has succeeded in using C3 catalytic rectification/hydrogenation technology, which has given an impetus to the progress of steam cracking industry in the world.

  18. Petrochemical wastewater treatment with a pilot-scale bioaugmented biological treatment system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In solving the deterioration of biological treatment system treating petrochemical wastewater under low temperatures,bioaugmentation technology was adopted by delivering engineering bacteria into a pilot-scale two-stage anoxic-oxic (A/O)process based on previous lab-scale study. Experimental results showed that when the concentrations of COD and NH4+-N of the influent were 370~910 mg/L and 10~70 mg/L, the corresponding average concentrations of those of effluent were about 80 mg/L and 8 mg/L respectively, which was better than the Level I criteria of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996). According to GC-MS analysis of the effluents from both the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the pilot system, there were 68 kinds of persistent organic pollutants in the WWTP effluent, while there were only 32 in that of the pilot system. In addition, the amount of the organics in the effluent of the pilot system reduced by almost 50% compared to that of the WWTP. As a whole, after bioaugmentation, the organic removal efficiency of the wastewater treatment system obviously increased.

  19. Study of Phase Equilibria of Petrochemical Fluids using Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Shyamal

    2001-03-01

    Knowledge of phase behavior of hydrocarbons and related compounds are highly of interest to chemical and petrochemical industries. For example, design of processes such as supercritical fluid extraction, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, gas treatment, and fractionation of wax products. A precise knowledge of the phase equilibria of alkanes, alkenes and related compounds and their mixtures are required for efficient design of these processes. Experimental studies to understand the related phase equilibria often become unsuitable for various reasons. With the advancement of simulation technology, molecular simulations could provide a useful complement and alternative in the study and description of phase behavior of these systems. In this work we study vapor-liquid phase equilibria of pure hydrocarbons and their mixtures using Gibbs ensemble simulation. Insertion of long and articulated chain molecules are facilitated in our simulations by means of configurational bias and expanded ensemble methods. We use the newly developed NERD force field in our simulation. In this work NERD force field is extended to provide coverage for hydrocarbons with any arbitrary architecture. Our simulation results provide excellent quantitative agreement with available experimental phase equilibria data for both the pure components and mixtures.

  20. Occupational Stress and Mental Health of Employees of a Petrochemical Company before and after Privatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mahdad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many countries make many of their governmental sectors private. This transition, however, may affect their employees in numerous ways.Objective: To determine the level of occupational stress and mental health of employees of a petrochemical company in Isfahan, Central Iran, before and 3 months after privatization.Methods: Out of the 700 employees of the studied company, using a stratified random sampling technique, 140 persons were selected. We used Steinmetz occupational stress and GHQ-28 questionnaires to determine the level of stress and mental health status of participants.Results: The reliability of the questionnaires used was acceptable (Chronbach alpha coefficients: 0.85 and 0.86, respectively. Job stress level was significantly increased 3 months after privatization; the mean±SD job stress score before and after privatization were 22.9±10.43 and 28.3±12.25, respectively (p<0.001. The mean±SD mental health score after privatization (17.57±11.63 was also significantly (p<0.001 higher than that before the privatization (13.8±6.0. There was a significant (p<0.001 positive correlation between the mental health status score and job score (r=0.476.Conclusion: After privatization, the job stress of employees increased significantly. This increase was associated with a decrease in mental health. To lessen the side effects of privatization, the process should be performed cautiously.

  1. Microbial surfactant activities from a petrochemical landfarm in a humid tropical region of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, B.M.; Dias, J.C.T.; Santos, A.C.F.; Argolo-Filho, R.C.; Fontana, R.; Loguercio, L.L.; Rezende, R.P. [Univ. Estadual de Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2007-08-15

    Studies have suggested that biosurfactants can enhance the biodegradation of almost insoluble organics by increasing cell uptake availability. In this study, micro-organisms were isolated from a soil sample from a Brazilian petrochemical waste landfarm and grown in petroleum as a carbon source in order to assess their surfactant potential. Isolated colonies were inoculated into tubes, and a drop-collapse method was used to select micro-organisms with surfactant activity. Surfactant activity of the isolates was assessed when the activity was detected for the first time in each culture. The supernatant of each micro-organism was then diluted. The surfactant activity of each dilution was then observed via micelles formation. DNA was then extracted from the samples. A total of 60 microbial strains were selected. Results showed that a variety of petroleum-grown micro-organisms obtained from the landfarm soil showed surfactant activity. Results showed that the micro-organisms were able to use petroleum as a sole carbon source. The production of surfactant compounds occurred during the declining stages of microbial culture curves, which suggested that the nutritional stress achieved on the fourth day of the culture induced the synthesis and secretion of biosurfactants by the isolates. It was concluded that micro-organisms derived from soils polluted with hydrocarbons can be used in bioremediation processes. 21 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  2. Physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge produced after thermochemical treatment of petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shilpi; Prasad, Basheshwar; Mishra, I M

    2012-01-01

    The present work describes the physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge generated after thermochemical treatment of wastewater from a petrochemical plant manufacturing purified terephthalic acid (PTA). Although FeCl3 was found to be more effective than CuSO4 in removing COD from wastewater, the settling and filtration characteristics of FeCl3 sludge were poorer. Addition of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAA; 0.050kg/m3) to the FeCl3 wastewater system greatly improved the values of the filter characteristics of specific cake resistance (1.2 x 10(8) m/kg) and resistance of filter medium (9.9 x 10(8) m(-1)) from the earlier values of 1.9 x 10(9) m/kg and 1.7 x 10(8) m(-1), respectively. SEM-EDAX and FTIR studies were undertaken, to understand the sludge structure and composition, respectively. The moisture distribution in the CuSO4 sludge, FeCl3 sludge and FeCl3 + CPAA sludge showed that the amount of bound water content in the CuSO4 and FeCl3 + CPAA sludges is less than that of the FeCl3 sludge and there was a significant reduction in the solid-water bond strength of FeCl3 + CPAA sludge, which was responsible for better settling and filtration characteristics. Due to the hazardous nature of the sludge, land application is not a possible route of disposal. The thermal degradation behaviour of the sludge was studied for its possible use as a co-fuel. The studies showed that degradation behaviour of the sludge was exothermic in nature. Because of the exothermic nature of the sludge, it can be used in making fuel briquettes or it can be disposed of via wet air oxidation.

  3. On-line, real-time monitoring for petrochemical and pipeline process control applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Russell D.; Eden, D.C.; Cayard, M.S.; Eden, D.A.; Mclean, D.T. [InterCorr International, Inc., 14503 Bammel N. Houston, Suite 300, Houston Texas 77014 (United States); Kintz, J. [BASF Corporation, 602 Copper Rd., Freeport, Texas 77541 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Corrosion problems in petroleum and petrochemical plants and pipeline may be inherent to the processes, but costly and damaging equipment losses are not. With the continual drive to increase productivity, while protecting both product quality, safety and the environment, corrosion must become a variable that can be continuously monitored and assessed. This millennium has seen the introduction of new 'real-time', online measurement technologies and vast improvements in methods of electronic data handling. The 'replace when it fails' approach is receding into a distant memory; facilities management today is embracing new technology, and rapidly appreciating the value it has to offer. It has offered the capabilities to increase system run time between major inspections, reduce the time and expense associated with turnaround or in-line inspections, and reduce major upsets which cause unplanned shut downs. The end result is the ability to know on a practical basis of how 'hard' facilities can be pushed before excessive corrosion damage will result, so that process engineers can understand the impact of their process control actions and implement true asset management. This paper makes reference to use of a online, real-time electrochemical corrosion monitoring system - SmartCET 1- in a plant running a mostly organic process media. It also highlights other pertinent examples where similar systems have been used to provide useful real-time information to detect system upsets, which would not have been possible otherwise. This monitoring/process control approach has operators and engineers to see, for the first time, changes in corrosion behavior caused by specific variations in process parameters. Process adjustments have been identified that reduce corrosion rates while maintaining acceptable yields and quality. The monitoring system has provided a new window into the chemistry of the process, helping chemical engineers improve their process

  4. Strategies for the development of Quebec`s petrochemical industry: education and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, J.A. [Canadian Chemical Producer`s Association (Canada)

    1992-12-31

    One of the key challenges not only for the Quebec but for the Canadian petrochemical industry will be the challenge to increase the number of students pursuing science or engineering as fields of study. According to this author, there is a crisis in science and technology education in Canada. The ability of Canadian students to compete with their peers around the world is steadily diminishing as a result of the undue emphasis on student attitudes and self-esteem in Canadian schools, as opposed to European and Asian schools which focus on conveying specific skills. He advocates a shift in attitude away from simply more money spent on education towards concern with what and how well students are learning. It was suggested that the educational system must take into account the demands of the market place in fashioning the curricula. If students are to function in the real world where performance is evaluated, the educational system will have to change to reflect the fact that the market and society reward people in proportion to their contribution. The relationship between environmental concern and education was also explored, and the inclusion of environmental issues in the classroom curriculum was recommended. As a topic for curricula, the environment is subject to broad-ranging and often conflicting views regarding its problems and their causes, effects and remedies. Nevertheless, it is not a transient issue to be dismissed as a fad. Rather, it is an issue here to stay, hence it should play a more formalized role at all levels of the curriculum from primary schools to colleges and universities.

  5. Advanced treatment of refractory organic pollutants in petrochemical industrial wastewater by bioactive enhanced ponds and wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Ma, Qiusha; Wang, Baozhen; Wang, Jifu; Zhang, Ying

    2014-05-01

    A large-scale combined ponds-wetland system was applied for advanced treatment of refractory pollutants in petrochemical industrial wastewater. The system was designed to enhance bioactivity and biological diversity, which consisted of anaerobic ponds (APs), facultative ponds (FPs), aerobic pond and wetland. The refractory pollutants in the petrochemical wastewater to be treated were identified as alkanes, chloroalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and olefins, which were significantly degraded and transformed along with the influent flowing through the enhanced bioactive ponds-wetland system. 8 years of recent operational data revealed that the average removal rate of stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 42.7 % and that influent COD varied from 92.3 to 195.6 mg/L. Final effluent COD could reach 65.8 mg/L (average). COD removal rates were high in the APs and FPs and accounted for 75 % of the total amount removed. This result indicated that the APs and FPs degraded refractory pollutants through the facilitation of bacteria growth. The changes in the community structures of major microbes were assessed by 16SrDNA-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The same analysis was used to identify the main bacterial function for the removal of refractory pollutants in the APs and FPs. The APs and FPs displayed similar microbial diversities, and some of the identified bacteria degraded and removed refractory pollutants. The overall results proved the applicability, stability, and high efficiency of the ponds-wetland system with enhanced bioactivity in the advanced removal of refractory pollutants from petrochemical industrial wastewater.

  6. Opportunities of the development of three dimensional printing technology for the petrochemical industry%3D打印技术的发展给石化行业提供的机会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汉初

    2015-01-01

    综述了三维(3D)打印技术的发展历程、前景、瓶颈及优势,并分析了3D打印技术给石化行业提供的机会。3D打印技术具有可实现个性化生产、产品精度极高以及一次性生产复杂一体化产品等优点。耗材是3D打印产品最主要的成本,是制约3D打印技术广泛应用的瓶颈,耗材研发是3D打印技术发展的关键。3D打印技术的快速发展将给石化行业在科研、设备制造及管理等方面提供良好的发展机会,特别是研发3D打印所需新材料将给石化行业带来效益,开发高端3D打印耗材有利于企业在未来竞争中占据有利位置,提升竞争力。%The development course, prospect, bottleneck and advantages of the three dimensional(3D) printing technology were summarized and the opportunity of 3D printing technology for petrochemical industry was analyzed. 3D printing technology has the characters of realizing personalized production, preparing high-precision products and complex integrated products all at once. Consumables are the most important cost of 3D printing products, which are the bottleneck of restricting the extensive use of 3D printing technology. The research and development of consumables is the key to develop 3D printing technology. The rapid development of 3D printing technology will provide good opportunities for petrochemical industry, such as scientific research, instrument manufacture and management,etc,especially the development of new materials for 3D printing will bring benefits to the petrochemical industry. Developing high-end consumables for 3D printing is beneficial for the enterprises to occupy the advantaged position in the future competition and enhance the competitiveness.

  7. A review of the main factors influencing the FT-IR-PLS abilities exemplified with petrochemical qualimetric applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, J M; Garcia, M V; Lopez-Mahia, P; Prada, D

    1997-12-01

    Quality control usually involves monitoring several variables directly related with industrial necessities using univariate tests. One powerful alternative is to link multivariate analytical techniques and multivariate chemometrics. In this way, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares regression are used to discuss and review several advantages and drawbacks encountered in using such combination in industrial facilities. Typical drawbacks are selection of data pretreatment, errors in reference methods, selection of calibration and validation sets and model-aging. This review is exemplified with petrochemical applications although other fields are also considered (mainly when dealing with data pretreatment).

  8. System for alarms analysis and optimization in petrochemicals plants; Sistema para analise e otimizacao de alarmes em plantas petroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, Gustavo; Pifer, Aderson; Guedes, Luiz Affonso [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Saito, Kaku; Aquino, Leonardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The present work presents a group of algorithms, techniques and functionalities on alarms management which can be used efficiently on the treatment of 'disturbances' caused by the informal management of the alarm systems. Among the disturbances handled by these techniques, there is the recognition of intermittent alarms and false alarms, location of alarm floods and correlation between alarms, aiming the identification of communal root causes. The results will be presented through a case study on petrochemical alarm plants. At last, the results obtained by the utilization of such functionalities will be presented and discussed. (author)

  9. Perceptions of Private Sector towards the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register: A Case Study on Petrochemical Industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, Rayong, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Kondo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 as well as other international agreements, Thailand is currently in the process of adopting the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR through a pilot project in Rayong province with assistance from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA. This research aimed to study perceptions of private sector towards the PRTR through a case study on petrochemical industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate. Through semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews, the study found that the petrochemical industry viewed that benefits of the PRTR for the government and civil society is quite clear, while each petrochemical company has different understanding on such benefit for private sector to be as sustainable industrial management. Various incentive measures and concerns on the PRTR were also indicated in this study.

  10. Used solid catalysts from chemical and petrochemical industries; Les catalyseurs solides uses de l`industrie chimique et du raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    A comprehensive survey of the solid catalysts used in the chemical and petrochemical industries is presented; information on solid catalyst market demand prospective for 1998, the nature of solid catalysts used in the various industrial sectors and for the various chemical products production, the european catalysts manufacturers, solid catalyst poisons and inhibitors according to the various types of chemical reactions, mean compositions of used solid catalysts, an assessment of the volume of used solid catalysts generated by chemical and petrochemical industries, the various ways of solid catalyst regeneration and disposal, the potential for off-site regeneration of used catalysts, and French and European regulations, is presented

  11. Detection and reduction of diffuse liquid and gas emissions in chemical and petrochemical industries; Ermittlung und Verminderung diffuser fluessiger und gasfoermiger Emissionen in der chemischen und petrochemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppke, K.E. [Witten-Herdecke Univ. gGmbH, Witten (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Management; Cuhls, C. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik

    2002-09-01

    In order to improve environmental protection, VOC emissions from diffuse sources are of growing importance. For the first time in Germany the present research report gives a detailed presentation of: constructive measures for the avoidance and reduction of diffuse emissions, adequate assembling procedures for equipments and installations, technical possibilities of leak detection and, different methods for the estimation of total emissions from chemical and petrochemical production plants. On the basis of own investigations and monitoring measures taken at various plants of chemical and petrochemical industries different measuring techniques for leak detection as well as methods for the estimation of total emissions from diffuse sources are analysed and their limits are described. (orig.)

  12. Performance evaluation of a full-scale ABS resin manufacturing wastewater treatment plant: a case study in Tabriz Petrochemical Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shakerkhatibi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The measurement data regarding the influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP provides a general overview, demonstrating an overall performance of WWTP. Nevertheless, these data do not provide the suitable operational information for the optimization of individual units involved in a WWTP. A full-scale evolution of WWTP was carried out in this study via a reconciled data. Methods: A full-scale evolution of acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene (ABS resin manufacturing WWTP was carried out. Data reconciliation technique was employed to fulfil the mass conservation law and also enhance the accuracy of the flow measurements. Daily average values from long-term measurements by the WWTP library along with the results of four sampling runs, were utilized for data reconciliation with further performance evaluation and characterization of WWTP. Results: The full-scale evaluation, based on balanced data showed that removal efficiency based on chemical oxygen demand (COD and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 through the WWTP were 80% and 90%, respectively, from which only 28% of COD and 20% of BOD5 removal had occurred in biological reactor. In addition, the removal efficiency of styrene and acrylonitrile, throughout the plant, was approximately 90%. Estimation results employing Toxchem model showed that 43% of acrylonitrile and 85% of styrene were emitted into the atmosphere above water surfaces. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the volatilization of styrene and acrylonitrile is the main mechanism for their removal along with corresponded COD elimination from the WWTP.

  13. Challenges and Development Opportunities for Catalytic Technologies in Petrochemical Industry in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-ling

    2004-01-01

    The propellent drive and development opportunities for future catalytic technologies in petrochemical industry in the 21st century are reviewed in this paper. It focuses on the following five aspects:(1) The environmentally-friendly catalytic technologies, such as new technologies for the production of organic chemicals changing the raw material and synthetic process, the chemicals production replacing phosgene and hydrogen cyanide toxicant, and the conversion and utilization of organic wastes etc.(2) Utilization and development of cheaper light alkanes, for example, the chemical use of natural gas and the development technologies of methane chain, the production of acetic acid, ethylene and vinyl chloride from selective oxidation of ethane, as well as the manufacture of acrolein and acrylonitrile from the oxidation and ammoxidation of propane.(3) The new propylene-plus technologies of the low value higher olefins, such as catalytic cracking of C4,C5 olefins and metathesis of C4 olefin.(4) The technologies of high selective oxidation, e.g. production of propylene oxide with TS-1 molecular sieve, oxidation process by lattice oxygen and direct oxidation of benzene to phenol etc.(5) Development and application of novel catalytic materials, especially, mesopore molecular sieve materials for a larger molecule reaction, zeolite catalyst with MWW structure for alkylation of benzene and propylene, ionic liquid, and membrane reactor catalyst etc.Meanwhile,the challenging research subjects for future industrial catalysis and the several viewpoints for development strategy of new catalytic technologies are proposed. These viewpoints are as follows:(1) Catalysis discipline must be integrated with many other disciplines and should be multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary.(2) New preparation methods of catalytic materials must be originally developed.(3) The instrumentation having better time resolution and spatial resolution and applying under reaction conditions must be

  14. [Liver function of workers occupationally exposed to mixed organic solvents in a petrochemical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-D'Pool, J; Oroño-Osorio, A

    2001-06-01

    A descriptive and cross sectional study was conducted to determine whether hepatic function changes in workers occupationally exposed to a mixture of organic solvents, were due to the exposure or confusing factors. A non random sample of 77 workers, operators and supervisors of the Olefin Plant I and II of a petrochemical industry in Maracaibo, Venezuela, was used. Their mean age was 29 +/- 7 years, and had at least one year of exposure to the solvents. This sample was compared with a group of employees of the administrative offices or control panel workers, with a mean age of 36 +/- 8 year and with similar anthropometric characteristics. Workers with a known history of liver disease, blood transfusions and diabetes mellitus were excluded of the study. In addition to a complete occupational disease medical history and a physical examination, serum samples were obtained to determine the activity of the aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamiltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AF), the concentration of the total bile acids (BAS), the surface antigen of hepatitis B(HbsAg) and the hepatitis A virus antibodies: AntiHAV-IgG and the AntiHAV-IgM. An urine sample was taken and analyzed by standard methodology to determine urinary phenols. The air concentrations of benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene were analyzed by gas chromathography. The serum activities of the liver enzymes, the concentration of bile acids and urinary phenols were not influenced by the exposure to the solvents. The increase of the activity of GGT was associated with obesity and alcohol consumption. The antibodies of the surface antigen of hepatitis A-IgM were normal in both groups and the antibodies for the antigen of hepatitis A-IgG presented a prevalence of 6% in the exposed group and 9% in the non exposed not being associated with liver abnormalities. The individual air concentrations of the solvents were below the environmentally permissible

  15. The Reality of Project Management Office for Construction Organization in the Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Industry of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Izadpanah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the Project Management Office (PMO has become a prominent feature in many organizations. Despite the proliferation of PMO in practice, our understanding of this phenomenon remains sketchy at best. The objective of this study is describing the reality of PMOs for Construction Organization in the Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Industry of Iran at 2010 year. Nine major Iranian oil, gas and petrochemical organizations were participated in this survey. The study examines the reality of PMOs, the age of PMOs, the reason for their implementation and challenges during their implementation. Research concludes that PMO are a new concept and nearly 60% of PMOs have been in existence for 3 years. Monitoring project performance, supporting project management software tools and preparing project management methodology are the most used functions. Organizations are using PMOs to achieve the golden triangle project objectives (cost/time/quality. The study found that the most significant challenges in PMO implementation are the risk of changing organizational culture and the lack of professional staff.

  16. Petrochemical variation of Topopah Spring tuff matrix with depth (stratigraphic level), drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, F.M. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    This study describes and interprets petrochemical variation of the matrix (excluding fractures and large gas cavities) of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. This tuff includes the candidate host rock for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Cored hole USW G-4, near the site of a potential exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, penetrated 359.4 m (1179 ft) of the member within the unsaturated zone. This study shows that petrographic textures and chemistry of the matrix vary systematically within recognizable lithologic subunits related to crystallization (cooling) zones, welding (compaction) zones, and compositional zones (rhyolite versus quartz latite). The methods used for this study include petrographic modal thin section analysis using an automated counter and electron microprobe analysis of the groundmass. Distinctive textural categories are defined, and they can be ranked from finest to coarsest as vitrophyre (glass), cryptocrystalline groundmass, spherulites, granophyre, lithic fragments, and phenocrysts. The two main groundmass compositions are also defined: rhyolite high silica) and quartz latite. The value of these petrochemical studies lies in providing microscopic criteria for recognizing the zonal subunits where they may have greatly limited exposure, as in mined drifts and in core from horizontal drill holes. For example, the lower nonlithophysal zone can be distinguished microscopically from the middle nonlithophysal zone by (1) degree of compaction, (2) amount of quartz, and (3) amount of lithic fragments. The variability between these textural categories should also be considered in designing physical and chemical tests of the Topopah Spring.

  17. Effect of rhamnolipid on the aerobic removal of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and COD components from petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Gök, Oğuzhan

    2010-02-01

    The removal efficiencies of 15 PAHs and some COD components (inert, readily degradable, slowly degradable and metabolic products) from a wastewater taken from a petrochemical industry treatment plant (Izmir, Turkey) have been determined using an aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Addition of rhamnolipid surfactant (15 mg l(-1)) increased the removal efficiencies of PAHs and soluble COD from 72% and 90% to 80% and 99%, respectively. The rhamnolipid treatment caused a significant increase of 5- and 6-ring PAH degradation. The soluble COD removal efficiency was 93%, in CSTR reactors with rhamnolipid added. The inert COD removal efficiency was 60% in a CSTR reactor containing rhamnolipid. Batch tests showed that removal arising from the adsorption of the PAHs was low (between 1.88% and 4.84%) while the removal of PAHs from the petrochemical industry wastewater via volatilization varied between 0.69% and 5.92%. Low sorption capacity (K(p)) values for refinery activated sludge (approximately 2.98 l g(-1)) confirmed that bio-sorption was not an important mechanism controlling the fate of PAHs in aerobic CSTR reactors. Models proposed to simulate the PAH removal indicated that 94% of the PAHs were removed via biodegradation.

  18. Bioremediation of Petrochemical Wastewater Containing BTEX Compounds by a New Immobilized Bacterium Comamonas sp. JB in Magnetic Gellan Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bei; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Wang, Bai; Jiang, Jingwei; Guan, Xiaoyan; Gao, Shan; Yang, Aifu; Chen, Zhong; Sun, Hongjuan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the bioremediation of petrochemical wastewater containing BTEX compounds by immobilized Comamonas sp. JB cells. Three kinds of magnetic nanoparticles were evaluated as immobilization supports for strain JB. After comparison with Fe3O4 and a-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, r-Fe2O3 nanoparticle was selected as the optimal immobilization support. The highest biodegradation activity of r-Fe2O3-magnetically immobilized cells was obtained when the concentration of r-Fe2O3 nanoparticle was 120 mg L(-1). Additionally, the recycling experiments demonstrated that the degradation activity of r-Fe2O3-magnetically immobilized cells was still high and led to less toxicity than untreated wastewater during the eight recycles. qPCR suggested the concentration of strain JB in r-Fe2O3-magnetically immobilized cells was evidently increased after eight cycles of degradation experiments. These results supported developing efficient biocatalysts using r-Fe2O3-magnetically immobilized cells and provided a promising technique for improving biocatalysts used in the bioremediation of not only petrochemical wastewater but also other hazardous wastewater.

  19. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission characteristics and control strategies for a petrochemical industrial area in middle Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Hsien; Horng, Jao-Jia

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated VOC emissions from the largest petrochemical industrial district in Taiwan and recommended some control measures to reduce VOC emissions. In addition to the petrochemical industry, the district encompasses a chemical and fiber industry, a plastics industry and a harbor, which together produce more than 95% of the VOC emissions in the area. The sequence of VOC emission was as follows: components (e.g., valves, flanges, and pumps) (47%) > tanks (29%) > stacks (15%) > wastewater treatment facility (6%) > loading (2%) > flares (1%). Other plants producing high-density polyethylene (HDPE), styrene, ethylene glycol (EG), gas oil, and iso-nonyl-alchol (INA) were measured to determine the VOC leaching in the district. The VOC emissions of these 35 plants (90% of all plants) were less than 100 tons/year. About 74% of the tanks were fixed-roof tanks that leached more VOCs than the other types of tanks. To reduce leaching, the components should be checked periodically, and companies should be required to follow the Taiwan EPA regulations. A VOC emission management system was developed in state implementation plans (SIPs) to inspect and reduce emissions in the industrial district.

  20. Lanthanide complexes as luminogenic probes to measure sulfide levels in industrial samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, Megan K; Ung, Phuc; Leaver, Franklin M; Corbin, Teresa S; Tuck, Kellie L; Graham, Bim; Barrios, Amy M

    2015-10-08

    A series of lanthanide-based, azide-appended complexes were investigated as hydrogen sulfide-sensitive probes. Europium complex 1 and Tb complex 3 both displayed a sulfide-dependent increase in luminescence, while Tb complex 2 displayed a decrease in luminescence upon exposure to NaHS. The utility of the complexes for monitoring sulfide levels in industrial oil and water samples was investigated. Complex 3 provided a sensitive measure of sulfide levels in petrochemical water samples (detection limit ∼ 250 nM), while complex 1 was capable of monitoring μM levels of sulfide in partially refined crude oil.

  1. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Applications in the Petrochemical Industry%高效液相色谱技术在石油化工行业的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋林

    2015-01-01

    High Performance Liquid Chromatography ( HPLC ) is an efficient , rapid separation and analysis technology, which has wide application in the petrochemical , life sciences, foods and drug inspection.The application progress of HPLC in the petrochemical industry was reviewed , indicating HPLC had advantages of good and repeatable separation with fast speed in the analysis of oil component and petrochemical products.Associated with a variety of detection methods , HPLC had wide application prospects in the petrochemical industry.%高效液相色谱是一种高效、快速的分离分析技术,在石油化工、生命科学、食品药品检验等方面具有广泛的应用。综述了高效液相色谱在石油化工行业应用的进展情况,表明HPLC对于石油族组分分析和石化产品的分离分析具有分离效率高、选择性高、稳定性高的优势。与多种检测方法的联用可以使该技术在石油化工行业具有更为广阔的前景。

  2. 我国石化行业温室气体排放源识别%Identification of Greenhouse Gas Emission Sources in Chinese Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲; 赵婧

    2013-01-01

    According to IPCC Guidelines and Green House Gas Protocol,the greenhouse gas emission sources in Chinese petrochemical industry are identified individually.Combined with the results of two division methods for greenhouse gas emission sources,the greenhouse gas emission sources inventories for the main sections in petrochemical industry,such as oil and gas producing,oil refining and processing,petrochemical raw materials and products manufacturing,are presented.Also,the accounting methods for greenhouse gas emission quantity in petrochemical industry are introduced.These will lay a foundation for constructing an accounting system of greenhouse gas emission in Chinese petrochemical industry.%依据《2006年IPCC(政府间气候变化专门委员会)国家温室气体清单指南》及《温室气体协议》,对我国石化行业温室气体排放源进行了识别.结合温室气体排放源范围的两种划分方法,为石化行业的主要生产部门——油气开采、原油炼制与加工、石化原料与制品制造编制了初步的温室气体排放源清单,并简要介绍了石化行业温室气体排放量的核算方法,为石化行业温室气体排放量核算体系的构建奠定基础.

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  4. Commercial Application of RMC Technology in the 1.5 Mt/a Hydrocracking Unit at Shanghai Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Zhenlin; Wang Yiguan; Zhang Maoying; Lin Baohua; Mao Yichao

    2003-01-01

    The RMC technology developed by RIPP has been applied in a 1.5 Mt/a medium pressure hydrocracking unit at Shanghai Petrochemical Company. The unit was successfully put on stream in September 2002. Calibration of the performance of the commercial unit has shown that the RMC technology has higher hydrogenation activity and selectivity, and high quality product can be obtained under lower reaction temperature. The heavy naphtha with less than 0.5 ppm of sulfur and 58.5 m% potential aromatic content is a good feedstock for catalytic reforming unit. The diesel with less than 0.5 ppm of sulfur, 6.6 m% aromatics and cetane rating of 56 is a high-grade diesel fuel. The hydrocracked tail oil containing more than 14 m% hydrogen and mere 1.7m% aromatics could be used as a good feedstock for steam cracking process to produce ethylene.

  5. Studies of ultrasound disintegration of residual sludge and its energy consumption in water treatment of petrochemical plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jinfeng; YIN Xuan; GU Heping; L(U) Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the influence of ultrasound pretreatment on sludge anaerobic digestion,the ultrasound disintegration of residual sludge in water treatment of petrochemical plant was studied,and the mechanisms of ultrasound and medium were introduced.Experimental results indicate that ultrasound cavitation induces the rise of sludge temperature,which improves ultrasound disintegration on sludge.Ultrasound pretreatment can advance observably the quantity of chemical oxygen demand in sludge supernatant fluid (SCOD),which increases with ultrasound intensity and sonication time.The degree of ultrasound disintegration increases with the specific energy input.When the specific energy input is 10 000 kJ/kg of total dry solids,the degree of ultrasonic sludge disintegration reaches 40%.

  6. Application of fractional control techniques in petrochemical process; Aplicacao de tecnicas de controle fracionario para processos petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isfer, Luis A.D.; Lenzi, Marcelo K. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Lenzi, Ervin K. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work deals with the study of petrochemical process modeling and control using fractional differential equations. This kind of equation has been successfully used in modeling/identification, due to its powerful phenomenological description capability, generalizing conventional/classical models commonly used. Experimental data from literature were used for process identification and the mathematical model obtained, based on fractional differential equations, was the study of servo closed-loop control. Owing to its simplicity, the proportional type controller was used for this task, being able to control the process, keeping its stability, despite off-set. Different controller gains were used for simulation purposes, indicating that the higher the value of K{sub c}, the lower the off-set. (author)

  7. Approach to the problem of liquid effluents in petrochemical plants; Abordagem do problema efluentes liquidos em plantas petroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Cordelia Alves [PROMON Engenharia SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    It represents the typical example of petrochemical company that uses the responsible care. The company looks for solve the liquid effluent problems of its units at a complete view. First of all, they made a complete report of the environmental scenario through the operational conditions (it included the collect system, effluent treatment, etc.) and their connection with the environmental problems. In the following step was made the necessary changes to establish the effluents pollute level below the allowable levels and to avoid soil contamination. The company has made the modifications at the following systems:a closed system to collect and reprocess process drains; collect, transfer and retention of contaminated storm water; a stripper column and a solid removal system to treat contaminated water. (author) 2 figs.

  8. Wastewater reuse in a cascade based system of a petrochemical industry for the replacement of losses in cooling towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Everton; Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira; Aquim, Patrice Monteiro de

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses the mapping of opportunities for the water reuse in a cascade based system in a petrochemical industry in southern Brazil. This industrial sector has a large demand for water for its operation. In the studied industry, for example, approximately 24 million cubic meters of water were collected directly from the source in 2014. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the reuse of water in cascade in a petrochemical industry, focusing on the reuse of aqueous streams to replenish losses in the cooling towers. This is an industrial scale case study with real data collected during the years 2014 and 2015. Water reuse was performed using heuristic approach based on the exploitation of knowledge acquired during the search process. The methodology of work consisted of the construction of a process map identifying the stages of production and water consumption, as well as the characterization of the aqueous streams involved in the process. For the application of the industrial water reuse as cooling water, mass balances were carried out considering the maximum concentration levels of turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters. The adopted guideline was the fulfillment of the water quality criteria for each application in the industrial process. The study showed the feasibility for the reuse of internal streams as makeup water in cooling towers, and the implementation of the reuse presented in this paper totaled savings of 385,440 m(3)/year of water, which means a sufficient volume to supply 6350 inhabitants for a period of one year, considering the average water consumption per capita in Brazil; in addition to 201,480 m(3)/year of wastewater that would no longer be generated.

