WorldWideScience

Sample records for cam plants growing

  1. CAM Photosynthesis in Submerged Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a CO2-concentrating mechanism selected in response to aridity in terrestrial habitats, and, in aquatic environments, to ambient limitations of carbon. Evidence is reviewed for its presence in five genera of aquatic vascular plants, including Isoe??tes, Sagittaria, Vallisneria, Crassula, and Littorella. Initially, aquatic CAM was considered by some to be an oxymoron, but some aquatic species have been studied in sufficient detail to say definitively that they possess CAM photosynthesis. CO2-concentrating mechanisms in photosynthetic organs require a barrier to leakage; e.g., terrestrial C4 plants have suberized bundle sheath cells and terrestrial CAM plants high stomatal resistance. In aquatic CAM plants the primary barrier to CO2 leakage is the extremely high diffusional resistance of water. This, coupled with the sink provided by extensive intercellular gas space, generates daytime CO2(Pi) comparable to terrestrial CAM plants. CAM contributes to the carbon budget by both net carbon gain and carbon recycling, and the magnitude of each is environmentally influenced. Aquatic CAM plants inhabit sites where photosynthesis is potentially limited by carbon. Many occupy moderately fertile shallow temporary pools that experience extreme diel fluctuations in carbon availability. CAM plants are able to take advantage of elevated nighttime CO2 levels in these habitats. This gives them a competitive advantage over non-CAM species that are carbon starved during the day and an advantage over species that expend energy in membrane transport of bicarbonate. Some aquatic CAM plants are distributed in highly infertile lakes, where extreme carbon limitation and light are important selective factors. Compilation of reports on diel changes in titratable acidity and malate show 69 out of 180 species have significant overnight accumulation, although evidence is presented discounting CAM in some. It is concluded that similar proportions of the aquatic

  2. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  3. A Study to Detect CAM Plants in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagjjav Oyunger el

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover CAM plants from the Mongolian flora, four species, Orostachys spinosa (L. C. A. Mey ., O. malacophylla (Pall. Fisch ., O. thyrsiflora Fisch . and Sedum aizoon L. of Crassulaceae D.C . family were examined in terms of their leaf anatomy , photosynthesis and transpiration intensity for a 24- hour cycle. Photosynthesis by these plants has been studied using isotope-discriminate analysis ( δ 13 C and a special method for CAM. Transpiration was measured by the weight-method and leaf anatomy and stomatal movement by microscopy . 13 C/ 12 C value of Orostachys spinosa , O. thyrsiflora C 4 -like (-13.44 %ο ,- 18.10 %ο , O. malacophylla , Sedum aizoon C 3 -like (-25.03 %ο ,-26.32 %ο . CAM plant characters are clearly discovered in two species Orostachys spinosa and O. malacophylla. Although dif ferences in the acidity value cycle of Sedum aizoon in terms of a 24-hour cycle was similar to the previous two plants, stomatal movement was commonly closed during night and day showing that we need to conduct more future studies for this species. Orostachys thyrsiflora does not have CAM photosynthetic response.

  4. Growing plants on atoll soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  5. Effects of Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae infection on the antioxidant profile of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum C3/CAM intermediate plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libik-Konieczny, Marta; Surówka, Ewa; Kuźniak, Elżbieta; Nosek, Michał; Miszalski, Zbigniew

    2011-07-01

    Mesembryathemum crystallinum plants performing C(3) or CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) appear to be highly resistant to Botrytis cinerea as well as to Pseudomonas syringae. Fungal hyphae growth was restricted to 48h post-inoculation (hpi) in both metabolic types and morphology of hyphae differed between those growing in C(3) and CAM plants. Growth of bacteria was inhibited significantly 24 hpi in both C(3) and CAM plants. B. cinerea and P. syringae infection led to an increase in the concentration of H(2)O(2) in C(3) plants 3 hpi, while a decrease in H(2)O(2) content was observed in CAM performing plants. The concentration of H(2)O(2) returned to the control level 24 and 48 hpi. Changes in H(2)O(2) content corresponded with the activity of guaiacol peroxidase (POD), mostly 3 hpi. We noted that its activity decreased significantly in C(3) plants and increased in CAM plants in response to inoculation with both pathogens. On the contrary, changes in the activity of CAT did not correlate with H(2)O(2) level. It increased significantly after interaction of C(3) plants with B. cinerea or P. syringae, but in CAM performing plants, the activity of this enzyme was unchanged. Inoculation with B. cinerea or P. syringae led to an increase in the total SOD activity in C(3) plants while CAM plants did not exhibit changes in the total SOD activity after interaction with both pathogens. In conclusion, the pathogen-induced changes in H(2)O(2) content and in SOD, POD and CAT activities in M. crystallinum leaves, were related to the photosynthetic metabolism type of the stressed plants rather than to the lifestyle of the invading pathogen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Growing pioneer plants for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrovska, N. O.; Lutvynenko, T. L.; Korniichuk, O. S.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Voznyuk, T. M.; Kononuchenko, O.; Zaetz, I.; Rogutskyy, I. S.; Mytrokhyn, O. V.; Mashkovska, S. P.; Foing, B. H.; Kordyum, V. A.

    A precursory scenario of cultivating the first plants in a lunar greenhouse was elaborated in frames of a conceptual study to grow plants for a permanently manned lunar base. A prototype plant growth system represents an ornamental plant Tagetes patula L. for growing in a lunar rock anorthosite as a substrate. Microbial community anticipated to be in use to support a growth and development of the plant in a substrate of low bioavailability and provide an acceptable growth and blossoming of T. patula under growth limiting conditions.

  7. Bioaugmentation in growing plants for lunar bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaets, I.; Burlak, O.; Rogutskyy, I.; Vasilenko, A.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Lukashov, D.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.

    2011-03-01

    Microorganisms may be a key element in a precursory scenario of growing pioneer plants for extraterrestrial exploration. They can be used for plant inoculation to leach nutritional elements from regolith, to alleviate lunar stressors, as well as to decompose both lunar rocks and the plant straw in order to form a protosoil. Bioleaching capacities of both French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) and the associated bacteria in contact with a lunar rock simulant (terrestrial anorthosite) were examined using the model plant-bacteria microcosms under controlled conditions. Marigold accumulated K, Na, Fe, Zn, Ni, and Cr at higher concentrations in anorthosite compared to the podzol soil. Plants inoculated with the consortium of well-defined species of bacteria accumulated higher levels of K, Mg, and Mn, but lower levels of Ni, Cr, Zn, Na, Ca, Fe, which exist at higher levels in anorthosite. Bacteria also affected the Са/Mg and Fe/Mn ratios in the biomass of marigold grown on anorthosite. Despite their growth retardation, the inoculated plants had 15% higher weight on anorthosite than noninoculated plants. The data suggest that the bacteria supplied basic macro-and microelements to the model plant.

  8. Evolutionary history of PEPC genes in green plants: Implications for the evolution of CAM in orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hua; Zhang, Liang-Sheng; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zheng, Bao-Qiang; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene is the key enzyme in CAM and C4 photosynthesis. A detailed phylogenetic analysis of the PEPC family was performed using sequences from 60 available published plant genomes, the Phalaenopsis equestris genome and RNA-Seq of 15 additional orchid species. The PEPC family consists of three distinct subfamilies, PPC-1, PPC-2, and PPC-3, all of which share a recent common ancestor in chlorophyte algae. The eudicot PPC-1 lineage separated into two clades due to whole genome duplication (WGD). Similarly, the monocot PPC-1 lineage also divided into PPC-1M1 and PPC-1M2 through an ancient duplication event. The monocot CAM- or C4-related PEPC originated from the clade PPC-1M1. WGD may not be the major driver for the performance of CAM function by PEPC, although it increased the number of copies of the PEPC gene. CAM may have evolved early in monocots, as the CAM-related PEPC of orchids originated from the monocot ancient duplication, and the earliest CAM-related PEPC may have evolved immediately after the diversification of monocots, with CAM developing prior to C4. Our results represent the most complete evolutionary history of PEPC genes in green plants to date and particularly elucidate the origin of PEPC in orchids. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Temperature response of photosynthesis in C3, C4, and CAM plants: temperature acclimation and temperature adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamori, Wataru; Hikosaka, Kouki; Way, Danielle A

    2014-02-01

    Most plants show considerable capacity to adjust their photosynthetic characteristics to their growth temperatures (temperature acclimation). The most typical case is a shift in the optimum temperature for photosynthesis, which can maximize the photosynthetic rate at the growth temperature. These plastic adjustments can allow plants to photosynthesize more efficiently at their new growth temperatures. In this review article, we summarize the basic differences in photosynthetic reactions in C3, C4, and CAM plants. We review the current understanding of the temperature responses of C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis, and then discuss the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms for temperature acclimation of photosynthesis in each photosynthetic type. Finally, we use the published data to evaluate the extent of photosynthetic temperature acclimation in higher plants, and analyze which plant groups (i.e., photosynthetic types and functional types) have a greater inherent ability for photosynthetic acclimation to temperature than others, since there have been reported interspecific variations in this ability. We found that the inherent ability for temperature acclimation of photosynthesis was different: (1) among C3, C4, and CAM species; and (2) among functional types within C3 plants. C3 plants generally had a greater ability for temperature acclimation of photosynthesis across a broad temperature range, CAM plants acclimated day and night photosynthetic process differentially to temperature, and C4 plants was adapted to warm environments. Moreover, within C3 species, evergreen woody plants and perennial herbaceous plants showed greater temperature homeostasis of photosynthesis (i.e., the photosynthetic rate at high-growth temperature divided by that at low-growth temperature was close to 1.0) than deciduous woody plants and annual herbaceous plants, indicating that photosynthetic acclimation would be particularly important in perennial, long-lived species that

  10. Limitation of C3-CAM shift in the common ice plant under high irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronska, K; Romanowska, E; Miszalski, Z; Niewiadomska, E

    2013-01-15

    In the halophytic plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum salinity or drought can change the mode of photosynthesis from C(3) to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). These two stress factors are linked to oxidative stress, however, the induction of CAM by oxidative stress per se is not straightforward. Treatment with high light (HL) did not lead to the induction of CAM, as documented by a low night/day difference in malate level and a low expression of the CAM-related form of phosphoenolcarboxylase (Ppc1), despite causing some oxidative damage (elevated MDA level, malondialdehyde). In contrast to the action of high salinity (0.4M NaCl), HL treatment did not activate neither the cytosolic NADP-malic enzyme nor the chloroplastic form of NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH). In plastids of HL-treated plants a huge amount of starch was accumulated. This was associated with a weak stimulation of hydrolytic and phosphorolytic starch-degrading enzymes, in contrast to their strong up-regulation under high salinity. It is concluded that HL alone is not able to activate starch degradation necessary for CAM performance. Moreover, in the absence of salinity in C(3)M. crystallinum plants an age-dependent increase in energy dissipation from PSII was documented under high irradiance, as illustrated by non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Obtained data suggest that in this halophytic species several photoprotective strategies are strictly salinity-dependent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. C4 and CAM Plant Biology Symposium 2013 Website

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leakey, Andrew D. B. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2013-08-09

    This project funded the C4 and CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) Plant Biology 2013 symposium, held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, on August 6-9, 2013. The symposium brought together a diverse group of scientists to discuss the evolution, ecology, functional biology, genomics and biotechnological engineering of C4 and CAM plants. These two groups of plants possess evolutionary modifications to their photosynthetic machinery that improve their performance in hot and dry conditions. Maize and pineapple are classic examples of C4 and CAM plants, respectively. The meeting discussed how lessons learned from these groups of plants can be harnessed to improve crop production of biofuel feedstocks in an era of global climate change. The interdisciplinary nature of the meeting meant that the delegation members typically do not collectively attend any one scientific society meeting. As a result, the symposium was a unique opportunity for knowledge transfer, initiation of new collaborations, and recruitment and exposure of early career scientists.

  12. Ionic Balance during Malic Acid Accumulation in Vacuoles of a CAM Plant, Graptopetalum paraguayense

    OpenAIRE

    Ikuko, Iwasaki; Hiroyuki, Arata; Mitsuo, Nishimura; Department of Biology Faculty of Science, Kyushu University

    1988-01-01

    We studied the ionic balance during diurnal changes in the levels of accumulated malic acid and hydrogen ion in the vacuoles of Graptopetalum paraguayense, a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant. There was a clear diurnal rhythm of the pH and the total malic acid content, but the amount of negative charges due to the unprotonated carboxyl groups of malic acid remained approximately constant. The negative charges were balanced by the positive charges of cations, which were also constant th...

  13. SOD activity in cam plant kalanchoe daigremontiana exposed to S02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Miszalski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kalanchoe daigremontiana CAM plants exhibit very low sensitivity to the action of sulphite dioxide. Fumigation for a week with 3 ppm SO2 leads to an increase in the dismutation rate of the oxygen radical expressed in units of SOD activity and an increase in SOD activity itself. This strong increase disappears 100 h after fumigation. A transient increase in SOD activity represents an adaptation mechanism to oxidative stress caused by SO2.

  14. The effect of nitrogen availability and water conditions on competition between a facultative CAM plant and an invasive grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kailiang; D'Odorico, Paolo; Carr, David E; Personius, Ashden; Collins, Scott L

    2017-10-01

    Plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) are increasing their abundance in drylands worldwide. The drivers and mechanisms underlying the increased dominance of CAM plants and CAM expression (i.e., nocturnal carboxylation) in facultative CAM plants, however, remain poorly understood. We investigated how nutrient and water availability affected competition between Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (a model facultative CAM species) and the invasive C3 grass Bromus mollis that co-occur in California's coastal grasslands. Specifically we investigated the extent to which water stress, nutrients, and competition affect nocturnal carboxylation in M. crystallinum. High nutrient and low water conditions favored M. crystallinum over B. mollis, in contrast to high water conditions. While low water conditions induced nocturnal carboxylation in 9-week-old individuals of M. crystallinum, in these low water treatments, a 66% reduction in nutrient applied over the entire experiment did not further enhance nocturnal carboxylation. In high water conditions M. crystallinum both alone and in association with B. mollis did not perform nocturnal carboxylation, regardless of the nutrient levels. Thus, nocturnal carboxylation in M. crystallinum was restricted by strong competition with B. mollis in high water conditions. This study provides empirical evidence of the competitive advantage of facultative CAM plants over grasses in drought conditions and of the restricted ability of M. crystallinum to use their photosynthetic plasticity (i.e., ability to switch to CAM behavior) to compete with grasses in well-watered conditions. We suggest that a high drought tolerance could explain the increased dominance of facultative CAM plants in a future environment with increased drought and nitrogen deposition, while the potential of facultative CAM plants such as M. crystallinum to expand to wet environments is expected to be limited.

  15. Diffuse-Illumination Systems for Growing Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George; Ryan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture in both terrestrial and space-controlled environments relies heavily on artificial illumination for efficient photosynthesis. Plant-growth illumination systems require high photon flux in the spectral range corresponding with plant photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) (400 700 nm), high spatial uniformity to promote uniform growth, and high energy efficiency to minimize electricity usage. The proposed plant-growth system takes advantage of the highly diffuse reflective surfaces on the interior of a sphere, hemisphere, or other nearly enclosed structure that is coated with highly reflective materials. This type of surface and structure uniformly mixes discrete light sources to produce highly uniform illumination. Multiple reflections from within the domelike structures are exploited to obtain diffuse illumination, which promotes the efficient reuse of photons that have not yet been absorbed by plants. The highly reflective surfaces encourage only the plant tissue (placed inside the sphere or enclosure) to absorb the light. Discrete light sources, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), are typically used because of their high efficiency, wavelength selection, and electronically dimmable properties. The light sources are arranged to minimize shadowing and to improve uniformity. Different wavelengths of LEDs (typically blue, green, and red) are used for photosynthesis. Wavelengths outside the PAR range can be added for plant diagnostics or for growth regulation

  16. Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were ...

  17. Thermodynamics of Malate Transport across the Tonoplast of Leaf Cells of CAM Plants : MEMBRANES AND BIOENERGETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki, Arata; Ikuko, Iwasaki; Kensuke, Kusumi; Mitsuo, Nishimura; Department of Brology, Faculty of Science, Ehime University

    1992-01-01

    The electrochemical potential difference for each dissociation state of malic acid across the tonoplast of leaf cells was examined in two CAM plants, Graptopetalum paraguayense and Kalanchoe daigremontiana. The concentration of malic acid in each dissociation state was estimated from an analysis of pH and concentrations of ionic species that included calcium, malate and isocitrate. The vacuoles contained 30-40 mM isocitrate and 50-70 mM calcium in G.paraguayense, and 20-30 mM isocitrate and 7...

  18. Colonization of a Deglaciated Moraine: Contrasting Patterns of Carbon Uptake and Release from C3 and CAM Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Varolo

    Full Text Available Current glacier retreat makes vast mountain ranges available for vegetation establishment and growth. As a result, carbon (C is accumulated in the soil, in a negative feedback to climate change. Little is known about the effective C budget of these new ecosystems and how the presence of different vegetation communities influences CO2 fluxes.On the Matsch glacier forefield (Alps, Italy we measured over two growing seasons the Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE of a typical grassland, dominated by the C3 Festuca halleri All., and a community dominated by the CAM rosettes Sempervivum montanum L. Using transparent and opaque chambers, with air temperature as the driver, we partitioned NEE to calculate Ecosystem Respiration (Reco and Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE. In addition, soil and vegetation samples were collected from the same sites to estimate the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance (NECB.The two communities showed contrasting GEE but similar Reco patterns, and as a result they were significantly different in NEE during the period measured. The grassland acted as a C sink, with a total cumulated value of -46.4±35.5 g C m-2 NEE, while the plots dominated by the CAM rosettes acted as a source, with 31.9±22.4 g C m-2. In spite of the different NEE, soil analysis did not reveal significant differences in carbon accumulation of the two plant communities (1770±130 for F. halleri and 2080±230 g C m-2 for S. montanum, suggesting that processes often neglected, like lateral flows and winter respiration, can have a similar relevance as NEE in the determination of the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance.

  19. Colonization of a Deglaciated Moraine: Contrasting Patterns of Carbon Uptake and Release from C3 and CAM Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varolo, Elisa; Zanotelli, Damiano; Montagnani, Leonardo; Tagliavini, Massimo; Zerbe, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Current glacier retreat makes vast mountain ranges available for vegetation establishment and growth. As a result, carbon (C) is accumulated in the soil, in a negative feedback to climate change. Little is known about the effective C budget of these new ecosystems and how the presence of different vegetation communities influences CO2 fluxes. On the Matsch glacier forefield (Alps, Italy) we measured over two growing seasons the Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of a typical grassland, dominated by the C3 Festuca halleri All., and a community dominated by the CAM rosettes Sempervivum montanum L. Using transparent and opaque chambers, with air temperature as the driver, we partitioned NEE to calculate Ecosystem Respiration (Reco) and Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE). In addition, soil and vegetation samples were collected from the same sites to estimate the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance (NECB). The two communities showed contrasting GEE but similar Reco patterns, and as a result they were significantly different in NEE during the period measured. The grassland acted as a C sink, with a total cumulated value of -46.4±35.5 g C m-2 NEE, while the plots dominated by the CAM rosettes acted as a source, with 31.9±22.4 g C m-2. In spite of the different NEE, soil analysis did not reveal significant differences in carbon accumulation of the two plant communities (1770±130 for F. halleri and 2080±230 g C m-2 for S. montanum), suggesting that processes often neglected, like lateral flows and winter respiration, can have a similar relevance as NEE in the determination of the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance.

  20. Assessment of selected native plants growing along Nairobi river for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of selected native plants growing along Nairobi river for uptake of copper, zinc and cadmium. ... 0.74 mg/Kg, Zn 16.53 ± 2.59 mg/Kg and Cd 2.57 ± 0.83 mg/Kg. Based on the results observed in the plants, Zn showed the largest accumulation and can be considered as one of the major pollutants of Nairobi River.

  1. Soybeans Growing inside the Advanced Astroculture Plant Growth Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This composite image shows soybean plants growing in the Advanced Astroculture experiment aboard the International Space Station during June 11-July 2, 2002. DuPont is partnering with NASA and the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to grow soybeans aboard the Space Station to find out if they have improved oil, protein, carbohydrates or secondary metabolites that could benefit farmers and consumers. Principal Investigators: Dr. Tom Corbin, Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., a Dupont Company, with headquarters in Des Moines, Iowa, and Dr. Weijia Zhou, Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Drought-Tolerant CAM plants Agave deserti and Agave tequilana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Stephen M.; Martin, Jeffrey A.; Simpson, June; Wang, Zhong; Visel, Axel

    2013-03-25

    Agaves are succulent monocotyledonous plants native to hot and arid environments of North America. Because of their adaptations to their environment, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM, a water-efficient form of photosynthesis) and existing technologies for ethanol production, agaves have gained attention both as potential lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstocks and models for exploring plant responses to abiotic stress. However, the lack of comprehensive Agave sequence datasets limits the scope of investigations into the molecular-genetic basis of Agave traits. Here, we present comprehensive, high quality de novo transcriptome assemblies of two Agave species, A. tequilana and A. deserti, from short-read RNA-seq data. Our analyses support completeness and accuracy of the de novo transcriptome assemblies, with each species having approximately 35,000 protein-coding genes. Comparison of agave proteomes to those of additional plant species identifies biological functions of gene families displaying sequence divergence in agave species. Additionally, we use RNA-seq data to gain insights into biological functions along the A. deserti juvenile leaf proximal-distal axis. Our work presents a foundation for further investigation of agave biology and their improvement for bioenergy development.

  3. Polypeptide Composition of Envelope Membranes Isolated from Chloroplasts of C_3, C_4, and CAM Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce G., Foster; Gerald E, Edwards; Department of Botany, Washington State University:(Present)United States Department of Agriculture, Appalachian Soil and Water Conservation Research Laboratory; Department of Botany, Washington State University

    1983-01-01

    Chloroplast envelopes were isolated from chloroplasts purified from Spinacea oleracea L. (C_3), Panicum miliaceum L. (NAD-malic enzyme-type C_4), Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. (NADP-malic enzyme-type C_4). Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier (constitutive CAM), and from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. (inducible CAM) performing either C_3 photosynthesis or Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). For each species, methods were developed to isolate chloroplast envelopes free of thylakoid ...

  4. Verification of Kaplan turbine cam curves realization accuracy at power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džepčeski Dane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of approximately constant value of Kaplan turbine efficiency, for relatively large net head changes, is a result of turbine runner variable geometry. Dependence of runner blades position change on guide vane opening represents the turbine cam curve. The cam curve realization accuracy is of great importance for the efficient and proper exploitation of turbines and consequently complete units. Due to the reasons mentioned above, special attention has been given to the tests designed for cam curves verification. The goal of this paper is to provide the description of the methodology and the results of the tests performed in the process of Kaplan turbine cam curves verification.

  5. Redox changes in the chloroplast and hydrogen peroxide are essential for regulation of C(3)-CAM transition and photooxidative stress responses in the facultative CAM plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesak, Ireneusz; Karpinska, Barbara; Surówka, Ewa; Miszalski, Zbigniew; Karpinski, Stanislaw

    2003-06-01

    Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, a facultative halophyte and C(3)-Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) intermediate plant, has become a favoured plant for studying stress response mechanisms during C(3)-CAM shifts. One hour of exposure to excess light (EL) caused inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport in M. crystallinum leaves as indicated by chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. This was accompanied by an increase in NADP-malic enzyme (ME), one of the key cytosolic enzymes involved in CAM, and by a general increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. In contrast, NAD-ME activity (the mitochondrial form of ME) was not affected by EL. Exposure to EL and 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB) treatment of a whole plant in low light induced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and C(3) to CAM transition. In contrast, treatment with 3-3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethyl urea (DCMU) has blocked high light-induced H(2)O(2) accumulation and C(3)-CAM transition. Moreover, the abundance of transcripts encoding different SODs, ascorbate peroxidase and SOD activity was differently regulated by DCMU and DBMIB. Results of applying EL or high light, H(2)O(2) and photosynthetic electron transport inhibitors suggest that the redox events in the vicinity of PSII and/or PSI and photo-produced H(2)O(2) play a major role in the regulation of C(3)-CAM transition and photooxidative stress responses in M. crystallinum.

  6. From Kennedy, to Beyond: Growing Plants in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Cedric, II; Seck, Sokhana A.; Massa, Gioia D.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts cannot have their cake and eat it too, but what about growing a salad and eating it? As NASA continues to push the envelope on Space exploration and inhabitance the need for a fresh food source becomes more vital. The Life Support team at NASA is using a system developed by ORBITEC the VEGGIE, in which astronauts aboard the ISS, and potentially the Moon and Mars, will be capable of growing food. The introduction of plants not only gives astronauts a means of independently supplying food, but also recreation, oxygen replenishment and psychological benefits. The plants were grown in "pillows", the system used for growing plants within the VEGGIE. This test included 4 types of media mixtures that are composed of a clay based media called Arcilite and Fafard #2, which is a peat moss-based media ( <1 mm Arcilite, 1-2 mm of Arcilite, 1:1 <1 mm & 1-2 mm mixture and 1:1 Arcilite & Fafard mixture). Currently, 3 lettuce cultivars are being grown in 4 mixtures of media. Tests were being conducted to see which form of media has the ratio of best growth and least amount of microbes that are harmful. That is essential because a person's body becomes more susceptible to illness when they leave Earth. As a result, test must be conducted on the "pillow" system to assess the levels of microbial activity. The cultivars were tested at different stages during their growing process for microbes. Datum show that the mix of Fafard and Arcilite had the best growth, but also the most microbes. This was due to the fact that Fafard is an organic substance so it contains material necessary for microbes to live. Data suggest that the <1 mm Arcilite has an acceptable amount of growth and a lower level of microbes, because it is non-organic.

  7. Effects of competition on induction of crassulacean acid metabolism in a facultative CAM plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kailiang; D'Odorico, Paolo; Li, Wei; He, Yongli

    2017-06-01

    Abiotic drivers of environmental stress have been found to induce CAM expression (nocturnal carboxylation) in facultative CAM species such as Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. The role played by biotic factors such as competition with non-CAM species in affecting CAM expression, however, remains largely understudied. This research investigated the effects of salt and water conditions on the competition between M. crystallinum and the C3 grass Bromus mollis with which it is found to coexist in California's coastal grasslands. We also investigated the extent to which CAM expression in M. crystallinum was affected by the intensity of the competition with B. mollis. We found that M. crystallinum had a competitive advantage over B. mollis in drought and saline conditions, while B. mollis exerted strong competitive effects on M. crystallinum in access to light and soil nutrients in high water conditions. This strong competitive effect even outweighed the favorable effects of salt or water additions in increasing the biomass and productivity of M. crystallinum in mixture. Regardless of salt conditions, M. crystallinum did not switch to CAM photosynthesis in response to this strong competitive effect from B. mollis. Disturbance (i.e., grass cutting) reduced the competitive pressure by B. mollis and allowed for CAM expression in M. crystallinum when it was grown mixed with B. mollis. We suggest that moderate competition with other functional groups can enhance CAM expression in M. crystallinum, thereby affecting its plasticity and ability to cope with biological stress.

  8. Regulation of PEP-Carboxylase by Biological Clock in a CAM Plant : ENVIRONMENTAL AND STRESS RESPONSES : PROTEINS, ENZYMES AND METABOLISM

    OpenAIRE

    Kensuke, Kusumi; Hiroyuki, Arata; Ikuko, Iwasaki; Mitsuo, Nishimura; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University

    1994-01-01

    The endogenous circadian rhythm in a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Graptopetalum paraguayense was investigated. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-C) takes two forms: the malate-sensitive day form and the malate-insensitive night form. We monitored the state of PEP-C by measuring the sensitivity to malate as a parameter of the circadian rhythm. We also measured vacuolar pH and malate concentration, and contents of oxaloacetate, pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). A free-runni...

  9. Antioxidant properties of some plants growing wild in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serteser, A.; Kargioglu, M.; Gok, V.; Bagci, Y.; Musa Ozcan, M.; Arslan, D.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity of 50% aqueous methanol extracts of 38 plants growing in the Afyonkarahisar province of Turkey were evaluated by various antioxidant assay, including free radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) scavenging and metal (Fe{sup 2}+) chelating activities. The methanolic fruit extracts of the Cornus and Morus species (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and DPPH scavenging activities, Fe{sup 2}+ chelating activity) and the methanolic leaf extracts of the Mentha species (DPPH scavenging activities) examined in the assay showed the strongest activities. These antioxidant properties depended on the concentration of samples. (Author) 30 refs.

  10. Photosynthesis-related characteristics of the midrib and the interveinal lamina in leaves of the C3-CAM intermediate plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuźniak, Elżbieta; Kornas, Andrzej; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Rozpądek, Piotr; Nosek, Michał; Kocurek, Maciej; Zellnig, Günther; Müller, Maria; Miszalski, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    Leaf veins are usually encircled by specialized bundle sheath cells. In C4 plants, they play an important role in CO2 assimilation, and the photosynthetic activity is compartmentalized between the mesophyll and the bundle sheath. In C3 and CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) plants, the photosynthetic activity is generally attributed to the leaf mesophyll cells, and the vascular parenchymal cells are rarely considered for their role in photosynthesis. Recent studies demonstrate that enzymes required for C4 photosynthesis are also active in the veins of C3 plants, and their vascular system contains photosynthetically competent parenchyma cells. However, our understanding of photosynthesis in veins of C3 and CAM plants still remains insufficient. Here spatial analysis of photosynthesis-related properties were applied to the midrib and the interveinal lamina cells in leaves of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, a C3-CAM intermediate plant. The midrib anatomy as well as chloroplast structure and chlorophyll fluorescence, diurnal gas exchange profiles, the immunoblot patterns of PEPC (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase) and RubisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), H2O2 localization and antioxidant enzyme activities were compared in the midrib and in the interveinal mesophyll cells in leaves of C3 and CAM plants. Leaf midribs were structurally competent to perform photosynthesis in C3 and CAM plants. The midrib chloroplasts resembled those in the bundle sheath cells of C4 plants and were characterized by limited photosynthetic activity. The metabolic roles of midrib chloroplasts differ in C3 and CAM plants. It is suggested that in leaves of C3 plants the midrib chloroplasts could be involved in the supply of CO2 for carboxylation, and in CAM plants they could provide malate to different metabolic processes and mediate H2O2 signalling. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For

  11. Photosynthesis-related characteristics of the midrib and the interveinal lamina in leaves of the C3–CAM intermediate plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuźniak, Elżbieta; Kornas, Andrzej; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Rozpądek, Piotr; Nosek, Michał; Kocurek, Maciej; Zellnig, Günther; Müller, Maria; Miszalski, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf veins are usually encircled by specialized bundle sheath cells. In C4 plants, they play an important role in CO2 assimilation, and the photosynthetic activity is compartmentalized between the mesophyll and the bundle sheath. In C3 and CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) plants, the photosynthetic activity is generally attributed to the leaf mesophyll cells, and the vascular parenchymal cells are rarely considered for their role in photosynthesis. Recent studies demonstrate that enzymes required for C4 photosynthesis are also active in the veins of C3 plants, and their vascular system contains photosynthetically competent parenchyma cells. However, our understanding of photosynthesis in veins of C3 and CAM plants still remains insufficient. Here spatial analysis of photosynthesis-related properties were applied to the midrib and the interveinal lamina cells in leaves of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, a C3–CAM intermediate plant. Methods The midrib anatomy as well as chloroplast structure and chlorophyll fluorescence, diurnal gas exchange profiles, the immunoblot patterns of PEPC (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase) and RubisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), H2O2 localization and antioxidant enzyme activities were compared in the midrib and in the interveinal mesophyll cells in leaves of C3 and CAM plants. Key Results Leaf midribs were structurally competent to perform photosynthesis in C3 and CAM plants. The midrib chloroplasts resembled those in the bundle sheath cells of C4 plants and were characterized by limited photosynthetic activity. Conclusions The metabolic roles of midrib chloroplasts differ in C3 and CAM plants. It is suggested that in leaves of C3 plants the midrib chloroplasts could be involved in the supply of CO2 for carboxylation, and in CAM plants they could provide malate to different metabolic processes and mediate H2O2 signalling. PMID:27091507

  12. Ca(2+) and CaM are involved in Al(3+) pretreatment-promoted fluoride accumulation in tea plants (Camellia sinesis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Chen; Gao, Hong-Jian; Wu, Hong-Hong; Yang, Tian-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Mao, Jing-Dong; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2015-11-01

    Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. kuntze) is known to be a fluoride (F) and aluminum (Al(3+)) hyper-accumulator. Previous study showed that pre-treatment of Al(3+) caused a significant increase of F accumulation in tea plants. However, less is known about the intricate network of Al(3+) promoted F accumulation in tea plants. In this study, the involvement of endogenous Ca(2+) and CaM in Al(3+) pretreatment-promoted F accumulation in tea plants was investigated. Our results showed that Al(3+) induced the inverse change of intracellular Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity and stimulated Ca(2+) trans-membrane transport in the mature zone of tea root. Also, a link between internal Ca(2+) and CaM was found in tea roots under the presence of Al(3+). In order to investigate whether Ca(2+) and CaM were related to F accumulation promoted by Al(3+) pretreatment, Ca(2+) chelator EGTA and CaM antagonists CPZ and TFP were used. EGTA, CPZ, and TFP pretreatment inhibited Al(3+)-induced increase of Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity and CaM content in tea roots, and also significantly reduced Al(3+)-promoted F accumulation in tea plants. Taken together, our results suggested that the endogenous Ca(2+) and CaM are involved in Al(3+) pretreatment-promoted F accumulation in tea roots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of salinity, crassulacean acid metabolism and plant age on the carbon isotope composition of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L., a halophytic C(3)-CAM species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2005-09-01

    The carbon isotope composition of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. (Aizoaceae) changes when plants are exposed to environmental stress and when they shift from C(3) to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). We examined the coupling between carbon isotope composition and photosynthetic pathway by subjecting plants of different ages to salinity and humidity treatments. Whole shoot delta(13)C values became less negative in plants that were exposed to 400 mM NaCl in the hydroponic solution. The isotopic change had two components: a direct NaCl effect that was greatest in plants still operating in the C(3) mode and decreased proportionally with increasing levels of dark fixation, and a second component related to the degree of CAM expression. Ignoring the presumably diffusion-related NaCl effect on carbon isotope ratios results in an overestimation of nocturnal CO(2) gain in comparison to an isotope versus nocturnal CO(2) gain calibration established previously for C(3) and CAM species grown under well-watered conditions. It is widely taken for granted that the shift to CAM in M. crystallinum is partially under developmental control and that CAM is inevitably expressed in mature plants. Plants, cultivated under non-saline conditions and high relative humidity (RH) for up to 63 days, maintained diel CO(2) gas-exchange patterns and delta(13)C values typical of C(3) plants. However, a weak CAM gas-exchange pattern and an increase in delta(13)C value were observed in non-salt-treated plants grown at reduced RH. These observations are consistent with environmental control rather than developmental control of the induction of CAM in mature M. crystallinum under non-saline conditions.

  14. Adjustments in CAM and enzymatic scavenging of H2O2 in juvenile plants of the epiphytic bromeliad Guzmania monostachia as affected by drought and rewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Victória; Abreu, Maria E; Mercier, Helenice; Nievola, Catarina C

    2017-04-01

    Juvenile plants of epiphytes such as bromeliads are highly prone to dehydration under drought conditions. It is likely that young epiphytes evolved mostly metabolic strategies to resist drought, which may include the plastic modulation of the enzymatic antioxidant system and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Few studies have investigated such strategies in juvenile epiphytes, although such research is important to understand how these plants might face drought intensification derived from potential climatic alterations. The epiphytic CAM bromeliad Guzmania monostachia (L.) Rusby ex Mez var. monostachia is known to have plastic responses to drought, but no reports have focused on the metabolism of juvenile plants to drought and recovery. Hence, we aimed to verify how juvenile G. monostachia plants adjust malate (indicative of CAM), H2O2 content and enzymatic scavenging in response to drought (eight days without irrigation) and rewatering (six days of irrigation post-drought). Interestingly, drought decreased H2O2 content and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the pre-dusk period, although glutathione reductase (GR) and CAM activity increased. Rewatering restored H2O2, but activities of APX, CAT and GR exceeded pre-stress levels in the pre-dusk and/or pre-dawn periods. Results suggest that recovery from a first drought redefines the homeostatic balance of H2O2 scavenging, in which rewatered plants stimulate the enzymatic antioxidant system while drought-exposed plants intensify CAM activity to regulate H2O2 content, a photosynthetic pathway known to prevent oxidative stress. Such data show that young G. monostachia plants adjust CAM and H2O2 scavenging to adapt to water availability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcript, protein and metabolite temporal dynamics in the CAM plant Agave

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, PE; Yin, H; Borland, AM; Weighill, D; Lim, SD; De Paoli, HC; Engle, N; Jones, PC; Agh, R; Weston, DJ; Wullschleger, SD; Tschaplinski, T; Jacobson, D; Cushman, JC; Hettich, RL

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved. Already a proven mechanism for drought resilience, crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized type of photosynthesis that maximizes water-use efficiency by means of an inverse (compared to C 3 and C 4 photosynthesis) day/night pattern of stomatal closure/opening to shift CO 2 uptake to the night, when evapotranspiration rates are low. A systems-level understanding of temporal molecular and metaboli...

  16. Development of the optical waveguide solar lighting system for space-based plant growing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Case, J A; Mankamyer, M

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes the study on the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Lighting System for space-based plant growing. In the OW solar lighting system, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator, which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers. The OW line transmits the solar radiation to the plant growing units where the solar radiation from the optical fibers is defocused and directed to the plants for optimum intensity for plant growing. In this study, the laboratory OW solar lighting system was constructed and tested for plant growth. The OW system consists of: 1) tracking reflective concentrators; 2) the optical waveguide transmission line; and 3) the plant lighting device. Results of the performance tests and the plant growth tests of the OW solar lighting system showed that the OW system is a viable plant lighting system for growing plant in space.

  17. Growing media alternatives for forest and native plant nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Nancy Morgan

    2009-01-01

    The choice of growing medium, along with container type, is one of the critical decisions that must be made when starting a nursery. The first growing medium was called "compost" and was developed in the 1930s at the John Innes Horticultural Institute in Great Britain. It consisted of a loam soil that was amended with peat moss, sand, and fertilizers (Bunt...

  18. Reduced early growing season freezing resistance in alpine treeline plants under elevated atmospheric CO2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, M.; Gavazov, K.S.; Körner, S.; Rixen, C.

    2010-01-01

    The frequency of freezing events during the early growing season and the vulnerability to freezing of plants in European high-altitude environments could increase under future atmospheric and climate change. We tested early growing season freezing sensitivity in 10 species, from four plant

  19. Growing knowledge: an overview of Seed Plant diversity in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela C. Zappi; Filardi,Fabiana L. Ranzato; Leitman,Paula; Vinícius C. Souza; Walter, Bruno M. T.; Pirani,José R.; Morim,Marli P.; Queiroz, Luciano P; Cavalcanti,Taciana B.; Mansano, Vidal F.; Forzza,Rafaela C.; Abreu,Maria C.; Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro; Agra,Maria de F.; Almeida Jr.,Eduardo B.

    2016-01-01

    An updated inventory of Brazilian seed plants is presented and offers important insights into the country’s biodiversity. This work started in 2010, with the publication of the Plants and Fungi Catalogue, and has been updated since by more than 430 specialists working online. Brazil is home to 32,086 native Angiosperms and 23 native Gymnosperms, showing an increase of 3% in its species richness in relation to 2010. The Amazon Rainforest is the richest Brazilian biome for Gymnosperms, while th...

  20. Air pollution tolerance indices of plants growing around Umuebulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A composite sample of eight leaves for each plant was used for laboratory analysis. Four physiological and biochemical parameters: leaf relative water content (RWC), ascorbic acid content (AAC), total leaf chlorophyll (TLC) and pH of leaf extract were used to compute the Air pollution tolerance indices (APTI). Results ...

  1. Growing under water - how plants cope with low CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Hinke, Anne Bækbo; Konnerup, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic plants are never short of water but instead they are challenged with low light and slow movement of oxygen (O₂) and carbon dioxide (CO₂). In the present paper, we focus on CO₂ limitation of underwater photosynthesis and the various strategies to overcome the limitation resulting from evol...

  2. Air pollution tolerance indices of plants growing around Umuebulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FRANKLIN

    2012-12-03

    Dec 3, 2012 ... photosynthesis; the light-driven process in which carbon dioxide is fixed to yield carbohydrates and oxygen. It is evident that chlorophyll content of plants varies from species to species; age of leaf and also with the pollution level as well as with other biotic and abiotic conditions. (Katiyar and Dubey, 2001).

  3. Stacked propagation: a new way to grow native plants from root cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Dreesen; Thomas D. Landis; Jeremy R. Pinto

    2006-01-01

    Stacked propagation is a novel method of growing quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. [Salicaceae]) and other plants that reproduce from underground stems or root cuttings. Because the mother plant is not damaged, it is particularly well suited for rare plants or those that can’t be propagated by normal methods. Our initial trials indicate that...

  4. [Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Abraham, A M; Rojas Hernandez, N M; Jimenez Misas, C A

    1979-01-01

    The study of the cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts from 18 parts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Araceae, Borraginacease, Burseraceae, Cesalpinaceae, Meliaceae, Compositae, Rebiaceae, Cruciferaceae and Verbenaceae using the microbiologic method of described by Kubas in 1972 is pursued. The best results were obtained from Hamelia patens. Lippia alba, Lepidium virginicum, Cassia ligustrina, Bursera simaruba and Heliotropium campechianum extracts.

  5. Grow light for plant factory using quantum dot LED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Won Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on the LED base next generation lighting is actively accomplished in the field of lighting for the energy saving for the global warming prevention. In this study, made the multifunctional LED light source as research on the lighting equipment that using the Quantum Dot. Synthesized the quantum dot having the wavelength of 510nm, 610nm, 660nm and confirmed the possibility of characteristic evaluation result that it was applicable as the result LED fluorescent substance. We synthesized quantum dot that mixed the resin and was spread on the blue LED having the wavelength of 455nm. We make the multi-wavelength LED device in order to confirm the possibility for application for the plant factory and evaluated the electrical characteristic of the LED light source. Also, we evaluated the growth characteristic so that the quantum dot could confirm the possibility for application by plant growth light source. Finally we presented the possibility for application of the quantum dot with the multifunction LED light source.

  6. Large-scale mRNA expression profiling in the common ice plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, performing C3 photosynthesis and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, John C; Tillett, Richard L; Wood, Joshua A; Branco, Joshua M; Schlauch, Karen A

    2008-01-01

    The common ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) has emerged as a useful model for molecular genetic studies of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) because CAM can be induced in this species by water deficit or salinity stress. Non-redundant sequence information from expressed sequence tag data was used to fabricate a custom oligonucleotide microarray to compare large-scale mRNA expression patterns in M. crystallinum plants conducting C(3) photosynthesis versus CAM. Samples were collected every 4 h over a 24 h time period at the start of the subjective second day from plants grown under constant light and temperature conditions in order to capture variation in mRNA expression due to salinity stress and circadian clock control. Of 8455 genes, a total of 2343 genes (approximately 28%) showed a significant change as judged by analysis of variance (ANOVA) in steady-state mRNA abundance at one or more time points over the 24 h period. Of these, 858 (10%) and 599 (7%) exhibited a greater than two-fold ratio (TFR) increase or decrease in mRNA abundance, respectively. Functional categorization of these TFR genes revealed that many genes encoding products that function in CAM-related C(4) acid carboxylation/decarboxylation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, polysaccharide, polyol, and starch biosynthesis/degradation, protein degradation, transcriptional activation, signalling, stress response, and transport facilitation, and novel, unclassified proteins exhibited stress-induced increases in mRNA abundance. In contrast, salt stress resulted in a significant decrease in transcript abundance for genes encoding photosynthetic functions, protein synthesis, and cellular biogenesis functions. Many genes with CAM-related functions exhibited phase shifts in their putative circadian expression patterns following CAM induction. This report establishes an extensive catalogue of gene expression patterns for future investigations aimed at understanding the complex, transcriptional

  7. 76 FR 13890 - Importation of Bromeliad Plants in Growing Media From Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... of Bromeliad Plants in Growing Media From Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands AGENCY: Animal and... Aechmea, Cryptanthus, Guzmania, Hohenbergia, Neoregelia, Tillandsia, and Vriesea from Belgium, Denmark... plants, in accordance with Sec. 319.37-2. The Governments of Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands have...

  8. Feeding and survival of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae on plants growing in Kenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Impoinvil, D.E.; Kongere, J.O.; Foster, W.A.; Njiru, B.N.; Killeen, G.F.; Githure, J.I.; Beier, J.C.; Hassanali, A.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The propensity of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) to ingest sugars from various plants, and subsequent survival rates, were assessed with laboratory-reared males and females offered eight species of plants commonly cultivated and/or growing wild in western

  9. Differential responses of C3 and CAM native Brazilian plant species to a SO2- and SPMFe-contaminated Restinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luzimar Campos; de Araújo, Talita Oliveira; Martinez, Carlos Alberto; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco; Azevedo, Aristéa Alves; Oliva, Marco Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Aiming to evaluate responses in terms of growth rates, physiological parameters, and degree of sensitivity to SO2 and SPMFe in Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae, a C3 species) and Clusia hilariana Schlecht (Clusiaceae, a CAM species); saplings were exposed to emissions from a pelletizing factory for 7 months. The species were distributed along a transect (200, 500, 800, 1400, and 1700 m away from the emission source), and analyses were performed after 71, 118, and 211 days of exposure to the pollutants. E. uniflora received higher superficial deposition of particulate iron. The highest total iron foliar contents were observed 200 m away from the emission source in both plant species, while the highest total sulfur foliar contents were observed 200 m away in C. hilariana and 800 m away in E. uniflora. E. uniflora presented decreased values of height growth rate, number of necrotic leaves, chlorophyll analysis (SPAD index) and transpiration, in relation to the distances from the emission source. C. hilariana showed decreased values of height growth rate, number of leaves, number of necrotic leaves, total ionic permeability, stomatal conductance, transpiration, net CO2 assimilation, and total dry matter, in relation to distances from the emission source. In relation to the days of exposure, both species presented increased number of necrotic leaves and foliar phytotoxicity index, and decreased values in the chlorophyll analysis. The two native plant species, both of which occur in the Brazilian Restinga, showed damage when exposed to emissions from an iron ore pelletizing factory. C. hilariana was considered the most sensitive species due to the decreased values in a higher number of variables after exposition.

  10. Microbial community induces a plant defense system under growing on the lunar regolith analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaetz, Irina; Mytrokhyn, Olexander; Lukashov, Dmitry; Mashkovska, Svitlana; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Foing, Bernard H.

    The lunar rock considered as a potential source of chemical elements essential for plant nutrition, however, this substrate is of a low bioavailability. The use of microorganisms for decomposition of silicate rocks and stimulation of plant growth is a key idea in precursory scenario of growing pioneer plants for a lunar base (Kozyrovska et al., 2004; 2006; Zaetz et al., 2006). In model experiments a consortium of well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing of French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, analogous to a lunar rock. Inoculated plants appeared better seed germination, more fast development and also increased accumulation of K, Mg, Mn, Co, Cu and lowered level of the toxic Zn, Ni, Cr, comparing to control tagetes'. Bacteria regulate metal homeostasis in plants by changing their bioavailability and by stimulating of plant defense mechanisms. Inoculated plants were being accommodated to growth under stress conditions on anorthosite used as a substrate. In contrast, control plants manifested a heavy metal-induced oxidative stress, as quantified by protein carbonyl accumulation. Depending on the plant organ sampled and developmental stage there were increases or loses in the antioxidant enzyme activities (guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase). These changes were most evident in inoculated plants. Production of phenolic compounds, known as antioxidants and heavy metal chelators, is rised in variants of inoculated marigolds. Guaiacol peroxidase plays the main role, finally, in a reducing toxicity of heavy metals in plant leaves, while glutathione-S-transferase and phenolics overcome stress in roots.

  11. Spectral composition of light and growing of plants in controlled environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhomirov, A.A. [Institute of Biophysics, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    The curve of the action spectrum of photosynthesis is examined under the controlled influence of light that involves av 3-5 minutes irradiation with one specific spectral flux. Different curves were obtained for spectral affectivity of green leaf photosynthesis when plants have had long duration adaptation to lamps of different spectral composition and PAR intensity. The author suggests that the illumination of plants in natural conditions does not have to be copied for growing plants in controlled environments.

  12. Leaf carbohydrates influence transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of nocturnal carboxylation and starch degradation in the facultative CAM plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taybi, Tahar; Cushman, John C; Borland, Anne M

    2017-11-01

    Nocturnal degradation of transitory starch is a limiting factor for the optimal function of crassulacean acid metabolism and must be coordinated with phosphoenolypyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)-mediated CO2 uptake to optimise carbon gain over the diel cycle. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that nocturnal carboxylation is coordinated with starch degradation in CAM via a mechanism whereby the products of these pathways regulate diel transcript abundance and enzyme activities for both processes. To test this hypothesis, a starch and CAM-deficient mutant of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum was compared with wild type plants under well-watered and saline (CAM-inducing) conditions. Exposure to salinity increased the transcript abundance of genes required for nocturnal carboxylation, starch and sucrose degradation in both wild type and mutant, but the transcript abundance of several of these genes was not sustained over the dark period in the low-carbohydrate, CAM-deficient mutant. The diel pattern of transcript abundance for PEPC mirrored that of PEPC protein, as did the transcripts, protein, and activity of chloroplastic starch phosphorylase in both wild type and mutant, suggesting robust diel coordination of these metabolic processes. Activities of several amylase isoforms were low or lacking in the mutant, whilst the activity of a cytosolic isoform of starch phosphorylase was significantly elevated, indicating contrasting modes of metabolic regulation for the hydrolytic and phosphorylytic routes of starch degradation. Externally supplied sucrose resulted in an increase in nocturnal transcript abundance of genes required for nocturnal carboxylation and starch degradation. These results demonstrate that carbohydrates impact on transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of nocturnal carboxylation and starch degradation in CAM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Open-pit coal-mining effects on rice paddy soil composition and metal bioavailability to Oryza sativa L. plants in Cam Pha, northeastern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul E; Marquez, J Eduardo; Hòa, Hoàng Thị Bích; Gieré, Reto

    2013-11-01

    This study quantified Cd, Pb, and Cu content, and the soil-plant transfer factors of these elements in rice paddies within Cam Pha, Quang Ninh province, northeastern Vietnam. The rice paddies are located at a distance of 2 km from the large Coc Sau open-pit coal mine. Electron microprobe analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed a relatively high proportion of carbon particles rimmed by an iron sulfide mineral (probably pyrite) in the quartz-clay matrix of rice paddy soils at 20-30 cm depth. Bulk chemical analysis of these soils revealed the presence of Cd, Cu, and Pb at concentrations of 0.146±0.004, 23.3±0.1, and 23.5±0.1 mg/kg which exceeded calculated background concentrations of 0.006±0.004, 1.9±0.5, and 2.4±1.5 mg/kg respectively at one of the sites. Metals and metalloids in Cam Pha rice paddy soils, including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were found in concentrations ranging from 0.2±0.1 to 140±3 mg/kg, which were in close agreement with toxic metal contents in mine tailings and Coc Sau coal samples, suggesting mining operations as a major cause of paddy soil contamination. Native and model Oryza sativa L. rice plants were grown in the laboratory in a growth medium to which up to 1.5 mg/kg of paddy soil from Cam Pha was added to investigate the effects on plant growth. A decrease in growth by up to 60% with respect to a control sample was found for model plants, whereas a decrease of only 10% was observed for native (Nep cai hoa vang variety) rice plants. This result suggests an adaptation of native Cam Pha rice plants to toxic metals in the agricultural lands. The Cd, Cu, and Pb contents of the native rice plants from Cam Pha paddies exceeded permitted levels in foods. Cadmium and Pb were highest in the rice plant roots with concentrations of 0.84±0.02 and 7.7±0.3 mg/kg, suggesting an intake of these metals into the rice plant as shown, for example, by Cd and Pb concentrations of 0

  14. Formaldehyde removal by common indoor plant species and various growing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Ahu; Montoya, Lupita D.

    2011-05-01

    Three porous materials (growstone, expanded clay and activated carbon) were evaluated as hydroponic growing media and for their individual ability to remove the indoor volatile organic compound formaldehyde under three conditions: growing medium alone, dry medium in a pot, and wet medium in a pot. The total percent-reduction of formaldehyde by each growing media was evaluated over a 10-h period. In all cases, activated carbon achieved the highest removal under the three conditions studied with average percent reductions measured at about 98%. Four common interior plants: Hedera helix (English ivy), Chrysanthemum morifolium (pot mum), Dieffenbachia compacta (dump cane) and Epipremnum aureum (golden pathos) growing in growstone were then tested for their ability to remove formaldehyde. The removal capacity of the aerial plant parts (AP), the root zone (RZ) and the entire plant (EP) growing in growstone were determined by exposing the relevant parts to gaseous formaldehyde (˜2000 μg m -3) in a closed chamber over a 24-h period. The removal efficiency between species and plant parts were compared by determining the time interval required to decrease about 2/3 of the total formaldehyde concentration reduction, T 2/3. The T 2/3 measured were 23, 30, 34 and 56 min for EP of C. morifolium, E. aureum, D. compacta and H. helix, respectively. The formaldehyde removal by the root zone was found to be more rapid than the removal by the aerial plant parts.

  15. A hydroponic system for growing gnotobiotic vs. sterile plants to study phytoremediation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzbaum, E; Kirzhner, F; Armon, R

    2014-01-01

    In some phytoremediation studies it is desirable to separate and define the specific contribution of plants and root-colonizing bacteria towards contaminant removal. Separating the influence of plants and associated bacteria is a difficult task for soil root environments. Growing plants hydroponically provides more control over the biological factors in contaminant removal. In this study, a hydroponic system was designed to evaluate the role of sterile plant roots, rhizodeposition, and root-associated bacteria in the removal of a model contaminant, phenol. A strain of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes that grows on phenol was inoculated onto plant roots. The introduced biofilm persisted in the root zone and promoted phenol removal over non-augmented controls. These findings indicate that this hydroponic system can be a valuable tool for phytoremediation studies that investigate the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on pollution remediation.

  16. Use of biochar as peat substitute for growing substrates of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Dispenza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar from conifers wood was used in soilless culture as growing substrate alternative to peat for ornamental crops. Potted plants of Euphorbia × lomi Rauh cv. ‘Ilaria’ were grown with different mixtures (v:v of brown peat and biochar in order to evaluate main physical and chemical characteristics of this biomaterial as well as its effect on plant growth, ornamental characteristics and nutrients uptake. Biochar addition to peat increased pH, EC and K content of the growing substrates, as well as air content and bulk density. Biochar content of substrates significantly affected plant growth and biomass partitioning: higher number of shoots and leaves, leaf area and leaf dry weight were recorded in plants grown in 40% peat-60% biochar, with respect to plants grown in 100% peat and secondarily in 100% biochar. Leaf chlorophyll content was higher in plants grown in 60% and 80% biochar, while biomass water use efficiency was higher with 60% biochar. Plant uptake of K and Ca increased as biochar content of the substrates increased. Hence, a growing substrate containing 40% brown peat and 60% conifers wood biochar was identified as the more suitable mixture allowing to have a high-quality production of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants.

  17. Use of biochar as peat substitute for growing substrates of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dispenza, V.; Pasquale, C. de; Fascella, G.; Mammano, M.M.; Alonzo, G.

    2016-07-01

    Biochar from conifers wood was used in soilless culture as growing substrate alternative to peat for ornamental crops. Potted plants of Euphorbia × lomi Rauh cv. ‘Ilaria’ were grown with different mixtures (v:v) of brown peat and biochar in order to evaluate main physical and chemical characteristics of this biomaterial as well as its effect on plant growth, ornamental characteristics and nutrients uptake. Biochar addition to peat increased pH, EC and K content of the growing substrates, as well as air content and bulk density. Biochar content of substrates significantly affected plant growth and biomass partitioning: higher number of shoots and leaves, leaf area and leaf dry weight were recorded in plants grown in 40% peat-60% biochar, with respect to plants grown in 100% peat and secondarily in 100% biochar. Leaf chlorophyll content was higher in plants grown in 60% and 80% biochar, while biomass water use efficiency was higher with 60% biochar. Plant uptake of K and Ca increased as biochar content of the substrates increased. Hence, a growing substrate containing 40% brown peat and 60% conifers wood biochar was identified as the more suitable mixture allowing to have a high-quality production of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants.

  18. Toward Self-Growing Soft Robots Inspired by Plant Roots and Based on Additive Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ali; Mondini, Alessio; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we present a novel class of robots that are able to move by growing and building their own structure. In particular, taking inspiration by the growing abilities of plant roots, we designed and developed a plant root-like robot that creates its body through an additive manufacturing process. Each robotic root includes a tubular body, a growing head, and a sensorized tip that commands the robot behaviors. The growing head is a customized three-dimensional (3D) printer-like system that builds the tubular body of the root in the format of circular layers by fusing and depositing a thermoplastic material (i.e., polylactic acid [PLA] filament) at the tip level, thus obtaining movement by growing. A differential deposition of the material can create an asymmetry that results in curvature of the built structure, providing the possibility of root bending to follow or escape from a stimulus or to reach a desired point in space. Taking advantage of these characteristics, the robotic roots are able to move inside a medium by growing their body. In this article, we describe the design of the growing robot together with the modeling of the deposition process and the description of the implemented growing movement strategy. Experiments were performed in air and in an artificial medium to verify the functionalities and to evaluate the robot performance. The results showed that the robotic root, with a diameter of 50 mm, grows with a speed of up to 4 mm/min, overcoming medium pressure of up to 37 kPa (i.e., it is able to lift up to 6 kg) and bending with a minimum radius of 100 mm.

  19. Functional-structural plant models: a growing paradigm for plant studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievänen, Risto; Godin, Christophe; DeJong, Theodore M; Nikinmaa, Eero

    2014-09-01

    A number of research groups in various areas of plant biology as well as computer science and applied mathematics have addressed modelling the spatiotemporal dynamics of growth and development of plants. This has resulted in development of functional-structural plant models (FSPMs). In FSPMs, the plant structure is always explicitly represented in terms of a network of elementary units. In this respect, FSPMs are different from more abstract models in which a simplified representation of the plant structure is frequently used (e.g. spatial density of leaves, total biomass, etc.). This key feature makes it possible to build modular models and creates avenues for efficient exchange of model components and experimental data. They are being used to deal with the complex 3-D structure of plants and to simulate growth and development occurring at spatial scales from cells to forest areas, and temporal scales from seconds to decades and many plant generations. The plant types studied also cover a broad spectrum, from algae to trees. This special issue of Annals of Botany features selected papers on FSPM topics such as models of morphological development, models of physical and biological processes, integrated models predicting dynamics of plants and plant communities, modelling platforms, methods for acquiring the 3-D structures of plants using automated measurements, and practical applications for agronomic purposes.

  20. Why would plant species become extinct locally if growing conditions improve?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.; Bijlsma, R.J.; Hickler, T.; Thuiller, W.

    2012-01-01

    Two assumptions underlie current models of the geographical ranges of perennial plant species: 1. current ranges are in equilibrium with the prevailing climate, and 2. changes are attributable to changes in macroclimatic factors, including tolerance of winter cold, the duration of the growing

  1. Elemental contents of plants growing on soil-covered retorted shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, A.P.; Lindsay, W.L.; Smith, P.J.

    The concentrations of several potentially toxic elements (F, B, Mo, Pb, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr, Hg, Se, and As) were determined in plants growing on various depths of soil covering retorted (Paraho) shale. The plants that were sampled include: Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides), fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), western wheat-grass (Agropyron smithii), Sherman's big bluegrass (Poa ampla), Utah sweetvetch (Hedysarum boreale), and winterfat (Ceratoides lanata). The F levels were elevated in some of the plants growing on 30 cm of soil over shale. The concentrations of Mo and Cu/Mo ratios in the plants indicate that molybdenosis could be expected with livestock grazing on revegetated plants. Increasing the depth of soil cover reduced the Mo levels, but the second year's data indicate that increasing the soil depth may only temporarily reduce the potential molybdenosis problem. The plant levels of Pb, Co, Cd, and Hg were below analytical detection limits. The plant concentrations of Ni, As, Se, B, and Cd were too low to be of environmental concern.

  2. Plant tissue culture of fast-growing trees for phytoremediation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couselo, José Luis; Corredoira, Elena; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The ability of plants to remove pollutants from the environment is currently used in a simple and low-cost cleaning technology known as phytoremediation. Unfortunately, little is known about the metabolic pathways involved in the transformation of xenobiotic compounds and the ability of certain plants to tolerate, detoxify, and store high concentrations of heavy metals. Plant cell and tissue culture is considered an important tool for fundamental studies that provide information about the plant-contaminant relationships, help to predict plant responses to environmental contaminants, and improve the design of plants with enhanced characteristics for phytoremediation. Callus, cell suspensions, hairy roots, and shoot multiplication cultures are used to study the interactions between plants and pollutants under aseptic conditions. Many plant species have an inherent ability to accumulate/metabolize a variety of pollutants, but they normally produce little biomass. However, fast-growing trees are excellent candidates for phytoremediation because of their rapid growth, extensive root system, and high water uptake. This chapter outlines the in vitro plant production of both somaclonal variants and transgenic plants of Populus spp. that exhibit high tolerance to heavy metals.

  3. Anion Channel Inhibitor NPPB-Inhibited Fluoride Accumulation in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) Is Related to the Regulation of Ca²⁺, CaM and Depolarization of Plasma Membrane Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Chen; Gao, Hong-Jian; Yang, Tian-Yuan; Wu, Hong-Hong; Wang, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2016-01-05

    Tea plant is known to be a hyper-accumulator of fluoride (F). Over-intake of F has been shown to have adverse effects on human health, e.g., dental fluorosis. Thus, understanding the mechanisms fluoride accumulation and developing potential approaches to decrease F uptake in tea plants might be beneficial for human health. In the present study, we found that pretreatment with the anion channel inhibitor NPPB reduced F accumulation in tea plants. Simultaneously, we observed that NPPB triggered Ca(2+) efflux from mature zone of tea root and significantly increased relative CaM in tea roots. Besides, pretreatment with the Ca(2+) chelator (EGTA) and CaM antagonists (CPZ and TFP) suppressed NPPB-elevated cytosolic Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity and CaM concentration in tea roots, respectively. Interestingly, NPPB-inhibited F accumulation was found to be significantly alleviated in tea plants pretreated with either Ca(2+) chelator (EGTA) or CaM antagonists (CPZ and TFP). In addition, NPPB significantly depolarized membrane potential transiently and we argue that the net Ca(2+) and H⁺ efflux across the plasma membrane contributed to the restoration of membrane potential. Overall, our results suggest that regulation of Ca(2+)-CaM and plasma membrane potential depolarization are involved in NPPB-inhibited F accumulation in tea plants.

