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Sample records for cam photosynthesis clusia

  1. Facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants: powerful tools for unravelling the functional elements of CAM photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2014-07-01

    Facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) describes the optional use of CAM photosynthesis, typically under conditions of drought stress, in plants that otherwise employ C3 or C4 photosynthesis. In its cleanest form, the upregulation of CAM is fully reversible upon removal of stress. Reversibility distinguishes facultative CAM from ontogenetically programmed unidirectional C3-to-CAM shifts inherent in constitutive CAM plants. Using mainly measurements of 24h CO2 exchange, defining features of facultative CAM are highlighted in five terrestrial species, Clusia pratensis, Calandrinia polyandra, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, Portulaca oleracea and Talinum triangulare. For these, we provide detailed chronologies of the shifts between photosynthetic modes and comment on their usefulness as experimental systems. Photosynthetic flexibility is also reviewed in an aquatic CAM plant, Isoetes howellii. Through comparisons of C3 and CAM states in facultative CAM species, many fundamental biochemical principles of the CAM pathway have been uncovered. Facultative CAM species will be of even greater relevance now that new sequencing technologies facilitate the mapping of genomes and tracking of the expression patterns of multiple genes. These technologies and facultative CAM systems, when joined, are expected to contribute in a major way towards our goal of understanding the essence of CAM. PMID:24642847

  2. Independent fluctuations of malate and citrate in the CAM species Clusia hilariana Schltdl. under low light and high light in relation to photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszalski, Zbigniew; Kornas, Andrzej; Rozpądek, Piotr; Fischer-Schliebs, Elke; Lüttge, Ulrich

    2013-03-15

    Clusia hilariana Schltdl. is described in literature as an obligate Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. In the present study we assessed the effect of irradiance with low light (LL, 200μmolm(-2)s(-1)) and high light (HL, 650-740μmolm(-2)s(-1)), on the interdependency of citrate and malate diurnal fluctuations. In plants grown at HL CAM-type oscillations of concentration of citrate and malate were obvious. However, at LL daily courses of both acids do not seem to indicate efficient utilization of these compounds as CO2 and NADPH sources. One week after transferring plants from LL to HL decarboxylation of malate was accelerated. Thus, in the CAM plant C. hilariana two independent rhythms of accumulation and decarboxylation of malate and citrate take place, which appear to be related to photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. Non photochemical quenching (NPQ) of photosystem II, especially well expressed during the evening hours was enhanced. Exposure to HL for 7 d activated oxidative stress protection mechanisms such as the interconversion of violaxanthin (V), antheraxanthin (A) and zeaxanthin (Z) (epoxydation/de-epoxydation) measured as epoxydation state (EPS). This was accompanied by a slight increase in the total amount of these pigments. However, all these changes were not observed in plants exposed to HL for only 2 d. Besides violaxanthin cycle components also lutein, which shows a small, but not significant increase, may be involved in dissipating excess light energy in C. hilariana.

  3. CAM Photosynthesis in Submerged Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a CO2-concentrating mechanism selected in response to aridity in terrestrial habitats, and, in aquatic environments, to ambient limitations of carbon. Evidence is reviewed for its presence in five genera of aquatic vascular plants, including Isoe??tes, Sagittaria, Vallisneria, Crassula, and Littorella. Initially, aquatic CAM was considered by some to be an oxymoron, but some aquatic species have been studied in sufficient detail to say definitively that they possess CAM photosynthesis. CO2-concentrating mechanisms in photosynthetic organs require a barrier to leakage; e.g., terrestrial C4 plants have suberized bundle sheath cells and terrestrial CAM plants high stomatal resistance. In aquatic CAM plants the primary barrier to CO2 leakage is the extremely high diffusional resistance of water. This, coupled with the sink provided by extensive intercellular gas space, generates daytime CO2(Pi) comparable to terrestrial CAM plants. CAM contributes to the carbon budget by both net carbon gain and carbon recycling, and the magnitude of each is environmentally influenced. Aquatic CAM plants inhabit sites where photosynthesis is potentially limited by carbon. Many occupy moderately fertile shallow temporary pools that experience extreme diel fluctuations in carbon availability. CAM plants are able to take advantage of elevated nighttime CO2 levels in these habitats. This gives them a competitive advantage over non-CAM species that are carbon starved during the day and an advantage over species that expend energy in membrane transport of bicarbonate. Some aquatic CAM plants are distributed in highly infertile lakes, where extreme carbon limitation and light are important selective factors. Compilation of reports on diel changes in titratable acidity and malate show 69 out of 180 species have significant overnight accumulation, although evidence is presented discounting CAM in some. It is concluded that similar proportions of the aquatic

  4. Leaf anatomical traits which accommodate the facultative engagement of crassulacean acid metabolism in tropical trees of the genus Clusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera Zambrano, V Andrea; Lawson, Tracy; Olmos, Enrique; Fernández-García, Nieves; Borland, Anne M

    2014-07-01

    Succulence and leaf thickness are important anatomical traits in CAM plants, resulting from the presence of large vacuoles to store organic acids accumulated overnight. A higher degree of succulence can result in a reduction in intercellular air space which constrains internal conductance to CO2. Thus, succulence presents a trade-off between the optimal anatomy for CAM and the internal structure ideal for direct C3 photosynthesis. This study examined how plasticity for the reversible engagement of CAM in the genus Clusia could be accommodated by leaf anatomical traits that could facilitate high nocturnal PEPC activity without compromising the direct day-time uptake of CO2 via Rubisco. Nine species of Clusia ranging from constitutive C3 through C3/CAM intermediates to constitutive CAM were compared in terms of leaf gas exchange, succulence, specific leaf area, and a range of leaf anatomical traits (% intercellular air space (IAS), length of mesophyll surface exposed to IAS per unit area, cell size, stomatal density/size). Relative abundances of PEPC and Rubisco proteins in different leaf tissues of a C3 and a CAM-performing species of Clusia were determined using immunogold labelling. The results indicate that the relatively well-aerated spongy mesophyll of Clusia helps to optimize direct C3-mediated CO2 fixation, whilst enlarged palisade cells accommodate the potential for C4 carboxylation and nocturnal storage of organic acids. The findings provide insight on the optimal leaf anatomy that could accommodate the bioengineering of inducible CAM into C3 crops as a means of improving water use efficiency without incurring detrimental consequences for direct C3-mediated photosynthesis.

  5. Aquatic CAM photosynthesis: a brief history of its discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) photosynthesis was discovered while investigating an unrelated biochemical pathway concerned with anaerobic metabolism. George Bowes was a significant contributor to this project early in its infancy. Not only did he provide me with some valuable perspectives on peer review rejections, but by working with his gas exchange system I was able to take our initial observations of diel fluctuations in malic acid to the next level, showing this aquatic plant exhibited dark CO2 uptake. CAM is universal in all aquatic species of the worldwide Lycophyta genus Isoetes and non-existent in terrestrial Isoetes. Outside of this genus aquatic CAM has a limited occurrence in three other families, including the Crassulaceae. This discovery led to fascinating adventures in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes in search of Stylites, a terrestrial relative of Isoetes. Stylites is a plant that is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere and obtains all of its carbon from terrestrial sources and recycles carbon through CAM. Considering the Mesozoic origin of Isoetes in shallow pools, coupled with the fact that aquatic Isoetes universally possess CAM, suggests the earliest evolution of CAM photosynthesis was most likely not in terrestrial plants.

  6. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 ...

  7. Synthetic biology as it relates to CAM photosynthesis: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaoli, Henrique C; Borland, Anne M; Tuskan, Gerald A; Cushman, John C; Yang, Xiaohan

    2014-07-01

    To meet future food and energy security needs, which are amplified by increasing population growth and reduced natural resource availability, metabolic engineering efforts have moved from manipulating single genes/proteins to introducing multiple genes and novel pathways to improve photosynthetic efficiency in a more comprehensive manner. Biochemical carbon-concentrating mechanisms such as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), which improves photosynthetic, water-use, and possibly nutrient-use efficiency, represent a strategic target for synthetic biology to engineer more productive C3 crops for a warmer and drier world. One key challenge for introducing multigene traits like CAM onto a background of C3 photosynthesis is to gain a better understanding of the dynamic spatial and temporal regulatory events that underpin photosynthetic metabolism. With the aid of systems and computational biology, vast amounts of experimental data encompassing transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics can be related in a network to create dynamic models. Such models can undergo simulations to discover key regulatory elements in metabolism and suggest strategic substitution or augmentation by synthetic components to improve photosynthetic performance and water-use efficiency in C3 crops. Another key challenge in the application of synthetic biology to photosynthesis research is to develop efficient systems for multigene assembly and stacking. Here, we review recent progress in computational modelling as applied to plant photosynthesis, with attention to the requirements for CAM, and recent advances in synthetic biology tool development. Lastly, we discuss possible options for multigene pathway construction in plants with an emphasis on CAM-into-C3 engineering.

  8. Temperature response of photosynthesis in C3, C4, and CAM plants: temperature acclimation and temperature adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamori, Wataru; Hikosaka, Kouki; Way, Danielle A

    2014-02-01

    Most plants show considerable capacity to adjust their photosynthetic characteristics to their growth temperatures (temperature acclimation). The most typical case is a shift in the optimum temperature for photosynthesis, which can maximize the photosynthetic rate at the growth temperature. These plastic adjustments can allow plants to photosynthesize more efficiently at their new growth temperatures. In this review article, we summarize the basic differences in photosynthetic reactions in C3, C4, and CAM plants. We review the current understanding of the temperature responses of C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis, and then discuss the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms for temperature acclimation of photosynthesis in each photosynthetic type. Finally, we use the published data to evaluate the extent of photosynthetic temperature acclimation in higher plants, and analyze which plant groups (i.e., photosynthetic types and functional types) have a greater inherent ability for photosynthetic acclimation to temperature than others, since there have been reported interspecific variations in this ability. We found that the inherent ability for temperature acclimation of photosynthesis was different: (1) among C3, C4, and CAM species; and (2) among functional types within C3 plants. C3 plants generally had a greater ability for temperature acclimation of photosynthesis across a broad temperature range, CAM plants acclimated day and night photosynthetic process differentially to temperature, and C4 plants was adapted to warm environments. Moreover, within C3 species, evergreen woody plants and perennial herbaceous plants showed greater temperature homeostasis of photosynthesis (i.e., the photosynthetic rate at high-growth temperature divided by that at low-growth temperature was close to 1.0) than deciduous woody plants and annual herbaceous plants, indicating that photosynthetic acclimation would be particularly important in perennial, long-lived species that

  9. Spatial patterns of photosynthesis in thin- and thick-leaved epiphytic orchids: unravelling C3–CAM plasticity in an organ-compartmented way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maria Aurineide; Matiz, Alejandra; Cruz, Aline Bertinatto; Matsumura, Aline Tiemi; Takahashi, Cassia Ayumi; Hamachi, Leonardo; Félix, Lucas Macedo; Pereira, Paula Natália; Latansio-Aidar, Sabrina Ribeiro; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Demarco, Diego; Freschi, Luciano; Mercier, Helenice; Kerbauy, Gilberto Barbante

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims A positive correlation between tissue thickness and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) expression has been frequently suggested. Therefore, this study addressed the question of whether water availability modulates photosynthetic plasticity in different organs of two epiphytic orchids with distinct leaf thickness. Methods Tissue morphology and photosynthetic mode (C3 and/or CAM) were examined in leaves, pseudobulbs and roots of a thick-leaved (Cattleya walkeriana) and a thin-leaved (Oncidium ‘Aloha’) epiphytic orchid. Morphological features were studied comparing the drought-induced physiological responses observed in each organ after 30 d of either drought or well-watered treatments. Key Results Cattleya walkeriana, which is considered a constitutive CAM orchid, displayed a clear drought-induced up-regulation of CAM in its thick leaves but not in its non-leaf organs (pseudobulbs and roots). The set of morphological traits of Cattleya leaves suggested the drought-inducible CAM up-regulation as a possible mechanism of increasing water-use efficiency and carbon economy. Conversely, although belonging to an orchid genus classically considered as performing C3 photosynthesis, Oncidium ‘Aloha’ under drought seemed to express facultative CAM in its roots and pseudobulbs but not in its leaves, indicating that such photosynthetic responses might compensate for the lack of capacity to perform CAM in its thin leaves. Morphological features of Oncidium leaves also indicated lower efficiency in preventing water and CO2 losses, while aerenchyma ducts connecting pseudobulbs and leaves suggested a compartmentalized mechanism of nighttime carboxylation via phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) (pseudobulbs) and daytime carboxylation via Rubisco (leaves) in drought-exposed Oncidium plants. Conclusions Water availability modulated CAM expression in an organ-compartmented manner in both orchids studied. As distinct regions of the same orchid could perform

  10. PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-06-21

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC)on PHOTOSYNTHESIS was held at Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  11. COMUNICACIONES CORTAS TERPENOS ISLADOS DE LOS FRUTOS DE CLUSIA ssp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime González

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se aislaron triterpenos de los frutos de tres especies de Clusia (familia Guttiferae. En C.multlflora y C. grandiflora se encontraron eufenol, epímero en C-20 del tirucallol, y 3 ceto eufano antes no reportados para este género. También se encontró isocariofileno en C. grandiflora.

  12. Bees visitors of three species of Clusia (Clusiaceae) flowers in Central Amazonia Abelhas visitantes de flores de três espécies de Clusia (Clusiacea) na Amazônia Central

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Claudia Kaminski; Maria Lúcia Absy

    2006-01-01

    Observations on bees visitors to three species of Clusia (Clusiaceae) flowers in the Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil were made during three two-week periods. The three species of Clusia, namely C. grandiflora, C. panapanari and C. insignis, presented variations regarding the species of bee visitors. A total of 23 bee species visited the three species of Clusia. The Euglossini and Meliponinae bees were the most frequent visitors of the Clusia flowers. Bee collecting behavior of...

  13. A New Xeromorphic Species of Clusia (Clusiaceae) from Dry Valleys of Northern Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Clusia magnoliiflora M. H. G. Gust. is described as new for the Clusiaceae. It grows in dry scrub in the river valleys of the Marañón and its tributaries in northern Peru, a kind of habitat that harbors very few Clusia species. The species is distinct on account of its extremely thick, obovate...

  14. Bees visitors of three species of Clusia (Clusiaceae flowers in Central Amazonia Abelhas visitantes de flores de três espécies de Clusia (Clusiacea na Amazônia Central

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    Ana Claudia Kaminski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations on bees visitors to three species of Clusia (Clusiaceae flowers in the Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil were made during three two-week periods. The three species of Clusia, namely C. grandiflora, C. panapanari and C. insignis, presented variations regarding the species of bee visitors. A total of 23 bee species visited the three species of Clusia. The Euglossini and Meliponinae bees were the most frequent visitors of the Clusia flowers. Bee collecting behavior of floral resources is described.Durante seis semanas foram realizadas observações das abelhas visitantes de flores de três espécies de Clusia (Clusiaceae, na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, em Manaus. As três espécies de Clusia: C. grandiflora Splitg., C. panapanari (Aubl. e C. insignis Mart. apresentaram diferenças com relação às visitas de espécies de abelhas, tendo sido visitadas por 23 espécies. Abelhas Euglossini e Meliponinae foram os visitantes mais freqüentes em flores de Clusia. O comportamento de coleta de recursos florais é descrito.

  15. A new biphenyl from Clusia melchiorii and a new tocotrienol from C. obdeltifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Josanaide S.R.; Moreira, Luciana de M.; Cruz, Frederico G. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: fguare@ufba.br; Guedes, Maria L. da S. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2006-08-15

    Chromatographic purification of the dichloromethane extract of Clusia melchiorii trunk leading to the isolation of a new biphenyl, 2,2-dimethyl-5-hydroxy-7-phenylchromene, along with the known compounds 2,2-dimethyl-5,10-dihydro-2H-benzo[g]chromene-5,10-dione (xyloidone), betulinic acid, friedelin, friedelinol, euphol, sitostenone, stigmastenone and a mixture of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The hexane extract of Clusia obdeltifolia trunk yielded, after chromatographic fractionation, a new {delta}-tocotrienilic alcohol 2Z, 6E, 10E-13-(6-hydroxy- 2,8-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H,2-chromenyl)-2,6,10-trimethyl- 2,6,10-tridecatrien-1-ol, along with 2Z and 2E-{delta}-tocotrienoloic acids, betulinic acid, betulonic acid, betunilic aldehyde, glutinol, friedelin, sitostenone and a mixture of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Their structures were determined from spectral data and comparison with data from previously reported compounds. (author)

  16. Flavonoids, benzophenones and a new euphane derivative from Clusia columnaris Engl. Flavonóides, benzofenonas e um novo eufano de Clusia columnaris Engl.

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    Reinaldo S. Compagnone

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The polyisoprenylated benzophenones machuone and clusiachromene A have been isolated from the fruits of Clusia columnaris. The hexane extract of the young branches with leaves afforded a new euphane derivative, whose structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods. On the contrary, the most polar EtOAc and ButOH extracts were constituted of flavonoid C-glucosides (isovitexin, vitexin and vitexin-2"-xyloside and seven biflavonoids of the so-called Garcinia group.Dos frutos de Clusia columnaris foram isoladas as benzofenonas poliisopreniladas machuona e clusiacromeno A. Do extrato em hexano obtido de galhos e folhas novas, um novo triterpeno do tipo eufano foi isolado. Sua estrutura foi elucidada através de métodos espectroscópicos. Por outro lado, dos extratos mais polares - em acetato de etila e em butanol, foram isolados os flavonóides C-glicosilados isovitexina, vitexina e vitexina-2"-xilosídeo, além de sete bisflavonóides conhecidos como bisflavonóides do grupo da Garcinia.