  9. 色谱在复杂体系分析中的进展%Advances of Chromatography in Analysis of Complex Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉奎

    2004-01-01

    The separation and identification of complex samples is an urgent task that analytical chemistry has to face. Chromatography, as an important analysis technique, has been widely applied to many fields, such as life science, environment, medicine, food and petrochemical engineering.Recently, with the progress of science and tech-

  10. Chromosomal aberration frequencies determined by conventional methods: Parallel increases over time in the region of a petrochemical industry and throughout the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sram, Radim J; Rössner, Pavel; Beskid, Olena; Bavorova, Hana; Ocadlikova, Dana; Solansky, Ivo; Albertini, Richard J

    2007-03-20

    The rationale for cytogenetic monitoring to determine if safe maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) of genotoxic chemicals are being maintained in a workplace is that exposure levels that do not increase chromosomal aberration frequencies are without harmful effects. Such monitoring, widely used in occupational health programs in the Czech Republic (CR), includes workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene (BD) or other chemicals. Studies of BD exposed workers in the years 1992, 1993, 1994, 1998, and 2004 compared mean frequencies of cells carrying chromosomal aberrations (frequency of aberrant cells=%AB.C.) in exposed workers with those in non-exposed matched controls in the same plant or in other individuals living in the region of the same petrochemical industry. Workers potentially exposed to acrylonitrile at this site were also evaluated in 2000, along with another unexposed matched control group. The %AB.C. values of exposed workers and their controls were also compared with reference values determined for normal individuals (ages 20-59 years) throughout the CR. Substantial discrepancies were noted between subjects in the region of the petrochemical industry (exposed workers and controls) for the years 2000 and 2004 and the reference CR-wide normal values that had been determined during an earlier time period. The matched non-exposed controls at the petrochemical industry site showed a mean %AB.C. value of 1.56+/-1.23% (N=25) in 1998; this rose to a mean of 2.65+/-2.29% (N=33) in 2000. In 2004, values for non-exposed matched controls at the industry site were 2.64+/-1.75% for males (N=25) and 2.38+/-1.74% (N=26) for females. However, the earlier determined CR-wide %AB.C. mean reference values for normal individuals were 1.77+/-1.16% (N=1305) for the interval 1977-1988 and 1.45+/-1.17% (N=2140) for the interval 1991-1999. As both reference values are substantially lower than those determined in 2000 and 2004 for the non-exposed matched controls at the petrochemical

  11. Meteorologically estimated exposure but not distance predicts asthma symptoms in schoolchildren in the environs of a petrochemical refinery: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Wesley

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community concern about asthma prompted an epidemiological study of children living near a petrochemical refinery in Cape Town, South Africa. Because of resource constraints and the complexity of refinery emissions, neither direct environmental measurements nor modelling of airborne pollutants was possible. Instead a meteorologically derived exposure metric was calculated with the refinery as the putative point source. The study aimed to determine whether (1 asthma symptom prevalences were elevated compared to comparable areas in Cape Town and (2 whether there was an association between asthma symptom prevalences and the derived exposure metric. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out of all consenting school children aged 11 to 14 years attending schools in a defined area, utilizing the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC written and video questionnaires. Information was collected on potential confounders, e.g. parental history of atopic disease, active and passive smoking by the participant, birth order, number of children in the home and distance from a major road. The exposure metric combined residential distance of each child from the refinery with a wind vector in the form of wind speed, wind direction and proportion of the year blown. Results A total of 2,361 children from 17 schools met the criteria for inclusion. In multivariate analysis, meteorologically estimated exposure (MEE, but not simple distance from the refinery, was positively associated with having to take an inhaler to school [odds ratio per interquartile range (OR 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.06-1.40], and with a number of video elicited asthma symptoms, including recent waking with wheezing (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.06-1.66 and frequent wheezing at rest (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05 - 1.54. Symptom prevalences were higher than in other areas of the city, with frequent waking with wheezing being in great excess (OR 8.92, 95% CI

  12. Petrochemical Enterprise Equipment Tendering Evaluation Methods Are Discussed%石化企业设备招标评标方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长剑

    2011-01-01

    Petrochemical enterprise equipment tendering the bid assessment methods, is using the bid assessment standards reviews, compare the concrete method of the bidding scheme actor. Petrochemical enterprise equipment tendering evaluation methods to implement the scientific equal competition, fair and reasonable choice ZhongBiaoZhe is extremely important. This paper discusses its bid assessment method.%石化企业设备招标评标的方法,是运用评标标准评审、比较投标方案优劣的具体方法。石化企业设备招标评标方法的科学性对于实施平等的竞争、公正合理地选择中标者是极其重要的。本文探讨了其评标方法。

  13. Efficacy and reliability of upgraded industrial treatment plant at Porto Marghera, near Venice, Italy, in removing nutrients and dangerous micropollutants from petrochemical wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlicchi, Paola; Cattaneo, Serena; Marciano, Ferdinando; Masotti, Luigi; Vecchiato, Giuseppe; Zaffaroni, Carlo

    2011-08-01

    Chemical and petrochemical wastewaters contain a host of contaminants that require different treatment strategies. Regulation of macropollutants and micropollutants in the final discharge from industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have become increasingly stringent in recent decades, requiring many WWTPs to be upgraded. This article presents an analysis of a WWTP treating petrochemicals in Porto Marghera, Italy, that recently was upgraded following legislative changes. Because of strict legal limits for macropollutants and micropollutants and a lack of space necessary for a full-scale WWTP overhaul, the existing activated sludge tank was converted into a membrane biological reactor. The paper presents experimental data collected during a five-month investigation showing the removal rates achieved by the upgraded plant for macropollutants (particularly nitrogen compounds) and micropollutants (heavy metals and organic and inorganic toxic compounds).

  14. Rotary Valve Application in Refinery and Petrochemical Plant%旋转阀在炼油化工装置中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵全庆

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of the rotary valve with adjustable range,tight shutoff,more capacity,resisting cavitation etc.are analyzed.To Point out rotary valves application trend in refinery and petrochemical plant.Its application is helpful in long-term economic production in large refinery and petrochemical plant.%分析了旋转阀在可调范围、严密切断、流通能力、抗气蚀、无外泄漏等方面的特点,指出了旋转阀在炼油化工装置中的应用趋势。旋转阀的使用有助于提高大型炼油化工装置长周期生产运行的经济性。

  15. Analysis of Logistics Cost Control of Petrochemical Products%石化产品物流成本控制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华新

    2015-01-01

    首先对石化产品物流成本控制的相关理论进行阐述,然后提出现阶段石化产品物流成本控制的现状,随之分析石化企业物流成本控制的有效路径,最后提出具体控制石化产品物流成本的措施,供有关人员参考。%In this paper, we first illustrated the theories relating to the logistics cost control of the petrochemical products, then pointed out the current status of the logistics cost control of the petrochemical enterprises, then analyzed the selection of the effective path of the logistics cost control of the enterprises, and at the end, proposed the specific logistics cost control measures.

  16. Guide of social and ambient responsibility for projects of enterprises of refiners and petrochemicals; Guia de responsabilidade social e ambiental para projetos de empreendimentos de refinarias e petroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruella, Nildemar Correa [PETROBRAS, Cubatao, SP (Brazil). Refinaria Presidente Bernardes Cubatao; Richa, Newton M.M. [Instituto Brasileiro de Petroleo, Gas e Biocombustiveis (IBP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to provide practical guidelines for environmental, social accountability, occupational safety and health for all stages of the life cycle of projects (identification of opportunities, conceptual design, basic design, detail design, deployment (construction and assembly), pre-operation, operation, maintenance and deactivation) in large enterprises of the industry of refining and petrochemicals. This work was based on the legal requirements, guidelines Safety, Environment and Health of PETROBRAS, standards and international publications and the experience of the authors. (author)

  17. Systemic Approach for Health Risk Assessment of Ambient Air Concentrations of Benzene in Petrochemical Environments: Integration of Fuzzy Logic, Artificial Neural Network, and IRIS Toxicity Method

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid NOVIN; Givehchi, Saeed; HOVEIDI, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reliable methods are crucial to cope with uncertainties in the risk analysis process. The aim of this study is to develop an integrated approach to assessing risks of benzene in the petrochemical plant that produces benzene. We offer an integrated system to contribute imprecise variables into the health risk calculation.Methods: The project was conducted in Asaluyeh, southern Iran during the years from 2013 to 2014. Integrated method includes fuzzy logic and artificial neural netw...

  18. Exergetic analysis of the operation of a petrochemical pole cogeneration system; Analise exergetica da operacao de uma planta de cogeracao de um polo petroquimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ednildo A. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]. E-mail: ednildo@ufba.br; Gallo, Waldyr L. R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: gallo@unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents an exergy analysis for a petrochemical cogeneration system (the greater operating in Brazil). The system is described, the method employed to simulate the system is presented, and the exergy efficiencies are defined. The analysis presents the exergy efficiencies and irreversibility for each sub-system. The results obtained from real data were used to compare operation strategies which are not clear from energy balances. (author)

  19. 浅析哈萨克斯坦石油化工装置消防设计%Analysis of fire protection design of petrochemical equipments in Kazakhstan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马友梅

    2016-01-01

    There are lots of differences between the fire protection requirements of petrochemical equip-ments in China and Kazakhstan which mentioned in the codes and routines for fire protection design. The code for fire protection design of petrochemical equipments in Kazakhstan was introduced; besides, the differences be-tween the codes and routines for fire protection of petrochemical equipments in Kazakhstan and China were ana-lyzed and compared from aspects of fire-fighting cooling water system; foam extinguishing system, steam-smoth-ering system;dry powder extinguishing system;automatic gas extinguishing system and fire demand determination.%在石油化工装置的消防设计上,哈萨克斯坦与国内在设计规范及设计惯例等方面存在诸多差异。介绍了哈萨克斯坦石油化工装置消防规范,并从消防冷却水系统、泡沫灭火系统、蒸汽灭火系统、干粉灭火系统、自动气体灭火系统及消防用水量确定等方面,分析比较了哈萨克斯坦与国内石油化工装置消防设计规范及设计惯例的不同之处。

  20. A novel "wastes-treat-wastes" technology: role and potential of spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst assisted ozonation of petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunmao; Yu, Ji; Yoza, Brandon A; Li, Qing X; Wang, Gang

    2015-04-01

    Catalytic ozonation is a promising wastewater treatment technology. However, the high cost of the catalyst hinders its application. A novel "wastes-treat-wastes" technology was developed to reuse spent fluid catalytic cracking catalysts (sFCCc) for the ozonation of petrochemical wastewater in this study. Multivalent vanadium (V(4+) and V(5+)), iron (Fe(2+) and Fe(3+)) and nickel (Ni(2+)) oxides that are distributed on the surface of sFCCc and poisoned FCC catalysts are the catalytic components for ozonation. The sFCCc assisted catalytic ozonation (sFCCc-O) of nitrobenzene indicated that the sFCCc significantly promoted hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation. The degradation rate constant of nitrobenzene in sFCCc-O (0.0794 min(-1) at 298 K) was approximately doubled in comparison with that in single ozonation (0.0362 min(-1) at 298 K). The sFCCc-O of petrochemical wastewater increased chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency by three-fold relative to single ozonation. The number of oxygen-containing (Ox) polar contaminants in the effluent (253) from sFCCc-O treatment decreased to about 70% of the initial wastewater (353). The increased oxygen/carbon atomic ratio and decreased number of Ox polar contaminants indicated a high degree of degradation. The present study showed the role and potential of sFCCc for catalytic ozonation of petrochemical wastewater, particularly in an advantage of the cost-effectiveness through "wastes-treat-wastes".

  1. Strategic Thinking on Industrial Structure Development of Sinopec Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited%上海石化产业结构发展的战略思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张经明

    2012-01-01

    Based on the global and domestic macroeconomic environment and its development trend, the development trend of petrochemical industry both at home and abroad was analyzed, and strategic thinking was raised for SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited (SPC) in aspects of cost leadership, regionalization, differentiation, environmental protection and low carbon. With implementation of the strategic targets, SPC can become a large - scale vertically integrated petrochemical enterprise being domestically advanced and internationally first class.%根据上海石化所处的国内外宏观经济环境及发展趋势,分析国内外石化行业的发展趋势,提出上海石化在低成本、区域化、差异化和绿色低碳等方面的战略思考。通过战略目标的实施,使上海石化成为国内领先和国际一流的大型炼化企业。

  2. A study on the effect of working capital management on profitability on Cement and Petrochemical industries: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Khaksarian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effect of working capital management on profitability on Cement and Petrochemical industries. The study uses the information of 24 firms from Cement industry and 19 firms from Petrochemical industry listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. There are two independent variables including the ratio of current assets on total assets as well as the ratio of current liabilities on total assets in this survey. In addition, there are two dependent variables including return on assets (ROA and Tobin’s Q. The study also considers firm size, sales’ growth, financial leverage, gross domestic product growth as control variables. Using stepwise regression technique, the study confirms a positive and meaningful relationship between working capital criteria and profitability. In addition, the study confirms that as the ratio of current assets to total assets increases, ROA and Tobin’s Q will be reduced, which means lower profitability would be resulted. In addition, as financial leverage increases, ROA in both industries will reduce while Tobin’s Q will increase in Cement industry and will reduce in Petrochemical industry.

  3. Process of separating and recovering flare gas from petrochemical plant via hydrate formation%水合物法分离回收石油化工厂火炬气工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海秀; 周锡堂

    2013-01-01

    介绍了4种火炬气回收工艺和水合物法气体分离技术,提出了水合物法分离回收石油化工厂火炬气的新工艺——利用水合物的生成逐一分离、回收其中有价值的组分.对流程的特点和技术可行性进行了分析,指出对于组分复杂的火炬气可采用水合物法分离回收.与传统工艺相比,该工艺具有回收彻底、更节能、更环保等诸多优点.%Four flare gas recovery process and gas separation technology via forming hydrate are introduced.A novel process for separating and recovering flare gas from petrochemical plant by hydrate formation is proposed.Each component can be separated by forming hydrate and the valuable composition is recovered.The characteristics and technical feasibility are analysed.For flare gas of complex constituents,the gas separation and recovery technology via forming hydrate is recommended.Compared with the traditional process,the novel process has the advantages of complete recovery,energy saving and environmental protection.

  4. The importance of the treatment of the unsafe acts for the prevention of accidents in petrochemical industry; A importancia do tratamento dos atos inseguros para a prevencao de acidentes na industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneguetti, Alexander A.; Santos, Helio R.F.; Alevato, Hilda; Lima, Luciana S. [Dupont do Brasil S.A., Paulinia, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the fact that, the workers' behavior is characterized by its complexity and diversity, this issue has been seen as a great 'black box' in discussions regarding the Management Systems of SHE. Associated with this issue other arises: How conscious people? How to engage them with the process? How to improve the risk control? How to motivate the prevention? Most of these responses are discussed in the Social and Human Sciences for many years. However, it is necessary to closer the technical-operational knowledge and the human aspects, applying in the organizations' daily work, to make the working environment more safe. The purpose of this study, therefore, is examining the possibility of reducing accidents through the identification and treatment of deviations (unsafe acts and unsafe conditions), cause the whole accident, be it serious or not, begins with a small deviation. It was used as a reference tool, the Behavior audit and it is based on field's observations, applied into a production unit of a large petrochemical industry in northern Brazil, during the years 2006 and 2007. (author)

  5. Econometrics of joint production: another approach. [Petroleum refining and petrochemicals production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, J.M.

    1977-11-01

    The pseudo data approach to the joint production of petroleum refining and chemicals is described as an alternative that avoids the multicollinearity of time series data and allows a complex technology to be characterized in a statistical price possibility frontier. Intended primarily for long-range analysis, the pseudo data method can be used as a source of elasticity estimate for policy analysis. 19 references.

  6. Transformational leadership in business organisations ascending to world-class status: A case study in the petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. De Kock

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important prerequisites for economic competitiveness in the global economy, is the delivery of a unique product or service. In order to achieve this level of competitiveness, transformational rather than transactional leadership should be a core element in organisation’s ascent to ‘world-class’ status. Inline with other researching results, the most important finding of this study, which was conducted in a petrochemical industry, is that transformational leadership is not up to standard. Opsomming Een van die belangrikste voorvereistes vir ekonomiese kompetering in die globale ekonomie, is die lewering van ‘n unieke produk of diens. ‘n Voorvereiste wat slegs kan realiseer indien transformasionele leierskap eerder as transaksionele leierskap ‘n kernboublok in organisasies se strewe na ‘wêreldklas’ status vorm. Inlyn met die bevindinge van verskeie ander studies, is die vernaamste bevinding van ook die studie wat in ‘n petrochemiese bedryf gedoen is, dat transformasionele leierskap nog nie op standaard is nie.

  7. Needs for intelligent field sensors in petrochemical plants. Sekiyu kagaku plant ni okeru intelligentter dot fieldter dot sensor eno needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukahara, T. (Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-08-05

    This report explains the process sensors used in petrochemical plants. To establish a safety and accident preventing systems, the function of a sensor to substitute the five senses of an operator is demanded. A man inspects using the senses of seeing, hearing, touch and smell, and takes measures judging from all factors, not from the state of one point. For a wide-range monitoring function, there is a need for a robot which is loaded with sensors of various intelligences and which moves freely at the field. When many sensors are configurated for the wide-range monitoring, the maintenance of system comes into question. The sensor with intelligent functions recently developed can contribute to the maintenance because it is highly accurate and it has the function of self-diagnosis. If it becomes possible to process data with the sensor at the field utilizing the intelligent function, the central control room will be miniaturized and automatization will be pushed forward remarkably. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  8. The Comparisons of Commonly Used Pumps in Petrochemical%浅谈石化常用泵的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚智喜; 刘鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    泵是油库的心脏,在石油储存和运输中广泛运用各种泵,掌握各类泵的优缺点、泵的使用范围和泵适合输送油品的种类对更好的利用各种泵尤为重要。只有合理的使用各类泵,才能保证泵的高效运行,才能确保油库的安全等。文章就是针对离心泵,容积泵,以及其他石化行业经常用到的泵做了一个比较细致的总结和概括。%A pump was the heart of an oil depot, a variety kinds of pumps were widely used in oil storage and trans- portation. Mastering the advantages and disadvantages of all kinds of pumps, the usable ranges of pumps and the pumps suitable for transporting different kinds of oil was quite important for the better usage of various pumps. Only the reasonable usage of various pumps can ensure the efficient operation of pumps and the safety of oil depots, etc. The detailed summary and conclusion of centrifugal pumps, positive displacement pumps, and other petrochemical industry used pumps was made.

  9. Entomological study of sand flies (Diptera:Psychodidae:Phlebotominae) in Asalouyeh, the heartland of an Iranian petrochemical industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamzeh Alipour; Hossien Darabi; Tahere Dabbaghmanesh; Mehdi Bonyani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the fauna and seasonal activity of different species of sand flies (Diptera:Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Asalouyeh, the heartland of an Iranian petrochemical industry, Southern Iran, as a oil rich district. Sand flies are the vectors of at least three different kinds of disease, the most important of which is leishmaniasis, and it is a major public health problem in Iran with increased annual occurrence of clinical episodes.Methods:cleared in puris medium and identified morphologically, twice a month from April to March 2008.Results:A total of 3 497 sand flies of rural regions were collected by sticky traps fixed, and Sinton, 1928, Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, 1910, Phlebotomus bergeroti Parrot and Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot) and one of genus Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia tiberiadis Alder, Theodor & Lourie, 1930). The most prevalent species was Phlebotomus papatasi, presented 56.4% of the identified flies. The others were Phlebotomus sergenti (22.5%), Phlebotomus alexandri (4.5%), Phlebotomusbergeroti Predominant species included four of genus Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus alexandri than that of males (32%). The abundance of sand flies represented two peaks of activity; one in early May and the other one in the first half of September in the region. (12%) and Sergentomyia tiberiadis (5%) as well. The percentage of females (68%) was more Conclusion: Phlebotomus papatasi is the probable vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the region. Further molecular studies are needed to determine the definite vector of the region.

  10. Human resource development formulation and evaluation in an Iranian Petrochemical Company using ANP and grey relational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Ghasemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, human capital is considered a key factor of achieving the competitive advantage in different industries. The present study, as an applied and descriptive research, aims at providing formulation and evaluation of human resource development of an Iranian Petrochemical Company (APC. The human resource experts and managers of APC together with university professors of human capital and familiar with local conditions of Khuzestan province, Iran, made up the statistical population of this research. In this connection, first the internal factors (including advantages and disadvantages were identified using human resource excellence indicators. Then, the opportunities and threats of human resource system were found via PESTEL approach. In the next step, the primary strategies were formulated using the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats (SWOT Matrix. The next phases of the study were included evaluation and ranking of human resource development strategies based on analytical network process (ANP multi-criteria decision making method and grey systems theory. According to results of the research, defensive strategies (WT are suggested as the best and most appropriate strategies in human resource area. In other words, the internal and external factors of APC are problematic. Accordingly, APC is expected to adopt WT strategy, minimize the weaknesses, and avoid threats. Subsequent to the above policy, the strategies of WO, ST, and SO are advised to employ.

  11. Large refinery and petrochemical plant furnaces and heaters : low frequency noise measurement and noise source order-ranking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Frank, HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp. Calgary AB

    2007-07-01

    Large furnaces and process heaters at refineries, gas plants, and petrochemical plants produce a low-frequency tonal noise from combustion roar. They can also produce mid-frequency broadband noise from induced draft fans. The common noise generating mechanisms are turbulence, flow instability, pressure drop, mechanical friction, and component vibration. Some of these energy facilities have multiple furnaces and heaters. As such, a noise source order-ranking assessment is typically performed to determine which plant equipment is responsible for the highest sound level contributions at nearby residence locations. The order-ranking is useful in determining which noise sources may require acoustical treatment to reduce the overall sound level at each residence. These results would form the basis for evaluating the effect of noise mitigating strategies for each source, and for estimating the associated costs for each noise control scenario. The noise model results can also be used to order-rank the equipment noise sources in terms of their frequency-dependant octave band. Experience has shown that large furnaces and heaters usually rank very high in terms of predominant contributors. The combustion roar noise generating mechanism is largely responsible for the predominant amount of acoustical energy. Although some degree of noise reduction can be achieved through burner design, it was shown that noise control engineering largely occurs at the furnace and heater manufacturing or plant retrofit level. This paper presented the results of one refinery with 19 older style furnaces and heaters. 1 tab., 7 figs.

  12. Time-Lagging Interplay Effect and Excess Risk of Meteorological/Mosquito Parameters and Petrochemical Gas Explosion on Dengue Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ko; Chen, Chaur-Dong; Shih, Chien-Ming; Lee, Tzu-Chi; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Hung, Chih-Hsing; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Chi; Lee, Chien-Hung; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2016-01-01

    In Kaohsiung, a metropolitan city in Taiwan at high risk of dengue epidemic, weather factors combined with an accidental petrochemical gas explosion (PGE) may affect mosquito‒human dynamics in 2014. Generalized estimating equations with lagged-time Poisson regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of meteorological/mosquito parameters and PGE on dengue incidences (2000–2014) in Kaohsiung. Increased minimum temperatures rendered a 2- and 3-month lagging interactive effect on higher dengue risks, and higher rainfall exhibited a 1- and 2-month lagging interplay effect on lower risks (interaction, P ≤ 0.001). The dengue risk was significantly higher than that in a large-scale outbreak year (2002) from week 5 after PGE accident in 2014 (2.9‒8.3-fold for weeks 5‒22). The greatest cross-correlation of dengue incidences in the PGE-affected and PGE-neighboring districts was identified at weeks 1 after the PGE (rs = 0.956, P mosquito‒human dynamics, such as PGEs, should not be ignored in dengue prevention and control. PMID:27733774

  13. Operational Improvements of Continuous Process with Tools of Lean Production - A Case Study in a Brazilian Petrochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Uchoa Passos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to evaluate operational improvements in Brazilian petrochemical company Braskem, which has been using lean production management tools to monitor its processes. There was some improvement in plant efficiency, measured from the beginning of implementation of management tools Six Sigma and TPM. Thus, we investigated three efficiency indicators considered by the company of great importance for the competitiveness of the business: the physical loss of products, plant’s energy efficiency, and the utilization rate of assets. The differences observed in these indicators, before and after the use of the tools, were tested for its statistical significance, which revealed that the physical losses of ethylene and plant’s energy efficiency improved, almost reaching the performance considered as class world. As for the utilization rate of assets, although it has evolved positively, still is at a considerable distance from that performance standard. By registering operational improvements in a continuous process plant, with lean production tools, this study indicates that these instruments, even if they have no causal relation with the improvements, are suitable for continuous processes and could have a much broader use, oriented, first of all, by the general approach of process optimization and, somehow, regardless of the nature of productive activity.

  14. 2012年我国石油化工行业进展及展望%Progress of China's petrochemical industry in 2012 and outlook for 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪定一

    2013-01-01

    转型和建设世界一流石化建设等方面取得实质性的新进展.%The progress of China's petrochemical industry under the conditions of high crude oil price and slowdown in economy in 2012 was summarized. Firstly, the running of petrochemical industry was slow but turning to smooth and steady; production output and value and gross profit were all increasing, but compared to the last year, the pace was slower. Secondly, in building a world-class petrochemical industry, crude oil processing volume, ethylene production output maintained the world second, chemical production compared with USA was roughly the same, synthetic resin production was in the forefront, synthetic rubber production ranked the first in the world. Thirdly, about the transformation and upgrading of petrochemical industry, modern coal chemical industry was smoothly integrated into petrochemical production system; petrochemical industry was involved in biomass utilization, and succeeded in trial production of aviation kerosene from biomass; a new progress was made in upgrading to high-end products. And finally, about technical progress, a batch of industrial units were built using proprietary technology, including two sets of diesel liquid phase circulation hydrogenation units in Shijiazhuang refinery and Jiujiang refinery, a new generation of S-Zorb unit for producing EU V grade gasoline, 800 kt/a ethylene cracking plant in Wuhan, S-MTO coal to olefin unit, FCC regeneration flue gas SCR denitrification unit in Zhenhai; a batch of technologies independently developed, including conversion of super heavy oil to light fractions, megaton per year integrated aromatics unit and syn-gas to ethylene glycol synthesis were ready for commercialization; the ebullated bed heavy residual oil hydrogenation technology was being commercial-scale verified; research on production differentiation technology was stepping up aiming at a number of special chemicals and new chemical materials. The petrochemical

  15. Biological anoxic treatment of O{sub 2}-free VOC emissions from the petrochemical industry: A proof of concept study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Raúl; Souza, Theo S.O. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Glittmann, Lina [Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Department of Supply Engineering, Wolfenbüttel (Germany); Pérez, Rebeca [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Quijano, Guillermo, E-mail: gquijano@iq.uva.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The treatment of O{sub 2}-free VOC emissions can be done by means of denitrifying processes. •Toluene vapors were successfully removed under anoxic denitrifying conditions. • A high bacterial diversity was observed. • Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla. • The nature and number of metabolites accumulated varied with the toluene load -- Abstract: An innovative biofiltration technology based on anoxic biodegradation was proposed in this work for the treatment of inert VOC-laden emissions from the petrochemical industry. Anoxic biofiltration does not require conventional O{sub 2} supply to mineralize VOCs, which increases process safety and allows for the reuse of the residual gas for inertization purposes in plant. The potential of this technology was evaluated in a biotrickling filter using toluene as a model VOC at loads of 3, 5, 12 and 34 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} (corresponding to empty bed residence times of 16, 8, 4 and 1.3 min) with a maximum elimination capacity of ∼3 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. However, significant differences in the nature and number of metabolites accumulated at each toluene load tested were observed, o- and p-cresol being detected only at 34 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}, while benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and phenol were detected at lower loads. A complete toluene removal was maintained after increasing the inlet toluene concentration from 0.5 to 1 g m{sup −3} (which entailed a loading rate increase from 3 to 6 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}), indicating that the system was limited by mass transfer rather than by biological activity. A high bacterial diversity was observed, the predominant phyla being Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria.

  16. Application of Hydrocracking Process for Upgrading Tail Oil Quality in 1.0 Mt/a Hydrocracker Unit at SINOPEC Yangzi Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Haichun; Dong Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the hydrocracking technology for upgrading the quality of tail oil and the first commercial application of the RN-32V/RHC-1 catalysts in the 1.0 Mt/a hydrocracker at the Yangzi Petrochemical Company, which was started up successfully in September 2008. One month after start-up of the hydrocracking unit, an evaluation opera-tion has been conducted for assessing the catalysts performance. The technical calibration results showed that the RN-32V/RHC-1 catalysts had high activity, and the product yield distribution was reasonable. The hydrocracker can provide abundant feedstocks for the downstream aromatic production unit and ethylene production unit.

  17. Petrochemical Characteristics and Age of Rare Metal (Ta-Nb Mineralization in Precambrian Pegmatites, Komu, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. OLUGBENGA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Precambrian pegmatites of Komu area intrude semi discordantly older rock types, such as biotite gneiss, amphibolites and pelitic schists. The pegmatites occur as near flat lying bodies. This study aims at elucidating the geological setting, petrography, geochemical features and age of mineralization of these pegmatite bodies, with a view to classifying them and knowing their economic potential. The petrographic analysis shows that the pegmatite samples contain mainly quartz (35%, plagioclase (15%, microcline (10% and muscovite (12% with accessories like tourmaline, tantalum, niobium and illmeno-rutiles. Geochemical analysis of the muscovites extracted from pegmatites show that these rocks are enriched in silica (>60% and Al2O3 (>12% and depleted in Fe2O3, MgO and TiO2. Trace element analysis shows that the pegmatites contain rare metals with moderately high Ta, Nb, Sn, Rb, Li and Cs values and depleted in Ti, Ba and Zr. Elemental ratios indicate low ratios of K/Cs, Th/U and K/Rb. Variation plots of Ta/(Ta+Nb versus Mn/ (Mn+Fe show that the pegmatites plot in the complex (beryl subtype field. The Na/K versus Sn, Nb, Rb variation plots show that the pegmatites of Komu area are mineralized and compare favourably with those of other mineralized pegma-tite areas like Egbe and Ijero in southwestern Nigeria. The variation plots of Ta versus K/Cs, and Ta/W versus Cs, also confirm rare metal mineralization of Komu pegmatites, which plot over the mineralized line of Beus and Gordiyenko. The K/Rb versus Rb, Cs and Sn plots indicate low K/Rb ratios indicating moderate differentiation. The Rare Earth Elements (REE show high heavy REE values and lower light REE values with prominent positive Ce anomaly and negative Eu anomaly from normalized chondrite plots. K/Ar dating of the age of mineralization of muscovites extracted from the pegmatite yielded late Pan-African ages between 502.8±13Ma and 514.5±13.2Ma. This period represents the cooling ages of the

  18. Caracterização de amostras petroquímicas e derivados utilizando cromatografia gasosa bidimensional abrangente (GCxGC Characterization of petrochemical samples and their derivatives by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin von Mühlen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to discuss the application of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC to petrochemical samples. The use of GCxGC for petroleum and petroleum derivatives characterization, through group type analysis, or BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, total aromatic hydrocarbons, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur-containing, oxygen-containing, and nitrogen-containing compounds is presented. The capability of GCxGC to provide additional specific chemical information regarding petroleum processing steps, such as dehydrogenation of linear alkanes, the Fischer-Tropsch process, hydrogenation and oligomerization is also described. In addition, GCxGC analyses of petrochemical biomarkers and environmental pollutants derived from petrochemicals are reported.

  19. 石化企业水环境污染应急能力评估实例研究%Case study on capacity assessment of water environmental pollution emergency response of petrochemical enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚猛; 牟桂琴; 周志国; 房师平

    2015-01-01

    为了防范和控制石化企业发生事故时或事故过程中产生的物料泄漏和污水对周边水体环境的污染及危害,降低环境风险,以国内某石化企业为例,进行了水体环境风险评估.为类似石化企业做好水污染应急工作提供参考.%In order to prevent and control the pollution of water environment by the leakage of materials caused by petrochemical enterprises under accident state, take a domestic petrochemical enterprise as the example, carries on the assessment of water environmental pollution emergency response capacity, provides the reference for the petrochemical enterprises facing the similar problem.

  20. The effect of Health, Safety and Environment Management System (HSE-MS on the improvement of safety performance indices in Urea and Ammonia Kermanshah Petrochemical Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Poursoleiman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related accidents may cause damage to people, environment and lead to waste of time and money. Health, Safety and Environment Management System has been developed in order to reduce accidents. This study aimed to investigate the effect of implementation of this system on reduction of the accidents and its consequences and also on the safety performance indices in Kermanshah Petrochemical Company. Material and Method: In this study, records of accidents were collected by OSHA incident report form 301 over 4 years. Following, the mean annual accidents and its consequences and safety performance indices were calculated and reported. Then, using statistical analysis, the impacts of two years implementation of this system on the accidents and its consequences and safety performance indices were evaluated. Result: The results showed that the implementation of HSE system was significantly correlated with Frequency Severity Indicator, Accident Severity Rate, lost days, minor accidents and total incidents (P-value 0.05. Conclusion: The implementation of Health, Safety and the Environment Management System caused a reduction in accidents and its consequences and most of the safety performance indices in the entire process cycle of Kermanshah Petrochemical Company. Overall, safety condition has been improved considerably.

  1. Preliminary analysis of construction investment estimation on petrochemical project%浅析石油化工项目建设投资估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑜芳

    2011-01-01

    石油化工项目的建设投资估算是项目前期工作的重要内容之一.在分析石油化工项目的特点、说明投资估算的重要性和范围的基础上,提出投资估算编制应注重资料搜集、制定投资估算原则、编制方法及确定工程量等环节.并分析说明了如何根据项目的具体情况,选取适当的估算方法完成项目投资估算.最终提出了投资估算中应注意的问题.%The construction investment estimation of petrochemical project is one of important work activities in the early stage of project. On the basis of analysis of the characteristics of petroleum refining and petrochemical engineering projects and the importance of investment estimation and its scope, the investment estimate preparation should focus on such steps as data collection, development of investment estimation method and principles and determination of bill of quantities, etc. An example is provided to illustrate how to select a proper estimation method to perform the investment estimate according to specific project conditions. The precautions in capital investment estimation are finally presented.