  4. Anion Channel Inhibitor NPPB-Inhibited Fluoride Accumulation in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) Is Related to the Regulation of Ca2+, CaM and Depolarization of Plasma Membrane Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Chen; Gao, Hong-Jian; Yang, Tian-Yuan; Wu, Hong-Hong; Wang, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Tea plant is known to be a hyper-accumulator of fluoride (F). Over-intake of F has been shown to have adverse effects on human health, e.g., dental fluorosis. Thus, understanding the mechanisms fluoride accumulation and developing potential approaches to decrease F uptake in tea plants might be beneficial for human health. In the present study, we found that pretreatment with the anion channel inhibitor NPPB reduced F accumulation in tea plants. Simultaneously, we observed that NPPB triggered Ca2+ efflux from mature zone of tea root and significantly increased relative CaM in tea roots. Besides, pretreatment with the Ca2+ chelator (EGTA) and CaM antagonists (CPZ and TFP) suppressed NPPB-elevated cytosolic Ca2+ fluorescence intensity and CaM concentration in tea roots, respectively. Interestingly, NPPB-inhibited F accumulation was found to be significantly alleviated in tea plants pretreated with either Ca2+ chelator (EGTA) or CaM antagonists (CPZ and TFP). In addition, NPPB significantly depolarized membrane potential transiently and we argue that the net Ca2+ and H+ efflux across the plasma membrane contributed to the restoration of membrane potential. Overall, our results suggest that regulation of Ca2+-CaM and plasma membrane potential depolarization are involved in NPPB-inhibited F accumulation in tea plants. PMID:26742036

  5. Alternative soilless media using olive-mill and paper waste for growing ornamental plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysargyris, Antonios; Antoniou, Omiros; Tzionis, Andreas; Prasad, Munoo; Tzortzakis, Nikolaos

    2018-01-18

    Peat-based growing media are not ecologically sustainable and peat extraction threatens sensitive peatland ecosystem. In this study, olive-stone waste (OSW) and paper waste (PW) were used in different ratios-as growing media-for ornamental crop production, as peat (P) substitutes. Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.), petunia (Petunia x hybrita L.) and matthiola (Matthiola incana L.) plants were grown in (1) P (100%), (2) P:OSW (90%:10%), (3) P:OSW (70%:30%), and (4) P:OSW:PW (60%:20%:20%). The physicochemical properties of these substrates and the effects on plant growth were determined. The addition of 10-30% OSW into the substrate increased marigold height compared to plants grown in 100% peat. No differences in plant size, plant biomass (leaves and flowers), and dry matter content were found. Adding PW, in combination with OSW, maintained marigold height and total number of flowers produced to similar levels as in plants grown in 100% peat. In matthiola, adding 30% OSW into the substrate reduced plant size and fresh weight, but not plant height. No differences were observed when plants grew in lower OSW (i.e., 10%) content. Petunia's height, its total number of flowers and flower earliness (flower opening) were increased in the presence of OSW compared to the plants grown in 100% peat. The addition of OSW did not affect petunia's size and fresh weight among treatments. The addition of PW suppressed several plant growth-related parameters for both matthiola and petunia. The insertion of OSW did not change leaf chlorophyll content whereas the presence of PW decreased chlorophylls for marigold, petunia, and matthiola. Both OSW and PW altered the content of total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) in leaves and flowers for marigold and petunia. Both 30% OSW and PW increased antioxidative enzyme metabolism due to the increased damage index and lipid peroxidation

  6. Evaluation of immunomodulatory effect of three herbal plants growing in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonime, Mohammed; Eldomany, Ramadan; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Soliman, Hesham

    2011-03-01

    A group of medicinal plant including Silene (Silene nocturna), Black seed (Nigella sativa) and Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) growing in Egypt were examined for their immunomodulatory effect in Balb/c mice. Treatment (intraperitoneal injection) with five doses of methanolic extract for each plant was found to enhance the total white blood cells count (up to 1.2 × 10(4) cells/mm(3)). Bone marrow cellularity also increased significantly (P plants. Furthermore, spleen weight of the treated groups was significantly increased (P plants extracts significantly (P immunomodulatory activity of Silene, Black seed, and Chamomile extracts and may have therapeutical implications in prophylactic treatment of opportunistic infections and as supportive treatment in oncogenic cases.

  7. 'Hearing' alpine plants growing after snowmelt: ultrasonic snow sensors provide long-term series of alpine plant phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitasse, Yann; Rebetez, Martine; Filippa, Gianluca; Cremonese, Edoardo; Klein, Geoffrey; Rixen, Christian

    2017-02-01

    In alpine environments, the growing season is severely constrained by low temperature and snow. Here, we aim at determining the climatic factors that best explain the interannual variation in spring growth onset of alpine plants, and at examining whether photoperiod might limit their phenological response during exceptionally warm springs and early snowmelts. We analysed 17 years of data (1998-2014) from 35 automatic weather stations located in subalpine and alpine zones ranging from 1560 to 2450 m asl in the Swiss Alps. These stations are equipped with ultrasonic sensors for snow depth measurements that are also able to detect plant growth in spring and summer, giving a unique opportunity to analyse snow and climate effects on alpine plant phenology. Our analysis showed high phenological variation among years, with one exceptionally early and late spring, namely 2011 and 2013. Overall, the timing of snowmelt and the beginning of plant growth were tightly linked irrespective of the elevation of the station. Snowmelt date was the best predictor of plant growth onset with air temperature after snowmelt modulating the plants' development rate. This multiple series of alpine plant phenology suggests that currently alpine plants are directly tracking climate change with no major photoperiod limitation.

  8. `Hearing' alpine plants growing after snowmelt: ultrasonic snow sensors provide long-term series of alpine plant phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitasse, Yann; Rebetez, Martine; Filippa, Gianluca; Cremonese, Edoardo; Klein, Geoffrey; Rixen, Christian

    2017-02-01

    In alpine environments, the growing season is severely constrained by low temperature and snow. Here, we aim at determining the climatic factors that best explain the interannual variation in spring growth onset of alpine plants, and at examining whether photoperiod might limit their phenological response during exceptionally warm springs and early snowmelts. We analysed 17 years of data (1998-2014) from 35 automatic weather stations located in subalpine and alpine zones ranging from 1560 to 2450 m asl in the Swiss Alps. These stations are equipped with ultrasonic sensors for snow depth measurements that are also able to detect plant growth in spring and summer, giving a unique opportunity to analyse snow and climate effects on alpine plant phenology. Our analysis showed high phenological variation among years, with one exceptionally early and late spring, namely 2011 and 2013. Overall, the timing of snowmelt and the beginning of plant growth were tightly linked irrespective of the elevation of the station. Snowmelt date was the best predictor of plant growth onset with air temperature after snowmelt modulating the plants' development rate. This multiple series of alpine plant phenology suggests that currently alpine plants are directly tracking climate change with no major photoperiod limitation.

  9. Absolute alpha activity measurements of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahawatte, P.; Hewamanna, R. (Colombo Univ. (Sri Lanka). Radioisotope Centre)

    1991-01-01

    Deposits of monazite bearing soils occur along the Southwest, West and East Coasts of Sri Lanka. High levels of gamma activity in some plant species growing in the West Coast have been reported. The high levels were due to the presence of the daughter nuclides of {sup 232}Th, most of which are alpha emitters. Absolute alpha activity measurements of ash samples of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils were carried out using the alpha sensitive polymeric nuclear track detector CR-39. The values ranged from 60-1900 mBq/g and were in good agreement with the values obtained from conventional scintillation counting method. The activity concentration of {sup 228}Th in the ash samples was also calculated by measuring the activity concentration of emanated thoron trapped inside a glass bottle with the use of a CR-39 track detector. (author).

  10. Bacterial Root Microbiome of Plants Growing in Oil Sands Reclamation Covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo K. Mitter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oil sands mining in northern Alberta impacts a large footprint, but the industry is committed to reclaim all disturbed land to an ecologically healthy state in response to environmental regulations. However, these newly reconstructed landscapes may be limited by several factors that include low soil nutrient levels and reduced microbial activity. Rhizosphere microorganisms colonize plant roots providing hosts with nutrients, stimulating growth, suppressing disease and increasing tolerance to abiotic stress. High-throughput sequencing techniques can be used to provide a detailed characterization of microbial community structure. This study used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to characterize the bacterial root microbiome associated with annual barley (Hordeum vulgare and sweet clover (Melilotus albus growing in an oil sands reclamation area. Our results indicate that Proteobacteria dominated the endosphere, whereas other phyla such as Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes were restricted to the rhizosphere, suggesting that plants have the ability to select for certain soil bacterial consortia. The bacterial community in the endosphere compartments were less rich and diverse compared to the rhizosphere. Furthermore, it was apparent that sweet clover plants were more selective, as the community exhibited a lower richness and diversity compared to barley. Members of the family Rhizobiaceae, such as Sinorhizobium and Rhizobium were mainly associated with clover, whereas Acholeplasma (wall-less bacteria transmitted by insects was unique to barley. Genera from the Enterobacteriaceae family, such as Yersinia and Lentzea were also mostly detected in barley, while other genera such Pseudomonas and Pantoea were able to successfully colonize both plants. Endophytic bacterial profiles varied within the same plant species at different sampling locations; however, these differences were driven by factors other than slope positions or cover management. Our results

  11. Root growth, mycorrhization and physiological effects of plants growing on oil tailing sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt-Burisch, Katja M.; Naeth, Anne M.; Schneider, Bernd Uwe; Hüttl, Reinhard F.

    2015-04-01

    Surface mining creates large, intense disturbances of soils and produces large volumes of by-products and waste materials. After mining processes these materials often provide the basis for land reclamation and ecosystem restoration. In the present study, tailing sands (TS) and processed mature fine tailings (pMFT) from Fort McMurray (Alberta, Canada) were used. They represent challenging material for ecosystem rebuilding because of very low nutrient contents of TS and oil residuals, high density of MFT material. In this context, little is known about the interactions of pure TS, respectively mixtures of TS and MFT and root growth, mycorrhization and plant physiological effects. Four herbaceous plant species (Elymus trachycaulus, Koeleria macrantha, Deschampsia cespitosa, Lotus corniculatus) were chosen to investigate root development, chlorophyll fluorescence and mycorrhization intensity with and without application of Glomus mosseae (arbuscular mycorrhizae) on mainly tailing sands. Surprisingly both, plants growing on pure TS and plants growing on TS with additional AM-application showed mycorrhization of roots. In general, the mycorrhization intensity was lower for plants growing on pure tailings sands, but it is an interesting fact that there is a potential for mycorrhization available in tailing sands. The mycorrhizal intensity strongly increased with application of G. mosseae for K. macrantha and L. corniculatus and even more for E. trachycaulus. For D. cespitosa similar high mycorrhiza infection frequency was found for both variants, with and without AM-application. By the application of G. mosseae, root growth of E. trachycaulus and K. macrantha was significantly positively influenced. Analysis of leaf chlorophyll fluorescence showed no significant differences for E. trachycaulus but significant positive influence of mycorrhizal application on the physiological status of L. corniculatus. However, this effect could not be detected when TS was mixed with MFT

  12. Are plants growing at abandoned mine sites suitable for phytoremediation of contaminated soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Buffa, Gabriella; Fontana, Silvia; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest in the perspective to remediate contaminated soils by phytoremediation, a low cost and environmental friendly technique which uses metal-accumulator plants to clean up moderately contaminated areas. The choice of plants is a crucial aspect for the practical use of this technique, given the ability to accumulate metals in their tissues, being genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. Up today, more than 400 native plants that hyperaccumulate metals are reported, Brassicaceae being the family with the largest number of hyperaccumulator species. For example, Alyssum bertoloni is well known as Ni accumulator, as well as Thlaspi caerulescens for Zn and Brassica napus for Pb. However, metal hyperaccumulation is not a common phenomenon in terrestrial higher plants, and many of the European hyperaccumulator plants are of small biomass, and have a slow growth rate. Therefore, there is an urgent need for surveying and screening of plants with ability to accumulate metals in their tissues and a relatively high biomass. In recent years, a survey of soils and plants growing on contaminated areas at several abandoned sulphide mines in Italy was carried out by working groups of the Universities of Florence, Siena, Cagliari, Bologna, Udine and Venice, in order to evaluate the ability of these plants to colonize mine waste and to accumulate metals, in the perspective of an ecological restoration of contaminated sites. We investigated the heavy metal concentration of the waste material, and the soils developed from, in order to determine the extent of heavy metal dispersion, and the uptake by plants, and deserved attention to wild plants growing at that sites, to find out new metal-tolerant species to utilize in soil remediation. Current results of these investigations, with particular emphasis on the Tuscan areas, are reported here. All the studied profiles are strongly enriched in metals; their

  13. Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serakta, M; Djerrou, Z; Mansour-Djaalab, H; Kahlouche-Riachi, F; Hamimed, S; Trifa, W; Belkhiri, A; Edikra, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were compared with three controls : CRL1 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes, CRL2 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of hydroalcoholic solvent, CRL3 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of Glucantim as a reference drug in the management of leishmaniasis. The results showed that both J. regia and L. inermis extracts reduced the promastigotes number significantly (Pofficinalis showed a total inhibition of the Leishmania major growth.

  14. Enzyme activities at different stages of plant biomass decomposition in three species of fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Costa, Rafael R.; Hu, Haofu; Pilgaard, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites rely on the mutualistic fungus Termitomyces and gut microbes for plant biomass degradation. Due to a certain degree of symbiont complementarity, this tripartite symbiosis has evolved as a complex bioreactor, enabling decomposition of nearly any plant polymer, likely contri...... assays, transcriptomics and plant content measurements to shed light on how this decomposition of plant substrate is effectively accomplished.......Fungus-growing termites rely on the mutualistic fungus Termitomyces and gut microbes for plant biomass degradation. Due to a certain degree of symbiont complementarity, this tripartite symbiosis has evolved as a complex bioreactor, enabling decomposition of nearly any plant polymer, likely...... contributing to the success of the termites as the main plant decomposers in the Old World. Here we evaluate which plant polymers are decomposed and which enzymes are active during the decomposition process in two major genera of fungus-growing termites. We find a diversity of active enzymes at different...

  15. Aluminium-phosphorus interactions in plants growing on acid soils: does phosphorus always alleviate aluminium toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong Fu; Zhang, Fu Lin; Zhang, Qi Ming; Sun, Qing Bin; Dong, Xiao Ying; Shen, Ren Fang

    2012-03-30

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and phosphorus (P) deficiency are considered to be the main constraints for crop production in acid soils, which are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Conventionally, P addition is regarded as capable of alleviating Al toxicity in plants. However, this field is still rife with unsubstantiated theories, especially for different plant species growing on acid soils. In this review, the responses of plants to different methods of Al-P treatments are briefly summarized, and possible reasons are proposed by considering recent results from our laboratory. It is shown that: (1) long-term Al-P alternate treatment is advantageous for studying Al-P interactions in plants; (2) under the long-term Al-P alternate treatment, the roles of P in Al phytotoxicity might be associated with the Al resistance capability and P use efficiency of the plant, and a P/Al molar ratio exceeding 5 in roots may be the threshold of P alleviating Al toxicity based on the calculation of the tested plants; (3) in acid soils, P application may be effective only after Al stress is overcome for Al-sensitive species. Thus it is concluded that P application does not always alleviate Al toxicity under long-term Al-P alternate treatment. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Cryogenic Cam Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Kenneth J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A cryogenic cam butterfly valve has a body that includes an axially extending fluid conduit formed there through. A disc lug is connected to a back side of a valve disc and has a circular bore that receives and is larger than a cam of a cam shaft. The valve disc is rotatable for a quarter turn within the body about a lug axis that is offset from the shaft axis. Actuating the cam shaft in the closing rotational direction first causes the camming side of the cam of the cam shaft to rotate the disc lug and the valve disc a quarter turn from the open position to the closed position. Further actuating causes the camming side of the cam shaft to translate the valve disc into sealed contact with the valve seat. Opening rotational direction of the cam shaft reverses these motions.

  17. Transparency in Dutch CAM practices: a comparison between CAM and GP physicians.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.; Dulmen, S. van

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: CAM (Complementary and Alternative Medicine) is increasing worldwide because the demand is growing. Transparency is needed to provide more objective information about CAM services, to date largely unknown by a majority of care users and mainstream care providers. Despite the fact that

  18. Is prayer CAM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippens, Kim; Marsman, Kevin; Zwickey, Heather

    2009-04-01

    Alternative medicine researchers and policy makers have classified prayer as a mind-body intervention, and thus, a modality of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). As such, numerous epidemiological surveys of CAM utilization-which have included prayer-depict increasing CAM use, particularly in specific racial and ethnic groups. This paper discusses the implications of conflating prayer and CAM, especially regarding the definitions of both concepts and the resulting statistics of CAM utilization.

  19. Pampered inside, pestered outside? Differences and similarities between plants growing in controlled conditions and in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, Hendrik; Fiorani, Fabio; Pieruschka, Roland; Wojciechowski, Tobias; Putten, van der Wim H.; Kleyer, Michael; Schurr, Uli; Postma, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    (Table presented.). Summary: Plant biologists often grow plants in growth chambers or glasshouses with the ultimate aim to understand or improve plant performance in the field. What is often overlooked is how results from controlled conditions translate back to field situations. A meta-analysis

  20. Trends in biological activity research of wild-growing aromatic plants from Central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić, A.M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flowering plants consists of more than 300.000 species around the world, out of which a small percentage has been sufficiently investigated from phytochemical and biological activity aspects. Plant diversity of the Balkans is very rich, but still poorly investigated. The aim of this paper is survey of current status and trends in research of wild-growing aromatic plants from Central Balkans. Many aromatic plants are investigated from morphological, physiological, ecological, systematic and phytochemical aspects. However, traditionally used medicinal and aromatic plants can also be considered from applicative aspects, concerning their health effects, and from wide range of usage in cosmetics, and as food, agrochemical and pharmaceutical products. In order to achieve all planned objectives, following methodology has been applied: field research, taxonomic authentication and, comparative biologically assayed phytochemical investigations. The total herbal extracts, postdistillation waste (deodorized extracts, essential oils and individual compounds of some autochthonous plants have been considered as potential source of antibacterial, antifungal, anti-biofilm, antioxidant and cytotoxic agents. In this manuscript, composition of essential oils and extracts were evaluated in a number of species, from the Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Asteraceae families. Extracts which were rich in phenols mostly of flavonoids, often showed high antioxidant potential. Also, phenolic compounds identified in essential oils and extracts were mostly responsible for expected antimicrobial activity. Current worldwide demand is to reduce or, if possible, eliminate chemically synthesized food additives. Plant-produced compounds are becoming of interest as a source of more effective and safe substances than synthetically produced antimicrobial agents (as inhibitors, growth reducers or even inactivators that control growth of microorganisms. Many different pathogens have

  1. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects.

  2. Testing fungistatic properties of soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzhu, Hu; Nesterenko, Elena; Liu, Professor Hong; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, Vladimir; Gurevich, Yu.; Kozlov, Vladimir; Khizhnyak, Serge; Xing, Yidong; Hu, Enzhu; Enzhu, Hu

    There are two ways of getting vegetable food in BLSS: in hydroponic culture and on soil substrates. In any case there is a chance that the plants will be affected by plant pathogenic microorganisms. The subject of the research was a soil-like substrate (SLS) for growing plants in a Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). We estimated the fungistatic properties of SLS using test cultures of Bipolaris and Alternaria plant pathogenic fungi. Experiments were made with the samples of SLS, natural soil and sand (as control). We tested 2 samples of SLS produced by way of bioconversion of wheat and rice straw. We measured the disease severity of wheat seedlings and the incidence of common root rot in natural (non-infectious) background and man-made (infectious) conditions. The severity of disease on the SLS was considerably smaller both in non-infectious and infectious background conditions (8 and 12%) than on the natural soil (18 and 32%) and sand. It was the soil-like substrate that had the minimal value among the variants being compared (20% in non-infectious and 40% in infectious background conditions). This index in respect of the soil was 55 and 78%, correspondingly, and in respect of the sand - 60%, regardless of the background. It was found that SLS significantly suppressed conidia germination of Bipolaris soroikiniana (psignificant differences were found between SLS samples obtained from wheat and rice straw.

  3. Phytoextraction of rare earth elements in herbaceous plant species growing close to roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Borowiak, Klaudia; Niedzielski, Przemysław

    2017-06-01

    The aim of study was to determine the phytoextraction of rare earth elements (REEs) to roots, stems and leaves of five herbaceous plant species (Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia vulgaris L., Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale AND Tripleurospermum inodorum), growing in four areas located in close proximity to a road with varied traffic intensity. Additionally, the relationship between road traffic intensity, REE concentration in soil and the content of these elements in plant organs was estimated. A. vulgaris and P. rhoeas were able to effectively transport REEs in their leaves, independently of area collection. The highest content of REEs was observed in P. rhoeas leaves and T. inodorum roots. Generally, HREEs were accumulated in P. rhoeas roots and leaves and also in the stems of T. inodorum and T. officinale, whereas LREEs were accumulated in T. inodorum roots and T. officinale stems. It is worth underlining that there was a clear relationship between road traffic intensity and REE, HREE and LREE concentration in soil. No positive correlation was found between the concentration of these elements in soil and their content in plants, with the exception of T. officinale. An effective transport of REEs from the root system to leaves was observed, what points to the possible ability of some of the tested plant species to remove REEs from soils near roads.

  4. Growing Beyond Earth; Students Exploring Plant Varieties for Future Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzinger, Marion; Massa, Gioia

    2017-01-01

    Future space exploration and long duration space flight will pose an array of challenges to the health and wellbeing of astronauts. Since 2015, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (FTBG), in partnership with NASA's Veggie team, has been testing edible crops for space flight potential through a series of citizen science experiments. FTBG's interest in classroom-based science projects, along with NASA's successful operation of the Veggie system aboard the International Space Station (ISS), led to a NASA-FTBG partnership that gave rise to the Growing Beyond Earth STEM Initiative (GBE). Established in 2015, GBE now involves 131 middle and high school classrooms in South Florida, all conducting simultaneous plant science experiments. The results of those experiments (both numeric and visual) are directly shared with the space food production researchers at KSC. Through this session, we will explore the successful classroom implementation and integration into the curriculum, how the data is being used and the impact of the project on participating researchers, teachers, and students. Participating schools were supplied with specialized LED-lit growth chambers, mimicking the Veggie system on ISS, for growing edible plants under similar physical and environmental constraints. Research protocols were provided by KSC scientists, while edible plant varieties were selected mainly by the botanists at FTBG. In a jointly-led professional development workshop, participating teachers were trained to conduct GBE experiments in their classrooms. Teachers were instructed to not only teach basic botany concepts, but to also demonstrate practical applications of math, physics and chemistry. As experiments were underway, students shared data on plant germination, growth, and health in an online spreadsheet. Results from the students research show a promising selection of new plant candidates for possible further testing. Over a two year period, more than 5000 South Florida students, ages

  5. Internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 following Biological and Mechanical Disruption of Growing Spinach Plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hora, Rajneesh; Warriner, Keith; Shelp, Barry J; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2005-01-01

    The internalization and persistence of a bioluminescent Escherichia coli O157:H7 Ph1 was investigated in growing spinach plants that had been either biologically or mechanically damaged. In control (undamaged...

  6. Hyperaccumulator of Pb in native plants growing on Peruvian mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria; Boluda, Rafael; Tume, Pedro; Duran, Paola; Poma, Wilfredo; Sanchez, Isidoro

    2014-05-01

    Tailings usually provide an unfavourable substrate for plant growth because of their extreme pH, low organic matter and nutrients, high concentrations of trace elements and physical disturbance, such as bad soil structure, and low water availability. Heavy metal contamination has also been one serious problem in the vicinity of mine sites due to the discharge and dispersion of mine-waste materials into the ecosystem. Moreover, Pb is considered a target metal when undertaking soil remediation, because it is usually quite immobile and not readily accumulated in upper plant parts. The presence of vegetation reduces water and wind erosion, which may decrease the downward migration of contaminants into the groundwater and improve aesthetical aspects. Plants growing on naturally metal-enriched soils are of particular interest in this perspective, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations, have an excellent adaptation to this multi-stress environment. Efficient phytoextraction requires plant species combining both high metal tolerance and elevated capacity for metal uptake and metal translocation to easily harvestable plant organs (e.g. shoots). Soil and plant samples were taken in Peru, at a polymetallic mine (mainly Ag, Pb and Cu) in Cajamarca Province, Hualgayoc district. Top soils (0-20 cm) were analysed for physical and chemical properties by standard methods. Total Pb concentrations in top soils were determined by ICP-OES. Pb content in plants were analysed separately (aerial and root system) by ICP-MS. Ti content was used as an indicator for contamination of plant samples with soil particles. Translocation Factor (TF) and Shoot Accumulation Factor (SAF) were determined to assess the tolerance strategies developed by these species and to evaluate their potential for phytoremediation purposes. The non-polluted soils had near neutral pH (6.8±0.1), a great content of organic carbon (42 ± 4.0 g•kg-1) and a silt loamy texture. Soil and plant

  7. Can Plants Grow on Mars and the Moon: A Growth Experiment on Mars and Moon Soil Simulants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamelink, G.W.W.; Frissel, J.Y.; Krijnen, W.H.J.; Verwoert, M.R.; Goedhart, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    When humans will settle on the moon or Mars they will have to eat there. Food may be flown in. An alternative could be to cultivate plants at the site itself, preferably in native soils. We report on the first large-scale controlled experiment to investigate the possibility of growing plants in Mars

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Microbacterium foliorum Strain 122 Isolated from a Plant Growing in a Chronically Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulthorpe, Roberta; Sentchilo, Vladimir; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbacterium foliorum strain 122 is a bacterial endophyte isolated from a Dactylis glomerata plant growing in a natural oil seep soil located in Oil Springs, Ontario, Canada. We present here a draft genome sequence of an endophytic strain that has promising potential in hydrocarbon degradation and plant growth promotion. PMID:28546498

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Microbacterium foliorum Strain 122 Isolated from a Plant Growing in a Chronically Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Site

    OpenAIRE

    Lumactud, Rhea; Fulthorpe, Roberta; Sentchilo, Vladimir; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbacterium foliorum strain 122 is a bacterial endophyte isolated from a Dactylis glomerata plant growing in a natural oil seep soil located in Oil Springs, Ontario, Canada. We present here a draft genome sequence of an endophytic strain that has promising potential in hydrocarbon degradation and plant growth promotion.

  10. In Vitro Assessment of Plants Growing in Cuba Belonging to Solanaceae Family Against Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; Jiménez, Jenny; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Márquez, Ingrid; Gutiérrez, Yamile; da Rocha, Cláudia Quintino; Marchi, Mary; Setzer, William N; Vilegas, Wagner

    2016-11-01

    In this study, an in vitro antileishmanial assessment of plant extracts from 12 genera and 46 species growing in Cuba belonging to Solanaceae family was performed. A total of 226 extracts were screened against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, and cytotoxicity of active extracts [median inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) promastigotes 5 were then assayed against intracellular amastigote. Metabolomics analysis of promissory extracts was performed using chemical profile obtained by ultra performance liquid chromatography. Only 11 extracts (4.9%) from nine plants were selected as potentially actives: Brunfelsia cestroides A. Rich, Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum chinense Jacq., Cestrum nocturnum L., Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv., Solanum havanense Jacq., Solanum myriacanthum Dunal, Solanum nudum Dunal and Solanum seaforthianum And., with IC 50  5. Metabolomics analysis demonstrated significant differences in the chemical profiles with an average of 42.8 (range 31-88) compounds from m/z 104 to 1477, which demonstrated the complex mixture of compounds. In addition, no common markers among active extracts were identified. The results demonstrate the importance of the Solanaceae family to search new antileishmanial agents, particularly in unexplored species of this family. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A Novel Growing Device Inspired by Plant Root Soil Penetration Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ali; Tonazzini, Alice; Popova, Liyana; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Moving in an unstructured environment such as soil requires approaches that are constrained by the physics of this complex medium and can ensure energy efficiency and minimize friction while exploring and searching. Among living organisms, plants are the most efficient at soil exploration, and their roots show remarkable abilities that can be exploited in artificial systems. Energy efficiency and friction reduction are assured by a growth process wherein new cells are added at the root apex by mitosis while mature cells of the root remain stationary and in contact with the soil. We propose a new concept of root-like growing robots that is inspired by these plant root features. The device penetrates soil and develops its own structure using an additive layering technique: each layer of new material is deposited adjacent to the tip of the device. This deposition produces both a motive force at the tip and a hollow tubular structure that extends to the surface of the soil and is strongly anchored to the soil. The addition of material at the tip area facilitates soil penetration by omitting peripheral friction and thus decreasing the energy consumption down to 70% comparing with penetration by pushing into the soil from the base of the penetration system. The tubular structure provides a path for delivering materials and energy to the tip of the system and for collecting information for exploratory tasks. PMID:24587244

  12. Strategies of heavy metal uptake by plants growing under industrial emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingorance, M D; Valdés, B; Oliva, S Rossini

    2007-05-01

    Total concentrations of Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Pb and Zn have been estimated in soil (A-horizon) and in leaves and stem samples of two Mediterranean species (Nerium oleander L. and Pinus pinea L.) growing in an industrial area in Spain (Huelva). Both species showed a different behaviour for the elements studied. Bark and leaves of both species acted as excluders of Al, Ba, Cr, Fe and Pb, N. oleander acted as indicator of Cu and Zn and, needles and bark of P. pinea behaved as accumulators of Cu. The enrichment ratio data indicated that Cu in soil and plant was enhanced with anthropogenic activities, with industrial activities being the primary contributor for Cu. All the other elements studied were controlled by natural source variations, but Pb could also be anthropogenically enhanced. Wood did not accumulate pollutants, with the translocation from bark being rather reduced. Uptake patterns of metals into foliage and bark tissues were more or less the same in both species for almost all the studied elements, which indicates that both plant parts could be indifferently used as biomonitors.

  13. A novel growing device inspired by plant root soil penetration behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi

    Full Text Available Moving in an unstructured environment such as soil requires approaches that are constrained by the physics of this complex medium and can ensure energy efficiency and minimize friction while exploring and searching. Among living organisms, plants are the most efficient at soil exploration, and their roots show remarkable abilities that can be exploited in artificial systems. Energy efficiency and friction reduction are assured by a growth process wherein new cells are added at the root apex by mitosis while mature cells of the root remain stationary and in contact with the soil. We propose a new concept of root-like growing robots that is inspired by these plant root features. The device penetrates soil and develops its own structure using an additive layering technique: each layer of new material is deposited adjacent to the tip of the device. This deposition produces both a motive force at the tip and a hollow tubular structure that extends to the surface of the soil and is strongly anchored to the soil. The addition of material at the tip area facilitates soil penetration by omitting peripheral friction and thus decreasing the energy consumption down to 70% comparing with penetration by pushing into the soil from the base of the penetration system. The tubular structure provides a path for delivering materials and energy to the tip of the system and for collecting information for exploratory tasks.

  14. Microbial abundance in rhizosphere of medicinal and aromatic plant species in conventional and organic growing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamović Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing the abundance of microorganisms in the rhizosphere of four different medicinal and aromatic plant species (basil, mint, dill and marigold grown under both conventional and organic management on the chernozem soil at the experimental field of Bački Petrovac (Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. Two sampling terms (June 1 and July 18, 2012 were performed to collect samples for microbiological analyses. The microbial abundance was higher in organic than in conventional system while at the same time significant differences were obtained only with dill rhizosphere. The differences in number of microorganisms belonging to different groups relied upon both plant species and sampling term. Thus, in mint, the recorded number of azotobacters and fungi was significantly higher whereas the number of ammonifiers was significantly lower. The present results indicate that organic growing system affected the abundance of microorganisms in rhizosphere of species investigated, especially in the second term of sampling.

  15. Compost-based growing media: influence on growth and nutrient use of bedding plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigatti, Marco; Giorgioni, Maria Eva; Ciavatta, Claudio

    2007-12-01

    The agronomic performance and the mineral composition and trace element content in Begonia semperflorens "Bellavista F1", Mimulus "Magic x hybridus", Salvia splendens "maestro", and Tagete patula xerecta "Zenith Lemon Yellow", were tested by growing the plants on substrates of white peat and 25-50-75-100% green waste and sewage sludge (80%+20%v/v) compost (CP). A commercial peat medium of black and white peat (2:1v/v) was used as control. At flowering, the agronomic parameters were compared by ANOVA and plant nutritional status was compared by vector analysis. Substrate-species interactions (PBegonia grown in 25% CP, showed the highest dry weight (DW) and number of flowers. Other treatments were comparable to the control. Mimulus and Salvia showed the highest DW in the 25-50% CP. Mimulus, after a DW increase up to 50% CP, showed the steepest reduction as the CP increased further. Tagete showed no differences in DW up to 50% CP, or in flower number up to 25% CP, compared to the control. The additional increases of CP in the medium showed a DW decrease similar to that of Salvia. Vector analysis showed the use of compost mainly induced a decrease of P concentration in tissues, except for Begonia which remained unchanged. Plant tissues showed a general P reduction due to a dilution effect in the low compost mixtures (25-50%) and a deficiency in the higher CP mixtures. In contrast, an increase of Mg in the aboveground tissues of all species was detectable as compost usage increased, with the exception of Salvia which suffered a Mg deficiency. Vector analysis also highlighted a Ni and partial Fe deficiency in Tagete and Salvia.

  16. Quantitative trait loci for plant height in Maresi × CamB barley population and their associations with yield-related traits under different water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczak, Krzysztof; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Krajewski, Paweł; Sawikowska, Aneta; Surma, Maria; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Adamski, Tadeusz; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Górny, Andrzej G; Kempa, Michał; Szarejko, Iwona; Guzy-Wróbelska, Justyna; Gudyś, Kornelia

    2017-02-01

    High-yielding capacity of the modern barley varieties is mostly dependent on the sources of semi-dwarfness associated with the sdw1/denso locus. The objective of the study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the plant height and yield potential of barley recombinant inbred lines (RILs) grown under various soil moisture regimes. The plant material was developed from a hybrid between the Maresi (European cv.) and CamB (Syrian cv.). A total of 103 QTLs affecting analysed traits were detected and 36 of them showed stable effects over environments. In total, ten QTLs were found to be significant only under water shortage conditions. Nine QTLs affecting the length of main stem were detected on 2H-6H chromosomes. In four of the detected QTLs, alleles contributed by Maresi had negative effects on that trait, the most significant being the QLSt-3H.1-1 in the 3H.1 linkage group. The close linkage between QTLs identified around the sdw1/denso locus, with positive alleles contributed by Maresi, indicates that the semi-dwarf cv. Maresi could serve as a donor of favourable traits resulting in grain yield improvement, also under water scarcity. Molecular analyses revealed that the Syrian cv. also contributed alleles which increased the yield potential. Available barley resources of genomic annotations were employed to the biological interpretation of detected QTLs. This approach revealed 26 over-represented Gene Ontology terms. In the projected support intervals of QGWSl-5H.3-2 and QLSt-5H.3 on the chromosome 5H, four genes annotated to 'response to stress' were found. It suggests that these QTL-regions may be involved in a response of plant to a wide range of environmental disturbances.

  17. Climatic Suitability of Growing Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. as a Medicinal Plant in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad BANNAYAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of production by including a broader range of plant species, can significantly contribute to improve health and nutrition, livelihoods, household food security and ecological sustainability. Exploring the climate impact on any given crop is one of the first priorities to find new suitable areas for production and management of new crops. Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. is an economically valuable plant with various medicinal potentials. In order to investigate summer squash cultivation feasibility under Irans climate, three main agricultural regions (Azerbaijan, Khorasan and central part of Iran (Fars and Isfahan were selected. These regions suitability for summer squash cultivation were evaluated by considering three vital climate variables encompass temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours. These regions show distinct and representative climatic conditions of Iran. Annual and growing season average of maximum, minimum, mean temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours were calculated (May-September for all locations with 44 years historical weather data (1961-2005 for 8 locations (Oroomieh, Tabriz, Khoy, Mashhad, Sabzevar, Birjand, Shiraz and Isfahan, 39 years (1966-2005 for 2 locations (Kashan and Fassa, 28 years (1977-2005 for 4 locations (Ardebil, Abadeh, Bojnurd and Shargh Isfahan and 20 years (1985-2005 for 9 locations (Mahabad, Sarab, Maragheh, Parsabad, Khalkhal, Ferdous, Ghaen, Kashmar and Sarakhs. Climatic demands of summer squash were determined by four years field studies at four different locations in Iran. Our results showed Azerbaijan region has a suitable condition for this crop cultivation especially from precipitation and temperature perspectives. Central part of Iran and Khorasan were also found as partly suitable locations however as they are near to deserts with hotter and drier climate, there might be some other crops considered as priorities in these areas.

  18. Climate-resilient agroforestry: physiological responses to climate change and engineering of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as a mitigation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Anne M; Wullschleger, Stan D; Weston, David J; Hartwell, James; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C

    2015-09-01

    Global climate change threatens the sustainability of agriculture and agroforestry worldwide through increased heat, drought, surface evaporation and associated soil drying. Exposure of crops and forests to warmer and drier environments will increase leaf:air water vapour-pressure deficits (VPD), and will result in increased drought susceptibility and reduced productivity, not only in arid regions but also in tropical regions with seasonal dry periods. Fast-growing, short-rotation forestry (SRF) bioenergy crops such as poplar (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) are particularly susceptible to hydraulic failure following drought stress due to their isohydric nature and relatively high stomatal conductance. One approach to sustaining plant productivity is to improve water-use efficiency (WUE) by engineering crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) into C3 crops. CAM improves WUE by shifting stomatal opening and primary CO2 uptake and fixation to the night-time when leaf:air VPD is low. CAM members of the tree genus Clusia exemplify the compatibility of CAM performance within tree species and highlight CAM as a mechanism to conserve water and maintain carbon uptake during drought conditions. The introduction of bioengineered CAM into SRF bioenergy trees is a potentially viable path to sustaining agroforestry production systems in the face of a globally changing climate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Wild plant species growing closely connected in a subalpine meadow host distinct root-associated bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Aleklett

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots are known to harbor large and diverse communities of bacteria. It has been suggested that plant identity can structure these root-associated communities, but few studies have specifically assessed how the composition of root microbiota varies within and between plant species growing under natural conditions. We assessed the community composition of endophytic and epiphytic bacteria through high throughput sequencing using 16S rDNA derived from root tissues collected from a population of a wild, clonal plant (Orange hawkweed–Pilosella aurantiaca as well as two neighboring plant species (Oxeye daisy–Leucanthemum vulgare and Alsike clover–Trifolium hybridum. Our first goal was to determine if plant species growing in close proximity, under similar environmental conditions, still hosted unique root microbiota. Our results showed that plants of different species host distinct bacterial communities in their roots. In terms of community composition, Betaproteobacteria (especially the family Oxalobacteraceae were found to dominate in the root microbiota of L. vulgare and T. hybridum samples, whereas the root microbiota of P. aurantiaca had a more heterogeneous distribution of bacterial abundances where Gammaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria occupied a larger portion of the community. We also explored the extent of individual variance within each plant species investigated, and found that in the plant species thought to have the least genetic variance among individuals (P. aurantiaca still hosted just as diverse microbial communities. Whether all plant species host their own distinct root microbiota and plants more closely related to each other share more similar bacterial communities still remains to be fully explored, but among the plants examined in this experiment there was no trend that the two species belonging to the same family shared more similarities in terms of bacterial community composition.

  20. Morphogenesis of complex plant cell shapes: the mechanical role of crystalline cellulose in growing pollen tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouar, Leila; Chebli, Youssef; Geitmann, Anja

    2010-03-01

    Cellulose is the principal component of the load-bearing system in primary plant cell walls. The great resistance to tensile forces of this polysaccharide and its embedding in matrix components make the cell wall a material similar to a fiber composite. In the rapidly growing pollen tube, the amount of cellulose in the cell wall is untypically low. Therefore, we want to investigate whether the load-bearing function of cellulose is nevertheless important for the architecture of this cell. Enzymatic digestion with cellulase and inhibition of cellulose crystal formation with CGA (1-cyclohexyl-5-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenoxy)-1lambda4,2,4,6-thiatriazin-3-amine) resulted in the formation of tubes with increased diameter in Solanum chacoense and Lilium orientalis when present during germination. In pre-germinated tubes, application of both agents resulted in the transient arrest of growth accompanied by the formation of an apical swelling indicating a role in the mechanical stabilization of this cellular region. Once growth resumed in the presence of cellulase, however, the cell wall in the newly formed tube showed increased amounts of pectins, possibly to compensate for the reduced amount of cellulose. Scanning electron microscopy of pollen tubes subjected to digestion of matrix polysaccharides revealed the mechanical anisotropy of the cell wall. In both Lilium and Solanum, the angle of highest stability revealed by crack formation was significantly below 45 degrees , an indication that in the mature part of the cell cellulose may not the main stress-bearing component against turgor pressure induced tensile stress in circumferential direction.

  1. Cement dust pollution induces toxicity or deficiency of some essential elements in wild plants growing around a cement factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Salih; Atici, Ökkes; Gülen, Yasir

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cement dust pollution on contents of some significant essential elements (P, S, K, Ca, Fe and Cl) in wild plants (Medigago varia, Anchusa leptophylla, Euphorbia orientalis, Lactuca serriola, Artemisia spicigera, Crambe orientalis, Convolvulus sepium and Senecio vernalis) using wavelength-dispersive spectrometer X-ray fluorescence technique. Plant samples were collected from different locations around a cement factory which is located at Askale about 50 km from Erzurum (Turkey). The element contents in the plant specimens that existed in both 0-100 m (dense dusted) and 2000 m (undusted) areas were compared. P, S, K and Cl contents were found to be high in the plants growing in areas 0-100 m from the cement factory, compared to same plants at 2000 m far from the factory. However, Ca and Fe contents were determined to be low in plants growing in 0-100 m area from the factory. Results of the study can contribute to understand how mineral deficiency and toxicity lead to detrimental effects on plant growth and development in the fields contaminated by cement dust.

  2. Bioaccumulation of {sup 226}Ra by plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around the uranium industry at Jaduguda, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, V.N., E-mail: jhavn1971@gmail.co [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Tripathi, R.M., E-mail: tripathirm@yahoo.co [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Sethy, N.K.; Sahoo, S.K.; Shukla, A.K.; Puranik, V.D. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2010-09-15

    A field study has been conducted to evaluate the {sup 226}Ra bioaccumulation among aquatic plants growing in the stream/river adjoining the uranium mining and ore-processing complex at Jaduguda, India. Two types of plant group have been investigated namely free floating algal species submerged into water and plants rooted in stream and riverbed. The highest {sup 226}Ra activity concentration (9850 Bq kg{sup -1}) was found in filamentous algae growing in the residual water of tailings pond. The concentration ratios of {sup 226}Ra in filamentous algae (activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra in plant Bq kg{sup -1} fresh weight/activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra in water Bq l{sup -1}) widely varied i.e. from 1.1 x 10{sup 3} to 8.6 x 10{sup 4}. Other aquatic plants were also showing wide variability in the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration. The ln-transformed filamentous algae {sup 226}Ra activity concentration was significantly correlated with that of ln-transformed water concentration (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). There was no correlation between the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra in stream/riverbed rooted plants and the substrate. For this group, correlation between {sup 226}Ra activity concentration and Mn, Fe, Cu concentration in plants were statistically significant.

  3. Can plants grow on Mars and the moon: a growth experiment on Mars and moon soil simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamelink, G W Wieger; Frissel, Joep Y; Krijnen, Wilfred H J; Verwoert, M Rinie; Goedhart, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    When humans will settle on the moon or Mars they will have to eat there. Food may be flown in. An alternative could be to cultivate plants at the site itself, preferably in native soils. We report on the first large-scale controlled experiment to investigate the possibility of growing plants in Mars and moon soil simulants. The results show that plants are able to germinate and grow on both Martian and moon soil simulant for a period of 50 days without any addition of nutrients. Growth and flowering on Mars regolith simulant was much better than on moon regolith simulant and even slightly better than on our control nutrient poor river soil. Reflexed stonecrop (a wild plant); the crops tomato, wheat, and cress; and the green manure species field mustard performed particularly well. The latter three flowered, and cress and field mustard also produced seeds. Our results show that in principle it is possible to grow crops and other plant species in Martian and Lunar soil simulants. However, many questions remain about the simulants' water carrying capacity and other physical characteristics and also whether the simulants are representative of the real soils.

  4. Can plants grow on Mars and the moon: a growth experiment on Mars and moon soil simulants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G W Wieger Wamelink

    Full Text Available When humans will settle on the moon or Mars they will have to eat there. Food may be flown in. An alternative could be to cultivate plants at the site itself, preferably in native soils. We report on the first large-scale controlled experiment to investigate the possibility of growing plants in Mars and moon soil simulants. The results show that plants are able to germinate and grow on both Martian and moon soil simulant for a period of 50 days without any addition of nutrients. Growth and flowering on Mars regolith simulant was much better than on moon regolith simulant and even slightly better than on our control nutrient poor river soil. Reflexed stonecrop (a wild plant; the crops tomato, wheat, and cress; and the green manure species field mustard performed particularly well. The latter three flowered, and cress and field mustard also produced seeds. Our results show that in principle it is possible to grow crops and other plant species in Martian and Lunar soil simulants. However, many questions remain about the simulants' water carrying capacity and other physical characteristics and also whether the simulants are representative of the real soils.

  5. Evaluation of dredged sediment co-composted with green waste as plant growing media assessed by eco-toxicological tests, plant growth and microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Paola; Pastorelli, Roberta; Rami, Gabriele; Mocali, Stefano; Giagnoni, Laura; Gonnelli, Cristina; Renella, Giancarlo

    2017-07-05

    Dredged sediments have currently no broad reuse options as compared to other wastes due to their peculiar physico-chemical properties, posing problems for the management of the large volumes of sediments dredged worldwide. In this study we evaluated the performance of sediment (S) co-composted with green waste (GW) as growing medium for ornamental plants. Analysis of the microbial community structure, eco-toxicological tests, were conducted on sediments at 1:1 and 3:1S:GW composting ratios. Sediment-based growing media were then reused to growth the ornamental plant Photina x fraseri in a pilot-scale experiment and plants' physiological and chemical parameters were measured. The results showed that co-composting with green waste increased the diversity of bacteria, fungi and archaea as compared to the untreated sediments, and that both the 1:1 and 3:1 S:GW composted sediments had no substantial eco-toxicological impacts, allowing an excellent plant growth. We concluded that co-composted of sediment with green waste produce a growing medium with suitable properties for growing ornamental plants, and represent a sustainable option for beneficial use of dredged sediments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Spatial root distribution of plants growing in vertical media for use in living walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars; Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    of rockwool) in transparent boxes under greenhouse conditions. Root frequency was registered and the activity of individual root systems was studied via 15N uptake and plant dry weight was measured. Results: Plants in coir had stronger root growth in all parts of the medium than plants in rockwool. Upwards...

  7. When Smokey says "No": Fire-less methods for growing plants adapted to cultural fire regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniela Shebitz; Justine E. James

    2010-01-01

    Two culturally-significant plants (sweetgrass [Anthoxanthum nitens] and beargrass [Xerophyllum tenax]) are used as case studies for investigating methods of restoring plant populations that are adapted to indigenous burning practices without using fire. Reports from tribal members that the plants of interest were declining in traditional gathering areas provided the...

  8. 76 FR 67581 - Importation of Bromeliad Plants in Growing Media From Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... From Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA..., Neoregelia, Tillandsia, and Vriesea from Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands to the list of plants that may..., Neoregelia, Tillandsia, and Vriesea from Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands to the list of plants that may...

  9. Effect of plant extracts on growth performance and insulin-like growth factor 1 secretion in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Mohana Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of the present study is to evaluate the effects of plant extracts on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and immune blood characteristics in growing pigs. A total of 80 [(Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc] pigs with an initial body weight (BW of 27.31±2.15 kg were used in a 6-wk experiment. Pigs were allotted to one of four treatments (1 - Control (CON (basal diet; 2 - PE1 (CON + 0.05% plant extracts; 3 - PE2 (CON + 0.10% plant extracts; and 4 - PE3 (CON + 0.15% plant extracts in a randomized complete block design according to sex and initial BW. The PE1 and PE2 treatments provided a greater average daily gain than the CON treatment. From weeks 0 to 6 the pigs fed diets PE2 and PE3 showed greater apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter than those fed the CON diet. Pigs fed the plant-extract treatments had a reduction in total mercaptan emission on day 3 compared with control treatment. On day 5, fecal acetic acid content was decreased with increased blood WBC (white blood cells and lymphocyte counts and serum IGF-1concentration by plant extract supplementation compared with the control treatment. All the results showed a 95% significance level. Supplementation of plant extracts can improve growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs, decrease fecal gas emission, and increase immune components such as WBC and lymphocytes, and serum IGF-1 concentration in growing pigs.

  10. Direct quantitative evaluation of disease symptoms on living plant leaves growing under natural light

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matsunaga, Tomoko M; Ogawa, Daisuke; Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Ishimoto, Masao; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Habu, Yoshiki

    2017-01-01

    .... Digital scanners provide fixed conditions for obtaining image data, allowing stable and reliable comparison among samples, but require detached plant materials to capture images, and the destructive...

  11. The Root-Associated Microbial Community of the World’s Highest Growing Vascular Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angel, R.; Conrad, R.; Dvorský, Miroslav; Kopecký, Martin; Kotilínek, M.; Hiiesalu, Inga; Schweingruber, F. H.; Doležal, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 2 (2016), s. 394-406 ISSN 0095-3628 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : vascular plants * upward migration * subnival soil * plant-associated bacteria Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.630, year: 2016

  12. Mobile dune fixation by a fast-growing clonal plant: a full life-cycle analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werger, M.J.A.; During, H.J.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a global environmental problem, and arid dunes with sparse vegetation are especially vulnerable to desertification. One way to combat desertification is to increase vegetation cover by planting plant species that can realize fast population expansion, even in harsh environments.

  13. Mobile dune fixation by a fast-growing clonal plant : a full life-cycle analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Shou-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai; Werger, Marinus J A; Dong, Ming; During, Heinjo J; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a global environmental problem, and arid dunes with sparse vegetation are especially vulnerable to desertification. One way to combat desertification is to increase vegetation cover by planting plant species that can realize fast population expansion, even in harsh environments.

  14. The Exogenous Amelioration Roles of Growth Regulators on Crop Plants Grow under Different Osmotic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of fresh and dry matter of maize, wheat, cotton, broad and parsley plants show a variable response to the elevation of salinity stress. The production of fresh and dry matter of shoots and roots in wheat and broad bean plants tended to decrease with increasing NaCl concentration, salt stress progressively decrease in fresh and dry matter yield of maize plants. The increase in salinization levels induced a general insignificant change in production of fresh and dry matter of both organs of parsley plants. However, salinity induced a marked increase in the values of fresh and dry matter yields of cotton plants grown at the lowest level (-0.3 MPa NaCl and a reduction at higher salinization levels. Leaf area of unsprayed plants was excesivly decreased with the rise of osmotic stress levels especially at higher salinity levels of maize, wheat, cotton, and broad bean and parsley plants. the total pigments concentration decreased with rise of salinization levels in maize and cotton, these contents remained more or less un affected up to the level of 0.6 MPa NaCl in wheat and up to 0.9 MPa in parsley plants, there above, they were significantly reduced with increasing salinity levels. In broad bean plants the total pigments contents showed a non-significant alterations at all salinity stress. Spraying the vegetative parts of the five tested plants with 200 ppm of either GA3 or kinetin completely ameliorated the deleterious effect of salinity in fresh, dry matter, leaf area and pigment contents.

  15. CAM and NK Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Takeda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that tumor development, outgrowth and metastasis are under the surveillance of the immune system. Although both innate and acquired immune systems play roles, innate immunity is the spearhead against tumors. Recent studies have revealed the critical role of natural killer (NK cells in immune surveillance and that NK cell activity is considerably influenced by various agents, such as environmental factors, stress, foods and drugs. Some of these NK cell stimulants have been used in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM since ancient times. Therefore, the value of CAM should be re-evaluated from this point of view. In this review, we overview the intimate correlation between NK cell functions and CAM agents, and discuss possible underlying mechanisms mediating this. In particular, neuro-immune crosstalk and receptors for CAM agents are the most important and interesting candidates for such mechanisms.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT OF COHERENT LIGHT ON RESISTANCE OF PLANTS GROWING IN UNFAVOURABLE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Śliwka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of experiments on the effect of the coherent light emitted by lasers on plant material show that properly selected laser stimulation parameters, such as: wavelength, power, time and type of exposure, allow to obtain a greater growth of plant biomass, changes in the content of elements in the biomass and increasing plant resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of laser stimulation on selected plant species (Iris pseudoacorus L., Lemna minor L. to increase their resistance to low temperatures and the ability to adapt to an environment polluted by mining activities (Phelum pratense L.. Plants from experimental groups (Iris pseudoacorus L., Phelum pratense L., Lemna minor L. were stimulated with coherent light with specific characteristics. To irradiate plants from experimental groups different algorithms of stimulation parameters, differentiating the method and time of exposure were used. Plants group without the stimulation, were the reference group. The article discusses the results of preliminary experiments carried out on a laboratory scale and pot experiments.

  17. Uptake and accumulation of selenium by terrestrial plants growing on a coal fly ash landfill. 2. Forage and root crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, M.A.; Rubin, G.; Woodbury, P.B.; Schneider, R.E.; Weinstein, L.H. (Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Ithaca, NY (USA). Environmental Biology Program)

    1992-09-01

    Plants grown on fly ash landfills can accumulate relatively high concentrations of selenium (Se), although concentrations can vary greatly among and within species. The accumulation of Se in forage and root crops grown on a fly ash landfill and nonlandfill sites and the relationship of soil Se to plant Se concentrations were examined. Because sulfur (S) can act as a competitive ion with Se in plant uptake of nutrients, gypsum (CaSO[sub 4].2H[sub 2]O) was applied to soil on a fly ash landfill to determine whether Se was reduced in plants in its presence. Slightly more Se was accumulated in plants grown on the landfill than on the nonlandfill site. Total Se concentration in soil was poorly correlated with Se concentration in alfalfa plants grown on the landfill. In alfalfa ([ital Medicago sativa L.]), oats ([ital Avena sativa L.]), and rutabaga ([ital Brassica napus L.]), application of gypsum at rates of 5.6 to 16.8 t ha[sup -1] reduced the uptake of Se from that of plants grown without gypsum. Results from this study indicate that gypsum amendment may be effective in decreasing the uptake of Se by plants growing on a fly ash landfill, but the response is quite variable, probably due to variability in concentration and availability of Se in the soil cap. The use of gypsum in limiting Se uptake by plants offers a possible management tool to control the cycling of Se through plants to other biota on fly ash landfills.

  18. Planting geometry and growing season effects on the growth and yield of dryland cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The declining Ogallala Aquifer beneath the Southern High Plains may necessitate dryland crop production and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a well-adapted and potentially profitable alternative crop. The limited growing season duration of the Texas Panhandle and southwestern Kansas, however, impos...

  19. Community structure of actively growing bacterial populations in plant pathogen suppressive soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hjort, K.; Lembke, A.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.; Smalla, K.; Jansson, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    The bacterial community in soil was screened by using various molecular approaches for bacterial populations that were activated upon addition of different supplements. Plasmodiophora brassicae spores, chitin, sodium acetate, and cabbage plants were added to activate specific bacterial populations

  20. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on plants growing on arsenic contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankong, P; Visoottiviseth, P

    2008-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may play an important role in phytoremediation of As-contaminated soil. In this study the effects of AMF (Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices and Glomus etunicatum) on biomass production and arsenic accumulation in Pityrogramma calomelanos, Tagetes erecta and Melastoma malabathricum were investigated. Soil (243 +/- 13 microg As g(-1)) collected from Ron Phibun District, an As-contaminated area in Thailand, was used in a greenhouse experiment. The results showed different effects of AMF on phytoremediation of As-contaminated soil by different plant species. For P. calomelanos and T. erecta, AMF reduced only arsenic accumulation in plants but had no significant effect on plant growth. In contrast, AMF improved growth and arsenic accumulation in M. malabathricum. These findings show the importance of understanding different interactions between AMF and their host plants for enhancing phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils.

  1. Synergisms between microbial pathogens in plant disease complexes: a growing trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Ram eLamichhane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant diseases are often thought to be caused by one species or even by a specific strain. Microbes in nature however mostly occur as part of complex communities and this has been noted since the time of van Leeuwenhoek. Interestingly, most laboratory studies focus on single microbial strains grown in pure culture; we were therefore unaware of possible interspecies and/or inter-kingdom interactions of pathogenic microbes in the wild. In human and animal infections, it is now being recognized that many diseases are the result of multispecies synergistic interactions. This increases the complexity of the disease and has to be taken into consideration in the development of more effective control measures. On the other hand, there are only a few reports of synergistic pathogen-pathogen interactions in plant diseases and the mechanisms of interactions are currently unknown. Here we review some of these reports of synergism between different plant pathogens and their possible implications in crop health. Finally, we briefly highlight the recent technological advances in diagnostics as these are beginning to provide important insights into the microbial communities associated with complex plant diseases. These examples of synergistic interactions of plant pathogens that lead to disease complexes might prove to be more common than expected and understanding the underlying mechanisms might have important implications in plant disease epidemiology and management.

  2. Lifeact-mEGFP reveals a dynamic apical F-actin network in tip growing plant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vidali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Actin is essential for tip growth in plants. However, imaging actin in live plant cells has heretofore presented challenges. In previous studies, fluorescent probes derived from actin-binding proteins often alter growth, cause actin bundling and fail to resolve actin microfilaments.In this report we use Lifeact-mEGFP, an actin probe that does not affect the dynamics of actin, to visualize actin in the moss Physcomitrella patens and pollen tubes from Lilium formosanum and Nicotiana tobaccum. Lifeact-mEGFP robustly labels actin microfilaments, particularly in the apex, in both moss protonemata and pollen tubes. Lifeact-mEGFP also labels filamentous actin structures in other moss cell types, including cells of the gametophore.Lifeact-mEGFP, when expressed at optimal levels does not alter moss protonemal or pollen tube growth. We suggest that Lifeact-mEGFP represents an exciting new versatile probe for further studies of actin's role in tip growing plant cells.

  3. Energetic utilization of residues from wine-growing. Sewage plant Iphofen; Energetische Nutzung von Weinbaureststoffen. Klaeranlage Iphofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinle, Eberhard; Carozzi, Alvaro [Dr.-Ing. Steinle Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Abwassertechnik mbH, Weyarn (Germany); Mend, Josef; Kurth, Matthias [Stadt Iphofen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The treatment of waste water from the wine-growing and the treatment of liquid residual substances in local purification plants frequently result in a temporary overloading and disturbances. An innovative drop-off scheme was introduced at the purification plant Iphofen (Federal Republic of Germany). With this drop-off scheme, the winegrowers directly supply the highly concentrated liquid residual substances from the winemaking to the purification plant. There the residual substances can be used for the support of the denitrification and fermentation. After the successful conversion of this system, a gas utilization with small cogeneration units could be installed. Thus the resulting mass of gas will be used to the production of electricity and thermal energy. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on this system approach and on first operational experiences.

  4. An improved, low-cost, hydroponic system for growing Arabidopsis and other plant species under aseptic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatorre-Cobos, Fulgencio; Calderón-Vázquez, Carlos; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Yong-Villalobos, Lenin; Pérez-Torres, Claudia-Anahí; Oropeza-Aburto, Araceli; Méndez-Bravo, Alfonso; González-Morales, Sandra-Isabel; Gutiérrez-Alanís, Dolores; Chacón-López, Alejandra; Peña-Ocaña, Betsy-Anaid; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2014-03-21

    Hydroponics is a plant growth system that provides a more precise control of growth media composition. Several hydroponic systems have been reported for Arabidopsis and other model plants. The ease of system set up, cost of the growth system and flexibility to characterize and harvest plant material are features continually improved in new hydroponic system reported. We developed a hydroponic culture system for Arabidopsis and other model plants. This low cost, proficient, and novel system is based on recyclable and sterilizable plastic containers, which are readily available from local suppliers. Our system allows a large-scale manipulation of seedlings. It adapts to different growing treatments and has an extended growth window until adult plants are established. The novel seed-holder also facilitates the transfer and harvest of seedlings. Here we report the use of our hydroponic system to analyze transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis to nutriment availability and plant/pathogen interactions. The efficiency and functionality of our proposed hydroponic system is demonstrated in nutrient deficiency and pathogenesis experiments. Hydroponically grown Arabidopsis seedlings under long-time inorganic phosphate (Pi) deficiency showed typical changes in root architecture and high expression of marker genes involved in signaling and Pi recycling. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of gene expression of Arabidopsis roots depleted of Pi by short time periods indicates that genes related to general stress are up-regulated before those specific to Pi signaling and metabolism. Our hydroponic system also proved useful for conducting pathogenesis essays, revealing early transcriptional activation of pathogenesis-related genes.

  5. Behavior of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne growing in a heavy metal contaminated field: Plant metal concentration and phytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidar, G. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, Institut Superieur d' Agriculture, 48 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); LCE-EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, MREI2, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 189A Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Garcon, G. [LCE-EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, MREI2, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 189A Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Pruvot, C. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, Institut Superieur d' Agriculture, 48 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Dewaele, D. [Centre Commun de Mesures, MREI 1, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 145, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Cazier, F. [Centre Commun de Mesures, MREI 1, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 145, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Douay, F. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, Institut Superieur d' Agriculture, 48 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, P. [LCE-EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, MREI2, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 189A Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France)]. E-mail: pirouz.shirali@univ-littoral.fr

    2007-06-15

    The use of a vegetation cover for the management of heavy metal contaminated soils needs prior investigations on the plant species the best sustainable. In this work, behaviors of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne, growing in a metal-polluted field located near a closed lead smelter, were investigated through Cd, Pb and Zn-plant metal concentrations and their phytotoxicity. In these plant species, metals were preferentially accumulated in roots than in shoots, as follow: Cd > Zn > Pb. Plant exposure to such metals induced oxidative stress in the considered organs as revealed by the variations in malondialdehyde levels and superoxide dismutase activities. These oxidative changes were closely related to metal levels, plant species and organs. Accordingly, L. perenne seemed to be more affected by metal-induced oxidative stress than T. repens. Taken together, these findings allow us to conclude that both the plant species could be suitable for the phytomanagement of metal-polluted soils. - Usefulness of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne for the phytomanagement of heavy metal-contaminated soils.