  17. Clusiaxanthone and tocotrienol series from Clusia pernambucensis and their antileishmanial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemical analysis of the ethyl acetate extract from the stem bark of Clusia pernambucensis G. Mariz, Clusiaceae, a Brazilian Cerrado species, led to the isolation and full characterization of a new xanthone, 1,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-6’,6’- dimethylpyrano(2’,3’:3,4)xanthone, namely clusiaxanthone. Four previously unreported tocotrienols from this species were also isolated. A derivative was obtained from clusiaxanthone, 1-hydroxy,7-methoxy-2-(3-methyl- 2-butenyl)-6’,6’-dimethylpyrano(2’,3’:3,4)xanthone (7-O-methylclusiaxanthone), and an additional derivative was obtained from Z-δ-tocotrienoloic acid. The structures of these compounds were established based on data from 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (1D and 2D NMR), high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) and infrared spectroscopy. The clusiaxanthone and its derivative were able to control macrophage infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis amastigotes (IC50 = 66.9 and 57.4 μM, respectively). The cytotoxicity of the compounds was assessed in BALB/c mouse peritoneal macrophages. (author)

  18. Clusiaxanthone and tocotrienol series from Clusia pernambucensis and their antileishmanial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Everton M.; Freire-Filha, Lindomar G.; Espindola, Laila S., E-mail: darvenne@unb.br [Laboratorio de Farmacognosia, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia-DF (Brazil); Araujo, Renata M. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN (Brazil); Silveira, Edilberto R. [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Lopes, Norberto P. [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Paula, Jose Elias de [Laboratorio de Anatomia Vegetal, Universidade de Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia-DF (Brazil); Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Laboratorio de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Phytochemical analysis of the ethyl acetate extract from the stem bark of Clusia pernambucensis G. Mariz, Clusiaceae, a Brazilian Cerrado species, led to the isolation and full characterization of a new xanthone, 1,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-6',6'- dimethylpyrano(2',3':3,4)xanthone, namely clusiaxanthone. Four previously unreported tocotrienols from this species were also isolated. A derivative was obtained from clusiaxanthone, 1-hydroxy,7-methoxy-2-(3-methyl- 2-butenyl)-6',6'-dimethylpyrano(2',3':3,4)xanthone (7-O-methylclusiaxanthone), and an additional derivative was obtained from Z-{delta}-tocotrienoloic acid. The structures of these compounds were established based on data from {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (1D and 2D NMR), high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) and infrared spectroscopy. The clusiaxanthone and its derivative were able to control macrophage infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis amastigotes (IC{sub 50} = 66.9 and 57.4 {mu}M, respectively). The cytotoxicity of the compounds was assessed in BALB/c mouse peritoneal macrophages. (author)

  19. Leaf extract from Clusia nemorosa induces an antinociceptive effect in mice via a mechanism that is adrenergic systems dependent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jamylle Nunes de Souza Ferro; Juliane Pereira da Silva; Lucia Maria Conserva; Emiliano Barreto

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on the genus Clusia have shown anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects of the leaf extracts,but its antinociceptive activity has never been characterized.In the present study,the antinociceptive activity of the hexane extract of the leaves of Clusia nemorosa G.Mey,called HECn,was examined.Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing,formalin,and hot-plate tests.All experiments were carried out on male Swiss mice.The extract (1-400 mg·kg-1),given by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) 1 h prior to testing,produced a dose-dependent inhibition on the number of abdominal writhings,with an ID50 of 62 mg·kg-1.In addition,HECn was able to prevent the visceral pain induced by acetic acid in mice for at least 2 h.In the formalin test,HECn had no effect in the first phase,but produced an analgesic effect on the second phase with the inhibition of licking time.The HECn did not show a significant analgesic effect in the hot plate test.Pretreatment with yohimbine attenuated the antinociceptive effect induced by HECn in the writhing test.However,naloxone,atropine,or haloperidol did not affect antinociception induced by HECn in the writhing test.Together,these results indicate that the extract from the leaves of Clusia nemorosa produces antinociception in models of chemical pain through mechanisms that suggest participation of the adrenergic systems pathway.

  20. Climate-resilient agroforestry: physiological responses to climate change and engineering of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as a mitigation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Anne M; Wullschleger, Stan D; Weston, David J; Hartwell, James; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C

    2015-09-01

    Global climate change threatens the sustainability of agriculture and agroforestry worldwide through increased heat, drought, surface evaporation and associated soil drying. Exposure of crops and forests to warmer and drier environments will increase leaf:air water vapour-pressure deficits (VPD), and will result in increased drought susceptibility and reduced productivity, not only in arid regions but also in tropical regions with seasonal dry periods. Fast-growing, short-rotation forestry (SRF) bioenergy crops such as poplar (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) are particularly susceptible to hydraulic failure following drought stress due to their isohydric nature and relatively high stomatal conductance. One approach to sustaining plant productivity is to improve water-use efficiency (WUE) by engineering crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) into C3 crops. CAM improves WUE by shifting stomatal opening and primary CO2 uptake and fixation to the night-time when leaf:air VPD is low. CAM members of the tree genus Clusia exemplify the compatibility of CAM performance within tree species and highlight CAM as a mechanism to conserve water and maintain carbon uptake during drought conditions. The introduction of bioengineered CAM into SRF bioenergy trees is a potentially viable path to sustaining agroforestry production systems in the face of a globally changing climate.

  1. Larvas de insetos associadas a Clusia hilariana Schltdl. (Clusiaceae na Restinga de Jurubatiba, RJ, Brasil Insect larvae associated with Clusia hilariana Schltdl. (Clusiaceae in the Restinga de Jurubatiba, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Reis da Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Clusia hilariana é uma das espécies de plantas mais abundantes no Parque Nacional, desempenhando um papel importante na dinâmica sucessional desse ecossistema de restinga. Esse trabalho apresenta a composição e aspectos ecológicos das espécies de larvas de mariposas encontradas em C. hilariana. Em 40 plantas, mensalmente vistoriadas, foram obtidas quatorze espécies de lepidópteros. Chloropaschia granitalis foi a espécie de larva mais abundante alimentando-se nessa espécie de planta.Clusia hilariana is one of the most abundant plant species in the National Park playing important role at the sucessional dynamic of the restinga ecosystem. This paper presents the composition and ecological aspects of caterpillars species found on C. hilariana. From 40 plants monthy inspected, fourteen species of Lepidoptera were obtained. Chloropaschia granitalis (Pyralidae was the most abundant species feeding on this plant species.

  2. Early detection of injuries in leaves of Clusia hilariana Schltdl. (Clusiaceae caused by particulate deposition of iron

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    Diego Ismael Rocha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the prognostic value of microscopic parameters of asymptomatic leaves of Clusia hilariana Schltdl. subjected to particulate deposition of iron (2.14 mg cm-2 day-1 for 45 consecutive days. Samples of young and expanded leaves without symptoms were collected and subjected to light and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The height of the epidermal cells on both surfaces of the leaf and the thickness of the hypodermis, the chlorophyll parenchyma, and the leaf blade were measured. Micromorphological injury occurred in the abaxial surface of young leaves and on both surfaces of expanded leaves. Erosion of the epicuticular wax and cuticle rupture were frequent on the adaxial surface, while on the abaxial surface of both leaves there was a loss of sinuosity on the anticlinal wall of the epidermal cells, stomatal deformity and obstruction. Micromorphometric alterations were seen in all leaf tissues except in the height of epidermic cells, probably due to the thick cuticle and prominent cuticular flanges. The highest difference in thickness of the leaf blade was seen in young leaves of plants subjected to SPMFe, indicating greater sensibility to particulate iron in comparison to the expanded leaves. The micromorphological and micromorphometric alterations in the leaf blade of Clusia hilariana Schltdl. showed the prognostic potential of these tools on the evaluation of impacts caused by the deposition of particulate matter, especially in the 'Restinga' natural vegetation, where the exposure is increasing due to the presence of iron ore industry in their surroundings.

  3. Crassulacean acid metabolism enhances underwater photosynthesis and diminishes photorespiration in the aquatic plant Isoetes australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Rich, S.M.; Pulido Pérez, Cristina;

    2011-01-01

    Underwater photosynthesis by aquatic plants is often limited by low availability of CO2, and photorespiration can be high. Some aquatic plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis. The benefits of CAM for increased underwater photosynthesis and suppression of photorespiration...... were evaluated for Isoetes australis, a submerged plant that inhabits shallow temporary rock pools. • Leaves high or low in malate were evaluated for underwater net photosynthesis and apparent photorespiration at a range of CO2 and O2 concentrations. • CAM activity was indicated by 9.7-fold higher leaf...... malate at dawn, compared with at dusk, and also by changes in the titratable acidity (lmol H+ equivalents) of leaves. Leaves high in malate showed not only higher underwater net photosynthesis at low external CO2 concentrations but also lower apparent photorespiration. Suppression by CAM of apparent...

  4. Reintroducing Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, F.; Sanz, A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on conceptual difficulties related to photosynthesis and respiratory metabolism of a Plant Physiology course for undergraduate students that could hinder their better learning of metabolic processes. A survey of results obtained in this area during the last 10 academic years was performed, as well as a specific test, aimed to…

  5. Dramatic Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Britta

    2003-01-01

    Presents a creative way to teach photosynthesis. Revolves around the growth of a lily planted and stored in the classroom. Combines the concepts of particle theory, transformation, and changes of phase and mass in a holistic approach. The six-step teaching sequence is founded on the notions of challenge, variation, and drama. (Author/NB)

  6. VARIABLE-THROW CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsil, E.C.; Robinson, E.Y.

    1963-07-16

    A variable-throw cam comprising inner and outer eccentric sleeves which are adjustably locked together is described. The cam throw is varied by unlocking the inner and outer sleeves, rotating the outer sleeve relative to the inner one until the desired throw is obtained, and locking the sleeves together again. The cam is useful in applications wherein a continuously-variable throw is required, e.g., ram-and-die pressing operations, cyclic fatigue testing of materials, etc. (AEC)

  7. Evolution of a CAM anatomy predates the origins of Crassulacean acid metabolism in the Agavoideae (Asparagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyduk, Karolina; McKain, Michael R; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, James

    2016-12-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a modified form of photosynthesis that has arisen independently at least 35 times in flowering plants. The occurrence of CAM is often correlated with shifts to arid, semiarid, or epiphytic habits, as well as transitions in leaf morphology (e.g. increased leaf thickness) and anatomy (e.g. increased cell size and packing). We assess shifts between C3 and CAM photosynthesis in the subfamily Agavoideae (Asparagaceae) through phylogenetic analysis of targeted loci captured from the nuclear and chloroplast genomes of over 60 species. Carbon isotope data was used as a proxy for mode of photosynthesis in extant species and ancestral states were estimated on the phylogeny. Ancestral character state mapping suggests three independent origins of CAM in the Agavoideae. CAM species differ from C3 species in climate space and are found to have thicker leaves with densely packed cells. C3 ancestors of CAM species show a predisposition toward CAM-like morphology. Leaf characteristics in the ancestral C3 species may have enabled the repeated evolution of CAM in the Agavoideae subfamily. Anatomical changes, including a tendency toward 3D venation, may have initially arisen in C3 ancestors in response to aridity as a way to increase leaf succulence for water storage. PMID:27591171

  8. Holographic Photosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Aref'eva, Irina

    2016-01-01

    There are successful applications of the holographic AdS/CFT correspondence to high energy and condensed matter physics. We apply the holographic approach to photosynthesis that is an important example of nontrivial quantum phenomena relevant for life which is being studied in the emerging field of quantum biology. Light harvesting complexes of photosynthetic organisms are many-body quantum systems, in which quantum coherence has recently been experimentally shown to survive for relatively long time scales even at the physiological temperature despite the decohering effects of their environments. We use the holographic approach to evaluate the time dependence of entanglement entropy and quantum mutual information in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein-pigment complex in green sulfur bacteria during the transfer of an excitation from a chlorosome antenna to a reaction center. It is demonstrated that the time evolution of the mutual information simulating the Lindblad master equation in some cases can be obt...

  9. Biocontrol evaluation of extracts and a major component, clusianone, from Clusia fluminensisPlanch. & Triana againstAedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Anholeti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluated the effects of hexanic extracts from the fruits and flowers ofClusia fluminensis and the main component of the flower extract, a purified benzophenone (clusianone, against Aedes aegypti. The treatment of larvae with the crude fruit or flower extracts from C. fluminensis did not affect the survival ofAe. aegypti (50 mg/L, however, the flower extracts significantly delayed development of Ae. aegypti. In contrast, the clusianone (50 mg/L isolate from the flower extract, representing 54.85% of this sample composition, showed a highly significant inhibition of survival, killing 93.3% of the larvae and completely blocking development of Ae. aegypti. The results showed, for the first time, high activity of clusianone against Ae. aegypti that both killed and inhibited mosquito development. Therefore, clusianone has potential for development as a biopesticide for controlling insect vectors of tropical diseases. Future work will elucidate the mode of action of clusianone isolated from C. fluminensis.

  10. CAM and NK Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Takeda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that tumor development, outgrowth and metastasis are under the surveillance of the immune system. Although both innate and acquired immune systems play roles, innate immunity is the spearhead against tumors. Recent studies have revealed the critical role of natural killer (NK cells in immune surveillance and that NK cell activity is considerably influenced by various agents, such as environmental factors, stress, foods and drugs. Some of these NK cell stimulants have been used in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM since ancient times. Therefore, the value of CAM should be re-evaluated from this point of view. In this review, we overview the intimate correlation between NK cell functions and CAM agents, and discuss possible underlying mechanisms mediating this. In particular, neuro-immune crosstalk and receptors for CAM agents are the most important and interesting candidates for such mechanisms.

  11. Caracterización por cromatografía de gases/espectrometría de masas del extracto apolar de las hojas de Clusia minor L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mangas Marín, Raisa; Montes de Oca Porto, Rodny; Bello Alarcón, Adonis; Nival Vázquez Lavín, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    El estudio de la composición química de la fracción apolar de las hojas de la especie Clusia minor L. con el empleo de la Cromatografía de Gases/Espectrometría de Masas, permitió el aislamiento e identificación de 25 compuestos, en su mayoría, terpenoides y esteroides, volátiles y otros. Un gran número de estos constituyen nuevos reportes para la especie. El sitosterol y el estigmasterol, el lupeol y la α-amirina fueron, respectivamente, los esteroides y triterpenos más abundantes. Co...

  12. THE GENESIS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS TYPES AS THE BASIS OF ECOLOGICAL EXPANSION OF HALOPHYTIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyurko O.Ye.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis types are considerably differed by CO2 absorption intensity, its biochemistry, saturation level, water productivity, biological productivity, and other different features, which secure the plants survival at stress and extreme conditions. The aim of current research was to discover the photosynthesis peculiarities at halophytic plants species (Salicornia europaea L., Halimione pedunculata, Artemisia santonica L., Plantago lanceolata L. by salinity at model and natural conditions, and to generalize data in historical aspect. It was constituted that S. europaea L. was characterized by C3 photosynthesis passage which was switched on CAM CO2 fixation under soil salinity conditions till 4-4,5 %, but glycophyte A.santonica was immanent C4assimilation way of aspartate type.Analysis of literature data and own research allows to find out that in majority the C3photosynthesis dependence from environmental factors described by determinate curve with matched mathematical expression. It was suggested to generalize the data by Lagrange polynomial. The obtained results proved that the pattern of photosynthesis evolution is: C3 → C4 → CAM with commute possibilities: C3 → CAM; C4 → CAM.

  13. PreCam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allam, Sahar S. [Fermilab; Tucker, Douglas L. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) will be taking the next step in probing the properties of Dark Energy and in understanding the physics of cosmic acceleration. A step towards the photometric calibration of DES is to have a quick, bright survey in the DES footprint (PreCam), using a pre-production set of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) CCDs and a set of 100 mm×100 mm DES filters. The objective of the PreCam Survey is to create a network of calibrated DES grizY standard stars that will be used for DES nightly calibrations and to improve the DES global relative calibrations. Here, we describe the first year of PreCam observation, results, and photometric calibrations.

  14. CAMS achievements in 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Oe.; Fantoni, P.; Iguchi, Y.; Meyer, G.; Soerensen, A.; Dyck, C. van

    1996-01-01

    CAMS (Computerized Accident Management Support) is a system being developed as a joint research activity at the Halden Reactor Project with additional financing from the Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) and the Nordic NKS/RAK-2 project. Three types of users are envisaged: the staff in the control room, the staff in the technical support centre and the staff at a national emergency centre. It is still an experimental system. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate kindly accepted to test CAMS at a safety exercise on the 4th of May, 1995. CAMS is designed assuming automatic data transfer from the plant. Missing the data link, a simulator running in the next room was updated now and then with data received by phone. As seen from CAMS, it did not matter if the data came from a fake plant or from a real plant, except that the data were delayed. Overall, it seemed that CAMS can be a very important tool for a national authority. A data link from the plant would increase its usefulness. Several comments on design features were collected and will be used to improve the system. The model needs more inputs to control the main parameters, and a larger repertoire of fault conditions should be put into the model. In the second half of 1995 the work on CAMS has concentrated upon designing new modules for signal validation, tracking simulation and state identification. This will provide better capabilities for on-line monitoring and assessment of the plant state. Further, it has been proposed to introduce Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) to assist in risk monitoring. A first prototype has been made on a personal computer showing the main features of such a PSA module. (au).