  2. Assessment of the impact of petroleum and petrochemical industries to the surrounding areas in Malaysia using mosses as bioindicator supported by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd Zahari Bin; Saat, Ahmad Bin; Hamzah, Zaini Bin

    2012-06-01

    Biomonitoring of multi-element atmospheric deposition using terrestrial moss is a well-established technique in Europe. Although the technique is widely known, there were very limited records of using this technique to study atmospheric air pollution in Malaysia. In this present study, the deposition of 11 trace metals surrounding the main petroleum refinery plant in Kerteh Terengganu (eastern part of peninsular Malaysia) has been evaluated using two local moss species, namely Hypnum plumaeforme and Taxithelium instratum as bioindicators. The study was also done by means of observing whether these metals are attributed to work related to oil exploration in this area. The moss samples have been collected at 30 sampling stations in the vicinity of the petrochemical industrial area covering up to 15 km to the south, north, and west in radius. The contents of heavy metal in moss samples were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. Distribution of heavy metal content in all mosses is portrayed using Surfer software. Areas of the highest level of contaminations are highlighted. The results obtained using the principal components analysis revealed that the elements can be grouped into three different components that indirectly reflected three different sources namely anthropogenic factor, vegetation factor, and natural sources (soil dust or substrate) factor. Heavy metals deposited mostly in the distance after 9 km onward to the western part (the average direction of wind blow). V, Cr, Cu, and Hg are believed to have originated from local petrochemical-based industries operated around petroleum industrial area.

  3. 面向石化行业的化工原理教学改革探%Teaching Reformation on Petrochemical-oriented Chemical Engineering Principles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄贵秋; 陈艳辉; 熊拯; 陈敏娥

    2011-01-01

    在面向石油化工行业的《化工原理》课程教学中,教师应该注重实践,尤其要注重理论与石油化工行业实践的结合,使理论教学工作与时俱进、不断创新;要找准教学切入点,认真设计教学环节,合理分解教学难点;要充分调动学生学习积极性,运用各种教学方法与手段调整学生学习状态。%In the teaching of petrochemical-oriented Chemical Engineering Principles, the teacher ought to focus the following points. Great importance should be attached to practice, in particular to the integration of theory with the practice of petrochemical industry, so teaching activity can be innovated and updated as the times proceed ; with starting point being pinpointed by teachers, the teaching procedures ought to be carefully designed, so that difficult points can be rationally handled; students' motivation need stimulating while various teaching methods and strategies need to be used to adjust students' learning state.

  4. 我国石化产业面临的挑战及对策建议%Challenges Facing China's Petrochemical Industry and Their Countermeasure Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王基铭

    2015-01-01

    阐述了当前我国石化产业面临着原油低价格、市场化进程加快、科技革命兴起等新形势,同时也面临着市场竞争加剧、环保要求日益严格等严峻挑战,指出我国石化工业面对新的机遇和挑战,必须走创新驱动、转型升级、绿色发展之路.%The article expounds on the new situation facing China's petrochemical industry such as low oil price, continuously accelerated commercialization process and accelerated advances in science & technological revolution, as well as severe challenges facing it such as aggravated market competition and increasingly strict environmental protection requirements. It points out that, being faced with new chances and challenges, China's petrochemical industry must walk along the road of innovation drive, transformation and upgrading as well as green development.

  5. 石化企业实施全面预算管理方案探讨%Discussion on implementation of comprehensive budget management plan in petrochemical enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓理

    2015-01-01

    文中对某石化企业建立财务预算管理体系进行了分析。探讨了石化企业的全部收支都纳入到预算管理范畴,严格预算的申报和审批,杜绝一切预算外开支方案实施的可行性和必要性,提升了财务预测在企业生产经营中的指导作用。%Analysis was made to the establishment of financial budget management system in a petrochemical company. This paper made discussion on bringing all incomes of petrochemical company into budget management category,strictly performing budget declaration,examination and approval,completely eradicating the possibility and necessity of plan implementation of all expenditures outside the budget,and promoted the guiding function of financial prediction in enterprise production and management.

  6. 黄岛石化区消防安全初评估%Preliminary assessment of the fire safety in HuangDao petrochemical zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林宏; 余浩

    2011-01-01

    黄岛石化区是一个集油品储运、原油炼制、芳烃加工为一体的大型石油化工基地.目前,区域内拥有原油炼制能力达到1000多万吨,危险化学品存储能力接近1000万吨,危化品码头吞吐能力接近6000万吨,并且危化品项目的规模还在不断扩大中.鉴于危化品项目的危险性较高,石化区域的消防安全就成了企业生产安全的重要保障,而消防安全是否有保证则与区域内企业的生产存储装置的危险程度、安全设施配置、消防设施的配置以及消防队伍和车辆的配置等有直接的关系.笔者通过对区域内上述各方面信息的详细了解,并在参阅了大量技术文献资料的基础上,分别以生产装置火灾和存储装置火灾为对象进行了消防安全的初步评估,同时对区域内消防方面存在的问题提出改进建议.%HuangDao Petrochemical Zone is a very important base of oil storage and transportation, crude oil refining, aromatics processing in Shandong Province. Currently, the region has a crude oil refining capacity of more than 10 million tons, hazardous chemicals storage capacity of close to 10 million tons, hazardous chemicals terminal throughput capacity approaching 60 million tons, and the scale of hazardous chemicals is still growing in. View of the hazardous chemicals higher risk projects, the fire safety in petrochemical zone is the very important safeguards,but the fire safety associated with a lot of tings, such as the dangerous degree of hazardous chemicals process plant and hazardous chemicals storage tanks, the security devices allocation, the fire control facilities allocation, the fire department and the vehicle allocation. How about the fire safety in HuangDao Petrochemical Zone? By way of collecting lots of detailed information of petrochemical enterprise related to fire safety in HuangDao Petrochemical Zone, and seeing a lot of technical literature associated with the fire safety, fire

  7. Lanthanide complexes as luminogenic probes to measure sulfide levels in industrial samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorson, Megan K. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Utah College of Pharmacy, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); Ung, Phuc [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Leaver, Franklin M. [Water & Energy Systems Technology, Inc., Kaysville, UT 84037 (United States); Corbin, Teresa S. [Quality Services Laboratory, Tesoro Refining and Marketing, Salt Lake City, UT 84103 (United States); Tuck, Kellie L., E-mail: kellie.tuck@monash.edu [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Graham, Bim, E-mail: bim.graham@monash.edu [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Barrios, Amy M., E-mail: amy.barrios@utah.edu [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Utah College of Pharmacy, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States)

    2015-10-08

    A series of lanthanide-based, azide-appended complexes were investigated as hydrogen sulfide-sensitive probes. Europium complex 1 and Tb complex 3 both displayed a sulfide-dependent increase in luminescence, while Tb complex 2 displayed a decrease in luminescence upon exposure to NaHS. The utility of the complexes for monitoring sulfide levels in industrial oil and water samples was investigated. Complex 3 provided a sensitive measure of sulfide levels in petrochemical water samples (detection limit ∼ 250 nM), while complex 1 was capable of monitoring μM levels of sulfide in partially refined crude oil. - Highlights: • Lanthanide–azide based sulfide sensors were synthesized and characterized. • The probes have excitation and emission profiles compatible with sulfide-contaminated samples from the petrochemical industry. • A terbium-based probe was used to measure the sulfide concentration in oil refinery wastewater. • A europium-based probe had compatibility with partially refined crude oil samples.

  8. Effects of probiotics on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors in petrochemical workers: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the current study was to determine effects of probiotic yoghurt and multispecies probiotic capsule supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors in petrochemical workers. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done among petrochemical workers. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups to receive 100 g/day probiotic yogurt (n = 12 or one probiotic capsule daily (n = 13 or 100 g/day conventional yogurt (n = 10 for 6 weeks. The probiotic yoghurt was containing two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis with a total of min 1 Χ 10 7 CFU. Multispecies probiotic capsule contains seven probiotic bacteria spices Actobacillus casei 3 Χ 10 3 , L. acidophilus 3 Χ 10 7 , Lactobacillus rhamnosus 7 Χ 10 9 , Lactobacillus bulgaricus 5 Χ 10 8 , Bifidobacterium breve 2 Χ 10 10 , Bifidobacterium longum 1 Χ 10 9 and Streptococcus thermophilus 3 Χ 10 8 CFU/g. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning and end of the trial to quantify biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors. Results: Although a significant within-group decrease in plasma protein carbonyl levels was seen in the probiotic capsule group (326.0 ± 308.9 vs. 251.0 ± 176.3 ng/mL, P = 0.02, the changes were similar among the three groups. In addition, significant within-group decreases in plasma iso prostaglandin were observed in the probiotic supplements group (111.9 ± 85.4 vs. 88.0 ± 71.0 pg/mL, P = 0.003 and in the probiotic yogurt group (116.3 ± 93.0 vs. 92.0 ± 66.0 pg/mL, P = 0.02, nevertheless there were no significant change among the three groups. Conclusions: Taken together, consumption of probiotic yogurt or multispecies probiotic capsule had beneficial effects on biomarkers of oxidative stress in petrochemical workers.

  9. MBR in Petrochemical Industry Wastewater Treatment with Good Effect%MBR在石化工业废水深度处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽华

    2015-01-01

    采用膜生物反应器( MBR)处理石化工业废水,研究了MBR对CODcr、 BOD5、 NH3-N、TP 及石油类等去除效果.结果表明: MBR对石化工业废水具有良好的稳定处理效果,平均去除率CODcr分别为:86�4%, BOD597�6%, NH3-N 99%, TP 68%,石油类86�7%. MBR出水后CODcr, BOD5, NH3-N, TP,石油类质量浓度平均值分别为35�9,2�9,0�46,0�36,1�35 mg·L-1.研究表明:处理后水质满足国家一级排放标准, MBR可以有效地处理石化工业废水.%Membrane Bioreactor MBR process was used to treat petrochemical industry wastewater and removal rates of CODcr BOD5 NH3⁃N TP and petroleum in MBR system were studied. The experimental result indicates that MBR produces good and steady effects in petrochemical wastewater purification. The removal rates of CODcr BOD5 NH3⁃N TP and petroleum averaged 86�4% 97�6% 99% 68% and 86�7%respectively. The concentrations of CODcr BOD5 NH3⁃N TP and petroleum in the effluent averaged 35�9 2�9 0. 46 0�36 and 1�35 mg·L-1 respectively meeting the national standards for wastewater discharge I and the system operates with stable effect by on⁃line NaClO backwashing. The industrial application of MBR in petrochemical wastewater treatment produces good effects.

  10. Modeling and simulation for business processes of interior supply chain in petrochemical enterprise%石化企业内部供应链业务流程分析及建模仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雯; 任立鹏; 钟洁西; 傅卫平; 华金

    2014-01-01

    石化企业是典型的流程型企业,是石化供应链的核心企业,其内部业务流程管理对整个石化供应链运作性能具有决定性作用。以某石化公司为研究对象,分析其内部供应链原有业务流程,建立相应的概念模型;为了优化原有企业内部供应链业务流程,引入SCOR建模框架;采用AnyLogic仿真平台,分别建立采用SCOR框架前后企业内部供应链的仿真模型。仿真分析表明,采用SCOR框架改进业务流程,可以有效改善企业内部供应链性能。%Petrochemical enterprises are of typical features of process industry, and core enterprises of petrochemical supply chain, whose inner business process management is crucial to the operational performances of the whole petrochemical supply chain. Taking a petrochemical company as the research object, this paper builds a conceptual model of the original business processes in the interior supply chain, introduces SCOR modelling framework to optimize the business processes. Using the AnyLogic platform, it establishes the simulation models for the interior supply chain of pre and post SCOR opti-mization. The simulation analysis shows that using SCOR can improve the performance of the petrochemical enterprise interior supply chain.

  11. 浅谈石化工程项目的采购管理%Discussion on Petrochemical Engineering Project Procurement Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伙胜

    2012-01-01

    Purchasing work is hard in Petrochemical Engineering Project, make good purchasing work should pay attention to four aspects: 1, attention in the process of purchasing work in important part 2, attention to the whole process cost control 3, careful decision-making, choose good suppliers; 4, the es- tablishment of an effective procurement performance evaluation mechanism and incentive mechanism.%石化工程项目采购纷繁复杂,做好采购工作应当重视四个方面的工作:1、关注采购工作流程中的重要环节;2、重视全流程成本控制;3、谨慎决策,选择好供应商;4、建立有效的采购绩效考评机制和激励机制。

  12. 框架协议采购在石油石化企业中的应用%Application of framework agreement procurement in petrochemical enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪刚

    2015-01-01

    文中介绍了框架协议采购的总体原则,分析了针对石油石化行业应用的注意事项,提出了具体改进措施.利用这种采购方式高效地完成采购任务,是物资采购与招标工作探索和研究的目标.%This paper introduced the general principle of framework agreement procurement,analyzed matters needing attention of petrochemical industry,and proposed specific improvement measure. Application of this procurement method to efficiently complete procurement is the goal of exploration and research in materials procurement and bid invitation work.

  13. Integral Characteristics of Stability of Coal-Water Slurries and Coal-Water Slurries Containing Petrochemicals By Evaluation of Separation Into Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrienko Margarita A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For wide use of coal and oil processing wastes in heat power industry we investigated the structural stability of coal-water slurries (CWS and coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP. Three methods of evaluating slurry stability were considered. The method of evaluation of separation (into layers of the slurry was chosen to determine the stability of fuel compositions based on bituminous and brown coal, filter cakes of bituminous coals, waste motor, turbine, transformer, compressor oils, oil, oiled mixture and mazut. The experiments shown, that the addition of waste oils (with mass fraction of 10 % to investigated fuel compositions leads to increase of slurry segmental stability is almost by 2 times.

  14. Research on the System of Inherent Safety about Petrochemical Enterprises%石油化工企业本质安全系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄剑锋

    2011-01-01

    归纳了本质安全的定义,阐述了本质安全的基本原理及国内外发展的状况,指出了现阶段本质安全相关研究中存在的问题,提出了石化企业应该从工艺过程、生产设备、作业环境、人员素质、生产管理、评价方法等六大方面实现其本质安全化.%It summarized the definition, the principle and the domestic and overseas development of inherent safety. It found out the existing problems in the present research of inherent safety. At last, it proposed that the petrochemical enterprises should achieve inherent safety from six aspects - process engineering, production equipment, operating environment, personnel quality and manufacturing management and evaluation method.

  15. 石化企业安全文化建设实践%Practice of safety culture construction in petrochemical enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑞平

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of safety culture construction in petrochemical enterprises, summarizes the enterprise safety culture in the construction experience, construction of all aspects of enterprise safety culture from the aspects of propaganda, training, team building, safety performance, leadership organization, has a good role model of enterprise safety culture construction.%  本文阐述了石化企业安全文化建设的主要意义,总结了企业在安全文化建设的经验,从宣传、培训、班组建设、安全绩效考核、领导组织保障等方面构建企业安全文化的各个方面,对企业建设安全文化具有良好的示范作用。

  16. Effect of combining the metals of group VI supported on H-ZSM-5 zeolite as catalysts for non-oxidative conversion of natural gas to petrochemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.K.Aboul-Gheit; A.E.Awadallah

    2009-01-01

    The most prestigious catalyst applied in natural gas (methane) non-oxidative conversion to petrochemicals is 6%Mo/H-ZSM-5.Chromium,molybdenum and tungsten are the group VI metals.Hence,in this work,6%Mo/H-ZSM-5 was correlated with 3%Cr+3%Mo/H-ZSM-5 and 3%W+3%Mo/H-ZSM-5 as catalysts to examine their promoting or inhibiting effects on the various reactions taking place during methane conversion.The catalytic activities of these catalysts were tested in a continuous flow fixed bed reactor at 700℃ and a GHSV of 1500 ml·g-1 ·h-1. Characterization of the catalysts using XRD,TGA and TPD were investigated.XRD and NH3-TPD showed greater interaction between the W-phase and the Bronsted acid sites in the channels of the zeolite than between Cr-phase and the acid sites in the zeolite.

  17. Biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene by the mixed culture of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus vireti isolated from the petrochemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandass, Ramya; Rout, Pallabi; Jiwal, Sonia; Sasikala, Chitrambalam

    2012-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a group of compounds that pose threat to humans and animal life. Methods to reduce the amount of PAHs in the environment are continuously being sought. The bacterial consortium capable of utilizing benzo(a)pyrene as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from petrochemical soil. The isolates were identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus viretibased on morphological characterization, and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. About 58.98% of benzo(a)pyrene at concentration of 500 mg l(-1) in mineral salts medium were removed by bacterial consortium. GC mass spectral analysis showed the presence of metabolite cis-4-(7-hydroxypyren-8-yl)-2-oxobut-3enoic acid. The results indicate that the bacterial consortium is a new bacterial resource for biodegrading benzo(a)pyrene and might be used for bioremediation of sites heavily contaminated by benzo[a]pyrene and its derivatives.

  18. Installation and operation maintenance of petrochemical pipelines%石油化工管道的安装与运行维护技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国喜

    2015-01-01

    本文从石油管道阀门安装、石油管道的焊接、石油管道的管段安装与制作方面浅谈了石油化工管道安装技术,并从石油管道的防腐、管道的保养和巡视、管道的检测与泄露监测等方面,探讨了石油化工管道的运行维护技术.%The installation technologies of petrochemical pipelines are discussed in this paper in term of valve installation,pipeline welding,section installation and manufacturing. The operation and maintenance technologies are described in view of anticorrosion, maintenance and patrolling,detection and leakage monitoring on pipelines.

  19. [Effects of dissolved oxygen in the oxic parts of A/O reactor on degradation of organic pollutants and analysis of microbial community for treating petrochemical wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Peng-Yuan; Chu, Li-Bing; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Xing; Wang, Jian-Long

    2015-02-01

    Effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) on the biodegradation of organic pollutants were investigated using A/O reactors for the treatment of actual petrochemical wastewater. Two A/O reactors, DO were controlled at 2-3 mg x L(-1) in the oxic parts of reactor A and 5-6 mg x L(-1) of reactor B, were operated in parallel for comparison. The nearly a half of year operation results showed that the effluent COD in reactor A (72.5 ± 14.8 mg x L(-1)) was slightly higher than that in reactor B (68.7 ± 14.6 mg x L(-1)) at a HRT of 20 h. The average COD removal efficiencies were 67.0% and 68.8%, respectively. The effluent ammonium concentration was maintained at 0.8 mg x L(-1) and approximately 95% of ammonium removal was achieved. The effluent BOD, concentration was lower than 5 mg x L(-1). This indicated that the organic pollutants could be degraded thoroughly by the A/O processes, which were affected slightly by DO. Results of 454 pyrosequencing analysis of the sludge in oxic parts showed that at the phylum levels, sequences belonged to Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes were abundant with 58.7% and 59.2%, 14.7% and 12.7%, 10.8% and 12.4% of total bacterial sequences in reactor A and B, respectively. Ammonium oxidation bacteria Nitrosomonas, nitrite oxidizing bacteria Nitrospira and obligate aerobic bacteria were highly enriched in reactor B with high DO levels, while the anaerobic denitrifiers Azospira and Acidovora were highly enriched in reactor A with low DO levels. The identified bacteria belonged to genera Novosphingobium, Comamonas, Sphingobium and Altererythrobacter were reported to degrade PAHs, chloronitrobenzene, pesticides and petroleum, which contributed to the degradation of petrochemical wastewater.

  20. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for the removal of Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} from synthetic petrochemical factory wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malakahmad, Amirhossein, E-mail: amirhossein@petronas.com.my [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Studies, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Hesarak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Hasani, Amirhesam [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Studies, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Hesarak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eisakhani, Mahdieh [School of Social, Development and the Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed Hasnain [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} We assessed SBR performances to treat synthetic wastewater containing Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}. {yields} SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg{sup 2+} and 96-98% of Cd{sup 2+}. {yields} COD removal efficiency and MLVSS was affected by Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} concentrations. {yields} Removal was not only biological process but also by biosorption process of sludge. - Abstract: Petrochemical factories which manufacture vinyl chloride monomer and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) are among the largest industries which produce wastewater contains mercury and cadmium. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) to treat a synthetic petrochemical wastewater containing mercury and cadmium. After acclimatization of the system which lasted 60 days, the SBR was introduced to mercury and cadmium in low concentrations which then was increased gradually to 9.03 {+-} 0.02 mg/L Hg and 15.52 {+-} 0.02 mg/L Cd until day 110. The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total and Volatile Suspended Solids as well as Sludge Volume Index. At maximum concentrations of the heavy metals, the SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg{sup 2+} and 96-98% of Cd{sup 2+}. The COD removal efficiency and MLVSS (microorganism population) in the SBR was affected by mercury and cadmium concentrations in influent. Different species of microorganisms such as Rhodospirilium-like bacteria, Gomphonema-like algae, and sulfate reducing-like bacteria were identified in the system. While COD removal efficiency and MLVSS concentration declined during addition of heavy metals, the appreciable performance of SBR in removal of Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} implies that the removal in SBR was not only a biological process, but also by the biosorption process of the sludge.

  1. 膜法处理炼化污水的研究%Study on membrane treatment of wastewater produced from petrochemical industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁信道; 李琪蓉

    2013-01-01

    Large quantity of effluents containing oil ,water and complicated pollutants pro-duced from the refinery process do extremely harm to our environment .The aim of our study is to investigate membrane technology (ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis ) for petrochemical wastewater treatment and recycles .The treated water could be recycled as compensative water for boilers and other utilizations . The experiment results show that the percentage removal of COD ,N H3-N and petroleum oil can achieve over 90% by this process ;after ultra-filtration ,the suspended solid can be decreased to less than 1 mg/L ;and the quality of treated water reaches the standard of petrochemical industry discharge and utilization .%炼化污水是原油炼制、加工及油品水洗等过程中产生的一类废水,污染物的种类多、浓度高,对环境的危害大。本试验的目的是采用深度处理(膜法处理法)来处理公司各生产厂所排放的污水,作为回用锅炉补水和回用循环水。试验结果表明,废水通过本系统工艺的处理,COD、氨氮、石油类的去除率可达90%以上,而且后续的超滤装置能够有效地将悬浮物质量浓度降低到1 mg/L以下,各项水质指标均能达到出水目标。

  2. 双电磁阀配置在石油化工装置中的应用%Brief Introduction of Dual Solenoid Valve Configuration at Petrochemical Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范咏峰

    2011-01-01

    Safety is a critical issue at both engineering and operation of petrochemical unit, based on ALARP(As Low As Reasonably Practicable) principle, research on method of how to prevent mal-operation trip is obtained more and more attention, especially for case of huge economic loss. Appropriate redundancy design is widely adopted in petrochemical unit. A discussion is made on a dual solenoid valve configuration which can achieve redundant configuration of signal loop of on-off valve to reduce mal-operation trip due to cable break, analyze de-energization interlock and energization interlock, illustrate pneumatic hook-up and logic design of dual solenoid valve, briefly introduce dual solenoid valve operation philosophyand malfunction analysis, and its actual application.%安全性在石油化工装置设计与正常运行中起着很重要的作用,保证安全性的前提下按照ALARP经济分析评估的原则,如何避免误停车同样得到越来越多的重视,特别是针对误停车会带来较大经济损失的场合,适当的冗余设计在石油化工装置中被较广泛地采用.讨论了采用双电磁阀配置实现切断阀电磁阀信号线路的冗余配置,以减少因电缆断线引起的误停车.分析了失电联锁和得电联锁.列举了双电磁阀气路设计及逻辑设计,简介了电磁阀工作原理及故障分析,最后简要说明了实际设计中的应用.

  3. Implementation of a quantum cascade laser-based gas sensor prototype for sub-ppmv H2S measurements in a petrochemical process gas stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Harald; Pölz, Walter; Waclawek, Johannes Paul; Ofner, Johannes; Lendl, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of a sensitive and selective as well as industrial fit gas sensor prototype based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (2f-WMS) employing an 8-μm continuous-wave distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (CW-DFB-QCL) for monitoring hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at sub-ppm levels is reported. Regarding the applicability for analytical and industrial process purposes aimed at petrochemical environments, a synthetic methane (CH4) matrix of up to 1000 ppmv together with a varying H2S content was chosen as the model environment for the laboratory-based performance evaluation performed at TU Wien. A noise-equivalent absorption sensitivity (NEAS) for H2S targeting the absorption line at 1247.2 cm(-1) was found to be 8.419 × 10(-10) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2), and a limit of detection (LOD) of 150 ppbv H2S could be achieved. The sensor prototype was then deployed for on-site measurements at the petrochemical research hydrogenation platform of the industrial partner OMV AG. In order to meet the company's on-site safety regulations, the H2S sensor platform was installed in an industry rack and equipped with the required safety infrastructure for protected operation in hazardous and explosive environments. The work reports the suitability of the sensor prototype for simultaneous monitoring of H2S and CH4 content in the process streams of a research hydrodesulfurization (HDS) unit. Concentration readings were obtained every 15 s and revealed process dynamics not observed previously.

  4. Neurotoxicological effects on marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis caged at petrochemical contaminated areas (eastern Sicily, Italy): ¹H NMR and immunohistochemical assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Tiziana; Maisano, Maria; Giannetto, Alessia; Parrino, Vincenzo; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2015-03-01

    The neurotoxicological potential of environmental pollution, mainly related to petrochemical activities, was investigated in marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, are widely used as sentinel organisms in biomonitoring studies for assessing the impact of anthropogenic contaminants. The gills, mainly involved in nutrient uptake, digestion, gas exchange and neuronal signaling, are the first organ to be affected by pollutants present in the external environment, and therefore were selected as the target organ for this study. Mussels from an aquaculture farm were caged at a highly polluted petrochemical area and a reference site along the Augusta coastline (eastern Sicily, Italy) for one month. A battery of biomarkers indicative of neuronal perturbations was applied on gills in order to investigate on the serotonergic (i.e. serotonin, 5-HT, and its receptor, 5-HT3R), cholinergic (i.e. acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase, AChE, and choline acetyltransferase, ChAT), and dopaminergic systems (i.e. tyrosine and tyrosine hydroxylase, TH). Overall, impairment in the normal ciliary motility was found in mussels caged at the polluted site. Alterations in serotoninergic and cholinergic systems were revealed, with enhancement of dopaminergic neurotransmission resulting in a cilio-inhibitory effect. However, the over-expression in 5-HT3R and ChAT at cellular level may indicate an adaptive response of mussels to recover a regular physiological activity in gills. To our knowledge, this is the first study that uses (1)H NMR and immunohistochemical assays. Their concurrent use demonstrated to be sensitive and effective for assessing environmental influences on the health status of aquatic organisms, and thus suitable to be applied in ecotoxicological studies.

  5. 工程管理软件Project 2007在化工装置大修应用%Project 2007 Application in Petrochemical Plant Overhaul

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌

    2015-01-01

    The aoverhaul implementation phase of modern petrochemical plant is a complicated process management.Our traditional methods of personnel control, machines and tools calculation and target performance monitoring are not applicable anymore in realizing the effective deploy of resources and overall management of the operation process, more effective supplementary instrument is needed. The Microsoft software Project 2007 , which was powerful in practicability and operability, was recommended. By real cases analyzing, the importance and utility of Project 2007 in petrochemical plant overhaul process management in personnel control, machines and tools calculation and target performance monitoring were discussed.%现代石油化工装置大修实施阶级是一项复杂的过程管理,用传统的方法统计人员、机具数量及任务完成情况,从而实行资源有效的调配,实现施工作业过程的管理,已不适用,必须要有高效的辅助手段.微软公司发布Project 2007软件功能强大、实用性、操作性都能满足此方面的要求.本文通过具体案例的分析,探讨利用Project 2007软件在大修实施过程中如何进行人员、机具及任务完成的统计.

  6. Increment of the operational stability of the NGL I plant located in the Tablazo Petrochemical Complex, working with a low feed gas flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Alejandro

    2004-07-01

    The function of the plant NGL I is to extract the ethane and the liquids of the current of natural gas coming from Maracaibo Lake, emphatically in the ethane and propane for being a raw material for the olefins synthesis. The needed temperature for the condensation takes place cooling the dehydrated feed gas, by means of the heat exchange with two currents, cooling propane and the other cold methane gas. In 1998 some improvements to the plant were made, which are known as (MERE) (Ethane Recovery Improvements Project), these modifications were made in order to enhance the ethane recovery during the process, however, when it started to work under this modifications high instability in the performance of the compressor located in the refrigeration system was observed, which produced the shutdown of the ethane recovery process when working with feed gas stream flow rates (under 130 MMSCFD). Moreover, during the last years a decrease in the feed gas flow has been observed, in a mean of 120 MMSCFD, which has had a negative effect on the plant, because it has worked in a non-continuous state. Thanks to several improvements implemented in the actuality, we have achieved to diminish the minimal flow of operation of the plant to 95 MMPCSD, allowing the ethane production at this flow of feeding and increased the operational stability of the plant of LNG I. (author)

  7. SWOT Analysis of Fujian Province's Undertaking Petrochemical Industry from Taiwan District%福建承接台湾石化产业转移的SWOT分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛建雄

    2012-01-01

    闽台五缘相连,石化产业区际转移合力有利于福建承接台湾石化产业转移。在前人研究的基础上,从区际产业转移力入手,综合考虑经济因素和非经济因素,应用SWOT量化分析法对影响闽台石化产业转移对接的潜在竞争对手的优势、劣势、机会、挑战等因素进行分析,确定福建省在争取承接台湾石化产业过程中应采取SO发展策略。福建省应对内继续提升产业承接拉力,对外加强对台招商引资力度,把握海西建设和闽台石化产业转移的战略机遇,尽力争取承接台湾石化产业转移并发展壮大,在未来闽台跨海石化产业整合中抢占先机。%Fujian province,geographically and culturally,closely related with Taiwan district,is advantageous of undertaking the Taiwan petrochemical industry transferring.Based on the former research and the consideration of economic factors and non-economic factors,as well as the joined forces between petrochemical industry districts,the quantitative SWOT is applied to analyze the advantages and disadvantages,opportunities and challenges of the potential competitors,who have effects on petrochemical industry transferring between Fujian province and Taiwan district,in order to adopt SO development strategy in Fujian province's undertaking petrochemical industry from Taiwan.Fujian province should promote the industrial undertaking forces as well as attract more investment in order to seize the strategic opportunities in the building of Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone,accomplish the development after undertaking Taiwan petrochemical industry and grab the opportunities in advance with regard to the petrochemical industry reconstruction between Fujian province and Taiwan district.

  8. 石化行业销售物流集中化的分析与展望%The Analysis of Centralized Storage Model in Petrochemical Logistics and Its Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽华; 索寒生

    2012-01-01

    Based on the status of the petrochemical industry sales logistics, this paper introduces the Centralized Storage Model. It analyzes the four superiorities of the Centralized Storage Model from both the qualitative angle and the quantitative angle, so as to supply new thinking for the development and reform of the petrochemical industry sales logistics.%立足石化行业销售物流的现状,提出物流集中化模型,从定性与定量两个角度分析集中仓储模式的四大优势,为石化行业销售物流的发展及改革提供新的思路。

  9. Development of enterprise mobile informatization trend and application in petrochemical industry%企业移动信息化发展趋势及在石化行业的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘远

    2014-01-01

    This paper from the business characteristics of petrochemical industry, combined with the current development of mobile technology and application, describes the typical application of mobile information as whenever and wherever possible, fragmentation, easy to use and diversity of application and mobile information technology in petrochemical industry.%本文从石化行业业务的特点出发,结合目前移动技术及应用的发展,阐述了移动信息化的随时随地、碎片化、简单易用及多样化应用的特点以及移动信息化在石化行业的典型应用。

  10. Risk-based HAZOP analysis method for petrochemical unit%石化装置基于风险的HAZOP分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽杰; 康建新

    2012-01-01

    为了更加有效地辨识石化装置生产中的潜在危险,将风险评价与危险与可操作性( HAZOP)分析相结合,建立了基于风险的HAZOP分析方法.文中首先介绍了基于风险的HAZOP分析流程,在偏差的危险工况分析中引入风险评价,并在传统的二因素风险评价基础上,为了更准确地评价现有安全措施是否对事故具有预测和控制能力,定义了第3个因素——不可控制度.然后建立了风险三因素的评价准则,并确定出风险的表i征方法,最后提出基于风险的决策方法,即根据偏差的风险评价等级确定针对性的安全管理建议.以某石化公司常减压装置为例进行了基于风险的HAZOP分析.结果表明,基于风险的HAZOP分析方法可以为石化装置安全管理提供定量化的决策依据,从而使有限的资源得到合理地配置.%In order to identify potential hazard more effectively in the process of petrochemical unit, risk-based Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) analysis method was developed by combining HAZOP analysis with risk evaluation. Firstly, the process of risk-based HAZOP analysis was presented. Risk evaluation was introduced into the hazard condition analysis of deviation. Based on the conventional risk evaluation method of two factors, the third factor-uncontrollability was defined to evaluate more accurately whether the existing security measures could predict and control the accident. Then, the risk evaluation criteria of three factors were established, and risk characterization method was determined. Lastly, risk-based decision method was proposed, that is, the determination of the pointed safety management recommendation was based on the risk ranking of deviation. The risk-based HAZOP analysis for crude oil unit in some petrochemical corporation was carried out as a case study. The results show that risk-based HAZOP method can provide quantitative decision making basis for the safety management of petrochemical unit

  11. Design of Petrochemical Enterprise Work Site Safety Management System%石油化工企业生产现场安全管理系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中雪; 许建军

    2012-01-01

    石油化工企业安全管理的重点在生产现场,落实各项规章制度和操作规程,按时到位巡检,及时发现隐患是生产现场安全的基本前提,也是石油化工企业安全管理的一道重要防线.通过分析大型石化企业作业现场安全管理现状,提出一种石化行业生产作业现场安全管理系统设计方案.该系统基于无线局域网络、手持电脑、二维条码和RFID等技术,实现生产作业现场的巡检智能化管理、电子作业许可证签发和厂区人员进出管控等多个功能.%The key point of security management for petrochemical enterprise is production field. The basic premise of safety is carrying out regulations and procedures, and inspecting and finding hidden danger on time in place. The safety management of petrochemical enterprise is an important thing. Through the analysis of safety management situation of petrochemical industry production operation site, the paper puts forward a design scheme of petrochemical operation site safety management system. Based on the wireless network, handheld computers, two dimensional barcode and RFID technology, this system realizes the site inspection of intelligent management, electronic permit to work issue and the control, personnel entering and leaving, and other functions.