  6. Effects of Planted Versus Naturally Growing Vallisneria natans on the Sediment Microbial Community in West Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Liu, Shuangyuan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Biyun; Zeng, Lei; He, Feng; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2017-08-01

    Submerged macrophytes play an important role in aquatic ecosystems, which has led to an increase in studies on vegetation recovery in polluted lakes from which submerged macrophytes have disappeared. The comparison of microbial communities in sediment cloned with planted and naturally growing submerged macrophytes is an interesting but rarely studied topic. In this investigation, Maojiabu and Xilihu, two adjacent sublakes of West Lake (Hangzhou, China), were selected as aquatic areas with planted and naturally growing macrophytes, respectively. Sediment samples from sites with/without Vallisneria natans were collected from both sublakes. The results showed that sediment total nitrogen and organic matter were significantly lower in the plant-covered sites than that in the non-plant sites in Maojiabu. Additionally, the sediment microbial community characterized by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing differed more significantly for Maojiabu than for Xilihu. The relative abundances of microbes involved in C, N, and S elemental cycling were significantly higher in the sediments with plants than in those without. Results from both fatty acid methyl ester analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that vegetation significantly influenced the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Thus, the gene copies and composition of SRB were explored further. The relative gene abundance of SRB was 66% higher with natural vegetation colonization but was not influenced by artificial colonization. An increase in dominant SRB members from the families Syntrophobacteraceae and Thermodesulfovibrionaceae contributed to the increase of total SRB. Thus, macrophyte planting influences sediment nutrient levels and microbial community more than natural growth does, whereas the latter is more beneficial to sediment SRB.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of some coumarin containing herbal plants growing in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, T; Remes, S; Haansuu, P; Vuorela, H; Hiltunen, R; Haahtela, K; Vuorela, P

    2000-11-01

    Antimicrobial screening against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, mold, as well as plant pathogenic fungi, with emphasis on method optimization was carried out on methanol extracts prepared from seven plants grown in Finland. Sensitivity to the extracts was found to vary considerably among the micro-organisms, the extract from Petroselinum crispum and Ruta graveolens showing the highest toxicity against Rhizoctonia solani. The growth of Heterobasidium annosum was inhibited, whereas that of Phytophtora (cactorum) was promoted by all the extracts. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of six natural coumarin compounds were weak, except for the inhibitory effect against Fusarium culmorum.

  8. Catalase activity during C3-CAM transition in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiadomska, E; Miszalski, Z; Slesak, I; Ratajczak, R

    1999-12-01

    Treatment with 0.4 mol dm(-3) NaCl caused a C3-CAM shift in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. leaves. In parallel to the CAM induction the activity of CAT was significantly decreased. In C3 and in CAM plants CAT activity showed daily fluctuations, with the maximum at the end of the light period. The oscillations of CAT were more pronounced in CAM than in C3 plants. In M. crystallinum CAT activity seems to respond more to CAM induction than to salinity.

  9. Effect of power plant (grow and bloom) on the growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and development parameters measured were significantly affected by the various treatments. Combined application of power plant and NPKMg 12-12-17-2 in equal ratio produced the best performance and it was significantly different from other treatments, while the least performance of seedlings was recorded in ...

  10. Direct quantitative evaluation of disease symptoms on living plant leaves growing under natural light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Tomoko M; Ogawa, Daisuke; Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Ishimoto, Masao; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Habu, Yoshiki

    2017-06-01

    Leaf color is an important indicator when evaluating plant growth and responses to biotic/abiotic stress. Acquisition of images by digital cameras allows analysis and long-term storage of the acquired images. However, under field conditions, where light intensity can fluctuate and other factors (shade, reflection, and background, etc.) vary, stable and reproducible measurement and quantification of leaf color are hard to achieve. Digital scanners provide fixed conditions for obtaining image data, allowing stable and reliable comparison among samples, but require detached plant materials to capture images, and the destructive processes involved often induce deformation of plant materials (curled leaves and faded colors, etc.). In this study, by using a lightweight digital scanner connected to a mobile computer, we obtained digital image data from intact plant leaves grown in natural-light greenhouses without detaching the targets. We took images of soybean leaves infected by Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines, and distinctively quantified two disease symptoms (brown lesions and yellow halos) using freely available image processing software. The image data were amenable to quantitative and statistical analyses, allowing precise and objective evaluation of disease resistance.

  11. Identity and biodegradative abilities of yeasts isolated from plants growing in an arid climate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    Plants harvested in the Canary Islands Lanzarote and Fuerteventura were analyzed for the yeasts inhabiting their surface. Half of the isolates (22 out of 44) were identified as Debaryomyces hansenii. Black ascomycetes, viz. Hortaea werneckii and two Hormonema species were represented by 7 strains.

  12. Potential for Plant Growth Promotion of Rhizobacteria Associated with Salicornia Growing in Tunisian Hypersaline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Mapelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands.

  13. Ability of cold-tolerant plants to grow in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Diana Bizecki; Knight, J Diane; Farrell, Richard E; Germida, James J

    2003-01-01

    Phytoremediation of hydrocarbons in soil involves plants and their associated microorganisms. Differences in environmental conditions and restrictions on species importation mean that each country may need to identify indigenous plants to use for phytoremedation. Screening plants for hydrocarbon tolerance before screening for degradation ability may prove more economical than screening directly for degradation. Thirty-nine cold-tolerant plants native, or exotic and naturalized, in western Canada were assessed for their ability to survive in crude oil-contaminated soil. Four naturalized grasses (i.e., Agropyron pectiniforme, Bromus inermis, Phleum pratense, and Poa pratensis), three naturalized legumes (i.e., Medicago sativa, Melilotus officinalis, and Trifolium repens), two native forbs (i.e., Artemisia frigida and Potentilla pensylvanica), one native grass (i.e., Bromus ciliatus) and two native legumes (i.e., Glycyrrhiza lepidota and Psoralea esculenta) exhibited phytoremediation potential, based on survival. We determined the effect of increasing crude oil concentrations on total and root biomass, and relative growth rate of those species with the highest survival. The addition of 0.5%, 1%, and 5% (crude oil wt/fresh soil wt) crude oil to soil significantly decreased both the total biomass by at least 22% of the control and the relative growth rate of all species except P. esculenta. Root biomass significantly decreased by at least 22% with crude oil addition in all species except P. esculenta and A. frigida. Total biomass production in contaminated soil had a significant negative correlation with the relative growth rate in uncontaminated soil.

  14. Effect of probiotic bacteria-fermented medicinal plants (Gynura procumbens, Rehmannia glutinosa, Scutellaria baicalensis) as performance enhancers in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin Suk; Kim, In Ho

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of mixed fermented medicinal plants (FMP) obtained from exudates of Gynura procumbens, Rehmannia glutinosa and Scutellaria baicalensis fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus licheniformis, respectively, on growth performance in growing pigs in order to assess the feasibility of using FMP as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP), such as tiamulin. A total of 150 growing pigs (body wieght 25.50 ± 2.50 kg) were used in a 6 weeks experiment and randomly divided into five groups with six replicates of five growing pigs each. The treatments were NC (basal diet), basal diet with 33 ppm tiamulin (PC), basal diet with FMP 0.05% (FMP 0.05), basal diet with FMP 0.1% (FMP 0.1) and basal diet with FMP 0.2% (FMP 0.2). Overall, body weight gain, feed conversion rate, the digestibility of dry matter and gross energy, noxious gas emission all improved with FMP supplementation as compared to NC. Taken together, these results suggest the feasibility of using FMP as an alternative to AGP for enhancing the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and excreta noxious gas emission of growing pigs. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Restoration potential of pioneer plants growing on lead-zinc mine tailings in Lanping, southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dongmei; Duan, Changqun

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on the restoration potential of ten pioneer plants (Artemisia roxburghiana, Artemisia tangutica, Carex inanis, Cyperaceae hebecarpus, Plantago depresa, Cynoglossum lanceolatum, Potentilla saundesiana, Coriaria sinica, Oxyria sinensis, and Miscanthus nepalensis) during the early phase of Pb-Zn mine tailings phytostabilization, in Lanping, China. The concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, and Cu) and soil fertility (the available N, P, K, and organic matter) in the rhizosphere of these species have been compared. The results showed a general improvement in the rhizosphere soil properties of pioneer plants. Of the ten species, the concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cu in the rhizosphere of A. roxburghiana have the greatest reduction of 56.23%, 83.00%, and 84.36%, respectively, compared to the bulk soil. The best improvement in soil fertility was found in the rhizosphere of P. saundesiana, with an increase of 241.83%, 170.76%, 49.09%, and 81.60%, respectively, in the available N, P, K, and organic matter. Metals accumulated by the plants have been mainly distributed in the root tissues, and only small amounts transferred to the aboveground tissues. The highest contents of Pb and Zn have been recorded in C. hebecarpus with 57.84 and 87.92 mg/kg dry weight (dw), respectively. The maximum Cu content was observed in C. inanis with 1.19 mg/kg dw. Overall, pioneer plants will be ideal species for the phytostabilization of mine tailings, but the potential use varies in different pioneer plant species. Among these ten species, A. roxburghiana has been identified to be the most suitable for phytostabilization programs, due to its greatest improvement on physical-chemical properties in the rhizosphere soil.

  16. Phytoremediation potential of wild plants growing on soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čudić, Vladica; Stojiljković, Dragoslava; Jovović, Aleksandar

    2016-09-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants to cleanup contaminated environments, including metal-polluted soils. Because it produces a biomass rich in extracted toxic metals, further treatment of this biomass is necessary. The aim of our study was to assess the five-year potential of the following native wild plants to produce biomass and remove heavy metals from a polluted site: poplar (Populus ssp.), ailanthus (Ailanthus glandulosa L.), false acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), ragweed (Artemisia artemisiifolia L.), and mullein (Verbascum thapsus L). Average soil contamination with Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and As in the root zone was 22,948.6 mg kg-1, 865.4 mg kg-1, 85,301.7 mg kg-1, 3,193.3 mg kg-1, 50.7 mg kg-1, 41.7 mg kg-1,and 617.9 mg kg-1, respectively. We measured moisture and ash content, concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and As in the above-ground parts of the plants and in ash produced by combustion of the plants, plus gross calorific values. The plants' phytoextraction and phytostabilisation potential was evaluated based on their bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF). Mullein was identified as a hyperaccumulator for Cd. It also showed a higher gross calorific value (19,735 kJ kg-1) than ragweed (16,469 kJ kg-1).The results of this study suggest that mullein has a great potential for phytoextraction and for biomass generation, and that ragweed could be an effective tool of phytostabilisation.

  17. The Importance of Microtopography and Nurse Canopy for Successful Restoration Planting of the Slow-Growing Conifer Pilgerodendron uviferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Bauhus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that, owing to a lack of seed trees, the natural rate of recovery of fire-disturbed bog forests previously dominated by the endemic and endangered conifer Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don Florin is extremely slow. Hence, increasing the number of seed trees in the landscape through restoration planting could remove the principal biotic filter, limiting recovery of these forests. Here, we analyzed how the success of restoration plantings may be improved through the choice or manipulation of microsites in P. uviferum forests on Chiloé Island in North Patagonia. For this purpose, we manipulated microtopography in water-logged sites in bogs (mounds, flat terrain, mineral soil and changed canopy conditions (gaps, semi-open, closed canopy in upland sites with better drainage. In bogs, there was no significant effect of microtopography on growth and survival of P. uviferum plantings. However, fluorescence measurements indicated lower stress in seedlings established on mounds. Seedlings in upland areas established beneath a nurse canopy had lower mortality and higher relative shoot growth, foliar nutrients, photosynthetic light use efficiency and chlorophyll fluorescence values than those planted in the open. This indicates that seedlings of the slow growing P. uviferum can tolerate extremely wet conditions, yet suffer from stress when grown in the open. Here, the removal of canopy appeared to have also removed or reduced mycorrhizal networks for seedlings, leading to poorer nutrition and growth. Based on these results, recommendations for restoration plantings in highly degraded P. uviferum forests are presented.

  18. Assessment of native plant species for phytoremediation of heavy metals growing in the vicinity of NTPC sites, Kahalgaon, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Alka; Lal, Brij; Rai, Upendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to screen native plants growing in fly ash (FA) contaminated areas near National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), Kahalgaon, Bihar, India with a view to using them for the eco-restoration of the area. A total number of 30 plant species (5 aquatic and 25 terrestrial including 6 ferns) were collected and their diversity status and dominance were also studied. After screening of dominant species at highly polluted site, 8 terrestrial and 5 aquatic plants were analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Si, Al, Pb, Cr, and Cd). Differential accumulations of various heavy metals by different species of plants were observed. Typha latifolia was found to be most efficient metal accumulator of Fe (927), Cu (58), Zn (87), Ni (57), Al (67), Cd (95), and Pb (69), and Azolla pinnata as Cr (93) hyper-accumulator among aquatic species in µg g(-1). In terrestrial species the maximum levels of Fe (998), Zn (81), Ni (93), Al (121), and Si (156) were found in Croton bonplandium. However, there was high spatial variability in total metal accumulation in different species indicated by coefficient of variation (CV%). These results suggest that various aquatic, some dominant terrestrial plants including fern species may be used in a synergistic way to remediate and restore the FA contaminated wastelands.

  19. Growing media [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  20. Bacterial diseases of tomato plants in terms of open and covered growing of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.V. Kolomiets

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It was established that the main causes of mass diseases of tomato in covered ground in Ukraine are agents of bacterial black spotting, bacterial speck and in open ground are agent of bacterial cancer of tomato plants. Typical symptoms of diseases are wilting and die-off of young plants, blackening of fiber vascular bundles, black spotting of leaves and fruits, and fruit stem rot. It was studied morphological and cultural, as well as physiological and biochemical properties of the selected strains of the agents of tomato bacterial diseases. We recommended biological preparations Phytocide and Phytohelp based on the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, to restrict the development of the agents of bacterial black spotting Xanthomonas vesicatoria and bacterial cancer Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

  1. Enhanced degradation activity by endophytic bacteria of plants growing in hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.; Germida, J.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Greer, C.W. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of using phytoremediation for cleaning soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was discussed. Petroleum hydrocarbons are problematic because of their toxicity, mobility and persistence in the environment. Appropriate clean-up methods are needed, given that 60 per cent of Canada's contaminated sites contain these compounds. Phytoremediation is an in situ biotechnology in which plants are used to facilitate contaminant removal. The approach relies on a synergistic relationship between plants and their root-associated microbial communities. Previous studies on phytoremediation have focussed on rhizosphere communities. However, it is believed that endophytic microbes may also play a vital role in organic contaminant degradation. This study investigated the structural and functional dynamics of both rhizosphere and endophytic microbial communities of plants from a phytoremediation field site in south-eastern Saskatchewan. The former flare pit contains up to 10,000 ppm of F3 to F4 hydrocarbon fractions. Root samples were collected from tall wheatgrass, wild rye, saltmeadow grass, perennial ryegrass, and alfalfa. Culture-based and culture-independent methods were used to evaluate the microbial communities associated with these roots. Most probable number assays showed that the rhizosphere communities contained more n-hexadecane, diesel fuel, and PAH degraders. However, mineralization assays with 14C labelled n-hexadecane, naphthalene, and phenanthrene showed that endophytic communities had more degradation activities per standardized initial degrader populations. Total community DNA samples taken from bulk, rhizosphere, and endophytic samples, were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. It was shown that specific bacteria increased in endophytic communities compared to rhizosphere communities. It was suggested plants may possibly recruit specific bacteria in response to hydrocarbon contamination, thereby increasing degradation

  2. THE USE OF PHYSICAL METHODS FOR PLANT GROWING STIMULATION IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    ANNA ALADJADJIYAN

    2007-01-01

    Different chemical additives are used for rising productivity of plants and animals. Their application causes the contamination of raw materials for food production with toxins that is dangerous for consumers’ health. On-farm safety for fresh produce needs developing and implementing new methods for quality assurance. The influence of physical factors as microwave and laser radiation, magnetic field and ultrasound treatment is an alternative of soil additives and fertilizers. The substitution...

  3. A secret world - C and N rhizodeposition of pea, influenced by plant development and growing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hupe, Anke

    2017-01-01

    An accurate knowledge of the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) input through crops into soil is highly important. The estimation of the additional amount of nitrogen originating from rhizodeposition helps to improve crop rotations. The preceding crop effect of cultures can be more accurately evaluated and ultimately the use of nitrogen fertilizer can be reduced and costs can be saved. Moreover, a better knowledge of the amount of carbon emitted by plants and incorporated in the soil improves the es...

  4. Antinociceptive activity of extracts and secondary metabolites from wild growing and micropropagated plants of Renealmia alpinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Betancur, Isabel; Cortés, Natalie; Benjumea, Dora; Osorio, Edison; León, Francisco; Cutler, Stephen J

    2015-05-13

    Renealmia alpinia is native to the American continent and can be found from Mexico to Brazil, and in the Caribbean islands. It is known as "matandrea" in Colombia, and it has been commonly used in traditional medicine to treat painful diseases and ailments. Based on its traditional uses, it is of interest to evaluate the pharmacologic effects of this plant and its secondary metabolites. Methanol and aqueous extracts of wild and micropropagated R. alpinia (leaves) were obtained and chemically compared by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC). The antinociceptive activity of these extracts was examined using an in vivo assay (Siegmund test). Additionally, the dichloromethane extract of R. alpinia was fractionated and pure compounds were isolated by chromatographic methods. The structure elucidation of isolated compounds was performed by NMR experiments and spectroscopic techniques and comparison with the literature data. Purified compounds were evaluated for their in vitro binding affinity for opioids and cannabinoids receptors. The dichloromethane extract of the plant's aerial part afforded sinostrobin (1), naringenin 7,4'-dimethyl ether (2), 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone (3), 4-methoxy-6-(2-phenylethenyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (4), naringenin 7-methyl ether (5) and 3,5-heptanediol, 1,7-diphenyl (6), which were isolated using chromatographic methods. Their chemical structures were established by physical and spectroscopic techniques. The antinociceptive effects observed in mice by extracts of wild and micropropagated plants were similar. The compounds isolated from R. alpinia do not show affinity to opioid or cannabinoid receptors. Aqueous and methanol extracts of R. alpinia provide antinociceptive and analgesic effects in an in vivo model. These results contribute additional insight as to why this plant is traditionally used for pain management. Also, this is the first comprehensive report of a phytochemical study of R. alpinia. Copyright © 2015

  5. Preliminary evaluation for cancer chemopreventive and cytotoxic potential of naturally growing ethnobotanically selected plants of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan-ul-Haq; Mirza, Bushra; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Park, Eun-Jung; Burns, Brittany E; Marler, Laura E; Pezzuto, John M

    2013-03-01

    Natural products are a very productive source of leads for the development of medicines. Six Pakistani plants were chosen for study based on ethnobotanical data. Exploration of important medicinal plants of Pakistan for cancer treatment. The crude extracts of the six plants and their fractions were tested for inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NFκB), aromatase, and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, induction of quinone reductase 1 (QR1), agonism of retinoid X receptor, and growth inhibition with MCF-7, LU-1 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Two samples of Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal (Solanaceae) demonstrated inhibition of TNF-α induced activity of NFκB with IC₅₀ values of 2.6 and 4.3 µg/mL, respectively. Two fractions from W. coagulans and Euphorbia wallichii Hook F. (Euphorbiaceae) aerial parts inhibited aromatase with IC₅₀ values of 17.0 and 17.7 µg/mL, respectively. A total of 13 samples (five from E. wallichii, one from Acer oblongifolium Hort. ex Dippel (Aceraceae), one from Aster thomsonii C. B. Clarke (Asteraceae) and six from W. coagulans aerial parts with fruits) inhibited NO production with IC₅₀ values ranging from 1.3 to 15.6 µg/mL. Fourteen samples demonstrated induction of QR1 with CD ranging from 1.0 to 20.6 µg/mL, and a total of eight extracts and fractions inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells in culture with IC₅₀ values ranging from 1.2 to 7.8 µg/mL. Selected plants can be a valuable source of chemopreventive and anticancer products. W. coagulans aerial parts showed the strongest activity.

  6. Indigenous Knowledge of Dayaks Bakumpai in Barito Kuala District on the Management of Plant Diversity Growing at Streams and Swamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmono Dharmono

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at describing profile of indigenous knowldge owned by the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district on managing the diversity of herbs growing at the river flow and swamp. Data on herb used by the tribe were grouped based on the etnobotanic study, covering study botany, etnofarmacology, etnoantrophology, etnolinguistik and etnoekologi. We also observed how the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district preserve the diversity of plant in around them, and how their efforts in bequeathing or teaching the traditional knowledge of an old breed generation to his young daam in managing diversity of herbs around them. The study was carried out at three vellages, namely Simpang Arja, Pengulu and Ulu Benteng. The results showed that 52 plant species living along the river and 67 species that live in the marsh. Based on the interview we found that (1 the profile of indigenous knowldge dayaks bakumpai district batola in making use of the diversity of plant in surrounding shown through etno-linguistic, etno-economy, etno-anthropology, etno-farmacology and etno-ecology against 44 tufted herbs of 67 of herbs found, (2 Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district, to preserve the diversity of plant surrounding them, have done without planting, but by making use of herbs without a certain rule, making use of herbs by a certain rule, making use of herbs let plant grown in nature, and destroy plants that exist or cultivated, and (3 efforts for the inheriting the indigenous knowldge to its young generation have been done by women and quite alarming that many young ages of Dayaks Bakumpai do not know the name of herbs around them.

  7. PreCam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allam, Sahar S. [Fermilab; Tucker, Douglas L. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) will be taking the next step in probing the properties of Dark Energy and in understanding the physics of cosmic acceleration. A step towards the photometric calibration of DES is to have a quick, bright survey in the DES footprint (PreCam), using a pre-production set of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) CCDs and a set of 100 mm×100 mm DES filters. The objective of the PreCam Survey is to create a network of calibrated DES grizY standard stars that will be used for DES nightly calibrations and to improve the DES global relative calibrations. Here, we describe the first year of PreCam observation, results, and photometric calibrations.

  8. Amino acid digestibility of plant protein feed ingredients for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, B; Ragland, D; Thomson, J E; Adeola, O

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were designed to determine the N and AA digestibility of various protein sources (potato protein concentrate, soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate, linseed meal, sunflower meal, cottonseed meal, canola meal, and camelina meal) fed to growing pigs. In each experiment, barrows were surgically fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed 4 experimental diets and a N-free diet (NFD) on the basis of a replicated 5 × 2 crossover arrangement with 5 diets and 2 periods. For Exp. 1, 20 cannulated 25-kg barrows received potato concentrate, soy concentrate, soy isolate, and linseed meal. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of N for potato concentrate, soy concentrate, and soy isolate were similar and greater than that for linseed meal ( protein concentrate than soy concentrate ( digestibility among protein sources ( protein sources ( digestibility of N and AA varies greatly among oilseed meals.

  9. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  10. Growing substrates for aromatic plant species in green roofs and water runoff quality: pilot experiments in a Mediterranean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Cristina M; Calheiros, Cristina S C; Palha, Paulo; Castro, Paula M L

    2017-09-01

    Green roof technology has evolved in recent years as a potential solution to promote vegetation in urban areas. Green roof studies for Mediterranean climates, where extended drought periods in summer contrast with cold and rainy periods in winter, are still scarce. The present research study assesses the use of substrates with different compositions for the growth of six aromatic plant species - Lavandula dentata, Pelargonium odoratissimum, Helichrysum italicum, Satureja montana, Thymus caespititius and T. pseudolanuginosus, during a 2-year period, and the monitoring of water runoff quality. Growing substrates encompassed expanded clay and granulated cork, in combination with organic matter and crushed eggshell. These combinations were adequate for the establishment of all aromatic plants, allowing their propagation in the extensive system located on the 5th storey. The substrate composed of 70% expanded clay and 30% organic matter was the most suitable, and crushed eggshell incorporation improved the initial plant establishment. Water runoff quality parameters - turbidity, pH, conductivity, NH 4 + , NO 3 - , PO 4 3- and chemical oxygen demand - showed that it could be reused for non-potable uses in buildings. The present study shows that selected aromatic plant species could be successfully used in green roofs in a Mediterranean climate.

  11. Uptake of metals and metalloids by plants growing in a lead-zinc mine area, Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Hoang Ha; Sakakibara, Masayuki; Sano, Sakae; Mai, Trong Nhuan

    2011-02-28

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation and phytomining potential of 10 plant species growing naturally at one of the largest lead-zinc mines in Northern Vietnam. Total concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic were determined in the plant and in associated soil and water in and outside of the mine area. The results indicate that hyperaccumulation levels (mg kg(-1) dry weight) were obtained in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (1140) and Pteris vittata L. (3750) for arsenic, and in Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (1130), Potamogeton oxyphyllus Miq. (4210), and P. vittata (1020) for lead. To the best of our knowledge, the present paper is the first report on metal accumulation and hyperaccumulation by H. cordata, A. houstonianum, and P. oxyphyllus. Based on the obtained concentrations of metals, bioconcentration and translocation factors, as well as the biomass of these plants, the two latter species and P. vittata are good candidates for phytoremediation of sites contaminated with arsenic and multi-metals. None of the collected plants was suitable for phytomining, given their low concentrations of useful metals (e.g., silver, gallium, and indium). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Uptake of metals and metalloids by plants growing in a lead-zinc mine area, Northern Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Nguyen Thi Hoang [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Sakakibara, Masayuki, E-mail: sakakiba@sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Sano, Sakae [Department of Geology, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nhuan, Mai Trong [Department of Environmental Geology, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-02-28

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation and phytomining potential of 10 plant species growing naturally at one of the largest lead-zinc mines in Northern Vietnam. Total concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic were determined in the plant and in associated soil and water in and outside of the mine area. The results indicate that hyperaccumulation levels (mg kg{sup -1} dry weight) were obtained in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (1140) and Pteris vittata L. (3750) for arsenic, and in Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (1130), Potamogeton oxyphyllus Miq. (4210), and P. vittata (1020) for lead. To the best of our knowledge, the present paper is the first report on metal accumulation and hyperaccumulation by H. cordata, A. houstonianum, and P. oxyphyllus. Based on the obtained concentrations of metals, bioconcentration and translocation factors, as well as the biomass of these plants, the two latter species and P. vittata are good candidates for phytoremediation of sites contaminated with arsenic and multi-metals. None of the collected plants was suitable for phytomining, given their low concentrations of useful metals (e.g., silver, gallium, and indium).

  13. An improved, low-cost, hydroponic system for growing Arabidopsis and other plant species under aseptic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Hydroponics is a plant growth system that provides a more precise control of growth media composition. Several hydroponic systems have been reported for Arabidopsis and other model plants. The ease of system set up, cost of the growth system and flexibility to characterize and harvest plant material are features continually improved in new hydroponic system reported. Results We developed a hydroponic culture system for Arabidopsis and other model plants. This low cost, proficient, and novel system is based on recyclable and sterilizable plastic containers, which are readily available from local suppliers. Our system allows a large-scale manipulation of seedlings. It adapts to different growing treatments and has an extended growth window until adult plants are established. The novel seed-holder also facilitates the transfer and harvest of seedlings. Here we report the use of our hydroponic system to analyze transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis to nutriment availability and plant/pathogen interactions. Conclusions The efficiency and functionality of our proposed hydroponic system is demonstrated in nutrient deficiency and pathogenesis experiments. Hydroponically grown Arabidopsis seedlings under long-time inorganic phosphate (Pi) deficiency showed typical changes in root architecture and high expression of marker genes involved in signaling and Pi recycling. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of gene expression of Arabidopsis roots depleted of Pi by short time periods indicates that genes related to general stress are up-regulated before those specific to Pi signaling and metabolism. Our hydroponic system also proved useful for conducting pathogenesis essays, revealing early transcriptional activation of pathogenesis-related genes. PMID:24649917

  14. Modeling Phosphorus Capture by Plants Growing in a Multispecies Riparian Buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The NST 3.0 mechanistic nutrient uptake model was used to explore P uptake to a depth of 120 cm over a 126 d growing season in simulated buffer communities composed of mixtures of cottonwood (Populus deltoids Bartr., switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., and smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss. Model estimates of P uptake from pure stands of smooth brome and cottonwood were 18.9 and 24.5 kg ha−1, respectively. Uptake estimates for mixed stands of trees and grasses were intermediate to pure stands. A single factor sensitivity analysis of parameters used to calculate P uptake for each cover type indicated that Imax, k, ro, and Lo were consistently the most responsive to changes ranging from −50% to +100%. Model exploration of P uptake as a function of soil depth interval indicated that uptake was highest in the 0–30 cm intervals, with values ranging from 85% of total for cottonwood to 56% for switchgrass.

  15. THE USE OF PHYSICAL METHODS FOR PLANT GROWING STIMULATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA ALADJADJIYAN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Different chemical additives are used for rising productivity of plants and animals. Their application causes the contamination of raw materials for food production with toxins that is dangerous for consumers’ health. On-farm safety for fresh produce needs developing and implementing new methods for quality assurance. The influence of physical factors as microwave and laser radiation, magnetic field and ultrasound treatment is an alternative of soil additives and fertilizers. The substitution of chemical amelioration by physical one can reduce the toxins in raw materials and thus – raise the food safety. The use of some physical factors (laser irradiation; ultrasound influence; irradiation with microwave electromagnetic rays; magnetic field influence, gamma irradiation for stimulation of seed vitality in Bulgarian agriculture has been discussed.

  16. Testing soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, J. B.; Lasseur, Ch.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Ushakova, S. A.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Tirranen, L. S.; Karnachuk, R. A.; Dorofeev, V. Yu.

    We studied soil-like substrate (SLS) as a potential candidate for plant cultivation in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). The SLS was obtained by successive conversion of wheat straw by oyster mushrooms and worms. Mature SLS contained 9.5% humic acids and 4.9% fulvic acids. First, it was shown that wheat, bean and cucumber yields as well as radish yields when cultivated on mature SLS were comparable to yields obtained on a neutral substrate (expanded clay aggregate) under hydroponics. Second, the possibility of increasing wheat and radish yields on the SLS was assessed at three levels of light intensity: 690, 920 and 1150 μmol m -2 s -1 of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The highest wheat yield was obtained at 920 μmol m -2 s -1, while radish yield increased steadily with increasing light intensity. Third, long-term SLS fertility was tested in a BLSS model with mineral and organic matter recycling. Eight cycles of wheat and 13 cycles of radish cultivation were carried out on the SLS in the experimental system. Correlation coefficients between SLS nitrogen content and total wheat biomass and grain yield were 0.92 and 0.97, respectively, and correlation coefficients between nitrogen content and total radish biomass and edible root yield were 0.88 and 0.87, respectively. Changes in hormone content (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins and abscisic acid) in the SLS during matter recycling did not reduce plant productivity. Quantitative and species compositions of the SLS and irrigation water microflora were also investigated. Microbial community analysis of the SLS showed bacteria from Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Nocardia, Mycobacterium, Arthrobacter and Enterobacter genera, and fungi from Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Mucor, Botrytis, and Cladosporium genera.

  17. Water status and gas exchange of umbu plants (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. propagated by seeds and stem cuttings Estado hídrico e trocas gasosas de umbuzeiros (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. propagados por sementes e estaquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moacir Pinheiro Lima Filho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out at the Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina-PE, Brazil, in order to study the physiological responses of umbu plants propagated by seeds and by stem cuttings under water stress conditions, based on leaf water potential and gas exchange measurements. Data were collected in one-year plants established in pots containing 30 kg of a sandy soil and submitted to twenty-day progressive soil water deficit. The evaluations were based on leaf water potential and gas exchange data collection using psychrometric chambers and a portable infra-red gas analyzer, respectively. Plants propagated by seeds maintained a significantly higher water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis under decreasing soil water availability. However, plants propagated by stem cuttings were unable to maintain a favorable internal water balance, reflecting negatively on stomatal conductance and leaf gas exchange. This fact is probably because umbu plants propagated by stem cuttings are not prone to formation of root tubers which are reservoirs for water and solutes. Thus, the establishing of umbu plants propagated by stem cuttings must be avoided in areas subjected to soil water deficit.O experimento foi realizado na Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina-PE, Brasil, objetivando estudar as respostas fisiológicas de umbuzeiros propagados por sementes e por estaquia, sob condições de deficiência hídrica. Os dados foram coletados em plantas com aproximadamente um ano de idade, estabelecidas em vasos contendo 30 kg de solo de textura arenosa e submetidas a déficit progressivo de água, durante 20 dias. As avaliações foram realizadas, tomando-se como base o potencial hídrico foliar e as trocas gasosas, monitorados com auxílio de câmaras psicrométricas e um analisador portátil de gás por infravermelho, respectivamente. As plantas propagandas por sementes mantiveram valores de potencial hídrico, condutância estomática, transpira

  18. Testing anti-fungal activity of a soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterenko, E. V.; Kozlov, V. A.; Khizhnyak, S. V.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.; Liu, Hong; Xing, Yidong; Hu, Enzhu

    2009-10-01

    The object of this research is to study a soil-like substrate (SLS) to grow plants in a Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). Wheat and rice straw were used as raw materials to prepare SLS. Anti-fungal activity of SLS using test cultures of Bipolaris sorokiniana, a plant-pathogenic fungus which causes wheat root rot was studied. Experiments were conducted with SLS samples, using natural soil and sand as controls. Infecting the substrates, was performed at two levels: the first level was done with wheat seeds carrying B. sorokiniana and the second level with seeds and additional conidia of B. sorokiniana from an outside source. We measured wheat disease incidence and severity in two crop plantings. Lowest disease incidence values were obtained from the second planting, SLS: 26% and 41% at the first and the second infection levels, respectively. For soil the values were 60% and 82%, respectively, and for sand they were 67% and 74%, respectively. Wheat root rot in the second crop planting on SLS, at both infection levels was considerably less severe (9% and 13%, respectively) than on natural soil (20% and 33%) and sand (22% and 32%). SLS significantly suppressed the germination of B. sorokiniana conidia. Conidia germination was 5% in aqueous SLS suspension, and 18% in clean water. No significant differences were found regarding the impact on conidia germination between the SLS samples obtained from wheat and rice straw. The anti-fungal activity in SLS increased because of the presence of worms. SLS also contained bacteria stimulating and inhibiting B. sorokiniana growth.

  19. Comparative study on elemental composition and DNA damage in leaves of a weedy plant species, Cassia occidentalis, growing wild on weathered fly ash and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Amit; Tandon, Rajesh; Banerjee, B D; Babu, C R

    2009-10-01

    Open dumping of fly ash in fly ash basins has significant adverse environmental impacts due to its elevated trace element content. In situ biomonitoring of genotoxicity is of practical value in realistic hazard identification of fly ash. Genotoxicity of openly disposed fly ash to natural plant populations inhabiting fly ash basins has not been investigated. DNA damage, and concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu and Ni in the leaves of natural populations of Cassia occidentalis growing at two contrasting sites-one having weathered fly ash (fly ash basin) and the other having soil (reference site) as plant growth substrates-were assessed. The foliar concentrations of As, Ni and Cr were two to eight fold higher in plants growing on fly ash as compared to the plants growing on soil, whereas foliar concentrations of Cu and Co were similar. We report, for the first time, based upon comet assay results, higher levels of DNA damage in leaf tissues of Cassia occidentalis growing wild on fly ash basin compared to C. occidentalis growing on soil. Correlation analysis between foliar DNA damage and foliar concentrations of trace elements suggests that DNA damage may perhaps be associated with foliar concentrations of As and Ni. Our observations suggest that (1) fly ash triggers genotoxic responses in plants growing naturally on fly ash basins; and (2) plant comet assay is useful for in situ biomonitoring of genotoxicity of fly ash.

  20. You grow where you're planted: Community building in Colstrip, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David Ramsey

    The expansion of energy production in the 1970s resulted in the construction of large extraction and power production facilities in many parts of the American West. Boomtowns almost always accompanied these enterprises. Colstrip, Montana, became the focus of a wide variety of social and environmental controversies when the Montana Power Company began strip mining operations and power plant construction in the early 1970s. Nevertheless, a sense of community attachment in Colstrip has steadily grown. Increased participation in public affairs, often in response to challenges made to the community, has accompanied the integration of Colstrip's residents in the non-economic environments of families, churches, recreation, and school-related activities. Researchers in the 1970s and early '80s often took the view that rapid development disrupts long-standing patterns of community attachment and integration. Using a model derived from Ferdinand Tonnies' Gemeinschaft-Gesell schaft continuum, these researchers undertook to demonstrate the folly of the energy companies' activities. The decline of community has frequently appeared as a theme in sociology and history. Yet the venerable but erroneous and largely sentimental theoretical perspective used by some early social impact assessment researchers did not accurately represent the processes at work in Colstrip and places like it. I suggest that Colstrip demonstrates an evolutionary continuum, but precisely the opposite of Tonnies' proposition. The feeling of attachment and home we call community is a growth-oriented phenomenon, not a simply a passive object subject only to decline. Colstrip, where sociologists found community lacking, is now found by the historian as the model of community.

  1. Phytochemical standardization and biological activities of certain desert plants growing in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneera S. Al-Saleem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antitumor activities of Calendula tripterocarpa, Centarea sinaica, Centaurea pseudosinaica, Koelpinia linearis, Plectranthus arabicus, Plectranthus asirensis and Tripleurospermum auriculatum determined. The best antibacterial activity; 41.8 ± 0.23 mm, 39.7 ± 0.25 mm, 35.8 ± 0.58 mm, 34.7 ± 0.51 mm and 32.7 ± 0.25 mm was obtained by Plectranthus arabicus against Klebsiella pneumonia, Tripleurospermum auriculatum against Bacillus subtilis, Centaurea pseudosinaica against Bacillus subtilis, Centaurea pseudosinaica against Stroptococcus pyogenes and Plectranthus arabicus against Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively. While the highest antifungal activity; 35.9 ± 1.15 mm, 34.6 ± 0.34, 30.6 ± 0.26 mm and 29.9 ± 0.63 mm was obtained by Tripleurospermum auriculatum against Geotricum candidum, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively. The antitumor activity (IC50 obtained by Centarea sinaica; 3.1 ± 6.9 µg/ml, 14.3 ± 3.1 µg/ml and 22.7 ± 4.1 µg/ml was better than activity of vinblastine sulphate; 5.9 ± 0.4 µg/ml, 59.7 ± 2.1 µg/ml and 30.3 ± 1.4 µg/ml against breast carcinoma (MCF-7, cervical carcinoma (Hela and colorectal carcinoma (CACO, respectively. Plectranthus arabicus alcoholic extract showed higher antitumor activity; 15.3 ± 5.3 µg/ml, 28.6 ± 3.6 µg/ml and 24.3 ± 4.1 µg/ml than vinblastine; 21.2 ± 0.9 µg/ml, 59.7 ± 2.1 µg/ml and 30.3 ± 1.4 µg/ml against prostate carcinoma (Pc3, cervical carcinoma (Hela and colorectal carcinoma (CACO, respectively. Also, the antitumor activity of Plectranthus asirensis against cervical carcinoma (Hela (37.1 ± 2.6 µg/ml was potent than vinblastine sulphate (59.7 ± 2.1 µg/ml. The obtained results of LD50 and sub-chronic toxicity revealed that the plants have no

  2. Uptake of uranium, thorium and radium isotopes by plants growing in dam impoundment Tasotkel and the Lower Shu region (Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveyeva, Ilona; Burkitbayev, Mukhambetkali [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan). Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology; Jacimovic, Radojko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Planinsek, Petra; Smodis, Borut [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-04-01

    The activity concentrations of isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium-226 in dominant species of plants (Xantium strumarium, Phragmites communis, Artemisia nitrosa and Artemisia serotina) growing on the territories contaminated by uranium industry of Kazakhstan (close to dam impoundment Tasotkel and the Lower Shu region) are presented. The obtained data showed the significant variations of activity concentrations of isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium-226 in above ground parts. The concentrations of most of the investigated radionuclides in the root system are higher than in the aboveground parts; it can be explained by root barrier. It was found that the highest root barrier has Xantium strumarium, especially for uranium isotopes. The concentration ratios of radionuclides were calculated, and as the result it was found that the highest accumulation ability in the investigated region has Artemisia serotina.

  3. Use of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) as a growing medium in the nursery production of tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, F; Castillo, J E; Chica, A F; López Bellido, L

    2008-01-01

    Five media prepared from old peat (OP), white peat (WP) and municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) were used to determine optimum growing media for tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv "Atletico"). The mixtures of substrates used were: OP (65%)+WP (30%)+perlite (5%), OP (65%)+MSWC (30%)+perlite (5%), WP (65%)+OP (30%)+perlite (5%), WP (65%)+MSWC (30%)+perlite (5%), MSWC (65%)+WP (30%)+perlite (5%). Various seedling indices were measured in order to assess the quality of the nursery-produced plant. Nursery-produced tomato seedlings grown in WP (65%)+MSWC (30%) displayed quality indices similar to those recorded for conventional mixtures of old and white peat sphagnum, due to a correct balance between the compost nutrient supply and the porosity and aeration provided by white peat.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence ofMicrobacterium foliorumStrain 122 Isolated from a Plant Growing in a Chronically Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumactud, Rhea; Fulthorpe, Roberta; Sentchilo, Vladimir; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2017-05-25

    Microbacterium foliorum strain 122 is a bacterial endophyte isolated from a Dactylis glomerata plant growing in a natural oil seep soil located in Oil Springs, Ontario, Canada. We present here a draft genome sequence of an endophytic strain that has promising potential in hydrocarbon degradation and plant growth promotion. Copyright © 2017 Lumactud et al.

  5. Ecophysiological and biochemical traits of three herbaceous plants growing on the disposed coal combustion fly ash of different weathering stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecophysiological and biochemical traits of Calamagrostis epigejos (Roth. Festuca rubra L. and Oenothera biennis L. growing on two fly ash lagoons of different weathering stage (L1-3 years and L2-11 years of the “Nikola Tesla- A” thermoelectric plant (Obrenovac, Serbia were studied. Species-dependent variations were observed at the L1 lagoon; the greatest vitality (Fv/Fm and Fm/Fo followed by higher photopigment and total phenolic contents were measured in O. biennis in relation to C. epigejos (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.001. At the L2 site, higher vitality was found in O. biennis (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.01 compared to C. epigejos. O. biennis had the highest photosynthetic capacity. The results obtained in this study indicate that all examined species maintained a level of photosynthesis that allowed them to survive and grow under the stressful conditions in ash lagoons, albeit with lower than optimal success. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173018

  6. Ice-Cap: A Method for Growing Arabidopsis and Tomato Plants in 96-well Plates for High-Throughput Genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shih-Heng; Clark, Katie A.; Gibbs, Nicole M.; Bush, Susan M.; Krysan, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming common for plant scientists to develop projects that require the genotyping of large numbers of plants. The first step in any genotyping project is to collect a tissue sample from each individual plant. The traditional approach to this task is to sample plants one-at-a-time. If one wishes to genotype hundreds or thousands of individuals, however, using this strategy results in a significant bottleneck in the genotyping pipeline. The Ice-Cap method that we describe here provides a high-throughput solution to this challenge by allowing one scientist to collect tissue from several thousand seedlings in a single day 1,2. This level of throughput is made possible by the fact that tissue is harvested from plants 96-at-a-time, rather than one-at-a-time. The Ice-Cap method provides an integrated platform for performing seedling growth, tissue harvest, and DNA extraction. The basis for Ice-Cap is the growth of seedlings in a stacked pair of 96-well plates. The wells of the upper plate contain plugs of agar growth media on which individual seedlings germinate. The roots grow down through the agar media, exit the upper plate through a hole, and pass into a lower plate containing water. To harvest tissue for DNA extraction, the water in the lower plate containing root tissue is rapidly frozen while the seedlings in the upper plate remain at room temperature. The upper plate is then peeled away from the lower plate, yielding one plate with 96 root tissue samples frozen in ice and one plate with 96 viable seedlings. The technique is named "Ice-Cap" because it uses ice to capture the root tissue. The 96-well plate containing the seedlings can then wrapped in foil and transferred to low temperature. This process suspends further growth of the seedlings, but does not affect their viability. Once genotype analysis has been completed, seedlings with the desired genotype can be transferred from the 96-well plate to soil for further propagation. We have demonstrated the

  7. Camønoen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Widtfeld Meged, Jane

    2016-01-01

    communitarian business models, such as car-sharing, social dining and peer rental of property. These sharing models thrive primarily in urban settings with a high density of assets, triggering the question: how can sparse and loosely connected coastal resources be mobilized to create value for tourists...... is augmented by a digital platform on which hikers may directly connect with local citizens and book experiences ranging from private dinners to bird-watching and berry-picking. The platform Camønoen.org is hosted by the regional museum, which neither charges for intermediation, nor is responsible for vetting...... and control procedures. Our paper will follow the consolidation of Camønoen by analyzing its business model, the institutionalization of brokers and coordination roles as well as the emerging relationships, trust and exchange mechanisms between small, local providers and visitors. By doing so, we will be able...

  8. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with plants growing in fly ash pond and their potential role in ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar Babu, A; Sudhakara Reddy, M

    2011-09-01

    Root colonization and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were analyzed in plants growing in fly ash pond. Eight species could be separated morphologically, while phylogenetic analyses after PCR amplification of the ITS region followed by RFLP and sequencing revealed seven different AM fungal sequence types. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these sequences cluster into four discrete groups, belonging to the genus Glomus and Archaeospora. Inoculation of plants with spores of AM fungal consortia (Glomus etunicatum, Glomus heterogama, Glomus maculosum, Glomus magnicaule, Glomus multicaule, Glomus rosea, Scutellospora heterogama, and Scutellospora nigra) along with colonized root pieces increased the growth (84.9%), chlorophyll (54%), and total P content (44.3%) of Eucalyptus tereticornis seedlings grown on fly ash compared to non-inoculated seedlings. The growth improvement was the consequence of increased P nutrition and decreased Al, Fe, Zn, and Cu accumulations. These observations suggested that the inoculation of tree seedlings with stress adapted AM fungi aid in the reclamation of fly ash ponds.

  9. Aquatic CAM photosynthesis: a brief history of its discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) photosynthesis was discovered while investigating an unrelated biochemical pathway concerned with anaerobic metabolism. George Bowes was a significant contributor to this project early in its infancy. Not only did he provide me with some valuable perspectives on peer review rejections, but by working with his gas exchange system I was able to take our initial observations of diel fluctuations in malic acid to the next level, showing this aquatic plant exhibited dark CO2 uptake. CAM is universal in all aquatic species of the worldwide Lycophyta genus Isoetes and non-existent in terrestrial Isoetes. Outside of this genus aquatic CAM has a limited occurrence in three other families, including the Crassulaceae. This discovery led to fascinating adventures in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes in search of Stylites, a terrestrial relative of Isoetes. Stylites is a plant that is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere and obtains all of its carbon from terrestrial sources and recycles carbon through CAM. Considering the Mesozoic origin of Isoetes in shallow pools, coupled with the fact that aquatic Isoetes universally possess CAM, suggests the earliest evolution of CAM photosynthesis was most likely not in terrestrial plants.

  10. CAD/CAM-assisted breast reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchels, Ferry; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 60 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059 (Australia); Wiggenhauser, Paul Severin; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten [Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Warne, David; Barry, Mark [High Performance Computing and Research Support, Queensland University of Technology, Gardens Point Road, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Ong, Fook Rhu; Chong, Woon Shin, E-mail: Dietmar.Hutmacher@qut.edu.au, E-mail: jtschantz@lrz.tu-muenchen.de [Singapore Polytechnic, 500 Dover Road, 139651 Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-09-15

    The application of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the clinic is growing slowly but steadily. The ability to build patient-specific models based on medical imaging data offers major potential. In this work we report on the feasibility of employing laser scanning with CAD/CAM techniques to aid in breast reconstruction. A patient was imaged with laser scanning, an economical and facile method for creating an accurate digital representation of the breasts and surrounding tissues. The obtained model was used to fabricate a customized mould that was employed as an intra-operative aid for the surgeon performing autologous tissue reconstruction of the breast removed due to cancer. Furthermore, a solid breast model was derived from the imaged data and digitally processed for the fabrication of customized scaffolds for breast tissue engineering. To this end, a novel generic algorithm for creating porosity within a solid model was developed, using a finite element model as intermediate.

  11. Crassulacean acid metabolism as a continuous trait: variability in the contribution of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM in populations of Portulacaria afra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonnie J. Guralnick

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Portulacaria afra L. is a dominant facultative CAM species growing in the Southeastern Cape of South Africa. P. afra is well adapted to regions of the Spekboom thicket in areas of limited and sporadic rainfall. P. afra populations occur in isolated drainages. We hypothesized the utilization of CAM would vary in the different populations in response to rainfall and temperature gradients. Carbon isotope composition can be used to determine the contribution of CAM in leaf tissue. P. afra leaves of populations were analyzed in transects running south to north and east to west in locations from the coast to elevations of 1400 m. Carbon isotope values ranged from −16.1‰ in Plutosvale to −21.0‰ to −22.7‰ in Port Alfred and Grahamstown populations respectively with some values reaching −25.2‰. These values indicated an estimated variable contribution of the CAM pathway ranging from 23% to almost 60%. The results indicate a much greater range of variability than previously reported. The carbon isotope values showed no direct correlation with rainfall or maximum or minimum day/night temperatures in the summer or winter for the different locations. The results indicated the microclimate may play a more significant role in determining CAM utilization. We present evidence that CAM is a continuous trait in P. afra and CAM is operating continuously at low levels during C3 photosynthesis which may explain the high variability in its carbon isotope composition. P. afra populations illustrate a large phenotypic plasticity and further studies may indicate genotypic differences between populations. This may be valuable in ascertaining the genetic contribution to its water use efficiency and possible use in engineering higher water use efficiency in C3 plants. The results revealed here may explain P. afra’s ability to sequester carbon at high rates compared to more mesic species.

  12. Planting Seeds, Growing Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Last year, when students at Ridgecrest Intermediate School in Palos Verdes, California, were asked to name scientists, their answers--Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Edison, Albert Einstein, Bill Nye the Science Guy--reflected a common perception. Most of the leading scientists they came up with were white, male, or dead. Although women and people of…

  13. Na+/H+-transporter, H+-pumps and an aquaporin in light and heavy tonoplast membranes from organic acid and NaCl accumulating vacuoles of the annual facultative CAM plant and halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epimashko, Svetlana; Fischer-Schliebs, Elke; Christian, Anna-Luise; Thiel, Gerhard; Lüttge, Ulrich

    2006-09-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) was induced in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. by either NaCl- or high light (HL)- stress. This generated in mesophyll cells predominantly of NaCl-stressed plants two different types of vacuoles: the generic acidic vacuoles for malic acid accumulation and additionally less acidic ("neutral") vacuoles for NaCl sequestration. To examine differences in the tonoplast properties of the two types of vacuoles, we separated microsomal membranes of HL- and NaCl-stressed M. crystallinum plants by centrifugation in sucrose density gradients. Positive immunoreactions of a set of antibodies directed against tonoplast specific proteins and tonoplast specific ATP- and PPi-hydrolytic activity were used as markers for vacuolar membranes. With these criteria tonoplast membranes were detected in both HL- and NaCl-stressed plants in association with the characteristic low sucrose density but also at an unusual high sucrose density. In HL-stressed plants most of the ATP- and PPi-hydrolytic activity and cross reactivity with antibodies including that directed against the Na+/H+-antiporter from Arabidopsis thaliana was detected with light sucrose density. This relationship was inverted in NaCl-stressed plants; they exhibited most pump activity and immunoreactivity in the heavy fraction. The relative abundance of the heavy membrane fraction reflects the relative occurrence of "neutral" vacuoles in either HL- or NaCl-stressed plants. This suggests that tonoplasts of the "neutral" vacuoles sediment at high sucrose densities. This is consistent with the view that this type of vacuoles serves for Na+ sequestration and is accordingly equipped with a high capacity of proton pumping and Na+ uptake via the Na+/H+-antiporter.

  14. Influences of elevated CO[sub 2] on CO[sub 2] uptake and biomass production for the CAM plant Opuntia ficus-indica in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, M.; Miller, P.M.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1993-06-01

    CO[sub 2] uptake, water vapor conductance, and biomass production of the CAM plant Opuntia ficus-indica were studied at the current and two elevated CO[sub 2] concentrations (plus 150 and plus 350 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]) in open-top chambers over a 23-week period. Nine weeks after planting, daily net CO[sub 2] uptake for basal cladodes in the medium and the high CO[sub 2] treatments was 49% and 84% higher, respectively, than at the current CO[sub 2] concentration. Nine weeks after the first-daughter cladodes emerged, their daily net CO[sub 2] uptake was 35% and 49% higher, respectively, in the medium and the high CO[sub 2] treatments than at the current CO[sub 2] concentration. Despite significantly lower chlorophyll contents (19% and 62%, respectively) in the first-daughter cladodes, biomass production over 23 weeks in the medium and the high CO[sub 2] treatments was 22% and 50% higher, respectively, than for plants at the current CO[sub 2].

  15. Identification traits of se­condary triticale genotypes for the use in breeding and plant growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. З. Москалець

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To create and study genotypes of the secondary triticale of the hexaploid level for their effective use in further breeding and plant growing. Methods. Field study, laboratory analyses, intraspecific hybridization with subsequent individual selection. Results. New genotypes of the secon­dary triticale of the hexaploid level have been created and characterized for economic characters and agroecological traits and properties. Series of short-stem winter triticale was represented by ‘Pshenychne’, ‘Chaian’ to be adapted to the conditions of both intensive and organic farming. They are characterized by high drought resistance and winter hardiness, resistance to lodging, grain shedding, grain germination in the spike and spike fragility as well as by immunity to fungal diseases providing a high level of yield and technological quality of grain. The following new constant forms of triticale as ‘ПС_1-12’, ‘ПС_2-12’, ‘ПС_3-12’, that have an average height of the stem and belong to the Polissia-Forest-Steppe and Forest-Steppe ecotypes, demonstrated high productivity and adaptability in organic farming, particularly in case of the use of biologized elements of agrotechnology. Conclusions. For the creation a new parent material during breeding of hexaploid triticale, the method of intraspecific hybridization is desirable with the use of parent material to be contrasting for eco-geographical origin and adapted local forms, followed by individual selection of genotypes with the desired characteristics and properties in cleavable hybrid populations. New genotypes of the secondary triticale have been created and characterized for breeding, genetic and agroecological traits and properties. In breeding practice, it is advisable to use a whole new approach of agroecological and genetic certification of genotypes for the effective solution of a number of theoretical and practical tasks facing modern ecological and adaptive

  16. Effect of shading on tomato plants grow under greenhouse Efeito do sombreamento sobre o crescimento do tomateiro em cultivo protegido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angelo Sandri

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, to determine the effect of shading on tomato plants grown in a greenhouse. Sowing was done on July 4th and planting on August 27th, 2000, in a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2, using an organic commercial rooting medium. Water and nutrients were supplied on a daily basis using a nutrient solution. Two polyethylene tunnels (2.20 m height, 5 m width, 15 m length were used. In the first plastic tunnel, used as control, the transmissivity of global radiation was 83% and plants were conducted as a commercial crop. In the second tunnel, plants were grown under a 52% shading screen. Plant growth and development were measured at 19; 26; 33; 40; 47; 54; 61; 75 and 89 days after beginning of anthesis. Daily average solar radiation in the first tunnel from planting time to the end of the experiment was 12.4 MJ m-2 day-1, whereas in the shaded tunnel it was 5.0 MJ m-2 day-1. Number of fruits per square meter did not differ significantly between the unshaded control and shaded tomato plants. At the last harvest, dry mass from unshaded and shaded plants differed significantly, with values of 974.9 g m-2 and 762.5 g m-2 for total dry mass, 550.1 g m-2 and 419.74 g m-2 for fruits, and 424.75 g m-2 and 342.74 g m-2 for vegetative organs, respectively. Total plant growth was reduced to 21.7% by shading, but plants continued to grow, in spite of the radiation level below the trophic limit of 8.4 MJ m-2 day-1. To establish the climatic suitability of horticultural crops in different regions, it should be advisable to take in account other variables than solar radiation.O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, para determinar o efeito do sombreamento sobre o crescimento do tomateiro em cultivo protegido. A semeadura foi feita em 04/07/00 e o plantio em 27/08, na densidade de 3,3 plantas m-2, empregando substrato comercial orgânico. A

  17. Composite hybrid cam carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madin, Mark Michael; Wicks, Christopher Donald

    2017-11-21

    A cam carrier assembly includes a body made of a material lighter than aluminum. The body has a first side operably coupled with a cylinder head and a second side having bearing surfaces with bearing inserts. The bearing inserts support the camshaft. A series of apertures extend between the first and second sides of the body. Lobes of the camshaft operably couple with the valves of the cylinder head through the series of apertures extending between the first and second sides of the body.

  18. Near-term lander experiments for growing plants on Mars: requirements for information on chemical and physical properties of Mars regolith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C; Ming, Douglas W; Newsom, Horton E; Ferl, Robert J; McKay, Christopher P

    2002-01-01

    In order to support humans for long-duration missions to Mars, bioregenerative Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems have been proposed that would use higher plants as the primary candidates for photosynthesis. Hydroponic technologies have been suggested as the primary method of plant production in ALS systems, but the use of Mars regolith as a plant growth medium may have several advantages over hydroponic systems. The advantages for using Mars regolith include the likely bioavailability of plant-essential ions, mechanical support for plants, and easy access of the material once on the surface. We propose that plant biology experiments must be included in near-term Mars lander missions in order to begin defining the optimum approach for growing plants on Mars. Second, we discuss a range of soil chemistry and soil physics tests that must be conducted prior to, or in concert with, a plant biology experiment in order to properly interpret the results of plant growth studies in Mars regolith. The recommended chemical tests include measurements on soil pH, electrical conductivity and soluble salts, redox potential, bioavailability of essential plant nutrients, and bioavailability of phytotoxic elements. In addition, a future plant growth experiment should include procedures for determining the buffering and leaching requirements of Mars regolith prior to planting. Soil physical tests useful for plant biology studies in Mars regolith include bulk density, particle size distribution, porosity, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity.

  19. Near-term lander experiments for growing plants on Mars: requirements for information on chemical and physical properties of Mars regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Newsom, Horton E.; Ferl, Robert J.; McKay, Christopher P.

    2002-01-01

    In order to support humans for long-duration missions to Mars, bioregenerative Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems have been proposed that would use higher plants as the primary candidates for photosynthesis. Hydroponic technologies have been suggested as the primary method of plant production in ALS systems, but the use of Mars regolith as a plant growth medium may have several advantages over hydroponic systems. The advantages for using Mars regolith include the likely bioavailability of plant-essential ions, mechanical support for plants, and easy access of the material once on the surface. We propose that plant biology experiments must be included in near-term Mars lander missions in order to begin defining the optimum approach for growing plants on Mars. Second, we discuss a range of soil chemistry and soil physics tests that must be conducted prior to, or in concert with, a plant biology experiment in order to properly interpret the results of plant growth studies in Mars regolith. The recommended chemical tests include measurements on soil pH, electrical conductivity and soluble salts, redox potential, bioavailability of essential plant nutrients, and bioavailability of phytotoxic elements. In addition, a future plant growth experiment should include procedures for determining the buffering and leaching requirements of Mars regolith prior to planting. Soil physical tests useful for plant biology studies in Mars regolith include bulk density, particle size distribution, porosity, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity.

  20. Gas exchange and leaf anatomy of a C3-CAM hybrid, Yucca gloriosa (Asparagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyduk, Karolina; Burrell, Nia; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-03-01

    While the majority of plants use the typical C3 carbon metabolic pathway, ~6% of angiosperms have adapted to carbon limitation as a result of water stress by employing a modified form of photosynthesis known as Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants concentrate carbon in the cells by temporally separating atmospheric carbon acquisition from fixation into carbohydrates. CAM has been studied for decades, but the evolutionary progression from C3 to CAM remains obscure. In order to better understand the morphological and physiological characteristics associated with CAM photosynthesis, phenotypic variation was assessed in Yucca aloifolia, a CAM species, Yucca filamentosa, a C3 species, and Yucca gloriosa, a hybrid species derived from these two yuccas exhibiting intermediate C3-CAM characteristics. Gas exchange, titratable leaf acidity, and leaf anatomical traits of all three species were assayed in a common garden under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Yucca gloriosa showed intermediate phenotypes for nearly all traits measured, including the ability to acquire carbon at night. Using the variation found among individuals of all three species, correlations between traits were assessed to better understand how leaf anatomy and CAM physiology are related. Yucca gloriosa may be constrained by a number of traits which prevent it from using CAM to as high a degree as Y. aloifolia. The intermediate nature of Y. gloriosa makes it a promising system in which to study the evolution of CAM. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Gas exchange and leaf anatomy of a C3–CAM hybrid, Yucca gloriosa (Asparagaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyduk, Karolina; Burrell, Nia; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-01-01

    While the majority of plants use the typical C3 carbon metabolic pathway, ~6% of angiosperms have adapted to carbon limitation as a result of water stress by employing a modified form of photosynthesis known as Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants concentrate carbon in the cells by temporally separating atmospheric carbon acquisition from fixation into carbohydrates. CAM has been studied for decades, but the evolutionary progression from C3 to CAM remains obscure. In order to better understand the morphological and physiological characteristics associated with CAM photosynthesis, phenotypic variation was assessed in Yucca aloifolia, a CAM species, Yucca filamentosa, a C3 species, and Yucca gloriosa, a hybrid species derived from these two yuccas exhibiting intermediate C3–CAM characteristics. Gas exchange, titratable leaf acidity, and leaf anatomical traits of all three species were assayed in a common garden under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Yucca gloriosa showed intermediate phenotypes for nearly all traits measured, including the ability to acquire carbon at night. Using the variation found among individuals of all three species, correlations between traits were assessed to better understand how leaf anatomy and CAM physiology are related. Yucca gloriosa may be constrained by a number of traits which prevent it from using CAM to as high a degree as Y. aloifolia. The intermediate nature of Y. gloriosa makes it a promising system in which to study the evolution of CAM. PMID:26717954

  2. Initiating a Reiki or CAM program in a healthcare organization--developing a business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) services, such as Reiki, continue to be offered to consumers in many hospitals and other health care organizations. There is growing interest among nurses, doctors, and other health care providers for the integration of CAM therapies into traditional settings. Health care organizations are responding to this need but may not know how to start CAM programs. Starting a Reiki program in a health care setting must be envisioned in a business model approach. This article introduces nurses and other health care providers to the basic concepts of business plan development and important steps to follow when starting a Reiki or CAM program.

  3. Growing Plants and Scientists: Fostering Positive Attitudes toward Science among All Participants in an Afterschool Hydroponics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Amie K.; Zhang, Lin; Barnett, Michael

    2017-06-01

    This study examines an out-of-school time program targeting elementary-aged youth from populations that are typically underrepresented in science fields (primarily African-American, Hispanic, and/or English Language Learner participants). The program aimed to foster positive attitudes toward science among youth by engaging them in growing plants hydroponically (in water without soil). Participants' attitudes toward science, including anxiety, desire, and self-concept, were examined through pre-post survey data ( n = 234) over the course of an afterschool program at three separate sites. Data showed that participants' anxiety decreased and desire increased for both male and female participants over the program. Self-concept increased for female participants at all three sites but did not change significantly for male participants. Participants' first language (English or Spanish) was not a factor in attitude outcomes. The primarily positive outcomes suggest that hydroponics can be a useful educational platform for engaging participants in garden-based programming year round, particularly for settings that do not have the physical space or climate to conduct outdoor gardening. Similarities in positive attitude outcomes at the three sites despite differences in format, implementation, and instructor background experience suggest that the program is resilient to variation in context. Understanding which aspects of the program facilitated positive outcomes in the varied contexts could be useful for the design of future programs.