  15. Australia lacks stem succulents but is it depauperate in plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtum, Joseph Am; Hancock, Lillian P; Edwards, Erika J; Crisp, Michael D; Crayn, Darren M; Sage, Rowan; Winter, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    In the flora of Australia, the driest vegetated continent, crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), the most water-use efficient form of photosynthesis, is documented in only 0.6% of native species. Most are epiphytes and only seven terrestrial. However, much of Australia is unsurveyed, and carbon isotope signature, commonly used to assess photosynthetic pathway diversity, does not distinguish between plants with low-levels of CAM and C3 plants. We provide the first census of CAM for the Australian flora and suggest that the real frequency of CAM in the flora is double that currently known, with the number of terrestrial CAM species probably 10-fold greater. Still unresolved is the question why the large stem-succulent life - form is absent from the native Australian flora even though exotic large cacti have successfully invaded and established in Australia. PMID:27088716

  16. DISTRIBUCIÓN VERTICAL DE ARAÑAS ASOCIADAS A Quercus humboldtii Y Clusia spp. EN EL SANTUARIO DE FAUNA Y FLORA IGUAQUE, COLOMBIA Vertical Distribution of Spiders Associated to Quercus humboldtii and Clusia spp. at Sanctuary of Fauna and Flora Iguaque, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA VANEGAS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la distribución vertical de arañas asociadas a árboles de Quercus humboldtii y Clusia spp. con diferentes modelos arquitecturales en el Santuario de Fauna y Flora Iguaque, Colombia. Se seleccionaron árboles de cada modelo arquitectural, estratificándolos verticalmente cada tres metros desde la base hasta el dosel. Se realizaron colectas en cada estrato por 20 minutos durante el día y en la noche. También se tomaron muestras en la parcela aledaña (4 m². Se colectaron 1261 individuos pertenecientes a 104 morfoespecies y 20 familias; las familias más frecuentes fueron Theridiidae, Salticidae, Araneidae, Linyphiidae, Anyphaenidae y Theridiosomatidae. Se encontraron diferencias en la distribución vertical de arañas en cuanto a la abundancia, la riqueza, la composición, la distribución de sexos y las épocas climáticas atribuibles a las arquitecturas vegetales y a su estratificación. Clusia presentó la comunidad de arañas más diversa, Quercus la de mayor dominancia. La composición estuvo influida por las lluvias, el período del día y la disponibilidad de soportes vegetales.The vertical distribution of spiders associated to trees of Quercus humboldtii and Clusia spp. with different architectural model, was studied at Sanctuary of Fauna and Flora of Iguaque; for this, we selected trees of each architectural model, stratified them each three m in high starting at the base to the canopy of the tree. We took samples in each stratus for 20 min during the day and at night. Also, we took samples in the nearest ground plot (4 m². We collected 1,261 specimens of 104 morphospecies and 20 families. The most frequent families were Theridiidae, Salticidae, Araneidae, Linyphiidae, Anyphaenidae, and Theridiosomatidae. We observed differences in the spiders' vertical distribution in abundance, richness, composition, time period, and sex ratio, all of them attributable to plant architectures and its stratification. Clusia spider

  17. Hydraulic involute cam actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Lonnie J.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-11-01

    Mechanical joints are provided in which the angle between a first coupled member and a second coupled member may be varied by mechanical actuators. In some embodiments the angle may be varied around a pivot axis in one plane and in some embodiments the angle may be varied around two pivot axes in two orthogonal planes. The joints typically utilize a cam assembly having two lobes with an involute surface. Actuators are configured to push against the lobes to vary the rotation angle between the first and second coupled member.

  18. Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuijs, H.N.C.

    2016-01-01

    Keywords: CO2 diffusion, C3 photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance, mesophyll resistance, re-assimilation, photorespiration, respiration, tomato Herman Nicolaas Cornelis Berghuijs (2016). Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis; unravelling the CO2 diffusion pathway in C3 leaves. PhD thesis. Wageningen Unive

  19. Optimisation Methods for Cam Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia–Mari Popa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the criteria which represent the base of optimizing the cam mechanisms and also we perform the calculations for several types of mechanisms. We study the influence of the constructive parameters in case of the simple machines with rotation cam and follower (flat or curve of translation on the curvature radius and that of the transmission angle. As it follows, we present the optimization calculations of the cam and flat rotation follower mechanisms, as well as the calculations for optimizing the cam mechanisms by circular groove followers’ help. For an easier interpretation of the results, we have visualized the obtained cam in AutoCAD according to the script files generated by a calculation program.

  20. The Evolution of Photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Review was written by Engelbert Broda, an Austrian Chemist and Physicist, on February the 10th 1976. The merits of the inductive and the deductive approach in tracing the pathways of evolution are discussed. Using the latter approach, it is concluded that photosynthesis followed fermentation as a method of obtaining energy-rich compounds, especially ATP. Photosynthesis probably arose by utilization of membranes for bioenergetic processes. Originally photosynthesis served photophosphorylation (ATP production), later reducing power was also made, either by open-ended, light-powered, electron flow or driven by ATP; ultimate electron donors were at first hydrogen or sulfur compounds, and later water, the last-named capability Was acquired by prokaryotic algae the earliest plants, similar to the recent blue-greens. When free oxygen entered the atmosphere for the first time, various forms of respiration (oxidative phosphorylation) became possible. Mechanistically, respiration evolved from photosynthesis (‘conversion hypotheses’). Prokaryotic algae are probably the ancestors of the chloroplasts in the eukaryotes, In the evolution of the eukaryotes, not much change in the basic processes of photosynthesis occurred.(author)

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of Drought-Tolerant CAM plants Agave deserti and Agave tequilana

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Agaves are succulent monocotyledonous plants native to hot and arid environments of North America. Because of their adaptations to their environment, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM, a water-efficient form of photosynthesis) and existing technologies for ethanol production, agaves have gained attention both as potential lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstocks and models for exploring plant responses to abiotic stress. However, the lack of comprehensive Agave sequence datasets limits ...

  2. De novo transcriptome assembly of drought tolerant CAM plants, Agave deserti and Agave tequilana

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Stephen M.; Martin, Jeffrey A.; Simpson, June; Abraham-Juarez, María Jazmín; Wang, Zhong; Visel, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Background Agaves are succulent monocotyledonous plants native to xeric environments of North America. Because of their adaptations to their environment, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM, a water-efficient form of photosynthesis), and existing technologies for ethanol production, agaves have gained attention both as potential lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstocks and models for exploring plant responses to abiotic stress. However, the lack of comprehensive Agave sequence datasets li...

  3. Operation of the Xanthophyll Cycle and Degradation of D1 Protein in the Inducible CAM plant, Talinum triangulare, under Water Deficit

    OpenAIRE

    PIETERS, ALEJANDRO J.; Tezara, Wilmer; Herrera, Ana

    2003-01-01

    Changes in photochemical activity induced by water deficit were investigated in Talinum triangulare, an inducible CAM plant. The aim was to analyse the interactions between C3 photosynthesis, induction and activity of CAM, photosynthetic energy regulation and the mechanisms responsible for photoprotection and photoinhibition under water stress. Gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, titratable acidity, carotenoid composition and relative contents of the PSII reaction centre protein (D1) we...

  4. Photosynthesis of leaf canopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.

    1965-01-01

    The development of a procedure to calculate the effect of certain environmental factors on the rate of photo-synthesis imposed mainly geometrical problems, which were solved in such a way that the actual calculation could be carried out by means of a computer. The calculation procedures have been us

  5. Teaching Photosynthesis with ELL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Susan; Shaw, Edward Lewis, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Although the teaching of photosynthesis occurs yearly in elementary classrooms, one thing that makes it challenging is the inclusion of English language learners (ELLs). This article presents several activities for teaching and assessing of photosynthesis in a third grade classroom. The activities incorporate the photosynthesis content, teaching…

  6. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  7. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Go Back Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Email Print + Share Crohn’s disease and ulcerative ... Energy Medicine, and Biologically-Based Practices. Mind-Body Medicine Mind-body medicine is a set of interventions ...

  8. The detection of EpCAM(+) and EpCAM(-) circulating tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Sanne; van Dalum, Guus; Lenferink, Aufried T. M.; Tibbe, Arjan G. J.; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.; Groen, Harry J. M.; van Rijn, Cees J. M.; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM(+) CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM(-) CTC discarded by CellSearch, after EpCAM based

  9. The Z CamPaign: Year Five

    CERN Document Server

    Simonsen, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Entering into the fifth year of the Z CamPaign, the author has developed a website summarizing our findings which will also act as a living catalog of bona fide Z Cam stars, suspected Z Cams and Z Cam impostors. In this paper we summarize the findings of the first four years of research, introduce the website and its contents to the public and discuss the way forward into year five and beyond.

  10. The detection of EpCAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, De Sanne; Dalum, Van Guus; Lenferink, Aufried T.M.; Tibbe, Arjan G.J.; Hiltermann, T.J.N.; Groen, Harry J.M.; Rijn, Van C.J.M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM+ CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM- CTC discarded by CellSear

  11. New Concept of Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komissarov Gennadiy Germanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of the formation of a new concept of photosynthesis proposed by the author is considered for the period since 1966 to 2013. Its essence consists in the following facts: the photosynthetic oxygen (hydrogen source is not water, but exo- and endogenous hydrogen peroxide; thermal energy is a necessary part of the photosynthetic process; along with the carbon dioxide the air (oxygen, inert gases is included in the photosynthetic equation. The mechanism of the photovoltaic (Becquerel effect in films of chlorophyll and its synthetic analogue - phthalocyanine are briefly touched upon in the article. The article presents the works on artificial photosynthesis performed in the laboratory of Photobionics of N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, RAS.

  12. New Concept of Photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Komissarov Gennadiy Germanovich

    2014-01-01

    The history of the formation of a new concept of photosynthesis proposed by the author is considered for the period since 1966 to 2013. Its essence consists in the following facts: the photosynthetic oxygen (hydrogen) source is not water, but exo- and endogenous hydrogen peroxide; thermal energy is a necessary part of the photosynthetic process; along with the carbon dioxide the air (oxygen, inert gases) is included in the photosynthetic equation. The mechanism of the photovoltaic (Becquerel)...

  13. Carotenoids and Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Uragami, Chiasa; Cogdell, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are ubiquitous and essential pigments in photosynthesis. They absorb in the blue-green region of the solar spectrum and transfer the absorbed energy to (bacterio-)chlorophylls, and so expand the wavelength range of light that is able to drive photosynthesis. This is an example of singlet-singlet energy transfer, and so carotenoids serve to enhance the overall efficiency of photosynthetic light reactions. Carotenoids also act to protect photosynthetic organisms from the harmful effects of excess exposure to light. Triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophylls to carotenoids plays a key role in this photoprotective reaction. In the light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes from purple photosynthetic bacteria and chlorophytes, carotenoids have an additional role of structural stabilization of those complexes. In this article we review what is currently known about how carotenoids discharge these functions. The molecular architecture of photosynthetic systems will be outlined first to provide a basis from which to describe carotenoid photochemistry, which underlies most of their important functions in photosynthesis. PMID:27485220

  14. Carotenoids and Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Uragami, Chiasa; Cogdell, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are ubiquitous and essential pigments in photosynthesis. They absorb in the blue-green region of the solar spectrum and transfer the absorbed energy to (bacterio-)chlorophylls, and so expand the wavelength range of light that is able to drive photosynthesis. This is an example of singlet-singlet energy transfer, and so carotenoids serve to enhance the overall efficiency of photosynthetic light reactions. Carotenoids also act to protect photosynthetic organisms from the harmful effects of excess exposure to light. Triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophylls to carotenoids plays a key role in this photoprotective reaction. In the light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes from purple photosynthetic bacteria and chlorophytes, carotenoids have an additional role of structural stabilization of those complexes. In this article we review what is currently known about how carotenoids discharge these functions. The molecular architecture of photosynthetic systems will be outlined first to provide a basis from which to describe carotenoid photochemistry, which underlies most of their important functions in photosynthesis.

  15. Measuring and modelling ecosystem productivity: a PhenoCam-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufkens, K.; Keenan, T. F.; Flanagan, L. B.; Richardson, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Phenology controls feedbacks to the climate system through abiotic and biotic forces such as albedo or fluxes of water, energy and CO2. Understanding and modelling these vegetation-climate feedbacks is key to accurately predicting a future climate. For the past 6 years the PhenoCam network, a network of near-surface remote sensing cameras, has consistently monitored vegetation phenology in a wide range of ecoregions, climate zones, and plant functional types. Here we explore the tight coupling between canopy greenness and rates of photosynthesis using two studies. A first study highlights how PhenoCam data can be used to quantify the effect of a late spring frost event on ecosystem productivity, introducing a 7-14% loss in annual gross productivity across 8753 km2 in the northeastern United States. This case study emphasizes the use of the PhenoCam data in estimating productivity loss / the opportunity cost of ecosystem disturbance in areas not covered by ecosystem flux measurement equipment. In a more recent, second, study we developed a PhenoCam data-informed pulse-response model of grassland growth to explore potential responses of grasslands to future climate change across North America. Our findings projected widespread and consistent increase in grassland productivity (for the current range of grassland ecosystems of North American) over the coming century, despite a general increase in aridity projected across most of our study area. Once more PhenoCam data allowed us to inform our modelling efforts with data of a high temporal and spatial resolution. In conclusion, both studies illustrate direct applications of the ever growing PhenoCam network (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu/webcam/) in scaling the effects of ecosystem disturbances, predicting future ecosystem productivity and underscore the complementary nature of PhenoCam data with ecosystem exchange measurements.

  16. Photosynthesis: 1900-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    During the second half of the 19th century Julius von Sachs established the main principles of the photosynthetic production of sugars. From then, a growing number of biochemists and physiologists attended to the process, that appeared like a "black box", in order to detect what came in and what went out of it. The English group of Frederick Blackman gave a remarkable contribution in individuating the close connection between temperature, light and CO2 concentration. Later, the great importance of light was stressed by Otto Warburg, who evaluated the radiant energy necessary to the process in terms of quantum theory. The biochemical mechanism of photosynthesis was interpreted by the main European schools on the basis of Adolf Baeyer's suggestion which posed formaldehyde as the core of the process. Formaldehyde's theory hold engaged the biochemists for about fifty years although some voices rose up against it. However, nobody could put forward more coherent theories until the 1940s, when Sam Ruben and Martin Kamen individuated the cyclic pattern of the process. Ultimately, the first thirty years of the 20th century must be seen as a preliminary stage studded with light and shade even if, in spite of controversial trends, several findings of remarkable interest became to disclose that "black box" as we know today chlorophyll photosynthesis. PMID:18278741

  17. Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Woodward W.; Hemp, James; Johnson, Jena E.

    2016-06-01

    The origin of oxygenic photosynthesis was the most important metabolic innovation in Earth history. It allowed life to generate energy and reducing power directly from sunlight and water, freeing it from the limited resources of geochemically derived reductants. This greatly increased global primary productivity and restructured ecosystems. The release of O2 as an end product of water oxidation led to the rise of oxygen, which dramatically altered the redox state of Earth's atmosphere and oceans and permanently changed all major biogeochemical cycles. Furthermore, the biological availability of O2 allowed for the evolution of aerobic respiration and novel biosynthetic pathways, facilitating much of the richness we associate with modern biology, including complex multicellularity. Here we critically review and synthesize information from the geological and biological records for the origin and evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Data from both of these archives illustrate that this metabolism first appeared in early Paleoproterozoic time and, despite its biogeochemical prominence, is a relatively late invention in the context of our planet's history.

  18. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently. PMID:26706059

  19. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently.

  20. Carbon partitioning in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Anastasios

    2013-06-01

    The work seeks to raise awareness of a fundamental problem that impacts the renewable generation of fuels and chemicals via (photo)synthetic biology. At issue is regulation of the endogenous cellular carbon partitioning between different biosynthetic pathways, over which the living cell exerts stringent control. The regulation of carbon partitioning in photosynthesis is not understood. In plants, microalgae and cyanobacteria, methods need be devised to alter photosynthetic carbon partitioning between the sugar, terpenoid, and fatty acid biosynthetic pathways, to lower the prevalence of sugar biosynthesis and correspondingly upregulate terpenoid and fatty acid hydrocarbons production in the cell. Insight from unusual but naturally occurring carbon-partitioning processes can help in the design of blueprints for improved photosynthetic fuels and chemicals production.

  1. Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Young

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System and its application to emergency response involving chemical, biological or radiological contamination. The Idaho National Laboratory designed the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System to assist the National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction - Civil Support Teams during their mission of emergency response to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction. The lightweight, handheld camera transmits encrypted, real-time video from inside a contaminated area, or hot-zone, to a command post located a safe distance away. The system includes a small wireless video camera, a true-diversity receiver, viewing console, and an optional extension link that allows the command post to be placed up to five miles from danger. It can be fully deployed by one person in a standalone configuration in less than 10 minutes. The complete system is battery powered. Each rechargeable camera battery powers the camera for 3 hours with the receiver and video monitor battery lasting 22 hours on a single charge. The camera transmits encrypted, low frequency analog video signals to a true-diversity receiver with three antennas. This unique combination of encryption and transmission technologies delivers encrypted, interference-free images to the command post under conditions where other wireless systems fail. The lightweight camera is completely waterproof for quick and easy decontamination after use. The Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System is currently being used by several National Guard Teams, the US Army, and by fire fighters. The system has been proven to greatly enhance situational awareness during the crucial, initial phase of a hazardous response allowing commanders to make better, faster, safer decisions.

  2. CAD/CAM-prosessin kuvaus

    OpenAIRE

    Aho, Arto

    2014-01-01

    Työssä selvitettiin CAD/CAM-prosessin toiminta ja datan liikkuminen eri järjestelmien välillä. Teoriassa perehdyttiin tuotetietojen ja muutostenhallintaan sekä järjestelmien integrointiin. Siemens PLM -järjestelmästä esitellään valmistusprosessin suunnitteluun ja hallintaan tarkoitettuja sovelluksia. Työssä käsitellään muutoksenhallintaa järjestelmien välillä sekä nopeiden muutosten aikaansaamat hyödyt prosessissa ja integraation tuomat edut virheiden ja kustannusten vähentämisessä. Työssä...

  3. CAD/CAM-ohjelmiston valinta

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Sanna

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön toimeksianto tuli Helasteel Oy:ltä. Työn sisältö koostuu sopivan CAM-ohjelmiston etsimisestä Helasteelille sekä niiden perusteiden selvittämisestä, jotka vaikuttavat ohjelmiston valintaan. Kolmea eri ohjelmistotoimittajaa pyydettiin esittelemään tuotteitaan Helasteelille. Näistä ohjelmistoista valittiin sopivin yrityksen työstämät kappaleet ja tuotanto huomioon ottaen. Prosessin jälkeen päädyttiin Wincam-ohjelmistoon, joka vastasi parhaiten Helasteelin vaatimuksiin niin omina...

  4. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Donate Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) WHAT IS A THYROID NODULE? The term ... type of evaluation. WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  5. RESEARCH ON STRAIGHTENING TECHNOLOGY CAM SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Automatic straightening process is a nonlinear process, and affected by many factors.The straightening technology CAM system has been designed and built up to straighten shafts, which mainly consists of the straightening technology's database and the model of stroke-controlled precise straightening calculation model.The operational test of the CAM system has been passed.