  12. Discussion on Investor Relations Management Mode in Petrochemical Enterprises%石化企业投资者关系管理模式探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐伟忠

    2014-01-01

    Taking SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited as instance,the establishment of investor relations management (IRM)mode in petrochemical enterprises was discussed.Based on the twenty years’ experience in investor relations,the company established related rules and regulations to normalize the behaviors in IRM,expanded the channels for communication with investors to realize diversified mutual reaction between the company and investors,and divide investors into different sorts to take pointed IRM tactics.To comply with the new characteristics in capital market,proposals were raised for perfecting the current IRM mode,including enhancing teambuilding of IRM,enriching the contents in"investor relations’column in the website of the company,strengthening cooperation with financial intermediaries,and so on.%以中国石化上海石油化工股份有限公司为例,对石化企业投资者管理模式的建立进行了探讨,依据投资者关系管理多年的工作经验建立了相关的制度,规范了投资者关系管理相关行为,对投资者扩展了沟通渠道,实现了投资者与公司多元化的互动,并且细分投资者类型,采取具有针对性的投资者关系策略。根据当前资本市场的新特征,提出对投资者关系管理的模式采取新的改变,包括加强投资者关系管理队伍建设,丰富公司网站“投资者关系”主页内容及加强与中介机构的合作等新思路。

  13. [Pollution by heavy metals in the petrochemical sewage waters of the sea area of Daya Bay and assessment on potential ecological risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shan-Nan; Li, Chun-Hou; Xu, Jiao-Jiao; Xiao, Ya-Yuan; Lin, Lin; Huang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to gain a clear understanding on the status of pollution by heavy metals in the petrochemical sewage and the potential ecological risk caused by heavy metal pollution in the sea area of Daya Bay. The contents and spatial distributions of heavy metals including Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, As and Hg in seawater, sediment and fishes collected from Daya Bay were analyzed. The comprehensive pollution index (CPI) and ecological risk indexes (ERIs) were used to evaluate the contaminated severity and potential ecological risks of heavy metals in seawater and sediment. The results showed that the contents of these heavy metals, except for those of Zn and Pb, in several stations set in Daya Bay from 2011 to 2012 were relatively low, which were lower than the quality standard of class I according to the China National Standard Criteria for Seawater Quality, suggesting that the seawater in Daya Bay has not been polluted yet by these heavy metals. The average CPI of heavy metals in seawater during flooding season (0.72) was higher than that during dry season (0.38) whereas the average CPI of heavy metals in sediment during dry season (7.77) was higher than that during flooding season (5.70). Hg was found to be the primary contaminating heavy metal in sediment during dry season, which was followed by As and Zn whereas during flooding season, Hg was the primary contaminating metal in sediment, followed by Zn and Cu. The contents of these 7 heavy metals in fishes collected from the surveyed areas were lower than those of the standard requirements. A correlation analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the correlations between the midst of the heavy metals in sea water and the different periods. The ERIs of heavy metals in sediment during dry season (129.20) was higher than that during flooding season (102.86), and 25% of the sampling sites among all stations were under the risk of high-level alarm. The potential ERIs of heavy metals in sediment in

  14. Material-flow Modeling Technology and Its Application in Manufacturing Execution Systems of Petrochemical Industry%石化MES中的物流建模技术及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德芳; 刘鲁; 朱炜; 荣冈

    2008-01-01

    The management and control of material flow forms the core of manufacturing execution systems (MES) in the petrochemical industry. The bottleneck in the application of MES is the ability to match the material-flowmodel with the production processes. A dynamic material-flow model is proposed in this paper after an analysis of the material-flow characteristics of the production process in a petrochemical industry. The main material-flow events are described, including the movement, storage, shifting, recycling, and elimination of the materials. The spatial and temporal characters of the material-flow events are described, and the material-flow model is con-structod. The dynamic material-flow model introduced herein is the basis for other subsystems in the MES. In addi-tion, it is the subsystem with the least scale in MES. The dynamic-modeling method of material flow has been ap-plied in the development of the SinoMES model. It helps the petrochemical plant to manage the entire flow infor-mation related to tanks and equipments from the aspects of measurement, storage, movement, and the remaining balance of the material. As a result, it matches the production process by error elimination and data reconciliation. In addition, it facilitates the integration of application modules into the MES and guarantees the potential develop-ment of SinoMES in future applications.

  15. The Analysis of a Microbial Community in the UV/O3-Anaerobic/Aerobic Integrated Process for Petrochemical Nanofiltration Concentrate (NFC Treatment by 454-Pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wei

    Full Text Available In this study, high-throughput pyrosequencing was applied on the analysis of the microbial community of activated sludge and biofilm in a lab-scale UV/O3- anaerobic/aerobic (A/O integrated process for the treatment of petrochemical nanofiltration concentrate (NFC wastewater. NFC is a type of saline wastewater with low biodegradability. From the anaerobic activated sludge (Sample A and aerobic biofilm (Sample O, 59,748 and 51,231 valid sequence reads were obtained, respectively. The dominant phylotypes related to the metabolism of organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH biodegradation, assimilation of carbon from benzene, and the biodegradation of nitrogenous organic compounds were detected as genus Clostridium, genera Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, class Betaproteobacteria, and genus Hyphomicrobium. Furthermore, the nitrite-oxidising bacteria Nitrospira, nitrite-reducing and sulphate-oxidising bacteria (NR-SRB Thioalkalivibrio were also detected. In the last twenty operational days, the total Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and Total Organic Carbon (TOC removal efficiencies on average were 64.93% and 62.06%, respectively. The removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen and Total Nitrogen (TN on average were 90.51% and 75.11% during the entire treatment process.

  16. Biodegradation of BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes) composites present in the petrochemical effluents industries; Biodegradacao dos compostos BTX (Benzeno, Tolueno e Xilenos) presentes em efluentes petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minatti, Gheise; Mello, Josiane M.M. de; Souza, Selene M.A. Guelli Ulson de; Antonio Augusto Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The compounds BTX inside of the petrochemical effluent have presented a high potential of pollution, representing a serious risk to the environment and to the human. The great improvements in the field of biological treatment of liquid effluent were reached through the process using biofilm capable of degrading toxic compounds. The objective of this paper is to determine the degradation kinetics of BTX using biofilm. The experimental data were compared with two kinetic models, kinetic of first order and model of Michaelis-Menten. The kinetic parameters of BTX compounds were experimentally obtained in a bioreactor in batch with biomass immobilized in activated-carbon, being fed daily with solution of nutrients and BTX. For the kinetic models studied in this paper, the best performance was achieved with the model of Michaelis-Menten showing a good correlation coefficient for the three compounds. The biomass amount in these bioreactors was 49.18, 28.35 and 5.15 mg of SSV per gram of support for the toluene, benzene and o-xylene, respectively. The experimental tests showed that the biomass inside of bioreactor is capable to degrade all compounds in a time of approximately 300 minutes. (author)

  17. Source fingerprint monitoring of air pollutants from petrochemical industry and the determination of their annual emission flux using open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yih-Shiaw Huang; Shih-Yi Chang; Tai-Ly Tso [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (China)

    1996-12-31

    Toxic air pollutants were investigated in several petrochemical industrial park in Taiwan using a movable open-path Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show the qualitative and quantitative analysis of emission gases from plants, and also provide the emission rates of various compounds. More than twenty compounds under usual operation were found from these industrial park. The concentration variation with time could be correlated exactly with the distances from the emission source along the wind direction. This means that by changing the measuring points the source of emission could be unambiguously identified. The point, area and line source (PAL) plume dispersion model has been applied to estimate the emission rate of either a point or an area source. The local atmospheric stability was determined by releasing an SF{sub 6} tracer. The origin of errors came mainly from the uncertainty of the source configuration and the variation of the meteorological condition. Through continuous measurement using a portable open-path Fourier transform infrared (POP-FTIR) spectrometer, the maximum value of the emission rate and the annual amount of emission could be derived. The emission rate of the measured toxic gases was derived by the model technique, and the results show that the emission amount is on the order of ten to hundred tons per year.

  18. 石油化工作业对工人呼吸系统的影响%Effect of Petrochemical Operations on the Respiratory System of Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小峰

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the effect of petrochemical operations on health of workers, and grasp the health conditions of workers and the main influencing factors. [Methods] A total of 352 workers from a petrochemical plant were recruited as exposure group; another 247 administrative cadres from the same plant and school teachers were selected as control group. All of them were asked to use a unified approach to investigate the history of professional, past history, family history, smoking and drinking history, history of present illness, and received occupational health inspection. Occupational health factors were analyzed simultaneously. [ Results] The detection rate of chronic upper respiratory tract disease among petrochemical operation workers was 53.7% , compared with the control group the difference was significant (P <0.01). Among which chronic pharyngitis, chronic tonsillitis and chronic rhinitis, accounted for 77.2% , 6.4% and 16.4% , respectively. X-ray showed 2 enlarged lung markings, such as abnormal changes in disorder, the rate of abnormal contact group (12.5% ) was significantly higher than the control group (3. 3% ) (P <0.05). In exposure group, lung function indexes measured was significantly lower than expected value (P <0.05) ; upper respiratory tract diseases incidence and abnormal rate of lung function increased with the extending length of service, and the difference was significant (P <0.01). [ Conclusion] Petrochemical operations cause a certain harm to the respiratory system of workers. Therefore, regularly dynamic observation should be implemented on them.%目的 了解石油化工作业对工人职业健康的影响,掌握作业工人的职业健康状况和主要职业影响因素。方法 以某石油化工厂职工352人作接触组;以不接触职业危害因素的该厂行政干部、学校老师247人作对照组,对接触组和对照组均用统一的询问方法调查职业史、既往史、家族史

  19. 石化装置大检修第三方HSE管理探讨%Discussion on Third-party HSE Management during the Petrochemical Plants Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绪鹏; 辛平

    2012-01-01

    近年来,为加强装置大检修过程的HSE管理,部分石化企业在装置大检修过程中引入第三方HSE管理,取得了优秀的HSE业绩。总结近年石化装置大检修HSE管理实践经验,阐述了第三方HSE管理的概念及模式,并对第三方HSE管理的优势和实旄的具体做法进行了探讨,以为石化装置大检修的HSE管理提供参考。%In recent years, in order to strengthen HSE management, some petrochemiacal companies introduce the third-party HSE management during the plants maintenance, and have made excellent HSE performance. Summary of experience in the HSE management practice in recent years, this paper introduces the conception and the mode of third-party HSE management during the petrochemical plants maintenance, and discusses the advantages and the implementing method of third-party HSE management to provide reference for HSE management.

  20. Overview of Major Capital Petrochemical Project Information Management Strategy%大型石化建设工程项目信息管理策略探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴洪亮

    2014-01-01

    The information management related challenges and difficulties faced by the project management teams of major capital petrochemical projects were explored. Coping strategies were developed from the perspectives of enhanced training, unified standards, optimized process, strengthened supervision and advanced software, which can provide some guidance to the project management teams to better achieve their information management goals.%对大型石化建设工程项目团队在从事项目信息管理工作的过程中所面临挑战和问题进行了初步分析和探讨,从强化人员培训,统一工作标准,优化工作流程,加强监督,运用先进的软件等方面提出了相应的对策与建议,对工程建设项目团队更好地开展信息管理工作具有借鉴意义。

  1. Hybrid environment for software sensors design applied to the petrochemical industry problems; Ambiente hibrido para a concepcao de sensores de software aplicados aos problemas da industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Bruno X.; Ramalho, Leonardo S.G.; Rodrigues, Igor O.; Martins, Daniel L.; Doria Neto, Adriao D.; Melo, Jorge D.; Oliveira, Luiz A.H.G.G. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article will show a hybrid environment for the conception of software sensors in Foundation Fieldbus (FF) industrial network. These sensors are focused on the measurement and control problems in the petroleum industry, more specifically in oil and gas refining, contributing for the efficiency increase and operation costs decrease of a refining process. The software sensors are based on intelligent algorithms, as neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. These algorithms need input data, in this case the historical variables data associated to industrial petrochemical plant. One option allowed by the environment is the data acquisition from a simulated process by the FF network. Then, the environment presents a hybrid feature, since it is composed by a real (the industrial network) and a simulated (the process) part, with the use of real control and measurements signals. The environment is flexible, allowing typical dynamics of industrial process reproduction without necessity of the physical network amendment and enabling the creation of several situations from a real industrial environment. (author)

  2. Management of safety, environment and health in expansion of the Petrochemical industry; Gestao de seguranca, meio ambiente e saude na ampliacao da industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Sonia Marta Carpinelli; Abreu, Igor Melo de [UTC Engenharia S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The UTC Engineering S.A. search for excellence results to develop the Health, Environmental, and Safety Integrated Management System (SMS) which is addressed to the Petrochemical Uniao S.A. Project for Productivity Capacity Expansion. Despite challenges to set and maintain the System and besides risks associated to electro-mechanical industrial assembly and civil construction, the plan is being implemented. Due to activity changes associated with distinct enterprise steps execution there is a need of tight control related to alteration and immediate blockage actions as procedure to prevent accidents. Innovative programs as the 'Motivation Program for Prevention of Losses' and the 'Qualification Program and Training of Work', bring up to the workers sense of responsibilities and professional values related to SMS issues. As an aid, the Programs supplied by DuPont as STOP{sup TM} - (Program of Safety for Observation) and IAS (Index of Safe Actions) constituted important tools. But, its production leadership taking part, concerned SMS commitment and responsibilities, was crucial. The good results achievements are expressed by reduction of SMS distortions and by reduction of labor accidents as man hour exposed to the risk. (author)

  3. Asimilación del Almacén de Datos en las Organizaciones Corporativas Petroquímicas Data Warehouse Assimilation in the Petrochemical Corporative Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo que se presenta fue analizar el proceso de asimilación del almacén de datos en las organizaciones corporativas petroquímicas en el estado de Tamaulipas-México. Se evaluó el efecto del grado de adopción de la tecnología por el capital humano de la organización, y en la toma de decisiones. El proceso de asimilación del almacén de datos en el caso estudiado, disminuye el tiempo, traduciéndose en un incremento de la exactitud y precisión para la toma de decisiones. Esto se refleja en un 93.9% en la rentabilidad. Sin embargo, el estudio muestra también que no se explotan al máximo las potencialidades del almacén de datos.The purpose of this work was to analyze the data warehouse assimilation process in the petrochemical corporative organizations in the state of Tamaulipas-Mexico. The effect of the adoption degree among the personnel, and in making decisions was evaluated. The process of adoption of the data warehouse in the case studied in this work reduces time, which causes an increase in the accuracy and precision of decision making. This is shown by the 93.9% profit. However, the study also shows that the maximum potentialities of the data warehouse are not fully used.

  4. 韩国石油化工工艺安全管理(PSM)的发展及特点%Development and features of process safety management (PSM) of petrochemical industry in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉乔

    2016-01-01

    Korea is an important country of manufacturing petrochemical products. Korean process safety management (PSM) level of petrochemical industry is in advanced one all over the world. In the paper the background for legislation of PSM system in Korea is introduced and the contents concerning PSM law are presented. Grading system is an unique feature of Korean PSM,so the evaluation procedure of the workplaces subject to the PSM regulations and grading standards are emphatically introduced. The authorities conduct an inspection or take other administrative measures taking into account the grading results. Finally,the effectiveness of KOSHA PSM is confirmed by comparison of safety situation before and after implication of PSM. The petrochemical industry in China has developed quickly in the recent two decades,especially construction of the chemical industry park. Thus,the risk management has been a key issue for Chinese government and petrochemical enterprises. Understanding the growing way of KOSHA PSM has a reference value to start and develop the process safety management for Chinese petrochemical enterprises.%韩国是世界上重要的石油化工产品生产国,其石化行业的工艺安全管理(PSM)水平处于国际先进地位。本文介绍了韩国引进美国OSHA的PSM体系的工业背景及韩国KOSHA PSM体系的主要内容;企业分级管理是韩国PSM的独有特色,本文重点介绍了韩国PSM体系的分级制度,详细说明劳动部对企业PSM实施状况的评价过程及分级标准,以分级结果为依据对不同级别的企业采取相应的管理监控措施。最后,通过对比PSM实施前后韩国石化行业安全生产状况,证实韩国PSM的效果。近二十年来中国石油化工产业快速发展,尤其是化学工业园的建设,使得风险管理成为亟待解决的问题。了解韩国PSM的发展之路对于中国石化企业开展工艺安全管理工作具有参考价值和借鉴意义。

  5. Carney Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Carney Complex Request Permissions Carney Complex Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/2015 What is Carney complex? Carney complex is a hereditary condition associated with: ...

  6. Spectroscopic Characterization of Stability and Interaction of Pd-Ag Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad V. Lande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of their use as catalysts, photocatalysts, adsorbents, and sensors as well as their application in optical, electronic, and magnetic devices. Supported bimetallic systems represent a large part of heterogeneous catalysts which have been used in various reactions important in the chemical, petrochemical, and oil industry. Pd-Ag bimetallic nanocatalysts have become vitally important in some of the petrochemical industry’s processes like hydrogenation of C2–C5 olefins. A heat-treatment method for the preparation of well-stable Pd-Ag complexes is demonstrated using water, concentrated HCl and concentrated nitric acid as media. The stability and interaction of Pd-Ag complexes were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Pd-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles of spherical cubic and octahedral shape in the range of average particle size of 20–60 nm have been prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM.

  7. Complex Beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschet, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Complex systems and their underlying convoluted networks are ubiquitous, all we need is an eye for them. They pose problems of organized complexity which cannot be approached with a reductionist method. Complexity science and its emergent sister network science both come to grips with the inherent complexity of complex systems with an holistic strategy. The relevance of complexity, however, transcends the sciences. Complex systems and networks are the focal point of a philosophical, cultural ...

  8. "Zero Discharge" Process for Reverse Osmosis-Concentrated Petrochemical Wastewater%石化污水反渗透浓水“零排放”技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正; 彭海珠; 孙杰; 赵辉; 龚小芝; 侯秀华

    2012-01-01

    采用微滤—反渗透(RO)—蒸发—结晶工艺处理某石化企业的RO浓水,实现了RO浓水的“零排放”.试验结果表明:经加碱、微滤后,污水硬度平均减小率为98.8%,排出的滤渣平均质量分数为9.4%,减少了污水中有机物和微生物对后续RO膜的污染;微滤产水无需降低pH,可直接进入RO系统,电导率减小率可达98.0%;蒸发可将总固体质量浓度由13 290 mg/L增至172 155 mg/L,产水电导率为66 μS/cm.%Reverse osmosis(RO) concentrated wastewater from a petrochemical plant was treated by microfiltration-RO-evaporation-crystallization process realizing "zero discharge" . The test results show that: After alkali addition and microfiltration, the average decreasing rate of the wastewater hardness is 98.8%, the average mass fraction of the filter residue is 9,4%, therefor the fouling of RO membrane due to organic compounds and microorganism in the wastewater is reduced; The microfiltration effluent can flow into the RO system without pH reducing, the decreasing rate of RO effluent conductivity can reach 98.0%; In the evaporation process, the total solid mass concentration is increased from 13 290 mg/L to 172 155 mg/ L, its effluent conductivity is 66 μS/cm.

  9. 石化企业地下污水管道防渗设计%Petrochemical Enterprises Underground Waste Water Pipe Seepage Control Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石玉峰

    2015-01-01

    According to the state of groundwater resources pollution prevention and control requirements in recent years, the new petrochemical projects and built devices may produce leakage , and leakage and pollution of underground sewage pipes need to be required to take anti -seepage measures.In order to protect groundwater resources and the experience of engineering , some of the common choice of underground sewage pipeline was briefly introduced , and some of the underground sewage pipeline was chosen , such as the impermeable membrane , the impermeable pipe trench and the impermeable casing.The suitable condition , the merit and the shortcoming of the seepage control and the measure that can be found in time after the pipeline leakage were described.%根据近几年来国家对地下水资源污染防控要求,新建石油化工项目、已建成装置可能产生渗漏、泄漏污染的地下污水管道均需采取防渗措施。为了保护地下水资源,结合工程经验,简单介绍了工程设计中常选择的几种地下污水管道防渗方式,防渗膜、防渗管沟及防渗套管。并叙述了这几种防渗方式的适用条件、优缺点,以及管道发生渗漏后能及时被发现的措施。

  10. Web Access Control on Petrochemical Information Service System%石油化工信息系统Web权限管理的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾红阳; 郭力; 李晓霞; 杨章远; 姜林; 陈晓青

    2001-01-01

    对Web权限控制进行了研究分析和应用。首先分析了进行权限控制的必要性;介绍了进行权限控制的几种实现形式,包括利用Web Server本身权限管理工具,通过在ASP/PHP页面中嵌入权限认证代码,或是将二者结合;最后,基于Apache服务器开发了图形化的权限管理系统,并已将它应用在Internet石化信息服务系统中。该软件可以方便地完成增删改用户/组,为用户/组设定权限,限制某些IP对本系统的访问等功能;并可以方便地移植到其他类似系统中。%Web Access Control is analyzed and applied to information service system in this article. First, the need of Access Control is discussed. Second, a few of implementation methods are introduced . Web servers have access control functions by itself. In addition, we may insert some codes in ASP/PHP page to check access rights. CGI/ISAPI may use either or both of the above methods. As to Internet Petrochemical Information Service System, we design and complete a software to finish this job. It has a series of functions such as add, delete, edit users/groups' information, grant or revoke access to users/groups, allow or deny some IPs to access the information system, etc. It can also be applied to other similar information systems conveniently.

  11. Sobretensiones por Resonancia Serie en el Sistema de Potencia de Plantas Petroquímicas Series Resonance Overvoltages in Petrochemical Plant Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J García

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo presentado en este artículo fue determinar las condiciones en que se presentan sobretensiones debidas al fenómeno de resonancia electromagnética en el sistema eléctrico de potencia de plantas petroquímicas de México. El análisis se efectuó a través de simulaciones del sistema eléctrico en condiciones de falla utilizando ATPDraw. Los resultados muestran que la resonancia se presenta en un intervalo de 2 a 18.5 kHz con una magnitud máxima de 20.5 p.u. Se encontró que este fenómeno está asociado con el esquema de aterrizamiento de los equipos de potencia de la planta. Para evitar la presencia de estas sobretensiones se requiere modificar el esquema de interconexión de los equipos de potencia. De acuerdo con el análisis realizado se determinó que es necesario aislar eléctricamente los generadores a través de transformadores de unidad en conexión delta-estrella.The purpose of this study was to determine the conditions under which resonance overvoltages occur in the petrochemical plant power system in Mexico. This analysis was carried out by means of simulations of the electrical system using ATPDraw under fault conditions. The simulation results showed that the resonance appeared from 2 to 18.5 kHz, with a maximum magnitude of 20.5 p.u. It was found that this phenomenon depended on the grounding scheme of the plant. Modification of the interconnection scheme of the power system was required in order to avoid these overvoltages. Based on the simulations carried out, it was necessary to electrically isolate the generators using unit transformers in a delta - star connection.

  12. eveloping strategy of petro-chemical equipment in the period of the tenth five-year plan. CPM%石化装备“十五”发展思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王廷俊

    2001-01-01

    A solid foundation has been constructed for the development of China Petrochemical Group after regrouping. In the period of the tenth five-year plan, new measures for economic growth will be adopted, including strengthening technical reform and technical innovation, and importing capital, technical and management modes. To improve the competitiveness in the market of petrochemical equipment, some advanced equipment should be developed. The goal of developing petrochemical equipment in the tenth five-year plan is: the technique of refining equipment reaching the world level at the beginning of the 21st century, and the technique of petrochemical and petroleum exploration and development equipment reaching the world level in the late 1990s. With the development of petroleum and petrochemical industry, more demands on relevant equipment are put forward. The manufacturers must pay more attention to the quality and reliability of their products, and keep on developing new products to meet the need of the petroleum and petrochemical production processes.%经过改革重组,中国石化集团已具备良好的发展基础。“十五”期间,将切实改变经济增长方式,坚持技术进步、技术创新、技术改造和产业升级;积极引进资金、技术和管理方式,实现产权多元化。为保证中国石化较强的市场竞争力,要以经济效益为中心,通过对技术装备的引进、消化吸收和研制创新,开发具有自主知识产权的技术装备。重大装备国产化“十五”的目标是:炼油装备技术达到21世纪初的国际水平,石化和石油勘探开发装备技术达到20世纪90年代末的国际水平,逐步实现装备大型化、高效化、成套化。按投资计算,炼油、石化、化纤、化肥和石油勘探开发设备的国产化率将分别达到98%、80%、60%、95%和80%。石油石化工业的发展对装备提出了更高要求,机械制造企业必须重视产品的质量

  13. Trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias of registry-based data in Korea:a comparison between industrialized areas of petrochemical estates and a non-industrialized area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sae Chul Kim; Su Kyoung Kwon; Yeon Pyo Hong

    2011-01-01

    @@ This study aimed to represent the recent trends in the nationwide incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in Korea,and to determine whether there is evidence of spatial heterogeneity in the incidence.The incidence was calculated as the number of newly diagnosed patients (males) during the first 4 years after a live birth in a population,nationally and regionally (a non-industrialized area (Chuncheon) and petrochemical estates (Yeocheon and Ulsan)),between 2000 and 2005.The data (numerator) for new patients were acquired from the National Health Insurance Review Agency,and the data (denominator) for the resident registration population were from the National Statistical Office.Between 2000 and 2005,the national incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias had an increased tendency from 5.01 to 17.43per 10000 persons and from 1.40 to 3.28 per 10000 persons,respectively.The incidence of cryptorchidism was significantly higher in Yeocheon (throughout the study period) and in Ulsan (2001,2002,2004 and 2005) than the national incidence,whereas the incidence in Chuncheon was significantly lower in 2001 and 2002.It was difficult to compare the rates of hypospadias yearly and regionally because of the small number of cases.In conclusion,the incidence of cryptorchidism has recently increased in Korea.The petrochemical estates,Yeocheon and Ulsan,had a significantly higher incidence of cyptorchidism than the national incidence,which suggests that further study is needed to obtain a more precise estimation of the trends in the incidence of the anomalies and to confirm the association between petrochemicals and the anomalies.

  14. Applications of the System of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition in Petrochemical Enterprise%数据采集与监控系统在石油化工企业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海鹏; 戴波

    2014-01-01

    The system of supervisory control and data acquisition(SCADA)plays an important role in production management of petrochemical enterprise. In the paper,the present situation and problems in production management of petrochemical enterprise are discussed first. Taking the project of petrochemical works,it establish SCADA by using industrial communication gateway,isolation gateway and pSpace real-time database. With this system,the compatibility problems of data acquisition system interfaces with various transmission protocols are solved. It is easy to maintain the synchronization be-tween the production data and management data,and achieve the real-time production data acquisition and unified management. It is helpful to improve the production efficiency and the level of information management.%数据采集与监控(Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition,SCADA)系统在石油化工企业生产管理过程中发挥着重要的作用。本文通过研究目前石油化工企业生产管理的现状和存在的问题,并以某石油化工厂为例,设计了采用数采网关、隔离数采网关、pSpace 实时数据库建立的数据采集与监控系统,解决了各采集系统数据接口与传输协议的兼容问题,实现了对生产数据的实时采集和统一管理,保持了企业生产数据和管理数据的同步性和一致性,有助于提高企业的生产效率和信息化管理水平。

  15. 石化生产中三相异步电机维护技术的研究%Study of maintenance technique of three-phase asynchronous motor in petrochemical production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢

    2015-01-01

    石化生产中的三相异步电机是最常用的和最重要的电气设备之一,通常情况下,石化生产中三相异步电机的用途是将电机所产生的电能转换形成为所需的机械能。由于三相异步电机结构相对简单、工作实用方便、且耐用坚固易于维修。为了使三相异步电机能够在石化生产中安全稳定的运行工作需要对其进行一定的维护,尽可能的减少三相异步电机的故障。%The three-phase asynchronous motor is the most commonly used in petrochemical production and one of the most important electrical equipment. Under normal circumstances,the use of three-phase asynchronous motor in petrochemical production is to convert motor electrical energy generated by the formation to the desired mechanical energy. Because of the three-phase asynchronous motor is relatively simple in structure,convenient in practical work,strong and durable and easy to maintenance. Certain maintenance is needed for the three-phase asynchronous motor to operate in the petrochemical production safely and stably, and reduce its fault possibly.

  16. 基于三角模糊数的HAZOP分析在石油化工装置中的应用%Application of HAZOP analysis in the petrochemical plant based on triangular fuzzy numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文勇; 许芝瑞

    2012-01-01

    工艺危害分析强调运用系统的方法对危害进行辨识、分析,并采取必要的措施消除和减少危害.HAZOP分析能对工艺过程非常系统、全面的进行分析,但传统的HAZOP分析在量化风险时,对于偏差原因发生的可能性评价存在较大的主观性.本文对于没有统计资料的HAZOP分析偏差原因发生可能性,采用专家打分法,利用三角模糊数来表示其模糊发生概率.对于有统计资料的偏差原因,直接表示成三角模糊数.这种方法能够很好的表示HAZOP分析偏差发生概率.介绍了基于三角模糊数的HAZOP分析步骤,并在石油化工装置中进行了应用.这对HAZOP分析技术在石油化工装置中的推广具有重要意义.%Process hazard analysis stresses the use of systematic approach to identify hazards, analyze hazards, and take the necessary measures to eliminate and reduce hazards. HAZOP can analyze petrochemical process systems very systematicly and comprehensively, but the traditional HAZOP analysis does not assess the size of the risk. For no statistical data of the deviation for HAZOP analysis, using expert scoring method, represented the fuzzy probability with triangular fuzzy numbers. For statistical data of the deviation for HAZOP analysis, according to industry data , corporate experience and corporate risk analysis, the accident statistics database of HAZOP risk analysis was established. It could be expressed as triangular fuzzy numbers directly. This approach could well reflect the probability of deviation for HAZOP analysis. Accordingly the HAZOP risk analysis based on fuzzy numbers was applied in the petrochemical plant. In this paper the HAZOP anslysis steps based on triangular fuzzy numbers were descibed and the HAZOP analysis based on triangular fuzzy numerals was applied in the petrochemical plant. Based on the probability of the deviation reasons and the severity of the deviation consequences, the risk level was determined, and the

  17. A indústria petroquímica no próximo século: como substituir o petróleo como matéria-prima? The petrochemical industry in the next century: how to replace petroleum as raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Schuchardt

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The world reserves of petroleum will finish in about 100 years. For a tropical country like Brazil, biomass will be the natural substitute for petroleum. For the best utilization of biomass, it first needs to be separated into its principal components: cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignins, vegetable and essential oils, non-structural carbohydrates, bark and foliage. All feedstocks for the chemical industry can be obtained from these biomass components, as shown in the first part of this paper. In the second part we discuss how the major products from petrochemicals can be obtained from the different biomass components. We show that Brazil can use different strategies, compared to other countries, to obtain petrochemical products, which could result in innovations. However, it is necessary that the government starts to invest immediately in order to keep the petrochemical industries competitive with foreign industries, so that they continue to be one of Brazil's major employers.

  18. Bucolic Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Brešar, Bostjan; Chepoi, Victor; Gologranc, Tanja; Osajda, Damian

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we introduce and investigate bucolic complexes, a common generalization of systolic complexes and of CAT(0) cubical complexes. This class of complexes is closed under Cartesian products and amalgamations over some convex subcomplexes. We study various approaches to bucolic complexes: from graph-theoretic and topological viewpoints, as well as from the point of view of geometric group theory. Bucolic complexes can be defined as locally-finite simply connected prism complexes satisfying some local combinatorial conditions. We show that bucolic complexes are contractible, and satisfy some nonpositive-curvature-like properties. In particular, we prove a version of the Cartan-Hadamard theorem, the fixed point theorem for finite group actions, and establish some results on groups acting geometrically on such complexes. We also characterize the 1-skeletons (which we call bucolic graphs) and the 2-skeletons of bucolic complexes. In particular, we prove that bucolic graphs are precisely retracts of Ca...

  19. 石化企业云计算数据中心设计%Design of cloud computing data center in the petrochemical enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹卫民

    2013-01-01

    Under the background that SINOPEC is committing to be a world-class energy and chemical company, the construction of a first-class information technology capability is turning into an important strategic target. However, the standardization of enterprise IT management and the internal control processing has been proposed, the current chimney-like IT infrastructure can not meet the requirements that resources are distributed according to the need. Cloud computing is used widely, and the enterprise data center can be built based on this new technology. In this paper, a new design and application technique based on Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is presented for constructing cloud computing data center, in which the computing, storage, network, and security resource pools are designed in detail. Then the proposed method is applied to a petrochemical company. This cloud data center will establish a solid foundation for the application of information technology in the future.%随着中国石化建设世界一流能源化工公司的重大决策的制定,建设“世界一流信息化能力”的信息化战略目标提出,企业IT管理的标准化、内部控制的流程化,现有的烟囱式IT基础设施架构已不能满足按需分配资源需求。云计算的广泛实践为企业数据中心建设提供了技术基础。本文应用基础设施即服务(IaaS)架构对企业数据中心进行设计,对计算、存储、网络、安全等资源池进行了详细设计,并在企业进行了实施。本文提出的云计算数据中心可以为今后一个时期的石化企业信息化应用奠定基础。

  20. 智能化控制阀在石油化工中的应用设计%Application Design of Intelligent Control Valve in Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩

    2015-01-01

    阀门是流体管路的控制装置,它的基本功能是接通或切断管路介质的流通,改变介质的流动方向,调节介质的压力和流量,保护管路和设备的正常运行.随着科技的发展,智能控制被广泛应用于工业控制和工业生产中,阀门也被广泛应用于工业、建筑、农业、国防、科研和人们的日常生活中.它由最初的手动控制逐渐发展为智能化、标准化、小型化、安全化的控制,在生产中替代人力操作,使控制更精确、更合理、更安全.从控制阀智能化方面的内容入手,简要阐述了其在石油化工中的应用.%The valve is the control device of the fluid pipeline, its basic function is to connect or cut off the flow of the pipeline medium, changing the flow direction of the medium, adjust the pressure and flow of the media, and protect the normal operation of the pipeline and equipment. With the development of science and technology, intelligent control is widely used in industrial control and industrial production, the valve is widely used in industrial, construction, agriculture, national defense, scientific research and people's daily life. It is gradually developed from the initial manual control to intelligent, standardized, small, safe control, in the production of alternative human operation, so that control more accurate, more reasonable and more secure. In this paper, the content of intelligent control valve is discussed, and its application in petrochemical industry is briefly described.