  4. Wet and Dry Atmospheric Depositions of Inorganic Nitrogen during Plant Growing Season in the Coastal Zone of Yellow River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbao Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecological problems caused by dry and wet deposition of atmospheric nitrogen have been widespread concern in the world. In this study, wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in the coastal zone of the Yellow River Delta (YRD using automatic sampling equipment. The results showed that SO42- and Na+ were the predominant anion and cation, respectively, in both wet and dry atmospheric depositions. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was ~2264.24 mg m−2, in which dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 32.02%. The highest values of dry and wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition appeared in May and August, respectively. In the studied area, NO3-–N was the main nitrogen form in dry deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4+–N with ~56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3-–N and NH4+–N was ~31.38% and ~20.50% for the contents of NO3-–N and NH4+–N in 0–10 cm soil layer, respectively, suggested that the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of the YRD.

  5. Influence of sulfur on the accumulation of mercury in rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) growing in mercury contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunyun; Zhao, Jiating; Guo, Jingxia; Liu, Mengjiao; Xu, Qinlei; Li, Hong; Li, Yu-Feng; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Gao, Yuxi

    2017-09-01

    Sulfur (S) is an essential element for plant growth and its biogeochemical cycling is strongly linked to the species of heavy metals in soil. In this work, the effects of S (sulfate and elemental sulfur) treatment on the accumulation, distribution and chemical forms of Hg in rice growing in Hg contaminated soil were investigated. It was found that S could promote the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and decrease total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains, straw, and roots. Hg in the root was dominated in the form of RS-Hg-SR. Sulfate treatment increased the percentage of RS-Hg-SR to T-Hg in the rice root and changed the Hg species in soil. The dominant Hg species (70%) in soil was organic substance bound fractions. Sulfur treatment decreased Hg motility in the rhizosphere soils by promoting the conversion of RS-Hg-SR to HgS. This study is significant since it suggests that low dose sulfur treatment in Hg-containing water irrigated soil can decrease both T-Hg and MeHg accumulation in rice via inactivating Hg in the soil and promoting the formation of iron plaque in rice root, which may reduce health risk for people consuming those crops. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Use of soil-like substrate for growing plant to enhance closedness of biological lie support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, J. B.; Lasseur, C.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Manuskovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Ushakova, S. A.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Tirranen, L. S.; Gribovskaya, I. V.

    Soil-like substrate (SLS) a potential candidate for use for growing plants in closed biological life support systems (BLSS) was studied. SLS was made by successive transformation of wheat straw by oyster mushrooms and Californian worms. Fertility of SLS of different degree of maturity has been tested. Mature SLS contained 9.5 % of humus acids and 4.9 % of fulvic acids. Wheat, bean and cucumber crops cultivated on mature SLS were comparable to crops obtained on a neutral substrate (expanded clay aggregate). In the wheat-SLS system, net CO2 absorption started on the sixth day after sowing and stopped 5 days prior to harvesting whereas in the wheat-neutral substrate system, net CO2 absorption was registered throughout vegetation. In the SLS, dominant bacteria included the spore-forming bacteria of the Bacillus genus and dominant fungi included the genus Trichoderma. In the hydroponic cultivation on neutral substrate dominant bacteria were of the Pseudomonas genus, while most commonly found fungi were species of the Fusarium genus. Consequence of SLS incorporation in artificial BLSS for increasing the closure degree of internal mass exchange in comparison with a neutral substrate is considered.

  7. EpCAM in morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trzpis, Monika; Bremer, Edwin; McLaughlin, Pamela M. J.; de Leij, Lou F. M. H.; Harmsen, Martin C.

    Embryonic development is one of the most complex biological phenomena that involves the appropriate expression and synchronized interactions of a plethora of proteins, including cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). Many members of the diverse family of CAMs have been shown to be critically involved in

  8. A Comparative Study of Leaf Structure as Modified by Three Environments Commonly Used to Grow Plants for Experimental Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    while leaves of radish plants grown in the growth chamber were quite different from those of field or greenhouse plants. Anatomy of morning-glory plants was less affected by environment than the other species tested. (Author)

  9. Optimisation Methods for Cam Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia–Mari Popa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the criteria which represent the base of optimizing the cam mechanisms and also we perform the calculations for several types of mechanisms. We study the influence of the constructive parameters in case of the simple machines with rotation cam and follower (flat or curve of translation on the curvature radius and that of the transmission angle. As it follows, we present the optimization calculations of the cam and flat rotation follower mechanisms, as well as the calculations for optimizing the cam mechanisms by circular groove followers’ help. For an easier interpretation of the results, we have visualized the obtained cam in AutoCAD according to the script files generated by a calculation program.

  10. Leaf lifetime photosynthetic rate and leaf demography in whole plants of Ipomoea pes-caprae growing with a low supply of calcium, a 'non-mobile' nutrient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, N

    2010-03-01

    The adaptive significance of leaf longevity has been established in relation to restrictive nutrients that can be retranslocated within the plant. However, the effect of deficiencies in 'non-mobile' nutrients on leaf lifespan and photosynthetic carbon gain is uncertain. Calcium is frequently given as an example of an essential nutrient with low phloem mobility that may alter the leaf senescence process. This study has been designed to estimate leaf lifespan, leaf production (L(p)) and leaf death (L(d)) rates, the age structure of leaves, and the decline in maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)) with age in plants of Ipomoea pes-caprae growing with a full supply of nutrients and with a low Ca supply. The Ca deficiency produced reductions in L(p) and leaf lifespan compared with control plants. In spite of the differences in the demographic parameters between treatments in control and low-Ca plants, the percentage of leaves of a given leaf age class is maintained in such a way that the number of leaves per plant continues to increase. No relationship was found between Ca supply and A(max). However, the decline in A(max) with leaf senescence was rather sudden in control plants compared with plants growing with a low Ca supply. The importance of simultaneously using the total leaf demographic census and the assimilation rate along with leaf lifespan data in order to understand the performance of whole plants under constrained conditions is discussed.

  11. Leaf lifetime photosynthetic rate and leaf demography in whole plants of Ipomoea pes-caprae growing with a low supply of calcium, a ‘non-mobile’ nutrient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, N.

    2010-01-01

    The adaptive significance of leaf longevity has been established in relation to restrictive nutrients that can be retranslocated within the plant. However, the effect of deficiencies in ‘non-mobile’ nutrients on leaf lifespan and photosynthetic carbon gain is uncertain. Calcium is frequently given as an example of an essential nutrient with low phloem mobility that may alter the leaf senescence process. This study has been designed to estimate leaf lifespan, leaf production (Lp) and leaf death (Ld) rates, the age structure of leaves, and the decline in maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax) with age in plants of Ipomoea pes-caprae growing with a full supply of nutrients and with a low Ca supply. The Ca deficiency produced reductions in Lp and leaf lifespan compared with control plants. In spite of the differences in the demographic parameters between treatments in control and low-Ca plants, the percentage of leaves of a given leaf age class is maintained in such a way that the number of leaves per plant continues to increase. No relationship was found between Ca supply and Amax. However, the decline in Amax with leaf senescence was rather sudden in control plants compared with plants growing with a low Ca supply. The importance of simultaneously using the total leaf demographic census and the assimilation rate along with leaf lifespan data in order to understand the performance of whole plants under constrained conditions is discussed. PMID:20080828

  12. Effects of herbaceous and woody plant control on Pinus palustris growth and foliar nutrients through six growing seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Haywood

    2005-01-01

    To determine if either herbaceous or woody plants are more competitive with longleaf pine (Pinuspalustris P. Mill.) seedlings, two vegetation management treatments-herbaceous plant control (HPC, No or Yes) and woody plant control (WPC, No or Yes) were applied in newly established longleaf pine plantings in a randomized complete block 2 x 2 factorial...

  13. How Does Your Garden Grow? Early Conceptualization of Seeds and Their Place in the Plant Growth Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Anne K.; Gelman, Susan A.

    1995-01-01

    Examined young children's understanding of seed origins and growth preconditions and the stages of plant growth. Found that, by 4.5 years, children realized that natural causal mechanisms underlie plant growth and appreciated the relationship of seeds to plants. Results suggest that preschoolers hold theory-like understandings of plants similar to…

  14. ACE and platelet aggregation inhibitors from Tamarix hohenackeri Bunge (host plant of Herba Cistanches) growing in Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yachao; Liao, Jing; Tang, Yingzhan; Zhang, Peng; Tan, Chengyu; Ni, Hui; Wu, Xueqin; Li, Ning; Jia, Xiaoguang

    2014-04-01

    Tamarix hohenackeri Bunge is a salt cedar that grows widespread in the desert mountains in Xinjiang. T. hohenackeri has not been investigated earlier, although there are many reports of phytochemical work on other Tamarix species. To find out natural angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and platelet aggregation inhibitors, the bioactive extract (ethyl acetate [EtOAc] fraction) from the dried aerial parts of T. hohenackeri were investigated. The active fraction was purified by repeated column chromatography, including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column, medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) (polyamide column) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The isolated major constituents were tested for their anti-platelet aggregation activity. Bioassay-directed separation of the EtOAc fraction of the 70% ethanol extract from the air-dried aerial parts of T. hohenackeri led to the isolation of a new triterpenoid lactone (1), together with 13 known compounds (2-14). It was the first time to focus on screening bioactive constituents for this plant. The chemical structures were established on the basis of spectral data (ESI-MS and NMR). The results showed that the flavonoid compounds (7 and 8) and phenolic compounds (9, 10, 11, and 14) were potential ACE inhibitors. And the flavonoid compounds (5 and 7) showed significant anti-platelet aggregation activities. On the basis of the chemical and biological data, the material basis of ACE inhibitory activity for the active part was the phenolic constituents. However, the flavonoid compounds were responsible for the anti-platelet aggregation. The primary structure and activity relationship were also discussed respectively.

  15. Pectinatus portalensis nov. sp., a relatively fast-growing, coccoidal, novel Pectinatus species isolated from a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan M; Jurado, Valme; Laiz, Leonila; Zimmermann, Johannes; Hermosin, Bernardo; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2004-10-01

    The genus Pectinatus is currently composed by two species, Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus and Pectinatus frisingensis , both asociated with beer spoilage. This study describes a novel isolate (strain B6) retrieved from a wastewater treatment plant collecting residues from a large number of wineries. Based on similarity analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain B6 belongs to the genus Pectinatus . Strain B6 is a strict anaerobe like other Pectinatus species and it presents non-motile, coccoid cells showing a slight oval shape. Strain B6 shows marked physiological differences with other Pectinatus species both in fatty acid composition and carbon source utilization. The most abundant fatty acids found in strain B6 were 18:1 (42.8%) and 16:0 (18.3%) representing a total of over 61% of fatty acids in this microorganism while these fatty acids represented 41.3% in P. cerevisiiphilusT and 2.4% in P. frisingensisT of their total. Fatty acid 15:0 was not significant in strain B6 and represented 28.6% and 13.3% for P. cerevisiiphilusT and P. frisingensisT, respectively. Strain B6 showed a faster growth rate and higher optimum temperature than its relatives P. cerevisiiphilus and P. frisingensis . Strain B6, P. cerevisiiphilus and P. frisingensis could be clearly differentiated by acid production tests from substrates such as esculine and gluconate, and the lack of acid production from rhamnose and fucose among others. G+C mol% content in strain B6 is 36.5%. Based on genotypic and phenotypic differences, strain B6 is proposed as a novel Pectinatus species, P. portalensis nov. sp. Both strain B6 and the two described species of Pectinatus grow on beers and wines. These results provide insights about the origin and reservoirs of Pectinatus species and spoiling alcoholic beverages.

  16. Validation of a new phytotoxicity test (phytotoxkit) against an established four-week growing test with pre-grown plant plugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Aguilera, M.; Os, van E.A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to correlate results of a fast extract-based toxicity test with results of an established growing test with mostly pre-grown plants. A standard white peat was contaminated with four levels of TCA (trichloroacetic acid), a known toxic substance. A range was composed of five

  17. Genetic diversity and differentiation of yellowwood [Cladrastis kentukea (Dum.Cours.) Rudd] growing in the wild and in planted populations outside the natural range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas LaBonte; Jadelys Tonos; Colleen Hartel; Keith E. Woeste

    2017-01-01

    Yellowwood (Cladrastis kentukea) grows in small, widely scattered populations in the wild, but is also a popular ornamental tree that thrives when planted in urban areas outside its natural range. Since the small native populations of yellowwood in several states are considered at risk of extirpation, the cultivated population could serve as an ex...

  18. Comparison of planted loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine development through 10 growing seasons in central Louisiana--an argument for longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Haywood; Mary Anne S. Sayer; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2015-01-01

    Two studies were established in central Louisiana to compare development of planted loblolly (Pinus taeda L.), longleaf (P. palustris Mill.), and slash (P. elliottii Engelm.) pine. Study 1 was on a Beauregard silt loam, and Study 2 was on Ruston and McKamie fine sandy loams. After 10 growing seasons,...

  19. Rad Pole Cam Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckendorn, F. M.; Odell, D. M. C; Harpring, L. J.; Peterson, K. D.

    2005-10-05

    The RadPoleCam was developed to provide Department Of Energy (DOE) first responders the capability to assess the radiological and visual condition of remote or inaccessible locations. Real time gamma isotopic identification is provided to the first responder in the form of audio feedback (i.e. spoken through head phones) from a gamma detector mounted on a collapsible pole that can extend from 1 to 9 meters (6 to 29 feet). Simultaneously, selectable direct and side looking visual images are provided from the 5cm (2in) diameter, waterproof probe tip. The lightweight, self contained, ruggedized, system will provide a rapidly deployable field system for visual and radiological search and assessment of confined spaces and extended reach locations.

  20. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C; Bowers, John E; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Zhangyao; Miao, Chenyong; Lin, Zhicong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Hongye; Yim, Won C; Priest, Henry D; Zheng, Chunfang; Woodhouse, Margaret; Edger, Patrick P; Guyot, Romain; Guo, Hao-Bo; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Guangyong; Singh, Ratnesh; Sharma, Anupma; Min, Xiangjia; Zheng, Yun; Lee, Hayan; Gurtowski, James; Sedlazeck, Fritz J; Harkess, Alex; McKain, Michael R; Liao, Zhenyang; Fang, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Weichang; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Chen, Li-Yu; Shirley, Neil; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Li-Yu; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Wright, Chris L; Bulone, Vincent; Tuskan, Gerald A; Heath, Katy; Zee, Francis; Moore, Paul H; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Leebens-Mack, James H; Mockler, Todd; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Freeling, Michael; Sankoff, David; Paterson, Andrew H; Zhu, Xinguang; Yang, Xiaohan; Smith, J Andrew C; Cushman, John C; Paull, Robert E; Yu, Qingyi

    2015-12-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 and MD2 and a wild pineapple relative, Ananas bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole-genome duplication event than sequenced grass genomes and a conserved karyotype with seven chromosomes from before the ρ duplication event. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM, with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues. CAM pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements associated with the regulation of circadian clock genes, providing the first cis-regulatory link between CAM and circadian clock regulation. Pineapple CAM photosynthesis evolved by the reconfiguration of pathways in C3 plants, through the regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting genes and not through the acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole-genome or tandem gene duplication.

  1. Crystallization method providing composition autocontrol in situ (CAM-S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkrbec, J.J. (Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, 16627 Prague 6 (Czechoslovakia)); Rosick, V.; Kohout, J. (Institute of Radioelectronics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1993-01-14

    A novel approach to crystal growth from a molten solution zone (MSZ) is presented. There are five variants of CAM-S, which is a modification of the travelling heater method (THM), which can solve crystal growth problems as THM does, especially synthesis, repeated creation of the MSZ, zoning operations with vibrational stirring, and perform all these operations in situ. The combination of CAM-S with calculation method of optimal molten-solution composition (COM-S) has been applied to the growth of bulk crystals of the ternary solid solutions Ga[sub x]In[sub 1-x]Sb. Extreme constancy of the lattice parameter throughout the crystalline length has been achieved. Both methods are based on the knowledge of phase diagrams.

  2. Biofuel crops with CAM photosynthesis: Economic potential on moisture-limited lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Mark; Hartzell, Samantha; Porporato, Amilcare

    2017-04-01

    As the demand for food and renewable energy increases, the intelligent utilization of marginal lands is becoming increasingly critical. In marginal lands classified by limited rainfall or soil salinity, the cultivation of traditional C3 and C4 photosynthesis crops often is economically infeasible. However, in such lands, nontraditional crops with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis show great economic potential for cultivation. CAM crops including Opuntia (prickly pear) and Ananas (pineapple) achieve a water use efficiency which is three fold higher than C4 crops such as corn and 6-fold higher than C3 crops such as wheat, leading to a comparable annual productivity with only 20% of the water demand. This feature, combined with a shallow rooting depth and a high water storage capacity, allows CAM plants to take advantage of small, infrequent rainfall amounts in shallow, quickly draining soils. Furthermore, CAM plants typically have properties (e.g., high content of non-structural carbohydrates) that are favorable for biofuel production. Here, for marginal lands characterized by low soil moisture availability and/or high salinity, we assess the potential productivity and economic benefits of CAM plants. CAM productivity is estimated using a recently developed model which simulates CAM photosynthesis under a range of soil and climate conditions. From these results, we compare the energy and water resource inputs required by CAM plants to those required by more traditional C3 and C4 crops (corn, wheat, sorghum), and we evaluate the economic potential of CAM crops as sources of food, fodder, or biofuel in marginal soils. As precipitation events become more intense and infrequent, we show that even though marginal land area may increase, CAM crop cultivation shows great promise for maintaining high productivity with minimal water inputs. Our analysis indicates that on marginal lands, widespread cultivation of CAM crops as biofuel feedstock may help

  3. Multilocus sequence analysis reveals taxonomic differences among Bradyrhizobium sp. symbionts of Lupinus albescens plants growing in arenized and non-arenized areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granada, Camille E; Beneduzi, Anelise; Lisboa, Bruno B; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia C; Vargas, Luciano K; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2015-07-01

    Lupinus albescens is a leguminous plant that belongs to "New World" lupine species, which is native to southern Brazil. This Brazilian region is characterized by poor degraded soils with low organic matter and is designated as an arenized area. The symbiosis between Lupinus plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhizobium genus may help the plant establish itself in these areas. To characterize the bradyrhizobial population symbionts of L. albescens plants grown in arenized and non-arenized areas, a multilocus phylogenetic analysis allied to genetic diversity indices were conducted. Seventy-four bradyrhizobial isolates were analyzed, 38 coming from L. albescens plants growing in an arenized area and 36 from a non-arenized area. Isolates were different between arenized and non-arenized areas. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, dnaK, atpD, recA, glnII, rpoB, gyrB, nodA, nodB, and nodZ genes resulted in three supported clades, which were most likely to be three different new Bradyrhizobium species: one species from the arenized area and two from the non-arenized area. Estimates of genetic diversity, which decreased in arenized areas, were positively correlated with habitat variability. These results suggested that a few resistant and efficient Bradyrhizobium sp. strains were capable of forming nodules on L. albescens plants growing in an arenized area. An in vivo inoculation experiment with L. albescens plants showed that Bradyrhizobium ssp. isolated from this extreme environment were more efficient at promoting plant growth than those from the non-arenized area. This result suggested that the environment affected the selection of more efficient plant growth promoters in order to sustain plant growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Radiation on Seed Germinating Ability Ofwild-Growing and Cultivated Plants, Sources of Bioactive Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanov, Aleksandr; Tirranen, Lyalya; Zykova, Irina; Bondarenko, Gennadiy

    2016-07-01

    In the above-ground parts of common chickweed (Stellaria media) the content of vitamin C was experimentally quantified, which (in terms of dry matter) was 81.55 mg/100 g; 133 mg/100 g and 161.76 mg/100 g depending on the growing site. 52 components were detected in the essential oil of the above-ground parts of common chickweed (Stellaria media). Chamazulene, neophytodien and phytol are the major components of whole oil. A wide range of elements was identified in the plants and seeds of common chickweed (Stellaria media), and in the seeds of carrots, parsley and lettuce. It was established that UV irradiation (lamp with a wavelength of 254 nm and 283 nm) of chickweed seeds (Stellaria media) for 15 sec. and 100 sec. in a microbiological box on a table at a distance from the object didn't affect their germinating ability. The germinating ability of the experimental seeds was identical to the control (no irradiation) seeds. With the help of an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer Renger 2 (Germany) at a voltage of 1.6 kV during 15 sec. the effect of "soft" radiation on the seed germinating ability of chickweed, carrot, parsley and lettuce seeds was studied.Under the effect of "soft" radiation during 15 sec. all the experimental chickweed seeds sprouted, like in the control. The germinating ability of the exposed lettuce seeds was 100% after one day, while only 45% of the exposed parsley seeds grew after 21 days. The exposed carrot seeds (70%) grew after 18 days. The effect of "hard" radiation on the germinating ability of common chickweed seeds was investigated using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer S4 Pioneer (Germany) at a voltage of 60 kV for 15 sec and 100 sec. Under the effect of "hard" radiation and during 15 seconds of exposure, where the distance (L) from the focus of the X-ray tube to the seeds of chickweed was 20 mm, the germinating ability of the experimental chickweed seeds was 30 %. At a voltage of 60 kV and 100-second exposure the germinating ability of the

  5. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, V.N., E-mail: jhavn1971@gmail.com; Tripathi, R.M., E-mail: tripathirm@yahoo.com; Sethy, N.K., E-mail: sethybarc@rediffmail.com; Sahoo, S.K., E-mail: sksbarc@gmail.com

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r = 0.86, p < 0.003). For sediment rooted plants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r = 0.88, p < 0.001). Both for other free floating species and sediment rooted plants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p < 0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. - Highlights: • Uranium mill tailings pond. • Jaduguda, India. • Fresh water plants. • Uranium uptake. • Relationship of uranium with stable elements.

  6. Salt induction and the partial purification/characterization of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase protein-serine kinase from an inducible crassulacean-acid-metabolism (CAM) plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Chollet, R

    1994-10-01

    Treatment of the common ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) with high salinity caused the well-documented increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) protein and a concomitant rise in the activity of a Ca(2+)-independent PEPC-kinase (PEPC-PK). When the plants were irrigated with 0.5 M NaCl, PEPC protein level and PEPC-PK activity started to increase after 2 days of treatment and continued to rise for the next 8 days, attaining about a 14- and 8-fold total increase, respectively. This salt-induced PEPC-kinase activity was detected only in leaves harvested from the stressed plants at night. This highly regulated protein kinase was partially purified about 3500-fold from these darkened, salt-stressed plants by sequential fast-protein liquid chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose, blue dextran-agarose, and Superdex 75. The gel-filtration data indicated that the native PEPC-kinase has a molecular weight around 33,000. Complementary analysis by denaturing electrophoresis and subsequent in situ renaturation and assay of PEPC-kinase activity revealed two major PEPC-PK polypeptides with approximate molecular masses of 39 and 32 kDa. The partially purified M. crystallinum PEPC-kinase readily phosphorylated PEPCs purified from maize, M. crystallinum, and tobacco leaves and a recombinant sorghum enzyme. In contrast, this Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase phosphorylated neither a recombinant sorghum mutant PEPC in which the target residue (Ser-8) was changed by site-directed mutagenesis to Asp nor histone III-S, casein, and bovine serum albumin. The optimal pH for PEPC-PK activity was pH 8.0 and this activity was affected by both the substrate (phosphoenolpyruvate) and the negative allosteric effector (L-malate) of PEPC in a pH-dependent manner. Overall, the molecular properties of this highly regulated PEPC-kinase from M. crystallinum are strikingly similar to those reported recently by this laboratory for the reversibly light-activated C4 enzyme from maize (Arch

  7. Screening of native plants and algae growing on fly-ash affected areas near National Thermal Power Corporation, Tanda, Uttar Pradesh, India for accumulation of toxic heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, S; Srivastava, S; Mishra, S; Dixit, B; Kumar, A; Tripathi, R D

    2008-10-30

    The present investigation was carried out to screen native plants growing in fly-ash (FA) contaminated areas near National Thermal Power Corporation, Tanda, Uttar Pradesh, India with a view to using them for the eco-restoration of the area. A total number of 17 plants (9 aquatic, 6 terrestrial and 2 algal species) were collected and screened for heavy metal (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, B, Si, Al, Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg and As) accumulation. Differential accumulation of various heavy metals by different species of plants was observed. Hydrilla verticillata was found to be the most efficient metal accumulator among 9 aquatic plants, Eclipta alba among 6 terrestrial plants and Phormedium papyraceum between 2 algal species. In general, the maximum levels of most metals were found in terrestrial plants while the lowest in algal species. However, translocation of the metals from root to shoot was found to be higher in aquatic plants than terrestrial ones. These results suggest that various aquatic, terrestrial and algal species of plants may be used in a synergistic way to remediate and restore the FA contaminated areas.

  8. Traffic-related heavy metals uptake by wild plants grow along two main highways in Hunan Province, China: effects of soil factors, accumulation ability, and biological indication potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yunbo; Dai, Qingyun; Jiang, Kang; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Bibo; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate pollution of traffic-related heavy metals (HMs-Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd) in roadside soils and their uptake by wild plants growing along highways in Hunan Province, China. For this, we analyzed the concentration and chemical fractionation of HMs in soils and plants. Soil samples were collected with different depths in the profile and different distances from highway edge. And leaves and barks of six high-frequency plants were collected. Results of the modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) showed that the mobile fraction of these HMs was in the order of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr. A high percentage of the mobile fraction indicates Cd, Pb, and Zn were labile and available for uptake by wild plants. The total concentration and values of risk assessment code (RAC) showed that Cd was the main risk factor, which were in the range high to very high risk. The accumulation ability of HMs in plants was evaluated by the biological accumulation factor (BAF) and the metal accumulation index (MAI), and the results showed that all those plant species have good phyto-extraction ability, while accumulation capacity for most HMs plants tissues was bark > leaf. The highest MAI value (5.99) in Cinnamomum camphora (L) Presl indicates the potential for bio-monitoring and a good choice for planting along highways where there is contamination with HMs.

  9. Modeling analysis of the benefits of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for sustainable agriculture in arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, M. S.; Vico, G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    In view of the pressing needs to sustainably manage water and soil resources, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, here we propose a new carbon assimilation model that couples a simple yet mechanistic description of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis to the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. The model captures the full coupling of the CAM photosynthetic pathway with fluctuations in environmental conditions (cycles of light availability and air humidity, changes in soil moisture as driven by plant transpiration and rainfall occurrence). As such, the model is capable of reproducing the different phases of CAM, including daytime stomatal closure and photosynthesis from malic acid, afternoon stomatal opening for direct carbon assimilation, and nighttime stomatal opening for CO2 uptake and malic acid synthesis. Thanks to its versatility, our model allows us to relate CAM productivity, for both obligate and facultative CAM plants, to various soil moisture conditions including hydroclimatic scenarios of rainfall frequency and intensity as well as different night-time conditions of temperature, wind speed, and humidity. Our analyses show the potential productive benefits of CAM cultivation in dryland environments as feedstock and possible biofuel source, in terms of sustainable water use and economic benefits. In particular, the model is used to explore conditions where CAM plant resiliency to water stress makes these plants a more sustainable alternative to C3 and C4 species for potential deficit irrigation.

  10. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Low Back Pain and CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section CAM Low Back Pain and CAM Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of ... benefit from CAM treatment for conditions such as low back pain. Photo courtesy of Glenn Scimonelli "Oh, my aching ...

  11. APLIKASI SISTEM MONITORING PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN BERBASIS WEB MENGGUNAKAN MACHINE VISION Application of Web-based Monitoring System for Plant Growing by Using Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Sutiarso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, demand for integrating between information technology (IT and development of agricultural system isin order to increase the productivity, efficiency and profitability in term of precision agriculture. This matter occurred due to some problems in the field, such as; unintensively monitoring activities for plant during the growing period. One of the alternative solutions to overcome the problem was introducing the machine vision technology in the farming system. The research is actually as a basic research that aims using technology of digital image processing and software of computation (mathematics to support a function of real-time monitoring system for plant growing. The research mechanism was started from digital image processing by using an image segmentation method that can identify between the main object (plant and others (soil, weed. Image processing algorithm used excess color method and color normalization to identify plants, to calculate crop area. Otsu method was used to convert it to binary images. The next was to calculate and analyze a percentage of the plant growing, from after planting until harvesting time. The analyzed data were stored as MySQL database format in the web server. Final output of the research was the web based monitoring instruments for plant growing that can be accessed through intranet (local area network as well as internet technology. From the software testing, monitoring with a machine vision system has a success rate reached 70 % for identifying plants. ABSTRAK Tuntutan integrasi teknologi sistem informasi dan sistem pertanian saat ini dimaksudkan guna mendukung efisiensi,produktivitas dan profitabiltas pertanian. Hal tersebut didorong oleh timbulnya permasalahan di lapangan terkait dengan belum optimalnya produktivitas tanaman yang diakibatkan antara lain, kurang intensifnya pemantauan (monitoring tanaman pada masa pertumbuhan. Salah satu alternatif solusi untuk memperbaiki permasalahan tersebut

  12. Expression, purification, and initial characterization of a recombinant form of plant PEP-carboxylase kinase from CAM-induced Mesembryanthemum crystallinum with enhanced solubility in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolova, Natalia V; Ann Cushman, Mary; Taybi, Tahar; Condon, Shirley A; Cushman, John C; Chollet, Raymond

    2003-05-01

    Plant phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase kinase (PEPC-kinase [PpcK]) is the smallest Ser/Thr kinase identified to date, having a molecular mass of approximately 32,000. This novel, monomeric kinase is dedicated to the phosphorylation of plant PEPC, thereby regulating this target enzyme's activity and allosteric properties. Although several recombinant, non-fusion PpcK proteins have been produced recently in Escherichia coli, these are plagued by their high degree of insolubility. Here, we report the use of the native, E. coli NusA protein and a related E. coli expression vector (pET-43a(+) [Novagen]) for enhancing the solubility of this recalcitrant Ser/Thr kinase at least 10-fold by its production as a dual 6xHis-tagged NusA/McPpcK1 fusion protein, which accounts for approximately 10% of the soluble protein fraction from induced cells. Capture of this fusion protein from the centrifuged cell extract by immobilized metal (Ni(2+)) affinity-chromatography, its "on-bead" cleavage by thrombin, and subsequent elution yielded milligram quantities of a "free," approximately 36-kDa form of PpcK for further purification by fast-protein liquid chromatography on blue dextran-agarose or preparative SDS-PAGE. Steady-state kinetic analysis of the former, active preparation revealed that this dedicated kinase discriminates against neither various isoforms of plant PEPC nor certain mutant forms of recombinant C(4) PEPC. Alternatively, the latter, electrophoretically homogeneous sample of the approximately 36-kDa polypeptide was used as antigen for polyclonal-antibody production in rabbits. The antibodies against the recombinant McPpcK1 from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum cross-reacted on Western blots with an enriched preparation of the maize-leaf kinase, but not with the parent crude extract, thus directly documenting this protein's extremely low abundance in vivo. However, these antibodies were effective in immunoprecipitating 32P-based PpcK activity from crude, desalted extracts of

  13. Analysis and forecasting of profit by using simulation models for growing pea in conventional and organic plant production in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean is the third most important food legume crop of the world after soybean and groundnuts; it provides an important source of dietary proteins, carbohydrates, minerals and fiber essential in human nutrition worldwide. A high, per capita bean consumption of 13 to 40 kg yr-1 was observed in developing countries. In EU developed countries, market of the organic products is growing in average 10 % per annum, but this growth has not been followed by production growth and this is the chance for Serbian products. Organic bean growing enables the producers a higher profit. Expenses in organic production are higher (2170 EUR/ha than those in conventional bean production (1825 EUR/ha. However, net profit in the organic production was estimated to 1440 EUR/ha, while the profit in the conventional concept was 315 EUR/ha. Also, profitability rate and the economic efficiency coefficient had higher values when growing bean in organic concept.

  14. Effects of plant maturity and growth media bacterial inoculum level on the surface contamination and internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in growing spinach leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shuaihua; Beaulieu, John C; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Ge, Beilei

    2009-11-01

    The incidence of foodborne outbreaks linked to fresh produce has increased in the United States. Particularly noteworthy was the 2006 Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak associated with prepackaged baby spinach. This study aimed to determine whether E. coli O157:H7 would be present in the aerial leaf tissue of a growing spinach plant when introduced at various plant maturities and different inoculum levels in a greenhouse setting. Spinach seeds of a commercial variety were sown in 8-in. (20.32-cm) pots. After seed germination, two levels (10(3) and 10(7) CFU/ml) of an E. coli O157:H7 green fluorescent protein-expressing strain were introduced into the plant growth media weekly for a total of five times. Inoculated spinach plants were examined weekly for the presence of E. coli O157:H7 on leaves and in surrounding growth media. Among 120 spinach plant samples examined for internal leaf contamination, only one yielded a positive result. Surface leaf contamination occurred occasionally and clustered between 3 and 5 weeks of age, but not among leaves younger than 3 weeks of age. On the other hand, when inoculated at the 10(7) CFU/ml level, the E. coli O157:H7 green fluorescent protein strain survived the entire cultivation period, although with gradually reduced levels. The experiments demonstrated that internalization of E. coli O157:H7 of growing spinach plant leaves under greenhouse conditions was a rare event, but surface contamination did occur, primarily when the plants reached 3 weeks of age. The study provided important data to further assess the association between spinach age and potential contamination of E. coli O157:H7.

  15. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M; Sethy, N K; Sahoo, S K

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r=0.86, pplants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r=0.88, pplants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p<0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as “Hair Waste”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana A. Cavello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum’s supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p>0.05. These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876.

  17. Growing Plants and Scientists: Fostering Positive Attitudes toward Science among All Participants in an Afterschool Hydroponics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Amie K.; Zhang, Lin; Barnett, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study examines an out-of-school time program targeting elementary-aged youth from populations that are typically underrepresented in science fields (primarily African-American, Hispanic, and/or English Language Learner participants). The program aimed to foster positive attitudes toward science among youth by engaging them in growing plants…

  18. THE CAM DESIGN FOR A BETTER EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRESCU Ion Florian

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an original method to determine the efficiency of a mechanism with cam and follower. The originality of this method consists in eliminate of the friction modulus. In this paper on analyze three types of cam mechanisms: 1.The mechanism with rotary cam and plate translated follower; 2.The mechanism with rotary cam and translated follower with roll; 3.The mechanism with rotary cam and rocking-follower with roll. In every kind of cam and follower mechanism on utilize a different method for the best efficiency design.

  19. Assessment of contamination potential of lettuce by Salmonella enterica serovar Newport added to the plant growing medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Nirit; Sela, Shlomo; Neder-Lavon, Sarit

    2007-07-01

    The capacity of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport to contaminate Romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Nogal) via the root system was evaluated in 17-, 20-, and 33-day-old plants. Apparent internalization of Salmonella via the root to the above-ground parts was identified in 33- but not 17- or 20-day-old plants and was stimulated by root decapitation. Leaves of lettuce plants with intact and damaged roots harbored Salmonella at 500 +/- 120 and 5,130 +/- 440 CFU/g of leaf, respectively, at 2 days postinoculation but not 5 days later. These findings are first to suggest that Salmonella Newport can translocate from contaminated roots to the aerial parts of lettuce seedlings and propose that the process is dependent on the developmental stage of the plant.

  20. Bacteria associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within roots of plants growing in a soil highly contaminated with aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffis, Bachir; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) belong to phylum Glomeromycota, an early divergent fungal lineage forming symbiosis with plant roots. Many reports have documented that bacteria are intimately associated with AMF mycelia in the soil. However, the role of these bacteria remains unclear and their diversity within intraradical AMF structures has yet to be explored. We aim to assess the bacterial communities associated within intraradical propagules (vesicles and intraradical spores) harvested from roots of plant growing in the sediments of an extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted basin. Solidago rugosa roots were sampled, surface-sterilized, and microdissected. Eleven propagules were randomly collected and individually subjected to whole-genome amplification, followed by PCRs, cloning, and sequencing targeting fungal and bacterial rDNA. Ribotyping of the 11 propagules showed that at least five different AMF OTUs could be present in S. rugosa roots, while 16S rRNA ribotyping of six of the 11 different propagules showed a surprisingly high bacterial richness associated with the AMF within plant roots. Most dominant bacterial OTUs belonged to Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., Massilia sp., and Methylobacterium sp. This study provides the first evidence of the bacterial diversity associated with AMF propagules within the roots of plants growing in extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted conditions. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Scleroderma, Stress and CAM Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka-Kit Hui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease influenced by interplay among genetic and environmental factors, of which one is stress. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is frequently used to treat stress and those diseases in which stress has been implicated. Results are presented from a survey of patients with scleroderma. Respondents were a convenient sample of those attending a national conference in Las Vegas in 2002. Findings implicate stress in the onset, continuation and exacerbation of scleroderma. The implication is that CAM providers may be filling an important patient need in their provision of services that identify and treat stress and its related disorders.

  2. Influence of modification of growth medium and using of plant growth regulator to enhance growing power and growth of True Seed of Shallot (TSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudaryono T.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Red onion is one of the main horticultural commodities in Indonesia. Generally red onion is cultivated by using tuber as a source of seeds. The weakness of the use of tuber as a source of seeds, besides the high cost also the quality of seed is less well guaranteed because it almost always carries of the pathogen disease. To overcome the weakness of red onion cultivation with tuber, the alternative is the cultivation with the seed of botani (True Seed of Shallot/TSS. The weakness of botanical seeds as a source of seed is the low germination/growing power. Therefore, to solve the problem of red onion cultivation with TSS, has been done research on the modification of growing medium and giving of plant growth regulator to produce seeds of red onion origin of botanical seed (TSS. Botanical seeds (TSS of red onion treated with coconut water and seeded on mixed soil + compost medium, soil + husk charcoal and soil + compost + chaff charcoal produce growing percentage and vegetative growth of optimum seeds. Based on the results of this study, coconut water can be used as a plant growth regulator in red onion seeding by using botanical seed (TSS.

  3. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUDIANTO AMIRTA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Amirta R, Yuliansyah, Angi EM, Ananto BR, Setiyono B, Haqiqi MT, Septiana HA, Lodong M, Oktavianto RN. 2016. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 22-30. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in intensifying the production and use of biomass to replace fossil fuels for the production of heat and electricity, especially for a remote area that generally abundance with the wood biomass resources including in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. In this work, diversity of plant species that commonly growth in community forest area of East Kutai District, East Kalimantan, Indonesia had been studied to point out their energy potency to be used as biomass feedstock for the electricity generated. Diversity of plant species in the community forest was evaluated by making 13 sampling plots with 20mx20m size approximately. Concurently, the energy properties of plant biomass such as proximate and ultimate compositions were also analyzed using ASTM methods. Results showed that more than 30 species of tropical trees and wood shrubs were grown in the community forest. The presence of them was classified into two different growth of origins: natural and artificial plantation, and also three different categories of plant resources: tree species from logged over forest, commercial fast growing plant tree species for the fiber production and woody shrubs. The highest dominancy and productivity was found in Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen since the wood biomass was artificially planted for the commercial purposes. Among the 31 plant species analyzed we found the highest energy potency was obtained from Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour. Blume that produced 3.17 MWh/ton, and the lowest was from Trema orientalis (L. Blume 0.97 MWh/ton. The woody shrubs species such as Vernonia amigdalina Delile., Piper aduncum L., Gliricidia

  4. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Go Back Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Email Print + Share Crohn’s disease and ulcerative ... Energy Medicine, and Biologically-Based Practices. Mind-Body Medicine Mind-body medicine is a set of interventions ...

  5. Effect of directed-spray glyphosate applications on survival and growth of planted oaks after three growing seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Self; Andrew W. Ezell; Josh L. Moree; Rory O. Thornton

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of acres of oak (Quercus spp.) plantations are established across the South annually. Survival and growth of these plantings have been less than desirable. Several techniques have been utilized in attempts to achieve improved success in these areas. One such technique that has been recommended is the application of directed-spray herbicide...

  6. A comparative study of antimony accumulation in plants growing in two mining areas in Iran, Moghanlo, and Patyar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajiani, N.J.; Ghaderian, S.M.; Karimi, N.; Schat, H.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony occurs locally at high concentrations in some mineralized soils. Very little is known about behavior of antimony in plants. In this study, we analyzed the soil and vegetation of two mining areas in Iran, Patyar, and Moghanlo. Total Sb concentrations in soil were 358–3482 mg/kg in Moghanlo

  7. A salinity-induced C3-CAM transition increases energy conservation in the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiadomska, Ewa; Karpinska, Barbara; Romanowska, Elzbieta; Slesak, Ireneusz; Karpinski, Stanislaw

    2004-06-01

    A strongly increased ATP/ADP ratio was found during the nocturnal phase I in crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)-induced Mesembryanthemum crystallinum plants. Conversely, during the daytime phase III in CAM-performing plants the ATP/ADP ratio dropped to a similar level to that of C3 plants, cytochrome c oxidase activity was stimulated and mitochondrial Mn-superoxide dismutase activity was strongly increased. The findings suggest that a salinity-induced C3-CAM transition might be an efficient energy-conserving strategy for M. crystallinum plants, in which the strong nocturnal ATP production seems to be, at least partially, independent from the coupled mitochondrial electron transport.

  8. The Z CamPaign: Year Five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Entering into the fifth year of the Z CamPaign, the author has developed a website summarizing our findings which will also act as a living catalog of bona fide Z Cam stars, suspected Z Cams, and Z Cam impostors. In this paper we summarize the findings of the first four years of research, introduce the website and its contents to the public, and discuss the way forward into year five and beyond.

  9. Plant phenological responses to a long-term experimental extension of growing season and soil warming in the tussock tundra of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsand Rosa, Roxaneh; Oberbauer, Steven F; Starr, Gregory; Parker La Puma, Inga; Pop, Eric; Ahlquist, Lorraine; Baldwin, Tracey

    2015-12-01

    Climate warming is strongly altering the timing of season initiation and season length in the Arctic. Phenological activities are among the most sensitive plant responses to climate change and have important effects at all levels within the ecosystem. We tested the effects of two experimental treatments, extended growing season via snow removal and extended growing season combined with soil warming, on plant phenology in tussock tundra in Alaska from 1995 through 2003. We specifically monitored the responses of eight species, representing four growth forms: (i) graminoids (Carex bigellowii and Eriophorum vaginatum); (ii) evergreen shrubs (Ledum palustre, Cassiope tetragona, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea); (iii) deciduous shrubs (Betula nana and Salix pulchra); and (iv) forbs (Polygonum bistorta). Our study answered three questions: (i) Do experimental treatments affect the timing of leaf bud break, flowering, and leaf senescence? (ii) Are responses to treatments species-specific and growth form-specific? and (iii) Which environmental factors best predict timing of phenophases? Treatment significantly affected the timing of all three phenophases, although the two experimental treatments did not differ from each other. While phenological events began earlier in the experimental plots relative to the controls, duration of phenophases did not increase. The evergreen shrub, Cassiope tetragona, did not respond to either experimental treatment. While the other species did respond to experimental treatments, the total active period for these species did not increase relative to the control. Air temperature was consistently the best predictor of phenology. Our results imply that some evergreen shrubs (i.e., C. tetragona) will not capitalize on earlier favorable growing conditions, putting them at a competitive disadvantage relative to phenotypically plastic deciduous shrubs. Our findings also suggest that an early onset of the growing season as a result of decreased snow cover

  10. Aromatic Plants growing in Nigeria: Essential Oil Constituents of Cassia alata (Linn. Roxb. and Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff O. Kamil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents identified from the leaves of two Nigerian plants are being reported. The oil samples were obtained from the studied plant species by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and then subsequently analyzed for their constituents by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The quantitatively significant constituents of the leaf oil of Cassia alata (Linn. Roxb., (Fabaceae were 1, 8-cineole (39.8%, β-caryophyllene (19.1% and caryophyllene oxide (12.7%. Limonene (5.2%, germacrene D (5.5% and α-selinene (5.4% constituted the other significant compounds present in the oil. T he sunflower oil, Helianthus annuus L., (Asteraceae was rich in α-pinene (16.0%, germacrene D (14.4%, sabinene (9.4% and 14-hydroxy-α-muurolene (9.0%.

  11. Effects of planting density and genotype on loblolly pine stands growing in the mountains of southeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney E. Will; Thomas C. Hennessey; Thomas B. Lynch; Robert Heinemann; Randal Holeman; Dennis Wilson; Keith Anderson; Gregory Campbell

    2013-01-01

    We determined the effects of planting density (4- by 4-, 6- by 6-, 8- by 8-, and 10- by 10-foot spacing) on stand-level height, diameter at breast height, stem volume, basal area, and periodic annual increment for two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seed sources. Seed sources for the 25-year-old stands were a North Carolina seed source (NCC 8-01) and...

  12. A comparative study of antimony accumulation in plants growing in two mining areas in Iran, Moghanlo, and Patyar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali Hajiani, Naser; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid; Karimi, Naser; Schat, Henk

    2015-11-01

    Antimony occurs locally at high concentrations in some mineralized soils. Very little is known about behavior of antimony in plants. In this study, we analyzed the soil and vegetation of two mining areas in Iran, Patyar, and Moghanlo. Total Sb concentrations in soil were 358-3482 mg/kg in Moghanlo and 284-886 mg/kg in Patyar. Corresponding Sb concentrations in plant shoots were 0.8-287 and 1.3-49 mg/kg, respectively. In both areas, foliar Sb concentrations increased with acid-extractable soil Sb, although the slope was about 2-fold steeper for Patyar than for Moghanlo. Regressing the foliar concentrations on water-soluble Sb yielded identical slopes for both areas, suggesting that the soluble fraction of Sb rather than total Sb is the direct determinant of foliar Sb accumulation. Both in Patyar and Moghanlo, only a minor part of the total variance of shoot Sb was explained by soluble Sb. The major part was explained by plant species, demonstrating that plant taxonomic identity is the most important determinant of foliar Sb accumulation capacity in both areas. The translocation factor (TF) was highly variable too, with species as the only significant variance component. Only four species were able to accumulate more than 100 mg/kg Sb in their leaves. Among these species, Achillea wilhelmsii and Matthiola farinosa were by far the best Sb accumulators, with, on average, 141 and 132 mg/kg Sb in their leaves. Of these two, only Matthiola farinosa consistently maintained TF values far above unity across the whole range of soluble Sb in Moghanlo.

  13. Shifts in root-associated microbial communities of Typha latifolia growing in naphthenic acids and relationship to plant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lori A; Armstrong, Sarah A; Headley, John V; Greer, Charles W; Germida, James J

    2010-01-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a complex mixture of organic acid compounds released during the extraction of crude oil from oil sands operations. The accumulation of toxic NAs in tailings pond water (TPW) is of significant environmental concern, and phytoremediation using constructed wetlands is one remediation option being assessed. Since root-associated microorganisms are an important factor during phytoremediation of organic compounds, this study investigated the impact of NAs on the microbial communities associated with the macrophyte Typha latifolia (cattail). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the impact of NAs on microbial communities was niche dependent, with endophytic communities being the most stable and bulk water communities being the least stable. The type of NA used was significant to microbial response, with commercial NAs causing greater adverse changes than TPW NAs. In general, plant beneficial bacteria such as diazotrophs were favoured in cattails grown in TPW NAs, while potentially deleterious bacteria such as denitrifying Dechlorospirillum species increased in commercial NA treatments. These findings suggest that NAs may affect plant health by impacting root-associated microbial communities. A better understanding of these impacts may allow researchers to optimize those microbial communities that support plant health, and thus further optimize wetland treatment systems.

  14. Influence of irradiated chitosan on rice plants growing in hydroponic medium contaminated with salt and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N.D.; Diep, T.B. [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique-VAEC, Nghiado, Cau giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Effect of chitosan and radiation-degraded chitosan on rice seedlings of a Vietnam's original variety was investigated. Potential of irradiated chitosan in plant tolerance for several stress factors (salt, zinc, and vanadium) also was studied as well. Chitosan represented in hydroponic medium clearly inhibited the growth of rice seedlings at concentrations arranging from 50 ppm. Radiation processing of chitosan with dose higher than 100 kGy reduced toxicity of chitosan and the efficacy was of dose proportion. Rice plant of 203 origin was almost normally grown in hydroponic solution containing chitosan that has been irradiated with dose of 150 and 200 kGy. Irradiated chitosan increased plant resistance to environmental stress caused by vanadium (V); thereby the seedlings could be recovered completely, even gained in biomass. This effect was not appeared when applied chitosan to rice in media contaminated by zinc (Zn) and salt (NaCl). The selectness of irradiated chitosan on various stress factors partly clarified the assistant action of chitosan in the vanadium intoxication because chelating with metal ions could not be evaluated as main mechanism. (author)

  15. Evolution of a CAM anatomy predates the origins of Crassulacean acid metabolism in the Agavoideae (Asparagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyduk, Karolina; McKain, Michael R; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, James

    2016-12-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a modified form of photosynthesis that has arisen independently at least 35 times in flowering plants. The occurrence of CAM is often correlated with shifts to arid, semiarid, or epiphytic habits, as well as transitions in leaf morphology (e.g. increased leaf thickness) and anatomy (e.g. increased cell size and packing). We assess shifts between C3 and CAM photosynthesis in the subfamily Agavoideae (Asparagaceae) through phylogenetic analysis of targeted loci captured from the nuclear and chloroplast genomes of over 60 species. Carbon isotope data was used as a proxy for mode of photosynthesis in extant species and ancestral states were estimated on the phylogeny. Ancestral character state mapping suggests three independent origins of CAM in the Agavoideae. CAM species differ from C3 species in climate space and are found to have thicker leaves with densely packed cells. C3 ancestors of CAM species show a predisposition toward CAM-like morphology. Leaf characteristics in the ancestral C3 species may have enabled the repeated evolution of CAM in the Agavoideae subfamily. Anatomical changes, including a tendency toward 3D venation, may have initially arisen in C3 ancestors in response to aridity as a way to increase leaf succulence for water storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbial community responses associated with the development of oomycete plant pathogens on tomato roots in soilless growing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Bado, L A; Petch, G; Parsons, N R; Morgan, J A W; Pettitt, T R; Whipps, J M

    2006-06-01

    To determine the spread of different oomycete pathogens in hydroponic, soilless tomato growing systems and their impact on established microbial communities, as baseline studies prior to future introduction of microbial inoculants for disease suppression. The oomycete pathogens, Pythium group F, Pythium aphanidermatum and Phytophthora cryptogea, were introduced into small-scale recirculating tomato growing systems containing rockwool 6 weeks after set-up when roots were well-established. Two weeks later, half of the systems were switched over to run-to-waste. Pythium aphanidermatum spreads the fastest, Pythium group F the slowest and Ph. cryptogea was intermediate in its spread. The switch to run-to-waste had no effect on pathogen recovery. Microbial communities, monitored by dilution plating, were well-established at the first sampling, 6 weeks after set-up and although differences in community levels were found between experiments, changes during any one experiment were small, generally less than 1 log10 CFU g(-1) for bacteria. Pathogen introduction increased microbial community levels in roots but the switch to run-to-waste had no effect. Analysis of bacterial communities through amplification of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene and DGGE profiling showed that different communities were established within each pathogen experiment and that different communities were established on roots, rockwool and in nutrient solutions. However, no significant changes in microbial profiles were found over time in any experiment. In these systems, the microbial communities were well-established 6 weeks after set-up and were resistant to biological and physical perturbation. The implication for microbial inoculation of such systems for disease suppression is that the micro-organisms would either have to be introduced very early during the set-up of the system or be able to replace an established but variable community.

  17. SenseCam: A new tool for memory rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubourg, L; Silva, A R; Fitamen, C; Moulin, C J A; Souchay, C

    2016-12-01

    The emergence of life-logging technologies has led neuropsychologist to focus on understanding how this new technology could help patients with memory disorders. Despite the growing number of studies using life-logging technologies, a theoretical framework supporting its effectiveness is lacking. This review focuses on the use of life-logging in the context of memory rehabilitation, particularly the use of SenseCam, a wearable camera allowing passive image capture. In our opinion, reviewing SenseCam images can be effective for memory rehabilitation only if it provides more than an assessment of prior occurrence in ways that reinstates previous thoughts, feelings and sensory information, thus stimulating recollection. Considering the fact that, in memory impairment, self-initiated processes are impaired, we propose that the environmental support hypothesis can explain the value of SenseCam for memory retrieval. Twenty-five research studies were selected for this review and despite the general acceptance of the value of SenseCam as a memory technique, only a small number of studies focused on recollection. We discuss the usability of this tool to improve episodic memory and in particular, recollection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural and functional study in the rhizosphere of Oryza sativa L. plants growing under biotic and abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J A; García-Villaraco, A; Ramos, B; García-Cristobal, J; Algar, E; Gutierrez-Mañero, J

    2013-07-01

    A structural and functional study has been carried out in the rice production area of the Guadalquivir marshes in southern Spain aiming to increase knowledge of rice rhizosphere structure and function for further application on integrated management practices. Rhizosphere bacterial structure (analysis of 16S rRNA partial sequences from total soil DNA), metabolic diversity (analysed by Biolog FF for fungal community and GN for microbial community) and a screening for putative plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to identify potential isolates for development of local biofertilizers, and biodiversity of culturable micro-organisms (analysis of 16S rRNA partial sequences) from four areas differing in salinity and Magnaporthe oryzae incidence in two moments of the crop cycle were studied. Results indicate that the dominant taxon in libraries from the four areas was Proteobacteria. Metabolic diversity was higher in areas affected only by salinity or incidence of Magnaporthe than in the control or area affected by both stresses. It seems that rice plants selected, in their rhizosphere, micro-organisms able to affect plant hormonal balance under all conditions, and this activity relied in different bacterial genera depending on the environmental stress. Bacterial genera for each stress, as well as generalist strains, were found present in all the studied areas. Potential molecular markers and taxonomic markers (Sphingobacteria for salt and Thermococci for Magnaporthe) of the different stress situations have been highlighted, and Class Verrucomicrobiae could be a marker for nonstressed areas. In addition, putative PGPR strains isolated in this study could be used as biofertilizers. Rice paddies are great ecologically important ecosystems. The results are very relevant as they may be included in the process of rice production, improving crop conditions with less environmental impact. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Composting of wine industry wastes and their use as a substrate for growing soil less ornamental plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona, E.; Moreno, M. T.; Aviles, M.; Ordovas, J.

    2012-11-01

    To study the process of composting of grape marc and test the resulting compost as a substrate for the cultivation of ornamental plants, six composting processes, with mixtures of dealcoholised grapevine marc and grape stalk (DM + GS) in a 1:1 ratio (v:v), were carried out in Seville (Spain) between 2000 and 2006. The duration of the composting ranged between 20 and 24 weeks in the Spring-Summer season. Weekly, temperature, pH, EC, N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} and N-NH{sub 4} +, were measured. The maximum temperatures reached values of 65-73 degree centigrade at a depth between 40 and 80 cm. The compost had a slightly alkaline pH, slightly salinity, high organic matter and total nitrogen contents. The final compost chemical composition in total elements showed values in the same range as those corresponding to plant material, except for Fe. The distribution in the size of the particles gives way to a total porous space that is close to the one considered as optimal in a substrate for soil less cropping. Pore size distribution showed a prevalence of big pores that produces unbalance in the water-air ratios, resulting in a material with a good aeration but with low water retention. The composts were tested as substrates for four ornamental species: geranium, petunia, carnation and gerbera. The results suggest that compost has no limiting characteristics for its use as a medium for the cultivation of ornamental plants in container, and can replace conventional substrates, such as peat and coconut fibre. (Author) 35 refs.

  20. Evolution of CAM and C4 carbon-concentrating mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Rundel, Philip W.

    2003-01-01

    Mechanisms for concentrating carbon around the Rubisco enzyme, which drives the carbon-reducing steps in photosynthesis, are widespread in plants; in vascular plants they are known as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and C4 photosynthesis. CAM is common in desert succulents, tropical epiphytes, and aquatic plants and is characterized by nighttime fixation of CO2. The proximal selective factor driving the evolution of this CO2-concentrating pathway is low daytime CO2, which results from the unusual reverse stomatal behavior of terrestrial CAM species or from patterns of ambient CO2 availability for aquatic CAM species. In terrestrials the ultimate selective factor is water stress that has selected for increased water use efficiency. In aquatics the ultimate selective factor is diel fluctuations in CO2 availability for palustrine species and extreme oligotrophic conditions for lacustrine species. C4 photosynthesis is based on similar biochemistry but carboxylation steps are spatially separated in the leaf rather than temporally as in CAM. This biochemical pathway is most commonly associated with a specialized leaf anatomy known as Kranz anatomy; however, there are exceptions. The ultimate selective factor driving the evolution of this pathway is excessively high photorespiration that inhibits normal C3 photosynthesis under high light and high temperature in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats. CAM is an ancient pathway that likely has been present since the Paleozoic era in aquatic species from shallow-water palustrine habitats. While atmospheric CO2 levels have undoubtedly affected the evolution of terrestrial plant carbon-concentrating mechanisms, there is reason to believe that past atmospheric changes have not played as important a selective role in the aquatic milieu since palustrine habitats today are not generally carbon sinks, and the selective factors driving aquatic CAM are autogenic. Terrestrial CAM, in contrast, is of increasing selective value under

  1. Studies on planting, weed control and fertilizing when growing short rotation willow coppice; Utvaerdering av teknik foer plantering, ograesbekaempning och goedsling vid salixodling. Studier 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danfors, B.

    1998-12-01

    The report describes work studies into planting of Salix, weed control in newly planted plantations and annual stands, and fertilization in tall stands of Salix. The study is a continuation of work on Salix performed at JTI during 1989 and 1991. The report gives a description of the background to the problem, a brief review of earlier work, a description of the purpose of the study, and an account of its planning, extent and accomplishment. The results presented cover planting and weed control at four sites with an early follow-up of results, a description of the weed control and, further, a review of the results after the end of the growing season. The fertilization procedure used on six occasions is also discussed, together with spreading results using diagrams illustrating the distribution of the fertilizer. As mentioned above, similar studies were conducted at JTI during 1989 and 1991 In comparisons both concerning the level of knowledge and access to mechanical equipment, we may note that there has been considerable development within the sectors dealing with planting, weed control and fertilizing. Continued major tasks are to take the technical development further and to disseminate the new knowledge to growers prepared to invest in production of Salix as biofuel 13 refs, 18 figs, 9 figs

  2. How much selenium do medicinal plants contain? Results of a research on wild-growing species from Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Simona ANTAL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The ultratrace element selenium is essential for higher animals and man. It is an active constituent of over twenty different selenoproteins from human tissues. As well, this rare nonmetal element is a potent anticarcinogen, inhibiting both chemically and virally induced tumors. The ever-increasing biological importance of Se determined us to perform the first largescale investigation of Romanian medicinal plants in what their Se content is concerned, and to evaluate the extraction ratio of this element during decoction. ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry analysis revealed average Se contents of 43 μg/kg dry matter. The highest Se content was found in aerial parts (average of 60 μg/kg, followed by leaves (58, roots (54, flowers (35 and fruits (12. Species grown on limestone weathering soils are significantly richer in Se than the ones grown on granite or phyllite. Outstanding Se contents were measured for samples of Betula pendula leaves – 381, 131 and 113 μg Se/kg, Agrimonia eupatoria herb - 332 μg/kg, and Galium verum herb – 287 μg/kg. The extraction ratio of Se through decoction ranges from 4% (valerian roots to 83% (chicory roots. The Se content and the high amounts of flavonoids in birch, agrimony and yellow bedstraw underline the value of these plants in the auxiliary treatment of various free-radical mediated diseases.

  3. Optional use of CAM photosynthesis in two C4 species, Portulaca cyclophylla and Portulaca digyna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtum, Joseph A M; Hancock, Lillian P; Edwards, Erika J; Winter, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Low levels of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) are demonstrated in two species with C4 photosynthesis, Portulaca cyclophylla and P. digyna. The expression of CAM in P. cyclophylla and P. digyna is facultative, i.e. optional. Well-watered plants did not accumulate acid at night and exhibited gas-exchange patterns consistent with C4 photosynthesis. CAM-type nocturnal acidification was reversible in that it was induced following drought and lost when droughted plants were rewatered. In P. cyclophylla, droughting was accompanied by a small but discernible net uptake of CO2 during the dark, whereas in P. digyna, net CO2 exchange at night approached the CO2 compensation point but did not transition beyond it. This report brings the number of known C4 species with a capacity for expressing CAM to six. All are species of Portulaca. The observation of CAM in P. cyclophylla and P. digyna is the first for species in the opposite-leaved (OL) Portulacelloid-anatomy lineage of Portulaca and for the Australian clade therein. The other four species are within the alternate-leaved (AL) lineage, in the Atriploid-anatomy Oleracea and the Pilosoid-anatomy Pilosa clades. Studies of the evolutionary origins of C4 and CAM in Portulaca will benefit from a more wide-range survey of CAM across its species, particularly in the C3-C4 intermediate-containing Cryptopetala clade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. A roadmap for research on crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to enhance sustainable food and bioenergy production in a hotter, drier world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C; Borland, Anne M; Edwards, Erika J; Wullschleger, Stan D; Tuskan, Gerald A; Owen, Nick A; Griffiths, Howard; Smith, J Andrew C; De Paoli, Henrique C; Weston, David J; Cottingham, Robert; Hartwell, James; Davis, Sarah C; Silvera, Katia; Ming, Ray; Schlauch, Karen; Abraham, Paul; Stewart, J Ryan; Guo, Hao-Bo; Albion, Rebecca; Ha, Jungmin; Lim, Sung Don; Wone, Bernard W M; Yim, Won Cheol; Garcia, Travis; Mayer, Jesse A; Petereit, Juli; Nair, Sujithkumar S; Casey, Erin; Hettich, Robert L; Ceusters, Johan; Ranjan, Priya; Palla, Kaitlin J; Yin, Hengfu; Reyes-García, Casandra; Andrade, José Luis; Freschi, Luciano; Beltrán, Juan D; Dever, Louisa V; Boxall, Susanna F; Waller, Jade; Davies, Jack; Bupphada, Phaitun; Kadu, Nirja; Winter, Klaus; Sage, Rowan F; Aguilar, Cristobal N; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jenkins, Jerry; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2015-08-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized mode of photosynthesis that features nocturnal CO2 uptake, facilitates increased water-use efficiency (WUE), and enables CAM plants to inhabit water-limited environments such as semi-arid deserts or seasonally dry forests. Human population growth and global climate change now present challenges for agricultural production systems to increase food, feed, forage, fiber, and fuel production. One approach to meet these challenges is to increase reliance on CAM crops, such as Agave and Opuntia, for biomass production on semi-arid, abandoned, marginal, or degraded agricultural lands. Major research efforts are now underway to assess the productivity of CAM crop species and to harness the WUE of CAM by engineering this pathway into existing food, feed, and bioenergy crops. An improved understanding of CAM has potential for high returns on research investment. To exploit the potential of CAM crops and CAM bioengineering, it will be necessary to elucidate the evolution, genomic features, and regulatory mechanisms of CAM. Field trials and predictive models will be required to assess the productivity of CAM crops, while new synthetic biology approaches need to be developed for CAM engineering. Infrastructure will be needed for CAM model systems, field trials, mutant collections, and data management. © 2015 ORNL/UT-Battelle New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Mercury-resistant rhizobial bacteria isolated from nodules of leguminous plants growing in high Hg-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Quiñones, Miguel A; Fajardo, Susana; López, Miguel A; Higueras, Pablo; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2012-10-01

    A survey of symbiotic bacteria from legumes grown in high mercury-contaminated soils (Almadén, Spain) was performed to produce a collection of rhizobia which could be well adapted to the environmental conditions of this region and be used for restoration practices. Nineteen Hg-tolerant rhizobia were isolated from nodules of 11 legume species (of the genera Medicago, Trifolium, Vicia, Lupinus, Phaseolus, and Retama) and characterized. Based on their growth on Hg-supplemented media, the isolates were classified into three susceptibility groups. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the effective concentrations that produce 50% mortality identified the patterns of mercury tolerance and showed that 15 isolates were tolerant. The dynamics of cell growth during incubation with mercury showed that five isolates were unaffected by exposure to Hg concentrations under the MICs. Genetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene assigned ten strains to Rhizobium leguminosarum, six to Ensifer medicae, two to Bradyrhizobium canariense, and one to Rhizobium radiobacter. Inoculation of host plants and analysis of the nodC genes revealed that most of them were symbiotically effective. Finally, three isolates were selected for bioremediation processes with restoration purposes on the basis of their levels of Hg tolerance, their response to high concentrations of this heavy metal, and their genetic affiliation and nodulation capacity.