  6. Onzichtbare beugels dankzij CAD-CAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R. de Winter

    2011-01-01

    De introductie van de cad-cam-techniek in de tandheelkunde heeft in de orthodontie geleid tot het orthodontisch verplaatsen van gebitselementen met een serie opeenvolgende dieptrekplaten, ontworpen en gefabriceerd met behulp van cad-cam. Daarbij is iedere plaat een kleine stap in de richting van de

  7. Dark states in quantum photosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyrev, S V

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a model of quantum photosynthesis with degeneracy in the light-harvesting system. We consider interaction of excitons in chromophores with light and phonons (vibrations of environment). These interactions have dipole form but are different (are related to non-parallel vectors of "bright" states). We show that this leads to excitation of non-decaying "dark" states. We discuss relation of this model to the known from spectroscopical experiments phenomenon of existence of photonic echo in quantum photosynthesis.

  8. Growth and photosynthesis of lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Holsteijn, van, H.M.C.

    1981-01-01

    Butterhead lettuce is an important glass-house crop in the poor light period in The Netherlands. Fundamental data about the influence of temperature, light and CO 2 on growth and photosynthesis are important e.g. to facilitate selection criteria for new cultivars. In this study on lettuce emphasis has been given to light interception in the poor light period, the relationship of growth rate and relative growth rate with time, dry weight and soil cover, and to photosynthesis properties of the ...

  9. Prokaryotic photosynthesis and phototrophy illuminated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryant, Donald A; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    Genome sequencing projects are revealing new information about the distribution and evolution of photosynthesis and phototrophy. Although coverage of the five phyla containing photosynthetic prokaryotes (Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes) is limited and uneven......, genome sequences are (or soon will be) available for >100 strains from these phyla. Present knowledge of photosynthesis is almost exclusively based on data derived from cultivated species but metagenomic studies can reveal new organisms with novel combinations of photosynthetic and phototrophic...

  10. CAM Stochastic Volatility Model for Option Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupled additive and multiplicative (CAM noises model is a stochastic volatility model for derivative pricing. Unlike the other stochastic volatility models in the literature, the CAM model uses two Brownian motions, one multiplicative and one additive, to model the volatility process. We provide empirical evidence that suggests a nontrivial relationship between the kurtosis and skewness of asset prices and that the CAM model is able to capture this relationship, whereas the traditional stochastic volatility models cannot. We introduce a control variate method and Monte Carlo estimators for some of the sensitivities (Greeks of the model. We also derive an approximation for the characteristic function of the model.

  11. Cad/cam-tekniikan kannattavuus hammastekniikassa

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnunen, Vilho

    2012-01-01

    Hammaslaboratorioissa tehdään cad/cam-tekniikalla kiinteän protetiikan töitä. Opinnäytetyössäni tarkastelen, kuinka kannattavaa on valmistaa jyrsintekniikalla kiinteän protetiikan valmisteita. Selvitän millainen cad/cam-tekniikkaa käyttävä yritys pitää olla, jotta se on kannattava. Opinnäytetyöni aineiston keruun tein haastattelemalla cad/cam tekniikkaa ja perinteistä tekniikkaa käyttävien hammaslaboratorioiden omistajia. Haastattelun toteutin teemahaastatteluna. Kehitin laajuuskäsitteen,...

  12. A CAD/CAM interface for computer-aided design of cams

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Ashit R.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide a complete package for the design and three dimensional modeling display of cams. The software produced as a part of this work will operate as a module of CADAM to produce cam designs and enter the resulting cam as a CAD model and produce the graphical display of the cam. In addition to the introductory material, this thesis is divided into four sections. The section on the graphics packages used in this thesis includes a b...

  13. AFSC/FMA/CAMS Data Objects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CAMS system consists of a set of tables and packages that provide authentication services to all other North Pacific Groundfish and Halibut Observing Program...

  14. Model Documentation for the MiniCAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Smith, Steven J.; Kim, Son H.; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2003-07-17

    The MiniCAM, short for the Mini-Climate Assessment Model, is an integrated assessment model of moderate complexity focused on energy and agriculture sectors. The model produces emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) and other radiatively important substances such as sulfur dioxide. Through incorporation of the simple climate model MAGICC, the consequences of these emissions for climate change and sea-level rise can be examined. The MiniCAM is designed to be fast and flexible.

  15. Radiometric Calibration for AgCam

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Hildum; Lianbo Hu; Hojin Kim; Xiaodong Zhang; Changyong Dou; Doug Olsen

    2010-01-01

    The student-built Agricultural Camera (AgCam) now onboard the International Space Station observes the Earth surface through two linescan cameras with Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) arrays sensitive to visible and near-infrared wavelengths, respectively. The electro-optical components of the AgCam were characterized using precision calibration equipment; a method for modeling and applying these measurements was derived. Correction coefficients to minimize effects of optical vignetting, CCD non-u...

  16. Chiropractic and CAM Utilization: A Descriptive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeker William C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To conduct a descriptive review of the scientific literature examining use rates of modalities and procedures used by CAM clinicians to manage chronic LBP and other conditions Data Sources A literature of PubMed and MANTIS was performed using the key terms Chiropractic; Low Back Pain; Utilization Rate; Use Rate; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; and Health Services in various combinations. Data Selection A total of 137 papers were selected, based upon including information about chiropractic utilization, CAM utilization and low back pain and other conditions. Data Synthesis Information was extracted from each paper addressing use of chiropractic and CAM, and is summarized in tabular form. Results Thematic analysis of the paper topics indicated that there were 5 functional areas covered by the literature: back pain papers, general chiropractic papers, insurance-related papers, general CAM-related papers; and worker's compensation papers. Conclusion Studies looking at chiropractic utilization demonstrate that the rates vary, but generally fall into a range from around 6% to 12% of the population, most of whom seek chiropractic care for low back pain and not for organic disease or visceral dysfunction. CAM is itself used by people suffering from a variety of conditions, though it is often used not as a primary intervention, but rather as an additional form of care. CAM and chiropractic often offer lower costs for comparable results compared to conventional medicine.

  17. Statistical Shape Modeling of Cam Femoroacetabular Impingement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Michael D.; Dater, Manasi; Whitaker, Ross; Jurrus, Elizabeth R.; Peters, Christopher L.; Anderson, Andrew E.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, statistical shape modeling (SSM) was used to quantify three-dimensional (3D) variation and morphologic differences between femurs with and without cam femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). 3D surfaces were generated from CT scans of femurs from 41 controls and 30 cam FAI patients. SSM correspondence particles were optimally positioned on each surface using a gradient descent energy function. Mean shapes for control and patient groups were defined from the resulting particle configurations. Morphological differences between group mean shapes and between the control mean and individual patients were calculated. Principal component analysis was used to describe anatomical variation present in both groups. The first 6 modes (or principal components) captured statistically significant shape variations, which comprised 84% of cumulative variation among the femurs. Shape variation was greatest in femoral offset, greater trochanter height, and the head-neck junction. The mean cam femur shape protruded above the control mean by a maximum of 3.3 mm with sustained protrusions of 2.5-3.0 mm along the anterolateral head-neck junction and distally along the anterior neck, corresponding well with reported cam lesion locations and soft-tissue damage. This study provides initial evidence that SSM can describe variations in femoral morphology in both controls and cam FAI patients and may be useful for developing new measurements of pathological anatomy. SSM may also be applied to characterize cam FAI severity and provide templates to guide patient-specific surgical resection of bone.

  18. The paleobiological record of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Fossil evidence of photosynthesis, documented in Precambrian sediments by microbially laminated stromatolites, cyanobacterial microscopic fossils, and carbon isotopic data consistent with the presence of Rubisco-mediated CO2-fixation, extends from the present to ~3,500 million years ago. Such data, however, do not resolve time of origin of O2-producing photoautotrophy from its anoxygenic, bacterial, evolutionary precursor. Though it is well established that Earth’s ecosystem has been based on autotrophy since its very early stages, the time of origin of oxygenic photosynthesis, more than 2,450 million years ago, has yet to be established. PMID:20607406

  19. The paleobiological record of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Schopf, J

    2011-01-01

    Fossil evidence of photosynthesis, documented in Precambrian sediments by microbially laminated stromatolites, cyanobacterial microscopic fossils, and carbon isotopic data consistent with the presence of Rubisco-mediated CO2-fixation, extends from the present to ~3,500 million years ago. Such data, however, do not resolve time of origin of O2-producing photoautotrophy from its anoxygenic, bacterial, evolutionary precursor. Though it is well established that Earth's ecosystem has been based on autotrophy since its very early stages, the time of origin of oxygenic photosynthesis, more than 2,450 million years ago, has yet to be established.

  20. Techniques in studies of photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of both stable and radioactive isotopes has led to major advances in the understanding of the basic mechanisms of photosynthesis. An early use of isotopic material in photosynthetic investigations was the demonstration using 18O, that O2 evolved in photosynthesis was derived from water rather than from CO2. When the long-lived isotope of carbon, 14C, became available in 1945, its use, coupled with two-dimensional chromatography developed a few years earlier, enabled Calvin and Benson (1948) to devise experiments to elucidate the pathway of photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation, 12 refs, 6 figs, 10 tabs

  1. Growth and photosynthesis of lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holsteijn, van H.M.C.

    1981-01-01

    Butterhead lettuce is an important glass-house crop in the poor light period in The Netherlands. Fundamental data about the influence of temperature, light and CO 2 on growth and photosynthesis are important e.g. to facilitate selection criteria for new cultivars. In this study on lettuce

  2. Studying Photosynthesis by Measuring Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jose Francisco; Quiles, Maria Jose

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an easy experiment to study the absorption and action spectrum of photosynthesis, as well as the inhibition by heat, high light intensity and the presence of the herbicide 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) on the photosynthetic process. The method involves measuring the chlorophyll fluorescence emitted by intact…

  3. Assessing Photosynthesis by Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Pedro; Quiles, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    This practical paper describes a novel fluorescence imaging experiment to study the three processes of photochemistry, fluorescence and thermal energy dissipation, which compete during the dissipation of excitation energy in photosynthesis. The technique represents a non-invasive tool for revealing and understanding the spatial heterogeneity in…

  4. Vertical distribution of pelagic photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsgaard, Maren Moltke

    As phytoplankton photosynthesis is dependent on light, one might assume that all the phytoplankton activity occurs in the surface of our oceans. This assumption was, however, challenged early in the history of biological oceanography when chlorophyll sampling and fluorescence profiling showed deep...

  5. Injecting Inquiry into Photosynthesis Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Irene; Smith, Rebecca; Nielsen, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    This is the story of how a typical middle school lab was transformed into an open-ended inquiry experience through a few small, but very powerful, changes. By allowing students to follow their own questions, the classroom filled with enthusiasm and students learned much more about photosynthesis, respiration, and the scientific processes. The…

  6. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Larry W.; Way, J. Douglas; Vlasse, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    The objective of CAM is to develop, test, and analyze thin film membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications that will operate in extraterrestrial environments and support future unmanned and human space missions. A primary application is the Sabatier Electrolysis process that uses Mars atmosphere CO2 as raw material for producing water, oxygen, and methane for rocket fuel and habitat support. Other applications include use as an inlet filter to collect and concentrate Mars atmospheric argon and nitrogen gases for habitat pressurization, and to remove CO2 from breathing gases in Closed Environment Life Support Systems (CELSS). CAM membrane materials include crystalline faujasite (FAU) zeolite and rubbery polymers such as silicone rubber (PDMS) that have been shown in the literature and via molecular simulation to favor adsorption and permeation of CO2 over nitrogen and argon. Pure gas permeation tests using commercial PDMS membranes have shown that both CO2 permeance and the separation factor relative to other gases increase as the temperature decreases, and low (Delta)P(Sub CO2) favors higher separation factors. The ideal CO2/N2 separation factor increases from 7.5 to 17.5 as temperature decreases from 22 C to -30 C. For gas mixtures containing CO2, N2, and Ar, plasticization decreased the separation factors from 4.5 to 6 over the same temperature range. We currently synthesize and test our own Na(+) FAU zeolite membranes using standard formulations and secondary growth methods on porous alumina. Preliminary tests with a Na(+) FAU membrane at 22 C show a He/SF6 ideal separation factor of 62, exceeding the Knudsen diffusion selectivity by an order of magnitude. This shows that the membrane is relatively free from large defects and associated non-selective (viscous flow) transport

  7. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, M.

    1949-06-30

    This paper is a compilation of the essential results of our experimental work in the determination of the path of carbon in photosynthesis. There are discussions of the dark fixation of photosynthesis and methods of separation and identification including paper chromatography and radioautography. The definition of the path of carbon in photosynthesis by the distribution of radioactivity within the compounds is described.

  8. Transparency in Dutch CAM practices: a comparison between CAM and GP physicians.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.; Dulmen, S. van

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: CAM (Complementary and Alternative Medicine) is increasing worldwide because the demand is growing. Transparency is needed to provide more objective information about CAM services, to date largely unknown by a majority of care users and mainstream care providers. Despite the fact that

  9. Isolation of a cDNA for a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from a monocot CAM-plant, Aloe arborescens: structure and its gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, H; Okamoto, T; Shimada, H

    1996-09-01

    A phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) cDNA was isolated from Aloe arborescens, a monocot CAM plant. Northern analysis of the PEPCase transcript indicated that it is specifically expressed in green leaves, strongly suggesting its involvement in CAM photosynthesis. No diurnal change in expression level was evident. Western blot analysis also showed no alteration of the amount of the PEPCase protein. These results suggest that circadian rhythm in PEPCase activity may be regulated post-translationally. The representative cDNA clone contained an ORF encoding 964 amino acid residues. Deduced amino acid sequence of the aloe PEPCase is highly conserved as compared with other PEPCases. The phosphorylation site which may be modified by PEPC-kinase was conserved. An evolutional map with known PEPCases suggested that CAM-type PEPCases were located between C4 and housekeeping PEPCases. PMID:8888625

  10. Characterization of SynCAM surface trafficking using a SynCAM derived ligand with high homophilic binding affinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to better probe SynCAM function in neurons, we produced a fusion protein between the extracellular domain of SynCAM1 and the constant fragment of human IgG (SynCAM-Fc). Whether in soluble form or immobilized on latex microspheres, the chimera bound specifically to the surface of hippocampal neurons and recruited endogenous SynCAM molecules. SynCAM-Fc was also used in combination with Quantum Dots to follow the mobility of transfected SynCAM receptors at the neuronal surface. Both immobile and highly mobile SynCAM were found. Thus, SynCAM-Fc behaves as a high affinity ligand that can be used to study the function of SynCAM at the neuronal membrane

  11. Documentary analysis in CAM research: Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Kevin

    2005-12-01

    The analysis of documents can provide insights into important social and political issues related to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This paper identifies some important sources of documents and outlines some of the advantages and disadvantages of using documents in social research. A number of analytic strategies are illustrated with examples to demonstrate the potential for documentary analysis to answer particular CAM-related research questions. These strategies are described as quantitative content analysis, qualitative descriptive analysis, qualitative interpretive analysis and semiotic analysis. It is argued that documents are a convenient source of data and that their analysis can enrich our understanding of CAM. Part 1 covers quantitative and qualitative strategies and Part 2 focuses on semiotic analysis.

  12. Documentary analysis in CAM research: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Kevin

    2006-03-01

    The analysis of documents can provide insights into important social and political issues related to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This paper identifies some important sources of documents and outlines some of the advantages and disadvantages of using documents in social research. A number of analytic strategies are illustrated with examples to demonstrate the potential for documentary analysis to answer particular CAM-related research questions. These strategies are described as quantitative content analysis, qualitative descriptive analysis, qualitative interpretive analysis and semiotic analysis. It is argued that documents are a convenient source of data and that their analysis can enrich our understanding of CAM. Part 1 covered quantitative and qualitative strategies. Part 2 focuses on semiotic analysis and the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the different strategies.

  13. Patients’ views of CAM as spiritual practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This paper explores Danish cancer patients’ narratives on spiritual beliefs, practices and the relationship these practices may have to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design: Narrative inquiry was used to understand how spiritual beliefs and practices might be related...... to CAM. Thirty-two cancer patients, family, friends and alternative practitioners were followed up over a two year period by face to face interview, telephone and focus groups. Results: Although religious and spiritual issues were not manifestly expressed by many of the subjects, these issues were...... significantly elaborated upon in narratives by four female participants to warrant more detailed consideration and analysis. Conclusion: It is suggested that for some cancer patients CAM may function, not just as a treatment for cancer related symptoms and side effects, but also as a form of spiritual practice...

  14. CAM practitioners in the Australian health workforce: an underutilized resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Sandra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CAM practitioners are a valuable but underutilizes resource in Australian health care. Despite increasing public support for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM little is known about the CAM workforce. Apart from the registered professions of chiropractic, osteopathy and Chinese medicine, accurate information about the number of CAM practitioners in the workforce has been difficult to obtain. It appears that many non-registered CAM practitioners, although highly qualified, are not working to their full capacity. Discussion Increasing public endorsement of CAM stands in contrast to the negative attitude toward the CAM workforce by some members of the medical and other health professions and by government policy makers. The marginalisation of the CAM workforce is evident in prejudicial attitudes held by some members of the medical and other health professions and its exclusion from government policy making. Inconsistent educational standards has meant that non-registered CAM practitioners, including highly qualified and competent ones, are frequently overlooked. Legitimising their contribution to the health workforce could alleviate workforce shortages and provide opportunities for redesigned job roles and new multidisciplinary teams. Priorities for better utilisation of the CAM workforce include establishing a guaranteed minimum education standard for more CAM occupation groups through national registration, providing interprofessional education that includes CAM practitioners, developing courses to upgrade CAM practitioners' professional skills in areas of indentified need, and increasing support for CAM research. Summary Marginalisation of the CAM workforce has disadvantaged those qualified and competent CAM practitioners who practise evidence-informed medicine on the basis of many years of university training. Legitimising and expanding the important contribution of CAM practitioners could alleviate projected health

  15. Georeferencing CAMS data: Polynomial rectification and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghe

    The Calibrated Airborne Multispectral Scanner (CAMS) is a sensor used in the commercial remote sensing program at NASA Stennis Space Center. In geographic applications of the CAMS data, accurate geometric rectification is essential for the analysis of the remotely sensed data and for the integration of the data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The commonly used rectification techniques such as the polynomial transformation and ortho rectification have been very successful in the field of remote sensing and GIS for most remote sensing data such as Landsat imagery, SPOT imagery and aerial photos. However, due to the geometric nature of the airborne line scanner which has high spatial frequency distortions, the polynomial model and the ortho rectification technique in current commercial software packages such as Erdas Imagine are not adequate for obtaining sufficient geometric accuracy. In this research, the geometric nature, especially the major distortions, of the CAMS data has been described. An analytical step-by-step geometric preprocessing has been utilized to deal with the potential high frequency distortions of the CAMS data. A generic sensor-independent photogrammetric model has been developed for the ortho-rectification of the CAMS data. Three generalized kernel classes and directional elliptical basis have been formulated into a rectification model of summation of multisurface functions, which is a significant extension to the traditional radial basis functions. The preprocessing mechanism has been fully incorporated into the polynomial, the triangle-based finite element analysis as well as the summation of multisurface functions. While the multisurface functions and the finite element analysis have the characteristics of localization, piecewise logic has been applied to the polynomial and photogrammetric methods, which can produce significant accuracy improvement over the global approach. A software module has been implemented with full

  16. Community photosynthesis of aquatic macrophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, T.; Sand-Jensen, K.; Middelboe, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition...... of photosynthesis at the highest irradiances of about 2,000 mmol m22 s21. Macrophyte communities displayed much higher maximum gross production (GPmax), respiration, and light compensation point than separate phytoelements because of the multilayered structure and extensive self-shading in the communities, whereas...... light use efficiency at low irradiance (a) was the same. Although GPmax and a varied extensively among the 190 communities, their upper limits increased linearly and predictably with community absorption reaching 26.3 mmol m22 s21 O2 and 0.090 mol mol21 photon at 100% absorption. The upper limit...