  1. Recognizing subtle evidence for silicic magma derivation from petrochemically-similar arc crust: Isotopic and chemical evidence for the bimodal volcanic series of Gorely Volcanic Center, Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, A. N.; Bindeman, I. N.; Ellis, B. S.; Ponomareva, V.; Leonov, V.

    2012-12-01

    chemical compositions near the evolved ignimbrite compositions, strictly through 70-80% fractional crystallization at 1-2 kbars and NNO oxygen fugacity. The combination of light δ18O values as well as elevated 87Sr/86Sr and low 143Nd/144Nd values, in addition to the volumetric excess of silicic rocks suggest assimilation of the older and petrochemically-similar country-rocks (Karymshina volcano and/or the underlying Akhomten Massif). This research can be utilized for studies of other volcanoes at "long-term centers", underscoring the importance of using both isotopes and modeling of fractional crystallization to determine silicic magma derivation through coupled shallow crustal assimilation of similar older material and fractional crystallization.

  2. The Study of Volatile Odor Material from Petrochemical Wastewater and Its Influence for Human Olfactory%石化废水中挥发性恶臭物质调查及其对人体嗅觉的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾燕君; 周志军; 费蕾蕾

    2013-01-01

    The petrochemical wastewater can produce a mass of odor material .It can affect surroundings and it is harmful for human health .This paper studies releasing air sample from petrochemical wastewater .Tested the component of odors by machine ,and tested the odor concentration by olfaction experiment . Its can effectively recognize the kind、concentration of Odor material , and to the influence of human olfaction .%  石化废水可产生大量的挥发性恶臭物质,对周围环境与人群健康造成一定的影响。本文对石化废水挥发出来的恶臭物质进行了采样分析,采用仪器法对其恶臭物质的成分进行测定,同时采用人体嗅觉实验法测定其臭气浓度,从而有效识别挥发性恶臭物质的种类、浓度以及恶臭物质对人体嗅觉的影响。

  3. A Research on the Efficiency of Ozone Dosage dealing with the Secondary Effluent in the Lanzhou Petrochemical Company%臭氧投加量对兰州石化二级出水处理能效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛燕; 乔国亮; 杨浩; 陈现强

    2013-01-01

    探索了臭氧投加量对O3/UV组合工艺处理兰州石化公司二级出水中常规指标去除效果的影响。研究结果表明,当其他因素确定时,臭氧投加量在50mg/L时,O3/UV对CODcr和UV254的去除率最高,达到了39.55%和58.21%,说明O3/UV工艺对处理兰州石化二级出水有一定的效果,具有良好的应用前景。%In order to study the effect about ozone dosage on O3/UV combination technology in water treatment, this experiment studies the ozone dosage on O3/UV technology of the secondary effluent removal efficiency of conven-tional index in Lanzhou Petrochemical Company. The results show that:when the other factors are identified, the o-zone dosage on 50mg/L, O3/UV on CODcr and UV254 removal rate is the highest, reaching 39. 55% and 58. 21%. O3/UV technology has certain effect and good application prospects for the secondary effluent in Lanzhou Petro-chemical Company.

  4. 基于安全链的大型石化项目施工管理组织设计%Organization Design of Construction Management in Large-scale Petrochemical Projects Based on Safety Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雍瑞生; 丁烈云; 骆汉宾; 盛苗

    2011-01-01

    有效的HSE管理是石化企业持续改进,不断获得竞争优势的基础,其中安全管理对石化企业的长期运行尤为重要.影响安全管理的因素包括安全文化、组织结构、危险源辨识、风险评价和应急管理.在分析宁夏石化现有组织结构在安全管理中存在的问题后,基于安全链模型设计出某大型炼油改造项目组织结构的设计目标、思路与保证措施等的一系列改进措施.%Effective HSE management can make petrochemical enterprises improved constantly and gain a competitive advantage, in which safety management is very important to long-term operation. There are many factors affecting safety management such as safety culture, organizational structure, the hazard identification, risk assessment and emergency management. After analyzing the safety management problems in existing organizational structure for Ningxia Petrochemical Company, the organizational structure goal, ideals and ensuring methods for an oil refining project is designed based on safety chain model.

  5. Testing of Usually Used Valves Manufactured by API Standards of Piping Works for Watersupply and Drainage in Petrochemical Industry%石油化工给排水管道常用API标准制造阀门的试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成义祥

    2014-01-01

    该文介绍了石油化工给排水管道常用API标准制造阀门—闸阀、截止阀、蝶阀的试验项目及试验比例,通过在某大型石油化工项目的成功实践,证明了严格执行该阀门试验项目及试验比例对保证石油化工给排水管道施工质量的必要性、合理性。%Testing items and proportion of Usually Used Valves namely gate valve,globe valve, butterfly valve manufactured by API standards of piping worksfor watersupply and drainage in petrochemical industry is introduced. It is proved that strictly performing the testing items and proportion is essential and reasonable to ensure construction quality of piping works for watersupply and drainage in petr- ochemical industry through practicing in some large petrochemical project.

  6. The Iodine Nutritional Status of 2008 Cases of Pregnant Women in Beijing Yanshan Petrochemical Zone%北京燕山石化区2008例妊娠期女性碘营养状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金月英

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To know the iodine nutritional status of pregnant women in Yanshan Petrochemical Zone, and to provide a scientific basis for preventing iodine deficiency or excess. Methods:Urine iodine assay kit was used to detect the urinary iodine concentration for pregnant women. Results:The iodine deficiency rate among pregnancy women in Yanshan Petrochemical Zone accounted for 30.88%, the iodine excessive rate was lower, accounting for 0.35%. Con-clusion:The pregnant women in this area is insufficient in understanding the importance of iodine nutrition, so needs to strengthen the intervention.%目的:了解燕山石化区妊娠期女性碘营养状况,为预防碘缺乏或碘过量提供科学依据.方法:采用尿液碘测定试剂盒,对妊娠期妇女尿液中碘的浓度进行检测.结果:燕山石化区妊娠期女性碘缺乏率占30.88%,碘过量率较低,占0.35%.结论:本地区孕妇对碘营养状况的重要性认识不足,需要加强干预.

  7. 石油化工生产装置低压系统接线及接地型式%Wiring and Grounding Types of Low Voltage System in Petrochemical Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任佩佳; 邵文平; 姜旭; 董柏屹

    2016-01-01

    简述低压系统接地的型式,介绍了石油化工生产装置低压系统的接线方式,根据用电负荷特点及工程实际绘制了石油化工生产装置低压系统接线图,探讨关于低压系统三极、四极断路器选择的问题,结合实际分别阐述电动机配电电缆芯数选择问题及变压器中性点工作接地线截面的确定。%Grounding types of low-voltage system were described, wiring of low-voltage system in petrochemical plants was introduced, wiring diagram of low-voltage system in petrochemical plants was drew based on electrical load characteristics and engineering practice, choice of level 3 and level 4 circuit breakers in the low voltage system was discussed. Combined with the actual conditons, selection of the motor power cables was also discussed, and the neutral point grounding wire section of transformer was determined.

  8. 石油化工企业封闭式输煤钢结构栈桥水消防系统选型%Type selection of fire-fighting system for closed steel coal handling trestle in petrochemical enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乃兵; 曹立坤

    2012-01-01

    以1400 mm单皮带栈桥为例,对比分析了石油化工企业封闭式输煤钢结构栈桥采用自动喷水灭火系统及水喷雾灭火系统的相关技术参数及用水量情况,常规状态下,结合皮带运动及水喷雾灭火系统动作快的特点,建议石油化工企业榆煤栈桥水消防灭火系统采用水喷雾灭火系统.%Taking 1 400 mm single belt coal handling trestle as an example, the technical parameters and water consumption of automatic fire-extinguishing sprinkler system and water spray extinguishing system applied for closed steel coal handling trestle's fire-fighting in petrochemical enterprises were compared and analyzed. Under conventional condition, combined with the belt movement characteristics and the high flow speed of water spray extinguishing system, water spray extinguishing system was suggested to be used for coal handling trestle's fire-fighting in petrochemical enterprises.

  9. Empirical study on factors for capital structure of petroleum and petrochemical companies%石油石化企业资本结构影响因素实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦明; 丰歆竹

    2013-01-01

      以2011年沪深交易所披露的28家石油石化上市公司的年报财务数据为样本,运用相关性分析和多元回归分析的方法,分析影响石油石化上市公司资本结构的各种因素。结果表明:公司规模、盈利能力以及偿债能力对石油石化上市公司的资本结构选择有显著的作用,而成长性、非债务税盾和资产担保价值对资本结构没有明显的影响。%Based on the financial data of listed companies in petroleum and petrochemical fields in 2011, correlation and regression analyses were made of the main factors influenc-ing the capital structure of Chinese petroleum and petrochemical listed companies. Results show that capital structure is significantly sensitive to company size, profitability and debt-paying ability, not much to its growth, non-debt tax shield or asset collateral value.

  10. Biomass, microbial activity and mycorrhizal fungi in land farming soil of petrochemical wastes; Biomassa, atividade microbiana e fungos micorrizicos em solo de 'landfarming' de residuos petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Alessandra M. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luis de Queiroz ESALQ/USP]. E-mail: ampaula@esalq.usp.br; Soares, Claudio R.F.S.; Siqueira, Jose O. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia do Solo]. E-mail: ampaula@esalq.usp.br; crfsoares@gmail; siqueira@ufla.br

    2006-04-15

    In the present study the microbial biomass, heterotrophic activity and the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were evaluated in soil samples from a land farming area that has been used for petrochemical waste treatment for the last fifteen years. Laboratory analysis and greenhouse assays were conducted in order to evaluate soil biological conditions and the effects of inoculation with AMF (Glomus clarum and Paraglomus occultum) on growth of six plant species with potential to establish in soil affected by oil pollutants. Values for soil microbial biomass and biochemical indicators (basal and induced soil respiration) were in the typical range found in non-contaminated soils, but the values for qCO{sub 2} were in the high range. In spite of the indication of microbial stress, the results suggest the presence of metabolically active microbial communities in the soil. However, the relatively low activities of {beta}-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and urease, indicate interferences on biochemical processes that may affect the degradation of residues transformation by the soil community. Abundant occurrence of AMF in either spontaneous or introduced plants was also observed. Inoculation with AMF had significant effects on alfalfa, brachiaria grass and sorghum, but no effects on elephant grass. The results of the present study indicate the existence of microbial populations tolerant to the toxic components of petrochemical wastes that were continuously applied to this soil. (author)

  11. The complexity of automation and user: the Human Centered Design as integration of this paradigm; A complexidade da automacao e o usuario: o Human Centered Design como paradigma dessa integracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barateiro, Carlos Eduardo R.B.; Farias Filho, Jose Rodrigues de; Campagnac, Luiz Antonio da Paz [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider that the growing technological development has a number of benefits to society, we can also observe that there is an increased complexity in the implementation of modern life activities. The increased complexity is unavoidable and is even desirable in certain aspects. What should be avoided is the complication in the execution of any of such activities. The article discusses the concept of project implementation focused on the human being who will operate or use the product of the project, and the control process automation of petrochemical plants as examples of the use of this technique. (author)

  12. China's Innovations in Petrochemicals, Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ As far as the chemical industry is concerned, development is the petroleum sector was voted third among the achievements according to the country's official survey, the inorganic chemical industry was rated the 20th, and rare metal the 22nd. Petroleum is a major source of energy and a raw material for the clothing, food, housing and transportation industries,China has established its own petroleum industry almost from nothing. In 2001, a total of 160 million tons of crude oil was extracted from the mainland oil deposits.

  13. 石油化工工人职业应激因素对工作满意感和心理健康的影响%Appraisal of occupational stressor in petrochemical industry workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓萍; 王羽; 刘文贺; 田宏迩; 黄童; 李志媛; 胡柯铭; 葛锡泳; 金蕾; 高奇; 张静静

    2009-01-01

    Objective To discuss the origin of occupational stress among petrochemical industry workers and to access the main occupational stressors that impact job satisfaction and mental health of petrochemical industry workers. Methods A survey on occupational stressor was carried out by Occupational Stress Indicator(OSI) in 532 petrochemical industry workers(345 chemical and 187 logistic workers). Results The environment in workplace of chemical group was worse than that of contrast. The chemical workers had less control over job and they experienced more hazards, monotonous as well as role stressors than the logistic group. The scores of job satisfaction and mental health of chemical group (36.867±0.656, 43.734±0.542, respectively) were higher than that of contrast (40.321 ±0.901, 46.714±0.745, respectively) (P<0.05). Conclusion The occupational stressors exist in chemical workers which affect chemical workers 'job satisfaction and mental health with different levels.%目的 探讨石油化工企业工人职业应激的来源及影响其工作满意感和心理健康的主要职业应激因素.方法 采用职业紧张量表(OSI),对某市石油化工企业532名职工进行职业应激因素的调查,其中化工组345人,后勤部门职工187人作为对照组.结果 化工组工作场所中物理环境差,工作缺乏控制,工作危险性大,工作单调,角色冲突、角色模糊较对照组严重;化工组的工作满意感和心理健康得分(分别为36.867±0.656,43.734±0.542)低于对照组(40.321±0.901,46.714±0.745),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 化工工人工作中存在职业应激因素,这些因素不同程度地影响着化工工人的工作满意感和心理健康.

  14. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Migração, trabalho na indústria petroquímica e consumo de bebidas alcoólicas Recent migration, petrochemical industry jobs and alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma S. Santana

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se testar testar a hipótese de uma associação entre migração recente, trabalho na indústria petroquímica e o consumo excessivo de bebidas alcoólicas, avaliando o papel de variáveis socioeconômicas e demográficas como confundidores ou modificadores de efeito. Foi empregada uma amostra aleatória de 452 chefes de família entre 18 e 60 anos de idade, proveniente de um inquérito de saúde conduzido com famílias que residiam em uma área industrial da Região Metropolitana de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Apenas os trabalhadores do setor industrial foram incluídos na análise (n = 299. Consumidores de bebidas alcoólicas foram identificados com o Questionário de Morbidade Psiquiátrica de Adultos, QMPA, aplicado por entrevistadores treinados a informantes chave de cada família selecionada. Migrantes recentes foram definidos como aqueles que tinham até dois anos de residência no local. A prevalência de consumo exagerado de álcool foi maior entre trabalhadores da indústria petroquímica e entre migrantes recentes, em comparação aos trabalhadores de outras indústrias e não migrantes recentes, respectivamente. Petroquímicos migrantes recentes apresentaram uma prevalência de consumo de bebidas alcoólicas 3,4 vezes superior ao grupo de referência. Migração recente e trabalho na indústria petroquímica são fatores de risco potenciais para o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, por um efeito sinérgico entre essas duas variáveis. Os resultados sugerem a escolaridade como fator de proteção para o consumo de álcool, apenas entre não migrantes recentes nessa população de estudo.This study is aimed at to evaluate the hypothesis that recent migration and work in the petrochemical industry are associated with heavy alcohol consumption, and that education and family income are relevant effect modifiers of this association. The study was based on a random sample of 452 head of families, from 18-60 years of age, drawn from a

  16. 炼化企业物联网平台建设方案探讨%Discussion on building scheme of internet-of-things platform in petrochemical enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕云程; 张玉梅

    2015-01-01

    This paper expounded the application of internet-of-things technology in petrochemical enterprises and its effect to enterprises,defined the target and design principle of the construction of enterprise internet-of-things platform,planned the system architecture,business model,information model and technical architecture of internet-of-things platform,and made description to the key technologies that are used.%阐述了物联网技术在炼化企业的应用情况和对企业产生的效果,明确了企业物联网平台建设的目标和设计原则,规划了物联网平台的系统架构、业务模型、信息模型和技术架构,并对采用的关键技术进行了描述.

  17. 固定资产减值在石化资产管理中的应用分析%Analysis on Application of Fixed Asset Devaluation in Petrochemical Assets Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱坚

    2011-01-01

    Connecting with the current status and characteristics of asset management in petrochemical industry, a series of accounting operations for asset devaluation were discussed according to the requirements of accounting standards on asset devaluation, such a%结合石化行业资产管理的现状与特点,按照会计准则中对资产减值的要求,探讨出现资产减值现象时,如何通过资产组的认定,对固定资产进行减值测试,并依据测试结果计提固定资产减值准备及相关纳税调整事项。

  18. 基于物联网技术的石化厂区有毒气体泄漏在线监测系统%Online Monitoring System of Toxic Gas Leak for Petrochemical Plant Based on Internet of Things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋; 李凯亮; 曾俊林

    2015-01-01

    According to the production safety problems caused by toxic gas leak,which may occur in the productive process of petrochemical plants,an online monitoring system of toxic gas leak for petrochemical plant was designed ,which was a combination of wireless sensor networks,portable devices,cloud instant storage function,real-time display web pages,online monitoring SMS a-larm,android mobile real-time display and solar charging technology.The functions of real-time,online monitoring and early warning for the toxic gases ( mainly including H2 S,SO2 ,CO,CH4 ) ,temperature,humidity,wind direction,wind speed,PM2.5 and other fac-tors in petrochemical plant were realized,and made the production supervisors grasp the toxic gases’ real-time dynamic information of petrochemical factory,thus removing the factors that lead to dangerous accidents immediately and controlling the risk in the ini-tial stage,so as to realize the safe,sustainable and efficient chemical production.Experiments show that the on-line monitoring sys-tem has good reliability,security and practicability.%针对石化厂在生产过程中可能发生有毒气体泄漏带来的生产安全问题,设计了一套石化厂区有毒气体泄漏在线监测系统,该系统集无线传感器网络、便携式设备、云端即时存储功能、网页实时显示、在线监测短信报警、安卓手机实时显示及太阳能充电等技术于一体,实现对石化厂区中有毒气体(主要包括H2 S、SO2、CO、CH4)、温度、湿度、风向、风速、PM2.5等因子的实时、在线监测和预警,使生产管理人员掌握石化厂区的有毒气体实时动态信息,对可能引发危险事故的因素及时排除,把危险控制在始发阶段,以实现化工生产的安全、持续、高效进行。实验表明:该在线监测系统具有良好可靠性、安全性和实用性。

  19. Engaging complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gys M. Loubser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I discuss studies in complexity and its epistemological implications for systematic and practical theology. I argue that engagement with complexity does not necessarily assurea non-reductionist approach. However, if complexity is engaged transversally, it becomes possible to transcend reductionist approaches. Moreover, systematic and practical the ologians can draw on complexity in developing new ways of understanding and, therefore, new ways of describing the focus, epistemic scope and heuristic structures of systematic and practical theology. Firstly, Edgar Morin draws a distinction between restricted and general complexity based on the epistemology drawn upon in studies in complexity. Moving away from foundationalist approaches to epistemology, Morin argues for a paradigm of systems. Secondly,I discuss Kees van Kooten Niekerk�s distinction between epistemology, methodology andontology in studies in complexity and offer an example of a theological argument that drawson complexity. Thirdly, I argue for the importance of transversality in engaging complexity by drawing on the work of Wentzel van Huyssteen and Paul Cilliers. In conclusion, I argue that theologians have to be conscious of the epistemic foundations of each study in complexity, and these studies illuminate the heart of Reformed theology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Therefore, this article has both intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications. When theologians engage studies incomplexity, the epistemological roots of these studies need to be considered seeing thatresearchers in complexity draw on different epistemologies. Drawing on transversality wouldenhance such considerations. Furthermore, Edgar Morin�s and Paul Cilliers� approach tocomplexity will inform practical and theoretical considerations in church polity and unity.

  20. 石油石化上市公司资本结构影响因素实证研究%An Empirical Study of Influencing Factors of Capital Structure of China's Petroleum and Petrochemical Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦明; 付会霞; 丰歆竹; 孙彦彬

    2014-01-01

    目前石油石化行业上市公司资本结构存在的问题是部分资产负债率和股权集中度过高。选取2010-2012年的数据作为样本,采用因子分析方法和多元逐步回归法进行实证研究,实证结果表明,现金流量因子F1和成长能力因子F4与资产负债率负相关;公司规模因子F2与资产负债率正相关。依据实证分析结果,优化石油石化上市公司资本结构应注重石油石化公司的现金流量能力、规模和企业的成长性。%Currently capital structure problems of petroleum and petrochemical listed companies involve high of asset-liability ratio and ownership concentration in some companies. The 2010-2012 data are selected as a sample and factor analysis and multiple stepwise re-gression analysis are used with empirical results showing that cash flow capacity factor F1 and growth factor F4 are negatively related to asset-liability ratio and size factor F2 and asset-liability ratio are related. Based on the result of empirical analysis, attention should be paid to cash flow capacity and size and growth of petroleum and petrochemical companies so as to optimize these companies' capital structure.

  1. Simplifying complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemput, van de I.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I use mathematical models to explore the properties of complex systems ranging from microbial nitrogen pathways and coral reefs to the human state of mind. All are examples of complex systems, defined as systems composed of a number of interconnected parts, where the systemic behavior

  2. Complex odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preetha, A; Balikai, Bharati S; Sujatha, D; Pai, Anuradha; Ganapathy, K S

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are hamartomatous lesions or malformations composed of mature enamel, dentin, and pulp. They may be compound or complex, depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or their resemblance to normal teeth. The etiology of odontoma is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. This article describes a case of a large infected complex odontoma in the residual mandibular ridge, resulting in considerable mandibular expansion.

  3. Complex narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives, puz

  4. Computational Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems (CS involve many elements that interact at different scales in time and space. The challenges in modeling CS led to the development of novel computational tools with applications in a wide range of scientific areas. The computational problems posed by CS exhibit intrinsic difficulties that are a major concern in Computational Complexity Theory. [...

  5. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dut...... and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing....

  6. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  7. Anticoking Coatings for High Temperature Petrochemical Reactors Revêtements pour réacteurs pétrochimiques à cokage réduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropital F.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Coke deposition is a major problem for several refinery and petrochemical processes, among which steam cracking for ethylene production. Decreasing coking rates will reduce decoking frequency and will also decrease heat transfer degradation. For these processes, a means of reducing coking phenomena is the application of anticoking coatings on the reactor walls. For this purpose a methodology was developed under a CEC Brite-Euram project with steam cracking as the main application. A first selection of the coatings and their techniques of deposition was performed according to their composition (non catalytic compounds, their resistance to carburization and oxidation and also according to the nature of the substrate. The feasibility of coating deposition was studied for small diameter furnace tubes and the techniques were perfected in particular with respect to the physicochemical characterization of the coatings and their resistance during thermal cycling and coking-decoking cycles. For the thermal cycling and the coking evaluation, industrial conditions were reproduced as closely as possible. For coking tests, a microreactor with complete mixing of the gas phase was developed for temperatures up to 950°C. The coking behavior of the coated samples was compared with conventional refractory alloys: reduction of the coking rate by a factor of 3 was measured with the most promising coating. This work was completed by the kinetic modelling of coking on uncoated materials. La formation de coke est un problème crucial pour de nombreux procédés pétrochimiques. Ralentir le cokage permet de réduire la fréquence des décokages et de limiter la dégradation du transfert thermique. Un des moyens envisageables pour réduire le cokage est le dépôt d'un revêtement à la paroi de ces réacteurs. La mise au point de tels revêtements a fait l'objet d'un projet de recherche européen Brite-Euram, pour lequel le vapocraquage a été la principale

  8. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  9. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  10. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  11. 大型石化工程合资联营项目业主IPMT组织架构设计%IPMT Organizational Structure Design for Large-scale Petrochemical Project of Joint Venture Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯凯梁

    2014-01-01

    In order to adapt to the trend of petrochemical joint venture company and rationally allocate the resources of technology and management,IPMT mode has been widely used in petrochemical joint venture project. The ways to deal with cooperative conflict of organizational structure design of company and staff management were established in terms of 9 rationals based on conflict theories. In order to give full cooperative advantage of the controlling range and personnel transition,to avoid the conflicting disadvantage of personnel control,cooperation and decision-making,a hybrid IPMT organizational structure which combine the type of linear and double different matrix .management system is established in terms of the research on the IPMT application of 3 kinds of commonly used organizational structure such as the type of linear,function and matrix.%为了适应石化企业相互存在性的递增趋势,合理分配技术与管理的资源优势,IPMT模式已广泛应用于大型石化工程合资联营项目。通过归纳整理基于合资合作冲突理论的9项冲突产生原因,提出企业管理与人员管理两方面组织架构设计的合理引导冲突方法。为了发挥管理范围及人员过渡等合作优势,克服管理决策及人员管控等冲突劣势,通过研究直线式、职能式、矩阵式等3种常用组织架构型式在IPMT模式的应用,设计一套直线式与大小双重矩阵式相结合的IPMT混合式组织架构及管理制度体系。

  12. 催化臭氧氧化处理难降解石化废水技术的研究进展%Research progress of catalytic ozonation process to treat refractory petrochemical wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白小霞; 杨庆; 丁昀; 魏巍; 丁洁; 钟莺莺

    2016-01-01

    The major categories of catalytic ozonation have been introduced in this paper. The catalytic mechanisms and existing applications in refractory petrochemical wastewater of homogeneous catalytic ozonation and heterogeneous catalytic ozonation were described respectively. A brief analysis of catalytic mechanism and the main functions of activated carbon in heterogeneous catalytic ozonation were given. The effects of pH,temperature,catalyst system,dosage and the mode of dosage of ozone and catalyst were discussed respectively. On the basis of existing research,the combination of catalytic ozonation with biochemical treatment was proposed and its feasibility was proved. Intending research direction of catalytic ozonation was predicted. According to the problems in the treatment of refractory petrochemical wastewater by activated carbon in catalytic ozonation process,we should strengthen the research on the modification of activated carbon,meanwhile,a thorough study of some process should be carried out in order to obtain a comprehensive grasp of the possible problems. Finally,we should put an effort to improve and perfect the catalytic mechanism.%介绍了催化臭氧氧化的主要类别,分述了均相与非均相催化臭氧氧化在难降解石化废水方面的已有应用和催化机理,探讨了非均相催化臭氧氧化中活性炭的主要作用;简述了pH值、温度、臭氧和催化剂投加方式与投加量、催化剂体系等因素在非均相催化臭氧氧化中的影响规律。在已有研究的基础上,提出了将催化臭氧氧化与生化处理相结合的建议并佐证了其可行性;预测了催化臭氧氧化未来的研究方向;针对活性炭在催化臭氧氧化处理难降解石化废水中存在的问题,提出应加强对活性炭的改性研究,同时对某些工艺进行深入研究,全面掌握可能存在的问题,为完善催化臭氧氧化的机理作出努力。

  13. A Study on Application of Water Environmental Risk Assessment of Petrochemical Enterprises%石化企业水体环境风险评估应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚猛; 牟桂芹; 周志国

    2015-01-01

    In order to prevent and control the pollution of water environment by the leakage of materials caused by petrochemical enterprises under accident state, taking a domestic petroche-mical enterprise as the example, carried on the water environment risk assessment. Through the assessment, some problems in the prevention and control of water of risk were found: The plant doesn't have clean-up shunt under accident conditions. Existing production sewage system capa-city can only meet the normal production status. Benzene tank is not equipped with a rain sewage switching system. 3# sulfur plant tank cofferdam is incomplete. Put forward some corrective recom-mendations:Divide accident sewage from the source into clean water and sewage. According to the distribution of water supply and drainage system in the enterprise, a new sewage pipeline is built. Increase the capacity of accident pool. Set up a rain and sewage switch facility and a temporary storage system for benzene tank outlet. Set up a closed fire dike or collection tank for the storage tank of 3# sulfur plant.%以国内某石化企业为例, 进行了水体环境风险评估. 通过评估发现企业在水体风险防控方面存在厂区没有进行事故状况下的清污分流; 现有生产污水系统能力只能满足正常生产状况下产生的污水存储、 转输及处理; 苯罐未设置雨污切换系统; 3#硫磺装置罐区围堰不完整等问题. 提出从源头进行事故状态下清污分流的改造措施; 根据企业给排水系统分布情况, 新建一条污水输送管道; 增加事故池容积; 苯罐罐区出口增加雨污切换及苯泄漏水体的提升及临时储存系统; 3#硫磺装置乙醇胺储存罐设置封闭式防火堤或事故状态下乙醇胺收集池.

  14. Numerical simulation and influence factor analysis on erosion-corrosion failure of petrochemical pressure pipeline%石化压力管道冲蚀失效数值模拟及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许根富; 王飞; 赵哲明; 李鹏轩; 金浩哲

    2016-01-01

    Taking the carbon steel elbow in REAC outlet pressure pipeline system of Zhenhai Refining&Chemical Company as example, combined with the erosion-corrosion failure mechanism, a mathematical model of fluid-structure interaction for e-rosion-corrosion failure was established.The interaction between erodent products protecting film and multiphase flow was an-alyzed by numerical simulation method.The distribution of shearing stress on the inner wall of elbow and the distribution of principal displacement, stress and strain of erodent products protecting film were revealed, and the erosion-corrosion failure process of petrochemical pressure pipeline was studied.The reliability of fluid-structure interaction numerical simulation method by the finite element analysis software was validated combining with field thickness measurement data, and the influ-ence of characteristic parameters, such as flow characteristics of fluid and architectural characteristics of pipeline fittings etc., on erosion-corrosion were analyzed.It provides theoretical basis and analysis means for the erosion-corrosion failure a-nalysis, structural optimization design, RBI and periodical inspection for thickness measurement and positioning, life predic-tion, risk assessment and other safety guarantee research of petrochemical pressure pipeline transportation system.%以镇海REAC出口压力管道系统碳钢弯管为例,结合冲蚀失效机理,建立冲蚀失效流固耦合数理模型。利用数值模拟技术分析腐蚀产物保护膜与多相流动之间的交互作用,揭示弯管内壁剪切应力分布及保护膜主位移、应力、应变的分布规律,研究石化压力管道系统冲蚀失效过程;结合现场测厚数据验证有限元分析软件流固耦合数值模拟方法的可靠性;并进一步对比分析了流体流动特性、管件结构特性等特性参数对冲蚀的影响。为石化压力管道输送系统的冲蚀失效分析、结构优化设计、RBI和

  15. Un modèle de production associée des secteurs du raffinage et de la pétrochimie de base An Associated Production Model for the Refining and Basic Petrochemical Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennegues G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une application du modèle de production et de transformation de l'énergie de l'Institut Français du Pétrole (lFP. La présente étude de modélisation s'attache plus précisément à l'analyse par programmation linéaire dynamique des conditions optimales de production des secteurs français du raffinage et de la pétrochimie de base. S'armant de scénarios d'approvisionnement et de demandes de produits, cette étude se propose de décrire les investissements optimaux de ces deux secteurs pour les deux décennies à venir. Des hypothèses particulières de diésélisation du parc des véhicules routiers et d'introduction d'hydrocarbures oxygénés dans les carburants automobiles ont été formulées, ainsi que des tendances contrastées de consommation des produits pétrochimiques de base. Une brève étude de paramétrisation clôt cet article, en présentant une approche statique de l'influence que pourrait avoir une substitution propylène-éthylène au niveau de la demande, sur les outils de production des deux secteurs. This article describes an application of the lFP energy production and transformation model. The present mode-ing study specifically aims to use dynamic linear programming to analyze the optimum production conditions for the French refining and basic petrochemical sectors. On the basis of product supply and demand scenarios, this study attempts to describe optimum investments for these two sectors for the next two decades. Special assumptions concerning the dieselization of road vehicles and the inclusion of oxygenated hydrocarbons in automotive fuels have been formulated along with contrasting trends in the consumption of basic petrochemical products. The article concludes with a brief parameterization study giving a static approach to the influence that a propylene/ethylene substitution might have, at the level of the demand, on the production facilities of both sectors.

  16. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  17. Analysis of Existing Problems in the Design of Fire-fighting of Petrochemical Enterprises%石油化工企业消防设计中存在的问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪; 彭国祥; 余春和

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the major existing problems in the design of the hydrant system, fire monitor system, foam fire-fighting system and gas fire extinguishing system of petrochemical enterprises and addresses substitute solutions to the zoning and decompression of indoor hydrant system. This pa-per also provides suggestions to the taper pipe thread nozzle, vent valve and control of foam fire-fighting system. The authors of this paper also provide per-sonal comments about the controversial issues in the design of gas fire extinguishing system for reference to fire-fighting designers.%针对石油化工企业消火栓系统、消防炮系统、泡沫灭火系统及气体灭火系统设计中存在的主要问题进行了分析,对室内消火栓系统的分区和减压提出了替代的做法,并就泡沫灭火系统中管牙接口、排气阀及系统的控制给出了建议,同时对气体灭火系统设计中存在的争议提出了个人观点,为消防专业设计人员提供了一定的参考。

  18. The Application of Reverse Osmosis Technology in QingJiang Petrochemical Demineralized Water Process%反渗透技术在清江石化除盐水工艺中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周健; 华伦

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the structure,producing area and application industry of the Dow reverse osmosis membrane membrane.The technical process,the process control parameters(recovery rate,desalination rate,in-and-out water quality) and process flow and reverse osmosis desalting operation of the reverse osmosis desalting device in Qingjiang petrochemical plant are included.The use of Dow reverse osmosis membrane element,the characteristics and the application,design principle of process,process flow,parameters,and the cleaning frequency in application are also covered.At the same time,some relevant improvement measures are proposed.%综述了陶氏反渗透膜的膜结构、产地及应用行业。阐述了清江石化反渗透脱盐装置的工艺过程、工艺控制参数(回收率、脱盐率、进出水水质)及工艺流程和反渗透脱盐装置的运行情况,包括使用的陶氏反渗透膜元件的特点及应用,设计的工艺原理、流程、参数,以及应用中存在的清洗周期短、制水比居高不下等问题及相关改进措施。

  19. Application of Inverter and LOGO! for Product Oil Delivery System of Petrochemical Enterprise%LOGO!与变频器在石化企业成品油发油系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田海洋

    2011-01-01

    The features of product oil delivery system of petrochemical enterprise was analyzed, and also clarify the advantages about application of frequency control in product oil delivery system. Compared with the plan that oil transmission pump controlled by Fuji inverter, this plan which was low cost and reliable can be utilized in product oil delivery system with significant energy-saving.%分析了石油化工企业成品油发油系统的特点,论述了变频调速技术应用在成品油发油泵控制中的优势,给出了利用西门子LOGO!与富士变频器控制成品油发油泵的控制方案.该方案满足成品油发油系统需要,成本低廉、运行可靠,并具有明显的节能效果.