  6. Establishment of propagation methods for growing promising aromatic plant species of the Lippia (Verbenaceae and Tagetes (Asteraceae genera in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Mauricio Herrera-Moreno

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate methods of asexual propagation with stem cuttings in the aromatic plant species Lippia origanoides (accessions CA-90 and CA-93, Lippia alba (accession CA-300 and Tagetes zypaquirensis (accession CA-247 and determine the germination behavior of Tagetes caracasana (accession CA-10, in order to contribute to the establishment of these promising aromatics as potential new crops in Colombia. The factors evaluated were the substrate (fine coconut fiber (FCF; fine coconut fiber: coal slag 1:1 (FCFCS; fine coconut fiber: coal slag: river sand 1:1:1 (FCFCSRS and IBA hormone concentration (0, 2,000 and 4,000 mg L-1. Germination tests of seeds of the accession CA-10 were carried out in Petri dishes with 50 seeds per dish, with three replicates in controlled conditions and constant temperature (25°C, humidity (90% and total darkness. In general, the accessions CA-90, CA-93, CA-300 and CA-247 showed better rooting percentage, root length, number of roots and root dry weight in the fine coconut fiber substrate and a higher number of roots with an exogenous application of 2,000 mg L-1 IBA. L. alba and T. zypaquirensis responded better than L. origanoides to the treatments. The latter species showed a relatively poor performance and may require more complex and improved propagation methods to obtain more satisfactory results. T. caracasana seeds had a relatively short germination time (less than three weeks and relatively high germination under controlled laboratory and greenhouse conditions (70 and 60%, respectively; these percentages are high relative to wild species of the same genus, meaning this method of seed propagation is appropriate for this wild species

  7. Anti-plasmodial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils of aromatic plants growing in the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agli, Mario; Sanna, Cinzia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Basilico, Nicoletta; Colombo, Elisa; Scaltrito, Maria M; Ndiath, Mamadou Ousmane; Maccarone, Luca; Taramelli, Donatella; Bicchi, Carlo; Ballero, Mauro; Bosisio, Enrica

    2012-07-02

    Sardinia is a Mediterranean area endemic for malaria up to the last century. During a screening study to evaluate the anti-plasmodial activity of some aromatic plants traditionally used in Sardinia, Myrtus communis (myrtle, Myrtaceae), Satureja thymbra (savory, Lamiaceae), and Thymus herba-barona (caraway thyme, Lamiaceae) were collected in three vegetative periods: before, during and after flowering. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation, fractionated by silica gel column chromatography and analysed by GC-FID-MS. Total oil and three main fractions were tested on D10 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Larvicidal and adulticidal activities were tested on Anopheles gambiae susceptible strains. The essential oil of savory, rich in thymol, was the most effective against P. falciparum with an inhibitory activity independent from the time of collection (IC50 17-26 μg/ml on D10 and 9-11 μg/ml on W2). Upon fractionation, fraction 1 was enriched in mono-sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons; fraction 2 in thymol (73-83%); and fraction 3 contained thymol, carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol, with a different composition depending on the time of collection. Thymol-enriched fractions were the most active on both strains (IC50 20-22 μg/ml on D10 and 8-10 μg/ml on W2) and thymol was confirmed as mainly responsible for this activity (IC50 19.7 ± 3.0 and 10.6 ± 2.0 μg/ml on D10 and W2, respectively). The essential oil of S. thymbra L. showed also larvicidal and adulticidal activities. The larvicidal activity, expressed as LC50, was 0.15 ± 0.002; 0.21 ± 0.13; and 0.15 ± 0.09 μg/ml (mean ± sd) depending on the time of collection: before, during and after flowering, respectively. This study provides evidence for the use of essential oils for treating malaria and fighting the vector at both the larval and adult stages. These findings open the possibility for further investigation aimed at the isolation of natural products with anti-parasitic properties.

  8. Engineering and biological characterization of VB6-845, an anti-EpCAM immunotoxin containing a T-cell epitope-depleted variant of the plant toxin bouganin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizeau, Jeannick; Grenkow, Danielle M; Brown, Jennifer G; Entwistle, Joycelyn; MacDonald, Glen C

    2009-01-01

    The clinical development of immunotoxins in the treatment of solid tumors has been impeded in part, by the induction of an immune response directed primarily against the toxin moiety. Bouganin, a type I ribosome inactivating protein isolated from the leaf of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd, was mutated to remove the T-cell epitopes while preserving the biological activity of the wild-type molecule. The T-cell epitope-depleted variant of bouganin (de-bouganin) was genetically linked to an anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) Fab moiety via a peptidic linker containing a furin proteolytic site to create the fusion construct VB6-845. To determine the optimal construct design for VB6-845, several dicistronic units where de-bouganin was genetically linked to either the N-terminal or C-terminal of either the heavy or light chain were engineered. Only the C-terminal variants expressed the full-length molecule. An in vitro assessment of the biological activity of VB6-845 showed that it bound and selectively killed EpCAM-positive cell lines with a greater potency than many commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated using an EpCAM-positive human tumor xenograft model in SCID mice with the majority of the mice treated being tumor free at the end of the study.

  9. Plants growing on contaminated and brownfield sites appropriate for use in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development terrestrial plant growth test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Lawrence, Victoria K; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) terrestrial plant test is often used for the ecological risk assessment of contaminated land. However, its origins in plant protection product testing mean that the species recommended in the OECD guidelines are unlikely to occur on contaminated land. Six alternative species were tested on contaminated soils from a former Zn smelter and a metal fragmentizer with elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The response of the alternative species was compared with that of two species recommended by the OECD: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and Trifolium pratense (red clover). Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) had low emergence rates in the control soil and so may be considered unsuitable. Festuca rubra (Chewings fescue), Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire fog), Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel), and Verbascum thapsus (great mullein) offer good alternatives to the OECD species. In particular, H. lanatus and S. vulgaris were more sensitive to the soils with moderate concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the OECD species. © 2010 SETAC.

  10. Day/night regulation of aquaporins during the CAM cycle in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Amezcua-Romero, Julio C; Pantoja, Omar

    2012-03-01

    Mesembryanthemum crystallinum exhibits induction of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) after a threshold stage of development, by exposure to long days with high light intensities or by water and salt stress. During the CAM cycle, fluctuations in carbon partitioning within the cell lead to transient drops in osmotic potential, which are likely stabilized/balanced by passive movement of water via aquaporins (AQPs). Protoplast swelling assays were used to detect changes in water permeability during the day/night cycle of CAM. To assess the role of AQPs during the same period, we followed transcript accumulation and protein abundance of four plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) and one tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP). CAM plants showed a persistent rhythm of specific AQP protein abundance changes throughout the day/night cycle, including changes in amount of McPIP2;1, McTIP1;2, McPIP1;4 and McPIP1;5, while the abundance of McPIP1;2 was unchanged. These protein changes did not appear to be coordinated with transcript levels for any of the AQPs analysed; however, they did occur in parrallel to alterations in water permeability, as well as variations in cell osmolarity, pinitol, glucose, fructose and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc) levels measured throughout the day/night CAM cycle. Results suggest a role for AQPs in maintaining water balance during CAM and highlight the complexity of protein expression during the CAM cycle. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The path to CAM6: coupled simulations with CAM5.4 and CAM5.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bogenschutz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents coupled simulations of two developmental versions of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM towards CAM6. The configuration called CAM5.4 introduces new microphysics, aerosol, and ice nucleation changes, among others to CAM. The CAM5.5 configuration represents a more radical departure, as it uses an assumed probability density function (PDF-based unified cloud parameterization to replace the turbulence, shallow convection, and warm cloud macrophysics in CAM. This assumed PDF method has been widely used in the last decade in atmosphere-only climate simulations but has never been documented in coupled mode. Here, we compare the simulated coupled climates of CAM5.4 and CAM5.5 and compare them to the control coupled simulation produced by CAM5.3. We find that CAM5.5 has lower cloud forcing biases when compared to the control simulations. Improvements are also seen in the simulated amplitude of the Niño-3.4 index, an improved representation of the diurnal cycle of precipitation, subtropical surface wind stresses, and double Intertropical Convergence Zone biases. Degradations are seen in Amazon precipitation as well as slightly colder sea surface temperatures and thinner Arctic sea ice. Simulation of the 20th century results in a credible simulation that ends slightly colder than the control coupled simulation. The authors find this is due to aerosol indirect effects that are slightly stronger in the new version of the model and propose a solution to ameliorate this. Overall, in these early coupled simulations, CAM5.5 produces a credible climate that is appropriate for science applications and is ready for integration into the National Center for Atmospheric Research's (NCAR's next-generation climate model.

  12. The path to CAM6: coupled simulations with CAM5.4 and CAM5.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschutz, Peter A.; Gettelman, Andrew; Hannay, Cecile; Larson, Vincent E.; Neale, Richard B.; Craig, Cheryl; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2018-01-01

    This paper documents coupled simulations of two developmental versions of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) towards CAM6. The configuration called CAM5.4 introduces new microphysics, aerosol, and ice nucleation changes, among others to CAM. The CAM5.5 configuration represents a more radical departure, as it uses an assumed probability density function (PDF)-based unified cloud parameterization to replace the turbulence, shallow convection, and warm cloud macrophysics in CAM. This assumed PDF method has been widely used in the last decade in atmosphere-only climate simulations but has never been documented in coupled mode. Here, we compare the simulated coupled climates of CAM5.4 and CAM5.5 and compare them to the control coupled simulation produced by CAM5.3. We find that CAM5.5 has lower cloud forcing biases when compared to the control simulations. Improvements are also seen in the simulated amplitude of the Niño-3.4 index, an improved representation of the diurnal cycle of precipitation, subtropical surface wind stresses, and double Intertropical Convergence Zone biases. Degradations are seen in Amazon precipitation as well as slightly colder sea surface temperatures and thinner Arctic sea ice. Simulation of the 20th century results in a credible simulation that ends slightly colder than the control coupled simulation. The authors find this is due to aerosol indirect effects that are slightly stronger in the new version of the model and propose a solution to ameliorate this. Overall, in these early coupled simulations, CAM5.5 produces a credible climate that is appropriate for science applications and is ready for integration into the National Center for Atmospheric Research's (NCAR's) next-generation climate model.

  13. The influence of ethephon application to processing tomato plants on yield structure in relation to weather conditions during the growing period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrszczyk Elżbieta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of ethephon application (Agrostym 480 SL on the yield and yield structure of five processing tomato cultivars (Rumba, Hubal, Sokal F1 , Mieszko F1 and Polset F1 . The experiment was carried out in the open field in the years 2009-2011 in Mydlniki near Kraków, Poland. Two weeks before harvesting, half of the plants of each cultivar were treated with Agrostym 480 SL (3 dm3 ha-1 and the other half were left as a control without spraying. Marketable yield included properly shaped and welldeveloped light red and red fruits. Non-marketable yield included pink and turning fruits, mature green and breaker fruits, and diseased fruits. A generalized linear model (GLM for Poisson distribution with the log link function was used to determine the relationship between the years of the study and cultivar and selected values of the yield structure. The yield structure of tomato depended significantly on the weather conditions during the growing period in different years of the study, on the cultivar, and on the use of ethephon. Ethephon had a particularly beneficial effect on yield structure in the years with an unfavourable distribution of precipitation. Ethephon application in the years 2009 and 2010 had a beneficial effect on the health of tomato plants.

  14. Bacterial communities associated with the rhizosphere of pioneer plants (Bahia xylopoda and Viguiera linearis) growing on heavy metals-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Jan-Roblero, Janet; González-Chávez, Maria del Carmen; Hernández-Gama, Regina; Hernández-Rodríguez, César

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the bacterial communities associated with the rhizospheres of pioneer plants Bahia xylopoda and Viguiera linearis were explored. These plants grow on silver mine tailings with high concentration of heavy metals in Zacatecas, Mexico. Metagenomic DNAs from rhizosphere and bulk soil were extracted to perform a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis (DGGE) and to construct 16S rRNA gene libraries. A moderate bacterial diversity and twelve major phylogenetic groups including Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae and Actinobacteria phyla, and divisions TM7, OP10 and OD1 were recognized in the rhizospheres. Only 25.5% from the phylotypes were common in the rhizosphere libraries and the most abundant groups were members of the phyla Acidobacteria and Betaproteobacteria (Thiobacillus spp., Nitrosomonadaceae). The most abundant groups in bulk soil library were Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria, and no common phylotypes were shared with the rhizosphere libraries. Many of the clones detected were related with chemolithotrophic and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, characteristic of an environment with a high concentration of heavy metal-sulfur complexes, and lacking carbon and organic energy sources.

  15. Surviving and growing of seedlings planted with their tubes in arid areas prepared with different soil cultivatıon methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Gülcü

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, surviving percent and growing of seedlings planted with their tubes of Black pine [Pinus nigra Arnold. ssp. pallasiana (Lamb. Holmboe.], Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich, Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb. were evaluated in the areas prepared with different soil cultivation methods for afforestation studies in arid areas. For this aim, afforestation area in Karaman disrict was selected. In the experiment, 12 treatments for land preparation by using different equipments were applied. In parcels applied these treatments, seedlings of the species were planted as tubed only cutting their 1 cm partial of bottom. The experiment was established in completely randomized plot design with three replications, 20 seedlings for each one. At the end of the second vegetation period survival rate, seedling height, growth of the terminal shoot in the last year and bottom diameter of the seedlings were measured. According to results of data analysing, minimum survival rate was 38.89% (Balck pine, maximum was 88.89% (Crimean juniper. The treatments made top soil tillage combined disc harrows and gradoni terrace applications more successful than the other treatments for all seedling characteristics and surviving percentages. In addition the treatments, double riper + gradoni terrace and triple ripper + gradoni terrace, which had better performance can suggest for soil preparetaion in arid area. Because these treatments are more practicable and cheap than the others.

  16. Cultivo hidropônico da alface empregando substratos: uma alternativa a NFT? Growing lettuce plants in hydroponics using substrates: an alternative for the NFT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo L. Andriolo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um dispositivo experimental para o cultivo da alface em sistema hidropônico fechado empregando substratos. As bancadas foram constituídas por telhas de cimento amianto, cujos canais foram preenchidos com brita basáltica. Sobre a brita foram dispostos os substratos, formando uma camada de 0,05 m de altura, com a superfície revestida com filme de polietileno opaco branco. As mudas foram produzidas em bandejas de poliestireno e plantadas em orifícios feitos sobre a superfície do filme de polietileno. Uma solução nutritiva completa foi fornecida diariamente, por meio de tubos gotejadores localizados na superfície da camada de substrato e abaixo do filme de polietileno. A solução drenada foi recolhida por gravidade para dentro do reservatório principal. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, no período entre 16 de maio e 24 de junho e 1º e 28 de outubro de 2003, empregando as cultivares Regina e Mimosa e os substratos areia média e substrato orgânico Plantmax® Folhosas HA. No decorrer dos experimentos, houve diminuição dos valores de pH da solução nutritiva, tendo sido feita apenas uma correção em cada um dos experimentos. No dia mais quente do experimento de primavera, a temperatura foi mais elevada na areia, sem diferença significativa do substrato orgânico, cuja média situou-se 5,4ºC acima da temperatura da solução nutritiva e 0,4ºC acima daquela do ar. As médias mais elevadas das variáveis de crescimento e desenvolvimento foram observadas no substrato orgânico no outono, enquanto, na primavera, foram constatadas nos tratamentos tendo areia como substrato. O emprego dos substratos permitiu uma redução em torno de 92,4% no tempo de funcionamento da motobomba e simplificou tanto o manejo da fertirrigação como os controles da solução nutritiva.An experimental set-up to grow lettuce plants in a closed hydroponic growing system using substrates was made up and tested. Commercial fibber cement tiles

  17. Effects of Aridity and Fog Deposition on C3/CAM Photosynthesis and N-cycling in Welwitschia mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, K.; Henschel, J.; Macko, S. A.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental controls on photosynthesis and N-cycling in Welwitschia mirabilis are evaluated through δ13C and δ15N analyses of leaf material from 26 individuals in the southermost population of this long-lived gymnosperm, which is endemic to the Namib Desert. The coastal Namib Desert in southwestern Africa is hyperarid in terms of rainfall, but receives up to 100 days of fog each year. This climate regime leads to interesting water relations in the Namib flora and fauna. Among many enigmatic characteristics, photosynthesis in W. mirabilis has puzzled researchers since the 1970's. Although it is predominantly a C3 plant, δ13C ranges from -17.5 to -23.5‰ in natural habitats, and can be as enriched as -14.4‰ under artificial growing conditions. Recently the CAM pathway has been confirmed, but the driver for CAM utilization has not been identified. In this study we incorporate new δ13C compositions for plants in the middle of the 100 km aridity gradient which spans the natural distribution of W. mirabilis. Initial results show an enriched δ13C signal (-20‰) in the more exposed individuals compared with those in a sandy drainage depression (-22‰). In addition, the documented correlation between rainfall and δ15N found in Kalahari C3 plants (Swap et al. 2004) is used to interpret the δ15N values in this W. mirabilis population. Initial results indicate that the fog deposition may significantly affect the nutrition of these unusual plants from the Namib Desert.

  18. IMC & CAMS meeting in Egmond, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggemans, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The 35th IMC broke a few records: the largest total number of participants, the largest number of presentations, both talks and posters and the thickest IMC Proceedings ever. After the IMC the Benelux CAMS group had its meeting in Egmond. A summary is presented of the highlights of this IMC and CAMS day.

  19. Applicability of a “Multi-Stage Pulse Labeling” 15N Approach to Phenotype N Dynamics in Maize Plant Components during the Growing Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Oliveira Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available HighlightsThis work utilizes “multi-stage pulse labeling” 15N applications, primarily during reproductive growth stages, as a phenotyping strategy to identify maize hybrids with superior N use efficiency (NUE under low N conditions.Research using labeled isotopic N (15N can precisely quantify fertilizer nitrogen (N uptake and organ-specific N allocation in field crops such as maize (Zea mays L.. The overall research objective was to study plant N uptake patterns potentially correlated with N use efficiency (NUE in field-grown maize hybrids using a “multi-stage pulse labeling” 15N phenotyping strategy with an emphasis on the reproductive period. Five hybrids varying in NUE were compared under zero N fertilizer application (0N plus a moderate rate of 112 kg N ha−1 (112N in 2013 (2 locations and 2014 growing seasons. The equivalent of 3.2 (2013 to 2.1 (2014 kg of 15N ha−1, as labeled Ca(15NO32, was injected into soil on both sides of consecutive plants at multiple stages between V14 and R5. Aboveground plant biomass was primarily collected in short-term intervals (4–6 days after each 15N application in both years, and following a single long-term interval (at R6 after 15N injection at R1 in 2014. Averaged across hybrids and site-years, the moderate N rate (112N increased absolute 15N uptake at all stages; however, plants in the 0N treatment allocated proportionally more 15N to reproductive organs. Before flowering, short-term recovery of 15N (15Nrec totaled ~0.30 or 0.40 kg kg−1 of the 15N applied, and ~50% of that accumulated 15Nu was found in leaves and 40% in stems. After flowering, plant 15Nrec totaled ~0.30 kg kg−1 of 15N applied, and an average 30% of accumulated 15Nu was present in leaves, 17% in stems, and the remainder—usually the majority—in ears. At the R5 stage, despite a declining overall rate of 15N uptake per GDD thermal unit, plant 15Nrec represented ~0.25 kg kg−1 of 15N applied, of which ~65% was allocated

  20. A systematic literature review on reviews and meta-analyses of biologically based CAM-practices for cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Lunde, Anita; Johannessen, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To provide an overview and evaluate the evidence of biologically based CAM-practices for cancer patients. Methods Pubmed, Social Science Citation Index, AMED and the Cochrane library were systematically searched for reviews on effects of biologically based CAM-practices, including herbal...... levels of evidence and were excluded from further evaluation. Among the 32 high-quality reviews the most reviewed practices were soy/plant hormones (7), Chinese herbal medicine (7), antioxidants (5) and mistletoe (4). Fifteen of the 32 reviews included data on the efficacy of biologically-based CAM...... or interference with treatment. Conclusions Thirty-two reviews provided reliable information on the evidence for biologically based CAM-practices for cancer or cancer related symptoms. None of the reviews concluded a positive effect on the cancer, despite the widespread use of these CAM-practices among cancer...

  1. Agave as a model CAM crop system for a warming and drying world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J Ryan

    2015-01-01

    As climate change leads to drier and warmer conditions in semi-arid regions, growing resource-intensive C3 and C4 crops will become more challenging. Such crops will be subjected to increased frequency and intensity of drought and heat stress. However, agaves, even more than pineapple (Ananas comosus) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and related species), typify highly productive plants that will respond favorably to global warming, both in natural and cultivated settings. With nearly 200 species spread throughout the U.S., Mexico, and Central America, agaves have evolved traits, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), that allow them to survive extreme heat and drought. Agaves have been used as sources of food, beverage, and fiber by societies for hundreds of years. The varied uses of Agave, combined with its unique adaptations to environmental stress, warrant its consideration as a model CAM crop. Besides the damaging cycles of surplus and shortage that have long beset the tequila industry, the relatively long maturation cycle of Agave, its monocarpic flowering habit, and unique morphology comprise the biggest barriers to its widespread use as a crop suitable for mechanized production. Despite these challenges, agaves exhibit potential as crops since they can be grown on marginal lands, but with more resource input than is widely assumed. If these constraints can be reconciled, Agave shows considerable promise as an alternative source for food, alternative sweeteners, and even bioenergy. And despite the many unknowns regarding agaves, they provide a means to resolve disparities in resource availability and needs between natural and human systems in semi-arid regions.

  2. Agave as a model CAM crop system for a warming and drying world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryan eStewart

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As climate change leads to drier and warmer conditions in semi-arid regions, growing resource-intensive C3 and C4 crops will become more challenging. Such crops will be subjected to increased frequency and intensity of drought and heat stress. However, agaves, even more than pineapple (Ananas comosus and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and related species, typify highly productive plants that will respond favorably to global warming, both in natural and cultivated settings. With nearly 200 species spread throughout the U.S., Mexico, and Central America, agaves have evolved traits, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM, that allow them to survive extreme heat and drought. Agaves have been used as sources of food, beverage, and fiber by societies for hundreds of years. The varied uses of Agave, combined with its unique adaptations to environmental stress, warrant its consideration as a model CAM crop. Besides the damaging cycles of surplus and shortage that have long beset the tequila industry, the relatively long maturation cycle of Agave, its monocarpic flowering habit, and unique morphology comprise the biggest barriers to its widespread use as a crop suitable for mechanized production. Despite these challenges, agaves exhibit potential as crops since they can be grown on marginal lands, but with more resource input than is widely assumed. If these constraints can be reconciled, Agave shows considerable promise as an alternative source for food, alternative sweeteners, and even bioenergy. And despite the many unknowns regarding agaves, they provide a means to resolve disparities between natural and human systems in semi-arid regions.

  3. CAM-related changes in chloroplastic metabolism of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiadomska, Ewa; Bilger, Wolfgang; Gruca, Magdalena; Mulisch, Maria; Miszalski, Zbigniew; Krupinska, Karin

    2011-02-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is an intriguing metabolic strategy to maintain photosynthesis under conditions of closed stomata. A shift from C(3) photosynthesis to CAM in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum plants was induced by high salinity (0.4 M NaCl). In CAM-performing plants, the quantum efficiencies of photosystem II and I were observed to undergo distinct diurnal fluctuations that were characterized by a strong decline at the onset of the day, midday recovery, and an evening drop. The temporal recovery of both photosystems' efficiency at midday was associated with a more rapid induction of the electron transport rate at PSII. This recovery of the photosynthetic apparatus at midday was observed to be accompanied by extreme swelling of thylakoids. Despite these fluctuations, a persistent effect of CAM was the acceptor side limitation of PSI during the day, which was accompanied by a strongly decreased level of Rubisco protein. Diurnal changes in the efficiency of photosystems were parallel to corresponding changes in the levels of mRNAs for proteins of PSII and PSI reaction centers and for rbcL, reaching a maximum in CAM plants at midday. This might reflect a high demand for new protein synthesis at this time of the day. Hybridization of run-on transcripts with specific probes for plastid genes of M. crystallinum revealed that the changes in plastidic mRNA levels were regulated at the level of transcription.

  4. Structurally functional changes in the microbiota of nutrient solution with addition of liquid human wastes, used for growing plants in a closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirranen, L. S.; Borodina, E. V.; Markov, A. A.

    The investigations have proved the dependence of microbial community of nutrient solution development upon the specific conditions of a closed human life-support ecological system: the time of using permanent solution, introduction of additives into the nutrient medium and system gas exchange closure. For the first time, liquid human wastes were introduced into the nutrient solution to increase the mass exchange closure. Correlation analysis revealed the direct dependence between the time of liquid native human excretions introduction into the nutrient solution and the development of organisms participating in nitrogen transformation and growth of microflora potentially dangerous for humans and plants. With the help of correlation analysis it has been determined that particularly close connection exists between the duration of introduction of liquid human wastes and bacteria Escherichia coli, denitrificators, ammonificators and urobacteria. The correlation coefficient for these microbial groups was: r = 0,78. The investigations showed that by the end of experiment the microbial community of nutrient solution fulfilled the role of native urine destructor successfully. Thus, introduction of human native excretions (at 70% substitution of nitrate nitrogen with urine nitrogen) into the nutrient solution used for growing wheat monoculture in a closed ecosystem is possible.

  5. Competing carboxylases: circadian and metabolic regulation of Rubisco in C3 and CAM Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, B N; Griffiths, H

    2012-07-01

    The temporal co-ordination of ribulose 1·5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc) activities by Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. in C(3) and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) modes was investigated under conventional light-dark (LD) and continuous light (LL) conditions. When C(3) , net CO(2) assimilation rate increased during each subjective night under LL with maximum carboxylation unrelated to Rubisco activation state. The CAM circadian rhythm of CO(2) uptake was more pronounced, with CO(2) assimilation rate maximal towards the end of each subjective night. In vivo and in vitro techniques were integrated to map carboxylase enzyme regulation to the framework provided by CAM LL gas exchange activity. Rubisco was activated in vitro throughout each subjective dark period and consistently deactivated at each subjective dawn, similar to that observed at true dawn in constitutive CAM species. Instantaneous carbon isotope discrimination showed in vivo carboxylase co-dominance during the CAM subjective night, initially by Rubisco and latterly C(4) (PEPc), despite both enzymes seemingly activated in vitro. The circadian rhythm in titratable acidity accumulation was progressively damped over successive subjective nights, but maintenance of PEPc carboxylation capacity ensures that CAM plants do not become progressively more 'C(3) -like' with time under LL. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. High frequency microcloning of Aloe vera and their true-to-type conformity by molecular cytogenetic assessment of two years old field growing regenerated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Sk Moquammel; Ghosh, Biswajit

    2013-12-01

    Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f is an important industrial crop, which has enormous application in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. Thereby, the demand for quality planting material of A. vera is increasing worldwide. Micropropagation is the widely accepted practical application of plant biotechnology that has gained the status of a multibillion-dollar industry throughout the world and this techniques can be used to meet the industrial demand of A. vera. Present studies aim to develop a proficient methods of high-frequency true-to-type plantlet regeneration without intermediate callus phase for A. vera. Nodal portion of rhizomatous stem of A. vera were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium (Physiol. Plant. 15:473 - 497, 1962) supplemented with various cytokinin and A. vera leaf gel (AvG) as organic supplement. Number of proliferated shoots per explant was increased along with the regeneration cycles and on MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine and 10.0% (v/v) AvG, only 17.8 ± 0.35 shoots per explant were induced on 1(st) regeneration cycle whereas on 3(rd) regeneration cycle these number increase to 38.5 ± 0.44 shoots per explant on the same medium composition. AvG have an encouraging role to increase the proliferation rate and on 3(rd) regeneration cycle 27.6 ± 0.53 shoot per explant induced on 2.5 mg/L BAP, but these number increase to 38.5 ± 0.44 shoots per explant when 10.0% (v/v) AvG was added along with 2.5 mg/L BAP. After transfer of individual excised shoots to a one-third strength MS medium containing 20.0% (v/v) AvG, all the shoots formed whole plantlets with maximum number (9.6 ± 0.29) of roots per shoot. 95.0% of the regenerated plantlets survived on poly-green house. Normal flower appeared in 84.2% field growing micropropagated plants after 18 to 20 months of field transfer. Further, clonal fidelity of the two years old micropropagated plants was established by studying mitotic and meiotic

  7. Biotechnology of Tohoku Electric Power Co. Application of plant biotechnology/Biomass utilization/Development of technology to control cold resistance of plant/Practical application of passion fruit growing technology/Identification of useful genes of plant/Light supplement growing of rose/Electric stimulus growing of shiitake mushroom,etc; Tohoku Denryoku no biotechnology. Shokubutsu biotechnology oyo, biomass riyo, shokubutsu no taireisei seigyo gijutsu kaihatsu, passion fruit saibai gijutsu no jitsuyoka, shokubutsu no yuyo idenshi dotei, bara no hoko saibai, shiitake denki shigeki saibai gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The paper introduced the biotechnology study in Tohoku Electric Power Co. in terms of the above-captioned items. In the study of the plant biotechnology application, with garlic growing as a target, technology to increase seedlings in large quantity by texture cultivation technology was studied. In the biomass utilization study, as to one of the biomass crops, its economical efficiency was studied in case of using it as energy. In the development of the technology to control cold resistance of plant, genes of Superoxide dismutase, etc. were introduced to rice plant to obtain a result which indicates enhancement of cold resistance. In the development of the technology to grow passion fruit, a method was established to grow a tropical fruit, passion fruit produced in Brazil, without heating in winter and to enable two harvests a year, for the contribution to the regional activation. In the study on the identification of useful genes of plant, the development of DNA markers was conducted, trying the identification of a rice blight true resistance gene, Pi-Z{sup t}. 32 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. CAM Stochastic Volatility Model for Option Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupled additive and multiplicative (CAM noises model is a stochastic volatility model for derivative pricing. Unlike the other stochastic volatility models in the literature, the CAM model uses two Brownian motions, one multiplicative and one additive, to model the volatility process. We provide empirical evidence that suggests a nontrivial relationship between the kurtosis and skewness of asset prices and that the CAM model is able to capture this relationship, whereas the traditional stochastic volatility models cannot. We introduce a control variate method and Monte Carlo estimators for some of the sensitivities (Greeks of the model. We also derive an approximation for the characteristic function of the model.

  9. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  10. A focus Group Study of Medical Students’ Views of an Integrated Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM Curriculum: Students Teaching Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Lie, M.D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Student views of new curricula can shape training outcomes. This qualitative study elicited student opinions of CAM instruction to examine and distill best strategies.Methods: 49 second, third and fourth year students participated in focus groups using a predefined question route. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed.Results: Students successfully differentiated CAM curricula from other academic content and were supportive of a longitudinal integrated approach. They had positive disposition toward CAM use for themselves but this did not necessarily translate into patient recommendations. They agreed that goals of the CAM curriculum should center on awareness of patient use and evidence and information relevant to clinical practice. They advocated a case-based, hands-on, experiential strategy vs lectures. Students proposed greater institutional commitment to strengthen curricular effectiveness. The majority did not intend to practice CAM modalities but valued skills to assess them. Patient-centeredness was recognized. As training progressed, students exhibited a growing tendency to evaluate CAM efficacy, and therefore value, exclusively according to evidence.Conclusions: In-depth student input allowed examination of the effectiveness of a CAM curriculum,permitting improvement and assessment of program effectiveness.

  11. Should I fight or should I grow now? The role of cytokinins in plant growth and immunity and in the growth-defence trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Tessa; Argueso, Cristiana T

    2017-03-01

    Perception and activation of plant immunity require a remarkable level of signalling plasticity and control. In Arabidopsis and other plant species, constitutive defence activation leads to resistance to a broad spectrum of biotrophic pathogens, but also frequently to stunted growth and reduced seed set. Plant hormones are important integrators of the physiological responses that influence the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. We review the mechanisms by which the plant hormone cytokinin regulates both plant growth and response to pathogens, and how cytokinins may connect these two processes, ultimately affecting the growth trade-offs observed in plant immunity.

  12. Model Documentation for the MiniCAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Smith, Steven J.; Kim, Son H.; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2003-07-17

    The MiniCAM, short for the Mini-Climate Assessment Model, is an integrated assessment model of moderate complexity focused on energy and agriculture sectors. The model produces emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) and other radiatively important substances such as sulfur dioxide. Through incorporation of the simple climate model MAGICC, the consequences of these emissions for climate change and sea-level rise can be examined. The MiniCAM is designed to be fast and flexible.

  13. Chiropractic and CAM Utilization: A Descriptive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeker William C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To conduct a descriptive review of the scientific literature examining use rates of modalities and procedures used by CAM clinicians to manage chronic LBP and other conditions Data Sources A literature of PubMed and MANTIS was performed using the key terms Chiropractic; Low Back Pain; Utilization Rate; Use Rate; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; and Health Services in various combinations. Data Selection A total of 137 papers were selected, based upon including information about chiropractic utilization, CAM utilization and low back pain and other conditions. Data Synthesis Information was extracted from each paper addressing use of chiropractic and CAM, and is summarized in tabular form. Results Thematic analysis of the paper topics indicated that there were 5 functional areas covered by the literature: back pain papers, general chiropractic papers, insurance-related papers, general CAM-related papers; and worker's compensation papers. Conclusion Studies looking at chiropractic utilization demonstrate that the rates vary, but generally fall into a range from around 6% to 12% of the population, most of whom seek chiropractic care for low back pain and not for organic disease or visceral dysfunction. CAM is itself used by people suffering from a variety of conditions, though it is often used not as a primary intervention, but rather as an additional form of care. CAM and chiropractic often offer lower costs for comparable results compared to conventional medicine.

  14. The Mansonia genus (diptera: culicidae) and mosquitoes growing in Tucurui hydroelectric power plant (Para - Brazil); O genero Mansonia (diptera: culicidae) e a proliferacao de mosquitos na Usina Hidreletrica de Tucurui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radei, Wanderli Pedro [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Dams formed for hydroelectric generation normally are invaded by some kinds of aquatic plants. This plants besides the problems in navigation are also responsible for the growing of some mosquitoes. In Tucuri`s dam this plants appeared in so large quantity and make appear mosquitoes and others insects. In this study many captures were making in various places, identifying the mosquitoes and quantifying them from hour to hour. Some considerations were made about the characteristics of this mosquitoes. In conclusion the study shows that the growing of mosquito`s population can cause the appearing of epidemics not knowledge at this places with the population not prepared for them 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Beliefs, decision-making, and dialogue about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) within families using CAM: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, James; Thompson, Elizabeth A; Shaw, Alison

    2011-02-01

    The rise in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is well documented. Surveys provide varying estimates of the prevalence of CAM use. Qualitative research has explored individuals' decision-making regarding CAM. This study aimed to examine the family as a context for beliefs, decision-making, and dialogue about CAM. Families were recruited via the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. A subsample of CAM users was targeted using purposeful sampling. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with 15 families and the data were analyzed thematically. Family understandings and beliefs about CAM: CAM was understood as treatments provided outside mainstream care, offering a more "natural" and "holistic" approach, tailored to individual needs and overlapping with wider healthy lifestyle practices. Hierarchies of acceptability of CAM: Physical and "mainstream" therapies were widely supported, with "fringe" therapies producing the most polarized views. There was a belief particularly among fathers and young people that certain therapies rely on "placebo" effects and their value was contested. Types of CAM users within families: Family members were predominantly "pragmatic" CAM users, with "committed" users (all mothers) characterized by deeper philosophical commitment to CAM and skepticism toward conventional medicine. Family dynamics of CAM decision-making: Mothers tended to "champion" CAM within families, while not determining family CAM use. Fathers largely positioned themselves as lacking expertise or skeptical of CAM. Young people were beginning to articulate independent and more critical views of CAM, some directly challenging their mother's perspective. However, all families shared openness to CAM as part of broader beliefs in proactive healthy lifestyles. Family focus groups and interviews allow a window on beliefs, decision-making, and dialogue about CAM within families, illuminating the CAM "champion" role held by mothers, and young people

  16. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among hypertensive patients in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed S; Jamous, Rana M; Jamous, Rania M; Salameh, Nihaya M Y

    2013-11-01

    To explore the frequency of CAM use among hypertensive patients in Palestine, determine demographic characteristics that may increase the likelihood of CAM use and to find out how benefits were perceived by patients. Across-sectional survey of patients attending outpatient hypertension clinics. The method was based on a semi-structured questionnaire. Of the 4575 hypertensive patients interviewed, 85.7% respondents used at least one type of CAM. Of the 3921 CAM users, 62.13% reported taking herbs. Most of these users were >50 years old, of low educational level, and had a family history of HTN, 62.9% claimed to have obtained the desired effect from taking these herbs; however, 68.1% did not disclose this fact to their health care providers, 83 plant taxa were reported by these patients, Allium sativum was the most commonly used herb. The use of CAM, particularly herbal therapies for hypertension treatment, is highly prevalent in Palestine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Toward systems-level analysis of agricultural production from crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM): scaling from cell to commercial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sarah C; Ming, Ray; LeBauer, David S; Long, Stephen P

    2015-10-01

    Systems-level analyses have become prominent tools for assessing the yield, viability, economic consequences and environmental impacts of agricultural production. Such analyses are well-developed for many commodity crops that are used for food and biofuel, but have not been developed for agricultural production systems based on drought-tolerant plants that use crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). We review the components of systems-level evaluations, and identify the information available for completing such analyses for CAM cropping systems. Specific needs for developing systems-level evaluations of CAM agricultural production include: improvement of physiological models; assessment of product processing after leaving the farm gate; and application of newly available genetic tools to the optimization of CAM species for commercial production. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Protection via parasitism: Datura odors attract parasitoid flies, which inhibit Manduca larvae from feeding and growing but may not help plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J K; Woods, H A

    2015-12-01

    Insect carnivores frequently use olfactory cues from plants to find prey or hosts. For plants, the benefits of attracting parasitoids have been controversial, partly because parasitoids often do not kill their host insect immediately. Furthermore, most research has focused on the effects of solitary parasitoids on growth and feeding of hosts, even though many parasitoids are gregarious (multiple siblings inhabit the same host). Here, we examine how a gregarious parasitoid, the tachinid fly Drino rhoeo, uses olfactory cues from the host plant Datura wrightii to find the sphingid herbivore Manduca sexta, and how parasitism affects growth and feeding of host larvae. In behavioral trials using a Y-olfactometer, female flies were attracted to olfactory cues emitted by attacked plants and by cues emitted from the frass produced by larval Manduca sexta. M. sexta caterpillars that were parasitized by D. rhoeo grew to lower maximum weights, grew more slowly, and ate less of their host plant. We also present an analytical model to predict how tri-trophic interactions change with varying herbivory levels, parasitization rates and plant sizes. This model predicted that smaller plants gain a relatively greater benefit compared to large plants in attracting D. rhoeo. By assessing the behavior, the effects of host performance, and the variation in ecological parameters of the system, we can better understand the complex interactions between herbivorous insects, the plants they live on and the third trophic level members that attack them.

  19. CAM practitioners in the Australian health workforce: an underutilized resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background CAM practitioners are a valuable but underutilizes resource in Australian health care. Despite increasing public support for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) little is known about the CAM workforce. Apart from the registered professions of chiropractic, osteopathy and Chinese medicine, accurate information about the number of CAM practitioners in the workforce has been difficult to obtain. It appears that many non-registered CAM practitioners, although highly qualified, are not working to their full capacity. Discussion Increasing public endorsement of CAM stands in contrast to the negative attitude toward the CAM workforce by some members of the medical and other health professions and by government policy makers. The marginalisation of the CAM workforce is evident in prejudicial attitudes held by some members of the medical and other health professions and its exclusion from government policy making. Inconsistent educational standards has meant that non-registered CAM practitioners, including highly qualified and competent ones, are frequently overlooked. Legitimising their contribution to the health workforce could alleviate workforce shortages and provide opportunities for redesigned job roles and new multidisciplinary teams. Priorities for better utilisation of the CAM workforce include establishing a guaranteed minimum education standard for more CAM occupation groups through national registration, providing interprofessional education that includes CAM practitioners, developing courses to upgrade CAM practitioners' professional skills in areas of indentified need, and increasing support for CAM research. Summary Marginalisation of the CAM workforce has disadvantaged those qualified and competent CAM practitioners who practise evidence-informed medicine on the basis of many years of university training. Legitimising and expanding the important contribution of CAM practitioners could alleviate projected health workforce shortages

  20. Web-based CAD and CAM for optomechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min; Zhou, Hai-Guang

    2001-10-01

    CAD & CAM technologies are being used in design and manufacturing process, and are receiving increasing attention from industries and education. We have been researching to develop a new kind of software that is for web-course CAD & CAM. It can be used either in industries or in training, it is supported by IE. Firstly, we aim at CAD/CAM for optomechatronics. We have developed a kind of CAD/CAM, which is not only for mechanics but also for optics and electronic. That is a new kind of software in China. Secondly, we have developed a kind of software for web-course CAD & CAM, we introduce the basis of CAD, the commands of CAD, the programming, CAD/CAM for optomechatronics, the joint application of CAD & CAM. We introduce the functions of MasterCAM, show the whole processes of CAD/CAM/CNC by examples. Following the steps showed on the web, the trainer can not miss. CAD & CAM are widely used in many areas, development of web-course CAD & CAM is necessary for long- distance education and public education. In 1992, China raised: CAD technique, as an important part of electronic technology, is a new key technique to improve the national economic and the modernization of national defence. As so for, the education. Of CAD & CAM is mainly involved in manufacturing industry in China. But with the rapidly development of new technology, especially the development of optics and electronics, CAD & CAM will receive more attention from those areas.

  1. Investigation of Chlorosis in Peach Trees Growing in the Tokat Region Using Soil and Plant Analysis and the Effects of Soil Moisture on the Determination of the Amounts of DTPA-exractable Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn

    OpenAIRE

    Karaman, M.Rüştü

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the fertility analysis of soil and leaf samples collected from areas under ohlorotic and healty peach trees, and the determination of the periodical relationship between the soil properties and nutrition status of trees. The effects of soil moisture on the amounts of DTPA-extractable Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn in soil collected from these areas were also determined by incubation study. The plant and soil analysis conducted at two different stages of the growing season showed ...

  2. Patients’ views of CAM as spiritual practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This paper explores Danish cancer patients’ narratives on spiritual beliefs, practices and the relationship these practices may have to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design: Narrative inquiry was used to understand how spiritual beliefs and practices might be related...... significantly elaborated upon in narratives by four female participants to warrant more detailed consideration and analysis. Conclusion: It is suggested that for some cancer patients CAM may function, not just as a treatment for cancer related symptoms and side effects, but also as a form of spiritual practice...

  3. Developmental distribution of CaM kinase II in the antennal lobe of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Christian; Bergstein, Sandra; Hirnet, Daniela

    2007-01-01

    The antennal lobe (primary olfactory center of insects) is completely reorganized during metamorphosis. This reorganization is accompanied by changing patterns of calcium signaling in neurons and glial cells. In the present study, we investigated the developmental distribution of a major calcium-dependent protein, viz., calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II), in the antennal lobe of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta by using a monoclonal antibody. During synaptogenesis (developmental stages 6-10), we found a redistribution of CaM kinase II immunoreactivity, from a homogeneous distribution in the immature neuropil to an accumulation in the neuropil of the glomeruli. CaM kinase II immunoreactivity was less intense in olfactory receptor axons of the antennal nerve and antennal lobe glial cells. Western blot analysis revealed a growing content of CaM kinase II in antennal lobe tissue throughout metamorphosis. Injection of the CaM kinase inhibitor KN-93 into pupae resulted in a reduced number of antennal lobe glial cells migrating into the neuropil to form borders around glomeruli. The results suggest that CaM kinase II is involved in glial cell migration.

  4. The Z CamPaign: Year Five (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, M.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Entering into the fifth year of the Z CamPaign, the author has developed a website summarizing our findings which will also act as a living catalogue of bona fide Z Cam stars, suspected Z Cams, and Z Cam impostors. In this paper we summarize the findings of the first four years of research, introduce the website and its contents to the public, and discuss the way forward into year five and beyond.

  5. Growing and marketing woody species to support pollinators: An emerging opportunity for forest, conservation, and native plant nurseries in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Tara Luna

    2016-01-01

    The decline of insects that pollinate flowers is garnering more attention by land managers, policymakers, and the general public. Nursery managers who grow native trees, shrubs, and woody vines have a promising opportunity to showcase these species, marketing their contributions to pollinator health and other ecosystem services in urban and wild landscapes....

  6. Aquaponics: What a Way to Grow! Fifth Graders Design Systems for Fish and Plants While Exploring Human Impacts on the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Amy; Raja, Shella

    2016-01-01

    In light of increasing populations and dwindling natural resources, elementary teachers play a crucial role in ensuring children understand and commit to more sustainable lifestyles. Climate change, growing pressures on global fisheries, and the harmful effects of traditional agricultural methods exacerbate this call. Coupled with this emphasis is…

  7. Partial characterization and expression of leaf catalase in the CAM-inducible halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiadomska, Ewa; Miszalski, Zbigniew

    2008-04-01

    Catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) isolated from leaves of the halophytic plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum is characterized by a high apparent molecular mass of about 320kDa, and high resistance to denaturing agents (10% ME). SDS-treatment breaks active oligomeric CAT into the less active and putatively dimeric form of 160kDa apparent molecular mass. Three subunits are resolved after denaturing PAGE: 79, 74 and 62kDa. Higher molecular masses of subunits coincide with increased activity of CAT. M. crystallinum leaf CAT reveals a diel variation in the resistance to denaturing factors and the stability of CAT is increased in a light-dependent manner both in C(3)- and in CAM-induced plants. Unchanged level of leaf CAT transcripts is documented in the diurnal cycle of C(3) plants and after salinity-induced crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM).

  8. Influence of fertilization, mulch color, early forcing, fruit order, planting date, shading, growing Environment, and genotype on the contents of selected phenolics in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttonen, Mikko J; Hoppula, Kalle I; Nestby, Rolf; Verheul, Michél J; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2006-04-05

    The influence of agricultural practices (fertilization, mulch color, early forcing, and planting date), environment (light and growing area), cultivar, and fruit order on the selected phenolic content and antioxidant activity in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruits was studied. Three different levels of fertilization were given to plants in the fertilization experiment. The lowest fertilization level increased the contents of flavonols and ellagic acid from 19 to 57%. Between cultivars, up to 4-fold differences were found in the flavonol content, and it also varied according to growing environment. Planting date in glasshouse production was important for the phenolic content, and a statistically significant interaction was found between planting date and fruit order. Fruit order caused at highest 1.5-2.0-fold differences in the contents of phenolics. Interestingly, compared with other phenolics, anthocyanins were affected differently by many factors. Thus, the findings show that minor cultivation changes can increase the content of phenolics, especially in under-glass production where conditions can be easily manipulated.

  9. Bridging CAM practice and research: teaching CAM practitioners about research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Suzanna M; Benn, Rita

    2004-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is continuing to provide funds directed to support research in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). CAM providers typically have insufficient knowledge of scientific language or research methodology to develop rigorous proposals. Their ability to contribute meaningfully as advisors, teachers, or research partners in academic settings, is hence limited. To address this issue, we have developed and implemented a 7-week course designed to teach community-based CAM providers: (1) to understand scientific terminology, research design and grantsmanship; (2) to critically evaluate the research literature; and (3) to design pilot studies in areas of their interest. In this article, we describe the recruitment process for selecting course participants, the course design and instructional process and the evaluation results based on qualitative and quantitative methodology. We offer suggestions for developing training opportunities both at the local and national level that would increase the expertise of CAM providers in participating and seeking funded research.

  10. performance characteristics of a cam turning attachment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. A modification of a cylindrical turning unit has been done to give a non- cylindrical turning attachment for production of irregular shapes, like cams on the lathe machine. To assess the performance of the attachment, cutting forces have been measured using a 'Sigma' Cutting Tool. Dynamometer. Furthermore ...

  11. DATA TRANSLATION BETWEEN PADS AND CAM350

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Romanova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the paper is the process of data translation between computer-aided design system for electronic devices PADS VX and system for technological preparation of production of printed circuit boards CAM350 10. The object of this study is two-way translation of data in these systems. Experimental researches are applied as research methods based on repeated playback of forward and reverse data translation process between PADS and CAM350 systems. The aim is to examine the challenges of data exchange between systems and to find out the ways of their solution. The basis of the work is functionality analysis of PADS and CAM350 systems while data translation, which was carried out in the course of operating experience of these systems. The paper presents advantages and disadvantages of translation methods and their comparison. Errors arising in the process are analyzed. Possible reasons of errors origination are described. The main results are recommendations for data exchange between PADS and CAM350 systems. The proposed recommendations give the possibility to optimize the exchange of data between these systems. Practical significance of the work lies in the implementation of results at LLC «Abeo». Recommendations have been used in the development of dozens of different electronic devices. The use of these results made it possible to reduce the production run-up time, to increase data transmission correctness, thereby improving the quality of products and reduction of their cost.

  12. Faint stars and OmegaCAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, K; Cristiani, S; Renzini, A; Williams, RE

    2001-01-01

    OmegaCAM will be the wide-field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope. In this contribution I present applications of this instrument to the study of faint stellar populations. Two projects are highlighted: a proper motion study to uncover the galactic halo population, and a microlensing study towards

  13. CAM: A Collaborative Object Memory System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; Kröner, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Physical design objects such as sketches, drawings, collages, storyboards and models play an important role in supporting communication and coordination in design studios. CAM (Cooperative Artefact Memory) is a mobile-tagging based messaging system that allows designers to collaboratively store

  14. Laser surface hardening for cam shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongyun; Zhang, Hongtao; Wang, Chunshan; Yan, Shi; Lu, Boliang; Xu, Chunying; Zhang, Jibin

    1998-08-01

    The paper introduces the laser surface hardening processing with 5 KW CNC CO2 laser for Cam Shaft made of 45 steel. The results show that spiral scanning matching with adaptable technological parameters and water cooling achieve remarkable hardenability with less deformation, which satisfy the requirements demanded by manufacturer, simplify the manufacturing technology. The advantage of laser surface hardening is very remarkable.

  15. Spatial patterns of photosynthesis in thin- and thick-leaved epiphytic orchids: unravelling C3–CAM plasticity in an organ-compartmented way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maria Aurineide; Matiz, Alejandra; Cruz, Aline Bertinatto; Matsumura, Aline Tiemi; Takahashi, Cassia Ayumi; Hamachi, Leonardo; Félix, Lucas Macedo; Pereira, Paula Natália; Latansio-Aidar, Sabrina Ribeiro; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Demarco, Diego; Freschi, Luciano; Mercier, Helenice; Kerbauy, Gilberto Barbante

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims A positive correlation between tissue thickness and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) expression has been frequently suggested. Therefore, this study addressed the question of whether water availability modulates photosynthetic plasticity in different organs of two epiphytic orchids with distinct leaf thickness. Methods Tissue morphology and photosynthetic mode (C3 and/or CAM) were examined in leaves, pseudobulbs and roots of a thick-leaved (Cattleya walkeriana) and a thin-leaved (Oncidium ‘Aloha’) epiphytic orchid. Morphological features were studied comparing the drought-induced physiological responses observed in each organ after 30 d of either drought or well-watered treatments. Key Results Cattleya walkeriana, which is considered a constitutive CAM orchid, displayed a clear drought-induced up-regulation of CAM in its thick leaves but not in its non-leaf organs (pseudobulbs and roots). The set of morphological traits of Cattleya leaves suggested the drought-inducible CAM up-regulation as a possible mechanism of increasing water-use efficiency and carbon economy. Conversely, although belonging to an orchid genus classically considered as performing C3 photosynthesis, Oncidium ‘Aloha’ under drought seemed to express facultative CAM in its roots and pseudobulbs but not in its leaves, indicating that such photosynthetic responses might compensate for the lack of capacity to perform CAM in its thin leaves. Morphological features of Oncidium leaves also indicated lower efficiency in preventing water and CO2 losses, while aerenchyma ducts connecting pseudobulbs and leaves suggested a compartmentalized mechanism of nighttime carboxylation via phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) (pseudobulbs) and daytime carboxylation via Rubisco (leaves) in drought-exposed Oncidium plants. Conclusions Water availability modulated CAM expression in an organ-compartmented manner in both orchids studied. As distinct regions of the same orchid could perform

  16. Craniofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome (CAMS) 3 - a transitional pattern between CAM 1 and 2 and spinal arteriovenous metameric syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, I.Y.C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuen Mun Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Batista, L.L.; Alvarez, H.; Lasjaunias, P.L. [Service de Neuroradiologie Diagnostique et Therapeutique, Hopital de Bicetre, 94275, Le Kremlin Bicetre (France)

    2003-09-01

    We report a rare case of craniofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome (CAMS) 3 arteriovenous malformations of the mandible, left VIII nerve and petrous bone. The patient, a 19-year-old girl, presented with profuse gingival bleeding during a dental procedure and we diagnosed CAMS 3 during a pre-embolisation angiogram. The distribution of the vascular lesions suggests that CAMS 3 is intermediate CAMS 1 and 2 and spinal arteriovenous metameric syndrome (SAMS). (orig.)

  17. Crassulacean acid metabolism in submerged aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Sybesme, C.

    1984-01-01

    CO2-fixation in the dark is known to occur in various organs of many plants. However, only in species possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) does dark CO2-fixation contribute substantially to the carbon economy of the plant. Until very recently CAM was known only from terrestrial species, largely drought adapted succulents. The discovery of CAM in the submerged aquatic fern ally Isoetes howellii (Isoetaceae)(Keeley 1981) adds a new dimension to our understanding of crassulacean acid metabolism. In this paper I will summarize 1) the evidence of CAM in Isoetes howellii, 2) the data on the distribution of CAM in aquatic species, and 3) the work to date on the functional significance of CAM in aquatic species.

  18. A systematic review of how homeopathy is represented in conventional and CAM peer reviewed journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeBow Suzanne

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in the public sector is reflected in the scientific community by an increased number of research articles assessing its therapeutic effects. Some suggest that publication biases occur in mainstream medicine, and may also occur in CAM. Homeopathy is one of the most widespread and most controversial forms of CAM. The purpose of this study was to compare the representation of homeopathic clinical trials published in traditional science and CAM journals. Methods Literature searches were performed using Medline (PubMed, AMED and Embase computer databases. Search terms included "homeo-pathy, -path, and -pathic" and "clinical" and "trial". All articles published in English over the past 10 years were included. Our search yielded 251 articles overall, of which 46 systematically examined the efficacy of homeopathic treatment. We categorized the overall results of each paper as having either "positive" or "negative" outcomes depending upon the reported effects of homeopathy. We also examined and compared 15 meta-analyses and review articles on homeopathy to ensure our collection of clinical trials was reasonably comprehensive. These articles were found by inserting the term "review" instead of "clinical" and "trial". Results Forty-six peer-reviewed articles published in a total of 23 different journals were compared (26 in CAM journals and 20 in conventional journals. Of those in conventional journals, 69% reported negative findings compared to only 30% in CAM journals. Very few articles were found to be presented in a "negative" tone, and most were presented using "neutral" or unbiased language. Conclusion A considerable difference exists between the number of clinical trials showing positive results published in CAM journals compared with traditional journals. We found only 30% of those articles published in CAM journals presented negative findings, whereas over twice

  19. An ecophysiological study of plants growing on the fly ash deposits from the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermal power station in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Pavle; Mitrović, Miroslava; Djurdjević, Lola

    2004-05-01

    This ecophysiological research on the ash deposits from the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermal power station in Serbia covered 10 plant species (Tamarix gallica, Populus alba, Spiraea van-hauttei, Ambrosia artemisifolia, Amorpha fruticosa, Eupatorium cannabinum, Crepis setosa, Epilobium collinum, Verbascum phlomoides, and Cirsium arvense). This paper presents the results of a water regime analysis, photosynthetic efficiency and trace elements (B, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, and Cd) content in vegetative plant parts. Water regime parameters indicate an overall stability in plant-water relations. During the period of summer drought, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) was low, ranging from 0.429 to 0.620 for all the species that were analyzed. An analysis of the tissue trace elements content showed a lower trace metal concentration in the plants than in the ash, indicating that heavy metals undergo major concentration during the combustion process and some are not readily taken up by plants. The Zn and Pb concentrations in all of the examined species were normal whereas Cu and Mn concentrations were in the deficiency range. Boron concentrations in plant tissues were high, with some species even showing levels of more than 100 microg/g (Populus sp., Ambrosia sp., Amorpha sp., and Cirsium sp.). The presence of Cd was not detected. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this research that biological recultivation should take into account the existing ecological, vegetation, and floristic potential of an immediate environment that is abundant in life forms and ecological types of plant species that can overgrow the ash deposit relatively quickly. Selected species should be adapted to toxic B concentrations with moderate demands in terms of mineral elements (Cu and Mn).

  20. Uptake and transport of iron ions (Fe+2, Fe+3 supplied to roots or leaves in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. plants growing under different light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In experiments carried out in a phytotron using aqueous cultures, there was investigated the effect of root or foliar application of different types of iron salts on spinach plant productivity, leaf and root iron content as well as the rate of transport of iron from the roots to the leaves. Plants were grown in Hoagland's solution with a single concentration at two fluorescent light intensities: 290 and 95 µmol × m-2 × s-1 PAR. To fertilize the plants, iron was supplied at a dose of 25 mg Fe in the nutrient solution or as foliar sprays using the following salts: 1 – Fe 0; 2 – FeCl2 × 4H2O; 3 – FeCl3 × 4H2O; 4 – FeSO4 × 7H2O; 5 – Fe2(SO43 × nH2O; 6 – Fe-Cit. The obtained results showed that the productivity of spinach plants treated with FeCl2 and FeSO4 using foliar sprays and of those fed with Fe-citrate (Fe-Cit through the roots was significantly higher than in the case of the other salts used. Root application of the salts used had a significant effect on root iron content, whereas their foliar application significantly affected leaf iron content. In this respect, ferrous salts were generally the most beneficial, while ferric salts were the least beneficial. The rate of transport of iron to the leaves, irrespective of the method of its application, was clearly higher for ferrous salts and Fe-Cit than for ferric salts. The free proline content in the leaves of plants not fertilized with Fe was 2–4 times lower than in plants supplied with this nutrient. An irradiance of 290 µmol × m-2 × s-1 had a positive effect on plant productivity and root Fe content. .

  1. Impact of defoliation intensities on plant biomass, nutrient uptake and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Lotus tenuis growing in a saline-sodic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, I; Mendoza, R

    2012-11-01

    The impact of different defoliation intensities on the ability of Lotus tenuis plants to regrowth, mobilise nutrients and to associate with native AM fungi and Rhizobium in a saline-sodic soil was investigated. After 70 days, plants were subjected to 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% defoliation and shoot regrowth was assessed at the end of subsequent 35 days. Compared to non-defoliated plants, low or moderate defoliation up to 75% did not affect shoot regrowth. However, 100% treatment affected shoot regrowth and the clipped plants were not able to compensate the growth attained by non-defoliated plants. Root growth was more affected by defoliation than shoot growth. P and N concentrations in shoots and roots increased with increasing defoliation while Na(+) concentration in shoots of non-defoliated and moderately defoliated plants was similar. Non-defoliated and moderately defoliated plants prevented increases of Na(+) concentration in shoots through both reducing Na(+) uptake and Na(+) transport to shoots by accumulating Na(+) in roots. At high defoliation, the salinity tolerance mechanism is altered and Na(+) concentration in shoots was higher than in roots. Reduction in the photosynthetic capacity induced by defoliation neither changed the root length colonised by AM fungi nor arbuscular colonisation but decreased the vesicular colonisation. Spore density did not change, but hyphal density and Rhizobium nodules increased with defoliation. The strategy of the AM symbiont consists in investing most of the C resources to preferentially retain arbuscular colonisation as well as inoculum density in the soil. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Growing Out of Stress: The Role of Cell- and Organ-Scale Growth Control in Plant Water-Stress Responses[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Neil E.