  17. Artificial intelligence and CAD/CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, K.

    1983-10-01

    In recent years CAD/CAM technology has improved industrial productivity. It is a significant step towards the design of the factory of the future. CAD/CAM in conjunction with artificial intelligence will become paramount. Workers in this field are attempting to produce systems of ever-increasing intelligence and independence for everyday use in factories, schools and elsewhere. A computer system which could understand natural language in both spoken and handwritten form and communicate in natural language would have considerable advantage in practical situations over one of the present generation of computers and computer programs. 2 references.

  18. CAD/CAM at the design stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masur, W.

    1989-01-01

    The introduction of CAD/CAM requires a thorough analysis of the manufacturing process in order to be able to single out those operations and partial complexes which are found suited for CAD/CAM use and are also expected to bring about the streamlining effects desired. Further it has to be analysed what partial jobs can be done by existing and planned hardware and software as well as by the skilled labour available or to be made available yet. The organization of the relations between program developer and program user and the required training measures has to be fixed in time and clearly by the managerial staff.

  19. A NEW CONCEPT OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Komissarov, Gennadiy

    2014-01-01

    The history of the formation of a new concept of photosynthesis proposed by the author is considered for the period since 1966 to 2013. Its essence consists in the following facts: the photosynthetic oxygen (hydrogen) source is not water, but exoand endogenous hydrogen peroxide; thermal energy is a necessary part of the photosynthetic process; along with the carbon dioxide the air (oxygen, inert gases) is included in the photosynthetic equation. The mechanism of the photovoltaic (Becquerel) e...

  20. Integrated design of cam mechanisms and servo-control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚燕安[1; 颜鸿森[2; 张策[3; 邹慧君[4

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, in a cam mechanism, the cam is driven by an actuator at a constant speed. The motion characteristics of the follower are determined once the cam profile is designed. This paper presents a novel theory named "integrated design of cam mechanisms and servo-control systems" whose basic idea is varying the input speed trajectory of the cam by a microcomputer-controlled servomotor to improve kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the follower system. The philosophy of the theory is developing superior machines by taking advantage of the flexibility of servo-control systems to compensate for disadvantages of rigid cam mechanisms. The systematic design criteria of the cam-servo-integrated system are developed and an approach based on optimal-control theory is presented for to select suitable cam speed functions, hence the basis of the theory is formed.

  1. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  2. DFM/CAPP/CAM System in a Concurrent Engineering Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the importance of DFM/CAPP/CAM system in Concurrent Engineering (CE) is discussed. Based on the analyses of the character of concurrent product design and manufacturing process design, the workflow of DFM/CAPP/CAM system in CE is given. DFM/CAPP/CAM theories, methods and functions are investigated in a delicate and all-round way, and are implemented in the developed DFM/CAPP/CAM system.

  3. Therapeutic Uses of the WebCam in Child Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebowski, Susan; Fremont, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors provide examples for the use of the WebCam as a therapeutic tool in child psychiatry, discussing cases to demonstrate the application of the WebCam, which is most often used in psychiatry training programs during resident supervision and for case presentations. Method: Six cases illustrate the use of the WebCam in individual…

  4. CAD/CAM. High-Technology Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuleger, Robert

    This high technology training module is an advanced course on computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for grades 11 and 12. This unit, to be used with students in advanced drafting courses, introduces the concept of CAD/CAM. The content outline includes the following seven sections: (1) CAD/CAM software; (2) computer…

  5. The factors that influence CAD/CAM/CAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAD/CAM/CAE usage has grown and expanded significantly due to its many applications relating to the productivity of an organization. It is important for an organization to have planning and strategy in using CAD/CAM/CAE to ensure sustained efficiency. This paper will discuss the factors that can influence the implementation and success of CAD/CAM/CAE. (Author)

  6. DATA TRANSLATION BETWEEN PADS AND CAM350

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Romanova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the paper is the process of data translation between computer-aided design system for electronic devices PADS VX and system for technological preparation of production of printed circuit boards CAM350 10. The object of this study is two-way translation of data in these systems. Experimental researches are applied as research methods based on repeated playback of forward and reverse data translation process between PADS and CAM350 systems. The aim is to examine the challenges of data exchange between systems and to find out the ways of their solution. The basis of the work is functionality analysis of PADS and CAM350 systems while data translation, which was carried out in the course of operating experience of these systems. The paper presents advantages and disadvantages of translation methods and their comparison. Errors arising in the process are analyzed. Possible reasons of errors origination are described. The main results are recommendations for data exchange between PADS and CAM350 systems. The proposed recommendations give the possibility to optimize the exchange of data between these systems. Practical significance of the work lies in the implementation of results at LLC «Abeo». Recommendations have been used in the development of dozens of different electronic devices. The use of these results made it possible to reduce the production run-up time, to increase data transmission correctness, thereby improving the quality of products and reduction of their cost.

  7. Some Workplace Effects of CAD and CAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Karl-H.; Ulrich, Erhard

    1987-01-01

    Examines the impact of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) on employment, work organization, working conditions, job content, training, and industrial relations in several countries. Finds little evidence of negative employment effects since productivity gains are offset by various compensatory factors. (Author/CH)

  8. Patients’ views of CAM as spiritual practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    significantly elaborated upon in narratives by four female participants to warrant more detailed consideration and analysis. Conclusion: It is suggested that for some cancer patients CAM may function, not just as a treatment for cancer related symptoms and side effects, but also as a form of spiritual practice...

  9. CAD-CAM data exchange pilot project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintz, J.; Williams, D.

    1986-03-01

    CAD-CAM data were exchanged between dissimilar CAD systems and the information was used to fabricate three parts. Problems were identified and solutions were proposed or implemented in the area of translation methods, data verification, CAD drawing conventions, and data handling. Additional software needed for productive data exchange has been identified.

  10. Faint stars and OmegaCAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, K; Cristiani, S; Renzini, A; Williams, RE

    2001-01-01

    OmegaCAM will be the wide-field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope. In this contribution I present applications of this instrument to the study of faint stellar populations. Two projects are highlighted: a proper motion study to uncover the galactic halo population, and a microlensing study towards

  11. Global Analysis of Photosynthesis Transcriptional Regulatory Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Imam, Saheed; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a crucial biological process that depends on the interplay of many components. This work analyzed the gene targets for 4 transcription factors: FnrL, PrrA, CrpK and MppG (RSP_2888), which are known or predicted to control photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified 52 operons under direct control of FnrL, illustrating its regulatory role in photosynthesis, iron homeostasis, nitrogen met...

  12. Global analysis of photosynthesis transcriptional regulatory networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Saheed Imam; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a crucial biological process that depends on the interplay of many components. This work analyzed the gene targets for 4 transcription factors: FnrL, PrrA, CrpK and MppG (RSP_2888), which are known or predicted to control photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified 52 operons under direct control of FnrL, illustrating its regulatory role in photosynthesis, iron homeostasis, nitrogen met...

  13. Photosynthesis for Food, Fuel and the Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Congming Lu

    2010-01-01

    @@ Photosynthesis is a process that converts solar energy to chemical energy in many different organisms, ranging from plants to bacteria. Photosynthesis provides all the food we eat and all the fossil fuel we use. Photosynthesis has long been studied in order to understand its underlying mechanisms and then to apply this knowledge to the production of energy and food for the needs of our society.

  14. Understanding of photosynthesis among primary school pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Murn, Špela

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis is considered one of the most difficult subjects for pupils. It is very complex topic, which is very difficult to understand. The goal of our research was to examine the knowledge on photosynthesis of the pupils of the primary school, their attitude towrds it, and whether there were any misconceptions about photosynthesis. The research was conducted on a sample of 120 pupils in Dolenjske Toplice primary school. The questionnaire consisted of 19 questions. In the first part o...

  15. MEASUREMENT AND MODELLING AVERAGE PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MAIZE

    OpenAIRE

    ZS LÕKE

    2005-01-01

    The photosynthesis of fully developed maize was investigated in the Agrometeorological Research Station Keszthely, in 2000. We used LI-6400 type measurement equipment to locate measurement points where the intensity of photosynthesis mostly nears the average. So later we could obtain average photosynthetic activities featuring the crop, with only one measurement. To check average photosynthesis of maize we used Goudriaan’s simulation model (CMSM) as well to calculate values on cloudless sampl...

  16. Proteomic approaches in research of cyanobacterial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battchikova, Natalia; Angeleri, Martina; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2015-10-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, algae, and plants is carried out by a fabulous pigment-protein machinery that is amazingly complicated in structure and function. Many different approaches have been undertaken to characterize the most important aspects of photosynthesis, and proteomics has become the essential component in this research. Here we describe various methods which have been used in proteomic research of cyanobacteria, and demonstrate how proteomics is implemented into on-going studies of photosynthesis in cyanobacterial cells.

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine use of women with breast cancer : Self-help CAM attracts other women than guided CAM therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo-Fo-Wong, Deborah N. N.; Ranchor, Adelita V.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Henselmans, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine stability of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) of breast cancer patients, reasons for CAM use, and sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological predictors of CAM use. Methods: CAM use was assessed after adjuvant therapy and six months later. Following the CAM He

  18. General lighting requirements for photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Donald R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents data that suggests some criteria for evaluating growth chamber and greenhouse lighting. A review of the general lighting requirements for photosynthesis reveals that four aspects of light are important: irradiance, quality, timing, and duration. Effective lighting should produce plants that perform according to the goals of the project. For example, for physiological studies the plants probably should exhibit morphology and physiology similar to that found in field-grown plants. For other projects the criteria will obviously be set according to the reason for raising the plants.

  19. Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J J

    2013-01-01

    Modern design methods of Automotive Cam Design require the computation of a range of parameters. This book provides a logical sequence of steps for the derivation of the relevant equations from first principles, for the more widely used cam mechanisms. Although originally derived for use in high performance engines, this work is equally applicable to the design of mass produced automotive and other internal combustion engines.   Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms provides the equations necessary for the design of cam lift curves with an associated smooth acceleration curve. The equations are derived for the kinematics and kinetics of all the mechanisms considered, together with those for cam curvature and oil entrainment velocity. This permits the cam shape, all loads, and contact stresses to be evaluated, and the relevant tribology to be assessed. The effects of asymmetry on the manufacture of cams for finger follower and offset translating curved followers is ...

  20. The detection of EpCAM+ and EpCAM- circulating tumor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wit, de, J.; Dalum, van, G.; Lenferink, Aufried T. M.; Arjan G. J. Tibbe; Hiltermann, T.J.N.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Rijn, van, Michela; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM+ CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM- CTC discarded by CellSearch, after EpCAM based enrichment. EpCAM- CTC were identified by filtration and fluorescent labelling. This approach was validated using different cell lines spiked into blood and evaluated on blood samples of 27 metastatic...

  1. Chlorophylls, Symmetry, Chirality, and Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias O. Senge

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophylls are a fundamental class of tetrapyrroles and function as the central reaction center, accessory and photoprotective pigments in photosynthesis. Their unique individual photochemical properties are a consequence of the tetrapyrrole macrocycle, the structural chemistry and coordination behavior of the phytochlorin system, and specific substituent pattern. They achieve their full potential in solar energy conversion by working in concert in highly complex, supramolecular structures such as the reaction centers and light-harvesting complexes of photobiology. The biochemical function of these structures depends on the controlled interplay of structural and functional principles of the apoprotein and pigment cofactors. Chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls are optically active molecules with several chiral centers, which are necessary for their natural biological function and the assembly of their supramolecular complexes. However, in many cases the exact role of chromophore stereochemistry in the biological context is unknown. This review gives an overview of chlorophyll research in terms of basic function, biosynthesis and their functional and structural role in photosynthesis. It highlights aspects of chirality and symmetry of chlorophylls to elicit further interest in their role in nature.

  2. Roles of Lipids in Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Endo, Kaichiro; Wada, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Thylakoid membranes in cyanobacterial cells and chloroplasts of algae and higher plants are the sites of oxygenic photosynthesis. The lipid composition of the thylakoid membrane is unique and highly conserved among oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. Major lipids in thylakoid membranes are glycolipids, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, and the phospholipid, phosphatidylglycerol. The identification of almost all genes involved in the biosynthesis of each lipid class over the past decade has allowed the generation and isolation of mutants of various photosynthetic organisms incapable of synthesizing specific lipids. Numerous studies using such mutants have revealed that these lipids play important roles not only in the formation of the lipid bilayers of thylakoid membranes but also in the folding and assembly of the protein subunits in photosynthetic complexes. In addition to the studies with the mutants, recent X-ray crystallography studies of photosynthetic complexes in thylakoid membranes have also provided critical information on the association of lipids with photosynthetic complexes and their activities. In this chapter, we summarize our current understanding about the structural and functional involvement of thylakoid lipids in oxygenic photosynthesis.

  3. Photosynthesis: The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis and the Primary Quantum Conversion Act of Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1952-11-22

    This constitutes a review of the path of carbon in photosynthesis as it has been elaborated through the summer of 1952, with particular attention focused on those aspects of carbon metabolism and its variation which have led to some direct information regarding the primary quantum conversion act. An introduction to the arguments which have been adduced in support of the idea that chlorophyll is a physical sensitizer handing its excitation on to thioctic acid, a compound containing a strained 1, 2 -dithiolcyclopentane ring, is given.

  4. CAD/CAM-assisted breast reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchels, Ferry; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 60 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059 (Australia); Wiggenhauser, Paul Severin; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten [Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Warne, David; Barry, Mark [High Performance Computing and Research Support, Queensland University of Technology, Gardens Point Road, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Ong, Fook Rhu; Chong, Woon Shin, E-mail: Dietmar.Hutmacher@qut.edu.au, E-mail: jtschantz@lrz.tu-muenchen.de [Singapore Polytechnic, 500 Dover Road, 139651 Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-09-15

    The application of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the clinic is growing slowly but steadily. The ability to build patient-specific models based on medical imaging data offers major potential. In this work we report on the feasibility of employing laser scanning with CAD/CAM techniques to aid in breast reconstruction. A patient was imaged with laser scanning, an economical and facile method for creating an accurate digital representation of the breasts and surrounding tissues. The obtained model was used to fabricate a customized mould that was employed as an intra-operative aid for the surgeon performing autologous tissue reconstruction of the breast removed due to cancer. Furthermore, a solid breast model was derived from the imaged data and digitally processed for the fabrication of customized scaffolds for breast tissue engineering. To this end, a novel generic algorithm for creating porosity within a solid model was developed, using a finite element model as intermediate.

  5. Formal Management of CAD/CAM Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhase, Michael; Lemburg, Johannes; Schröder, Lutz; Schulz, Ewaryst

    Systematic engineering design processes have many aspects in common with software engineering, with CAD/CAM objects replacing program code as the implementation stage of the development. They are, however, currently considerably less formal. We propose to draw on the mentioned similarities and transfer methods from software engineering to engineering design in order to enhance in particular the reliability and reusability of engineering processes. We lay out a vision of a document-oriented design process that integrates CAD/CAM documents with requirement specifications; as a first step towards supporting such a process, we present a tool that interfaces a CAD system with program verification workflows, thus allowing for completely formalised development strands within a semi-formal methodology.

  6. CAD/CAM-assisted breast reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the clinic is growing slowly but steadily. The ability to build patient-specific models based on medical imaging data offers major potential. In this work we report on the feasibility of employing laser scanning with CAD/CAM techniques to aid in breast reconstruction. A patient was imaged with laser scanning, an economical and facile method for creating an accurate digital representation of the breasts and surrounding tissues. The obtained model was used to fabricate a customized mould that was employed as an intra-operative aid for the surgeon performing autologous tissue reconstruction of the breast removed due to cancer. Furthermore, a solid breast model was derived from the imaged data and digitally processed for the fabrication of customized scaffolds for breast tissue engineering. To this end, a novel generic algorithm for creating porosity within a solid model was developed, using a finite element model as intermediate.

  7. Environmental and physiological control of dynamic photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Irradiance is the main driver of photosynthesis. In natural conditions, irradiance incident on a leaf often fluctuates, due to the movement of leaves, clouds and the sun. These fluctuations force photosynthesis to respond dynamically, however with delays that are subject to rate constants of underly

  8. Photosynthesis and Respiration in a Jar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttner, Joseph K.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity that reduces the biosphere to a water-filled jar to simulate the relationship between cellular respiration, photosynthesis, and energy. Allows students in high school biology and related courses to explore quantitatively cellular respiration and photosynthesis in almost any laboratory setting. (ASK)

  9. Dynamic photosynthesis in different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Elias; Morales, Alejandro; Harbinson, Jeremy; Kromdijk, Johannes; Heuvelink, Ep; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2015-05-01

    Incident irradiance on plant leaves often fluctuates, causing dynamic photosynthesis. Whereas steady-state photosynthetic responses to environmental factors have been extensively studied, knowledge of dynamic modulation of photosynthesis remains scarce and scattered. This review addresses this discrepancy by summarizing available data and identifying the research questions necessary to advance our understanding of interactions between environmental factors and dynamic behaviour of photosynthesis using a mechanistic framework. Firstly, dynamic photosynthesis is separated into sub-processes related to proton and electron transport, non-photochemical quenching, control of metabolite flux through the Calvin cycle (activation states of Rubisco and RuBP regeneration, and post-illumination metabolite turnover), and control of CO₂ supply to Rubisco (stomatal and mesophyll conductance changes). Secondly, the modulation of dynamic photosynthesis and its sub-processes by environmental factors is described. Increases in ambient CO₂ concentration and temperature (up to ~35°C) enhance rates of photosynthetic induction and decrease its loss, facilitating more efficient dynamic photosynthesis. Depending on the sensitivity of stomatal conductance, dynamic photosynthesis may additionally be modulated by air humidity. Major knowledge gaps exist regarding environmental modulation of loss of photosynthetic induction, dynamic changes in mesophyll conductance, and the extent of limitations imposed by stomatal conductance for different species and environmental conditions. The study of mutants or genetic transformants for specific processes under various environmental conditions could provide significant progress in understanding the control of dynamic photosynthesis.