  20. 石化企业财务共享服务中心的实施方案分析%Implementation plan analysis of petrochemical enterprise financial shared service center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红卫

    2016-01-01

    Petrochemical enterprise financial shared service center is the management mode to make process reengineering to the repetitive inner-enterprise transactions easy to be standardized, establish enterprise standard and centralize them into one business unit (financial shared service center) to process. The core concept is to make unified management by centralizing the functions basic accounts keeping and accounting into one shared service center, and separate the common financial works from financial departments of each branch company. By improving financial transactions and optimizing resources, the supporting capacity of financial department to enterprise financial department can be promoted.%石化企业财务共享服务中心是将石化企业内部重复的、容易建立标准化的业务进行流程再造、制定企业标准,集中到1个业务单元进行处理的管理模式。通过将基础的财务记账、核算管理等职能集中到共享中心来进行统一管理,将共性的财务工作从各分公司财务部门中分离出来。通过提高财务业务优化资源、提升企业财务部门对企业业务的支持能力。

  1. Measures and Ways to Improve the Long Term Operation of Petrochemical Enterprises%提高炼化企业长周期运行的措施与途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易轶虎

    2012-01-01

    近年来,炼化装置运行周期不断延长,取得了很好的经济效益和社会效益,但与国际一流炼化企业相比,装置的长周期运行水平仍有不小的差距.总结目前炼化装置长周期运行现状,分析非计划停工因素,着重从日常管理、检修管理、专业管理等3个方面提出强化设备管理,提升长周期运行水平的经验和措施.%In recent years,the operation cycle of the refining and chemical unit continues continually increases,and good economic and social benefits have been achieved.But compared with world-class refining and chemical companies,there is still a big gap on the operation cycle of devices.In this paper,status quo of long-term operation of petrochemical enterprises was summarized,factors to cause unplanned shut-down were analyzed.Focusing on three aspects of day-to-day management,maintenance management,professional management,experiences and measures to strengthen equipment management were put forward to enhance the level of long-cycle run.

  2. 某石化企业LPG球罐区泄漏扩散的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of LPG Spherical Tank's Leakage Diffusion in A Petrochemical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春秀; 易丽军; 陆小杰

    2016-01-01

    Taking some petrochemical enterprise of LPG spherical tank and tank farm as the research object, based on the actual situation to simplify and abstract, using ANSYS FLUENT software for leakage of LPG spherical tank area spread 3-d numerical simulation, the change rule of LPG diffusion at different wind speeds was mainly studied. It was concluded that the wind speed had an effect on the LPG spherical tank leakage diffusion direction, distance, and concentration. The results of the study have guiding significance for the prevention of tank area accident.%以某石油化工企业的 LPG 球罐罐区为研究对象,在对现场实际情况进行简化和抽象的基础上,采用 ANSYS FLUENT软件对LPG球罐区的泄漏扩散进行三维数值模拟计算。主要研究了不同风速条件下LPG扩散的变化规律,得出了风速对LPG球罐泄漏扩散的扩散方向、距离以及浓度产生的影响。该研究结果对球罐区的事故预防具有指导意义。

  3. 浅谈如何有效地开展石化企业文化建设%Discussion on how to effectively carry out the petrochemical enterprise culture construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛庆军

    2012-01-01

    Petrochemical enterprise culture, is not only an important part of social culture, but also an important part of the construction enterprises. Nowadays, in the cultural life of permeability, rooted in the society each cell when, if we be petrified, despise slight contempt from culture, culture, that our mind must be destroyed, our work will suffer.%石化企业文化,不但是社会文化的重要组成部分,也是企业建设的重要组成部分。当今社会,在文化生活渗透、根植于社会每个细胞的时候,如果我们麻木不仁,轻视怠慢文化,藐视远离文化,那我们的身心必须遭到摧残,我们的工作必然受到损失

  4. 石化废水处理中MBR工艺的运行管理%Operational management of the membrane bioreactor process in the treatment of wastewater from petrochemical industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 钟捷

    2011-01-01

    使用MBR工艺处理石化废水,需要针对石化废水的特点,并结合工艺运行的实际情况,采取相应的运行管理措施.通过对产水周期、产水量、曝气量、污泥浓度等运行参数的调整,提高了工艺系统处理能力,降低了处理成本,产水水质完全符合排放标准的要求.在调整运行参数的同时,采取措施控制膜污染速率,确保了工艺系统的运行安全和稳定.%Using membrane bioreactor process for treating the wastewater from petrochemical industry, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the wastewater, combining with the actual situation of technological operation, and take corresponding management measures. Based on the adjustment of operational parameters, such as cycle and quantity of effluent, aeration and sludge concentration, the treatment capacity of technological systems has been improved, cost has been reduced,and effluent water quality has met the requirement of discharge standard. In the meanwhile, some measures have to be taken, so as to control the rate of membrane pollution, and ensure the safety and stability of the MBR system.

  5. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  6. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  7. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  8. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  9. Contribuição aos critérios de projeto organizacional para inovação na indústria petroquímica brasileira A contribution to organizational design for innovation in the Brazilian petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marotti de Mello

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A Indústria Petroquímica, incluindo-se aí a brasileira, é um setor consolidado, maduro, acostumado a inovar incrementalmente em produtos e processos. De outro lado, para manter e ampliar sua competitividade, tem a necessidade de inovar mais radicalmente. A literatura disponível recomenda que empresas que necessitem inovar, simultaneamente, de forma incremental e radical, deveriam adotar uma "Organização Ambidestra" (ou "Semiestrutura", utilizando processos, ferramentas de gestão e estruturas adequadas para cada caso. Mas como exatamente deveria ser essa organização ambidestra? Este trabalho objetiva contribuir com esta discussão, propondo critérios para o Projeto Organizacional adequado ao desenvolvimento de inovações incrementais e radicais de forma sistemática em empresas consolidadas de setores maduros. Parte-se do princípio de que não haveria um modelo único a ser prescrito neste caso. O método de pesquisa utilizado foi o estudo de múltiplos casos em três empresas inovadoras do setor, em que onze projetos de inovação foram analisados. Os resultados obtidos indicam que, ainda que haja nas empresas a preocupação de divisão de estruturas para o desenvolvimento de inovações radicais e incrementais, na prática, a forma pela qual os projetos são conduzidos não mostra diferença significativa. O modelo proposto oferece um conjunto de diretrizes e critérios para que cada empresa adapte suas estruturas e processos a diferentes desafios encontrados nos projetos de inovação, em cada etapa de seu desenvolvimento.The Petrochemical Industry (including the Brazilian Petrochemical industry is a well-established and mature sector that has always introduced product and process incremental innovation. On the other hand, in order to maintain its competitiveness, this sector needs more radical innovation. According to the literature, companies that need both incremental and radical innovation should adopt an Ambidextrous

  10. Biomassa, atividade microbiana e fungos micorrízicos em solo de "landfarming" de resíduos petroquímicos Biomass, microbial activity and mycorrhizal fungi in landfarming soil of petrochemical wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra M. de Paula

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se, no presente trabalho, a biomassa microbiana, atividade heterotrófica e a ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs de um solo de área de "landfarming" de resíduo petroquímico durante 15 anos. Realizaram-se análises laboratoriais e ensaios em casa de vegetação para avaliar as condições biológicas do solo e o efeito da inoculação com FMAs (Glomus clarum e Paraglomus occultum no crescimento de seis espécies vegetais com potencial para estabelecimento nesses solos. A biomassa microbiana e os indicadores de atividade bioquímica (respiração basal, respiração induzida por substrato e qCO2 apresentaram-se em valores típicos de solos não contaminados, exceto para o qCO2, que foram bem elevados. Esses resultados indicam a presença de comunidades microbianas ativas mas se verificou baixa atividade das enzimas b-glicosidase, fosfatase ácida e urease, indicando interferências nos processos bioquímicos do solo o que poderá comprometer sua capacidade de transformar os resíduos. Verificou-se também a ocorrência abundante de FMAs em plantas espontâneas ou introduzidas. Foi notória a resposta positiva da inoculação com FMAs sobre o crescimento da alfafa, braquiária e sorgo, porém sem influência no crescimento do capim-elefante. Esses resultados apontam a existência de populações microbianas tolerantes aos componentes tóxicos dos resíduos petroquímicos aplicados continuamente ao solo estudado.In the present study the microbial biomass, heterotrophic activity and the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF were evaluated in soil samples from a landfarming area that has been used for petrochemical waste treatment for the last fifteen years. Laboratory analysis and greenhouse assays were conducted in order to evaluate soil biological conditions and the effects of inoculation with AMF (Glomus clarum and Paraglomus occultum on growth of six plant species with potential to establish in soil

  11. Reuse of a residue from petrochemical industry with portland cement Reutilización de un residuo de la industria petroquímica como adición al cemento portland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneth Torres Agredo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the possibility of using waste from the petrochemical industry,as partial replacement of Portland cement is studied, evaluating the presenceof contaminants in the waste and the encapsulation, once it is confined on the cement. This has been done, in order to find a use to this residue without cause damage to the environment. This residue, called spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC, is mainly formed by a type Y zeolite, which is dispersing in an inorganic oxides matrix. The toxicity characteristic leaching proceeding was applied, in mortars adding with 20% of FCC as Portland cement replacement. The results showed that the residue does not represent a problem from the point of view of the leaching of elements, such as As, Pb, Zn, Cr, and La, which were below to the permissible limits. Additionally, the pozzolanic activity of FCC was evaluated according to ASTM C311, where the efficiency of the residue as pozzolanic addition is demonstrated. With the results the importance of reusing a residue of the petrochemical industry is emphasized, that decreases the amount of cement to be used and improves the mechanical resistance of the materials containing it.En el presente artículo se estudia la posibilidad de utilizar un residuo de la industria petroquímica, como sustitución parcial del cemento Portland, evaluando la presencia de elementos contaminantes en el residuo y su encapsulación, una vez se haya confinado con el cemento. Lo anterior, con el fin de determinar si su uso como material de construcción, puede o no causar un efecto negativo al medio ambiente. El residuo, denominado catalizador usado de craqueo catalítico (FCC, es un material que está compuesto por una zeolita tipo Y, dispersa en una matriz de óxidos inorgánicos. Se aplicó la técnica de TCLP (del inglés Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, en morteros adicionados con un 20%, de FCC con respecto a la cantidad de cemento. Los resultados

  12. Implementation status and improvement recommendations of HSE system management in basic units of petrochemical enterprise%HSE体系管理在炼化企业基层单位实施现状及改进建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶卫君; 秦丽娟; 朱焱松; 邢新华

    2012-01-01

    对当前炼化企业基层单位HSE管理体系现状进行了分析.指出了基层单位HSE管理理念没有真正转变、HSE管理制度执行力差、HSE管理职责落实不到位、HSE培训缺乏针对性、HSE绩效考核重结果轻过程、企业安全文化建设重形式轻根基等问题.提出基层单位HSE体系管理改进建议,真正落实“以人为本”的HSE管理理念、强化HSE管理制度的执行力、真正将HSE管理职责落实到位、强化HSE培训需求分析,增强培训的针对性、加强HSE绩效考核过程管理、推进安全文化建设.%The implementation status of HSE management system in basic units of petrochemical enterprise was analyzed. The problems in HSE management system were pointed out, such as HSE management idea was not really changed, HSE management system implementation power was weak, HSE management responsibilities were not implemented, HSE training was not targeted, HSE performance appraisal emphasis on results than process. Improvement recommendations of HSE system management in basic units were proposed. We should real implementation the ideas of "people-oriented" in HSE management, and strengthen the HSE management system execution power, strengthen HSE management responsibilities, intensify training needs analysis, enhance training target, enhance HSE performance evaluate process management, and promote HSE safety culture Construction.

  13. Study on impact factors of rotary machine price (investment) in petrochemical industry%石油化工动设备价格(投资)影响因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗明

    2011-01-01

    The prices of rotary machine for petrochemical service, which account for 10% -15% of cost of equipment and materials, have a great impact on the capital investment of process units. There are many factors affecting the prices and the extents of impacts are different for different times, locations and project conditions. By a case study, the impact factors of rotary machine prices are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed in respect of cost, special project requirements, import of overseas equipment, codes & standards requirements, competition environment in the bidding for equipment procurement and time of equipment delivery. The main causes of increased capital investment are found out, which provides a good guideline for project implementation , such as design scheme comparison and selection, design review, invitation for bidders and bidding for procurement of equipment and materials, etc.%石油化工动设备的价格对装置建设投资影响较大,通常占到设备材料费的10%~15%。其价格影响因素很多,视时间、地点、项目具体情况的不同,影响程度也不相同。通过实例,从成本、项目特殊要求、引进国外设备、标准要求、设备采购招投标竞争环境及交货周期等方面,定性和定量分析了动设备价格影响因素,找出了投资增加的主要原因,对工程建设领域设计方案比选、设计审查、采购招投标等等有参考作用。

  14. Experimental Study on Ozone-biological Activated Carbon for Advanced Treatment of Petrochemical Wastewater%臭氧-生物活性炭深度处理石化废水的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚轩; 赵慧

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment, the technology combination including Bio-SAC bioreactor, effecient fibre filter, ozone-biological activated carbon filter was used to deep treat wastewater after secondary biological treatment of petrochemical plant in Daqing city. The results indicated that the wastewater after treatment could meet the demands of water quality standard of circulating cooling water, Bio-SAC reactor had still high degradation capacity for residual refractory organism of water after secondary biological treatment, ozone-biological activated carbon was superior to normal biology carbon in the aspect of removal of organism, chroma, turbidity and saturated cycle.%试验通过Bio-SAC生物反应器、高效纤维过滤器、臭氧滑性炭过滤器等工艺组合将大庆某石化公司二级生物处理后的废水进行深度处理。试验结果表明经该系统处理后的污水完全满足循环冷却水的水质要求,Bio-SAC生物反应器对二级生物处理后水中残留难降解有机物仍有较强的降解能力,臭氧化生物活性炭在去除有机物、色度、浊度、饱和周期方面均优于普通生物活性炭。

  15. Performance evaluation of Jilin Petrochemical Company Ltd.isoprene rubber synthesized with rare earth catalyst%吉化稀土异戊橡胶基本性能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李殿军; 刘乃青; 宋尚德; 杨金胜; 王子镐

    2011-01-01

    The basic properties of rare earth isoprene rubber made in Jilin Petrochemical Company (JH-01),NR and isoprene rubber made in Russia(SKI-3 and SKI-5) were investigated. The results showed that JH-01 has good basic properties. The curing property of JH-01 was similar to SKI-5, Mooney scorch time of JH-01 was longer and the machinability of JH-01 was better than those of NR and SKI-3. The tensile strength of JH-01 was near to those of NR and the tensile stress at a given elongation of JH-01 was almost as same as that of SKI-5. The processing properties of JH-01 reached to the level of NR and similar foreign products.%时吉林石化公司稀土异戊橡胶(JH-01)、天然橡胶、俄罗斯异戊橡胶SKI -3和SKI -5这4种不同橡胶的基本性能进行了评价.结果表明:吉林石化公司稀土异戊橡胶具有良好的性能,其硫化特性与俄罗斯异戊橡胶SKI -5基本相同,焦烧时间长,可操作性好;其硫化胶拉伸强度与俄罗斯同类产品和天然橡胶相当,定伸应力与俄罗斯SKI -5基本相同;加工工艺性能与俄罗斯同类产品和天然橡胶基本相同.

  16. 电机高效再制造在某石化厂循环水泵中的应用%High-Efficient Remanufacturing Motor for Applications of Circulating Pump Energy-Saving in Petrochemical Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘憬奇; 张维

    2012-01-01

    For the circulating pump motor system, which load is relatively stable and longer running time but no flow regulator, the use of high efficiency motor replace the simple motor can not intuitively reflect effect of energy saving. Test and analyze the operating parameters for the circulation pump motor in a petrochemical plant, adopting high-efficient remanufacturing technology, including retain parts of original rotor, replace by a new design high-efficient stator core. The test of manufacturing motor laboratory verifies it, which meet the design requirements. When applied to the original circulating pump system and measured under the same conditions, the systems get a good energy saving effect and short payback period.%对于负荷比较稳定且运行时间较长而又无流量调节的循环水泵电机系统来说,使用高效电机简单替换并不能直观体现节能效果.在对某石化公司循环水泵电机的运行参数进行详细测试并分析后,采用电机高效再制造技术,有针对性地保留了原电机转子部分,电机定子改为新设计高效定子铁心.再制造电机实验室测试验证达到设计要求,并应用于原循环水泵系统,在前后工况一致下进行实测,获得了较好的节能效果和较短的投资回收期.

  17. Application of Intelligent Electro-Truck Scale Measurement and Management System for Petro-Chemical Project%智能电子汽车衡计量管理系统的工程应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利君

    2014-01-01

    简要介绍了电子汽车衡系统的工作原理,基本构成及主要技术要求。随着现代石化企业对于工厂智能化操作及管理水平提升的要求,电子汽车衡系统已经成为全厂计量数采管理系统的重要组成部分,需与生产运行管理系统和企业资源管理系统无缝连接。本文对智能电子汽车衡计量管理系统在大型乙烯工程中应用的基本配置,技术规格,操作及管理流程,解决方案及工程实施进行了阐述,对实际运行过程中遇到的问题及解决方法进行了说明。%The basic working principle, essential structure and primary technical requirement of electro-truck scale system are introduced brielfy in this article. For improving the standard of intelligentized operation and management in modern petro-chemical enterprise, electro-truck scale system has already become one of the most important components in measurement data supervision system, and should be seamless connected with manufacturing execution system and enterprise resource planning. At the same time, the application of intelligent electro-truck scale measurement and management system for large-scale ethylene project is presented, which refer to the basic conifguration and technique speciifcation, the process of operation and management, the solve scheme and engineering execution. The method of resolving the problems which happened in the course of engineering practice is also described.

  18. Ecological Environment Quality Assessment on Petrochemical Sewage Discharge Waters of Daya Bay in Winter%大亚湾石化排污区海域冬季生态环境质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐娇娇; 徐姗楠; 李纯厚; 刘永; 林琳

    2013-01-01

    Daya bay,a typical subtropical marine genetic resource pool in the South China Sea,is one of the most important inshore fisheries areas in Guangdong province.However,the marine environments has been threatened and effected by rapid developments of the petrochemical industry in recent years.In current study,the ecological environment quality has been assessed.Based on the ecological and environmental investigation in January 2012,the states of ecological environment quality of the Daya Bay petrochemical sewage discharge waters was assessed with four factors,including sea water quality,nutrient structure and level,sediment quality,primary productivity and food organism level.The comprehensive index method was used for integrated assessment,as well.The results show that most of the water quality factors,including dissolved oxygen,biochemical oxygen demand,chemical oxygen demand,sulfide,phosphorus,dissolved inorganic nitrogen and heavy metals of Cu,Pb and Cd,were all conforming to Grade Ⅱ of the National Sea Water Quality Standard of China.However,some factors,including petroleum hydrocarbon of 66.7% sites,pH of 91.7% sites,and Zn of several sites,exceed the Grade Ⅱ of the National Standard with the average value of water quality comprehensive index at 1.215.The status of above factors consequently reached a low-level pollution without any pollution caused by organic pollutants.What makes unoptimistic is the concentration of nutrients in sea water is relatively high.Fortunately,the quality of sediment is very good and conforming to the Grade Ⅰ of National Marine Sediment Quality Standard,with the com prehensive pollution index at 0.478.Furthermore,the status of primary productivity reached the level of medium because of the high abundance of phytoplankton,zooplankton and benthic.According to the references and data of this study,the investigated petrochemical sewage discharge waters of Daya Bay was slight polluted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs

  19. 某石化企业育龄女工自然流产的病例对照研究%A case-control study of spontaneous abortion among female workers in a petrochemical enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学庆; 唐怀青

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the factors influencing spontaneous abortion among female workers in petrochemical enterprises, and provide scientific evidence for developing control measures and reducing the spontaneous abortion prevalence. [Methods] Matched case-control study was adopted in the study. A respective survey was conducted on 156 female workers in a large petrochemical enterprise of Nanjing who had spontaneously abortion in recent 3 years by trained investigator. Fertile married women who had physical examination in the Center for Disease Control and Prevention matched for age with 1:1 ratio were selected as control group. The same questionnaire was adopted in both control group and case group. [ Results] The analysis of multiple logistic regression indicated that monthly income of family, menses, pets, work intensity, benzene and benzene homologues, heavy metal, seniority , noise and vibration had significant correlation with spontaneous abortion among female workers.. Monthly income of family was protection factor, but menses, pets, work intensity, benzene and benzene homologues, heavy metal, seniority, noise and vibration were risk factors (the OR were 1. 865, 4. 603, 1. 643, 11. 445, 4. 114, 4. 740, 3. 936, 2. 765, respectively). [Conclusion]This study had identified many kinds of factors correlated with spontaneous abortion among female workers. In order to improve the reproductive health and population quality of next generation, more health education of healthy childbearing should be improved and petrochemical enterprise female workers should leave job with occupational hazards exposure in the period of pregnancy.%目的 了解石化企业育龄女工自然流产发生的影响因素,为制定防制措施、减少自然流产的发生提供科学依据.方法 采用配对病例对照研究设计,由经培训的调查员选取南京市某大型石化生产企业3年期间发生的156例自然流产者进行回顾性问卷调查.对照组在市疾病

  20. 企业青年职工离职倾向研究——以某国有石化企业青年职工为样本%A Study on the Turnover Intentions of Young Employees Based on the Sample of Young Employees from a State-owned Petrochemical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋俊燕; 马玉凤

    2012-01-01

    The high turnover among young employees is a major problem with the human resource management of state-owned petrochemical enterprises. By giving out questionnaires to 219 young employees under the age of 35 from a state-owned petrochemical enterprise on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention, the study looks into the connection between job satisfaction/organizational commitment and turnover intention, and includes a discussion of the regression model. The opportunities, their ideal commitment and opportunity study finds that employees' satisfaction with development commitment are the major factors influencing the turnover intentions of young employees from the state-owned petrochemical enterprise.%青年职工高离职率是国有石化企业人力资源管理的一大问题。本研究采取问卷调查的方式,对219名35岁以下某国有石化企业青年职工进行了工作满意度、组织承诺、离职倾向的问卷调查,分析了国有石化企业青年工作满意度、组织承诺与离职倾向之相关关系,并探讨了回归模型。研究发现成长发展满意度、理想承诺、机会承诺是影响国有石化企业青年职工离职倾向的主要原因。

  1. The Marketing Team Building of Dongying Petrochemical Enterprises: Taking Shandong Shida Shenghua Chemical Group for Example%东营石化企业营销团队建设的对策——以山东石大胜华化工集团股份有限公司为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兆军

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, with the promotion and implementation of the Yellow and Blue, two national strategies, Dongying petrochemical enterprises have made considerable progress. Dongying has become one of the most concentrated areas of the national petrochemical enterprises. But under a good environment and conditions of the regional industrial development, there are still many problems with Dongying petrochemical enterprises in marketing team building, such as the old-fashioned marketing concept, lack of internal communication and coordination, and poor marketing system construction. To promote these enterprises'sound development and meet the modern market economy requirements, it is necessary to establish a modern marketing concept, strengthen marketing culture construction, improve the employment mechanism, enhance team communication and collaboration, and perfect the marketing system.%近年来,随着"黄"、"蓝"两大国家战略的推动实施,东营石化企业取得了长足发展。东营市现已成为全国石化产业分布最为集中的区域之一。但面对地区产业发展的良好环境和条件,东营石化企业在营销团队建设方面还存在着营销人员理念落后、内部缺少沟通协作、营销制度建设落后等问题。为促进东营市石化企业的良性发展,必须树立现代营销理念,加强营销文化建设,完善选人用人机制,加强团队沟通协作,建立健全营销制度,使营销团队适应现代市场经济发展的要求。

  2. The Research on the Relationship Between the World Oil Price and the China Petrochemicals Based on TAR%国际石油价格与我国石化生产的协整关系:基于TAR模型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双英; 李东

    2012-01-01

    国际石油价格作为石油化工产业主要原材料成本的重要组成部分,将对石化产业生产产生重大影响,研究发现我国主要石化产品总产量与国际油价之间存在显著的协整关系。利用门限自回归方法(TAR),实证研究发现两者存在非线性两机制门限协整。当国际油价低于门限值54.35美元时,我国石油化工生产基本不受国际石油价格变化影响。而当国际石油价格高于54.35美元时.其对我国石油化工产业影响凸显鼻成为抑制冀发展的童娶因素.%By studying the international oil price on the impact of China petrochemical industry, found that the cointegration relationship between the international oil price and the etrochemicals outputs. Using threshold auto-regression, empirical study found that they were nonlinear double-mechanism threshold eointgration. When international oil price below 54.35 US dollars, the China petrochemicals outputs were impervious. While international oil price above 54.35 US dollars, its impacts on the petrochemicals outputs was significant and negative.

  3. Study on emergency mechanism for major process safety accidents in petroleum and petrochemical industry%石油石化重大工艺安全事故应急机制浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰; 储胜利; 程宗华

    2014-01-01

    Three features of major process safety accidents in petroleum and petrochemical industry , such as strong-ly professional,high accident harm and liability to secondary disaster were summarized in the paper .Combining with the accidents characteristics and practical situation , five key emergency tactics for these accidents were presen -ted, including adequate risk identification , professional emergency organization, plentiful supply of emergency ma-terials, efficient joint-action mechanism of government & enterprise and right -hand guidance of public opinions .Fi-nally 5 work points of constructing perfect risk identification mechanism , training professional emergency team , es-tablishing complete emergency conservation system , building efficient joint-action mechanism and practical emer-gency tactics for social crisis were analyzed in detail .%石油石化生产关键工艺设备或流程蕴藏的风险能量巨大,一旦发生事故,后果往往极其严重。分析了石油石化重大工艺安全事故专业性强、事故规模大、易形成连锁反应和诱发环境污染事件等3个典型特征。通过事故应急经验分析,研究提出了石油石化重大工艺安全事故应急工作需要遵循的风险辨识充分到位、专业应急保障有力、应急资源保障充足、企地联动迅速高效、社会舆论引导得力等5方面的重点应急策略。设计了工艺安全事故风险辨识与评估、专业应急队伍建设与能力提升、应急资源联合储备、区域应急联动和公共危机公关等5项石油石化企业重大工艺安全事故应急重点工作机制内容和建设要点。石油石化企业需要不断建立和完善5项应急工作机制,才能为重大工艺安全事故应急工作提供可靠保障。

  4. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION ON CIRCULAR ECONOMY OF PETROCHEMICAL AND SALT CHEMICAL INTEGRATION%石化-盐化一体化循环经济模式分析与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高力国; 迟庆峰

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of circular economy system based on the integration of petrochemical and salt chemical is discussed in depth, and the situations before and after the implementation of this project are analyzed. Adopting combined process to manufacture PVC, the ethylene in dry gas and the by-product hydrogen chloride all can be used, besides, the supply of electrolytic hydrogen is less. The improved chlorohydrine process for propylene oxide (PO) production can reduce the consumption of soda, seawater and propylene significantly; furthermore, the zero discharge of wastes from PO unit is realized. The comprehensive utilization of DCC dry gas and C4 resource can promote the added value of products. On the whole, by optimizing overall process planning and applying technology innovations, the objective goal of maximum utilization of various resources, less energy consumption and waste discharge could be reached.%深入探索和研究石化-盐化一体化循环经济的特征,对比分析石化-盐化一体化项目实施前后的情况.结果表明:采用联合法制聚氯乙烯,可利用干气中的乙烯资源,使副产的氯化氢再利用,并节省外供的电解氢气;用改良氯醇法生产环氧丙烷,使纯碱生产中使用的海水、丙烯的消耗量大大减少,并实现装置环氧丙烷废水、废渣的零排放;对DCC干气和C4的综合利用,使产品的附加值得到提升.说明石化-盐化一体化循环经济模式可以通过工艺流程的总体规划、有机结合和技术创新,实现资源利用最大化和节能减排.

  5. Analysis of the related factors of periodontitis in Ningbo petrochemical company staff%浙江省宁波某石化企业员工牙周炎的相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘恒标; 陈晖; 金丹; 张静

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解宁波某石化企业员工牙周炎的状况、影响因素及石化工人特殊职业环境对口腔健康的影响,为企业提供口腔职业卫生保护的信息.方法 根据第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查所采用的调查方法和标准,对宁波某石化企业2 108名抽样员工进行牙周状况检查,抽取空腹静脉血,测量总胆固醇等血清学指标,并按照年龄分为中青年组和老年组.通过x2检验、Logistic多因素回归分析等方法对数据进行分析.结果 2 108名员工牙周炎患病率为52.3%[95%CI:(52.3±2.1)%].年龄(OR=4.783,P=0.000)、血压(OR=1.526,P=0.001)、血糖(OR=1.560,P=0.045)3个因素为牙周炎患病的危险因素,环境危害因素(OR=0.661)被排除;中青年组显示:血压(OR=2.184,P=0.000)、血糖(OR =2.314,P=0.001)、总胆固醇(OR=1.356,P=0.003)、饮酒(OR=1.382,P=0.02)4个指标为中青年组人群牙周炎患病的危险因素.结论 在宁波某石化企业牙周病防治时,要关注血糖、胆固醇、血压和饮酒4个因素;在生产过程中,以硫化氢为主的环境因素对员工龋齿和牙周病未发现有危害作用.%Objective To find out the prevalence of periodontitis in a petrochemical industry community in Ningbo ; to identify the possible factors of the prevalence; to evaluate the impact of the polluted environment on the oral health of the employees;and to provide information to the enterprises in oral diseases prevention.Methods 2 108 peoples who received regular physical examination in a petrochemical industry community in Ningbo was included.To each subject,a periodontal examination according to the principles and fundamental methods which were used in the third national oral health epidemical survey was carried out,the fast blood was phlebotomized,total cholesterol(TC),triglyceride (TG),uric acid,blood glucose and other serum indexes levels were recorded.These subjects were stratified into two age groups.Data was analyzed with

  6. Les réacteurs à membranes : possibilités d'application dans l'industrie pétrolière et pétrochimique Membrane Reactors: Possibilities of Application in the Petroleum and Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article fait le point sur l'état de la recherche dans le domaine des réacteurs chimiques avec séparation par membrane intégrée et de leur applications dans le domaine du raffinage et de la pétrochimie. Trois applications potentiellement intéressantes sont identifiées et, pour chacune, les avantages de l'utilisation d'un réacteur à membrane sont discutés. Ce sont : la déshydrogénation du propane en propylène, la déshydrogénation d'un naphtène cyclohexanique et le vaporéformage du gaz naturel. Pour ces réactions, les membranes à base de palladium apparaissent les plus performantes compte tenu de leur tenue en température, de leur sélectivité et de leur perméabilité à l'hydrogène. Quelques éléments relatifs à leur développement sont présentés en conclusion. Recently, the use of membrane in reaction engineering has been more and more advocated. The selective separation of the products from the reaction mixture allows to achieve higher conversion or better selectivity or to operate under less severe conditions or with smaller units. This paper presents an update on the recent advances in the field of chemical membrane reactors and on their applications in refining and petrochemistry. Previous work. Most of the possible applications of membrane reactors in petroleum and petrochemical industry concern gaseous catalytic reactions. For this reason, gas permeation membranes are the primary component of membrane reactors. Gas permeation membranes present different types of physical structure : dense, microporous or asymmetric which is a combination of the two. Separating properties of dense membranes are function of the solubility and diffusivity of each gaseous component in the membrane material. For microporous membranes, they follow four mechanisms : Knudsen diffusion, surface diffusion, capillary condensation or molecular sieving. Although organic polymers are the common constituent of gas permeation membrane, their

  7. Liaotong Chemical: Create a Large Petrochemical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since its listing in the stock market, Liaotong Huajin Tongda Chemicals Co., Ltd.(Liaotong Chemical, SZ:000059) has paid off bank loans with funds raised in the stock market to reduce its capital cost.

  8. From petrochemical polyurethanes to biobased polyhydroxyurethanes

    OpenAIRE

    Nohra, Bassam; Candy, Laure; Blanco, Jean-François; Guerin, Celine; Raoul, Yann; Mouloungui, Zephirin

    2013-01-01

    From a green and sustainable chemistry standpoint, the current challenge in the polyurethane's industry is to switch from petrobased polyurethanes (PUs) to biobased polyhydroxyurethanes (PHUs). This review describes the main alternative strategies being developed with a focus on PHUs from vegetable oils and derivatives. The substitution of petrobased polyols by natural oil based polyols was the first route to biobased PUs to be developed. The second strategy involves synthesis without the nee...