    2016-01-01

    Water is the most limiting resource on land for plant growth, and its uptake by plants is affected by many abiotic stresses, such as salinity, cold, heat, and drought. While much research has focused on exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular signaling events governing water-stress responses, it is also important to consider the role organismal structure plays as a context for such responses. The regulation of growth in plants occurs at two spatial scales: the cell and the organ. In this review, we focus on how the regulation of growth at these different spatial scales enables plants to acclimate to water-deficit stress. The cell wall is discussed with respect to how the physical properties of this structure affect water loss and how regulatory mechanisms that affect wall extensibility maintain growth under water deficit. At a higher spatial scale, the architecture of the root system represents a highly dynamic physical network that facilitates access of the plant to a heterogeneous distribution of water in soil. We discuss the role differential growth plays in shaping the structure of this system and the physiological implications of such changes. PMID:27503468

  3. Complementary and alternative medicine use of women with breast cancer : Self-help CAM attracts other women than guided CAM therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo-Fo-Wong, Deborah N. N.; Ranchor, Adelita V.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Henselmans, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine stability of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) of breast cancer patients, reasons for CAM use, and sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological predictors of CAM use. Methods: CAM use was assessed after adjuvant therapy and six months later. Following the CAM

  4. Complementary and alternative medicine use of women with breast cancer: Self-help CAM attracts other women than guided CAM therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo-Fo-Wong, Deborah N. N.; Ranchor, Adelita V.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Henselmans, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine stability of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) of breast cancer patients, reasons for CAM use, and sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological predictors of CAM use. Methods: CAM use was assessed after adjuvant therapy and six months later. Following the CAM

  5. Growing and Growing: Promoting Functional Thinking with Geometric Growing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Design research methodology is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated instruction theory about students' development of functional thinking in the context of geometric growing patterns. The two research questions are: (1) How does students' functional thinking develop in the context of geometric growing patterns? (2) What are…

  6. Effects of exogenously applied hydrogen peroxide on antioxidant and osmoprotectant profiles and the C3-CAM shift in the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surówka, Ewa; Dziurka, Michał; Kocurek, Maciej; Goraj, Sylwia; Rapacz, Marcin; Miszalski, Zbigniew

    2016-08-01

    Exogenously applied H2O2 (50, 100 and 200mM) to Mesembryanthemum crystallinum root medium induced a transition from C3 to Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM), as evaluated by diurnal malate (Δmal) fluctuations. A very high concentration of H2O2 (400mM) reduced Δmal below the value measured in control plants. An increase of malate content during the night in 400mM H2O2-treated plants might suggest that malate decarboxylation is crucial for CAM functioning. We conclude that malate plays a dual role: i) a protective and signaling function before CAM expression, and ii) a storage form of CO2 in plants performing CAM. A slight stimulation of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and net photosynthesis observed during the C3-CAM shift indicated that neither photoinhibition nor reduction of the photosynthetic rate were prerequisites for CAM. Moreover, CAM induction corresponded to a decrease of catalase activity. In CAM-performing plants, α-tocopherol, polyamines (putrescine and spermidine) and proline showed daily alterations and the content of α-tocopherol and polyamines was lower at the end of the day. In contrast, the proline concentration correlated with the applied H2O2 concentration and was higher at the end of the day in treated plants. The dynamic changes of antioxidant and osmolyte levels suggest their active role in preventing oxidative damage, stress acclimation mechanisms and involvement in metabolic regulation and/or signal transduction cascades. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. The effect of heavy metals on the total protein concentration of Typha latifolia plants, growing in a substrate containing sewage sludge compost and watered with metaliferus wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, T; Stentiford, E I; Millner, P

    2002-09-01

    Typha latifolia plants, commonly known as cattails, were grown in a mixture of sewage sludge compost, commercial compost and perlite. Large 6.5 L pots were used with one well developed plant in each pot, divided in five groups. Four groups were irrigated with a solution containing different concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn for a period of 10 weeks, where the fifth was used as a blank. Changes in the concentration of total protein in the leaves/stems were monitored aiming to study the effect of heavy metals from both the substrate and the wastewater on the plants' development and health. At the end of the experiment in the leaves/stems of Typha latifolia the mean concentration of Ni and Zn reached values of 27.50 and 60.83 mg/kg of d.w. respectively. Similar high concentrations were recorded for all five metals. This, however, did not resulted in an inhibition of the plants development and health in three of the four groups as evidenced by the increasing concentrations of the total protein in the leaves' tissue. Only in the fourth group, where the stronger solution was used, some evidence of inhibition occurred after the 8th week. The presence of NO- as part of the metals' salts (growth factor), the short period of the experiment and the natural tolerance of Typha latifolia in heavy metals toxicity could explain such phenomenon.

  8. Activity and isoenzyme spectrum of peroxidases and dehydrins of some plant species, growing on the shores of lake Baikal, under abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Zhivet’ev

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Termostability and optimal pH of weak-associated with plant cell wall and soluble peroxidases was shown to change in relation to natural conditions and season of year. Also the activity of peroxidase was variable during vegetation period. Dehydrine expression was followed by spike of peroxidase activity (and, a priori, an increase of hydrogen peroxide concentration.

  9. Ecological impacts of using chloropicrin to control laminated root rot in Northwest conifer forests: growth and mycorrhiza formation of planted Douglas-fir seedlings after two growing seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Castellano; Donaraye McKay; Walter G. Thles

    1993-01-01

    Bareroot Douglas-fir seedlings inoculated with Rhizopogon sp. and processed by standard nursery and reforestation procedures performed equally well whether planted near Douglas-fir stumps previously fumigated with two dosages of chloropicrin to control Phellinus weirii infection or near stumps not fumigated. Before stump-...

  10. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils from wild growing aromatic plant species of Skimmia laureola and Juniperus macropoda from Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Himalayan region is very rich in a great variety of medicinal plants. In this investigation the essential oils of two selected species are described for their antimicrobial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the odors are characterized. Analyzed by simultaneous ...

  11. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Myrcianthes hallii (O. Berg McVaugh (Myrtaceae, a Traditional Plant Growing in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Chavez Carvajal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Myrcianthes hallii (O. Berg McVaugh (Myrtaceae is a plant native to Ecuador, traditionally used for its antiseptic properties. The composition of the hydro-methanolic extract of this plant was determined by submitting it to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC hyphenated to heated-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and UV detection. The presence of antimicrobial components prompted us to test the extract against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, multidrug-resistant and susceptible Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp. and Streptococcus pyogenes strains. The chromatographic analysis led to the identification of 38 compounds, including polyphenols and organic acids, and represents the first chemical characterization of this plant. The extract showed modest antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, with the exception of E. coli which was found to be less sensitive. Whilst methicillin-resistant strains usually display resistance to several drugs, no relevant differences were observed between methicillin-susceptible and resistant strains. Considering its long-standing use in folk medicine, which suggests the relative safety of the plant, and the presence of many known antibacterial polyphenolic compounds responsible for its antibacterial activity, the results show that M. hallii extract could be used as a potential new antiseptic agent. Moreover, new anti-infective biomaterials and nanomaterials could be designed through the incorporation of M. hallii polyphenols. This prospective biomedical application is also discussed.

  12. Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J J

    2013-01-01

    Modern design methods of Automotive Cam Design require the computation of a range of parameters. This book provides a logical sequence of steps for the derivation of the relevant equations from first principles, for the more widely used cam mechanisms. Although originally derived for use in high performance engines, this work is equally applicable to the design of mass produced automotive and other internal combustion engines.   Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms provides the equations necessary for the design of cam lift curves with an associated smooth acceleration curve. The equations are derived for the kinematics and kinetics of all the mechanisms considered, together with those for cam curvature and oil entrainment velocity. This permits the cam shape, all loads, and contact stresses to be evaluated, and the relevant tribology to be assessed. The effects of asymmetry on the manufacture of cams for finger follower and offset translating curved followers is ...

  13. Effects of light intensity on the morphology and CAM photosynthesis of Vanilla planifolia Andrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Claudia Díez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla planifolia is a neotropical orchid, whose fruits produce the natural vanilla, a fundamental ingredient for the food and cosmetic industry. Because of its importance in the world market, it is cultivated in many tropical countries and recently its cultivation has started in Colombia. This species requires shade for its development; however, the optimal of light conditions are unknown. This work evaluates the effect of different light intensities on CAM photosynthesis, physiology, morphology, and growth of this species. For this, vanilla seedlings were subjected to four treatments of relative illumination (RI (T1=8%, T2=17%, T3=31% and T4=67%. Most CO2 assimilation occurred along night in all treatments, which confirms that vanilla is a strong CAM species. Plants grown under high lighting (67% RI had almost half of the photosynthesis in treatments of intermediate lighting (17 and 31%, which is consistent with the lower nocturnal acid accumulation in that treatment. Likewise, the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv / Fm showed that in plants of the 67% RI occurred high radiation stress. On the other hand, vanilla plants reached greater length, leaf area, and total biomass when grown under intermediate radiation (17 and 31% RI. These results suggest that high radiation alters the functioning of vanilla plants, inhibiting photosynthesis and growth, and that highly shaded environments not significantly affected the CAM photosynthesis of vanilla; however, in the long-term this species showed higher photosynthesis and growth under intermediate levels of radiation

  14. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  15. Starch degradation in chloroplasts isolated from C3 or CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism)-induced Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, H E; Schulte, N

    1996-09-15

    C3 or crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)-induced Mesembryanthemum crystallinum plants perform nocturnal starch degradation which is linear with time. To analyse the composition of metabolites released by isolated leaf chloroplasts during starch degradation we developed a protocol for the purification of starch-containing plastids. Isolated chloroplasts from C3 or CAM-induced M. crystallinum plants are also able to degrade starch. With respect to the endogenous starch content of isolated plastids the rate of starch degradation in intact leaves. The combined presence of Pi, ATP, and oxaloacetate is identified to be the most positive effector combination to induce starch mobilization. The metabolic flux through the oxidative pentose-phosphate pathway in chloroplasts isolated from CAM-induced M. crystallinum is less than 3.5% compared with other metabolic routes of starch degradation. Here we report that starch-degrading chloroplasts isolated from CAM-induced M. crystallinum plants use exogenously supplied oxaloacetate for the synthesis of malate. The main products of starch degradation exported into the incubation medium by these chloroplasts are glucose 6-phosphate, 3-phosphoglyceric acid, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glucose. The identification of glucose 6-phosphate as an important metabolite released during starch degradation is in contrast to the observations made on all other types of plastids analysed so far, including chloroplasts isolated from M. crystallinum in the C3 state. Therefore, we analysed the transport properties of isolated chloroplasts from M. crystallinum. Surprisingly, both types of chloroplasts, isolated from either C3 or CAM-induced plants, are able to transport glucose 6-phosphate in counter exchange with endogenous Pi, indicating the presence of a glucose 6-phosphate translocator as recently demonstrated to occur in other types of plastids. The composition of metabolites released and the stimulatory effect of oxaloacetate on the rate of

  16. Biomarker responses of rice plants growing in a potentially toxic element polluted region: A case study in the Le'An Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xiaoli; Peng, Yongwen; Cai, Gaotang; Gao, Guiqing; Wu, Jianqiang; Liu, Jiali

    2017-11-01

    Rice plants, planted and grown in the field, were chosen in this study to evaluate the potentially toxic element pollution by combining pollutant analysis and a molecular biomarker response evaluation together in the Le'An Region, a highly polluted area due to anthropogenic activities. Soils and crops at 18 sites classified into four areas based on hydrological, geological and pollutant survey results were collected during the whole growth cycle for chemical and biological analysis. Sediment quality values and pollution indexes were combined with statistical analyses to assess the hazard of potentially toxic elements and evaluate ecological risks. As effective stress-related signals, chlorophyll (Chl), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), glutathione content (GSH) and lipoperoxidation (as TBARS) were also determined during the rice plant growth period. The results revealed that heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher than corresponding background values and significantly related to those of the soils. The maximum concentration of potentially toxic elements was observed at the tillering stage, followed by the grain filling stage and heading stage. As biomarkers in field monitoring, a significant increase or decrease in Chl, SOD, POD, CAT, GSH and TBARS in crops means a potential relationship between the indexes and pollutants. This study also demonstrates that the integrated biomarker response (IBR) calculated by combining different biomarkers could be used effectively to evaluate the pollutant-induced stress levels in different areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of different growing substrates on the plant water relations and marketable fruit yield greenhouse-grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2009-2011, a study was conducted in a greenhouse, using fertigation, to determine water relations and fruit yield of tomato grown in different substrates. Tomato plants were grown on rockwool slabs, 15 dm3  in volume, and on slabs of the same volume made of the following straw chaff: rape straw; rape straw + peat (3:1; rape straw + pine bark (3:1; triticale straw; triticale straw + peat (3:1; triticale straw + pine bark (3:1. 2 tomato plants were grown on each slab, leaving 22 fruit clusters on each plant during the period from February to October. The obtained results showed that water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration, water saturation deficit, and leaf free proline content in tomato grown on rockwool and on rape or triticale straw chaff substrates did not differ statistically significantly. Also, no significant differences were found in marketable tomato fruit yield and dry matter content in tomato fruits. Peat or pine bark addition to rape or triticale straw substrates had no significant effect on the change in their commercially useful traits. In the opinion of the present authors, substrates made of rape or triticale straw alone, and even more so with the addition of peat or bark, are not inferior in any way to commonly used rockwool.

  18. CAM and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

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    Alex Hankey

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the form of the Transcendental Meditation program CAM offers a method of eliminating deep-rooted stress, the efficacy of which has been demonstrated in several related studies. Any discussion of CAM and post-traumatic stress disorder should include a study of its application to Vietnam War Veterans in which improvements were observed on all variables, and several participants were able to return to work after several years of being unable to hold a job. The intervention has been studied for its impact on brain and autonomic nervous system function. It has been found to be highly effective against other stress-related conditions such as hypertension, and to improve brain coherence—a measure of effective brain function. It should be considered a possible ‘new and improved mode of treatment’ for PTSD, and further studies of its application made.

  19. CAM/LIFTER forces and friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbey, D.J.; Lee, J.; Patterson, D.J.

    1992-02-01

    This report details the procedures used to measure the cam/lifter forces and friction. The present effort employed a Cummins LTA-10, and focuses on measurements and dynamic modeling of the injector train. The program was sponsored by the US Department of Energy in support of advanced diesel engine technology. The injector train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod force, injector link force and cam speed. These measurements, together with lift profiles for pushrod and injector link displacement, enabled the friction work loss in the injector train to be determined. Other significant design criteria such as camshaft roller follower slippage and maximum loads on components were also determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the dynamic model, with tests run as required for correlation.

  20. Quality of Life in CAM and Non-CAM Users among Breast Cancer Patients during Chemotherapy in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lei Chui

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use has become increasingly popular among patients with cancer. The purposes of this study were to compare the QOL in CAM users and non-CAM users and to determine whether CAM use influences QOL among breast cancer patients during chemotherapy.A cross-sectional survey was conducted at two outpatient chemotherapy centers. A total of 546 patients completed the questionnaires on CAM use. QOL was evaluated based on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC core quality of life (QLQ-C30 and breast cancer-specific quality of life (QLQ-BR23 questionnaires.A total of 70.7% of patients were identified as CAM users. There was no significant difference in global health status scores and in all five subscales of the QLQ C30 functional scales between CAM users and non-CAM users. On the QLQ-C30 symptom scales, CAM users (44.96±3.89 had significantly (p = 0.01 higher mean scores for financial difficulties than non-CAM users (36.29±4.81. On the QLQ-BR23 functional scales, CAM users reported significantly higher mean scores for sexual enjoyment (6.01±12.84 vs. 4.64±12.76, p = 0.04 than non-CAM users. On the QLQ-BR23 symptom scales, CAM users reported higher systemic therapy side effects (41.34±2.01 vs. 37.22±2.48, p = 0.04 and breast symptoms (15.76±2.13 vs. 11.08±2.62, p = 0.02 than non-CAM users. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the use of CAM modality was not significantly associated with higher global health status scores (p = 0.71.While the findings indicated that there was no significant difference between users and non-users of CAM in terms of QOL, CAM may be used by health professionals as a surrogate to monitor patients with higher systemic therapy side effects and breast symptoms. Furthermore, given that CAM users reported higher financial burdens (which may have contributed to increased distress, patients should be encouraged to discuss the potential

  1. Lead, zinc, and cadmium uptake, accumulation, and phytoremediation by plants growing around Tang-e Douzan lead-zinc mine, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesami, Reza; Salimi, Azam; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid

    2018-01-10

    In the current study, soils of Tang-e Douzan mine, located in Isfahan, Iran, were collected and analyzed for soluble, exchangeable, and total amounts of Pb, Zn, Cd, Ca, and Mg. The maximum Pb, Zn, Cd, Ca, and Mg concentrations in soils were 2500, 1100, 59, 43,800, and 1320 mg/kg for total metals, 86, 83, 6.3, 4650, and 48 mg/kg for their exchangeable fractions, and 59, 3.7, 0.53, 430, and 6.4 mg/kg for their soluble fractions, respectively. All specimens collected, including 69 plant species, were analyzed for Pb, Zn, and Cd. Moreover, their phytoremediation potential was investigated by calculating bioconcentration factors (BCF), translocation factors (TF), and extraction factors (EF) for each heavy metal. Analysis of the leaves for heavy metals showed no metal hyperaccumulation. The highest shoot concentrations of Pb (298 mg/kg) and Zn (740 mg/kg) were found in Roemeria hybrida subsp. dodecandra and Cd (43 mg/kg) in Chenopodium foliosum. Plants having BCFs and TFs > 1 are capable of phytoextraction. Among the analyzed species, four had both TFs and BCFs > 1 for Zn, 13 for Cd, and none for Pb. R. hybrida, Bromus squarrosus, Descurainia sophia, and Poa bulbosa seem to be the best choices for phytoextraction of Zn. Aegilops columnaris, Allium ampeloprasum subsp. iranicum, B. squarrosus, and Cousinia piptocephala are the best choices for phytoextraction of Cd. Plants with BCF > 1 and TF < 1, including Cerastium dichotomum and Muscari neglectum for Pb, Ceratocephala falcata, M. neglectum, Ornithogalum orthophyllum, and Ranunculus arvensis for Zn and C. falcata, M. neglectum, O. orthophyllum, and R. hybrida subsp. dodecandra for Cd, are proposed to be the most efficient species for metal phytostabilization.

  2. Camões e a cosmogonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J. M.

    2003-08-01

    Os Lusíadas, escrito por Luis de Camões em 1572, é um poema épico renascentista e a visão Cosmogônica do autor é apresentada, principalmente, no último canto do poema, quando Tétis mostra ao Gama a Máquina do Mundo. A Cosmogonia de Camões neste poema reflete uma visão de uma época de transição, que ainda não incorporou os elementos da revolução Copernicana. É uma visão Grego- Ptolomaica e também medieval. O poeta guia-se pela tradução e notas feita por Pedro Nunes, inventor do Nonio, do Tratado da Esfera "De Sphaera" do Astrônomo Inglês John Holywood, mais conhecido pelo nome latinizado de Johannes Sacrobosco. Outra provável fonte de Camões, de acordo com Luciano Antonio Pereira da Silva em Astronomia de os Lusíadas, é o "Theoricae novae Planetarum" (1460) do astrólogo Alemão Jorge Purbáquio (1423 - 1461). A Astronomia de Os Lusíadas representa a ciência do tempo de Camões. Camões nunca emprega a palavra constelação e seu catálogo é bastante completo. A Máquina do Mundo tem a Terra no centro. Em redor, em círculos concêntricos, a lua (Diana), Mercúrio, Vênus, o Sol (Febo), Marte, Júpiter e Saturno. Envolvendo estes astros tem o firmamento seguido pelo "Céu Áqueo" ou cristalino, depois o 1o Móbil, esfera que arrasta todas as outras consigo. Este trabalho, multidisciplinar, serve tanto para ensinar aos alunos da Física como das Ciências Humanas, a concepção de mundo do renascimento de uma forma belamente poética em versos decassílabos Este trabalho também ajuda na apreciação do maior clássico da língua portuguesa e mostra como as Ciências e as artes, em geral, estão correlacionadas e refletem a visão de mundo da época em que foi produzida.

  3. JunoCam's Imaging of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn; Hansen, Candice; Momary, Thomas; Caplinger, Michael; Ravine, Michael; Atreya, Sushil; Ingersoll, Andrew; Bolton, Scott; Rogers, John; Eichstaedt, Gerald

    2017-04-01

    Juno's visible imager, JunoCam, is a wide-angle camera (58° field of view) with 4 color filters: red, green and blue (RGB) and methane at 889 nm, designed for optimal imaging of Jupiter's poles. Juno's elliptical polar orbit offers unique views of Jupiter's polar regions with spatial scales as good as 50 km/pixel. At closest approach ("perijove") the images have spatial scale down to ˜3 km/pixel. As a push-frame imager on a rotating spacecraft, JunoCam uses time-delayed integration to take advantage of the spacecraft spin to extend integration time to increase signal. Images of Jupiter's poles reveal a largely uncharted region of Jupiter, as nearly all earlier spacecraft except Pioneer 11 have orbited or flown by close to the equatorial plane. Poleward of 64-68° planetocentric latitude, Jupiter's familiar east-west banded structure breaks down. Several types of discrete features appear on a darker, bluish-cast background. Clusters of circular cyclonic spirals are found immediately around the north and south poles. Oval-shaped features are also present, ranging in size down to JunoCam's resolution limits. The largest and brightest features usually have chaotic shapes; animations over ˜1 hour can reveal cyclonic motion in them. Narrow linear features traverse tens of degrees of longitude and are not confined in latitude. JunoCam also detected optically thin clouds or hazes that are illuminated beyond the nightside ˜1-bar terminator; one of these detected at Perijove lay some 3 scale heights above the main cloud deck. Tests have been made to detect the aurora and lightning. Most close-up images of Jupiter have been acquired at lower latitudes within 2 hours of closest approach. These images aid in understanding the data collected by other instruments on Juno that probe deeper in the atmosphere. When Jupiter was too close to the sun for ground-based observers to collect data between perijoves 1 and 2, JunoCam took a sequence of routine images to monitor large

  4. Enrichment of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic acids by oil-degrading bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of plants growing in oil-contaminated soil from Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasch, Annett; Omirbekova, Anel; Schumann, Peter; Reinhard, Anne; Sheikhany, Halah; Berzhanova, Ramza; Mukasheva, Togzhan; Schauer, Frieder

    2015-05-01

    Three microbial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grass mixture (Festuca rubra, 75 %; Lolium perenne, 20 %; Poa pratensis, 10 %), and rape (Brassica napus) on the basis of their high capacity to use crude oil as the sole carbon and energy source. These isolates used an unusually wide spectrum of hydrocarbons as substrates (more than 80), including n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging from C12 to C32, monomethyl- and monoethyl-substituted alkanes (C12-C23), n-alkylcyclo alkanes with alkyl chain lengths from 4 to 18 carbon atoms, as well as substituted monoaromatic and diaromatic hydrocarbons. These three strains were identified as Gordonia rubripertincta and Rhodococcus sp. SBUG 1968. During their transformation of this wide range of hydrocarbon substrates, a very large number of aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic acids was detected, 44 of them were identified by GC/MS analyses, and 4 of them are described as metabolites for the first time. Inoculation of plant seeds with these highly potent bacteria had a beneficial effect on shoot and root development of plants which were grown on oil-contaminated sand.

  5. In vivo anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic activities of extracts from wild growing and in vitro plants of Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. (Orobanchaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Paul Mauricio; Villarreal, María Luisa; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Trejo-Tapia, Gabriela

    2013-12-12

    Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. (Orobanchaceae) is a perennial shrub used since the 16(th) century in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of a number of health disorders including inflammation, stomach pain and tumors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic activities of ethyl acetate (EaE), methanol (ME) and aqueous extracts (AE) of Castilleja tenuiflora wild grown (CtW) and in vitro plants (CtIv). Phytochemical analysis of the phenylethanoid glycoside (PhG) and iridoid glycoside (IG) components was carried out by chromatographic methods. In vitro cytotoxic activity of the extracts was evaluated in the following four carcinoma cell lines: colon (HF-6), breast (MCF-7), prostate (PC-3), and nasopharyngeal (KB). The topical anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in mouse ear edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Anti-ulcerogenic activity was evaluated in rats using an absolute ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer model. The main compounds in the extracts were isoverbascoside, verbascoside and aucubin and their concentration depended both on the solvent used and on the plant material origin. None of the extracts showed cytotoxicity against the tested cell lines. In contrast, CtWEaE, CtWAE and CtIvEaE (1.6 mg/ear) showed moderate anti-inflammatory activity similar to dexamethasone (1 mg/ear) with a 38.2, 39.3 and 49.1% decrease of inflammation, respectively. CtWEaE and CtIvEaE (100 mg/kg) showed high anti-ulcerogenic activity with 88.3 and 83.1% inhibition, respectively, compared to famotidine (20 mg/kg, 32.8% inhibition). Castilleja tenuiflora extracts provided significant gastric protection in an acute ulcer induction model and topical anti-inflammatory activity in a mouse ear edema model. These activities are related to verbascoside and may explain the traditional use of Castilleja tenuiflora in the treatment of anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal disorders. Cultured

  6. Leaf anatomy of two reciprocally non-monophyletic mountain plants (Heliosperma spp.): does heritable adaptation to divergent growing sites accompany the onset of speciation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertel, Clara; Schönswetter, Peter; Frajman, Božo; Holzinger, Andreas; Neuner, Gilbert

    2017-05-01

    Evolution is driven by natural selection, favouring individuals adapted in phenotypic traits to the environmental conditions at their growing site. To shed light on ecological and (epi-) genetically based differentiation between Heliosperma pusillum and Heliosperma veselskyi, two reciprocally non-monophyletic, but morphologically and ecologically divergent species from the south-eastern Alps, we studied various leaf anatomical traits and investigated chloroplast ultrastructure in leaves of the two species grown either in their natural habitat or in a common garden. The alpine H. pusillum occurs in open, wet rock habitats, whereas its close relative H. veselskyi is restricted to dry, shady habitats below overhanging rocks in the montane belt. H. pusillum exhibited higher thickness of leaves and palisade layers as adjustments and/or adaptations to higher irradiance and a higher stomatal area index reflecting better water availability. Traits were adjusted plastically, but differed between species grown in a common garden, suggesting that the differentiation between the two species is not solely based on phenotypic plasticity but also has a genetic basis. Our study thus supports the hypothesis that differentiation between the highly interfertile species is likely driven by natural selection.

  7. Populations of selected microbial and fungal species growing on the surface of rape seeds following treatment with desiccants or plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frac, Magdalena; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Tys, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of desiccants and plant growth regulators on selected microbial species affecting rape seeds, with special emphasis on the growth of fungi and identification of the genus and species composition. The experimental material in the study was seeds of winter rape cv. Californium that were collected from the field during combine harvest. The chemical agents applied, both desiccants and growth regulators, generally decreased the populations of bacteria occurring on the surface of rape seeds. The responses of fungi depended upon the type of agent applied and were manifested as either stimulation or inhibition of the growth of the fungal species. The fungi isolated from the surface of rape seeds were characteristic of those found in the field environment (Cladosporium and Penicillium) and typical for those present on the surface of rape seeds (Alternaria).

  8. Fit of CAD/CAM implant frameworks: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar

    2014-12-01

    Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is a strongly emerging prosthesis fabrication method for implant dentistry. Currently, CAD/CAM allows the construction of implant frameworks from different materials. This review evaluates the literature pertaining to the precision fit of fixed implant frameworks fabricated by CAD/CAM. Following a comprehensive electronic search through PubMed (MEDLINE), 14 relevant articles were identified. The results indicate that the precision fit of CAD/CAM frameworks exceeded the fit of the 1-piece cast frameworks and laser-welded frameworks. A similar fit was observed for CAD/CAM frameworks and bonding of the framework body to prefabricated cylinders. The influence of CAD/CAM materials on the fit of a framework is minimal.

  9. A macro-ecological perspective on crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis evolution in Afro-Madagascan drylands: Eulophiinae orchids as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Ruth E; Smith, J Andrew C; Arrigo, Nils; Buerki, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis is an adaptation to water and atmospheric CO2 deficits that has been linked to diversification in dry-adapted plants. We investigated whether CAM evolution can be associated with the availability of new or alternative niches, using Eulophiinae orchids as a case study. Carbon isotope ratios, geographical and climate data, fossil records and DNA sequences were used to: assess the prevalence of CAM in Eulophiinae orchids; characterize the ecological niche of extant taxa; infer divergence times; and estimate whether CAM is associated with niche shifts. CAM evolved in four terrestrial lineages during the late Miocene/Pliocene, which have uneven diversification patterns. These lineages originated in humid habitats and colonized dry/seasonally dry environments in Africa and Madagascar. Additional key features (variegation, heterophylly) evolved in the most species-rich CAM lineages. Dry habitats were also colonized by a lineage that includes putative mycoheterotrophic taxa. These findings indicate that the switch to CAM is associated with environmental change. With its suite of adaptive traits, this group of orchids represents a unique opportunity to study the adaptations to dry environments, especially in the face of projected global aridification. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Development of a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) pharmacy and therapeutics (P&T) subcommittee and CAM guide for providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jeffrey D; Cannon, H Eric; Lewis, Tamara; Shane-McWhorter, Laura

    2005-04-01

    The objective was 2-fold: (1) to evaluate the feasibility and value of developing a Pharmacy and Therapeutics (P&T) subcommittee aimed at scientifically evaluating complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) products for an integrated managed care organization (IMCO) and (2) to assess provider acceptance and usefulness of a CAM guide. Three factors drove the decision to form a CAM P&T subcommittee to evaluate current commonly used CAM products: (1) physicians, pharmacists, and dieticians expressed a desire for an easy-to-use, scientifically based mechanism for evaluating the ever-increasing number of CAM products; (2) Intermountain Health Care Health Plans (Health Plans), the insurance division of this IMCO, offers access to certain CAM products to its members at a discounted price in an effort to remain competitive with other IMCOs; and (3) this IMCO owns and operates more than a dozen community pharmacies that sell CAM products. Some IMCO clinicians believed an efficacy and safety review of the products offered through the organization was warranted. Subcommittee members included clinical pharmacists (IMCO and university), pharmacy directors, a community pharmacist, practicing physicians (from the drug P&T committee), a medical director, dieticians and nutritionists, and a representative from the Health Plans sales department. The primary outcome was the development of a CAM guide listing recommendations for use of CAM products. Outcome measures included survey results (survey sent with guide to physicians and (pharmacists) regarding acceptance and usefulness of the guide. The CAM P&T subcommittee met monthly to evaluate current commonly used CAM products. A CAM guide was developed in paperback and electronic versions. The electronic version was downloadable to handheld devices. Thousands of CAM guides were disseminated to IMCO-employed physicians, network pharmacies, dieticians, and nutritionists affiliated with this managed care organization. A survey that

  11. Application of power plant flue gas in a photobioreactor to grow Spirulina algae, and a bioactivity analysis of the algal water-soluble polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Wei; Yang, Tsung-Shi; Chen, Mao-Jing; Chang, Yu-Ching; Lin, Chai-Yi; Wang, Eugene I-Chen; Ho, Chen-Lung; Huang, Kue-Ming; Yu, Chi-Cheng; Yang, Feng-Ling; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Lu, Ying-Chen; Chao, Louis Kuop-Ping

    2012-09-01

    A novel photobioreactor was developed with a total volume of 30 m(3) which required merely 100 m(3) of land footprint. The bioreactor was capable of utilizing CO(2) in the flue gas of a power plant as the carbon source for the growth of a freshwater alga, Spirulina platensis, mitigating the greenhouse effect caused by the same amount of CO(2) discharge. Results of the study indicated that the photobioreactor was capable of fixing 2,234 kg of CO(2) per annum. Upon deducting the energy consumption of operating the bioreactor unit, the estimated amount of CO(2) to be fixed by a scaled-up reactor would be 74 tons ha(-1)year(-1). In addition, the study prove that protein-free polysaccharides of S. platensis could induce the production of pro-IL-1 and IL-1 proteins through the mediation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPKs pathways. As a consequence, immunogenic activities of the macrophage cells were enhanced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular and immunological characterization of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) pollen after exposure of the plants to elevated ozone over a whole growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Ulrike; Heller, Werner; Durner, Jörg; Winkler, J Barbro; Engel, Marion; Behrendt, Heidrun; Holzinger, Andreas; Braun, Paula; Hauser, Michael; Ferreira, Fatima; Mayer, Klaus; Pfeifer, Matthias; Ernst, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and air pollution, including ozone is known to affect plants and might also influence the ragweed pollen, known to carry strong allergens. We compared the transcriptome of ragweed pollen produced under ambient and elevated ozone by 454-sequencing. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out for the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1. Pollen surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and phenolics were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Elevated ozone had no influence on the pollen size, shape, surface structure or amount of phenolics. ATR-FTIR indicated increased pectin-like material in the exine. Transcriptomic analyses showed changes in expressed-sequence tags (ESTs), including allergens. However, ELISA indicated no significantly increased amounts of Amb a 1 under elevated ozone concentrations. The data highlight a direct influence of ozone on the exine components and transcript level of allergens. As the total protein amount of Amb a 1 was not altered, a direct correlation to an increased risk to human health could not be derived. Additional, the 454-sequencing contributes to the identification of stress-related transcripts in mature pollen that could be grouped into distinct gene ontology terms.

  13. Molecular and immunological characterization of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. pollen after exposure of the plants to elevated ozone over a whole growing season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Kanter

    Full Text Available Climate change and air pollution, including ozone is known to affect plants and might also influence the ragweed pollen, known to carry strong allergens. We compared the transcriptome of ragweed pollen produced under ambient and elevated ozone by 454-sequencing. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was carried out for the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1. Pollen surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, and phenolics were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Elevated ozone had no influence on the pollen size, shape, surface structure or amount of phenolics. ATR-FTIR indicated increased pectin-like material in the exine. Transcriptomic analyses showed changes in expressed-sequence tags (ESTs, including allergens. However, ELISA indicated no significantly increased amounts of Amb a 1 under elevated ozone concentrations. The data highlight a direct influence of ozone on the exine components and transcript level of allergens. As the total protein amount of Amb a 1 was not altered, a direct correlation to an increased risk to human health could not be derived. Additional, the 454-sequencing contributes to the identification of stress-related transcripts in mature pollen that could be grouped into distinct gene ontology terms.

  14. Optical integration of CAD/CAM materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güth, Jan-Frederik; Magne, Pascal

    The optical integration (OI) of monolithic CAD/CAM materials under 4 illuminations was evaluated using a standardized and clinically relevant method. Eighteen inlays were manufactured and placed (glycerin gel). Standardized photos were taken under 4 illuminations (neutral white light direct and indirect illumination, cross-polarized light, fluorescent light). Six evaluators defined the optical integration score (OIS) as the "visibility" of the restoration (0 = worst OI, 4 = optimal OI). The intact tooth served as control. The null hypothesis was that different illuminations did not influence the OI of CAD/CAM inlays. One-way ANOVA, followed by Scheffe's post hoc, was applied (P = 0.05). Neutral light direct illumination: OIS between 2.67 (IPS e.max CAD LT A1, ENAMIC A1) and 3.83 (IPS e.max CAD HT A1) with a mean of 3.28 (± 0.339). Indirect illumination: OIS from 1.00 (Paradigm MZ100 A1) to 2.41 (ENAMIC A1) with a mean of 1.88 (± 0.598). Fluorescent light: OIS between 0.75 and 3.25 with a mean of 1.67 (± 1.025). ENAMIC and VITA BLOCS Mark II showed the best optical integration in fluorescence. IPS e.max CAD, Paradigm MZ 100 demonstrated low fluorescence; Lava Ultimate high fluorescence. OI was influenced by different illumination. A simple method accessible to clinicians for additional evaluation of CAD/CAM materials in daily practice is presented. All materials showed excellent OI under direct illumination with neutral white light. The most pronounced differences in optical integration between tooth and evaluated materials were observed under fluorescent light.

  15. JunoCam's Images of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C. J.; Ravine, M. A.; Caplinger, M. A.; Orton, G. S.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Jensen, E.; Lipkaman, L.; Krysak, D.; Zimdar, R.; Bolton, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    JunoCam is a visible imager on the Juno spacecraft in orbit around Jupiter. It is a wide angle camera (58 deg field of view) with 4 color filters: red, green and blue (RGB) and methane at 889 nm, designed for optimal imaging of Jupiter's poles. Juno's elliptical polar orbit will offer unique views of Jupiter's polar regions with a spatial scale of 50 km/pixel. At closest approach the images will have a spatial scale of 3 km/pixel. As a push-frame imager on a rotating spacecraft, JunoCam uses time-delayed integration to take advantage of the spacecraft spin to extend integration time to increase signal. Images of Jupiter's poles reveal a largely uncharted region of Jupiter, as nearly all earlier spacecraft have orbited or flown by in the equatorial plane. Most of the images of Jupiter will be acquired in the +/-2 hours surrounding closest approach. The polar vortex, polar cloud morphology, and winds will be investigated. RGB color images of the aurora will be acquired if detectable. Stereo images and images taken with the methane filter will allow us to estimate cloud-top heights. Images of the cloud-tops will aid in understanding the data collected by other instruments on Juno that probe deeper in the atmosphere. During the two months that Jupiter is too close to the sun for ground-based observers to collect data, JunoCam will take images routinely to monitor large-scale features. Occasional, opportunistic images of the Galilean moons will be acquired.

  16. *Abstracts - 7th IN-CAM Research Symposium, Evaluating CAM Practices: Effectiveness, Integration, Economics & Safety - November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Heather; Verhoef, Marja J

    2012-10-23

    Abstract The following are abstracts of oral and poster presentations given at the 7th IN-CAM Research Symposium - Evaluating CAM Practices: Effectiveness, Integration, Economics & Safety, and the 4th HomeoNet Research Forum, a pre-Symposium event. The IN-CAM Research Symposium was held November 2 to 4, 2012 at the Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. For more information, please visit: www.incamresearch.ca.

  17. A conversation with Lucien Le Cam

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Grace L.

    1999-01-01

    Lucien Le Cam is currently Emeritus Professor of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of California, Berkeley. He was born on November 18, 1924, in Croze, Creuse, France. He received a Licence es Sciences from the University of Paris in 1945, and a Ph.D. in Statistics from the University of California at Berkeley in 1952. He has been on the faculty of the Statistics Department at Berkeley since 1952 except for a year in Montreal, Canada, as the Director of the Centre...

  18. Evaluation of camelina meal as a feedstuff for growing dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R D; Anderson, J L; Clapper, J A

    2016-08-01

    factor-1 and thyroid hormones triiodothyronine and free thyroxine, were similar among treatments. Heifers fed CAM had lesser insulin concentration than other treatments. Total-tract digestion of nutrients were similar among treatments, but CAM tended to have greater digestion of organic matter compared with LIN, with DDGS similar to both. Feeding CAM maintained growth performance compared with DDGS and LIN. This study demonstrates that CAM can be used as a protein source for growing dairy heifers. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and validation of the CAM Health Belief Questionnaire (CHBQ and CAM use and attitudes amongst medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boker John

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM and holistic approaches in allopathic medical school curricula has been well articulated. Despite increased CAM instruction, feasible and validated instruments for measuring learner outcomes in this content area do not widely exist. In addition, baseline attitudes or beliefs of medical students towards CAM, and the factors that may have formed them, including use of CAM itself, remain unreported. Methods A 10-item measure (CHBQ – CAM Health Belief Questionnaire was constructed and administered to three successive classes of medical students simultaneously with the previously validated 29-item Integrative Medicine Attitude Questionnaire (IMAQ. Both measures were imbedded in a baseline needs assessment questionnaire. Demographic and other data were collected on students' use of CAM modalities and their awareness and use of primary CAM information resources. Analysis of CHBQ items was performed and its reliability and criterion-related validity were established. Results Response rate was 96.5% (272 of 282 students studied. The shorter CHBQ compared favorably with the longer IMAQ in internal consistency reliability. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was 0.75 and 0.83 for the CHBQ and IMAQ respectively. Students showed positive attitudes/beliefs towards CAM and high levels of self-reported CAM use. The majority (73.5% of students reported using at least one CAM modality, and 54% reported using at least two modalities. Eighty-one percent use the internet as a primary source of information for CAM. Conclusions The CHBQ is a practical, valid and reliable instrument for measuring medical student attitudes/beliefs and has potential utility for measuring the impact of CAM instruction. Medical students showed a high self-reported rate of CAM use and positive attitudes towards CAM. Short, didactic exposure to CAM instruction in the first year of medical school did not additionally

  20. An Ambition to Grow

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Kemp; Hakkert, R.

    2006-01-01

    This report tries to gain insight in the willingness or ambition to grow of a small business owner. The main question of this report is therefore: Which factors influence the ambition to grow a business? To examine the ambition to grow an economic and a psychological perspective is given in this study.

  1. Produção e qualidade do morangueiro em sistemas fechados de cultivo sem solo com emprego de substratos Fruit production and quality of strawberry plants grown in closed soilless growing systems with substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo dos Santos Godoi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o crescimento, a produção e a qualidade das frutas do morangueiro cultivado em três sistemas fechados sem solo e com dois substratos. Os sistemas foram testados no interior de um abrigo telado, no Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, no período entre 27 de abril e 21 de novembro de 2006. Esses sistemas foram constituídos por sacolas fertirrigadas por tubos gotejadores e calhas e leito de cultivo fertirrigados por subirrigação. Foram empregados substrato orgânico Plantmax PXT® e areia. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi um fatorial 3 x 2, com quatro repetições. A fertirrigação foi feita com solução nutritiva completa, sem nenhum descarte durante todo o período experimental, e as frutas foram colhidas maduras. Foram determinados os seguintes parâmetros: a produção, a firmeza, a acidez e o teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Interações significativas entre os sistemas e os substratos foram observadas. Na areia, destacou-se o cultivo nas calhas, com produção de 1017,4g planta-1, sendo 8,13% e 8,33% superior às sacolas e ao leito de cultivo, respectivamente. A produção mais elevada foi de 1196,5g planta-1, obtida com substrato orgânico no leito de cultivo, superior às sacolas em 10,9% e às calhas em 29,33%. Concluiu-se que o cultivo sem solo do morangueiro sem descartes de solução nutritiva é possível e que a produção é influenciada pelo sistema de cultivo e pelo substrato, sem efeitos sobre a qualidade das frutas.The objective of the research was to determine fruit production and quality of strawberry plants grown in three different closed soilless systems and two substrates. The experiment was conducted in a screenhouse at Department of Fitotecnia, UFSM, from April to November, 2006. The soilless growing systems were plastic bags, plastic troughs and growing beds, and the substrates were sand and the organic substrate Plantmax PXT®. A 3 x 2 factorial experimental design

  2. The Secondary Standards Programme for OmegaCAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdoes Kleijn, G.; Vermeij, R.; Valentijn, E.; Kuijken, K.; Sterken, C.

    2007-01-01

    The OmegaCAM wide-field imager will start operations at the ESO VLT Survey Telescope at Paranal in 2007. The photometric calibration of OmegaCAM data depends on standard-star measurements that cover the complete 1°×1° FOV. A catalog fullfilling this requirement for 8 Landolt equatorial fields,

  3. PENGARUH LOKASI TUMBUH, UMUR TANAMAN DAN VARIASI JENIS DESTILASI TERHADAP KOMPOSISI SENYAWA MINYAK ATSIRI RIMPANG Curcuma mangga PRODUKSI BEBERAPA SENTRA DI YOGYAKARTA (Impact of Growing Sites, Plant Ages and Variance of Distillation Types to Curcuma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Astuti

    2015-01-01

    The essential oil of Curcuma mangga has been known to be toxic to several cancer cells. The toxicity is influenced by the substances composition. The substances composition of the essential oil is influenced by ecological factor and isolation method. Therefore, this study have several aims to recognize the impact of growing sites, plant ages and variance of distillation types to C. mangga essential oil compositions. To study the impact of the growing sites, C. mangga samples are collected from several places in Yogyakarta. To determine the impact of substances composition of C. mangga essential oil, samples of 1, 3, 7, 10, 11 and 12 months were chosen, while for distillation method, steam and water-steam distillations were used. For C. mangga essential oil’s susbtances analysis, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS was performed. The results of study shown that the land samples contain more substances variance in comparison with the planteau samples, it is probably influenced by the rainfall frequency of land areas, which is lower than planteau areas. In addition, the optimum essential oil are the 8-10 month samples and the distillation method influences to the essential oil compositions. However, all variance treatment has the same main component, i.e., β-ocimene, β-pinene, β-myrcene and p-cineole.

  4. Knowledge and training needs among Danish nurses about CAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Background: The increased use of CAM among the Danish population is well documented as are patient’s requests to discuss CAM with a healthcare professional. It is suggested that among different groups of healthcare professionals nurses are the most “open minded” about CAM. This makes it important...... to explore nurses’ knowledge about CAM and their needs for training. Methods: Similar to international investigations a Danish “CAM-knowledge” questionnaire was developed that included multiple choice, yes/no and 5 points scale answers. Validity was established through initial pilot testing. Contacts...... to a randomized sample of 2500 nurses were established through the Danish Nurses Foundation. The questionnaires were mailed by post with the possibility of anonymous return. The data material was analyzed using non-parametic methods. Results: The response rate was 67 % and 1458 completed questionnaires were...

  5. Cam Drive Step Mechanism of a Quadruped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bionic quadruped robots received considerable worldwide research attention. For a quadruped robot walking with steady paces on a flat terrain, using a cam drive control mechanism instead of servomotors provides theoretical and practical benefits as it reduces the system weight, cost, and control complexities; thus it may be more cost beneficial for some recreational or household applications. This study explores the robot step mechanism including the leg and cam drive control systems based on studying the bone structure and the kinematic step sequences of dog. The design requirements for the cam drive robot legs have been raised, and the mechanical principles of the leg operating mechanism as well as the control parameters have been analyzed. A cam drive control system was constructed using three cams to control each leg. Finally, a four-leg demo robot was manufactured for experiments and it showed stable walking patterns on a flat floor.

  6. Treatment Preferences for CAM in Children with Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. I. Tsao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls (mean age = 14.5 years ± 2.4; range = 8–18 years presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between CAM treatment preferences and patient's sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their self-reported level of functioning. Over 60% of patients elected to try at least one CAM approach for pain. The most popular CAM therapies were biofeedback, yoga and hypnosis; the least popular were art therapy and energy healing, with craniosacral, acupuncture and massage being intermediate. Patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (80% were the most likely to try CAM versus those with other pain diagnoses. In multivariate analyses, pain duration emerged as a significant predictor of CAM preferences. For mind-based approaches (i.e. hypnosis, biofeedback and art therapy, pain duration and limitations in family activities were both significant predictors. When given a choice of CAM therapies, this sample of children with chronic pain, irrespective of pain diagnosis, preferred non-invasive approaches that enhanced relaxation and increased somatic control. Longer duration of pain and greater impairment in functioning, particularly during family activities increased the likelihood that such patients agreed to engage in CAM treatments, especially those that were categorized as mind-based modalities.

  7. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM providers’ views of chronic low back pain patients’ expectations of CAM therapies: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schafer Lisa M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some researchers think that patients with higher expectations for CAM therapies experience better outcomes and that enthusiastic providers can enhance treatment outcomes. This is in contrast to evidence suggesting conventional medical providers often reorient patient expectations to better match what providers believe to be realistic. However, there is a paucity of research on CAM providers’ views of their patients’ expectations regarding CAM therapy and the role of these expectations in patient outcomes. Methods To better understand how CAM providers view and respond to their patients’ expectations of a particular therapy, we conducted 32 semi-structured, qualitative interviews with acupuncturists, chiropractors, massage therapists and yoga instructors identified through convenience sampling. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically using Atlas ti version 6.1. Results CAM providers reported that they attempt to ensure that their patients’ expectations are realistic. Providers indicated they manage their patients’ expectations in a number of domains— roles and responsibilities of providers and patients, treatment outcomes, timeframe for improvement, and treatment experience. Providers reported that patients’ expectations change over time and that they need to continually manage these expectations to enhance patient engagement and satisfaction with treatment. Conclusions Providers of four types of CAM therapies viewed patients’ expectations as an important component of their experiences with CAM therapy and indicated that they try to align patient expectations with reality. These findings suggest that CAM providers are similar in this respect to conventional medical providers.

  8. Machinability of CAD-CAM materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavali, Ramakiran; Nejat, Amir H; Lawson, Nathaniel C

    2017-08-01

    Although new materials are available for computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) fabrication, limited information is available regarding their machinability. The depth of penetration of a milling tool into a material during a timed milling cycle may indicate its machinability. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the tool penetration rate for 2 polymer-containing CAD-CAM materials (Lava Ultimate and Enamic) and 2 ceramic-based CAD-CAM materials (e.max CAD and Celtra Duo). The materials were sectioned into 4-mm-thick specimens (n=5/material) and polished with 320-grit SiC paper. Each specimen was loaded into a custom milling apparatus. The apparatus pushed the specimens against a milling tool (E4D Tapered 2016000) rotating at 40 000 RPM with a constant force of 0.98 N. After a 6-minute timed milling cycle, the length of each milling cut was measured with image analysis software under a digital light microscope. Representative specimens and milling tools were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The penetration rate of Lava Ultimate (3.21 ±0.46 mm/min) and Enamic (2.53 ±0.57 mm/min) was significantly greater than that of e.max CAD (1.12 ±0.32 mm/min) or Celtra Duo (0.80 ±0.21 mm/min) materials. SEM observations showed little tool damage, regardless of material type. Residual material was found on the tools used with polymer-containing materials, and wear of the embedding medium was seen on the tools used with the ceramic-based materials. Edge chipping was noted on cuts made in the ceramic-based materials. Lava Ultimate and Enamic have greater machinability and less edge chipping than e.max CAD and Celtra Duo. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Responses of Green Leaves and Green Pseudobulbs of CAM Orchid Cattleya laeliocattleya Aloha Case to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the responses of green leaves (GL and green pseudobulbs (GPSB of CAM orchid Cattleya laeliocattleya Aloha Case to drought stress. After being subjected to drought stress, the decrease in water content (WC was much greater in GPSB than in GL, indicating that GPSB facilitated a slow reduction in the WC of GL. This finding was further supported by the result of relative water content (RWC of GL, which started to decrease only after 3 weeks of drought stress. Decreases of midday Fv/Fm ratios of GL occurred in all plants. However, the degrees of decrease were much greater in drought-stressed GL than in well-watered GL. Reduced Fv/Fm ratio (<0.8 at early morning was observed in drought-stressed GL after 3 weeks of treatments. Decreases in total chlorophyll (Chl content, electron transport rate (ETR, photochemical quenching, qP, and nonphotochemical quenching, qN, were severer in GPSB than in GL after drought treatment. CAM acidity was significantly lower in both GL and GPSB after 2 weeks of drought treatment compared to well-watered plants. However, decrease of CAM acidity was smaller in GL than in GPSB. These results suggest that both GL and GPSB of CAM orchid Cattleya plantswere susceptible to drought stress.

  10. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FRUIT GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  11. Examining the association between patient-centered communication and provider avoidance, CAM use, and CAM-use disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, Jennifer; Thorburn, Sheryl; Tippens, Kimberly M

    2015-01-01

    Patients' perceptions of the quality of their relationships with health care providers may influence their health care-seeking behaviors and future interactions with providers, including use of conventional health care, use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and disclosure of CAM use. The study examined the associations between perceived patient-centered communication and provider avoidance, CAM use, and CAM-use disclosure. This study used cross-sectional survey data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 3, a nationally representative survey of US adults collected between January 2008 and May 2008. Two questions asked about CAM use and CAM-use disclosure, and another asked about avoidance of doctors. For the independent variable, responses from 6 questions on patient-centered communication were averaged to create a scale score ranging from 1-4. The research team conducted multiple logistic regressions of the 3 primary outcome measures, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, presence or absence of a regular source of care, insurance status, frequency of visits to providers, and health status. All analyses were weighted to make the results representative of the US population aged ≥18 y. Approximately one-third of respondents (36%) had avoided seeing their doctors within the 12 mo prior to the survey. Approximately 24% had used CAM within the prior 12 mo, and 51.7% of CAM users had discussed their CAM use with their doctors. Higher levels of patient-centered communication were significantly associated with lower odds of provider avoidance (AOR=0.63; 95% CI=0.52, 0.76) and CAM use (AOR=0.60; 95% CI=0.46, 0.78) but were not associated with CAM-use disclosure. Findings suggest that patients may be more likely to avoid seeing their doctors and more likely to use CAM when they perceive low levels of patient-centered communication. Further research to understand the role of the characteristics of patient-provider relationships

  12. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafeddin Goushegir; Fataneh Hashem Dabaghian; Asie Shojaii; Mehri Abdollahi Fard

    2011-01-01

    To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), diabetes mellitus, plant (herb), Iran, patie...

  13. CARROT SEED GROWING THROUGH WINTERING SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Zvedenuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research work on carrot seed growing through wintering seedlings carried out at laboratory of seed studies and seed production of Transnistrian Research Institute of Agriculture, on the soil of the first terrace at the rive Dniester were presented in the article. Seed bearing plants of garden carrot ‘Krasavka’ were the object of the study. The seeds were sown to produce the seedlings on 15-16 August. In the first decade of December the plants were covered with white agrotextile with density 23g/m2 that was removed at the beginning of April. The proportion of plant that passed the winter depending on a year of cultivation was 95-100% under argotextile, and 50-80% in open plot. The plants under agrotextile reached 28 cm a high and had 5-7 well-developed leaves, while those on the open plot were at phase of active foliage growing about 10-13 cm. long. Thus, for early mechanized planting in optimal terms the wintering seedlings grown under agrotextile had the best biometrical characteristics. Moreover the outcome of carrot seedlings was 1.2-1.25 million per hectare. Such quantity of seedlings was sufficient to plant 9-10 ha of carrot plants, where the coefficient of multiplication reached 9-10, and only 3 when growing seeds through mother plant as biennial culture. Viability of seed plants grown through seedlings was 100%. Losses of plant with weight 120-150 grams from damage caused by diseases was 23%. The seed yield, when growing seedlings was 639 kg/ha, but growing through plants was 332 kg/ha. The seed outcome suitable for precise mechanized sowing through seedling growing was 77%, where seed germination was 90%, with seed fraction 1.51 and >2.0 mm. It was essentially improved their yielding characteristics. Seed outcome from this fraction obtained through planting method was 32%. The proportion of seeds in fraction 1-1.5 mm was 68%. For mechanized single-seed sowing, the seeds can be used only after mini-coating. The seed

  14. The Hyper Suprime-Cam software pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, James; Armstrong, Robert; Bickerton, Steven; Furusawa, Hisanori; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Koike, Michitaro; Lupton, Robert; Mineo, Sogo; Price, Paul; Takata, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Yasuda, Naoki; AlSayyad, Yusra; Becker, Andrew C.; Coulton, William; Coupon, Jean; Garmilla, Jose; Huang, Song; Krughoff, K. Simon; Lang, Dustin; Leauthaud, Alexie; Lim, Kian-Tat; Lust, Nate B.; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Miyatake, Hironao; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Murata, Ryoma; More, Surhud; Okura, Yuki; Owen, Russell; Swinbank, John D.; Strauss, Michael A.; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Yamanoi, Hitomi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the optical imaging data processing pipeline developed for the Subaru Telescope's Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) instrument. The HSC Pipeline builds on the prototype pipeline being developed by the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope's Data Management system, adding customizations for HSC, large-scale processing capabilities, and novel algorithms that have since been reincorporated into the LSST codebase. While designed primarily to reduce HSC Subaru Strategic Program (SSP) data, it is also the recommended pipeline for reducing general-observer HSC data. The HSC pipeline includes high-level processing steps that generate coadded images and science-ready catalogs as well as low-level detrending and image characterizations.

  15. Evidence of Drought Stress Memory in the Facultative CAM, Aptenia cordifolia: Possible Role of Phytohormones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Fleta-Soriano

    Full Text Available Although plant responses to drought stress have been studied in detail in several plant species, including CAM plants, the occurrence of stress memory and possible mechanisms for its regulation are still very poorly understood. In an attempt to better understand the occurrence and possible mechanisms of regulation of stress memory in plants, we measured the concentrations of phytohormones in Aptenia cordifolia exposed to reiterated drought, together with various stress indicators, including leaf water contents, photosynthesis and mechanisms of photo- and antioxidant protection. Results showed that plants exposed to drought stress responded differently if previously challenged with a first drought. Gibberellin levels decreased upon exposure to the first drought and remained lower in double-stressed plants compared with those exposed to stress for the first time. In contrast, abscisic acid levels were higher in double- than single-stressed plants. This occurred in parallel with alterations in hydroperoxide levels, but not with malondialdehyde levels, thus suggesting an increased oxidation state that did not result in oxidative damage in double-stressed plants. It is concluded that (i drought stress memory occurs in double-stressed A. cordifolia plants, (ii both gibberellins and abscisic acid may play a role in plant response to repeated periods of drought, and (iii changes in abscisic acid levels in double-stressed plants may have a positive effect by modulating changes in the cellular redox state with a role in signalling, rather than cause oxidative damage to the cell.

  16. Russian plant grows monocrystals for CERN collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "..Experts of an enterprise in Murmansk Region has started to make so-called monocrystals. They are needed for making of a huge device the construction of which has started in Switzerland. Thanks to this unique equipment scientists of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) will be able to model the creation of the universe for the first time ever" (1/2 page).

  17. Development of an extension of the CAMS system to severe accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Cesar; Lopez, Nuria; Gomez, Pedro M.; Rapun, J. Luis; Gomez, Carlos; Martin, Manuel; Martinez, Antonio J.

    1999-04-15

    CAMS was designed at the Halden Project to assist operators during the development of an abnormal transient, in order to avoid core melt and/or containment failure. Management of the accident after core geometry changes was not within the scope of the first prototype. This report describes the development of a CAMS extension to severe accidents, where the predictive simulation function is performed by the code MAAP4, instead of APROS. The study focused on both BWRs and PWRs, without any customisation to actual operating plants. Chapter 1 gives an introduction that includes purpose, scope, references to other documents and a summary of the content. Chapter 2 gives a description of the methodology that has been developed to integrate the MAAP code into the CAMS structure. Chapter 3 describes the validation and verification activities that have been accomplished and their results. Chapter 4 gives the final conclusions of the project. The theoretical developments of the Diagnosis and Fitting Modules for BWRs and PWR's are given in the appendixes (author) (ml)

  18. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among Australian hospital-based nurses: knowledge, attitude, personal and professional use, reasons for use, CAM referrals, and socio-demographic predictors of CAM users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorofi, Seyed Afshin; Arbon, Paul

    2017-05-01

    This study was intended to examine CAM among Australian hospital-based nurses, identifying their knowledge, attitude, personal and professional use, reasons for use, CAM referrals, and socio-demographic predictors of CAM users. Nurses holding a qualification in nursing and working in surgical wards were included using a convenience sampling technique. A self-complete questionnaire was developed to achieve the aims of the study. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were calculated to describe and analyse data. Overall, 95.7% and 49.7% of nurses reported personal and professional use of CAM, respectively. The most popular CAM/CAM domain personally and professionally used by nurses was massage therapy and mind-body therapies. The primary reason for personal use of CAM was "[it] fits into my way of life/philosophy". Furthermore, massage therapists were the most commonly recommended CAM practitioners to patients. Only 15.8% of nurses would always ask patients about use of herbal medicines as part of nursing history taking. Over one-fifth (22.4%) of nurses rated their attitude as having a very positive, and 60.3% rated themselves as having very little or no knowledge of CAM. A positive correlation was also found between knowledge and attitude about CAM. Positive attitude and higher knowledge about CAM were positively correlated to CAM referrals. Several socio-demographic factors predicted personal and professional use of CAM. This study revealed that nurses generally believe not to have sufficient knowledge of CAM but are open to use CAM with patients. Nurses' positive attitude toward and personal use of CAM could be an indication that they are poised for further integration of evidence-based CAM into nursing practice to treat whole person. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fenomorfología y estrategias funcionales de los principales tipos de caméfitos leñosos mediterráneos del Prepirineo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio, S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Mediterranean sub-shrubs dominate extensive areas in all mediterranean regions of the world where the high levels of stress or the frequent disturbances limit the development of trees or tall shrubs. However, despite their high ecological relevance, these plants have been much less studied than mediterranean trees and shrubs. Little is know, for example, about the different ecological strategies found within them. Indeed, these species show a great diversity of growth forms which seems indicative of their great functional diversity. This note analyzes the phenological and morphological characteristics of the main types of mediterranean sub-shrubs that grow naturally along the Prepyrenees. The main objective is to assess the ecological and functional strategies of these plants by the study of the mechanisms that enable them to withstand the stress and disturbances typical of the environments in which they grow.



    Los caméfitos leñosos dominan extensas áreas de clima mediterráneo donde los altos niveles de estrés o las frecuentes perturbaciones impiden el desarrollo de árboles y arbustos. No obstante, pese a su gran relevancia en los ecosistemas mediterráneos, la atención dedicada a su estudio ha sido muy limitada, sobre todo si se compara con los estudios realizados sobre árboles y arbustos de las mismas zonas. Se desconocen, por ejemplo, los límites de su diversidad ecológica. De hecho, este tipo de plantas presenta una gran variedad de formas de crecimiento que parece ser indicativa de sus diferentes estrategias ecológicas y, por tanto, de su elevada diversidad funcional. En esta nota se analizan las características fenológicas y morfológicas de los principales tipos de caméfitos leñosos mediterráneos existentes en las montañas prepirenaicas. El objetivo principal

  20. The first light curve analysis of eclipsing binary NR Cam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, F.; Hasanzadeh, A.; Poro, A.

    2015-05-01

    New observations of the eclipsing binary system NR Cam were carried out using a CCD in B, V, and R filters and new times of light minimum and new ephemeris were obtained. The B, V, and R light curves were analyzed using both the Binary Maker 3.0 and PHOEBE 0.31 programs to determine some geometrical and physical parameters of the system. These results show that NR Cam is an overcontact binary and that both components are Main Sequence stars. The O'Connell effect on NR Cam was studied and some variations in spot parameters were obtained over the different years.