  10. Modelling Photosynthesis to Increase Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pauline; Tronson, Deidre; Ritchie, Raymond J.

    2006-01-01

    Biology students in their first year at university have difficulty understanding the abstract concepts of photosynthesis. The traditional didactic lecture followed by practical exercises that show various macroscopic aspects of photosynthesis often do not help the students visualise or understand the submicroscopic (molecular-level) reactions that…

  11. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VII. Respiration and Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A. A.; Calvin, M.

    1949-07-21

    The relationship of respiration to photosynthesis in barley seedling leaves and the algae, Chlorella and Scenedesmus, has been investigated using radioactive carbon dioxide and the techniques of paper chromatography and radioautography. The plants are allowed to photosynthesize normally for thirty seconds in c{sup 14}O{sub 2} after which they are allowed to respire in air or helium in the light or dark. Respiration of photosynthetic intermediates as evidenced by the appearance of labeled glutomic, isocitric, fumaric and succinic acids is slower in the light than in the dark. Labeled glycolic acid is observed in barley and algae. It disappears rapidly in the dark and is maintained and increased in quantity in the light in C0{sub 2}-free air.

  12. CAD/CAM at Gullick Dobson Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Gullick Dobson introduced computer-aided design systems more than four years ago, and those have improved the standard of technical presentation for tendering as well as saving time and the repetitive mundane work involved in incorporating standard plants onto several drawings. Computer-aided manufacture has also helped to reduce costs and in future interactive CAD/CAM will be developed where total engineering will result in the best product.

  13. CAD/CAM: influencing the skilled trades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    CAD/CAM is influencing many of the skilled trades. Computers are permitting an increase in productivity with a resulting need for people with greater mental rather than motor skills. Computers are used for the control of a wide variety of manufacturing operations and the trend is accelerating rapidly. The net result is a smaller need for semi-skilled jobs but an increasing demand for skilled craftsmen.

  14. Deterministic mathematical morphology for CAD/CAM

    OpenAIRE

    Sarabia Pérez, Rubén; Jimeno Morenilla, Antonio; Molina Carmona, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a new geometric model based on the mathematical morphology paradigm, specialized to provide determinism to the classic morphological operations. The determinism is needed to model dynamic processes that require an order of application, as is the case for designing and manufacturing objects in CAD/CAM environments. Design/methodology/approach – The basic trajectory-based operation is the basis of the proposed morphological specialization. This ...

  15. An investigation of cam-roller mechanism applied in sphere cam engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 潘存云; 徐小军; 徐海军; 张正洲

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative power source for hybrid electrical vehicle(HEV), electric generating system(EGS) driven by sphere cam engine(SCE) is said to own higher power density and integration. In this work, the structure and working principle of EGS were introduced, based on which the advantages of EGS were displayed. The profile of sphere cam was achieved after the desired motion of piston was given. After establishing the dynamic model of power transmission mechanism, the characteristics of cam-roller mechanism were studied. The results show that the optimal cam profile of SCE is a sinusoid curve which has two peaks and two valleys and a mean pressure angle of 47.19°. Because of the special cam shape, the trace of end surface center of piston is an eight-shape curve on a specific sphere surface. SCE running at speed of 3000 r/min can generate the power of 33.81 kW, which could satisfy the need of HEVs. However, the force between cylinder and piston skirt caused by Coriolis acceleration can reach up to 1182 N, which leads to serious wear between cylinder liner and piston skirt and may shorten the lifespan of SCE.

  16. Modeled hydraulic redistribution in tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations: the implications of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kailiang; Foster, Adrianna

    2016-04-01

    Past studies have largely focused on hydraulic redistribution (HR) in trees, shrubs, and grasses, and recognized its role in interspecies interactions. HR in plants that conduct crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), however, remains poorly investigated, as does the effect of HR on transpiration in different vegetation associations (i.e., tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations). We have developed a mechanistic model to investigate the net direction and magnitude of HR at the patch scale for tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations at the growing season to yearly timescale. The modeling results show that deep-rooted CAM plants in CAM-grass associations could perform hydraulic lift at a higher rate than trees in tree-grass associations in a relatively wet environment, as explained by a significant increase in grass transpiration rate in the shallow soil layer, balancing a lower transpiration rate by CAM plants. By comparison, trees in tree-CAM associations may perform hydraulic descent at a higher rate than those in tree-grass associations in a dry environment. Model simulations also show that hydraulic lift increases the transpiration of shallow-rooted plants, while hydraulic descent increases that of deep-rooted plants. CAM plants transpire during the night and thus perform HR during the day. Based on these model simulations, we suggest that the ability of CAM plants to perform HR at a higher rate may have different effects on the surrounding plant community than those of plants with C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathways (i.e., diurnal transpiration).

  17. The NectarCAM camera project

    CERN Document Server

    Glicenstein, J-F; Barrio, J-A; Blanch, O; Boix, J; Bolmont, J; Boutonnet, C; Cazaux, S; Chabanne, E; Champion, C; Chateau, F; Colonges, S; Corona, P; Couturier, S; Courty, B; Delagnes, E; Delgado, C; Ernenwein, J-P; Fegan, S; Ferreira, O; Fesquet, M; Fontaine, G; Fouque, N; Henault, F; Gascón, D; Herranz, D; Hermel, R; Hoffmann, D; Houles, J; Karkar, S; Khelifi, B; Knödlseder, J; Martinez, G; Lacombe, K; Lamanna, G; LeFlour, T; Lopez-Coto, R; Louis, F; Mathieu, A; Moulin, E; Nayman, P; Nunio, F; Olive, J-F; Panazol, J-L; Petrucci, P-O; Punch, M; Prast, J; Ramon, P; Riallot, M; Ribó, M; Rosier-Lees, S; Sanuy, A; Siero, J; Tavernet, J-P; Tejedor, L A; Toussenel, F; Vasileiadis, G; Voisin, V; Waegebert, V; Zurbach, C

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the next generation of Cherenkov telescopes, the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), NectarCAM is a camera designed for the medium size telescopes covering the central energy range of 100 GeV to 30 TeV. NectarCAM will be finely pixelated (~ 1800 pixels for a 8 degree field of view, FoV) in order to image atmospheric Cherenkov showers by measuring the charge deposited within a few nanoseconds time-window. It will have additional features like the capacity to record the full waveform with GHz sampling for every pixel and to measure event times with nanosecond accuracy. An array of a few tens of medium size telescopes, equipped with NectarCAMs, will achieve up to a factor of ten improvement in sensitivity over existing instruments in the energy range of 100 GeV to 10 TeV. The camera is made of roughly 250 independent read-out modules, each composed of seven photo-multipliers, with their associated high voltage base and control, a read-out board and a multi-service backplane board. The read-out b...

  18. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could enhance the terrestrial photosynthesis rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Neely, R. R., III

    2016-02-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr-1 injection of SO2 to produce a stratospheric aerosol cloud to balance anthropogenic radiative forcing from the Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model - the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem). During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible (300-700 nm) diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m-2 (11 %). The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 0.07 ± 0.02 µmol C m-2 s-1, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr-1 global gross primary productivity without explicit nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This potentially beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about the implementation of geoengineering.

  19. Regulation of Calcium on Peanut Photosynthesis Under Low Night Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-fei; HAN Xiao-ri; ZHAN Xiu-mei; YANG Jin-feng; WANG Yu-zhi; SONG Qiao-bo; CHEN Xin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different levels of CaCl2 on photosynthesis under low night temperature (8°C) stress in peanuts were studied in order to ifnd out the appropriate concentration of Ca2+ through the artiifcial climate chamber potted culture test. The results indicated that Ca2+, by means of improving the stomatal conductivity of peanut leaves under low night temperature stress, may mitigate the decline of photosynthetic rate in the peanut leaves. The regulation with 15 mmol L-1 CaCl2 (Ca15) was the most effective, compared with other treatments. Subsequently, the improvement of Ca2+ on peanut photosynthesis under low night temperature stress was validated further through spraying withCa15, Ca2+ chelator (ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl) tetraacetic acid; EGTA) and calmodulin antagonists (trilfuonerazine; TFP).And CaM (Ca2+-modulin) played an important role in the nutritional signal transduction for Ca2+ mitigating photosynthesis limitations in peanuts under low night temperature stress.

  20. Genetic enablers underlying the clustered evolutionary origins of C4 photosynthesis in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Arakaki, Mónica; Osborne, Colin P; Edwards, Erika J

    2015-04-01

    The evolutionary accessibility of novel adaptations varies among lineages, depending in part on the genetic elements present in each group. However, the factors determining the evolutionary potential of closely related genes remain largely unknown. In plants, CO2-concentrating mechanisms such as C4 and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis have evolved numerous times in distantly related groups of species, and constitute excellent systems to study constraints and enablers of evolution. It has been previously shown for multiple proteins that grasses preferentially co-opted the same gene lineage for C4 photosynthesis, when multiple copies were present. In this work, we use comparative transcriptomics to show that this bias also exists within Caryophyllales, a distantly related group with multiple C4 origins. However, the bias is not the same as in grasses and, when all angiosperms are considered jointly, the number of distinct gene lineages co-opted is not smaller than that expected by chance. These results show that most gene lineages present in the common ancestor of monocots and eudicots produced gene descendants that were recruited into C4 photosynthesis, but that C4-suitability changed during the diversification of angiosperms. When selective pressures drove C4 evolution, some copies were preferentially co-opted, probably because they already possessed C4-like expression patterns. However, the identity of these C4-suitable genes varies among clades of angiosperms, and C4 phenotypes in distant angiosperm groups thus represent genuinely independent realizations, based on different genetic precursors.

  1. Development of the pipe machining CAD/CAM system; Kankako CAD/CAM system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taketomi, Y.; Teshima, H.; Suzuki, T.; Yoshida, A.

    1997-11-05

    The pipe machining CAD/CAM system was developed which can use previously prepared CAD input data for piping work diagrams. This system can automatically prepare diagrams and information necessary for machining, packaging, handling/lifting planning and assembly of pipes from previously inputted data. Output contents are as follows: parts machining diagram, piping work diagram, piping parts table, label, parts packaging/loading indication, transport program, assembly diagram (isometric diagram, plan). Since all data are transmitted to CAM system in automatic machining, these outputs are unnecessary. A reliable pipe machining system (automatic screwing/cutting machine) was prepared by improving recognized existing machines. The new mechanism (pipe automatic warehouse) which can certainly take out a desired pipe from randomly stacked pipes by an originally developed `rotation disk.` A precise measurement equipment was also developed by using a stopper arm and encoder. The CAD/CAM system achieved labor saving requiring only 1-2 operators. 3 figs.

  2. The oldest records of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awramik, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    There is diverse, yet controversial fossil evidence for the existence of photosynthesis 3500 million years ago. Among the most persuasive evidence is the stromatolites described from low grade metasedimentary rocks in Western Australia and South Africa. Based on the understanding of the paleobiology of stromatolites and using pertinent fossil and Recent analogs, these Early Archean stromatolites suggest that phototrophs evolved by 3500 million years ago. The evidence allows further interpretation that cyanobacteria were involved. Besides stromatolites, microbial and chemical fossils are also known from the same rock units. Some microfossils morphologically resemble cyanobacteria and thus complement the adduced cyanobacterial involvement in stromatolite construction. If cyanobacteria had evolved by 3500 million years ago, this would indicate that nearly all prokaryotic phyla had already evolved and that prokaryotes diversified rapidly on the early Earth.

  3. INTERACTIVE ILUSTRATION FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Pereira

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Computational resources became the major tool in the challenge of making high education moreeasy and motivating. Complex Biochemical pathways can now be presented in interactive and three-dimensional animations. One of the most complex (detailed and interesting metabolic pathway thatstudents must understand in biochemical courses is photosynthesis. The light-dependent reactionsare of special interest since they involve many dierent kinds of mechanisms, as light absorptionby membrane complexes, proteins movement inside membranes, reactions of water hydrolysis, andelectrons ow; making it dicult to understand by static bi-dimensional representations.The resources of animation and ActionScript programming were used to make an interactive ani-mation of photosynthesis, which at some times even simulates three-dimensionality. The animationbegins with a leaf and progressively zooms in, until we have a scheme of a tylakoyd membrane, whereeach of the dierent steps of the pathway can be clicked to reveal a more detailed scheme of it. Whereappropriate, the energy graphs are shown side by side with the reactions. The electron is representedwith a face, so it can be shown to be stressing while going up in the energy graphs. Finally, there isa simplied version of the whole pathway, to illustrate how it all goes together.The objective is to help professors on teaching the subject in regular classes, since currently allthe explanations are omitted. In a future version, texts will be added to each step so it can beself-explicative to the students, helping them even on home or on-line learning.

  4. Design of Cam Mechanism with Negative Radius Roller-Follower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Jung-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cam mechanisms with a negative radius roller-follower allow the design of simple machines capable of exerting remarkably high forces. Furthermore, the concave-convex nature of the contact surface between the cam and the follower results in a low contact stress and the ready formation of a lubricating layer. This paper presents a simple method for the design and analysis of a cam mechanism with a negative radius roller-follower. In the proposed approach, conjugate surface theory is employed to derive a kinematic model of the cam mechanism. Analytical expressions for the pressure angle and principal curvatures of the cam profile are then derived. The validity of the proposed design methodology is demonstrated by machining a cam mechanism having a negative radius rollerfollower with a radius of 100 mm.

  5. Research in non-equalization machining method for spatial cam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-hua CHEN; Yi-jie WU

    2008-01-01

    Many kinds of devices with cam have been widely used in various mechanical equipments.However,non-equalization machining for spatial cam trough remains to be a difficult problem.This paper focuses on the analysis of ruaning conditions and machining processes of spatial cam with oscillating follower.We point out the common errors in the biased distance cutting.By analyzing the motion of oscillating follower of spatial cam,we present a new 3D curve expansion model of spatial cam trough-outline.Based on this model.we have proposed a machining method for trochoidal milling with non-equalization diameter cutter.This new method has led to a creative and effective Way for non.equalization diameter machining for spatial cam with oscillating follower.

  6. Photosynthesis in Hydrogen-Dominated Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, William; Seager, Sara; Zsom, Andras

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of extrasolar planets discovered in the last decade shows that we should not be constrained to look for life in environments similar to early or present-day Earth. Super-Earth exoplanets are being discovered with increasing frequency, and some will be able to retain a stable, hydrogen-dominated atmosphere. We explore the possibilities for photosynthesis on a rocky planet with a thin H2-dominated atmosphere. If a rocky, H2-dominated planet harbors life, then that life is likely to convert atmospheric carbon into methane. Outgassing may also build an atmosphere in which methane is the principal carbon species. We describe the possible chemical routes for photosynthesis starting from methane and show that less energy and lower energy photons could drive CH4-based photosynthesis as compared with CO2-based photosynthesis. We find that a by-product biosignature gas is likely to be H2, which is not distinct from the hydrogen already present in the environment. Ammonia is a potential biosignature gas of hydrogenic photosynthesis that is unlikely to be generated abiologically. We suggest that the evolution of methane-based photosynthesis is at least as likely as the evolution of anoxygenic photosynthesis on Earth and may support the evolution of complex life. PMID:25411926

  7. Photosynthesis in Hydrogen-Dominated Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bains

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of extrasolar planets discovered in the last decade shows that we should not be constrained to look for life in environments similar to early or present-day Earth. Super-Earth exoplanets are being discovered with increasing frequency, and some will be able to retain a stable, hydrogen-dominated atmosphere. We explore the possibilities for photosynthesis on a rocky planet with a thin H2-dominated atmosphere. If a rocky, H2-dominated planet harbors life, then that life is likely to convert atmospheric carbon into methane. Outgassing may also build an atmosphere in which methane is the principal carbon species. We describe the possible chemical routes for photosynthesis starting from methane and show that less energy and lower energy photons could drive CH4-based photosynthesis as compared with CO2-based photosynthesis. We find that a by-product biosignature gas is likely to be H2, which is not distinct from the hydrogen already present in the environment. Ammonia is a potential biosignature gas of hydrogenic photosynthesis that is unlikely to be generated abiologically. We suggest that the evolution of methane-based photosynthesis is at least as likely as the evolution of anoxygenic photosynthesis on Earth and may support the evolution of complex life.

  8. New Conception of Waving Machine CamEl Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílkovský, A.; Marek, O.; Jirásko, P.; Volanský, Z.

    New mechatronic conception of waving machine CamEl drive is realized by two electronic cams Yaskawa and planetary gears. The first servo motor is used to slay and shedding motion in position mode and the second servo motor is used in automatic weaving mode. Moment of inertia of kinematic chain was reduced that it was possible used a smaller servo motor of electronic cam Yaskawa.

  9. Treatment Preferences for CAM in Children with Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Marcia Meldrum; Kim, Su C.; Jacob, Margaret C.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2006-01-01

    CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls) (mean age = 14.5 years ± 2.4; range = 8–18 years) presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examin...

  10. Resin-composite Blocks for Dental CAD/CAM Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ruse, N.D.; Sadoun, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and ...