  9. Beyond petrochemicals: The renewable chemicals industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennestrøm, P.N.R.; Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Christensen, C.H.;

    2011-01-01

    From petroleum to bioleum: Since biomass is a limited resource, it is necessary to consider its best use. The production of select chemicals from biomass, rather than its use as fuel, could effectively replace the use of petroleum in the chemical industry, but the inherent functionality of biomass...

  10. Monitoring of fugitive emissions in petrochemical plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Rozilda F. [Companhia Petroquimica do Nordeste (COPENE), Camacari, BA (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Ambiental

    1993-12-31

    COPENE (Petroquimica do Nordeste S/A) has been implanting a program of fugitive emissions adapted to its reality, trying to promote a continuous improvement in its employees` working conditions and in environmental protection. This paper presents the methodology for the elaboration of this program and the conclusions of some surveys which were already completed (author). 4 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Petrochemical Industrial Development Flourishes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Cangzhou to construct world·class chemical industrial park To make full use of its advantages in coastline and harbors,local industries, traffic conditions and land use, Cangzhou City, Hebei Province, planned to construct the largest chemical industrial park in North China - Lingang Chemical Industrial Park, which has already captured attention of the Chinese and foreign chemicals enterprises.

  12. Health planning for remote petrochemical field operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieger, G.R.; Balge, M.Z.

    1995-12-31

    Occupational/Public Health Services are becoming increasingly required in projects that involve the extended presence of expatriates in remote underdeveloped areas of the world. These ``expats`` are defined as individuals living and working in the environment who are not indigenous to the area. Under this definition, workers who are resistant to a ``local`` strain of malaria and then relocate to another geographic within the same country can also be considered as ``biologic expatriates`` since their resistance profile for certain tropical diseases is not reflective of their new environment. Unlike a major infrastructure project in the industrialized world, project planners in remote areas of the developing world should be expected to make significant long term medical and environmental commitments. US companies have extensive experience in the business of large-scale development projects, e.g. oil and gas pipelines and well field development; however, these projects represent major long-term in-country commitments with potentially large labor forces and substantial and sustained impacts on local health and safety resources. The initial structuring of health and safety programs will, therefore, have long-term ramifications on the project both during construction and ``routine`` operations since the multi-national companies are increasingly expected to develop and maintain self-sustaining health, safety and environmental programs.

  13. Chemical and mineralogical data and processing methods management system prototype with application to study of the North Caucasus Blybsky Metamorphic Complexes metamorphism PT-condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Stanislav; Kamzolkin, Vladimir; Konilov, Aleksandr; Aleshin, Igor

    2014-05-01

    There are many various methods of assessing the conditions of rocks formation based on determining the composition of the constituent minerals. Our objective was to create a universal tool for processing mineral's chemical analysis results and solving geothermobarometry problems by creating a database of existing sensors and providing a user-friendly standard interface. Similar computer assisted tools are based upon large collection of sensors (geothermometers and geobarometers) are known, for example, the project TPF (Konilov A.N., 1999) - text-based sensor collection tool written in PASCAL. The application contained more than 350 different sensors and has been used widely in petrochemical studies (see A.N. Konilov , A.A. Grafchikov, V.I. Fonarev 2010 for review). Our prototype uses the TPF project concept and is designed with modern application development techniques, which allows better flexibility. Main components of the designed system are 3 connected datasets: sensors collection (geothermometers, geobarometers, oxygen geobarometers, etc.), petrochemical data and modeling results. All data is maintained by special management and visualization tools and resides in sql database. System utilities allow user to import and export data in various file formats, edit records and plot graphs. Sensors database contains up to date collections of known methods. New sensors may be added by user. Measured database should be filled in by researcher. User friendly interface allows access to all available data and sensors, automates routine work, reduces the risk of common user mistakes and simplifies information exchange between research groups. We use prototype to evaluate peak pressure during the formation of garnet-amphibolite apoeclogites, gneisses and schists Blybsky metamorphic complex of the Front Range of the Northern Caucasus. In particular, our estimation of formation pressure range (18 ± 4 kbar) agrees on independent research results. The reported study was

  14. 驯化污泥及生物滤池法处理高含盐石化废水%Treatment of Petrochemical High-Salinity Wastewater by Sludge Acclimation and Bio-Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王基成; 张秀霞; 王建娜; 潘成峰

    2011-01-01

    考察了纯氧曝气活性污泥和生物滤池深度处理石化高盐废水的工艺条件及处理效率.结果表明,在总溶固(TDS)为18000~35000 mg/L的范围,通过驯化培养出的耐盐活性污泥能够适应短时间的盐浓度冲击,在纯氧曝气活性污泥工艺中,使废水的化学需氧量(COD)的平均降低率达到85%.进一步采用厌氧生物滤池(AF)和曝气生物滤池(BAF)工艺对生化出水进行深度处理,在共基质质量浓度12 mg/L,BAF水力停留时间2.7h、水力负荷1.1 m3/(m2·h)条件下,当待处理废水的COD在58.1~114.1 mg/L、NH3-N质量浓度在1.2~19.0 mg/L范围时,废水的COD平均降低率可达43.7%,NH3-N平均降低率达74.2%,出水的COD和NH3-N的质量浓度平均值分别为42.9和2.2 mg/L.%The treatment conditions and efficiency of pure oxygen activated sludge and bio-filter advanced treatment method for petrochemical high-salinity wastewater were studied. The results showed that the salt-tolerant activated sludge through cultivation and domestication was able to adapt to the impact of salt concentration in a short time when the total dissolved solid (TDS) was in the range of 18000 - 35000 mg/L. The average COD reduction rate of the high-salinity wastewater treated by pure oxygen activated sludge could be up to 85%. The AF and BAF methods were used for the effluent advanced treatment. At the optimal conditions of co-substrate concentration 12 mg/L, BAF hydraulic retention time 2. 7 h and hydraulic loading 1. 1 m3/(m2 · h) , the average reduction rates of COD and c(NH3-N) for the high-salinity wastewater with COD of 58. 1 - 114. 1 mg/L and c(NH3-N) of 1.2-19.0 mg/L were 43. 7% and 74.2%, and the average COD and mass concentration of NH3-N of final effluent were 42. 9 and 2. 2 mg/L, respectively.

  15. STRUCTURE DYNAMIC RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF TALL FRAMED TOWER FOR PETRO-CHEMICAL PROJECTS%石油化工框架式高塔结构动力响应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何国富; 姜颜宁; 杨青; 金微

    2015-01-01

    以某石油化工工程中的大长径比框架式高塔为对象,采用时程分析法,分析地震作用下设置限位导向支架的框架式高塔的结构响应,并与采用组合结构模型的框架塔进行对比分析。分析表明,设置限位导向支架的框架式高塔,塔体水平位移幅值变化具有时段性增大特征,最大塔顶位移比组合结构模型的框架塔增大约50%;地震作用将导致框架与塔之间产生振荡接触,接触产生的压力以脉冲方式作用到塔体上,并在塔体局部区域产生应力集中和应力幅值极速变化;框架塔的结构模型对塔体底部的应力变化和框架支座反力变化的稳定性影响不大。分析同时认为,设置限位导向支架的框架塔属于多体系结构,采用单一组合结构模型进行工程设计存在一定的安全隐患,建议在目前缺乏设计标准明确规定的条件下,地震作用分析宜采用时程分析法。%Taking a practical high framed-tower with large long-diameter ratio for petro-chemical project as the object, the structure response of high framed-tower with gap limiting support under the seismic effect was analyzed with time-history analysis, whose results were compared with a combined structure model.The analysis indicated that the change in horizontal displacement of the high framed-tower with gap limiting support had the characteristics of increase in time step, max top displacement of tower was 50% greater than that of the high framed-tower of the combined structure model; and the seismic effect would also cause oscillation contact between tower and frame, and the pressure generated by the contact acted on the tower shell in mode of pulse force, which caused stress concentration in local area and a rapid change in stress amplitude.The type of structure model had low influence on stability of the stress variation of tower bottom and reaction variation of frame support.Based on the analysis

  16. Indice d' évolution des coûts des installations industrielles chimiques et pétrochimiques en France Cost Variation Index for Chemical and Petrochemical Installations in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benchecroun N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Un indice de coût des installations chimiques et pétrochimiques pour la France avait été proposé par le Département Évaluation de I'IFP en 1984. La maintenance de celui-ci s'avérait difficile sans l'aide des moyens informatiques aujourd'hui disponibles. La mise à jour de cet indice (EVAL a été faite en y apportant une modification en ce qui concerne la base (1980 = 100 pour le mettre en conformité avec les recommendations de l'OCDE sur les séries statistiques. L'évolution des coûts reflétée par EVAL est comparée avec celle d'autres indices de coût d'installation, publics (PEI ou privés (BEICIP, ainsi qu'avec l'évolution des prix à la consommation. On note une bonne concordance avec l'indice BEICIP sur l'ensemble de la période (1975-1986 ainsi que le décrochement de l'évolution des coûts par rapport à celle des prix en 1982. La déviation présentée par l'indice PEI a conduit à bâtir un indice bicomposant (BIEVAL pour vérifier qu'un choix correct de la pondération main d'oeuvre/matériaux (67/33 ainsi que des séries d'indices élémentaires cohérentes permettaient de restituer une évolution comparable à celle donnée par les indices multicomposants. Le Département Evaluation de l'IFP dispose donc de deux indices quasi équivalents, EVAL et BIEVAL, l'avantage du second étant d'avoir un délai de réponse plus faible. Actuellement (décembre 1986, les dernières valeurs connues sont celles de juillet 1986 pour EVAL et d'octobre 1986 pour BIEVAL. A cost index for chemical and petrochemical installations in France was proposed by the IFP Process Evaluation Department in 1984, The maintenance of this index was difficult without the help of the computerized facilities now available. This index (EVAL has been updated with a change in the base (1980 = 100 to have it conform with OECD recommendations for statistical series. The variation in costs reflected by EVAL is compared with that of other public (PEI or private

  17. 机械蒸汽再压缩技术在石化废水处理系统中的应用研究%Application of the Mechanical Vapor Recompression Technology in Treatment of Petrochemical Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖昌建; 余良永; 赵利民; 王海波; 马和旭; 王晶晶

    2015-01-01

    According to properties of petrochemical wastewater, the mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) process using plate evaporator with forced circulation was proposed to recycle wastewater resources. Considering the influence of the boiling point elevation and forced circulation, the complete mathematical model of MVR process was developed for process optimization and analysis, and the influence of evporation temperature, wastewater temperature and compression ratio on the MVR system performance was analyzed. The results show that, the method of atmospheric evaporation can be used to reduce the energy consumption; higher waste water temperature can result in a slight decrease in specific heat transfer area; and when compression ratio increases, specific power consuption increases, but specific heat transfer area decreases. So the compression ratio is the controlling factor that determines the heat transfer temperature difference, specific power consumption and specific heat transfer area of the MVR system, and the compression ratio plays a key role in controlling investment and operation cost of the MVR system. When waste water temperature is 45 ℃, concentrated liquid recirculated flow rate is 10 m3/h, the economical compression ratio is 1.4 to 1.6.%针对某石化废水的水质特点,提出了采用板式蒸发强制循环机械蒸汽再压缩工艺回收废水资源。在考虑浓缩液沸点升高及强制循环对系统影响的条件下,建立了 MVR 系统工艺计算数学模型,分析了蒸发温度、废水温度及压缩比对 MVR 系统的影响。模型求解结果表明:该废水采用常压蒸发,可降低系统能耗,同时高温进料有利于降低系统的总比传热面积;随着压缩比的增加,压缩机比电耗增加,而系统总比传热面积减小,且其减少的速率减缓,压缩比是控制系统传热温差、压缩机比电耗和总比传热面积的主要因素,压缩比对MVR 系统的投资和运行成本的

  18. Resources and energy trends of petrochemical industry in low carbon era%低碳时代石油化工产业资源与能源走势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华贲

    2013-01-01

    The constraint of carbon emission is promoting the third transition of the world primary energy constitution. Fossil energy would gradually decrease after achieving peak consumption, and nuclear and renewable energy would become the main components. Science and technology innovation will push forward the revolution of terminal utilizing model from primary energy, and result in significant change of petrochemical industry up to 2030. Transportation fuel and chemical raw material will shift from solely oil towards a new, multi-source pattern; oil, coal (electricity) and biomass. This situation calls for dealing with the relationship among macroscopic planning, energy saving and carbon emission reduction, providing great potential, opportunity and challenge for energy system optimization. 2012-2030 is the key transition period. Changing traditional idea and thinking, enlarging time and space sight, and emphasizing science and technology progress will guarantee fast development of China's organic chemical industry in the low carbon era.%碳排放约束使世界一次能源构成发生第三次大转型,石油和煤炭消耗达到顶峰后逐渐减少,核能和可再生能源逐渐成为主体;天然气则是向低碳能源过渡历史时期最重要的化石能源;科技创新将推动从一次能源到终端利用的模式和技术不断变革,并导致石油化工产业资源与能源的格局在未来20年发生重大变化.交通运输燃料和化学品将从完全依赖石油的局面转向石油、煤(电)、生物质并存的新格局.从而要求处理好有机化工产业宏观规划布局与节能减排和能量系统优化的关系,提供了能量系统在时间和空间多个维度上优化的机遇和挑战,并催生了新的内涵和潜力.2012-2030年期间是大转型的关键过渡时期,改变传统观念和思维定势,拓宽时间和空间的视野,依靠科技创新,必能推进中国有机化工产业顺利转型、快速发展.

  19. 宁波某石化企业员工牙周健康状况调查分析%Sample survey on periodontal health of people in petrochemical industry community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘恒标; 陈晖; 周娜; 金丹; 张静

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study periodontal health of people in a petrochemical industry community in East China and to provide fundamental documents and guidance for oral health care. Methods The periodontal status of 2 108 samples were selected. Each subject was examined according to the principles and fundamental methods which were used in the third national oral health epidemical survey. Results ① The periodontal healthy rate was 20.5% ; the periodontitis rate was 52.3% [ 95% CI: (52.3 ± 2.1 % ) ]; the gingi-val blood index was 61.5% ; the calculus rate was 64.2% ; the deep periodontal pocket index was 26.2% ; the prevalence rate of attachment loss ≥4 mm was 51.0%. ②The rate of attachment lost in the group aged 65-74 was 76.9% .higher than the average rate of 73.6% in East China. Conclusions ①The periodontal status was better than that in other places in East China. ?The male individuals aged 35 to 59 would be more likely to lose their periodontal attachment. Oral hygiene education should be emphasized.%目的 了解宁波某石化企业员工的牙周健康状况,为企业提供口腔职业保护信息.方法 根据第3次全国口腔健康流行病学调查所采用的《口腔健康调查基本方法》(世界卫生组织制定的第4版)的调查方法和标准,2008年3-9月,对宁波某石化企业2 108名抽样员工,进行检查牙周状况,结果 ①2 108名抽样员工的牙周健康率为20.5%,牙周炎患病率52.3%[95%CI:(52.3±2.1)%];牙龈出血检出率为61.5%,人均患牙(1.20±1.93)颗;牙结石检出率为64.2%,人均患牙(5.96±7.80)颗;牙周袋检出率为26.2%,人均患牙(0.94±2.37)颗;牙周附着丧失≥4 mm者的检出率为51.0%,人均患牙(5.63±6.88)颗.②65 ~74岁组的员工牙周附着丧失检出率为76.9%,高出全国东部的73.6%.结论 宁波石化企业员工牙周健康状况均好于全国东部同类地区的居民;35 ~59岁组的男性员工应成为牙周附着丧失的重点监控

  20. Hyper Space Complex Number

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Shanguang

    2007-01-01

    A new kind of numbers called Hyper Space Complex Numbers and its algebras are defined and proved. It is with good properties as the classic Complex Numbers, such as expressed in coordinates, triangular and exponent forms and following the associative and commutative laws of addition and multiplication. So the classic Complex Number is developed from in complex plane with two dimensions to in complex space with N dimensions and the number system is enlarged also.

  1. Complex networks analysis of language complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Amancio, Diego R; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Costa, Luciano da F; 10.1209/0295-5075/100/58002

    2013-01-01

    Methods from statistical physics, such as those involving complex networks, have been increasingly used in quantitative analysis of linguistic phenomena. In this paper, we represented pieces of text with different levels of simplification in co-occurrence networks and found that topological regularity correlated negatively with textual complexity. Furthermore, in less complex texts the distance between concepts, represented as nodes, tended to decrease. The complex networks metrics were treated with multivariate pattern recognition techniques, which allowed us to distinguish between original texts and their simplified versions. For each original text, two simplified versions were generated manually with increasing number of simplification operations. As expected, distinction was easier for the strongly simplified versions, where the most relevant metrics were node strength, shortest paths and diversity. Also, the discrimination of complex texts was improved with higher hierarchical network metrics, thus point...

  2. PetroChina to Expand Dushanzi Refinery on Large Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ A large-scale expansion project for PetroChina Dushanzi Petrochemical Company has been given the green light, a move which will make it one of the largest refineries and petrochemical complexes in the country.

  3. Geochemistry, Nd Isotopic Characteristics of Metamorphic Complexes in Northern Hebei: Implications for Crustal Accretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shuwen; TIAN Wei; L(U) Yongjun; LI Qiugen; FENG Yonggang; K. H. PARK; Y. S. SONG

    2006-01-01

    The middle segment of the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC) consists mainly of metamorphosed Archean Dantazi Complex, Paleoproterozoic Hongqiyingzi Complex and unmetamorphosed gabbro-anorthosite-meta-alkaline granite, as well as metamorphosed Late Paleozoic mafic to granitoid rocks in the Damiao-Changshaoying area. The ~2.49 Ga Dantazi Complex comprises dioritic-trondhjemitic-granodoritic-monzogranitic gneisses metamorphosed in amphibolite to granulite facies. Petrochemical characteristics reveal that most of the rocks belong to a medium- to high-potassium calc-alkaline series, and display Mg# less than 40, right-declined REE patterns with no to obviously positive Eu anomalies, evidently negative Th, Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies in primitive mantlenormalized spider diagrams, εNd(t)=+0.65 to -0.03, and depleted mantle model ages TDM=2.78-2.71 Ga.Study in petrogenesis indicates that the rocks were formed from magmatic mixing between mafic magma from the depleted mantle and granitoid magma from partial melting of recycled crustal mafic rocks in a continental margin setting. The 2.44-2.41 Ga Hongqiyingzi Complex is dominated by metamorphic mafic-granodioritic-monzogranitic gneisses, displaying similar petrochemical features to the Dantazi Complex, namely medium to high potassium callc-alkaline series, and the mafic rocks show evident change in LILEs, negative Th, Nb, Ta, Zr anomalies and positive P anomalies. And the other granitiod samples also exhibit negative Th, Nb, Ta, P and Ti anomalies. All rocks in the Hongqiyingzi Complex show right-declined REE patterns without Eu anomaly. The metamorphic mafic rocks with εNd(t) = -1.64 may not be an identical magmatic evolution series with granitoids that have εNd(t) values of +3.19 to +1.94 and TDM ages of 2.55-2.52 Ga. These granitic rocks originated from hybrid between mafic magma from the depleted mantle and magma from partial melting of juvenile crustal mafic rocks in an island arc setting. All the ~311

  4. Effect of the exposure time in coke making atmosphere on the microstructure and properties of a refractory castable used in the petrochemical industry; Efeito do tempo de exposicao a uma atmosfera coqueificante na microestrutura e nas propriedades de um concreto refratario usado na industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrelon, M.D.; Pereira, A.H.A.; Rodrigues, J.A., E-mail: marcelodezena@gmail.com [Grupo de Engenharia de Microestrutura de Materiais - GEMM, Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais - DEMa, Universidade Federal de S. Carlos - UFSCar, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, J. [CENPES, Petroleo Brasileiro S/A - PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Toledo-Filho, R.D. [Laboratorio de Estruturas e Materiais - LABEST, COPPE, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Refractory castables used in Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU) are said to deteriorate due coke formation during the production of light hydrocarbons, causing a shortening in the operating time of the reactor. Consequently, a significant financial loss for the petrochemical will occur. Several studies have been carried out, but none of them showed clearly how much is the contribution of the coke for the concrete final deterioration. It still remains the doubt if the coke is the responsible for the damage observed macroscopically in a FCCU's riser. In this way, this work aimed to study the effect of the time in a coke making atmosphere on an anti-erosive class-C refractory castable, seeking for microstructural changes or on physical properties that indicate degradation mechanisms and give support to the understanding of the phenomenon. Samples of an industrial refractory castable used in petrochemical units were prepared and subjected to a forced coke making process in a simulation reactor. The temperature and the heating rate were kept constant at 540 deg C and 50 deg C/h, respectively. The values of 10, 60, 120, 240 and 480 h were used for the time of exposition to the propene gas. The microstructure of the samples was characterized through optical and scanning electron microscopy and its mineralogical phases through X-ray diffraction. Complementary analyses were necessary to a better understanding of the phenomenon. The results show that the surface and the microstructure are gradually impregnated by coke, which fills up pores, microcracks and cracks. Evidences of microcracking around the coke filled pores were not found. However, many aggregates present some type of deterioration related to the time of exposition to propene. Those damages are not necessarily caused by coke directly (author)

  5. Catalyseurs et procédés catalytiques utilisés dans la production des grands intermédiaires pétrochimiques. Situation actuelle et futur Catalysts and Catalytic Processes Used for the Production of the Major Petrochemical Building Blocks. Present Situation and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boitiaux J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La pétrochimie représente une part modeste du marché des catalyseurs, mais les dix dernières années ont vu des améliorations substantielles des catalyseurs et des procédés utilisés. Ces améliorations ont permis de mieux répondre à la demande en grands intermédiaires pétrochimiques. Cette évolution est bien illustrée par les hydrogénations, autour du vapocraquage destiné à produire des oléfines, par le reformage catalytique et les procédés satellites destinés à produire des aromatiques et par les nouveaux procédés de déshydrogénation, métathèse, oligomérisation. . . qui permettent de mieux équilibrer le marché des oléfines. Petrochemicals account for a modest share of the market for catalysts, but there have been substantial improvements in the catalysts and processes used in the last ten years. These improvements have brought about a better response to the demand for major petrochemical building blocks. This trend is clearly illustrated by hydrogenations in the field of steam cracking to produce olefins, by catalytic reforming and satellite processes to produce aromatics, and by new processes such as dehydrogenation, metathesis and oligomerization which provide better balance to the market for olefins.

  6. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other ... worsened after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications ...

  7. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma ( ...

  8. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to ... body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  9. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer ... least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  10. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  11. Complexity Near Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, Edi

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the concept of complexity near horizons to all nondegenerate black holes. For Schwarzschild black holes, we show that Rindler observers see a complexity change of $S$ during proper time $1/\\kappa$ which corresponds to the creation of a causal patch with proper length $1/\\kappa$ inside the horizon. We attempt to describe complexity in the horizon CFT and the Euclidean picture.

  12. Quaternionic versus complex maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asorey, M [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Zaragoza 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Scolarici, G [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento and INFN, Sezione di Lecce, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Solombrino, L [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento and INFN, Sezione di Lecce, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2007-11-15

    We discuss the relation between completely positive quaternionic maps and the corresponding complex maps obtained via projection operation. In order to illustrate this formalism, we reobtain the (complex) qubit subdynamics of maximally entangled Bell states, as complex projection of unitary dynamics between quaternionic pure states.

  13. Complexity, Systems, and Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-14

    complex ( Hidden issues; dumbs down operator) 11 Complexity, Systems, and Software Sarah Sheard August 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie...August 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Addressing Complexity in SoSs Source: SEBOK Wiki System Con truer Strateglc Context

  14. SYSTEMS WITH COMPLEXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chenghong; ZHANG Lijun

    2004-01-01

    Science of Complexity is a newly emerging branch of natural scienceAlthoughwe still haven't a precise definition, there are some principles for justifying whether a systemis a complex systemThe purpose of this article is to reveal some of such principlesOnthe basis of them, the concept of a system with complexity is proposedThey may helpus to distinguish a real complex system from complicated objects in common senseThenwe propose some fundamental problems faced by the study of systems with complexity.

  15. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  16. Complexity Through Nonextensivity

    CERN Document Server

    Bialek, W; Tishby, N; Bialek, William; Nemenman, Ilya; Tishby, Naftali

    2001-01-01

    The problem of defining and studying complexity of a time series has interested people for years. In the context of dynamical systems, Grassberger has suggested that a slow approach of the entropy to its extensive asymptotic limit is a sign of complexity. We investigate this idea further by information theoretic and statistical mechanics techniques and show that these arguments can be made precise, and that they generalize many previous approaches to complexity, in particular unifying ideas from the physics literature with ideas from learning and coding theory; there are even connections of this statistical approach to algorithmic or Kolmogorov complexity. Moreover, a set of simple axioms similar to those used by Shannon in his development of information theory allows us to prove that the divergent part of the subextensive component of the entropy is a unique complexity measure. We classify time series by their complexities and demonstrate that beyond the `logarithmic' complexity classes widely anticipated in...

  17. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhtar Hussain; Akhil R Chakravarty

    2012-11-01

    Lanthanide complexes have recently received considerable attention in the field of therapeutic and diagnostic medicines. Among many applications of lanthanides, gadolinium complexes are used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents in clinical radiology and luminescent lanthanides for bioanalysis, imaging and sensing. The chemistry of photoactive lanthanide complexes showing biological applications is of recent origin. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment modality of cancer using a photosensitizer drug and light. This review primarily focuses on different aspects of the chemistry of lanthanide complexes showing photoactivated DNA cleavage activity and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Macrocyclic texaphyrin-lanthanide complexes are known to show photocytotoxicity with the PDT effect in near-IR light. Very recently, non-macrocyclic lanthanide complexes are reported to show photocytotoxicity in cancer cells. Attempts have been made in this perspective article to review and highlight the photocytotoxic behaviour of various lanthanide complexes for their potential photochemotherapeutic applications.

  18. On Complex Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Khurshid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, it is shown that a complex multivariate random variable  is a complex multivariate normal random variable of dimensionality if and only if all nondegenerate complex linear combinations of  have a complex univariate normal distribution. The characteristic function of  has been derived, and simpler forms of some theorems have been given using this characterization theorem without assuming that the variance-covariance matrix of the vector  is Hermitian positive definite. Marginal distributions of  have been given. In addition, a complex multivariate t-distribution has been defined and the density derived. A characterization of the complex multivariate t-distribution is given. A few possible uses of this distribution have been suggested.

  19. Measuring static complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Goertzel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “pattern” is introduced, formally defined, and used to analyze various measures of the complexity of finite binary sequences and other objects. The standard Kolmogoroff-Chaitin-Solomonoff complexity measure is considered, along with Bennett's ‘logical depth’, Koppel's ‘sophistication'’, and Chaitin's analysis of the complexity of geometric objects. The pattern-theoretic point of view illuminates the shortcomings of these measures and leads to specific improvements, it gives rise to two novel mathematical concepts--“orders” of complexity and “levels” of pattern, and it yields a new measure of complexity, the “structural complexity”, which measures the total amount of structure an entity possesses.

  20. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  1. Complex networks and computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuigeng ZHOU; Zhongzhi ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nowadays complex networks are pervasive in various areas of science and technology. Popular examples of complex networks include the Internet, social networks of collaboration, citations and co-authoring, as well as biological networks such as gene and protein interactions and others. Complex networks research spans across mathematics, computer science, engineering, biology and the social sciences. Even in computer science area, increasing problems are either found to be related to complex networks or studied from the perspective of complex networks, such as searching on Web and P2P networks, routing in sensor networks, language processing, software engineering etc. The interaction and mergence of complex networks and computing is inspiring new chances and challenges in computer science.

  2. Nanofiber composites containing N-heterocyclic carbene complexes with antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzatahry AA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed A Elzatahry1,4, Abdullah M Al-Enizi1, Elsayed Ahmed Elsayed2,5, Rachel R Butorac3, Salem S Al-Deyab1, Mohammad AM Wadaan2, Alan H Cowley31Petrochemical Research Chair, Department of Chemistry, 2Chair of Advanced Proteomics & Cytomics Research, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; 4Institute of Advanced Technology and New Materials, City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Borg Alrab, Alexandria, Egypt; 5Natural & Microbial Products Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: This report concerns nanofiber composites that incorporate N-heterocyclic carbenes and the use of such composites for testing antimicrobial and antifungal activities. The nanofiber composites were produced by electrospinning mixtures of the gold chloride or gold acetate complexes of a bis(iminoacenaphthene (BIAN-supported NHC with aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. The products were characterized by scanning-electron microscopy, which revealed that nanofibers in the range of 250–300 nm had been produced. The biological activities of the nanofiber composites were tested against two Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and two fungal strains. No activity was evident against the fungal strains. However, the gold chloride complex was found to be active against all the Gram-positive pathogens and one of the Gram-negative pathogens. It was also found that the activity of the produced nanofibers was localized and that no release of the bioactive compound from the nanofibers was evident. The demonstrated antimicrobial activities of these novel nanofiber composites render them potentially useful as wound dressings.Keywords: nanofiber, electrospinning, N-Heterocyclic carbene, biopolymer, antimicrobial

  3. Recognizing dualizing complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Let A be a noetherian local commutative ring and let M be a suitable complex of A-modules. This paper proves that M is a dualizing complex for A if and only if the trivial extension A \\ltimes M is a Gorenstein Differential Graded Algebra. As a corollary follows that A has a dualizing complex if and only if it is a quotient of a Gorenstein local Differential Graded Algebra.

  4. Complex Systems and Dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth

  5. Genetics of complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Arno G

    2006-02-01

    Approaches to the study of the genetic basis of common complex diseases and their clinical applications are considered. Monogenic Mendelian inheritance in such conditions is infrequent but its elucidation may help to detect pathogenic mechanisms in the more common variety of complex diseases. Involvement by multiple genes in complex diseases usually occurs but the isolation and identification of specific genes so far has been exceptional. The role of common polymorphisms as indicators of disease risk in various studies is discussed.

  6. Yanchang Petroleum Group to Focus on Petrochemicals%Yanchang Petroleum Group to Focus on Petrochemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying

    2011-01-01

    Century-old development Based in Northwest China's Shaanxi Province, the country's fourth largest oil producing province, and directly attached to Shaanxi People's Provincial Government, Yanchang Petroleum Group is one of the four qualified enterprises for oil and gas exploration in China, with a century-old development history. It drilled the first oil well in mainland China in 1907.

  7. Berger Engineering Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Engineering laboratory The Berger Lab Complex is a multi-purpose building with professional office, 100 seat auditorium, general purpose labs,...

  8. Higher Koszul complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶郁; 张璞

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we generalize the Koszul complexes and Koszul algebras, and introduce the higherKoszul (t-Koszul) complexes and higher Koszul algebras, where t ≥ 2 is an integer. We prove that an algebra ist-Koszul if and only if its t-Koszul complex is augmented, i.e. the higher degree (≥ 1) homologies vanish. Forarbitrary t-Koszul algebra , we also give a description of the structure of the cohomology algebra Ext ( 0, 0)by using the t-Koszul complexes, where the 0 is the direct sum of the simples.

  9. Petrochemistry and hydrothermal alteration within the Tyrone Igneous Complex, Northern Ireland: implications for VMS mineralization in the British and Irish Caledonides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Steven P.; Roberts, Stephen; Earls, Garth; Herrington, Richard; Cooper, Mark R.; Piercey, Stephen J.; Archibald, Sandy M.; Moloney, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Although volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits can form within a wide variety of rift-related tectonic environments, most are preserved within suprasubduction affinity crust related to ocean closure. In stark contrast to the VMS-rich Appalachian sector of the Grampian-Taconic orogeny, VMS mineralization is rare in the peri-Laurentian British and Irish Caledonides. Economic peri-Gondwanan affinity deposits are limited to Avoca and Parys Mountain. The Tyrone Igneous Complex of Northern Ireland represents a ca. 484-464 Ma peri-Laurentian affinity arc-ophiolite complex and a possible broad correlative of the Buchans-Robert's Arm belt of Newfoundland, host to some of the most metal-rich VMS deposits globally. Stratigraphic horizons prospective for VMS mineralization in the Tyrone Igneous Complex are associated with rift-related magmatism, hydrothermal alteration, synvolcanic faults, and high-level subvolcanic intrusions (gabbro, diorite, and/or tonalite). Locally intense hydrothermal alteration is characterized by Na-depletion, elevated SiO2, MgO, Ba/Sr, Bi, Sb, chlorite-carbonate-pyrite alteration index (CCPI) and Hashimoto alteration index (AI) values. Rift-related mafic lavas typically occur in the hanging wall sequences to base and precious metal mineralization, closely associated with ironstones and/or argillaceous sedimentary rocks representing low temperature hydrothermal venting and volcanic quiescence. In the ca. 475 Ma pre-collisional, calc-alkaline lower Tyrone Volcanic Group rift-related magmatism is characterized by abundant non-arc type Fe-Ti-rich eMORB, island-arc tholeiite, and low-Zr tholeiitic rhyolite breccias. These petrochemical characteristics are typical of units associated with VMS mineralization in bimodal mafic, primitive post-Archean arc terranes. Following arc-accretion at ca. 470 Ma, late rifting in the ensialic upper Tyrone Volcanic Group is dominated by OIB-like, subalkaline to alkali basalt and A-type, high-Zr rhyolites. These units

  10. Introductory complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Richard A

    1984-01-01

    A shorter version of A. I. Markushevich's masterly three-volume Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable, this edition is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in complex analysis. Numerous worked-out examples and more than 300 problems, some with hints and answers, make it suitable for independent study. 1967 edition.