  1. CAD/CAM Preparation Design Effects on Endodontically Treated and Restored Molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-24

    CAD /CAM Preparation Design Effects on Endodontically Treated and Restored Molars Aaron T. Krance CAD /CAM Preparation Design Effect on...manuscript entitled: CAD /CAM Preparation Design Effect on Endodonticallv Treated and Restored Molars is appropriately acknowledged and beyond brief...by a CAD /CAM technique on endodontically treated molars restored with the endocrown method versus ceramic full coverage based on amalgam cores with

  2. Spatial division of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and nitrate reductase activity and its regulation by cytokinins in CAM-induced leaves of Guzmania monostachia (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paula Natália; Purgatto, Eduardo; Mercier, Helenice

    2013-08-15

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a physiological adaptation of plants that live in stress environment conditions. A good model of CAM modulation is the epiphytic bromeliad, Guzmania monostachia, which switches between two photosynthetic pathways (C3-CAM) in response to different environmental conditions, such as light stress and water availability. Along the leaf length a gradient of acidity can be observed when G. monostachia plants are kept under water deficiency. Previous studies showed that the apical portions of the leaves present higher expression of CAM, while the basal regions exhibit lower expression of this photosynthetic pathway. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to induce the CAM pathway in detached leaves of G. monostachia kept under water deficit for 7 d. Also, it was evaluated whether CAM expression can be modulated in detached leaves of Guzmania and whether some spatial separation between NO3(-) reduction and CO2 fixation occurs in basal and apical portions of the leaf. In addition, we analyzed the involvement of endogenous cytokinins (free and ribosylated forms) as possible signal modulating both NO3(-) reduction and CO2 fixation along the leaf blade of this bromeliad. Besides demonstrating a clear spatial and functional separation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism along G. monostachia leaves, the results obtained also indicated a probable negative correlation between endogenous free cytokinins - zeatin (Z) and isopentenyladenine (iP) - concentration and PEPC activity in the apical portions of G. monostachia leaves kept under water deficit. On the other hand, a possible positive correlation between endogenous Z and iP levels and NR activity in basal portions of drought-exposed and control leaves was verified. Together with the observations presented above, results obtained with exogenous cytokinins treatments, strongly suggest that free cytokinins might act as a stimulatory signal involved in NR activity regulation and as

  3. Eddy covariance measurements of net C exchange in the CAM bioenergy crop, Agave tequiliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Nick A.; Choncubhair, Órlaith Ní; Males, Jamie; del Real Laborde, José Ignacio; Rubio-Cortés, Ramón; Griffiths, Howard; Lanigan, Gary

    2016-04-01

    Bioenergy crop cultivation may focus more on low grade and marginal lands in order to avoid competition with food production for land and water resources. However, in many regions, this would require improvements in plant water-use efficiency that are beyond the physiological capacity of most C3 and C4 bioenergy crop candidates. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, such as Agave tequiliana, can combine high above-ground productivity with as little as 20% of the water demand of C3 and C4 crops. This is achieved through temporal separation of carboxylase activities, with stomata opening at night to allow gas exchange and minimise transpirational losses. Previous studies have employed 'bottom-up' methodologies to investigate carbon (C) accumulation and productivity in Agave, by scaling leaf-level gas exchange and titratable acidity (TA) with leaf area index or maximum productivity. We used the eddy covariance (EC) technique to quantify ecosystem-scale gas exchange over an Agave plantation in Mexico ('top-down' approach). Measurements were made over 252 days, including the transition from wet to dry periods. Results were cross-validated against diel changes in titratable acidity, leaf-unfurling rates, energy exchange fluxes and reported biomass yields. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 displayed a CAM rhythm that alternated from a net C sink at night to a net C source during the day and partitioned canopy fluxes (gross C assimilation, FA,EC) showed a characteristic four-phase CO2 exchange pattern. The projected ecosystem C balance indicated that the site was a net sink of -333 ± 24 g C m-2 y-1, comprising cumulative soil respiration of 692 ± 7 g C m-2 y-1 and FA,EC of -1025 ± 25 g C m-2 y-1. EC-estimated biomass yield was 20.1 Mg ha-1 y-1. Average integrated daily FA,EC was -234 ± 5 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 and persisted almost unchanged after 70 days of drought conditions. Our results suggest that the carbon acquisition strategy of drought avoidance employed by Agave

  4. Malate accumulation in different organs of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. following age-dependent or salinity-triggered CAM metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libik, Marta; Pater, Beata; Elliot, Stewart; Slesak, Ireneusz; Miszalskia, Zbigniew

    2004-01-01

    Different organs of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum exhibit differing levels of CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism), identifiable by quantification of nocturnal malate accumulation. Shoots and also basal parts of young leaves were observed to accumulate high concentrations of malate. It was typically found in mature leaves and especially prominent in plants subjected to salt stress. Small amount of nocturnal malate accumulation was found in roots of M. crystallinum plants following age-dependent or salinity-triggered CAM. This is an indication that malate can be also stored in non-photosynthetic tissue. Measurements of catalase activity did not produce evidence of the correlation between activity of this enzyme and the level of malate accumulation in different organs of M. crystallinum although catalase activity also appeared to be dependent on the photoperiod. In all material collected at dusk catalase activity was greater than it was observed in the organs harvested at dawn.

  5. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Time to Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with your health care providers any complementary and alternative medicines you take or are thinking about starting. Photo: ... and older use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). But less than one-third who use ...

  6. Resin-composite blocks for dental CAD/CAM applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, N D; Sadoun, M J

    2014-12-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and resin composites. While glass-ceramics/ceramics have overall superior mechanical and esthetic properties, resin-composite materials may offer significant advantages related to their machinability and intra-oral reparability. This review summarizes recent developments in resin-composite materials for CAD/CAM applications, focusing on both commercial and experimental materials. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  7. Finding the Evidence in CAM: a Student's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Ghassemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This commentary offers a future health care provider's perspective on the role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in Western (namely, in US medical education and practice. As a student of both public health and medicine in the United States, Jeffrey Ghassemi is interested in CAM's contribution to improving medical practice and teaching. The commentary highlights the ambiguous definitions of CAM to Westerners despite the rising popularity of and expenditures for alternative modalities of care. It then argues for collaboration between alternative and established medical communities to ascertain the scientific merits of CAM. It concludes by calling for a new medical paradigm that embraces the philosophies of both communities to advance education and patient care.

  8. Engine testing of ceramic cam-roller followers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalish, Y. (Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States))

    1992-04-01

    For several years, DDC has been developing monolithic ceramic heat engine components. One of the components, developed for an application in our state-of-the-art on-highway, heavy-duty diesel engine, the Series 60, is a silicon nitride cam-roller follower. Prior to starting this program, each valve train component in the Series 60 was considered for conversion to a ceramic material. Many advantages and disadvantages (benefits and risks) were considered. From this effort, one component was selected, the cam-roller follower. Using a system design approach, a ceramic cam-roller follower offered functional improvement at a reasonable cost. The purpose of the project was to inspect and test 100 domestically produced silicon nitride cam-roller followers built to the requirements of the DDC series 60 engine.

  9. Engine testing of ceramic cam-roller followers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalish, Y. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States)

    1992-04-01

    For several years, DDC has been developing monolithic ceramic heat engine components. One of the components, developed for an application in our state-of-the-art on-highway, heavy-duty diesel engine, the Series 60, is a silicon nitride cam-roller follower. Prior to starting this program, each valve train component in the Series 60 was considered for conversion to a ceramic material. Many advantages and disadvantages (benefits and risks) were considered. From this effort, one component was selected, the cam-roller follower. Using a system design approach, a ceramic cam-roller follower offered functional improvement at a reasonable cost. The purpose of the project was to inspect and test 100 domestically produced silicon nitride cam-roller followers built to the requirements of the DDC series 60 engine.

  10. The Etiology and Arthroscopic Surgical Management of Cam Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Gaudiani, Michael A; Ranawat, Anil S

    2016-07-01

    Cam-type deformity of the proximal femur is a relative increase in the discrepancy of the femoral head-neck offset. The etiology is unknown; several conditions have been implicated in the development of abnormal proximal femoral anatomy. Recent evidence suggests that high-impact sports place stress on the immature physis during growth and may play an important role. Imaging is essential in the initial diagnostic workup, characterization of pathology, preoperative planning, and intraoperative decision making. Short-term and mid-term outcomes for arthroscopic osteoplasty of cam lesions for both isolated cam-type deformity and mixed cam-pincer femoroacetabular impingement have been well-described and are favorable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Melting ice, growing trade?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sami Bensassi; Julienne C. Stroeve; Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso; Andrew P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR...

  12. A Ca2+/calmodulin-binding peroxidase from Euphorbia latex: novel aspects of calcium-hydrogen peroxide cross-talk in the regulation of plant defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Anna; Medda, Rosaria; Longu, Silvia; Floris, Giovanni; Rinaldi, Andrea C; Padiglia, Alessandra

    2005-11-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a ubiquitous Ca(2+) sensor found in all eukaryotes, where it participates in the regulation of diverse calcium-dependent physiological processes. In response to fluctuations of the intracellular concentration of Ca(2+), CaM binds to a set of unrelated target proteins and modulates their activity. In plants, a growing number of CaM-binding proteins have been identified that apparently do not have a counterpart in animals. Some of these plant-specific Ca(2+)/CaM-activated proteins are known to tune the interaction between calcium and H(2)O(2) in orchestrating plant defenses against biotic and abiotic stresses. We previously characterized a calcium-dependent peroxidase isolated from the latex of the Mediterranean shrub Euphorbia characias (ELP) [Medda et al. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 8909-8918]. Here we report the cDNA nucleotide sequence of Euphorbia latex peroxidase, showing that the derived protein has two distinct amino acid sequences recognized as CaM-binding sites. The cDNA encoding for an E. characias CaM was also found and sequenced, and its protein product was detected in the latex. Results obtained from different CaM-binding assays and the determination of steady-state parameters showed unequivocally that ELP is a CaM-binding protein activated by the Ca(2+)/CaM system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a peroxidase regulated by this classic signal transduction mechanism. These findings suggest that peroxidase might be another node in the Ca(2+)/H(2)O(2)-mediated plant defense system, having both positive and negative effects in regulating H(2)O(2) homeostasis.

  13. Cam Drive Step Mechanism of a Quadruped Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Qun Sun; Chong Wang; Dongjie Zhao; Cuihua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Bionic quadruped robots received considerable worldwide research attention. For a quadruped robot walking with steady paces on a flat terrain, using a cam drive control mechanism instead of servomotors provides theoretical and practical benefits as it reduces the system weight, cost, and control complexities; thus it may be more cost beneficial for some recreational or household applications. This study explores the robot step mechanism including the leg and cam drive control systems based on...

  14. Incorporation of CAD/CAM Restoration Into Navy Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-26

    Aided Design and Computer- Aided Manufacturing Restorations: A Review of the Literature. Journal of international oral health : JIOH 2015;7:96-104...CAD/CAM Computer-aided design /Computer-assisted manufacturing CDT Common Dental Terminology DENCAS Dental Common Access System DTF Dental...to reduce avoidable dental emergencies for deployed sailors and marines. Dental Computer-aided design /Computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM

  15. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    Young, J

    2000-01-01

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies, and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability.

  16. CAD/CAM produces dentures with improved fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmassl, Otto; Dumfahrt, Herbert; Grunert, Ingrid; Steinmassl, Patricia-Anca

    2018-02-22

    Resin polymerisation shrinkage reduces the congruence of the denture base with denture-bearing tissues and thereby decreases the retention of conventionally fabricated dentures. CAD/CAM denture manufacturing is a subtractive process, and polymerisation shrinkage is not an issue anymore. Therefore, CAD/CAM dentures are assumed to show a higher denture base congruence than conventionally fabricated dentures. It has been the aim of this study to test this hypothesis. CAD/CAM dentures provided by four different manufacturers (AvaDent, Merz Dental, Whole You, Wieland/Ivoclar) were generated from ten different master casts. Ten conventional dentures (pack and press, long-term heat polymerisation) made from the same master casts served as control group. The master casts and all denture bases were scanned and matched digitally. The absolute incongruences were measured using a 2-mm mesh. Conventionally fabricated dentures showed a mean deviation of 0.105 mm, SD = 0.019 from the master cast. All CAD/CAM dentures showed lower mean incongruences. From all CAD/CAM dentures, AvaDent Digital Dentures showed the highest congruence with the master cast surface with a mean deviation of 0.058 mm, SD = 0.005. Wieland Digital Dentures showed a mean deviation of 0.068 mm, SD = 0.005, Whole You Nexteeth prostheses showed a mean deviation of 0.074 mm, SD = 0.011 and Baltic Denture System prostheses showed a mean deviation of 0.086 mm, SD = 0.012. CAD/CAM produces dentures with better fit than conventional dentures. The present study explains the clinically observed enhanced retention and lower traumatic ulcer-frequency in CAD/CAM dentures.

  17. Capacidade de absorção do chumbo por plantas do género Cistus espontâneas em ambientes mineiros Lead uptake capacity of Cistus plants growing in mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Abreu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A actividade mineira pode gerar grandes quantidades de materiais provenientes da mineralização mais ou menos alterada, fragmentada ou britada, das rochas encaixantes e de escórias que constituem escombreiras, muitas vezes quimicamente instáveis, e que podem fornecer elevados teores de elementos químicos potencialmente contaminantes para os ecossistemas. As plantas que se desenvolvem nestes ambientes degradados podem contribuir para a minimização dos impactos negativos quer de natureza química, quer física e paisagista. Para avaliar o potencial de absorção do Pb das plantas do género Cistus que crescem espontaneamente nas áreas mineiras do Braçal (NW Portugal e de São Domingos (SE Portugal, analisaram-se, respectivamente, por espectrometria de massa com fonte de plasma indutivamente acoplado e espectrofotometria de absorção atómica, após digestão ácida, a parte aérea (folhas e raminhos de Cistus inflatus e as folhas de Cistus ladanifer. Os solos daquelas áreas foram caracterizados relativamente ao pH (H2O, carbono orgânico, capacidade de troca catiónica, Fe e Mn livres, N total e K e P assimiláveis. Determinou-se também (fracção Mining activity can give rise to large quantities of chemically unstable waste rocks and tailings which can drain potential environmentally harmful lixiviates rich in chemical elements. Plants growing in such environments can minimize chemical, physical and visual negative impacts. To evaluate lead absorption by native Cistus growing in Braçal (NW Portugal and São Domingos (SE Portugal mining areas, Cistus inflatus (aerial parts and Cistus ladanifer (leaves were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometric, respectively, after acid digestions. Soils were characterized by pH(H2O, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, free Fe and Mn, total nitrogen, and assimilable K and P. Total lead was determined in soils (fraction < 2 mm by inductively

  18. Growing Up with "1984."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franza, August

    1983-01-01

    Relates changing student reaction to George Orwell's "1984" over 20 years of teaching. Finds present high school students' acceptance of Orwell's bleak world vision both a sign of student honesty and a frightening indication of the growing reality of the book. (MM)

  19. Growing through Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.

    "Growing through Literature" is a curriculum using Joan M. and Erik H. Erikson's theory of the Life Cycle as a structure for selecting and teaching literature to inner-city high school students at Brighton High School in Massachusetts. The program consists of four component parts: Journals, Selected Stories, Discussion, and…

  20. Growing Old in Exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liversage, Anika; Mirdal, Gretty Mizrahi

    2017-01-01

    Some studies on immigrants and ageing focus on the question of return; others focus on how immigrants, who grow old in their countries of destination, ‘age in place’, including whether they turn to their children or to public host country provisions for care and support. However, the issues of re...

  1. Prevalence of Cam Morphology in Females with Femoroacetabular Impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Levy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cam and pincer are two common morphologies responsible for femoroacetabular impingement. Previous literature has reported that cam deformity is predominantly a male morphology, while being significantly less common in females. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cam morphology in female subjects diagnosed with symptomatic FAI. All females presenting to the senior author’s clinic diagnosed with symptomatic FAI between December 2006 and Cam and pincer are two common morphologies responsible for femoroacetabular impingement. Previous literature has reported that cam deformity is predominantly a male morphology, while being significantly less common in females. Cam morphology is commonly assessed with the alpha angle, measured on radiographs. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cam morphology utilizing the alpha angle in female subjects diagnosed with symptomatic FAI. All females presenting to the senior author’s clinic diagnosed with symptomatic FAI between December 2006 and January 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Alpha (α angles were measured on AP (anteroposterior and lateral (Dunn 90°, cross-table lateral, and/or frog-leg lateral plain radiographs by two blinded physicians, and the largest measured angle was used. Using Gosvig et al.’s classification, alpha angle was characterized as (pathologic > 57°, borderline (51-56°, subtle (46-50°, very subtle (43-45°, or normal (≤42°. Three hundred and ninety-one patients (438 hips were analyzed (age 36.2 ± 12.3 years. Among the hips included, 35.6% were normal, 14.6% pathologic, 15.1% borderline, 14.6% subtle, and 20.1% very subtle. There was no correlation between alpha angle and patient age (R = 0.17 or body mass index (BMI (R = 0.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for α-angle measurements was 0.84. Sixty-four percent of females in this cohort had an alpha angle > 42°. Subtle cam deformity plays a significant role in

  2. CamBAfx: Workflow Design, Implementation and Application for Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cinly; Bullmore, Edward T.; Wink, Alle-Meije; Sendur, Levent; Barnes, Anna; Achard, Sophie; Aspden, John; Abbott, Sanja; Yue, Shigang; Kitzbichler, Manfred; Meunier, David; Maxim, Voichita; Salvador, Raymond; Henty, Julian; Tait, Roger; Subramaniam, Naresh; Suckling, John

    2009-01-01

    CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers) and those who design them (designers). It provides a front-end (user interface) optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platform application, CamBAfx's pipelines and functions can be bundled with the software or downloaded post-installation. The user interface contains all the workflow facilities expected by consumers. Using the Eclipse Extension Mechanism designers are encouraged to customize CamBAfx for their own pipelines. CamBAfx wraps a workflow facility around neuroinformatics software without modification. CamBAfx's design, licensing and Eclipse Branding Mechanism allow it to be used as the user interface for other software, facilitating exchange of innovative computational tools between originating labs. PMID:19826470

  3. Concerns of hydrothermal degradation in CAD/CAM zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J-W; Covel, N S; Guess, P C; Rekow, E D; Zhang, Y

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia-based restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry; however, their susceptibility to hydrothermal degradation remains elusive. We hypothesized that CAD/CAM machining and subsequent surface treatments, i.e., grinding and/or grit-blasting, have marked effects on the hydrothermal degradation behavior of Y-TZP. CAD/CAM-machined Y-TZP plates (0.5 mm thick), both with and without subsequent grinding with various grit sizes or grit-blasting with airborne alumina particles, were subjected to accelerated aging tests in a steam autoclave. Results showed that the CAD/CAM-machined surfaces initially exhibited superior hydrothermal degradation resistance, but deteriorated at a faster rate upon prolonged autoclave treatment compared with ground and grit-blasted surfaces. The accelerated hydrothermal degradation of CAD/CAM surfaces is attributed to the CAD/CAM machining damage and the absence of surface compressive stresses in the fully sintered material. Clinical relevance for surface treatments of zirconia frameworks in terms of hydrothermal and structural stabilities is addressed.

  4. Improvement of cam performance curve using B-Spline curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriman, A. B.; Syafiq, A. K. M.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Z. M.; Wan, K.; Daud, R.; Cheng, E. M.; Zaaba, S. K.; Azizan, Azizi

    2017-10-01

    The mathematical modeling approach has been applied in order to increase the cam profile curve of Modenas CT115s performance by using MATLAB software as a programmed to calculate the mechanism of the cam profile. Cam is used inside the engine to push the rocker and consequently open and close the engine valve that allows the fuel-air mixture to be entered during the combustion process. The B-Spline curve was implemented in order to enhance the current performance of the cam profile. The calculation had been done by using manual and MATLAB software. The results obtained has been analyzed and interpreted in plotting the graphs. From the analysis, the profile that had the highest displacement factor, sk produced higher cam curve performance of the engine. Thus, it can be concluded that the increase of the displacement factor, sk can increase the engine performance as the valve displace further in which allow higher fuel-air mixture entrance during the combustion process.

  5. CAM and Pediatric Oncology: Where Are All the Best Cases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Denise; Spelliscy, Courtney; Sivakumar, Leka; Grundy, Paul; Leis, Anne; Sencer, Susan; Vohra, Sunita

    2013-01-01

    Background. Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by children with cancer is high; however, pediatric best cases are rare. Objectives. To investigate whether best cases exist in pediatric oncology using a three-phase approach and to compare our methods with other such programs. Methods. In phase I, Children's Oncology Group (COG) oncologists were approached via email and asked to recall patients who were (i) under 18 when diagnosed with cancer, (ii) diagnosed between 1990 and 2006, (iii) had unexpectedly positive clinical outcome, and (iv) reported using CAM during or after cancer treatment. Phase II involved partnering with CAM research networks; patients who were self-identified as best cases were asked to submit reports completed in conjunction with their oncologists. Phase III extended this partnership to 200 CAM associations and training organizations. Results. In phase I, ten cases from three COG sites were submitted, and most involved use of traditional Chinese medicine to improve quality of life. Phases II and III did not yield further cases. Conclusion. Identification of best cases has been suggested as an important step in guiding CAM research. The CARE Best Case Series Program had limited success in identifying pediatric cases despite the three approaches we used.

  6. User rate of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) of patients visiting a counseling facility for CAM of a German comprehensive cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Jutta; Micke, Oliver; Muecke, Ralph; Buentzel, Jens; Prott, Franz Josef; Kleeberg, Ulrich; Senf, Bianca; Muenstedt, Karsten

    2014-02-01

    In Europe about 40% to 50% of patients with cancer use complementary or alternative medicine (CAM). Only scarce data regarding the use of CAM have been reported from comprehensive cancer Centers. We carried out a survey on patients attending the counseling Unit for CAM of a German comprehensive cancer Center using a standardized questionnaire. A total of 165 patients participated in the survey; 60% had already used CAM. Trace elements and vitamins were most often used. Strengthening oneself and one's immune system were the two main reasons (73% and 69% respectively for CAM use). The most important sources of information are print media and physicians (41% and 35% respectively). The two main reasons for using CAM were practitioners spending more time with patients and patients having experienced positive effects from CAM. For patients with cancer becoming active is an important goal, while disappointment in conventional medicine is not. Accepting patients' motivation for autonomy may help oncologists to increase adherence to conventional therapy.

  7. Influence of photoperiod on growth for three desert CAM species. [Agave deserti, Ferocactus acanthodes, Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Agave deserti, Ferocactus acanthodes, and Opuntia ficus-indica were maintained in environmental growth chambers under a constant total daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for 1 yr to investigate the effects of photoperiod on growth of these Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. As the photoperiod was increased from 6 h to 18 h, growth increased 33% for A. deserti, 81% for F. acanthodes, and 50% for O. ficus-indica. Such increases were explained based on PAR saturation of the C{sub 3} photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle utilized by CAM plants during the daytime. In particular, the highest instantaneous PAR occurred for the shortest photoperiod and led to less growth for the same total daily PAR. Also, the total daily net CO{sub 2} uptake which occurred primarily at night, increased 53% as the photoperiod was increased from 6 to 18 h for O. ficus-indica, even though the accompanying night length decreased. The only other observed morphological effect was the sevenfold increase in the number of new cladodes initiated as the photoperiod was increased from 6 h to 18 h for O. ficus-indica. The influence of photoperiod on the daily pattern of net CO{sub 2} uptake and lack of effect of drought on plant survival under long photoperiods for O. ficus-indica differ from previous reports on this and other CAM species.

  8. [CAM products as therapeutic placebos: theoretical and bioethical reflections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne-Seifert, Bettina; Friedrich, Daniel R; Reichardt, Jan-Ole

    2015-01-01

    In Germany as well as in many other countries the project of 'integrating' CAM interventions into conventional medicine is currently underway. It is a highly contested endeavour. One backdoor of justifying CAM interventions - even if, according to the scientific standards of conventional medicine, they have been proved to lack specific effectiveness - is their use as therapeutic placebos. In this paper we will first discuss general critical considerations regarding deceptive placebo use and then argue that in the specific case of CAM interventions used as placebos general ethical reservations are reinforced by the fact that their use is prone to promote a non- or antiscientific attitude among physicians and patients, which we consider highly problematic. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. The application of CAD / CAM technology in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susic, I.; Travar, M.; Susic, M.

    2017-05-01

    Information and communication technologies have found their application in the healthcare sector, including the frameworks of modern dentistry. CAD / CAM application in dentistry is the process by which is attained finished dental restoration through fine milling process of ready ceramic blocks. CAD / CAM is an acronym of english words Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) / Computer-Aided-Manufacture (CAM), respectively dental computer aided design and computer aided manufacture of inlays, onlays, crowns and bridges. CAD / CAM technology essentially allows you to create a two-dimensional and three-dimensional models and their materialization by numerical controlled machines. In order to operate more efficiently, reduce costs, increase user/patient satisfaction and ultimately achieve profits, many dental offices in the world have their attention focused on implementation of modern IT solutions in everyday practice. In addition to the specialized clinic management software, inventory control, etc., or hardware such as the use of lasers in cosmetic dentistry or intraoral scanning, recently the importance is given to the application of CAD / CAM technology in the field of prosthetic. After the removal of pathologically altered tooth structure, it is necessary to achieve restoration that will be most similar to the anatomy of a natural tooth. Applying CAD / CAM technology on applicable ceramic blocks it can be obtained very quick, but also very accurate restoration, in the forms of inlays, onlays, bridges and crowns. The paper presents the advantages of using this technology as well as satisfaction of the patients and dentists by using systems as: Cercon, Celay, Cerec, Lava, Everest, which represent imperative of modern dentistry in creating fixed dental restorations.

  10. Passivity of conventional and CAD/CAM fabricated implant frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Gabriela Monteiro; de França, Danilo Gonzaga Bernardo; Silva Neto, João Paulo; Barbosa, Gustavo Augusto Seabra

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the passivity by measuring the passive fit and strain development of frameworks screwed on abutments, made by CAD/CAM technology, and to compare these parts with samples manufactured by conventional casting. Using CAD/CAM technology, four samples were made from zirconia (Zircad) and four samples were manufactured from cobalt-chrome (CoCrcad). The control groups were four specimens of cobalt-chrome, made by one-piece casting (CoCrci), with a total of 12 frameworks. To evaluate the passive fit, the vertical misfit at the abutment-framework interface was measured with scanning electron microscopy (250×) when only one screw was tightened. The mean strain in these frameworks was analyzed by photoelasticity test. A significant difference in the passive fit was observed between the control and sample groups. CoCrcad exhibited the best value of passive fit (48.76±13.45 µm) and CoCrci the worst (187.55±103.63 µm); Zircad presented an intermediate value (103.81±43.15 µm). When compared to the other groups, CoCrci showed the highest average stress around the implants (17.19±7.22 kPa). It was concluded that CAD/CAM-fabricated frameworks exhibited better passivity compared with conventionally fabricated frameworks. CAD/CAM-fabricated Co-Cr frameworks may exhibit better passive fit compared with CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia frameworks. Even so, similar levels of stress were achieved for CAD/CAM-fabricated frameworks.

  11. About Jupiter's Reflectance Function in JunoCam Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichstaedt, G.; Orton, G. S.; Momary, T.; Hansen, C. J.; Caplinger, M.

    2017-09-01

    NASA's Juno spacecraft has successfully completed several perijove passes. JunoCam is Juno's visible light and infrared camera. It was added to the instrument complement to investigate Jupiter's polar regions, and for education and public outreach purposes. Images of Jupiter taken by JunoCam have been revealing effects that can be interpreted as caused by a haze layer. This presumed haze layer appears to be structured, and it partially obscures Jupiter's cloud top. With empirical investigation of Jupiter's reflectance function we intend to separate light contributed by haze from light reflected off Jupiter's cloud tops, enabling both layers to be investigated separately.

  12. Marginal Integrity of CAD/CAM Fixed Partial Dentures

    OpenAIRE

    Rosentritt, Martin; Behr, Michael; Kolbeck, Carola; Handel, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM) allows the milling of high strength zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPD), however bonding to an inert ZrO2 ceramic surface may effect the marginal integrity of the FPDs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of zirconia FPDs at the interfaces between zirconia, cement, and tooth. Methods 32 3-unit FPDs were fabricated of the CAD/CAM Y-TZP zirconia (Lava, 3M Espe, Germany) according to the manufactur...

  13. Illness narratives in cancer: CAM and spiritual practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: In this paper,we investigate Danish cancer patients’ narratives on spiritual beliefs and practices and the relationship these practices may have to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design: Narrative inquiry is used to uncover how spiritual beliefs and practices may......, religious and spiritual issues were not extensively unfolded in participants’ illness narratives. However, these issues were significantly elaborated on in narratives by four female participants. Conclusion: We propose that for some cancer patients CAM may function, not only or primarily as a treatment...

  14. Uso de malhas pigmentadas e mulching em túneis para cultivo de rúcula: efeito no ambiente e nas plantas modelo Use of pigmented mesh covers tunnels and mulchings for growing roquette: environmental effects on model plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ricardo Cantu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O uso de malhas pigmentadas em cultivos de hortaliças folhosas permite a melhor adequação do ambiente às plantas, com destaque para a rúcula. Essa hortaliça vem conquistando maior espaço no mercado consumidor brasileiro desde o final da década de 90. Essa pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar as condições ambientais proporcionadas pelo uso de telas pigmentadas na cobertura de túneis de cultivo, relacionando com as respostas agronômicas da rúcula, cultivada dentro desses túneis sobre diferentes coberturas de solo. As coberturas de túneis foram: a Chromatinet® azul, Chromatinet® vermelha, tela aluminizada prata, Sombrite® 50% e filme plástico transparente de polietileno de baixa densidade de 100µ. As coberturas de solo, também denominadas mulchings, dentro dos túneis foram: o filme plástico de polietileno de cor preta; de polietileno de dupla-face nas cores preta e branca, com a face branca voltada para cima; casca de arroz e a ausência de mulching. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com 24 tratamentos e três repetições. Nas condições do experimento, o emprego de algumas coberturas de túnel e de solo modificou o ambiente e melhorou as respostas agronômicas das plantas de rúcula.The use of pigmented screens for growing vegetable crops provides an opportunity for adjusting environmental conditions, especially for roquette. This vegetable crop is consumed mainly as raw, and has a large proportion in Brazilian vegetable market since 1990s. The present research was aimed to evaluate the effect the altered environmental conditions (by using pigmented screens tunnels on agronomic performance of roquette, grown inside tunnels having different color covers. Coverage screens colors were blue, red, silver, screen of shading 50% and transparent plastic. Beside this the effect of different mulching practices was also evaluated inside the tunnels. The experiment was laid out under randomized complete blocks design

  15. CAM visual stimulation with conventional method of occlusion treatment in amblyopia: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Jafari

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Using of CAM visual stimulation along with conventional occlusion will further improve visual acuity and stereopsis in amblyopic children. These findings recommended the CAM visual stimulation as an accompanying and complementary method in amblyopia treatment.

  16. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

  17. Cam impingement of the hip: a risk factor for hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricola, Rintje; Waarsing, Jan H; Arden, Nigel K; Carr, Andrew J; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Thomas, Geraint E; Weinans, Harrie; Glyn-Jones, Sion

    2013-10-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is characterized by abnormal contact between the proximal femur and the acetabulum. Two subtypes have been described: pincer impingement, caused by an overcovered acetabulum; and cam impingement, which occurs as a result of an aspherical femoral head (cam abnormality). A strong correlation exists between cam impingement and the subsequent development of hip osteoarthritis (OA). Major cam abnormalities confer a high risk of OA. However, the association between cam abnormalities and the pathology of OA has been difficult to compare between studies, as different methods have been used to define the abnormality. Cam abnormalities are acquired during skeletal growth and could be influenced by high impact sporting activities. Preventative treatments aiming to reduce the incidence of cam abnormalities and subsequent OA could, therefore, be developed. In this Perspective, we discuss the current understanding of FAI, focusing on cam abnormalities and their association with OA.

  18. A new radiological index for assessing asphericity of the femoral head in cam impingement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, K K; Jacobsen, S; Palm, H

    2007-01-01

    Femoroacetabular cam impingement is thought to be a cause of premature osteoarthritis of the hip. The presence of cam malformation was determined in 2803 standardised anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs from the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study by measuring the alpha (alpha) angle...

  19. Sewani-Rusike., Afr. J. Trad. CAM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnomedicine has gained a lot of recognition in post-independence Zimbabwe and yet little research on anti-fertility medicines has been done. Information on plants used as anti-fertility medicines was obtained by interviewing women, men, traditional healers and traditional midwives in urban Harare and surrounding rural.

  20. The CAM-S: development and validation of a new scoring system for delirium severity in 2 cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Sharon K; Kosar, Cyrus M; Tommet, Douglas; Schmitt, Eva M; Puelle, Margaret R; Saczynski, Jane S; Marcantonio, Edward R; Jones, Richard N

    2014-04-15

    Quantifying the severity of delirium is essential to advancing clinical care by improved understanding of delirium effect, prognosis, pathophysiology, and response to treatment. To develop and validate a new delirium severity measure (CAM-S) based on the Confusion Assessment Method. Validation analysis in 2 independent cohorts. Three academic medical centers. The first cohort included 300 patients aged 70 years or older scheduled for major surgery. The second included 919 medical patients aged 70 years or older. A 4-item short form and a 10-item long form were developed. Association of the maximum CAM-S score during hospitalization with hospital and posthospital outcomes related to delirium was evaluated. Representative results included adjusted mean length of stay, which increased across levels of short-form severity from 6.5 days (95% CI, 6.2 to 6.9 days) to 12.7 days (CI, 11.2 to 14.3 days) (P for trend < 0.001) and across levels of long-form severity from 5.6 days (CI, 5.1 to 6.1 days) to 11.9 days (CI, 10.8 to 12.9 days) (P for trend < 0.001). Representative results for the composite outcome of adjusted relative risk of death or nursing home residence at 90 days increased progressively across levels of short-form severity from 1.0 (referent) to 2.5 (CI, 1.9 to 3.3) (P for trend < 0.001) and across levels of long-form severity from 1.0 (referent) to 2.5 (CI, 1.6 to 3.7) (P for trend < 0.001). Data on clinical outcomes were measured in an older data set limited to patients aged 70 years or older. The CAM-S provides a new delirium severity measure with strong psychometric properties and strong associations with important clinical outcomes. National Institute on Aging.

  1. Green gold: The potential and pitfalls for North American medicinal plants in the US botanical supplements industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswini Pai; Matthew Skeels

    2010-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become an implicit part of a lifestyle industry in the United States. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that at least 41% of the population in the US has used CAM at least once in their lives (WHO 2002). Globalization, an influx of various immigrant cultures, and growing wariness of western allopathic medicine...

  2. Growing unculturable bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric J

    2012-08-01

    The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not grow on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in growing these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the field.

  3. The application of CAD, CAE & CAM in development of butterfly valve’s disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiff Razif Shah Ranjit, Muhammad; Hanie Abdullah, Nazlin

    2017-06-01

    The improved design of a butterfly valve disc is based on the concept of sandwich theory. Butterfly valves are mostly used in various industries such as oil and gas plant. The primary failure modes for valves are indented disc, keyways and shaft failure and the cavitation damage. Emphasis on the application of CAD, a new model of the butterfly valve’s disc structure was designed. The structure analysis was analysed using the finite element analysis. Butterfly valve performance factors can be obtained is by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software to simulate the physics of fluid flow in a piping system around a butterfly valve. A comparison analysis was done using the finite element to justify the performance of the structure. The second application of CAE is the computational fluid flow analysis. The upstream pressure and the downstream pressure was analysed to calculate the cavitation index and determine the performance throughout each opening position of the valve. The CAM process was done using 3D printer to produce a prototype and analysed the structure in form of prototype. The structure was downscale fabricated based on the model designed initially through the application of CAD. This study is utilized the application of CAD, CAE and CAM for a better improvement of the butterfly valve’s disc components.

  4. Correlates of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in Chicago area children with diabetes (DM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer L; Cao, Dingcai; Miller, Jonathan G; Lipton, Rebecca B

    2009-08-01

    To correlate complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in children with diabetes mellitus (DM) with DM control and other family or disease characteristics. Parents/guardians of children with DM were interviewed about demographics, clinical characteristics, CAM use, health care beliefs, psychosocial variables, and religious beliefs. The child's hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1c) value from the visit was collected. Statistical analyses included chi(2), Fisher's exact test, and 2-sample t-tests. 106 families with type 1 DM were interviewed. 33% of children tried CAM in the last year; 75% of parents had ever tried CAM. Children most commonly tried faith healing or prayer; parents most commonly tried faith healing or prayer, chiropractic, massage, and herbal teas. Children were more likely to have used CAM if their parents or siblings used CAM or their family was more religious. They were more likely to have discussed CAM with their providers if they used CAM. Parents of child CAM users reported more problems with DM treatment adherence. Children with DM used CAM. There were no differences in DM control, demographics, healthcare beliefs, stress, or quality of life between CAM users and non-users. Practitioners should inquire about CAM use to improve DM care for children.

  5. The development of cam-type deformity in adolescent and young male soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Agricola (Rintje); J.H.J.M. Bessems (Gert); A.Z. Ginai (Abida); M.P. Heijboer (Rien); R.A. van der Heijden (Rianne); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); H.H. Weinans (Harrie); J.H. Waarsing (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cam impingement is a well-recognized cause of hip pain and might cause osteoarthritis of the hip. Clinically, cam impingement is mostly observed in young, active male patients, but only a few studies have focused on the manifestation of cam-type deformities during skeletal

  6. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Germany - a focus group study of GPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joos, S.; Musselmann, B.; Miksch, A.; Rosemann, T.J.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners), some general practitioners (GPs) provide CAM in their practices. This paper

  7. Evaluation of complementary-alternative medicine (CAM) questionnaire development for Indonesian clinical psychologists: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Andrian; Newcombe, Peter A; Pohlman, Annie

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate questionnaire development to measure the knowledge of Complementary-Alternative Medicine (CAM), attitudes towards CAM, CAM experiences, and CAM educational needs of clinical psychologists in Indonesia. A 26-item questionnaire was developed through an extensive literature search. Data was obtained from provisional psychologists from the Master of Professional Clinical Psychology programs at two established public universities in urban areas of Indonesia. To validate the questionnaire, panel reviews by executive members of the Indonesian Clinical Psychology Association (ICPA), experts in health psychology, and experts in public health and CAM provided their professional judgements. The self-reporting questionnaire consisted of four scales including: knowledge of CAM (6 items), attitudes towards CAM (10 items), CAM experiences (4 items), and CAM educational needs (6 items). All scales, except CAM Experiences, were assessed on a 7-point Likert scale. Sixty provisional psychologists were eligible to complete the questionnaire with a response rate of 73% (N=44). The results showed that the CAM questionnaire was reliable (Cronbach's coefficient alpha range=0.62-0.96; item-total correlation range=0.14-0.92) and demonstrated content validity. Following further psychometric evaluation, the CAM questionnaire may provide the evidence-based information to inform the education and practice of Indonesian clinical psychologists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ChemCam analysis of Martian fine dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Mangold, Nicolas; Cousin, Agnes; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Wiens, Roger; Gasnault, Olivier; Rapin, William; Schroder, Susanne; Ollila, Ann; Fabre, Cécile; Berger, Gilles; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Dehouck, Erwin; Forni, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre; Anderson, Ryan; Bridges, Nathan; Clark, Benton; Clegg, Samuel; d'Uston, Claude; Goetz, Walter; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Lanza, Nina; Madsen, Morten; Melikechi, Noureddine; Newsom, Horton; Sautter, Violaine; Martin-Torres, Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we examine the chemical composition of dust observed by the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover at Gale Crater. The Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique analyses samples without preparation, which allows detection of the elemental composition of surface deposits. Mars aeolian fine dust (graphite for carbon and an alloy of titanium). ChemCam passive spectroscopy also indicates varying deposition of the dust cover on the CCCT.Major elements are quantified and shown to be very similar to the fine soils encountered at Gale crater. The composition is also similar to the soils and fine dust measured by APXS for the elements common to both instruments. The minor elements quantified by ChemCam (Ba, Sr, Rb, Li, Mn, Cr) are within the range of soil surveys, but we see a higher concentration of Li than in other types of remotely characterized targets. Sulfur is possibly detected at the ChemCam limit of detection. Hydrogen is clearly identified, indicating that this fine dust is a contributor to the H content of the martian soils, as also detected by the SAM and CheMin instruments, and provides constraints as to which fraction of the Martian surface is hydrated and altered. In conclusion, the finest fraction of dust particles on the surface of Mars contains hydrated components mixed intimately within the fine aeolian dust fraction, suggesting that this dust likely originates from mechanical weathering of altered grains.

  9. Design of the OmegaCAM Instrument Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruffolo, Andrea; Bortolussi, Alessandro; De Pizzol, Luigi; Magagna, Carlo E.

    2002-12-01

    OmegaCAM is a wide field optical imager that is expected to start its operations towards the end of 2003, at the VLT Survey Telescope (VST), part of the VLT Observatory, operated in Paranal (Chile) by the European Southern Observatory (ESO). OmegaCAM will almost completely fill VST one squared degree field of view with a CCD imaging mosaic 16k x 16k pixels in size. In addition to the scientific array, four auxiliary CCDs will be used for autoguiding and image analysis. Despite its conceptual simplicity and due to the large size of the CCD mosaic, OmegaCAM posed several challenges in the design of its mechanics, electronics, cryogenics and software. In this paper we report on the design of the OmegaCAM Instrument Software (INS), which is in charge of the control and operations of the instrument. We first introduce the instrument control system characteristics and the INS software development process. We then describe the main characteristics of the INS subsystems in charge of instrument functions control, autoguiding, image analysis and operations coordination. Finally, we discuss the performances expected from the software in the acquisition and storage of the large amount of data that will come from the scientific array.

  10. S-Cam Update - Novel Capabilities for Resolving Old Problems !

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, N.; Moore, P.

    2000-09-01

    In a previous article in this newsletter (ING Newsletter, No. 1, p. 13) we presented the novel Superconducting Tunnel Junction detector (STJ). A novel technological advance ready to open up the skies for new discoveries. Since then much work has been done by the team at ESA to improve S-Cam and the third run of this camera has been successfully completed.

  11. Synthesis and analysis of coupler curves with combined planar cam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cam and follower mechanisms are widely used to convert a rotary input motion into a controlled reciprocating or oscillating motion as output in machines or robots. As this mechanism has an ability to provide unlimited variety of output motions. Many works are done on the synthesis of coupler curves or path generation ...

  12. Footage: Action Cam Shorts as Cartographic Captures of Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, N.

    2015-01-01

    This short article reflects on short videos of action cam footage that are widely disseminated on online platforms. These first-person perspective shorts are compared to early cinema’s phantom rides in the use of point-of-view shots, and a dizzying effect of heightened mobility and versatility in

  13. Footage: Action Cam Shorts as Cartographic Captures of Time.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, N.

    2015-01-01

    This short article reflects on short videos of action cam footage that are widely disseminated on online platforms. These first-person perspective shorts are compared to early cinema’s phantom rides in the use of point-of-view shots, and a dizzying effect of heightened mobility and versatility in

  14. Fatigue resistance of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shembish, F.A.; Tong, H.; Kaizer, M.; Janal, M.N.; Thompson, V.P.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns using a mouth-motion step-stress fatigue test. Monolithic leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic crowns were used as a reference. METHODS: Fully anatomically shaped monolithic resin composite molar crowns (Lava

  15. Performance Characteristics of a Cam Turning Attachment | Tuleun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A modification of a cylindrical turning unit has been done to give a non-cylindrical turning attachment for production of irregular shapes, like cams on the lathe machine. To assess the performance of the attachment, cutting forces have been measured using a 'Sigma' Cutting Tool Dynamometer. Furthermore, the effect of ...

  16. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 ...

  17. Growing evening primroses (Oenothera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eGreiner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The model plant Oenothera has contributed significantly to the biological sciences and it dominated the early development of plant genetics, cytogenetics, and evolutionary biology. The great advantage of using Oenothera as a model system is a large body of genetic, cytological, morphological, and ecological information collected over more than a century. The Oenothera system offers a well-studied taxonomy, population structure, and ecology. Cytogenetics and formal genetics at the population level are extensively developed, providing an excellent basis to study evolutionary questions. Further, Oenothera is grown as an oil seed crop for the production of essential fatty acids (gamma-linoleic acid and is considered to be a medicinal plant due to its many pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites, such as ellagitannins. Although Oenothera has been cultivated as a laboratory organism since the end of the 19th century, there is a substantial lack of literature dealing with modern greenhouse techniques for the genus. This review compiles an overview about the growth requirements for the genus Oenothera, with a special focus on its genetically best-studied subsections Oenothera and Munzia. Requirements for greenhouse, field, and agronomic cultures are presented, together with information on substrate types, pest control, as well as vegetative and seed propagation, cross pollination, harvest and seed storage. Particular aspects like germination, bolting and flowering induction in taxonomically diverse material are reviewed. Methods recommended are supported by ecological and experimental data. An overview of the possibilities for wide hybridization and polyploidy induction in the genus is given. Germplasm resources are referenced. In summary, a comprehensive guideline for successful laboratory cultivation of Oenothera species is provided.

  18. The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) in the treatment of diabetes mellitus: is continued use safe and effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medagama, Arjuna B; Bandara, Ruwanthi

    2014-10-21

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with a prevalence of 347 million in 2013. Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) are a group of remedies that is fast gaining acceptance among individuals. Cinnamon, Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) are 3 widely used CAMs used worldwide for the treatment of diabetes. Data on safety and efficacy is limited, but the consumption is wide. Crepe ginger (Costus speciosus) and Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis) are 2 plants used widely in the Asian region for their presumed hypoglycaemic properties. In this review, we analyzed the available evidence for the 5 CAMs mentioned above in terms of in-vitro studies, animal studies sand clinical trials. We also describe the mechanisms of hypoglycaemia and safety concerns where there is available evidence. Clinical trials that studied the hypoglycaemic effects of Cinnamon, bitter gourd, fenugreek and ivy gourd showed conflicting results. Direct comparison between studies remains a challenge in view of the baseline heterogeneity of subjects, differences in substrate preparation, variable end points and poor trial design. Short durations of study and small number of subjects studied is universal. Crepe ginger has not been studied adequately in humans to draw conclusions.In view of the high prevalence of use and safety and efficacy issues, there is an urgent need to study their hypoglycaemic and adverse effects in well-designed long-term clinical trials.

  19. Drug-Herb Interactions in the Elderly Patient with IBD: a Growing Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Haider; Kim, Marina; Leung, Galen; Green, Jesse A; Katz, Seymour

    2017-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is becoming more prevalent with the elderly being the fastest growing group. Parallel to this, there is an increasing interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Nearly half of patients with IBD have used CAM at one time. The elderly patients, however, are burdened by comorbid conditions, polypharmacy, and altered functional status. With increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine in our elderly patients with IBD, it is vital for the provider to provide counsel on drug-herb potential interactions. CAM includes herbal products, diet, dietary supplements, acupuncture, and prayer. In this paper, we will review common CAM, specifically herbs, that are used in patients with IBD including the herb background, suggested use, evidence in IBD, and most importantly, potential interactions with IBD medications used in elderly patients. Most important evidence-based adverse events and drug-herb interactions are summarized. The herbs discussed include Triticum aestivum (wheat grass), Andrographis paniculata (chiretta), Boswellia serrata, tormentil, bilberry, curcumin (turmeric), Plantago ovata (blond psyllium), Oenothera biennis (evening primrose oil), germinated barley foodstuff, an herbal preparation of myrrh, chamomile and coffee extract, chios mastic gum, wormwood (absinthe, thujone), Cannabis sativa (marijuana, THC), tripterygium wilfordii (thunder god vine), Ulmus rubra (slippery elm bark), trigonella foenugraecum (fenugreek), Dioscorea mexicana (wild yam), Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), ginger, cinnamon, licorice, and peppermint.

  20. Linking cytochrome P450cam (Cyp101) to its redox partner putidaredoxin and probing new reactions of the P450cam system

    OpenAIRE

    Rojubally, Adina

    2008-01-01

    The most recognized activity of P450cam is the oxidation of the unactivated C-H bond at C-5 of D (+)-camphor to an alcohol moiety. This hydroxylation reaction has few counterparts in chemical synthesis; hence, the application of cytochrome P450cam for industrial purposes has practical potential. P450¬cam requires a carefully orchestrated reaction cycle, which includes two electron transfer partners: putidaredoxin (Pdx) and putidaredoxin reductase (Pdr). Studies have shown that Pdx plays an es...

  1. The Secondary Standards programme for OmegaCAM at the VST

    OpenAIRE

    Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Vermeij, Ronald; Valentijn, Edwin; Kuijken, Koen

    2006-01-01

    The OmegaCAM wide-field imager will start operations at the ESO VLT Survey Telescope at Paranal, Chile, in 2007. The photometric calibration of OmegaCAM data depends on standard star measurements that cover the complete 1 square degree FoV of OmegeaCAM. A catalog fullfilling this requirement for eight Landolt equatorial fields, denoted the OmegaCAM Secondary Standards Catalog, will be constructed from OmegaCAM observations during the first year of operations. Here we present the 'Preliminary ...

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni CAM970 and C. coli CAM962, Associated with a Large Outbreak of Foodborne Illness in Fukuoka, Japan, in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Yamamoto, Shiori; Maruyama, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-15

    Here, we report the draft genome sequences of Campylobacter jejuni CAM970 and C. coli CAM962, which were associated with a large outbreak of foodborne illness originating from undercooked chicken sushi in Fukuoka, Japan, in May 2016. Their genome sizes were 1,690,901 and 1,704,736 bp, with 22 and 23 rRNAs, 9 and 9 tRNAs, and 411× and 419× coverage for C. jejuni CAM970 and C. coli CAM962, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Asakura et al.

  3. Prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by menopausal women: a systematic review of surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, P; Lee, M S; Moon, T W; Choi, T Y; Park, T Y; Ernst, E

    2013-05-01

    Large proportions of women have turned to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for relief from their menopausal symptoms. This highlights the need for more rigorous research into CAM. This article is aimed at critically reviewing surveys that examine the prevalence of CAM use by menopausal women worldwide. Eleven databases were searched for peer-reviewed surveys published in any language between 01 January 2000 and 27 October 2012. The bibliographies of the retrieved articles and relevant book chapters were also hand searched. Twenty-six surveys were identified, and they included a total of 32,465 menopausal women. The majority of these surveys were of poor methodological quality. Based on 6 surveys, 32.9% of women stated they were current/regular CAM users. Based on 9 surveys, 50.5% of women reported that they used CAM specifically for their menopausal symptoms. The average 12-month prevalence of CAM use was 47.7% (range: 33.1-56.2). Fifty-five percent of women did not disclose their use of CAM to their healthcare professional. The majority of women sought information about CAM from the media. The most popular CAM modality was herbal medicine, followed by soy/phytoestrogens, evening primrose oil, relaxation and yoga. There are a large number of predominantly low-quality surveys monitoring the prevalence of CAM use among menopausal women worldwide. The available evidence suggests that the prevalence of CAM use is high. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Growing for different ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this field in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a growing interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Perspectives of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners in the support and treatment of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Erin; Sevigny, Marika; Sabarre, Kelley-Anne; Phillips, Karen P

    2014-10-14

    Infertility patients are increasingly using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to supplement or replace conventional fertility treatments. The objective of this study was to determine the roles of CAM practitioners in the support and treatment of infertility. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted in Ottawa, Canada in 2011 with CAM practitioners who specialized in naturopathy, acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, hypnotherapy and integrated medicine. CAM practitioners played an active role in both treatment and support of infertility, using a holistic, interdisciplinary and individualized approach. CAM practitioners recognized biological but also environmental and psychosomatic determinants of infertility. Participants were receptive to working with physicians, however little collaboration was described. Integrated infertility patient care through both collaboration with CAM practitioners and incorporation of CAM's holistic, individualized and interdisciplinary approaches would greatly benefit infertility patients.

  6. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in advanced cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truant, Tracy L; Porcino, Antony J; Ross, Brenda C; Wong, Margurite E; Hilario, Carla T

    2013-09-01

    This systematic review synthesizes knowledge about the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among advanced cancer patients. EBSCO and Ovid databases were searched using core concepts, including advanced cancer, CAM, integrative medicine, and decision-making. Articles included in the final review were analyzed using narrative synthesis methods, including thematic analysis, concept mapping, and critical reflection on the synthesis process. Results demonstrate that advanced cancer patients who are younger, female, more educated, have longer duration of disease, and have previously used CAM are more likely to use CAM during this stage of illness. Key themes identified include patterns of and reasons for use; and barriers and facilitators to informed CAM decision-making. Knowledge regarding the use of CAM in advanced cancer remains in its nascent stages. Findings suggest a need for more research on understanding the dynamic process of CAM decision-making in the advanced cancer population from the patients' perspective.

  7. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  8. Responses of Calathea species in different growing media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIHORT), Ibadan to investigate the most suitable medium for the growing of Calathea species. Four Calathea species namely: C. ornata; C.nigerica; C. princeps and C.zebrina, were planted each in three growing media made up of top soil; top ...

  9. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM as Part of the Oncological Treatment: Survey about Patients' Attitude towards CAM in a University-Based Oncology Center in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin A Kessel

    Full Text Available To understand if and which patients would be open-minded to Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM use parallel to their oncological treatment. Moreover, we sought to determine which methods are most accepted and which are the primary motivators to use CAM.We developed and anonymously conducted a questionnaire for patients in the oncology center (TU Munich. Questions focus on different CAM methods, previous experiences, and willingness to apply or use CAM when offered in a university-based setting.A total of 171 of 376 patients (37.4% women, 62.0% men, 0.6% unknown participated. This corresponds to a return rate of 45%. Median age was 64 years (17-87 years. Of all participants, 15.2% used CAM during their oncological therapy; 32.7% have used it in the past. The majority (81.9% was not using CAM during therapy; 55.5% have not used CAM in the past respectively. The analysis revealed a significant correlation between education and CAM use during therapy (r = 0.18; p = 0.02, and CAM use in the past (r = 0.17; p = 0.04. Of all patients using CAM during therapy, favored methods were food supplements (42.3%, vitamins/minerals (42.3%, massage (34.6%. Motivations are especially the reduction of side effect and stress, the positive effect of certain CAM-treatments on the immune system and tumor therapy. Results showed no difference between women and men. Most patients not having had any experience with CAM complain about the deficiency of information by their treating oncologist (31.4% as well as missing treatment possibilities (54.3%.Since many patients believe in study results demonstrating the efficacy of CAM, it stresses our task to develop innovative study protocols to investigate the outcomes of certain CAM on symptom reduction or other endpoints. Thus, prospective trials and innovative evidence-based treatment concepts to include CAM into high-end oncology is what patients demand and what a modern oncology center should offer.

  10. High-performance CAM-based Prolog execution scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Yahia, Tahar; Dana, Michel

    1991-03-01

    In this paper, we present an execution scheme allowing a direct and a pipeline evaluation of a Prolog Program. The execution scheme enhances Prolog performances in interpreted mode, by means of associative processing tools embodied in Content Addressable Memories and potential parallelism existing between clauses selection, unification, and access to clause arguments. The interpretation algorithm is distributed on several processing units, which are Content Addressable Memories (CAMs). These latter are generic and reconfigurable dealing with much more Artificial Intelligence applications, through improved target languages like Prolog, Lisp, and Object oriented languages. The model has been evaluated with a functional simulator written in Le-lisp. The results show the CAMs feasibility in improving Prolog execution at performances greater than 160 KLIPS, in interpreted mode.

  11. Lucrécio, Camões e os deuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Torres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata do uso que Lucrécio e Camões fizeram dos deuses da mitologia clássica, por razões pertinentes às convenções da poesia épica e a despeito de sua descrença na existência dos mesmos, sugerindo que ambos constróem os deuses para depois desconstruí-los de forma cabal e definitiva.

  12. Chairside CAD/CAM materials. Part 2: Flexural strength testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Michael; Belli, Renan; Petschelt, Anselm; Mevec, Daniel; Harrer, Walter; Lube, Tanja; Danzer, Robert; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Strength is one of the preferred parameters used in dentistry for determining clinical indication of dental restoratives. However, small dimensions of CAD/CAM blocks limit reliable measurements with standardized uniaxial bending tests. The objective of this study was to introduce the ball-on-three-ball (B3B) biaxial strength test for dental for small CAD/CAM block in the context of the size effect on strength predicted by the Weibull theory. Eight representative chairside CAD/CAM materials ranging from polycrystalline zirconia (e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent), reinforced glasses (Vitablocs Mark II, VITA; Empress CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and glass-ceramics (e.max CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent; Suprinity, VITA; Celtra Duo, Dentsply) to hybrid materials (Enamic, VITA; Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE) have been selected. Specimens were prepared with highly polished surfaces in rectangular plate (12×12×1.2mm 3 ) or round disc (Ø=12mm, thickness=1.2mm) geometries. Specimens were tested using the B3B assembly and the biaxial strength was determined using calculations derived from finite element analyses of the respective stress fields. Size effects on strength were determined based on results from 4-point-bending specimens. A good agreement was found between the biaxial strength results for the different geometries (plates vs. discs) using the B3B test. Strength values ranged from 110.9MPa (Vitablocs Mark II) to 1303.21MPa (e.max ZirCAD). The strength dependency on specimen size was demonstrated through the calculated effective volume/surface. The B3B test has shown to be a reliable and simple method for determining the biaxial strength restorative materials supplied as small CAD/CAM blocks. A flexible solution was made available for the B3B test in the rectangular plate geometry. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel CAD/CAM rapid prototyping of next-generation biomedical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doraiswamy, Anand

    An aging population with growing healthcare needs demands multifaceted tools for diagnosis and treatment of health conditions. In the near-future, drug-administration devices, implantable devices/sensors, enhanced prosthesis, artificial and unique functional tissue constructs will become increasingly significant. Conventional technologies for mass-produced implants do not adequately take individual patient anatomy into consideration. Development of novel CAD/CAM rapid prototyping techniques may significantly accelerate progress of these devices for next-generation patient-care. In this dissertation, several novel rapid prototyping techniques have been introduced for next-generation biomedical applications. Two-photon polymerization was developed to microfabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering, microneedles for drug-delivery and ossicular replacement prostheses. Various photoplymers were evaluated for feasibility, mechanical properties, cytotoxicity, and surface properties. Laser direct write using MDW was utilized for developing microstructures of bioceramics such as hydroxyapatite, and viable mammalian osteosarcoma cells. CAD/CAM laser micromachining (CLM) was developed to engineer biointerfaces as surface recognition regions for differential adherence of cells and growth into tissue-like networks. CLM was also developed for engineering multi-cellular vascular networks. Cytotoxic evaluations and growth studies demonstrated VEGF-induced proliferation of HAAE-1 human aortic endothelial cells with inhibition of HA-VSMC human aortic smooth muscle cells. Finally, piiezoelectric inkjet printing was developed for controlled administration of natural and synthetic adhesives to overcome several problems associated with conventional tissue bonding materials, and greatly improve wound-repair in next generation eye repair, fracture fixation, organ fixation, wound closure, tissue engineering, and drug delivery devices.

  14. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of a standardized international questionnaire on use of alternative and complementary medicine (I-CAM - Q) for Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Santiago; Vázquez Peña, Fernando; Terrasa, Sergio

    2016-03-31

    The widespread and growing use of alternative and complementary medicine (CAM) worldwide has been thoroughly described. In Argentina the limited information on the use of CAM has been reported between 40 and 55 %. However, the rate of use is extremely variable worldwide. For this purpose the international questionnaire on the use of complementary and alternative medicines (I-CAM - Q), was developed. The implementation of a translated and cross-culturally adapted version of the questionnaire would allow for a reliable and standardized evaluation of the rate of use of CAM in Argentina. It would be a great step towards improving what we know about the healing habits of our population. The forward and back-translation method was used. Four translators were involved. A committee was commissioned to reconcile the different versions. The process of cross-cultural adaptation was made by consulting 17 alternative and complementary medicine experts using the DELPHI method. The retrieved questionnaire was evaluated in 18 patients sampled by convenience (9 men, different educational and self-reported health levels). The interviews consisted of three parts: an initial demographics questionnaire; the administration of the I-CAM-Q and finally the cognitive interview, which included reviewing the questionnaire and reexamining questions that generated doubts during the interview. The comprehension of the questions was also evaluated. As a last step, using the information obtained from the interviews, the final version of the questionnaire was drafted. The questionnaire seems to have been accepted by most patients during the interviews. Conflictive elements that emerged did not seem to have an impact on its administration. The flexibility of the questionnaire allowed to add professionals and practices which contributed to a more accurate local adaptation. Further research should focus on assessing the questionnaire's psychometric performance and validity, which so far has not been

  15. An open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and industrial CAM software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Liu, Shusheng; Shi, Shenggen; Yang, Jianzhong

    2011-10-01

    China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestically developed industrial computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology were used for full crown fabrication and measurement of crown accuracy, with an attempt to establish an open CAM system for dental processing and to promote the introduction of domestic dental computer-aided design (CAD)/CAM system. Commercially available scanning equipment was used to make a basic digital tooth model after preparation of crown, and CAD software that comes with the scanning device was employed to design the crown by using domestic industrial CAM software to process the crown data in order to generate a solid model for machining purpose, and then China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool was used to complete machining of the whole crown and the internal accuracy of the crown internal was measured by using 3D-MicroCT. The results showed that China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool in combination with domestic industrial CAM technology can be used for crown making and the crown was well positioned in die. The internal accuracy was successfully measured by using 3D-MicroCT. It is concluded that an open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestic industrial CAM software has been established, and development of the system will promote the introduction of domestically-produced dental CAD/CAM system.

  16. Product Recommendation System Based on Personal Preference Model Using CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tomoko; Yoshioka, Nobukazu; Orihara, Ryohei; Furukawa, Koichi

    Product recommendation system is realized by applying business rules acquired by data maining techniques. Business rules such as demographical patterns of purchase, are able to cover the groups of users that have a tendency to purchase products, but it is difficult to recommend products adaptive to various personal preferences only by utilizing them. In addition to that, it is very costly to gather the large volume of high quality survey data, which is necessary for good recommendation based on personal preference model. A method collecting kansei information automatically without questionnaire survey is required. The constructing personal preference model from less favor data is also necessary, since it is costly for the user to input favor data. In this paper, we propose product recommendation system based on kansei information extracted by text mining and user's preference model constructed by Category-guided Adaptive Modeling, CAM for short. CAM is a feature construction method that can generate new features constructing the space where same labeled examples are close and different labeled examples are far away from some labeled examples. It is possible to construct personal preference model by CAM despite less information of likes and dislikes categories. In the system, retrieval agent gathers the products' specification and user agent manages preference model, user's likes and dislikes. Kansei information of the products is gained by applying text mining technique to the reputation documents about the products on the web site. We carry out some experimental studies to make sure that prefrence model obtained by our method performs effectively.

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in prostate and bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippou, Yiannis; Hadjipavlou, Marios; Khan, Shahid; Rane, Abhay

    2013-12-01

    To provide an overview of the scientific and clinical studies underlying the most common vitamin and herbal preparations used in prostate and bladder cancer and evaluate the evidence behind them. A literature search was undertaken on PubMed using various keywords relating to the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in prostate and bladder cancer.Vitamin E and selenium supplementation can potentially have adverse effects by increasing the risk of prostate cancer. Initial clinical studies of pomegranate and green tea, investigating their chemotherapeutic properties in prostate and bladder cancer have yielded encouraging results. Curcumin, resveratrol, and silibinin have potential anticancer properties through multiple molecular targets; their clinical effectiveness in prostate and bladder cancer is yet to be evaluated. Zyflamend, like PC-SPES, is a combined CAM therapy used in prostate cancer. Acupuncture is popular among patients experiencing hot flushes who are receiving androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Conclusive evidence for the use of CAM in prostate and bladder cancer is lacking and not without risk.

  18. CAMS as a tool for human factors research in spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Juergen

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of research studies that were carried out with a PC-based task environment called Cabin Air Management System (CAMS) simulating the operation of a spacecraft's life support system. As CAMS was a multiple task environment, it allowed the measurement of performance at different levels. Four task components of different priority were embedded in the task environment: diagnosis and repair of system faults, maintaining atmospheric parameters in a safe state, acknowledgement of system alarms (reaction time), and keeping a record of critical system resources (prospective memory). Furthermore, the task environment permitted the examination of different task management strategies and changes in crew member state (fatigue, anxiety, mental effort). A major goal of the research programme was to examine how crew members adapted to various forms of sub-optimal working conditions, such as isolation and confinement, sleep deprivation and noise. None of the studies provided evidence for decrements in primary task performance. However, the results showed a number of adaptive responses of crew members to adjust to the different sub-optimal working conditions. There was evidence for adjustments in information sampling strategies (usually reductions in sampling frequency) as a result of unfavourable working conditions. The results also showed selected decrements in secondary task performance. Prospective memory seemed to be somewhat more vulnerable to sub-optimal working conditions than performance on the reaction time task. Finally, suggestions are made for future research with the CAMS environment.