  11. CAD/CAM of braided preforms for advanced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gui; Pastore, Christopher; Tsai, Yung Jia; Soebroto, Heru; Ko, Frank

    A CAD/CAM system for braiding to produce preforms for advanced textile structural composites is presented in this paper. The CAD and CAM systems are illustrated in detail. The CAD system identifies the fiber placement and orientation needed to fabricate a braided structure over a mandrel, for subsequent composite formation. The CAM system uses the design parameters generated by the CAD system to control the braiding machine. Experimental evidence demonstrating the success of combining these two technologies to form a unified CAD/CAM system for the manufacture of braided fabric preforms with complex structural shapes is presented.

  12. Konepajan siirtyminen CAD-CAM-ohjelmointiin

    OpenAIRE

    Moisanen, Sari

    2011-01-01

    Sandvik Mining and Construction Köping AB Haparanda aloitti konepajauudistusprojektin kesällä 2008. Uudistuksen tavoitteena oli kasvattaa konepajan tuotantokapasiteettia ja muuttaa tuotantotapa funktionaalisesta solumuotoiseksi. Uudistuksen myötä konepajalle hankittiin keväällä 2009 kolme uutta NC-sorvia ja tietokoneavusteiseen ohjelmointiin soveltuva WinCAM-ohjelmisto. Osa konepajan tuotantohenkilöstöstä koulutettiin käyttämään NC-ohjelmointia ja tekemään NC-ohjelmia Fanucin käyttöjärjestelm...

  13. Compartilhando protocolos: maquina CMM / CAD / CAM

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro Beck, Joao Carlos; Lima da Silva, Isaac Newton; Baroni, Alexandre; Mazin Dias, Gilver

    2007-01-01

    A meta desta contribuição é a descrição da metodologia utilizada para compartilhar um software comercial de CAD/CAM, orientado à indústria mecânica, com um equipamento industrial de controle de qualidade tridimensional (CMM). As etapas necessárias a esta integração são apresentadas, passo a passo, para facilitar o entendimento e a visualização progressiva de cada uma das fases de estudo e análise. Tomando-se como referência este compartilhamento, efetuouse, como aplicação do proce...

  14. Development and validation of the CAM Health Belief Questionnaire (CHBQ and CAM use and attitudes amongst medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boker John

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM and holistic approaches in allopathic medical school curricula has been well articulated. Despite increased CAM instruction, feasible and validated instruments for measuring learner outcomes in this content area do not widely exist. In addition, baseline attitudes or beliefs of medical students towards CAM, and the factors that may have formed them, including use of CAM itself, remain unreported. Methods A 10-item measure (CHBQ – CAM Health Belief Questionnaire was constructed and administered to three successive classes of medical students simultaneously with the previously validated 29-item Integrative Medicine Attitude Questionnaire (IMAQ. Both measures were imbedded in a baseline needs assessment questionnaire. Demographic and other data were collected on students' use of CAM modalities and their awareness and use of primary CAM information resources. Analysis of CHBQ items was performed and its reliability and criterion-related validity were established. Results Response rate was 96.5% (272 of 282 students studied. The shorter CHBQ compared favorably with the longer IMAQ in internal consistency reliability. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was 0.75 and 0.83 for the CHBQ and IMAQ respectively. Students showed positive attitudes/beliefs towards CAM and high levels of self-reported CAM use. The majority (73.5% of students reported using at least one CAM modality, and 54% reported using at least two modalities. Eighty-one percent use the internet as a primary source of information for CAM. Conclusions The CHBQ is a practical, valid and reliable instrument for measuring medical student attitudes/beliefs and has potential utility for measuring the impact of CAM instruction. Medical students showed a high self-reported rate of CAM use and positive attitudes towards CAM. Short, didactic exposure to CAM instruction in the first year of medical school did not additionally

  15. Chem 1 Supplement: Energy Interconversions in Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, Charles L.

    1985-01-01

    Examines energy interconversions in photosynthesis, limiting the discussion to areas pertinent to chemistry (particularly the energetics of the light reactions). Topic areas considered include bioenergetics, photochemistry, conversion of light energy into electrical potential energy, the chemiosmotic hypothesis, and others. (JN)

  16. Using photosynthesis to detect plant stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Two Stennis Space Center scientists use a photosynthesis measuring system on a pine tree at the Harrison County Experimental Forest about 15 miles north of Gulfport, Miss. The scientists have discovered a new method of detecting plant stress.

  17. Final report, Feedback limitations of photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkey, Thomas D.

    1999-07-22

    Final report of research on carbon metabolism of photosynthesis. The feedback from carbon metabolism to primary photosynthetic processes is summarized, and a comprehensive list of published scientific papers is provided.

  18. Global analysis of photosynthesis transcriptional regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Saheed; Noguera, Daniel R; Donohue, Timothy J

    2014-12-01

    Photosynthesis is a crucial biological process that depends on the interplay of many components. This work analyzed the gene targets for 4 transcription factors: FnrL, PrrA, CrpK and MppG (RSP_2888), which are known or predicted to control photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified 52 operons under direct control of FnrL, illustrating its regulatory role in photosynthesis, iron homeostasis, nitrogen metabolism and regulation of sRNA synthesis. Using global gene expression analysis combined with ChIP-seq, we mapped the regulons of PrrA, CrpK and MppG. PrrA regulates ∼34 operons encoding mainly photosynthesis and electron transport functions, while CrpK, a previously uncharacterized Crp-family protein, regulates genes involved in photosynthesis and maintenance of iron homeostasis. Furthermore, CrpK and FnrL share similar DNA binding determinants, possibly explaining our observation of the ability of CrpK to partially compensate for the growth defects of a ΔFnrL mutant. We show that the Rrf2 family protein, MppG, plays an important role in photopigment biosynthesis, as part of an incoherent feed-forward loop with PrrA. Our results reveal a previously unrealized, high degree of combinatorial regulation of photosynthetic genes and significant cross-talk between their transcriptional regulators, while illustrating previously unidentified links between photosynthesis and the maintenance of iron homeostasis.

  19. CAD/CAM-assisted breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchels, Ferry; Wiggenhauser, Paul Severin; Warne, David; Barry, Mark; Ong, Fook Rhu; Chong, Woon Shin; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten

    2011-09-01

    The application of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the clinic is growing slowly but steadily. The ability to build patient-specific models based on medical imaging data offers major potential. In this work we report on the feasibility of employing laser scanning with CAD/CAM techniques to aid in breast reconstruction. A patient was imaged with laser scanning, an economical and facile method for creating an accurate digital representation of the breasts and surrounding tissues. The obtained model was used to fabricate a customized mould that was employed as an intra-operative aid for the surgeon performing autologous tissue reconstruction of the breast removed due to cancer. Furthermore, a solid breast model was derived from the imaged data and digitally processed for the fabrication of customized scaffolds for breast tissue engineering. To this end, a novel generic algorithm for creating porosity within a solid model was developed, using a finite element model as intermediate. PMID:21900731

  20. CAD/CAM: Practical and Persuasive in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willms, Ed

    2007-01-01

    Chances are that many high school students would not know how to use drafting instruments, but some might want to gain competence in computer-assisted design (CAD) and possibly computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM). These students are often attracted to tech courses by the availability of CAD/CAM instructions, and many go on to impress employers…

  1. Cam Drive Step Mechanism of a Quadruped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bionic quadruped robots received considerable worldwide research attention. For a quadruped robot walking with steady paces on a flat terrain, using a cam drive control mechanism instead of servomotors provides theoretical and practical benefits as it reduces the system weight, cost, and control complexities; thus it may be more cost beneficial for some recreational or household applications. This study explores the robot step mechanism including the leg and cam drive control systems based on studying the bone structure and the kinematic step sequences of dog. The design requirements for the cam drive robot legs have been raised, and the mechanical principles of the leg operating mechanism as well as the control parameters have been analyzed. A cam drive control system was constructed using three cams to control each leg. Finally, a four-leg demo robot was manufactured for experiments and it showed stable walking patterns on a flat floor.

  2. Knowledge and training needs among Danish nurses about CAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Background: The increased use of CAM among the Danish population is well documented as are patient’s requests to discuss CAM with a healthcare professional. It is suggested that among different groups of healthcare professionals nurses are the most “open minded” about CAM. This makes it important...... to explore nurses’ knowledge about CAM and their needs for training. Methods: Similar to international investigations a Danish “CAM-knowledge” questionnaire was developed that included multiple choice, yes/no and 5 points scale answers. Validity was established through initial pilot testing. Contacts...... to a randomized sample of 2500 nurses were established through the Danish Nurses Foundation. The questionnaires were mailed by post with the possibility of anonymous return. The data material was analyzed using non-parametic methods. Results: The response rate was 67 % and 1458 completed...

  3. UY Puppis A New Anomalous Z Cam Type Dwarf Nova

    CERN Document Server

    Stubbings, Rod

    2016-01-01

    The defining characteristic of Z Cam stars are standstills in their light curves. Some Z Cams exhibit atypical behaviour by going into outburst from a standstill. It has previously been suggested that UY Pup had been a Z Cam star, but it was ruled out due to its long-term light curve. However, in December 2015 UY Pup went into outburst and unexpectedly entered into a short standstill instead of returning to quiescence. Furthermore, UY Pup exhibited additional unusual behaviour with two outbursts detected during its standstill. After this standstill UY Pup made a brief excursion to a quiescence state and slowly rose to a longer and well-defined standstill, where it again went into another outburst. Through comparative analysis, researching and observational data of UY Pup it is evident and thus concluded that it is indeed a Z Cam star, in which renders it to be one of only four known anomalous Z Cam stars.

  4. Treatment Preferences for CAM in children with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jennie C I; Meldrum, Marcia; Kim, Su C; Jacob, Margaret C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2007-09-01

    CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls) (mean age = 14.5 years +/- 2.4; range = 8-18 years) presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between CAM treatment preferences and patient's sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their self-reported level of functioning. Over 60% of patients elected to try at least one CAM approach for pain. The most popular CAM therapies were biofeedback, yoga and hypnosis; the least popular were art therapy and energy healing, with craniosacral, acupuncture and massage being intermediate. Patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (80%) were the most likely to try CAM versus those with other pain diagnoses. In multivariate analyses, pain duration emerged as a significant predictor of CAM preferences. For mind-based approaches (i.e. hypnosis, biofeedback and art therapy), pain duration and limitations in family activities were both significant predictors. When given a choice of CAM therapies, this sample of children with chronic pain, irrespective of pain diagnosis, preferred non-invasive approaches that enhanced relaxation and increased somatic control. Longer duration of pain and greater impairment in functioning, particularly during family activities increased the likelihood that such patients agreed to engage in CAM treatments, especially those that were categorized as mind-based modalities. PMID:17965769

  5. Treatment Preferences for CAM in Children with Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. I. Tsao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls (mean age = 14.5 years ± 2.4; range = 8–18 years presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between CAM treatment preferences and patient's sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their self-reported level of functioning. Over 60% of patients elected to try at least one CAM approach for pain. The most popular CAM therapies were biofeedback, yoga and hypnosis; the least popular were art therapy and energy healing, with craniosacral, acupuncture and massage being intermediate. Patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (80% were the most likely to try CAM versus those with other pain diagnoses. In multivariate analyses, pain duration emerged as a significant predictor of CAM preferences. For mind-based approaches (i.e. hypnosis, biofeedback and art therapy, pain duration and limitations in family activities were both significant predictors. When given a choice of CAM therapies, this sample of children with chronic pain, irrespective of pain diagnosis, preferred non-invasive approaches that enhanced relaxation and increased somatic control. Longer duration of pain and greater impairment in functioning, particularly during family activities increased the likelihood that such patients agreed to engage in CAM treatments, especially those that were categorized as mind-based modalities.

  6. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM providers’ views of chronic low back pain patients’ expectations of CAM therapies: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schafer Lisa M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some researchers think that patients with higher expectations for CAM therapies experience better outcomes and that enthusiastic providers can enhance treatment outcomes. This is in contrast to evidence suggesting conventional medical providers often reorient patient expectations to better match what providers believe to be realistic. However, there is a paucity of research on CAM providers’ views of their patients’ expectations regarding CAM therapy and the role of these expectations in patient outcomes. Methods To better understand how CAM providers view and respond to their patients’ expectations of a particular therapy, we conducted 32 semi-structured, qualitative interviews with acupuncturists, chiropractors, massage therapists and yoga instructors identified through convenience sampling. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically using Atlas ti version 6.1. Results CAM providers reported that they attempt to ensure that their patients’ expectations are realistic. Providers indicated they manage their patients’ expectations in a number of domains— roles and responsibilities of providers and patients, treatment outcomes, timeframe for improvement, and treatment experience. Providers reported that patients’ expectations change over time and that they need to continually manage these expectations to enhance patient engagement and satisfaction with treatment. Conclusions Providers of four types of CAM therapies viewed patients’ expectations as an important component of their experiences with CAM therapy and indicated that they try to align patient expectations with reality. These findings suggest that CAM providers are similar in this respect to conventional medical providers.

  7. Estimating phytoplankton photosynthesis by active fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkowski, P.G.; Kolber, Z.

    1992-10-01

    Photosynthesis can be described by target theory, At low photon flux densities, photosynthesis is a linear function of irradiance (I), The number of reaction centers (n), their effective absorption capture cross section {sigma}, and a quantum yield {phi}. As photosynthesis becomes increasingly light saturated, an increased fraction of reaction centers close. At light saturation the maximum photosynthetic rate is given as the product of the number of reaction centers (n) and their maximum electron transport rate (I/{tau}). Using active fluorometry it is possible to measure non-destructively and in real time the fraction of open or closed reaction centers under ambient irradiance conditions in situ, as well as {sigma} and {phi} {tau} can be readily, calculated from knowledge of the light saturation parameter, I{sub k} (which can be deduced by in situ by active fluorescence measurements) and {sigma}. We built a pump and probe fluorometer, which is interfaced with a CTD. The instrument measures the fluorescence yield of a weak probe flash preceding (f{sub 0}) and succeeding (f{sub 0}) a saturating pump flash. Profiles of the these fluorescence yields are used to derive the instantaneous rate of gross photosynthesis in natural phytoplankton communities without any incubation. Correlations with short-term simulated in situ radiocarbon measurements are extremely high. The average slope between photosynthesis derived from fluorescence and that measured by radiocarbon is 1.15 and corresponds to the average photosynthetic quotient. The intercept is about 15% of the maximum radiocarbon uptake and corresponds to the average net community respiration. Profiles of photosynthesis and sections showing the variability in its composite parameters reveal a significant effect of nutrient availability on biomass specific rates of photosynthesis in the ocean.

  8. Estimating phytoplankton photosynthesis by active fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkowski, P.G.; Kolber, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Photosynthesis can be described by target theory, At low photon flux densities, photosynthesis is a linear function of irradiance (I), The number of reaction centers (n), their effective absorption capture cross section {sigma}, and a quantum yield {phi}. As photosynthesis becomes increasingly light saturated, an increased fraction of reaction centers close. At light saturation the maximum photosynthetic rate is given as the product of the number of reaction centers (n) and their maximum electron transport rate (I/{tau}). Using active fluorometry it is possible to measure non-destructively and in real time the fraction of open or closed reaction centers under ambient irradiance conditions in situ, as well as {sigma} and {phi} {tau} can be readily, calculated from knowledge of the light saturation parameter, I{sub k} (which can be deduced by in situ by active fluorescence measurements) and {sigma}. We built a pump and probe fluorometer, which is interfaced with a CTD. The instrument measures the fluorescence yield of a weak probe flash preceding (f{sub 0}) and succeeding (f{sub 0}) a saturating pump flash. Profiles of the these fluorescence yields are used to derive the instantaneous rate of gross photosynthesis in natural phytoplankton communities without any incubation. Correlations with short-term simulated in situ radiocarbon measurements are extremely high. The average slope between photosynthesis derived from fluorescence and that measured by radiocarbon is 1.15 and corresponds to the average photosynthetic quotient. The intercept is about 15% of the maximum radiocarbon uptake and corresponds to the average net community respiration. Profiles of photosynthesis and sections showing the variability in its composite parameters reveal a significant effect of nutrient availability on biomass specific rates of photosynthesis in the ocean.

  9. Immediate CAD/ CAM Custom Fabricated Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There will almost always be gaps between cylin-drical or screw shaped prefabricated implant surface and funnel-shaped tooth socket when an implant is placed immediately after tooth extraction. Hence expensive and difficult bone grafting is re-quired. A custom fabricated implant will be a pragmatic solution for this limitation.The hypothesis: First step following extraction of a tooth is data capture or scanning via a 3D scan method e.g. coordinate measuring machine or non-contact laser scanners such as triangulation range finder. Second step is reconstruction or modeling via editable CAD (computer-aided design model, allowing us to add retentive holes and correction of implant angle. Third step is fabrication via CAM (computer aided manufacturing followed by plasma cleaning process. Fourth step is insertion of the CAD/CAM custom fabricated one-stage implant in the fresh tooth socket. Optimal time for this step is 24-48 hours after extraction. The custom fabricated implant should not load 3-4 months. Usage of chlorhexidine mouth-rinse or chewing gum twice daily for 2 weeks and, in some cases oral antibiotic is recommended. Evaluation of the hypothesis: Contemporary dental implant system faced with several clinical and anatomical limitations such is low sinuses or nerve bundles. Complex and expensive surgical procedures such as nerve repositioning and sinus lift are frequently required. With custom fabricated implant we can overcome several of these limitations because insertion of custom fabricated implant will perform before alveolar bone recession.

  10. Sixty years in algal physiology and photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirson, A

    1994-06-01

    This personal perspective records research experiences in chemistry and biology at four German universities, two before and two after World War II. The research themes came from cytophysiology of green unicellular algae, in particular their photosynthesis. The function of inorganic ions in photosynthesis and dark respiration was investigated at different degrees of specific mineral stress (deficiencies), and the kinetics of recovery followed after the addition of the missing element. Two types of recovery of photosynthesis were observed: indirect restitution via growth processes and immediate normalisation. From the latter case (K(+), phosphate, Mn(++)) the effect of manganese was emphasized as its role in photosynthetic O2 evolution became established during our research. Other themes of our group, with some bearing on photosynthesis were: synchronization of cell growth by light-dark change and effects of blue (vs. red) light on the composition of green cells. Some experiences in connection with algal mass cultures are included. Discussion of several editorial projects shows how photosynthesis, as an orginally separated field of plant biochemistry and biophysics, became included into general cell physiology and even ecophysiology of green plants. The paper contains an appreciation of the authors' main mentor Kurt Noack (1888-1963) and of Ernst Georg Pringsheim (1881-1970), founder of experimental phycology.