  11. Complexity, Robustness, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Visser (Bauke)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses the relationship between organizational complexity ( the degree of detail of information necessary to correctly assign agents to positions), robustness (the relative loss of performance due to mis-allocated agents), and performance. More complex structures are not nec

  12. The visibility complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocchiola, M; Vegter, G

    1996-01-01

    We introduce the visibility complex (rr 2-dimensional regular cell complex) of a collection of n pairwise disjoint convex obstacles in the plane. It can be considered as a subdivision of the set of free rays (i.e., rays whose origins lie in free space, the complement of the obstacles). Its cells cor

  13. Complexity and Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jeanette Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    A central feature of complexity is that it is based on non-linear, recursive relations. However, in most current accounts of complexity such relations, while non-linear, are based on the reductive relations of a Newtonian onto-epistemological framework. This means that the systems that are emergent from the workings of such relations are a…

  14. Schools and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombly, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    As schools, districts, and the overall education system are complex entities, both the approaches taken to improve them and the methods used to study them must be similarly complex. Simple solutions imposed with no regard for schools' or districts' unique contexts hold little promise, while seemingly insignificant differences between those…

  15. Visual Complexity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  16. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.;

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  17. Comments on Holographic Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Carmi, Dean; Rath, Pratik

    2016-01-01

    We study two recent conjectures for holographic complexity: the complexity=action conjecture and the complexity=volume conjecture. In particular, we examine the structure of the UV divergences appearing in these quantities, and show that the coefficients can be written as local integrals of geometric quantities in the boundary. We also consider extending these conjectures to evaluate the complexity of the mixed state produced by reducing the pure global state to a specific subregion of the boundary time slice. The UV divergences in this subregion complexity have a similar geometric structure, but there are also new divergences associated with the geometry of the surface enclosing the boundary region of interest. We discuss possible implications arising from the geometric nature of these UV divergences.

  18. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks, is fragme......There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, and recommendations, and supporting exploratory search to sensemaking and analytics, UI and UX design pose an overconstrained challenge. How do we know that our approach is any good? Supporting complex search task requires new collaborations across the whole field of IR, and the proposed workshop will bring together...

  19. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  20. 基于太阳光谱的FTIR技术监测石油化工区丙烯的浓度分布%Application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Based on Sun Spectrum to Monitor the Distribution of Propylene from Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯书香; 徐亮; 高闽光; 程巳阳; 金岭; 冯明春; 李相贤

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, a new method is introduced for real-time monitoring the column concentration of propylene from petrochemical industry, which is based on the technique of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) by using sun spectrum. The retrieval algorithm of the concentrations of polluted gases based on nonlinear least squares is proposed. Continuous measurements surrounding the pre-monitoring contaminated areas are performed with a closed loop by using self-developed vehicular FTIR system to obtain the regional background reference spectrum, measured spectrum ,while application of a simplified gas radiative transmission model to calculate atmospheric transmittance spectrum, and finally using the nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm for atmospheric transmittance spectrum to achieve the column concentration of propylene surrounding polluted areas. Using this method, remote sensing experiment of propylene in Shanghai Gaoqiao petrochemical zone was done. The experimental result shows that the measured column concentration distribution of propylene well reflects the pollutantD emission and dispersion and proves the availability of the vehicular FTIR technology in monitoring regional gas pollution.%介绍了一种基于太阳光谱的傅里叶变换红外光谱( FTIR)技术实时监测石油化工区丙烯浓度分布情况的新方法和非线性最小二乘法反演污染气体浓度的算法.利用自主研发的车载FTIR系统对预监测污染源区域做闭合环路测量获取背景参考谱、测量谱,同时应用气体辐射传输的简化模型计算得到大气透过率谱,最终应用非线性最小二乘拟合算法对大气透过率谱反演得出污染源区域周边污染气体分布的柱浓度信息.运用此方法实际遥测了上海高桥石油化工区丙烯排放的情况,实验结果显示,测量的丙烯柱浓度分布准确地反应了污染物的排放和扩散情况,证明了车载FTIR技术在区域性污染气体监测方面的实用性.

  1. Análise comparativa e avaliação de prioridades de competição em três cadeias de suprimentos do setor petroquímico Comparative analysis and competitive priorities assessment in three supply chains from the petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa comparativamente e avalia qualitativamente prioridades de competição em três cadeias de suprimentos da indústria petroquímica, A, B e C. A pesquisa foi feita no segundo semestre de 2006. O artigo revisa definições sobre cadeias de suprimentos, destacando principalmente a forma de rede que estas podem assumir. A seguir, apresenta os três casos estudados. A pesquisa identificou sete prioridades de competição em petroquímica: qualidade, entrega, flexibilidade, custo, inovação, comunicação e segurança, que foram desdobradas em dimensões. As prioridades foram ponderadas por gestores, com apoio do método multicriterial AHP, chegando-se a uma estrutura de competitividade, que apoiou a avaliação, baseada em julgamento. Ao fim, as diferenças entre as prioridades e os desempenhos julgados formaram uma estrutura de objetivos para as cadeias. A deve priorizar qualidade, B flexibilidade e C redução de custo.The purpose of this article is to comparatively analyze and quantitatively assess the competitive priorities in three supply chains from the petrochemical industry: A, B, and C. The research was carried out in the second half of 2006. The article revises definitions on supply chains with emphasis on network shapes. Then, it presents the three case studies: A, B, and C. The research identifies seven competitive priorities in the petrochemical industry: quality, lead-time, flexibility, cost, innovation, communication and safety, which were unfolded in dimensions. The priorities were analyzed by managers with the support of the AHP multi-criteria method, reaching a competitiveness structure that supported the assessment based on judgment. Finally, the differences betweenthe priorities and the assessed performances formed a structure of objectives for the chains. Results showed that Ashould prioritize quality,B should prioritize flexibility, while C should prioritize cost reduction.

  2. 2013年我国石油化工行业进展回顾与展望%Progress of China’s petrochemical industry in 2013 and outlook for 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪定一

    2014-01-01

    有的贡献。%The progress of China’s petrochemical industry under the conditions of high crude price and slowdo

  3. Controllability of Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotine, Jean-Jacques

    2013-03-01

    We review recent work on controllability of complex systems. We also discuss the interplay of our results with questions of synchronization, and point out key directions of future research. Work done in collaboration with Yang-Yu Liu, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University and Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Albert-László Barabási, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University; Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School.

  4. Low complexity MIMO receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...

  5. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  6. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...... introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...

  7. A complex legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cristopher

    2011-11-01

    In his tragically short life, Alan Turing helped define what computing machines are capable of, and where they reach inherent limits. His legacy is still felt every day, in areas ranging from computational complexity theory to cryptography and quantum computing.

  8. Physical Sciences Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This 88,000 square foot complex is used to investigate basic physical science in support of missile technology development. It incorporates office space, dedicated...

  9. Management recommendations: Tewaukon Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Tewaukon Complex, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional comments are...

  10. Complex coacervate core micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voets, Ilja K; de Keizer, Arie; Cohen Stuart, Martien A

    2009-01-01

    In this review we present an overview of the literature on the co-assembly of neutral-ionic block, graft, and random copolymers with oppositely charged species in aqueous solution. Oppositely charged species include synthetic (co)polymers of various architectures, biopolymers - such as proteins, enzymes and DNA - multivalent ions, metallic nanoparticles, low molecular weight surfactants, polyelectrolyte block copolymer micelles, metallo-supramolecular polymers, equilibrium polymers, etcetera. The resultant structures are termed complex coacervate core/polyion complex/block ionomer complex/interpolyelectrolyte complex micelles (or vesicles); i.e., in short C3Ms (or C3Vs) and PIC, BIC or IPEC micelles (and vesicles). Formation, structure, dynamics, properties, and function will be discussed. We focus on experimental work; theory and modelling will not be discussed. Recent developments in applications and micelles with heterogeneous coronas are emphasized.

  11. Quantum Kolmogorov Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Berthiaume, A; Laplante, S; Berthiaume, Andre; Dam, Wim van; Laplante, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we give a definition for quantum Kolmogorov complexity. In the classical setting, the Kolmogorov complexity of a string is the length of the shortest program that can produce this string as its output. It is a measure of the amount of innate randomness (or information) contained in the string. We define the quantum Kolmogorov complexity of a qubit string as the length of the shortest quantum input to a universal quantum Turing machine that produces the initial qubit string with high fidelity. The definition of Vitanyi (Proceedings of the 15th IEEE Annual Conference on Computational Complexity, 2000) measures the amount of classical information, whereas we consider the amount of quantum information in a qubit string. We argue that our definition is natural and is an accurate representation of the amount of quantum information contained in a quantum state.

  12. Complexity for Artificial Substrates (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loke, L.H.L.; Jachowski, N.R.; Bouma, T.J.; Ladle, R.J.; Todd, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical habitat complexity regulates the structure and function of biological communities, although the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Urbanisation, pollution, unsustainable resource exploitation and climate change have resulted in the widespread simplification (and loss) o

  13. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  14. On scattered subword complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Kása, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Special scattered subwords, in which the gaps are of length from a given set, are defined. The scattered subword complexity, which is the number of such scattered subwords, is computed for rainbow words.

  15. Complex and unpredictable Cardano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekert, Artur

    2008-08-01

    This purely recreational paper is about one of the most colorful characters of the Italian Renaissance, Girolamo Cardano, and the discovery of two basic ingredients of quantum theory, probability and complex numbers.

  16. Beyond complex Langevin equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wosiek, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    A simple integral relation between a complex weight and the corresponding positive distribution is derived by introducing a second complex variable. Together with the positivity and normalizability conditions, this sum rule allows to construct explicitly equivalent pairs of distributions in simple cases. In particular the well known solution for a complex gaussian distribution is generalized to an arbitrary complex slope. This opens a possibility of positive representation of Feynman path integrals directly in the Minkowski time. Such construction is then explicitly carried through in the second part of this presentation. The continuum limit of the new representation exists only if some of the additional couplings tend to infinity and are tuned in a specific way. The approach is then successfully applied to three quantum mechanical examples including a particle in a constant magnetic field -- a simplest prototype of a Wilson line. Further generalizations are shortly discussed and an amusing interpretation of ...

  17. Network Complexity of Foodwebs

    CERN Document Server

    Standish, Russell K

    2010-01-01

    In previous work, I have developed an information theoretic complexity measure of networks. When applied to several real world food webs, there is a distinct difference in complexity between the real food web, and randomised control networks obtained by shuffling the network links. One hypothesis is that this complexity surplus represents information captured by the evolutionary process that generated the network. In this paper, I test this idea by applying the same complexity measure to several well-known artificial life models that exhibit ecological networks: Tierra, EcoLab and Webworld. Contrary to what was found in real networks, the artificial life generated foodwebs had little information difference between itself and randomly shuffled versions.

  18. An erupted complex odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozoglu, Sinan; Yildirim, Umran; Buyukkurt, M Cemil

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are benign tumors of odontogenic origin. The cause of the odontoma is unknown, but it is believed to be hereditary or due to a disturbance in tooth development triggered by trauma or infection. Odontomas may be either compound or complex. Although these tumors are seen frequently, erupted odontomas are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a rare case of complex odontoma that erupted into the oral cavity.

  19. Conversation, coupling and complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Abney, Drew; Bahrami, Bahador;

    We investigate the linguistic co-construction of interpersonal synergies. By applying a measure of coupling between complex systems to an experimentally elicited corpus of joint decision dialogues, we show that interlocutors’ linguistic behavior displays increasing signature of multi-scale coupling......, known as complexity matching, over the course of interaction. Furthermore, we show that stronger coupling corresponds with more effective interaction, as measured by collective task performance....

  20. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, W; Tomasiello, A; Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    We construct a class of symplectic non--Kaehler and complex non--Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten--dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)--structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  1. Quantum Hamiltonian Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Constraint satisfaction problems are a central pillar of modern computational complexity theory. This survey provides an introduction to the rapidly growing field of Quantum Hamiltonian Complexity, which includes the study of quantum constraint satisfaction problems. Over the past decade and a half, this field has witnessed fundamental breakthroughs, ranging from the establishment of a "Quantum Cook-Levin Theorem" to deep insights into the structure of 1D low-temperature quantum systems via s...

  2. Electrospun complexes - functionalised nanofibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T.; Wolf, M.; Dreyer, B.; Unruh, D.; Krüger, C.; Menze, M.; Sindelar, R.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Renz, F.

    2016-12-01

    Here we present a new approach of using iron-complexes in electro-spun fibres. We modify poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by replacing the methoxy group with Diaminopropane or Ethylenediamine. The complex is bound covalently via an imine-bridge or an amide. The resulting polymer can be used in the electrospinning process without any further modifications in method either as pure reagent or mixed with small amounts of not functionalised polymer resulting in fibres of different qualities (Fig. 1).

  3. Complex variable HVPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Grosjean, Alain [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon (CNRS, UPRES-A 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jolicard, Georges [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon (CNRS, UPRES-A 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2004-08-13

    Complex variable hypervirial perturbation theory is applied to the case of oscillator and Coulomb potentials perturbed by a single term potential of the form Vx{sup n} or Vr{sup n}, respectively. The trial calculations reported show that this approach can produce accurate complex energies for resonant states via a simple and speedy calculation and can also be useful in studies of PT symmetry and tunnelling resonance effects. (addendum)

  4. Advances in network complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A well-balanced overview of mathematical approaches to describe complex systems, ranging from chemical reactions to gene regulation networks, from ecological systems to examples from social sciences. Matthias Dehmer and Abbe Mowshowitz, a well-known pioneer in the field, co-edit this volume and are careful to include not only classical but also non-classical approaches so as to ensure topicality. Overall, a valuable addition to the literature and a must-have for anyone dealing with complex systems.

  5. MANAGEMENT OF SPORT COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian STAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.

  6. Criação de valor e estratégia de operações: um estudo do setor químico e petroquímico brasileiro Value creation and operational strategy: a study of Brazil's chemical and petrochemical sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ricardo Gartner

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da integração da estratégia de operações às finanças, ao evidenciar a necessidade do gestor de operações de planejar uma estratégia voltada à criação de valor na companhia. O trabalho apresenta uma metodologia para o cálculo do valor econômico adicionado das empresas químicas e petroquímicas brasileiras para os anos de 2001 e 2002, período de profundas transformações no perfil competitivo do setor. Os resultados de 2002 validaram a hipótese central do trabalho e forneceram um instrumento de simulação para identificar o limiar da responsabilidade do gestor de operações com a criação de valor em uma organização.This paper discusses the integration of operational strategies and corporate finance, focusing on the need for the operations manager to plan a strategy focusing on the creation of corporate value. A methodology is proposed for calculating the added economic value of Brazil's chemical and petrochemical industry in 2001 and 2002, a period marked by major changes in the sector's competitive profile. The results of 2002 validate the core hypothesis of this study, providing a simulation tool to identify the limits of the operations manager's responsibility in the creation of corporate value.

  7. 国际油价2012年前三季度走势回顾与四季度预测%Promoting the Harmonization of Industrialization and the Tendency to Become Information-Based, Accelerating the Optimization and Upgrading of Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晖

    2012-01-01

    分析了2012年前三季度国际油价的走势及特点,综合影响四季度国际油价的主要因素,分析预测四季度国际油价的可能变化趋势。%The article expounds on the problems, contradictions and severe challenges facing traditional industries in sustainable development and points outs that, traditional industries have a decisive position in national economic development, thus using the tendency to become information-based to promote their optimization and upgrading is the key point of accelerating the change of economic development mode. Using Sinopec as an example, it introduces the main measures to promote the harmonization of industrialization and the tendency to become information-based and accelerate the optimization and upgrading of petrochemical industry and forecasts the main points to put forth effort in order to promote the harmonization of industrialization and the tendency to become information-based in future.

  8. Projectively related complex Finsler metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Aldea, Nicoleta

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce in study the projectively related complex Finsler metrics. We prove the complex versions of the Rapcs\\'{a}k's theorem and characterize the weakly K\\"{a}hler and generalized Berwald projectively related complex Finsler metrics. The complex version of Hilbert's Fourth Problem is also pointed out. As an application, the projectiveness of a complex Randers metric is described.

  9. Complexity: The bigger picture

    CERN Document Server

    Vicsek, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    If a concept is not well defined, there are grounds for its abuse. This is particularly true of complexity, an inherently interdisciplinary concept that has penetrated very different fields of intellectual activity from physics to linguistics, but with no underlying, unified theory. Complexity has become a popular buzzword used in the hope of gaining attention or funding -- institutes and research networks associated with complex systems grow like mushrooms. Why and how did it happen that this vague notion has become a central motif in modern science? Is it only a fashion, a kind of sociological phenomenon, or is it a sign of a changing paradigm of our perception of the laws of nature and of the approaches required to understand them? Because virtually every real system is inherently extremely complicated, to say that a system is complex is almost an empty statement - couldn't an Institute of Complex Systems just as well be called an Institute for Almost Everything? Despite these valid concerns, the world is ...

  10. Algorithmic Relative Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cerra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information content and compression are tightly related concepts that can be addressed through both classical and algorithmic information theories, on the basis of Shannon entropy and Kolmogorov complexity, respectively. The definition of several entities in Kolmogorov’s framework relies upon ideas from classical information theory, and these two approaches share many common traits. In this work, we expand the relations between these two frameworks by introducing algorithmic cross-complexity and relative complexity, counterparts of the cross-entropy and relative entropy (or Kullback-Leibler divergence found in Shannon’s framework. We define the cross-complexity of an object x with respect to another object y as the amount of computational resources needed to specify x in terms of y, and the complexity of x related to y as the compression power which is lost when adopting such a description for x, compared to the shortest representation of x. Properties of analogous quantities in classical information theory hold for these new concepts. As these notions are incomputable, a suitable approximation based upon data compression is derived to enable the application to real data, yielding a divergence measure applicable to any pair of strings. Example applications are outlined, involving authorship attribution and satellite image classification, as well as a comparison to similar established techniques.

  11. Complexity and Dynamical Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence Deacon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We argue that a critical difference distinguishing machines from organisms and computers from brains is not complexity in a structural sense, but a difference in dynamical organization that is not well accounted for by current complexity measures. We propose a measure of the complexity of a system that is largely orthogonal to computational, information theoretic, or thermodynamic conceptions of structural complexity. What we call a system’s dynamical depth is a separate dimension of system complexity that measures the degree to which it exhibits discrete levels of nonlinear dynamical organization in which successive levels are distinguished by local entropy reduction and constraint generation. A system with greater dynamical depth than another consists of a greater number of such nested dynamical levels. Thus, a mechanical or linear thermodynamic system has less dynamical depth than an inorganic self-organized system, which has less dynamical depth than a living system. Including an assessment of dynamical depth can provide a more precise and systematic account of the fundamental difference between inorganic systems (low dynamical depth and living systems (high dynamical depth, irrespective of the number of their parts and the causal relations between them.

  12. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  13. Philosophy of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of comple...

  14. Modeling Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, Nino

    2010-01-01

    Modeling Complex Systems, 2nd Edition, explores the process of modeling complex systems, providing examples from such diverse fields as ecology, epidemiology, sociology, seismology, and economics. It illustrates how models of complex systems are built and provides indispensable mathematical tools for studying their dynamics. This vital introductory text is useful for advanced undergraduate students in various scientific disciplines, and serves as an important reference book for graduate students and young researchers. This enhanced second edition includes: . -recent research results and bibliographic references -extra footnotes which provide biographical information on cited scientists who have made significant contributions to the field -new and improved worked-out examples to aid a student’s comprehension of the content -exercises to challenge the reader and complement the material Nino Boccara is also the author of Essentials of Mathematica: With Applications to Mathematics and Physics (Springer, 2007).

  15. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields....

  16. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  17. Nonergodic complexity management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, Nicola; Lambert, David; West, Bruce J.; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Linear response theory, the backbone of nonequilibrium statistical physics, has recently been extended to explain how and why nonergodic renewal processes are insensitive to simple perturbations, such as in habituation. It was established that a permanent correlation results between an external stimulus and the response of a complex system generating nonergodic renewal processes, when the stimulus is a similar nonergodic process. This is the principle of complexity management, whose proof relies on ensemble distribution functions. Herein we extend the proof to the nonergodic case using time averages and a single time series, hence making it usable in real life situations where ensemble averages cannot be performed because of the very nature of the complex systems being studied.

  18. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhihao; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geo...

  19. Viral quasispecies complexity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Josep; Perales, Celia; Rodriguez-Frias, Francisco; Esteban, Juan I; Quer, Josep; Domingo, Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Mutant spectrum dynamics (changes in the related mutants that compose viral populations) has a decisive impact on virus behavior. The several platforms of next generation sequencing (NGS) to study viral quasispecies offer a magnifying glass to study viral quasispecies complexity. Several parameters are available to quantify the complexity of mutant spectra, but they have limitations. Here we critically evaluate the information provided by several population diversity indices, and we propose the introduction of some new ones used in ecology. In particular we make a distinction between incidence, abundance and function measures of viral quasispecies composition. We suggest a multidimensional approach (complementary information contributed by adequately chosen indices), propose some guidelines, and illustrate the use of indices with a simple example. We apply the indices to three clinical samples of hepatitis C virus that display different population heterogeneity. Areas of virus biology in which population complexity plays a role are discussed.

  20. The complex pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Carl M.

    1999-07-01

    This talk proposes a generalization of conventional quantum mechanics. In conventional quantum mechanics one imposes the condition H †=H , where † represents complex conjugation and matrix transpose, to ensure that the Hamiltonian has a real spectrum. By replacing this mathematical condition with the weaker and more physical requirement H ‡=H , where ‡= PT represents combined parity reflection and time reversal, one obtains new infinite classes of complex Hamiltonians whose spectra are also real and positive. These PT-symmetric theories may be viewed as analytic continuations of conventional theories from real to complex-phase space. This talk describes the unusual classical and quantum properties of PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical and quantum-field-theoretic models.

  1. Emergy and ecosystem complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulgiati, Sergio; Brown, Mark T.

    2009-01-01

    The question "What drives complexity?" is addressed in this paper. To answer this question, we explore the way energy and material resources of different quality flow through ecosystems and support, directly and indirectly, ecosystems growth and development. Processes of resource transformation throughout the ecosystem build order, cycle materials, generate and sustain information. Energy drives all these processes and energetic principles explain much of what is observed, including energy degradation according to the laws of thermodynamics. Emergy, a quantitative measure of the global environmental work supporting ecosystem dynamics, is used here in order to provide a deeper understanding of complexity growth and decline in ecosystems. Ecosystem complexity is discussed in this paper in relation to changes in structure, organization and functional capacity, as explained by changes in emergy, empower, and transformity.

  2. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  3. Synchronization in complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  4. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Kenneth N [Berkeley, CA; Corneillie, Todd M [Campbell, CA; Xu, Jide [Berkeley, CA

    2012-05-08

    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  5. Complexity Equals Action

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adam R; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We conjecture that the quantum complexity of a holographic state is dual to the action of a certain spacetime region that we call a Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We illustrate and test the conjecture in the context of neutral, charged, and rotating black holes in AdS, as well as black holes perturbed with static shells and with shock waves. This conjecture evolved from a previous conjecture that complexity is dual to spatial volume, but appears to be a major improvement over the original. In light of our results, we discuss the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.

  6. Tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMario, Francis J; Sahin, Mustafa; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius

    2015-06-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal-dominant, neurocutaneous, multisystem disorder characterized by cellular hyperplasia and tissue dysplasia. The genetic cause is mutations in the TSC1 gene, found on chromosome 9q34, and TSC2 gene, found on chromosome 16p13. The clinical phenotypes resulting from mutations in either of the 2 genes are variable in each individual. Herein, advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms in tuberous sclerosis complex are reviewed, and current guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and management are summarized.

  7. Complex variables II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables II includes elementary mappings and Mobius transformation, mappings by general functions, conformal mappings and harmonic functions, applying complex functions to a

  8. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  9. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction...

  10. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Tomasiello, Alessandro; /Stanford U., ITP

    2005-10-28

    We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  11. Complex function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sarason, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Complex Function Theory is a concise and rigorous introduction to the theory of functions of a complex variable. Written in a classical style, it is in the spirit of the books by Ahlfors and by Saks and Zygmund. Being designed for a one-semester course, it is much shorter than many of the standard texts. Sarason covers the basic material through Cauchy's theorem and applications, plus the Riemann mapping theorem. It is suitable for either an introductory graduate course or an undergraduate course for students with adequate preparation. The first edition was published with the title Notes on Co

  12. Applied complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Dettman, John W

    1965-01-01

    Analytic function theory is a traditional subject going back to Cauchy and Riemann in the 19th century. Once the exclusive province of advanced mathematics students, its applications have proven vital to today's physicists and engineers. In this highly regarded work, Professor John W. Dettman offers a clear, well-organized overview of the subject and various applications - making the often-perplexing study of analytic functions of complex variables more accessible to a wider audience. The first half of Applied Complex Variables, designed for sequential study, is a step-by-step treatment of fun

  13. Introduction to complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Priestley, H A

    2003-01-01

    Complex analysis is a classic and central area of mathematics, which is studied and exploited in a range of important fields, from number theory to engineering. Introduction to Complex Analysis was first published in 1985, and for this much awaited second edition the text has been considerably expanded, while retaining the style of the original. More detailed presentation is given of elementary topics, to reflect the knowledge base of current students. Exercise sets have beensubstantially revised and enlarged, with carefully graded exercises at the end of each chapter.This is the latest additi

  14. Complex HVPT and hyperasymptotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Grosjean, Alain [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon(CNRS, UMR 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jolicard, Georges [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon(CNRS, UMR 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2006-08-25

    Complex hypervirial perturbation theory (HVPT) is applied to the problem of a harmonic oscillator with a perturbation gx{sup 3}exp(i{psi}), for which the traditional Rayleigh-Schodinger perturbation theory has to be supplemented by hyperasymptotics for obtaining accurate resonance energies in the negative {psi} region. Complex HVPT gives accurate results for positive {psi} and for negative {psi} up to about vertical bar {phi} vertical bar = {pi}/24. The case of a quartic perturbed oscillator is also treated. (letter to the editor)

  15. Theories of computational complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Calude, C

    1988-01-01

    This volume presents four machine-independent theories of computational complexity, which have been chosen for their intrinsic importance and practical relevance. The book includes a wealth of results - classical, recent, and others which have not been published before.In developing the mathematics underlying the size, dynamic and structural complexity measures, various connections with mathematical logic, constructive topology, probability and programming theories are established. The facts are presented in detail. Extensive examples are provided, to help clarify notions and constructions. The lists of exercises and problems include routine exercises, interesting results, as well as some open problems.

  16. Salen complexes with dianionic counterions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Job, Gabriel E.; Farmer, Jay J.; Cherian, Anna E.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention describes metal salen complexes having dianionic counterions. Such complexes can be readily precipitated and provide an economical method for the purification and isolation of the complexes, and are useful to prepare novel polymer compositions.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Carney complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Carney complex Carney complex Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Carney complex is a disorder characterized by an increased risk ...

  18. Managing Complex Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, John C.; Webster, Robert L.; Curry, Jeanie A.; Hammond, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Management commonly engages in a variety of research designed to provide insight into the motivation and relationships of individuals, departments, organizations, etc. This paper demonstrates how the application of concepts associated with the analysis of complex systems applied to such data sets can yield enhanced insights for managerial action.

  19. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and,...

  20. Light in complex dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, F.J.P.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis the properties of light in complex dielectrics are described, with the two general topics of "modification of spontaneous emission" and "Anderson localization of light". The first part focuses on the spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom in a dielectric host with variable refra

  1. Complex WS 2 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, R. L. D.; Hsu, W. K.; Lee, T. H.; Boothroyd, C. B.; Kroto, H. W.; Walton, D. R. M.

    2002-06-01

    A range of elegant tubular and conical nanostructures has been created by template growth of (WS 2) n layers on the surfaces of single-walled carbon nanotube bundles. The structures exhibit remarkably perfect straight segments together with interesting complexities at the intersections, which are discussed here in detail in order to enhance understanding of the structural features governing tube growth.

  2. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1989-01-01

    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstract...

  3. Tevatron's complex collider cousins

    CERN Multimedia

    Fischer, W

    2004-01-01

    Letter referring to Schwarzschild's story "Disappointing performance and tight budgets confront Fermilab with tough decisions" and contesting that the Tevatron is not the most complex accelerator operating. They use the examples of CERN's SPS collider, HERA at DESY and the RHIC at Brookhaven (1/4 page)

  4. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    De Melis, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark blue line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  5. Transformations, Dynamics and Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Glazunov, Nikolaj

    2011-01-01

    We review and investigate some new problems and results in the field of dynamical systems generated by iteration of maps, {\\beta}-transformations, partitions, group actions, bundle dynamical systems, Hasse-Kloosterman maps, and some aspects of complexity of the systems.

  6. Symmetry in Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a few interrelated concepts about graphs, such as their degree, entropy, or their symmetry/asymmetry levels. These concepts prove useful in the study of different types of Systems, and particularly, in the analysis of Complex Networks. A System can be defined as any set of components functioning together as a whole. A systemic point of view allows us to isolate a part of the world, and so, we can focus on those aspects that interact more closely than others. Network Science analyzes the interconnections among diverse networks from different domains: physics, engineering, biology, semantics, and so on. Current developments in the quantitative analysis of Complex Networks, based on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's systems have complex network features—such as the small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity. These networks are not random. The topology of many different networks shows striking similarities, such as the scale-free structure, with the degree distribution following a Power Law. How can very different systems have the same underlying topological features? Modeling and characterizing these networks, looking for their governing laws, are the current lines of research. So, we will dedicate this Special Issue paper to show measures of symmetry in Complex Networks, and highlight their close relation with measures of information and entropy.

  7. Electromeric rhodium radical complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puschmann, F.F.; Harmer, J.; Stein, D.; Rüegger, H.; de Bruin, B.; Grützmacher, H.

    2010-01-01

    Radical changes: One single P-Rh-P angle determines whether the odd electron in the paramagnetic complex [Rh(trop2PPh)(PPh3)] is delocalized over the whole molecule (see picture, blue) or is localized on the P—Rh unit (red). The two energetically almost degenerate electromers exist in a fast equilib

  8. Aquaporins in complex tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, S; Zeuthen, T; La Cour, M

    1998-01-01

    Multiple physiological fluid movements are involved in vision. Here we define the cellular and subcellular sites of aquaporin (AQP) water transport proteins in human and rat eyes by immunoblotting, high-resolution immunocytochemistry, and immunoelectron microscopy. AQP3 is abundant in bulbar conj......, predicting specific roles for each in the complex network through which water movements occur in the eye....

  9. Complex Interfaces Under Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan

    and mechanical processes that develop within this structure. Water-related processes at the interfaces between the compartments are complex, depending both on the interface itself, and on the characteristics of the interfaced compartments. Various aspects of global change directly or indirectly impact...

  10. Macroevolution of complex retroviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzourakis, Aris; Gifford, Robert J; Tristem, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Retroviruses can leave a "fossil record" in their hosts' genomes in the form of endogenous retroviruses. Foamy viruses, complex retroviruses that infect mammals, have been notably absent from this record. We have found an endogenous foamy virus within the genomes of sloths and show that foamy...

  11. Complex Digital Visual Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This article identifies possibilities for data visualization as art educational research practice. The author presents an analysis of the relationship between works of art and digital visual culture, employing aspects of network analysis drawn from the work of Barabási, Newman, and Watts (2006) and Castells (1994). Describing complex network…

  12. Proteasomes: a complex story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    Protein degradation in eukaryotic cells is important for regulation of metabolism, progression through the division cycle, in cell signalling pathways, and in mammals also for generation of antigen fragments for presentation on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. Most cell proteins...

  13. Energy momentum complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashed, Gamal G.L. [Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Science. Mathematics Dept.

    2010-09-15

    We show that the definition of the energy-momentum complex given by Moeller using Weitzenboeck spacetime in the calculations of gravitational energy gives results which are different from those obtained from other definitions given in the framework of general relativity. (author)

  14. Complex Planar Splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    try todefine a complex planar spline by holomorphic elements like polynomials, then by the well known identity theorem (e.g. Diederich- Remmert [9, p...R. Remmert : Funktionentheorie I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1972, 246 p. 10 0. Lehto - K.I. Virtanen: Quasikonforme AbbildunQen, Springer

  15. Procuring complex performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, A.; Roehrich, J.; Frederiksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The paper analyses how public buyers transition from procuring single products and services to procuring complex performance (PCP). The aim is to examine the change in the interactions between buyer and supplier, the emergence of value co-creation and the capability development during t...

  16. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Haffner, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  17. Psychopathology and complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Y. Álvarez R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of complexity states that reality conveys a chaotic dynamics, ambiguous, blurred, and paradoxical, and that it does not fulfill the values of order, harmony nor perfection. However, such a chaos represents a specific way of organization and order. Human behavior explained by this paradigm vindicates on this way the outstanding role of contradiction and irregularity aside of what is linear and predictable. The purpose of this review has the primary aim to describe some concepts and assumptions that give support to the approach to complexity in behavior, especially concerning the psychopathological behavior of an individual. Some comparisons with concepts associated to complexity in scientific approaches to psychology (contextual and paradigmatical behaviorism and interbehaviorism from its own persepctive are stablished. All these elements are developed underlining the concepts of reciprocal multicausality, complex and hierarchical learning, historical and contextual factors in the comprehension of behavior, and trying to make some extrapolations on the psychopathological behavior. This approach is hence considered appropriate and necessary to understand gnosiological entities and to intervene them in their role of clinical challenges.

  18. Complexity driven photonics

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Disorder and chaos are ubiquitous phenomena that are mostly unwanted in applications. On the contrary, they can be exploited to create a new technology. In this talk I will summarize my research in this field, discussing chaotic energy harvesting, nonlinear stochastic resonance and complex nanolasers.

  19. Statistical electromagnetics: Complex cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2008-01-01

    A selection of the literature on the statistical description of electromagnetic fields and complex cavities is concisely reviewed. Some essential concepts, for example, the application of the central limit theorem and the maximum entropy principle, are scrutinized. Implicit assumptions, biased choic

  20. The Complexity of Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾燕梅

    2007-01-01

    Being as one figurative form of language, metaphor plays the most complicated role to make language colorful and vivid.Demonstrating the types and the features of metaphor, this article will focus on the point that metaphor is a complex language phenomenon heavily loaded with the factor of culture.