  19. Patterns of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummet, Colleen M; Spector, Michael L; Dawson, Deborah V; Fischer, Mark; Holmes, David C; Warren, John; Nisly, Nicole L

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a diverse collection of approaches used to prevent or treat diseases. The goal of this study was to examine relationships between dental patient characteristics and current usage of CAM therapies. The CAM definition encompassed 24 therapies excluding prayer. Associations and trends in usage were assessed for gender, income, education, and age. Multivariable logistic and negative binomial models were used to identify factors impacting the use and number of CAM therapies used. In dental patients (n = 402), nearly 67 percent of subjects reported at least one CAM treatment. Gender was significantly associated with recent utilization of CAM, biological, manipulative (all P dental patients reported use of CAM therapies. While CAM therapies and those who use them are diverse, given their widespread use, they clearly have potential impacts on the oral health of the public. Knowledge of the characteristics of dental patients who use CAM therapies is a first step in developing a broader understanding how CAM therapies and associated beliefs may affect oral health and public health programs. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  20. Evaluating rare amino acid substitutions (RGC_CAMs in a yeast model clade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Polzin

    Full Text Available When inferring phylogenetic relationships, not all sites in a sequence alignment are equally informative. One recently proposed approach that takes advantage of this inequality relies on sites that contain amino acids whose replacement requires multiple substitutions. Identifying these so-called RGC_CAM substitutions (after Rare Genomic Changes as Conserved Amino acids-Multiple substitutions requires that, first, at any given site in the amino acid sequence alignment, there must be a minimum of two different amino acids; second, each amino acid must be present in at least two taxa; and third, the amino acids must require a minimum of two nucleotide substitutions to replace each other. Although theory suggests that RGC_CAM substitutions are expected to be rare and less likely to be homoplastic, the informativeness of RGC_CAM substitutions has not been extensively evaluated in biological data sets. We investigated the quality of RGC_CAM substitutions by examining their degree of homoplasy and internode certainty in nearly 2.7 million aligned amino acid sites from 5,261 proteins from five species belonging to the yeast Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade whose phylogeny is well-established. We identified 2,647 sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions, a number that contrasts sharply with the 100,887 sites containing RGC_non-CAM substitutions (i.e., changes between amino acids that require only a single nucleotide substitution. We found that RGC_CAM substitutions had significantly lower homoplasy than RGC_non-CAM ones; specifically RGC_CAM substitutions showed a per-site average homoplasy index of 0.100, whereas RGC_non-CAM substitutions had a homoplasy index of 0.215. Internode certainty values were also higher for sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions than for RGC_non-CAM ones. These results suggest that RGC_CAM substitutions possess a strong phylogenetic signal and are useful markers for phylogenetic inference despite their rarity.

  1. Functional significance of the hepaCAM gene in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hepaCAM gene encodes a new immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule, and its expression is suppressed in a variety of human cancers. Additionally, hepaCAM possesses properties often observed in tumor suppressor genes. However, the expression and biological function of hepaCAM has not been investigated in bladder cancer. Therefore we sought to examine hepaCAM expression and the relationship between its structure and function in human transitional cell carcinoma of bladder (TCCB. Materials and methods HepaCAM expression was evaluated in 28 normal and 34 TCCB bladder specimens and 2 TCCB cell lines using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The wild-type hepaCAM and the extracellular domain-truncated mutant gene were transfected into the TCCB cell line T24, and the biological properties of both the wild-type gene and the domain-truncated mutant were then assessed. Results HepaCAM expression was down-regulated in 82% (28/34 of TCCB specimens and undetectable in the 2 TCCB cell lines tested. The localization of hepaCAM appeared to be dependent on cell density in T24 cells. In widely spread cells, hepaCAM accumulated on the perinuclear membrane and the cell surface protrusions, whereas in confluent cells, hepaCAM was predominantly localized at the sites of cell-cell contacts on the cell membrane. Functionally, hepaCAM expressed not only increased cell spreading, delayed cell detachment, enhanced wound healing and increased cell invasion; it also inhibited cell growth (P Conclusions HepaCAM is involved in cell adhesion and growth control, and its expression is frequently silenced in TCCB. The extracellular domain of hepaCAM is essential to its physiological and biological functions.

  2. Proteomic analysis of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum leaf microsomal fractions finds an imbalance in V-ATPase stoichiometry during the salt-induced transition from C3 to CAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Cristian; Di Silvestre, Dario; Fischer-Schliebs, Elke; Homann, Ulrike; De Palma, Antonella; Comunian, Claudio; Mauri, Pier Luigi; Thiel, Gerhard

    2013-03-01

    The halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum adapts to salt stress by salt uptake and switching from C3 photosynthesis to CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism). An important role in this process is played by transport proteins in the tonoplast of the central vacuole. In the present study we examine dynamic changes in the protein composition during salt-stress adaptation in microsomes from M. crystallinum leaves. Plants challenged with 400 mM NaCl accumulate salt by day 4 of treatment and malic acid only at day 12; a switching to CAM hence follows any initial steps of salt adaptation with a delay. Using a label-free and semiquantitative approach, we identified the most dramatic changes between the proteome of control plants and plants harvested after 12 days of the treatment; the abundance of 14 proteins was significantly affected. The proteomic data revealed that the majority of the subunits of V-ATPase (vacuolar H(+)-ATPase) holoenzyme. The salt treatment somewhat decreased the abundance of all subunits in the short term (4 days). Long-term adaptation, including the switching to CAM, goes together with a strong increase in the representation of all detectable subunits. Because this increase is subunit-specific, with the highest rise occurring for subunits E and c, the data suggest that long-term adaptation to salt stress correlates with a change in V-ATPase subunit stoichiometry and highlight the structural plasticity of this holoenzyme.

  3. NPEO North Pole Web Cams observe Arctic Summertime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untersteiner, N.; Overland, J. E.; Soreide, N. N.

    2004-12-01

    In 2002, 2003, and 2004, North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO) automatic instrumented stations were deployed on an ice floe near the North Pole and started recording and telemetering data in April/May. The field teams also installed Web Cameras to show the installations and some scenery. These "web cams" collect and transmit images throughout the entire summer, from the beginning of snow melt to freeze-up in autumn and the onset of darkness. To appreciate the value of these data and images we should bear in mind that the proverbial "inaccessibility of the frozen Arctic Ocean" due to cold and darkness applies to the mild summer even more than to the cold and dark winter. The onset of melting usually occurs in early June, when the temperature reaches 0°C and the surface layer turns into a constant-temperature ice bath. In 2002, the temperature record shows an abrupt warming to about 0°C, on 24 May, suggesting an early arrival of the melt season. The warming event coincides with about a week of low short-wave (250 Wm-2) and high long-wave (300 Wm-2) down-welling radiation, which are typical of low overcast conditions. The web cam pictures of that period confirm the overcast. Both radiation and temperature values remained in the normal range for the rest of the summer, and freeze-up occurred as usual in the last week of August. Based on the early warming event in May, one may have expected an early onset of surface melting. Contrary to that expectation, the web cams show that it was not until late July 2002 when the snow cover took on a soggy appearance and isolated melt ponds appeared on the surface. For the rest of the summer, the web cam pictures show only insignificant melt pond coverage until the deposition of new snow in late August. The pictures clearly show that snow from the preceding winter survived the entire summer, and we must assume that there was no, or very little, ice ablation at the surface. In light of recent news about global warming and

  4. Crassulacean acid metabolism enhances underwater photosynthesis and diminishes photorespiration in the aquatic plant Isoetes australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Rich, S.M.; Pulido Pérez, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Underwater photosynthesis by aquatic plants is often limited by low availability of CO2, and photorespiration can be high. Some aquatic plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis. The benefits of CAM for increased underwater photosynthesis and suppression of photorespiration......, it became negative in those low in malate. • CAM in aquatic plants enables higher rates of underwater net photosynthesis over large O2 and CO2 concentration ranges in floodwaters, via increased CO2 fixation and suppression of photorespiration....... were evaluated for Isoetes australis, a submerged plant that inhabits shallow temporary rock pools. • Leaves high or low in malate were evaluated for underwater net photosynthesis and apparent photorespiration at a range of CO2 and O2 concentrations. • CAM activity was indicated by 9.7-fold higher leaf...

  5. Plant physiological, morphological and yield-related responses to night temperature changes across different species and plant functional types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Jing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature over the past decades has shown a faster warming trend during the night than during the day. Extremely low night temperatures have occurred frequently due to the influence of land-sea thermal difference, topography and climate change. This asymmetric night temperature change is expected to affect plant ecophysiology and growth, as the plant carbon consumption processes could be affected more than the assimilation processes because photosynthesis in most plants occurs during the daytime whereas plant respiration occurs throughout the day. The effects of high night temperature (HNT and low night temperature (LNT on plant ecophysiological and growing processes and how the effects vary among different plant functional types (PFTs have not been analyzed extensively. In this meta-analysis, we examined the effect of HNT and LNT on plant physiology and growth across different PFTs and experimental settings. Plant species were grouped according to their photosynthetic pathways (C3, C4 and CAM, growth forms (herbaceous, woody, and economic purposes (crop, non-crop. We found that HNT and LNT both had a negative effect on plant yield, but the effect of HNT on plant yield was primarily related to a reduction in biomass allocation to reproduction organs and the effect of LNT on plant yield was more related to a negative effect on total biomass. Leaf growth was stimulated at HNT and suppressed at LNT. HNT accelerated plants ecophysiological processes, including photosynthesis and dark respiration, while LNT slowed these processes. Overall, the results showed that the effects of night temperature on plant physiology and growth varied between HNT and LNT, among the response variables and PFTs, and depended on the magnitude of temperature change and experimental design. These findings suggest complexities and challenges in seeking general patterns of terrestrial plant growth in HNT and LNT. The PFT specific responses of plants are

  6. Optimal Design of Grooved Cam Profile Using Non-uniform Rational B-splines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Guantao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the fatigue damage in grooved cam mechanisms, grooved cam profile was reconstructed with non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS. Considering joint friction, dynamic model of grooved cam mechanisms was established and the contact stress between grooved cam and follower was calculated using Hertz contact theory. Taking the minimum contact stress and the minimum acceleration as optimal objectives, integrated design model for respective kinematic and dynamic design approaches was set up. The integrated design mode was optimized to search Pareto-optimal solution by an improved artificial fish swarm algorithm, and optimized NURBS profile for grooved cam was acquired. The results show NURBS profile has better kinematic and dynamic performances. The impacts on grooved cam mechanism are reduced and wear characteristics are improved.

  7. Sobre figuras de oposição em dois sonetos de Camões

    OpenAIRE

    Marnoto, Rita

    2012-01-01

    (2012). Sobre figuras de oposição em dois sonetos de Camões. In Rita Marnoto (Coord.), Comentário a Camões. Vol. 1. Sonetos (147-204). Lisboa: CIEC, Cotovia. ISBN 978 972 795 330 1 figuras de oposição, visão histórica e seu uso em dois sonetos de Camões

  8. Demand for CAM Practice at Hospitals in Japan: A Population Survey in Mie Prefecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Togo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies have been provided at hospitals along with conventional medicine in industrialized nations. Previous studies conducted in Japan revealed high proportion of Japanese had experience of using CAM, but failed to discuss how it should be provided. The present study aims to clarify the demand for CAM practice at hospitals in Japan. A questionnaire consisting of 41 questions was mailed to 10 000 adults randomly selected from the electoral roll of Mie prefecture, Japan in January 2007. The questionnaire asked the subjects about demand for CAM practice at hospitals, types of CAM therapy to be provided and associated reasons. Sociodemographic characteristics, perceived health status, experience and purpose of CAM use, and information resource for CAM were also surveyed. Completed answers were collected from 2824 (28.6% respondents. Two thousand and nineteen (71.5% of the respondents demanded CAM practice at hospitals with the most likely reason of “patients can receive treatment under the guidance of a physicians”. The three most popular CAM therapies were Kampo, acupressure/massage/Shiatsu and acupuncture/moxibustion. The demand was positively associated with gender, ages of 40–59 years, annual household incomes of 5–7 million yen, occupation of specialist and technical workers and sales workers and poor health status. Higher demand was observed among those who used both CAM and conventional medical therapies for curative purposes. In conclusion, Japanese show a high demand for CAM practice, hoping to use CAM for curative purposes with monitoring by physicians at hospitals.

  9. Comparative effect of ZnO NPs, ZnO bulk and ZnSO4in the antioxidant defences of two plant species growing in two agricultural soils under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Concepción; Obrador, Ana; González, Demetrio; Babín, Mar; Fernández, María Dolores

    2017-07-01

    The present study has investigated the toxicity of ZnO NPs to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) crops grown to maturity under greenhouse conditions using an acidic (soil pH5.4) and a calcareous soil (soil pH8.3). The potentially available Zn in the soils and the Zn accumulation in the leaves from NPs applied to the soil (3, 20 and 225mgZnkg -1 ) and changes in the chlorophylls, carotenoids and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured at 15, 30, 60 and 90days and compared with those caused by bulk ZnO and ZnSO 4 . The available Zn in the soil and the leaf Zn content did not differ among the Zn chemical species, except in the acidic soil at the highest concentration of Zn applied as Zn ions, where the highest values of the two variables were found. The ZnO NPs showed comparable Zn toxicity or biostimulation to their bulk counterparts and Zn salts, irrespective of certain significant differences suggesting a higher activity of the Zn ion. The treatments altered the photosynthetic pigment concentration and induced oxidative stress in plants. ROS formation was observed at Zn plant concentrations ranging from 590 to 760mgkg -1 , but the effects on the rest of the parameters were highly dependent on the plant species, exposure time and especially soil type. In general, the effects were higher in the acidic soil than in the calcareous soil for the bean and the opposite for the tomato. The similar uptakes and toxicities of the different Zn forms suggest that the Zn ions derived from the ZnO NPs exerted a preferential toxicity in plants. However, several results obtained in soils treated with NPs at 3mgZnkg -1 soil indicated that may exist other underlying mechanisms related to the intrinsic nanoparticle properties, especially at low NP concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. On the front line of modern data-management and Open Access publishing: Two years of PhytoKeys – the fastest growing journal in plant systematics

    OpenAIRE

    W. John Kress; Sandra Knapp; Pavel Stoev; Lyubomir Penev

    2012-01-01

    PhytoKeys was launched on the 1st of November 2010 as a novel, peer-reviewed, open-access outlet for plant biodiversity research and since then the journal quickly gained the support of the international botanical community and has been showing a continuous to growth in reputation and volume. This Editorial describes how PhytoKeys continues to evolve its editorial workflow, constantly implementing new and improved publishing and dissemination technologies, thus always being on point for digit...

  11. Mind-body CAM interventions: current status and considerations for integration into clinical health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly used for treating myriad health conditions and for maintaining general health. The present article provides an overview of current CAM use with a specific focus on mind-body CAM and its efficacy in treating health conditions. Characteristics of CAM users are presented, and then evidence regarding the efficacy of mind-body treatments (biofeedback, meditation, guided imagery, progressive muscle relaxation, deep breathing, hypnosis, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong) is reviewed. Demographics associated with CAM use are fairly well-established, but less is known about their psychological characteristics. Although the efficacy of mind-body CAM modalities for health conditions is receiving a great deal of research attention, studies have thus far produced a weak base of evidence. Methodological limitations of current research are reviewed. Suggestions are made for future research that will provide more conclusive knowledge regarding efficacy and, ultimately, effectiveness of mind-body CAM. Considerations for clinical applications, including training and competence, ethics, treatment tailoring, prevention efforts, and diversity, conclude the article. Integration of CAM modalities into clinical health psychology can be useful for researchers taking a broader perspective on stress and coping processes, illness behaviors, and culture; for practitioners seeking to incorporate CAM perspectives into their work; and for policy makers in directing healthcare resources wisely. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The cam-type deformity--what is it: SCFE, osteophyte, or a new disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenrock, Klaus A; Schwab, Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Cam-type deformity of the proximal femur is a risk factor for the development of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement and a prearthrotic condition of the hip. The etiology of cam-type deformity remains unclear. There are a number of causes of cam-type deformity including sequellae of slipped capital femoral epiphysis, Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease or Perthes-like deformities, postinfectious, and traumatic. However, the majority of cam-type deformities arise without any apparent preexisting hip disease. These "idiopathic" cam-type deformities likely represent a majority of cases, and show clear racial and sex differences, as well as developmental and genetic influences. Idiopathic cam-type deformity also seems to be a distinct entity from residual or silent slipped capital femoral epiphysis, as well as osteoarthritis-induced osteophytes. In this paper we examine the different pathogenetic aspects of the proximal femur that contribute to cam-type deformity and/or symptomatic cam-type femoroacetabular impingement.

  13. CAM for Pediatric Pain: What is State-of-the-Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. I. Tsao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we reviewed the evidence for the efficacy of CAM approaches for pediatric pain (volume 2; issue 2; 2005 using criteria developed by the American Psychological Association Division 12 Task Force. Our review focused on CAM modalities that had been tested with at least one controlled trial or multiple baseline study. In addition, only those trials in which children comprised the study sample were included. Thus, several CAM modalities were not included in our review. Key ethical and other reasons for the limited literature on CAM for pediatric pain as well as directions for future studies are discussed.

  14. Examining CAM use disclosure using the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, Jennifer; Thorburn, Sheryl; Tippens, Kimberly M

    2013-10-01

    To improve understanding of factors that may influence disclosure of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in the U.S. Cross-sectional survey. Data are from the 2001 Health Care Quality Survey (HCQS), a nationally representative study of adults aged 18 and older living in the continental United States. Using the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use, we conducted multivariate logistic regressions to identify factors associated with disclosing CAM use among the sub-sample of recent CAM users (n=1995). Disclosure of CAM use. Most CAM users (71.0%) disclosed their use of CAM to their doctors. Contextual, individual, and health behavior factors were associated with CAM use disclosure. Of particular interest, disclosure was significantly more likely among those who perceived high quality relationships with their providers (AOR=1.59, CI: 1.01, 2.49) and among those who had a regular source of medical care (AOR=1.54, CI: 1.03, 2.29). The odds of disclosure were also higher among those who used practitioner-provided CAM, with (AOR=2.02, CI: 1.34, 3.06) or without (AOR=1.52, CI: 1.05, 2.20) concurrent herbal medicine use, compared to those who used herbal medicines only. The Behavioral Model of Health Services Use is a useful framework for examining factors that may influence disclosure of CAM use. Further research should examine these relationships using more comprehensive measures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Plant planting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes planting activities on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1995 and 2009.

  16. Isolation and characterization of mutants of common ice plant deficient in crassulacean acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, John C; Agarie, Sakae; Albion, Rebecca L; Elliot, Stewart M; Taybi, Tahar; Borland, Anne M

    2008-05-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized mode of photosynthesis that improves water use efficiency by shifting part or all of net atmospheric CO2 uptake to the night. Genetic dissection of regulatory and metabolic attributes of CAM has been limited by the difficulty of identifying a reliable phenotype for mutant screening. We developed a novel and simple colorimetric assay to measure leaf pH to screen fast neutron-mutagenized populations of common ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), a facultative CAM species, to detect CAM-deficient mutants with limited nocturnal acidification. The isolated CAM-deficient mutants showed negligible net dark CO2 uptake compared with wild-type plants following the imposition of salinity stress. The mutants and wild-type plants accumulated nearly comparable levels of sodium in leaves, but the mutants grew more slowly than the wild-type plants. The mutants also had substantially reduced seed set and seed weight relative to wild type under salinity stress. Carbon-isotope ratios of seed collected from 4-month-old plants indicated that C3 photosynthesis made a greater contribution to seed production in mutants compared to wild type. The CAM-deficient mutants were deficient in leaf starch and lacked plastidic phosphoglucomutase, an enzyme critical for gluconeogenesis and starch formation, resulting in substrate limitation of nocturnal C4 acid formation. The restoration of nocturnal acidification by feeding detached leaves of salt-stressed mutants with glucose or sucrose supported this defect and served to illustrate the flexibility of CAM. The CAM-deficient mutants described here constitute important models for exploring regulatory features and metabolic consequences of CAM.

  17. Fatigue resistance of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shembish, Fatma A; Tong, Hui; Kaizer, Marina; Janal, Malvin N; Thompson, Van P; Opdam, Niek J; Zhang, Yu

    2016-04-01

    To demonstrate the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns using a mouth-motion step-stress fatigue test. Monolithic leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic crowns were used as a reference. Fully anatomically shaped monolithic resin composite molar crowns (Lava Ultimate, n=24) and leucite reinforced glass-ceramic crowns (IPS Empress CAD, n=24) were fabricated using CAD/CAM systems. Crowns were cemented on aged dentin-like resin composite tooth replicas (Filtek Z100) with resin-based cements (RelyX Ultimate for Lava Ultimate or Multilink Automix for IPS Empress). Three step-stress profiles (aggressive, moderate and mild) were employed for the accelerated sliding-contact mouth-motion fatigue test. Twenty one crowns from each group were randomly distributed among these three profiles (1:2:4). Failure was designated as chip-off or bulk fracture. Optical and electron microscopes were used to examine the occlusal surface and subsurface damages, as well as the material microstructures. The resin composite crowns showed only minor occlusal damage during mouth-motion step-stress fatigue loading up to 1700N. Cross-sectional views revealed contact-induced cone cracks in all specimens, and flexural radial cracks in 2 crowns. Both cone and radial cracks were relatively small compared to the crown thickness. Extending these cracks to the threshold for catastrophic failure would require much higher indentation loads or more loading cycles. In contrast, all of the glass-ceramic crowns fractured, starting at loads of approximately 450N. Monolithic CAD/CAM resin composite crowns endure, with only superficial damage, fatigue loads 3-4 times higher than those causing catastrophic failure in glass-ceramic CAD crowns. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PhenoCam: A continental-scale observatory for monitoring the phenology of terrestrial vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. D.; Friedl, M. A.; Frolking, S.; Pless, R.; PhenoCam Collaborators

    2011-12-01

    The term phenology refers to both the seasonal rhythms of plants and animals, and the study of these rhythms. Plant phenological processes, such as when leaves emerge in the spring and change color in the autumn, are highly responsive to year-to-year variation in weather as well as longer-term changes in climate, particularly as related to temperature and precipitation. Understanding and predicting the impacts of climate change on plants and ecosystems requires better data with which predictive models of phenology can be developed and tested. PhenoCam uses networked, digital cameras as multi-channel imaging sensors to track the seasonal dynamics of terrestrial vegetation across a range of ecosystem types. The original network, which began in 2006 as a project focusing on the northeast region, consists of a dozen cameras deployed at pre-existing long term research sites. At eight of these sites, cameras are co-located with eddy covariance instrumentation with which surface-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, water and energy are being measured. This provides opportunities for investigating relationships between phenology and ecosystem function and climate system feedbacks. We plan to expand PhenoCam from a regional network to a continental-scale observatory. We will deploy 20 additional cameras at FLUXNET sites across North America, spanning a wide range of vegetation types. We will further explore the feasibility of exploiting information related to phenology from an existing image archive of approximately 17,000 publicly available cameras located across the continent. We will use computer vision and machine learning approaches to develop new processing algorithms for this imagery, and will link these data products both to ground observations by USA-National Phenology Network "citizen scientists" and various satellite-based data streams, e.g. the MODIS phenology product. This project will develop predictions of how phenology may be affected by future climate change

  19. Plant Communities of Rough Rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Linda

    A unit of study on plants grown in the Navajo community of Rough Rock, Arizona, is presented in sketches providing the common Navajo name for the plant, a literal English translation, the English name of the plant, and the Latin name. A brief description of each plant includes where the plant grows, how the Navajos use the plant, and the color and…

  20. Strong discontinuity with cam clay under large deformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katic, Natasa; Hededal, Ole

    2008-01-01

    The work shows simultaneous implementation of Strong discontinuity approach (SDA) by means of Enhanced Assumed Strain (EAS) and Critical State Soil Mechanics CSSM) in large strain regime. The numerical model is based on an additive decomposition of the displacement gradient into a conforming and ...... and an enhanced part. The localized deformations are approximated by means of a discontinuous displacement field. The applied algorithm leads to a predictor/corrector procedure which is formally identical to the returnmapping algorithm of classical (local and continuous) Cam clay model....

  1. a Beat Perioid Observation of the Asynchronous Polar by Cam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainger, Jonathan

    We propose to observe the hard X-ray bright asynchronous polar BY Cam throughout its beat cycle in order to investigate the changes in the magnetic capture of the accretion stream as the secondary star changes in azimuth with respect to the white dwarf. Regular snap-shots of the light curve will reveal the order behind the chaos. Previous observations have been taken in 3 days or less, our monitoring plan over 21 days offers the only real hope of understanding these difficult systems.

  2. Applying DER-CAM for IIT Microgrid Explansion Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Li, Zuyi [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Chen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-19

    The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is an economic and environmental model of customer DER adoption. This model has been in development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory since 2000. The objective of the model is to find optimal DER investments while minimizing total energy costs or carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, or achieving a weighted objective that simultaneously considers both criteria. The Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Microgrid project started in August 2008, and the majority of the project was completed in May 2013. IIT Microgrid, funded mostly by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy as well as State and philanthropic contributions, empowers the campus consumers with the objective of establishing a smart microgrid that is highly reliable, economically viable, environmentally friendly, fuel-efficient, and resilient in extreme circumstances with a self-healing capability. In this project, we apply DER-CAM to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid. First, the load data, environmental data, utility data, and technology data for the IIT Microgrid are gathered and organized to follow the DER-CAM input requirements. Then, DERCAM is applied to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid for different cases, where different objectives in DER-CAM and different utility conditions are tested. Case 1 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with fixed utility rates and 100% electric utility availability. Case 2 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with real-time utility rates and 4 emergency weeks when the IIT Microgrid does not have access to the electric utility grid and has to operate in island mode. In Case 3, the utility rates are restored to fixed values and 100% electric utility availability is assumed, but a weighted multi-objective (Obj: a × costs + b × CO2 emissions, where a and b are weights for cost minimization and CO2 emissions minimization) is utilized to

  3. CAD/CAM from the graphic-design perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, A.

    1982-11-01

    CAD/CAM systems have evolved elaborate human-computer interfaces in order to facilitate the creation of highly detailed and specialized schematic diagrams and texts. Although these systems have powerful capacities in terms of graphics editing, data manipulation, and data storage, insufficient attention has been given to making the online interface (together with supporting documentation) user-friendly, i.e., understandable, memorable, and appealing to the general user. Graphic-design considerations in particular have been routinely overlooked. Graphic design concerns typography, symbol design, color, spatial layout, and temporal sequencing. Graphic design can assist computer science by providing insight and expertise in designing effective communication between human being and machine.

  4. Crassulacean acid metabolism in the context of other carbon-concentrating mechanisms in freshwater plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavsen, Signe Koch; Madsen, Tom V; Maberly, Stephen C

    2011-09-01

    Inorganic carbon can be in short supply in freshwater relative to that needed by freshwater plants for photosynthesis because of a large external transport limitation coupled with frequent depleted concentrations of CO(2) and elevated concentrations of O(2). Freshwater plants have evolved a host of avoidance, exploitation and amelioration strategies to cope with the low and variable supply of inorganic carbon in water. Avoidance strategies rely on the spatial variation in CO(2) concentrations within and among lakes. Exploitation strategies involve anatomical and morphological features that take advantage of sources of CO(2) outside of the water column such as the atmosphere or sediment. Amelioration strategies involve carbon-concentrating mechanisms based on uptake of bicarbonate, which is widespread, C(4)-fixation, which is infrequent, and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), which is of intermediate frequency. CAM enables aquatic plants to take up inorganic carbon in the night. Furthermore, daytime inorganic carbon uptake is generally not inhibited and therefore CAM is considered to be a carbon-conserving mechanism. CAM in aquatic plants is a plastic mechanism regulated by environmental variables and is generally downregulated when inorganic carbon does not limit photosynthesis. CAM is regulated in the long term (acclimation during growth), but is also affected by environmental conditions in the short term (response on a daily basis). In aquatic plants, CAM appears to be an ecologically important mechanism for increasing inorganic carbon uptake, because the in situ contribution from CAM to the C-budget generally is high (18-55%).

  5. A Prospective, Multicenter Study of Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) Utilization During Definitive Radiation for Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, William W. Backus Hospital, Norwich, Connecticut (United States); Ma Shuangge [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [University of Michigan, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Yang, Tzu-I Jonathan [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Higgins, Susan A. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Shoreline Medical Center, Guilford, Connecticut (United States); Weidhaas, Joanne B. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Lawrence and Memorial Hospital, New London, Connecticut (United States); Lloyd, Shane [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Peschel, Richard [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Lawrence and Memorial Hospital, New London, Connecticut (United States); Gaudreau, Bryant [Department of Radiation Therapy, William W. Backus Hospital, Norwich, Connecticut (United States); Rockwell, Sara [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in breast cancer patients is reported to be high, there are few data on CAM practices in breast patients specifically during radiation. This prospective, multi-institutional study was conducted to define CAM utilization in breast cancer during definitive radiation. Materials/Methods: A validated CAM instrument with a self-skin assessment was administered to 360 Stage 0-III breast cancer patients from 5 centers during the last week of radiation. All data were analyzed to detect significant differences between users/nonusers. Results: CAM usage was reported in 54% of the study cohort (n=194/360). Of CAM users, 71% reported activity-based CAM (eg, Reiki, meditation), 26% topical CAM, and 45% oral CAM. Only 16% received advice/counseling from naturopathic/homeopathic/medical professionals before initiating CAM. CAM use significantly correlated with higher education level (P<.001), inversely correlated with concomitant hormone/radiation therapy use (P=.010), with a trend toward greater use in younger patients (P=.066). On multivariate analysis, level of education (OR: 6.821, 95% CI: 2.307-20.168, P<.001) and hormones/radiation therapy (OR: 0.573, 95% CI: 0.347-0.949, P=.031) independently predicted for CAM use. Significantly lower skin toxicity scores were reported in CAM users vs nonusers, respectively (mild: 34% vs 25%, severe: 17% vs 29%, P=.017). Conclusion: This is the first prospective study to assess CAM practices in breast patients during radiation, with definition of these practices as the first step for future investigation of CAM/radiation interactions. These results should alert radiation oncologists that a large percentage of breast cancer patients use CAM during radiation without disclosure or consideration for potential interactions, and should encourage increased awareness, communication, and documentation of CAM practices in patients undergoing radiation treatment for breast

  6. Disclosure of Complementary and Alternative Medicine to Conventional Medical Providers: Variation by Race/Ethnicity and Type of CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Maria T.; Wade, Christine; Kronenberg, Fredi

    2009-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is often used alongside conventional medical care, yet fewer than half of patients disclose CAM use to medical doctors. CAM disclosure is particularly low among racial/ethnic minorities, but reasons for differences, such as type of CAM used or quality of conventional healthcare, have not been explored. Objective We tested the hypotheses that disclosure of CAM use to medical doctors is higher for provider-based CAM and among non-Hispanic whites, and that access to and quality of conventional medical care account for racial/ethnic differences in CAM disclosure. Methods Bivariate and multiple variable analyses of the 2002 National Health Interview Survey and 2001 Health Care Quality Survey were performed. Results Disclosure of CAM use to medical providers was higher for provider-based than self-care CAM. Disclosure of any CAM was associated with access to and quality of conventional care and higher among non-Latino whites relative to minorities. Having a regular doctor and quality patient–provider relationship mitigated racial/ethnic differences in CAM disclosure. Conclusion Insufficient disclosure of CAM use to conventional providers, particularly for self-care practices and among minority populations, represents a serious challenge in medical encounter communications. Efforts to improve disclosure of CAM use should be aimed at improving consistency of care and patient–physician communication across racial/ethnic groups. PMID:19024232

  7. Variable conductivity and embolism in roots, trunks and branches of tree species growing under future atmospheric CO2 concentration (DUKE FACE site): impacts on whole-plant hydraulic performance and carbon assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    domec, J.; Palmroth, S.; Oren, R.; Johnson, D. M.; Ward, E. J.; McCulloh, K.; Gonzalez, C.; Warren, J.

    2013-12-01

    Anatomical and physiological acclimation to water stress of the tree hydraulic system involves tradeoffs between maintenance of stomatal conductance and loss of hydraulic conductivity, with short-term impacts on photosynthesis and long-term consequences to survival and growth. Here we study the role of variations in root, trunk and branch maximum hydraulic specific conductivity (Ks-max) under high and low soil moisture in determining whole-tree hydraulic conductance (Ktree) and in mediating stomatal control of gas exchange in loblolly pine trees growing under ambient and elevated CO2 (CO2a and CO2e). We hypothesized that Ktree would adjust to CO2e, through an increase in root and branch Ks-max in response to anatomical adjustments. Embolism in roots explained the loss of Ktree and therefore indirectly constituted a hydraulic signal involved in stomatal regulation and in the reduction of canopy conductance and carbon assimilation. Across roots, trunk and branches, the increase in Ks-max was associated with a decrease resistance to drought, a consequence of structural acclimation such as larger conduits and lower wood density. In loblolly pine, higher xylem dysfunction under CO2e might impact tree performance in a future climate when increased evaporative demand could cause a greater loss of hydraulic function. The results contributed to our knowledge of the physiological and morphological mechanisms underpinning the responses of tree species to drought and more generally to global change.

  8. Tree Growth and Climate Relationship: Dynamics of Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Growing in the Near-Source Region of the Combined Heat and Power Plant During the Development of the Pro-Ecological Strategy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensuła, Barbara; Wilczyński, Sławomir; Opała, Magdalena

    Since the 1990s, the emission of pollutants was reduced in a majority of Polish and developing country factories whereas the level of energy production was similar to that prior to the 1990s. The conifer investigated in this study has grown for many years under the stress of industrial pollution. Despite this, the trees are preserved, to a large extent, sensitive to the natural climatic factors. We present a complex analysis of the climatic (sunshine, temperature, precipitation, humidity, and wind circulation) and anthropogenic factors influencing the radial increment dynamics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the vicinity of the combined heat and power station in Łaziska (Poland). We analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution of growth reductions, the depth of reduction with respect to the distance from the emitter, the relationship between tree growth and climate during the industry development period and during proecological strategy application . Samples of carbon isotopic composition in pine needles from 2012 to 2013 were additionally determined. Pines series of 3 positions indicate that they have a similar sensitivity to most climatic elements of the previous and given year, but there is also a different rhythm between the studied populations of incremental growth of pines. The causes of diversity are due to the different types of habitat (site types) and industrial pollution. The variation in carbon stable isotopic composition in pine needles was connected with an increase of CO2.

  9. Status of the NectarCAM camera project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicenstein, J.-F.; Barcelo, M.; Barrio, J.-A.; Blanch, O.; Boix, J.; Bolmont, J.; Boutonnet, C.; Brun, P.; Chabanne, E.; Champion, C.; Colonges, S.; Corona, P.; Courty, B.; Delagnes, E.; Delgado, C.; Diaz, C.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Fegan, S.; Ferreira, O.; Fesquet, M.; Fontaine, G.; Fouque, N.; Henault, F.; Gascón, D.; Giebels, B.; Herranz, D.; Hermel, R.; Hoffmann, D.; Horan, D.; Houles, J.; Jean, P.; Karkar, S.; Knödlseder, J.; Martinez, G.; Lamanna, G.; LeFlour, T.; Lévêque, A.; Lopez-Coto, R.; Louis, F.; Moudden, Y.; Moulin, E.; Nayman, P.; Nunio, F.; Olive, J.-F.; Panazol, J.-L.; Pavy, S.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Punch, M.; Prast, Julie; Ramon, P.; Rateau, S.; Ribó, M.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Sanuy, A.; Sizun, P.; Sieiro, J.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tejedor, L. A.; Toussenel, F.; Vasileiadis, G.; Voisin, V.; Waegebert, V.; Zurbach, C.

    2014-07-01

    NectarCAM is a camera designed for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) covering the central energy range 100 GeV to 30 TeV. It has a modular design based on the NECTAr chip, at the heart of which is a GHz sampling Switched Capacitor Array and 12-bit Analog to Digital converter. The camera will be equipped with 265 7-photomultiplier modules, covering a field of view of 7 to 8 degrees. Each module includes the photomultiplier bases, High Voltage supply, pre-amplifier, trigger, readout and Thernet transceiver. Events recorded last between a few nanoseconds and tens of nanoseconds. A flexible trigger scheme allows to read out very long events. NectarCAM can sustain a data rate of 10 kHz. The camera concept, the design and tests of the various subcomponents and results of thermal and electrical prototypes are presented. The design includes the mechanical structure, the cooling of electronics, read-out, clock distribution, slow control, data-acquisition, trigger, monitoring and services. A 133-pixel prototype with full scale mechanics, cooling, data acquisition and slow control will be built at the end of 2014.

  10. Extensions to the D-Cam sub-unit architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Padraig; Connell, Joseph

    2005-06-01

    Multispectral imaging produces large amounts of data which extend processing, transmission and storage systems to their upper limits. Although there are several interface standards specific to image data acquisition, such as CameraLink, it is Firewire which provides a high-speed data bus, integrated control capability, without loss of flexibility, and which is commonly available as a low cost solution. The class of multispectral imaging requires a different treatment of the processing principals than standard imaging. The same spatial region is captured multiple times using different optical wavelengths. This technique finds application in such diverse areas as coastal monitoring, fruit sorting and automated agriculture. Modifications and additional features to the camera operating and configuration parameters are therefore required which are not generally present with conventional imaging sensors. This paper describes extensions to the IIDC Digital Camera (D-Cam) specification in the development of a Firewire technology platform for transmitting the data structures described and for providing real-time, online control of spectral information acquisition. Additionally, it describes how a set of registers in the sub-unit architecture of the Firewire protocol is augmented to accommodate the demands of a multispectral system. The extensions are specification conformant and do not alter underlining compliance with the base standard. The paper also describes the implementation of the extended D-Cam in the Firewire subsystem of a smart multispectral camera used in commercial applications.

  11. Westerly wind bursts simulated in CAM4 and CCSM4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Tao; Tang, Youmin; Zhou, Lei; Islam, Siraj Ul; Zhang, Chan; Li, Xiaojing; Ling, Zheng

    2017-04-01

    The equatorial westerly wind bursts (WWBs) play an important role in modulating and predicting the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In this study, the ability of the Community Atmospheric Model version 4 (CAM4) and the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) in simulating WWBs is systematically evaluated. Many characteristics of WWBs, including their longitude distributions, durations, zonal extensions, variabilities at seasonal, intraseasonal, and interannual timescales, as well as their relations with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and ENSO, are discussed. Generally speaking, these characteristics of WWBs can be successfully reproduced by CAM4, owning to the improvement of the deep convection in the model. In CCSM4, significant bias such as the lack of the equatorial Pacific WWBs in boreal spring season and the weak modulation by a strong MJO are found. Our findings confirm the fact that the WWBs are greatly modulated by the surface temperature. It's also suggested that improving the air-sea coupling in CCSM4 may improve model performance in simulating WWBs, and may further improve the predictability of ENSO in the coupled model.

  12. Growing Concerns With Workplace Incivility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Natasha Renee; Rogers, Bonnie

    2017-11-01

    Workplace incivility (WPI) is a growing issue across all public and private sectors. Occupational and environmental health nurses can educate employees and management about WPI, its risk factors and characteristics, and ways to reduce incidents of WPI.

  13. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments by Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, Lillian M.; Mackintosh, Virginia H.; Myers, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may elect to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments with their children in place of, or in addition to, conventional treatments. CAM treatments are controversial and understudied and, for most, the efficacy has not been established. The current study (n = 248) examined…

  14. 21 CFR 872.3661 - Optical Impression Systems for CAD/CAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optical Impression Systems for CAD/CAM. 872.3661... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3661 Optical Impression Systems for CAD... (CAD/CAM) is a device used to record the topographical characteristics of teeth, dental impressions, or...

  15. SenseCam: a wearable camera that stimulates and rehabilitates autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Steve; Berry, Emma; Wood, Ken

    2011-10-01

    SenseCam is a wearable digital camera that captures an electronic record of the wearer's day. It does this by automatically recording a series of still images through its wide-angle lens, and simultaneously capturing a log of data from a number of built-in electronic sensors. Subsequently reviewing a sequence of images appears to provide a powerful autobiographical memory cue. A preliminary evaluation of SenseCam with a patient diagnosed with severe memory impairment was extremely positive; periodic review of images of events recorded by SenseCam resulted in significant recall of those events. Following this, a great deal of work has been undertaken to explore this phenomenon and there are early indications that SenseCam technology may be beneficial to a variety of patients with physical and mental health problems, and is valuable as a tool for investigating normal memory through behavioural and neuroimaging means. Elsewhere, it is becoming clear that judicious use of SenseCam could significantly impact the study of human behaviour. Meanwhile, research and development of the technology itself continues with the aim of providing robust hardware and software tools to meet the needs of clinicians, patients, carers, and researchers. In this paper we describe the history of SenseCam, and the design and operation of the SenseCam device and the associated viewing software, and we discuss some of the ongoing research questions being addressed with the help of SenseCam.

  16. A methodological framework for evaluating the evidence for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Robert; Johannesen, Helle

    2011-01-01

    In spite of lacking evidence for effects on cancer progression itself, an increasing number of cancer patients use various types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). There is disagreement between CAM practitioners, researchers and clinical oncologists, as to how evidence concerning ef...... to different types of research questions and discussing the relevance of different research methodologies for different types of effects....

  17. A Survey of CAD/CAM Technology Applications in the U.S. Shipbuilding Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    46. Material Handling C. Steel Work Prodction 47. Stockyard & Treatment 48. cutting 49. Forming 50. Subassembly 51. Structural Unit Assembly 52...Applied to Steel work Production . . CAD/CAM Technologies Applied to Manufacturing and Production Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAD/CAM...ALABAMA SHIPBUILDING & DRY DOCK AMERICAN SHIPBUILDING CO. AVONDALE SHIPYARDS BATH IRON WORKS BAY SHIPBUILDING BETHLEHEM STEEL & SHIPBUILDING Beaumont

  18. Cooverexpression of EpCAM and c-myc genes in malignant breast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    most important proto-oncogenes routinely overexpressed in breast cancer. However, cooverexpression of EpCAM and c-myc genes has not been investigated in breast cancer tissues, particularly in Iranian population. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of EpCAM and c-myc genes in malignant breast cancer ...

  19. Cam-Follower Mechanism Design for Narrow Loom Beat Up Motion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The topology of the kinematics is developed by using the graph theory method of kinematic synthesis. The forces required to drive the plate-cam and follower system were modeled and the components such as the plate-cam, camshaft, the follower and the drive mechanism were synthesized for smooth operation of the ...

  20. Monitoring the photometric behavior of OmegaCAM with Astro-WISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdoes Kleijn, G. A.; Kuijken, K. H.; Valentijn, E. A.; Boxhoorn, D. R.; Begeman, K. G.; Deul, E. R.; Helmich, E. M.; Rengelink, R.

    The OmegaCAM wide-field optical imager is the sole instrument on the VLT Survey Telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory. The instrument, as well as the telescope, have been designed for surveys with very good, natural seeing-limited image quality over a 1 square degree field. OmegaCAM was

  1. Remission after Acute Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: Findings from the CAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kendall, Philip C.; Sakolsky, Dara; Compton, Scott N.; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne Marie; Walkup, John T.; Sherrill, Joel; Coffey, Kimberly A.; Rynn, Moira A.; Keeton, Courtney P.; McCracken, James T.; Bergman, Lindsey; Iyengar, Satish; Birmaher, Boris; March, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To report on remission rates in anxious youth who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). The CAMS, a multisite clinical trial, randomized 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years; 79% Caucasian; 50% female) with separation, social, and/or generalized anxiety disorder to a 12-week treatment of…

  2. Bidirectional modulation of endogenous EpCAM expression to unravel its function in ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gun, B. T. F.; Huisman, C.; Stolzenburg, S.; Kazemier, H. G.; Ruiters, M. H. J.; Blancafort, P.; Rots, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is overexpressed on most carcinomas. Dependent on the tumour type, its overexpression is either associated with improved or worse patient survival. For ovarian cancer, however, the role of EpCAM remains unclear. Methods: Cell survival of

  3. A CAM- and starch-deficient mutant of the facultative CAM species Mesembryanthemum crystallinum reconciles sink demands by repartitioning carbon during acclimation to salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Muhammad Sajjad; Barnes, Jeremy D; Cushman, John C; Borland, Anne M

    2012-03-01

    In the halophytic species Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, the induction of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) by salinity requires a substantial investment of resources in storage carbohydrates to provide substrate for nocturnal CO(2) uptake. Acclimation to salinity also requires the synthesis and accumulation of cyclitols as compatible solutes, maintenance of root respiration, and nitrate assimilation. This study assessed the hierarchy and coordination of sinks for carbohydrate in leaves and roots during acclimation to salinity in M. crystallinum. By comparing wild type and a CAM-/starch-deficient mutant of this species, it was sought to determine if other metabolic sinks could compensate for a curtailment in CAM and enable acclimation to salinity. Under salinity, CAM deficiency reduced 24 h photosynthetic carbon gain by >50%. Cyclitols were accumulated to comparable levels in leaves and roots of both the wild type and mutant, but represented only 5% of 24 h carbon balance. Dark respiration of leaves and roots was a stronger sink for carbohydrate in the mutant compared with the wild type and implied higher maintenance costs for the metabolic processes underpinning acclimation to salinity when CAM was curtailed. CAM required the nocturnal mobilization of >70% of primary carbohydrate in the wild type and >85% of carbohydrate in the mutant. The substantial allocation of carbohydrate to CAM limited the export of sugars to roots, and the root:shoot ratio declined under salinity. The data suggest a key role for the vacuole in regulating the supply and demand for carbohydrate over the day/night cycle in the starch-/CAM-deficient mutant.

  4. Cam Deformity and Hip Degeneration Presents 10 to 17 Years After Fixation of a Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Jakob; Gosvig, Kasper; Magnussen, Erland

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is hypothesized to result in cam deformity and femoroacetabular impingement. We examined: (1)cam-type deformity, (2) labral degeneration, chondrolabral damage, and osteoarthritic development, (3) the clinical and patient...

  5. Expansion of plants with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism under global environment change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Collins, S. L.; Carr, D.

    2016-12-01

    The abundance of plants with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) has increased in many drylands worldwide. This is hypothesized to occur because CAM plants store water, take up CO2 at night, exhibit photosynthetic plasticity, and have high water use efficiency. The increased dominance of CAM plants, however, also depends on their competitive relationship with other functional groups, an aspect of CAM plant sensitivity to global environmental change that has remained largely understudied. Here, we investigated the response of CAM plants and their competitive relationships with C3 and C4 plants under global environmental change. We focused on two pairs of CAM and non-CAM species, namely Cylindropuntia imbricata (a constitutive CAM species) and Bouteloua eriopoda (C4 grass), which co-occur in desert grasslands in northern Mexico, and invasive Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (a facultative CAM species) and Bromus mollis (a C3 invasive grass), which coexist in California's coastal grasslands. A set of growth chamber experiments under altered CO2 and water conditions show that C. imbricata outcompeted B. eriopoda under drought conditions, while in well-watered conditions B. eriopoda was a stronger competitor for soil water than C. imbricata. Under drought conditions a more positive response to CO2 enrichment by C. imbricata indirectly disfavored B. eriopoda, which suggests that interspecific competition can outweigh the favorable direct effect of CO2 enrichment on plant growth. A set of greenhouse experiments under water, N, and soil salinity manipulations showed that drought, N deposition, and/or increased soil salinity served as important drivers for success of M. crystallinum invasion, while B. mollis exerted strong competitive effects on M. crystallinum for light and soil nutrients in well-watered conditions. M. crystallinum switched from C3 photosynthesis to CAM photosynthesis as an adaptive strategy in response to moderate intensity of competition from B. mollis, in

  6. Marginal adaptation and CAD-CAM technology: A systematic review of restorative material and fabrication techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadiochou, Sofia; Pissiotis, Argirios L

    2017-09-27

    The comparative assessment of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and other fabrication techniques pertaining to marginal adaptation should be documented. Limited evidence exists on the effect of restorative material on the performance of a CAD-CAM system relative to marginal adaptation. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate whether the marginal adaptation of CAD-CAM single crowns, fixed dental prostheses, and implant-retained fixed dental prostheses or their infrastructures differs from that obtained by other fabrication techniques using a similar restorative material and whether it depends on the type of restorative material. An electronic search of English-language literature published between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2016, was conducted of the Medline/PubMed database. Of the 55 included comparative studies, 28 compared CAD-CAM technology with conventional fabrication techniques, 12 contrasted CAD-CAM technology and copy milling, 4 compared CAD-CAM milling with direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), and 22 investigated the performance of a CAD-CAM system regarding marginal adaptation in restorations/infrastructures produced with different restorative materials. Most of the CAD-CAM restorations/infrastructures were within the clinically acceptable marginal discrepancy (MD) range. The performance of a CAD-CAM system relative to marginal adaptation is influenced by the restorative material. Compared with CAD-CAM, most of the heat-pressed lithium disilicate crowns displayed equal or smaller MD values. Slip-casting crowns exhibited similar or better marginal accuracy than those fabricated with CAD-CAM. Cobalt-chromium and titanium implant infrastructures produced using a CAD-CAM system elicited smaller MD values than zirconia. The majority of cobalt-chromium restorations/infrastructures produced by DMLS displayed better marginal accuracy than those fabricated with the casting technique. Compared with copy

  7. L1CAM expression in endometrial carcinomas is regulated by usage of two different promoter regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeifer Marco

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM was originally identified as a neural adhesion molecule involved in axon guidance. In many human epithelial carcinomas L1CAM is overexpressed and thereby augments cell motility, invasion and metastasis formation. L1CAM positive carcinomas are associated with bad prognosis. Recent data point out that L1CAM is regulated in a fashion similar to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Previous studies have implied the transcription factors Slug and/or β-catenin in L1CAM transcriptional regulation. However, the regulation of human L1CAM expression at the transcriptional level is not well understood. Results To better understand the molecular basis of L1CAM transcriptional regulation, we carried out a detailed characterization of the human L1CAM promoter. We identified two transcription start sites, the first in front of a non-translated exon 0 (promoter 1 and the other next to the first protein-coding exon 1 (promoter 2. Both sites could be verified in endometrial carcinoma (EC cell lines and appear to be used in a cell-type specific manner. The two identified promoter regions showed activity in luciferase reporter assays. Chromatin-IP analyses confirmed the in silico predicted E-boxes, binding sites for transcription factors Snail and Slug, as well as Lef-1 sites, which are related to β-catenin-mediated transcriptional regulation, in both promoters. Overexpression of β-catenin exclusively augmented activity of promoter 1 whereas Slug enhanced promoter 1 and 2 activity suggesting that both promoters can be active. Overexpression of β-catenin or Slug could upregulate L1CAM expression in a cell-type specific manner. Conclusions Our results, for the first time, provide evidence that the L1CAM gene has two functionally active promoter sites that are used in a cell-type specific manner. Slug and β-catenin are involved L1CAM transcriptional regulation. Nevertheless, Slug rather than

  8. Spectroscopic observations of the RS CVn-type binary systems SV Cam and XY UMa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainger, P. P.; Hilditch, R. W.; Edwin, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    Radial velocities of the primary components of the two RS CVn-type binary systems SV Cam and XY UMa are presented, for the first time for XY UMa. Neither secondary component could be detected. A change of 5.0 + or - 13 km/sec in the systemic velocity of SV Cam is found over 40 years, which lends some support to the current model of SV Cam being a triple system. If the masses of the G3 V primary components of both systems are assumed to be 1 solar mass, then the secondaries are 0.7 (SV Cam) and 0.6 (XY UMa) solar masses; all four stars are main sequence objects with SV Cam being rather more evolved than XY UMa.

  9. Spectroscopic observations of the RS CVn-type binary systems SV Cam and XY UMa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainger, P.P.; Hilditch, R.W.; Edwin, R.P. (Saint Andrews Univ. (UK). Observatory)

    1991-01-01

    Radial velocities of the primary components of the two RS CVn-type binary systems SV Cam and XY UMa are presented, for the first time for XY UMa. Neither secondary component could be detected. A change of 5.0+-1.3km s{sup -1} in the systemic velocity of SV Cam is found over 40 years which lends some support to the current model of SV Cam being a triple system. If the masses of the G3 V primary components of both systems are assumed to be one solar mass, then the secondaries are 0.7 (SV CAM) and 0.6 (XY UMa) solar masses; all four stars are main sequence objects with SV Cam being rather more evolved than XY UMa. (author).

  10. Contemporary dental CAD/CAM: modern chairside/lab applications and the future of computerized dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neal

    2014-01-01

    CAD/CAM in dentistry has been particularly useful in enabling the fabrication of custom, patient-specific restorations and prosthetics without the need for traditional analog dental laboratory methods. While the optimal use of CAD/CAM technology must be determined on a case-by-case basis, it is important for clinicians to recognize the opportunity to utilize computerized technology in patient therapy to provide more highly efficient, accurate, and potentially ideal outcomes. This article will discuss and evaluate the state-ofthe- art of CAD/CAM dentistry for both chairside and laboratory-based solutions. Current options for CAD/CAM technology in the treatment of patients for comprehensive dentistry along with the most common uses of chairside and laboratory-based applications will be explored. The discussion will also identify recent and future trends in CAD/CAM applications in dentistry.

  11. Ceramic dental biomaterials and CAD/CAM technology: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Raymond Wai Kim; Chow, Tak Wah; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka

    2014-10-01

    Ceramics are widely used as indirect restorative materials in dentistry because of their high biocompatibility and pleasing aesthetics. The objective is to review the state of the arts of CAD/CAM all-ceramic biomaterials. CAD/CAM all-ceramic biomaterials are highlighted and a subsequent literature search was conducted for the relevant subjects using PubMed followed by manual search. Developments in CAD/CAM technology have catalyzed researches in all-ceramic biomaterials and their applications. Feldspathic glass ceramic and glass infiltrated ceramic can be fabricated by traditional laboratory methods or CAD/CAM. The advent of polycrystalline ceramics is a direct result of CAD/CAM technology without which the fabrication would not have been possible. The clinical uses of these ceramics have met with variable clinical success. Multiple options are now available to the clinicians for the fabrication of aesthetic all ceramic restorations. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimal Design of a Cam Mechanism with Translating Flat-Face Follower using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Tsiafis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimum design of a cam mechanism is a time consuming task, due to the numerous alternatives considerations. In the present work, the problem of design parameters optimization of a cam mechanism with translating flat - face follower is investigated from a multi - objective point of view. The design parameters, just like the cam base circle radius, the follower face width and the follower offset can be determined considering as the optimization criteria minimization of the cam size, of the input torque and of the contact stress. During the optimization procedure, a number of constraints regarding the pressure angle, the contact stress, etcare taken into account. The optimization approach, based on genetic algorithm, is applied to find the optimal solutions with respect to the a fore - mentioned objective function and to Ensure the kinematic requirements. Finally, the dynamic behavior of the designed cam mechanism is investigated considering the frictional forces.

  13. Plant growth and cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podar, Dorina

    2013-01-01

    There is a variety of methods used for growing plants indoor for laboratory research. In most cases plant research requires germination and growth of plants. Often, people have adapted plant cultivation protocols to the conditions and materials at hand in their own laboratory and growth facilities. Here I will provide a guide for growing some of the most frequently used plant species for research, i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the methods presented can be used for other plant species as well, especially if they are related to the above-mentioned species. The presented methods include growing plants in soil, hydroponics, and in vitro on plates. This guide is intended as a starting point for those who are just beginning to work on any of the above-mentioned plant species. Methods presented are to be taken as suggestive and modification can be made according to the conditions existing in the host laboratory.

  14. Epothilone B enhances surface EpCAM expression in ovarian cancer Hey cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Shohreh; Yang, Chia-Ping Huang; Goldberg, Gary L; Horwitz, Susan Band

    2010-11-01

    Epothilone B (EpoB), like Taxol, stabilizes microtubules resulting in an inhibition of microtubule dynamic instability. The drug is being evaluated in phase III clinical trials. An EpoB analog, Ixabepilone, was approved by the FDA for the treatment of taxane-resistant metastatic breast cancer. Epithelial cell adhesion antigen (EpCAM) expression is significantly higher in epithelial ovarian cancer cells compared to normal cells. The effects of EpoB and other microtubule-interacting agents on surface EpCAM expression were studied. Biochemical methods, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry were used to identify EpCAM expression on the surface of the ovarian cancer cell line, Hey, after exposure to EpoB. The relationship between EpoB-mediated surface EpCAM expression and EpoB-induced α-tubulin acetylation, a surrogate marker for stable microtubules, in Hey cells also was investigated. Nanomolar concentrations of EpoB, Taxol, discodermolide or vinblastine caused a marked increase in surface EpCAM expression in Hey cells. Alpha-tubulin acetylation was increased following treatment with Taxol, EpoB and discodermolide, but not with vinblastine, indicating that drug-enhanced surface EpCAM expression does not correlate with tubulin acetylation or stabilization. Unexpectedly, EpoB did not have a significant effect on EpCAM mRNA expression, nor did it alter the level of total cellular EpCAM in Hey cells. The results indicate that disruption of the microtubule cytoskeleton is associated with the redistribution of cell surface antigens in ovarian cancer cells. The increase in cell surface EpCAM antigen density may facilitate the antibody targeting of EpCAM-positive ovarian cancer cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tracking vegetation phenology across diverse North American biomes using PhenoCam imagery: A new, publicly-available dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation phenology controls the seasonality of many ecosystem processes, as well as numerous biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks. Phenology is highly sensitive to climate change and variability, and is thus a key aspect of global change ecology. The goal of the PhenoCam network is to serve as a long-term, continental-scale, phenological observatory. The network uses repeat digital photography—images captured using conventional, visible-wavelength, automated digital cameras—to characterize vegetation phenology in diverse ecosystems across North America and around the world. At present, imagery from over 200 research sites, spanning a wide range of ecoregions, climate zones, and plant functional types, is currently being archived and processed in near-real-time through the PhenoCam project web page (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu/). Data derived from PhenoCam imagery have been previously used to evaluate satellite phenology products, to constrain and test new phenology models, to understand relationships between canopy phenology and ecosystem processes, and to study the seasonal changes in leaf-level physiology that are associated with changes in leaf color. I will describe a new, publicly-available phenological dataset, derived from over 600 site-years of PhenoCam imagery. For each archived image (ca. 5 million), we extracted RGB (red, green, blue) color channel information, with means and other statistics calculated across a region-of-interest (ROI) delineating a specific vegetation type. From the high-frequency (typically, 30 minute) imagery, we derived time series characterizing vegetation color, including "canopy greenness", processed to 1- and 3-day intervals. For ecosystems with a single annual cycle of vegetation activity, we derived estimates, with uncertainties, for the start, middle, and end of spring and autumn phenological transitions. Given the lack of multi-year, standardized, and geographically distributed phenological data for North America, we

  16. Prevalence and Predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use among Ivy League College Students: Implications for Student Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versnik Nowak, Amy L.; DeGise, Joe; Daugherty, Amanda; O'Keefe, Richard; Seward, Samuel, Jr.; Setty, Suma; Tang, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Determine prevalence and types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies used and test the significance of demographics and social cognitive constructs as predictors of CAM use in a college sample. Secondary purpose was to guide the integration of CAM therapies into college health services. Participants: Random,…

  17. Prevalence and Characteristics of CAM Use among People Living with HIV and AIDS in Lebanon: Implications for Patient Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Abou-Rizk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM use among People Living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA in Lebanon and to identify related issues that may affect patient care. A cross-sectional survey design was used to interview 116 PLWHA in Beirut. The questionnaire addressed sociodemographic and disease characteristics as well as CAM use. The main outcome of the study was CAM use since diagnosis. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. Overall, 46.6% of participants reported using one or more CAM therapies, with herbs and herbal products being the most commonly used (63%. A higher education level was associated with a 3-fold increase in the odds of CAM use. Among users, 20% used CAM as alternative to conventional treatment, 48% were not aware of CAM-drug interactions, 89% relied on nonhealth care sources for their choice of CAM, and 44% did not disclose CAM use to their physician. CAM use is prevalent among Lebanese PLWHA. Findings of this study highlighted the need to educate health care practitioners to have an open communication and a patient-centered approach discussing CAM use during routine care and to enhance awareness of PLWHA on safe use of CAM.

  18. The fracture resistance of a CAD/CAM Resin Nano Ceramic (RNC) and a CAD ceramic at different thicknesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.; Trindade, F.Z.; de Jager, N.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate the influence of restoration thickness to the fracture resistance of adhesively bonded Lava™ Ultimate CAD/CAM, a Resin Nano Ceramic (RNC), and IPS e.max CAD ceramic. Methods Polished Lava™ Ultimate CAD/CAM (Group L), sandblasted Lava™ Ultimate CAD/CAM

  19. Is Ep-CAM Expression a Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer? A Systematic Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu Han

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: The present findings suggest that Ep-CAM expression may be associated with CRC carcinogenesis, while the loss of Ep-CAM expression is correlated with the progression, metastasis, and poor prognosis of CRC. Ep-CAM expression may be a useful biomarker for the clinical diagnosis of CRC.

  20. Sagittal Subtalar and Talocrural Joint Assessment During Ambulation With Controlled Ankle Movement (CAM) Boots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Benjamin D; Exten, Emily L; Cross, Janelle A; Kruger, Karen M; Law, Brian; Fritz, Jessica M; Harris, Gerald

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine sagittal plane talocrural and subtalar kinematic differences between barefoot and controlled ankle movement (CAM) boot walking. This study used fluoroscopic images to determine talar motion relative to tibia and calcaneal motion relative to talus. Fourteen male subjects (mean age 24.1 ± 3.5 years) screened for normal gait were tested. A fluoroscopy unit was used to collect images at 200 Hz during stance. Sagittal motion of the talocrural and subtalar joints were analyzed barefoot and within short and tall CAM boots. Barefoot talocrural mean maximum plantar and dorsiflexion were 9.2 ± 5.4 degrees and -7.5 ± 7.4 degrees, respectively; short CAM boot mean maximum plantar and dorsiflexion were 3.2 ± 4.0 degrees and -4.8 ± 10.2 degrees, respectively; and tall CAM boot mean maximum plantar and dorsiflexion were -0.2 ± 3.5 degrees and -2.4 ± 5.1 degrees, respectively. Talocrural mean range of motion (ROM) decreased from barefoot (16.7 ± 5.1 degrees) to short CAM boot (8.0 ± 4.9 degrees) to tall CAM boot (2.2 ± 2.5 degrees). Subtalar mean maximum plantarflexion angles were 5.3 ± 5.6 degrees for barefoot walking, 4.1 ± 5.9 degrees fo