  11. UVAJANJE PROGRAMSKIH ORODIJ CAD/CAM V PODJETJU

    OpenAIRE

    Gjerkeš, Srečko

    2010-01-01

    V diplomskem delu je prikazan postopek uvedbe CAD/CAM programskega orodja v podjetje. Cilj diplomskega dela je primerjava med ročnim programiranjem in programiranjem s pomočjo CAM sistema ter povečanje produktivnosti proizvodnje pri izdelavi serijskih izdelkov. Z uvedbo programskega orodja bi predvsem skrajšali obdelovalne čase izdelkov, ki se izdelujejo v različnih serijah. Diplomsko delo opisuje osnovne značilnosti CAD/CAM sistemov, podjetje Medicop d.o.o, programska orodja in njihovo p...

  12. SODOBNA RAČUNALNIŠKA TEHNOLOGIJA ZA CAD/CAM

    OpenAIRE

    Herženjak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Sodobna računalniška tehnologija CAD/CAM se čedalje pogosteje uporablja v naprednih podjetjih v tujini in tudi v Sloveniji. Pomembno je vedeti kakšna aparaturna oprema za CAD/CAM je danes na voljo, saj omogoča uspešno konstruiranje, modeliranje in simulacije. V prvem delu diplomske naloge sem zato preučil sodobno programsko in aparaturno opremo za CAD/CAM, ki je namenjena za konstruiranje, modeliranje in simulacije. Prav tako sem na kratko opisal najpomembnejše vidike dodajanih tehnologij, ki...

  13. CAD/CAM ceramic restorations in the operatory and laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasbinder, Dennis J

    2003-08-01

    Computer assisted design/computer assisted machining (CAD/CAM) technology has received considerable clinical and research interest from modern dental practices as a means of delivering all-ceramic restorations. The CEREC, System offers CAD/CAM dental technology designed for clinical use by dentists, as well as a separate system designed for dental laboratory technicians. The CEREC 3 system is indicated for dental operatory applications, and the CEREC inLab, system is indicated for dental laboratory applications. Although both systems rely on similar CAD/CAM technology, several significant differences exist in the processing techniques involved, restorative materials used, and types of restoration provided. PMID:14692164

  14. Cam Profile Grinding CNC System Based on Open Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies some key technologies of CNC system for cam grinding. Themathematical motion model for cam grinding is established according to the harmony of re-ciprocating motion of the grinding wheel and the rotating motion of the woorkpiece. Themethod of using the linear servomotor to accomplish the grinding wheel tracking is devel-oped and the dynamic model of the system is analyzed. Then the cross-coupled biaxial errorcompensation model is proposed. Finally,the hardware and software of the control systemare designed based on open architecture. Some algorithms, such as spline fitting and inter-polation for cam contour, velocity control and feed control, are presented to improvegrinding precision.

  15. Global analysis of photosynthesis transcriptional regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Saheed; Noguera, Daniel R; Donohue, Timothy J

    2014-12-01

    Photosynthesis is a crucial biological process that depends on the interplay of many components. This work analyzed the gene targets for 4 transcription factors: FnrL, PrrA, CrpK and MppG (RSP_2888), which are known or predicted to control photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified 52 operons under direct control of FnrL, illustrating its regulatory role in photosynthesis, iron homeostasis, nitrogen metabolism and regulation of sRNA synthesis. Using global gene expression analysis combined with ChIP-seq, we mapped the regulons of PrrA, CrpK and MppG. PrrA regulates ∼34 operons encoding mainly photosynthesis and electron transport functions, while CrpK, a previously uncharacterized Crp-family protein, regulates genes involved in photosynthesis and maintenance of iron homeostasis. Furthermore, CrpK and FnrL share similar DNA binding determinants, possibly explaining our observation of the ability of CrpK to partially compensate for the growth defects of a ΔFnrL mutant. We show that the Rrf2 family protein, MppG, plays an important role in photopigment biosynthesis, as part of an incoherent feed-forward loop with PrrA. Our results reveal a previously unrealized, high degree of combinatorial regulation of photosynthetic genes and significant cross-talk between their transcriptional regulators, while illustrating previously unidentified links between photosynthesis and the maintenance of iron homeostasis. PMID:25503406

  16. Global analysis of photosynthesis transcriptional regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saheed Imam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a crucial biological process that depends on the interplay of many components. This work analyzed the gene targets for 4 transcription factors: FnrL, PrrA, CrpK and MppG (RSP_2888, which are known or predicted to control photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq identified 52 operons under direct control of FnrL, illustrating its regulatory role in photosynthesis, iron homeostasis, nitrogen metabolism and regulation of sRNA synthesis. Using global gene expression analysis combined with ChIP-seq, we mapped the regulons of PrrA, CrpK and MppG. PrrA regulates ∼34 operons encoding mainly photosynthesis and electron transport functions, while CrpK, a previously uncharacterized Crp-family protein, regulates genes involved in photosynthesis and maintenance of iron homeostasis. Furthermore, CrpK and FnrL share similar DNA binding determinants, possibly explaining our observation of the ability of CrpK to partially compensate for the growth defects of a ΔFnrL mutant. We show that the Rrf2 family protein, MppG, plays an important role in photopigment biosynthesis, as part of an incoherent feed-forward loop with PrrA. Our results reveal a previously unrealized, high degree of combinatorial regulation of photosynthetic genes and significant cross-talk between their transcriptional regulators, while illustrating previously unidentified links between photosynthesis and the maintenance of iron homeostasis.

  17. Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Controls Oxygenic Photosynthesis in a Cyanobacterium from a Sulfidic Spring

    KAUST Repository

    Klatt, Judith M.

    2015-03-15

    Before the Earth\\'s complete oxygenation (0.58 to 0.55 billion years [Ga] ago), the photic zone of the Proterozoic oceans was probably redox stratified, with a slightly aerobic, nutrient-limited upper layer above a light-limited layer that tended toward euxinia. In such oceans, cyanobacteria capable of both oxygenic and sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis played a fundamental role in the global carbon, oxygen, and sulfur cycle. We have isolated a cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena strain FS39, in which this versatility is still conserved, and we show that the transition between the two photosynthetic modes follows a surprisingly simple kinetic regulation controlled by this organism\\'s affinity for H2S. Specifically, oxygenic photosynthesis is performed in addition to anoxygenic photosynthesis only when H2S becomes limiting and its concentration decreases below a threshold that increases predictably with the available ambient light. The carbon-based growth rates during oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were similar. However, Pseudanabaena FS39 additionally assimilated NO3 - during anoxygenic photosynthesis. Thus, the transition between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis was accompanied by a shift of the C/N ratio of the total bulk biomass. These mechanisms offer new insights into the way in which, despite nutrient limitation in the oxic photic zone in the mid-Proterozoic oceans, versatile cyanobacteria might have promoted oxygenic photosynthesis and total primary productivity, a key step that enabled the complete oxygenation of our planet and the subsequent diversification of life.

  18. Anoxygenic photosynthesis controls oxygenic photosynthesis in a cyanobacterium from a sulfidic spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Judith M; Al-Najjar, Mohammad A A; Yilmaz, Pelin; Lavik, Gaute; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-03-01

    Before the Earth's complete oxygenation (0.58 to 0.55 billion years [Ga] ago), the photic zone of the Proterozoic oceans was probably redox stratified, with a slightly aerobic, nutrient-limited upper layer above a light-limited layer that tended toward euxinia. In such oceans, cyanobacteria capable of both oxygenic and sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis played a fundamental role in the global carbon, oxygen, and sulfur cycle. We have isolated a cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena strain FS39, in which this versatility is still conserved, and we show that the transition between the two photosynthetic modes follows a surprisingly simple kinetic regulation controlled by this organism's affinity for H2S. Specifically, oxygenic photosynthesis is performed in addition to anoxygenic photosynthesis only when H2S becomes limiting and its concentration decreases below a threshold that increases predictably with the available ambient light. The carbon-based growth rates during oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were similar. However, Pseudanabaena FS39 additionally assimilated NO3 (-) during anoxygenic photosynthesis. Thus, the transition between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis was accompanied by a shift of the C/N ratio of the total bulk biomass. These mechanisms offer new insights into the way in which, despite nutrient limitation in the oxic photic zone in the mid-Proterozoic oceans, versatile cyanobacteria might have promoted oxygenic photosynthesis and total primary productivity, a key step that enabled the complete oxygenation of our planet and the subsequent diversification of life.

  19. Can miscanthus C4 photosynthesis compete with festulolium C3 photosynthesis in a temperate climate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xiurong; Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Andersen, Mathias Neumann;

    2016-01-01

    Miscanthus, a perennial grass with C4 photosynthesis, is regarded as a promising energy crop due to its high biomass productivity. Compared with other C4 species, most miscanthus genotypes have high cold tolerances at 14 °C. However, in temperate climates, temperatures below 14 °C are common...... at each temperature level and still maintained photosynthesis after growing for a longer period at 6/4 °C. Only two of five measured miscanthus genotypes increased photosynthesis immediately after the temperature was raised again. The photosynthetic capacity of festulolium was significantly higher at 10...

  20. Resin-composite blocks for dental CAD/CAM applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, N D; Sadoun, M J

    2014-12-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and resin composites. While glass-ceramics/ceramics have overall superior mechanical and esthetic properties, resin-composite materials may offer significant advantages related to their machinability and intra-oral reparability. This review summarizes recent developments in resin-composite materials for CAD/CAM applications, focusing on both commercial and experimental materials.

  1. Finding the Evidence in CAM: a Student's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Ghassemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This commentary offers a future health care provider's perspective on the role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in Western (namely, in US medical education and practice. As a student of both public health and medicine in the United States, Jeffrey Ghassemi is interested in CAM's contribution to improving medical practice and teaching. The commentary highlights the ambiguous definitions of CAM to Westerners despite the rising popularity of and expenditures for alternative modalities of care. It then argues for collaboration between alternative and established medical communities to ascertain the scientific merits of CAM. It concludes by calling for a new medical paradigm that embraces the philosophies of both communities to advance education and patient care.

  2. Surgical hip dislocation for treatment of cam femoroacetabular impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M Chaudhary

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Cam femoroacetabular Impingement causing pain and limitation of hip movements was treated by open osteochondroplasty after surgical hip dislocation. This reduced pain, improved hip motion and gave good to excellent results in the short term.

  3. Resin-composite Blocks for Dental CAD/CAM Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, N.D.; Sadoun, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and resin composites. While glass-ceramics/ceramics have overall superior mechanical and esthetic properties, resin-composite materials may offer significant advantages related to their machinability and intra-oral reparability. This review summarizes recent developments in resin-composite materials for CAD/CAM applications, focusing on both commercial and experimental materials. PMID:25344335

  4. IGES data exchange between dissimilar CAD-CAM systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theilen, D.F.

    1982-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Bendix Kansas City have successfully transferred geometrical model data by using a neutral graphics format, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). Data was exchanged between two dissimilar CAD-CAM systems without the need for special translators. The exchanged data was used to fabricate a mechanical part. Design information developed on a CAD-CAM system was translated to IGES with a commercial preprocessor at Sandia. A second vendor's postprocessor translated the design information from IGES to the CAD-CAM system at Bendix. The Bendix CAD-CAM system was used to generate the numerical control tape from the exchange data. The tape was used to fabricate the part. A production print from Sandia was used during final inspection to verify part accuracy. Project results indicated that both vendor-furnished translators correctly transferred the geometric model of points, lines and arcs.

  5. Selecting a CAD/CAM system for the first time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    A good percentage of manufacturing companies with gross sales exceeding $100 million already use some form of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM). More recently, however, a new, larger group with annual gross sales between $10 million and $100 million have entered the CAD/CAM marketplace. Interested because the technology has proven itself to be economical, beneficial, and relatively easy to implement without prior computer experience, these companies are actively investigating and applying CAD and CAD/CAM. Many are subcontractors to large companies with low design requirements. Others may design and/or manufacture a proprietary product line. Yet, while resembling one another, the needs of these companies vary widely. Applying the proper kind and level of CAD/CAM, therefore, requires a careful analysis of each user's needs.

  6. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Time to Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with your health care providers any complementary and alternative medicines you take or are thinking about starting. Photo: ... and older use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). But less than one-third who use ...

  7. Today's CAD/CAM: flexible digital technologies expanding workflow options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, Jonathan L

    2015-03-01

    CAD/CAM and digital scanning technologies have become essential components of dentistry. Digital impression scanning, restoration design, and manufacturing techniques yield greater treatment predictability, high-level esthetics, and functional accuracy using a variety of materials. PMID:25822749

  8. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies, and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability

  9. OmegaCAM at the VLT Survey Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappellaro, E.; Baruffolo, A.; Cascone, E.; Greggio, L.; Kuijken, K.; Bender, R.; Muschielok, B.; Iwert, O.; Mitsch, W.; Nicklas, H.; Valentijn, E. A.

    2003-01-01

    We present the status of the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) and OmegaCAM projects. VST is a 2.6m telescope which will be integrated in the ESO-VLT environment at Paranal and will be equipped with a 16k × 16k CCD camera (OmegaCAM) covering 1 square degree with a resolution of 0.21 arcsec/pix. The main sc

  10. CAD-CAM Implants in Esthetic and Reconstructive Craniofacial Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Jörg; Hemprich, Alexander; Schulze, Fritz Peter; Berti, Guntram; Schmidt, Jens-Georg; Scholz, Eckhard; Wollny, Gerd; Hierl, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In the reconstruction of complex craniofacial malformations CAD-CAM procedures could help generating alloplastic implants to achieve almost optimal esthetic results. Complementary to the existing CAD-CAM techniques in the cranial vault region or modeling procedures in unilateral defects, these techniques are introduced to bilaterally affected skulls in esthetic reconstructive surgery. Surgery could thus become less invasive and results more predictable. A tool chain is shown to generate such ...

  11. Geometric Distortion Analysis Using CAD/CAM Based Manufacturing Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Werke, Mats; Hedlind, Mikael; Nicolescu, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Machining of components may cause geometric distortions and thereby quality issues and increased costs. This paper presents an engineering approach of CAD/CAM based manufacturing simulation in order to be in control of geometric distortions after machining. The method utilises STEP AP209 for communication of CAD/CAM simulation data. The method improves the ability to optimise process parameters, geometry, and material, in order to fulfil the design requirements. The method supports concurrent...

  12. A systematic review of CAD/CAM fit restoration evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitelle, P; Mawussi, B; Tapie, L; Fromentin, O

    2014-11-01

    The evolution and development of CAD/CAM systems have led to the production of prosthetic reconstructions by going beyond the use of traditional techniques. Precision adjustment of prosthetic elements is considered essential to ensure sustainable restoration and dental preparation. The purpose of this article was to summarise the current literature on the fitting quality of fixed prostheses obtained by CAD/CAM technology. PMID:24952991

  13. Photosynthesis in reproductive structures: costs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Griffiths, Howard

    2015-04-01

    The role of photosynthesis by reproductive structures during grain-filling has important implications for cereal breeding, but the methods for assessing the contribution by reproductive structures to grain-filling are invasive and prone to compensatory changes elsewhere in the plant. A technique analysing the natural abundance of stable carbon isotopes in soluble carbohydrates has significant promise. However, it depends crucially on there being no more than two sources of organic carbon (leaf and ear/awn), with significantly different (13)C:(12)C ratios and no secondary fractionation during grain-filling. The role of additional peduncle carbohydrate reserves represents a potential means for N remobilization, as well as for hydraulic continuity during grain-filling. The natural abundance of the stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen are also useful for exploring the influence of reproduction on whole plant carbon and water relations and have been used to examine the resource costs of reproduction in females and males of dioecious plants. Photosynthesis in reproductive structures is widespread among oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, including many clades of algae and embryophytes of different levels of complexity. The possible evolutionary benefits of photosynthesis in reproductive structures include decreasing the carbon cost of reproduction and 'use' of transpiratory loss of water to deliver phloem-immobile calcium Ca(2+) and silicon [Si(OH)4] via the xylem. The possible costs of photosynthesis in reproductive structures are increasing damage to DNA from photosynthetically active, and hence UV-B, radiation and the production of reactive oxygen species. PMID:25871648

  14. Dynamic regulation of photosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Jun; Tokutsu, Ryutaro

    2015-05-01

    Plants and algae have acquired the ability to acclimatize to ever-changing environments to survive. During photosynthesis, light energy is converted by several membrane protein supercomplexes into electrochemical energy, which is eventually used to assimilate CO2 . The efficiency of photosynthesis is modulated by many environmental factors, including temperature, drought, CO2 concentration, and the quality and quantity of light. Recently, our understanding of such regulators of photosynthesis and the underlying molecular mechanisms has increased considerably. The photosynthetic supercomplexes undergo supramolecular reorganizations within a short time after receiving environmental cues. These reorganizations include state transitions that balance the excitation of the two photosystems: qE quenching, which thermally dissipates excess energy at the level of the light-harvesting antenna, and cyclic electron flow, which supplies the increased ATP demanded by CO2 assimilation and the pH gradient to activate qE quenching. This review focuses on the recent findings regarding the environmental regulation of photosynthesis in model organisms, paying particular attention to the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which offer a glimpse into the dynamic behavior of photosynthetic machinery in nature.

  15. Photosynthesis in reproductive structures: costs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Griffiths, Howard

    2015-04-01

    The role of photosynthesis by reproductive structures during grain-filling has important implications for cereal breeding, but the methods for assessing the contribution by reproductive structures to grain-filling are invasive and prone to compensatory changes elsewhere in the plant. A technique analysing the natural abundance of stable carbon isotopes in soluble carbohydrates has significant promise. However, it depends crucially on there being no more than two sources of organic carbon (leaf and ear/awn), with significantly different (13)C:(12)C ratios and no secondary fractionation during grain-filling. The role of additional peduncle carbohydrate reserves represents a potential means for N remobilization, as well as for hydraulic continuity during grain-filling. The natural abundance of the stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen are also useful for exploring the influence of reproduction on whole plant carbon and water relations and have been used to examine the resource costs of reproduction in females and males of dioecious plants. Photosynthesis in reproductive structures is widespread among oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, including many clades of algae and embryophytes of different levels of complexity. The possible evolutionary benefits of photosynthesis in reproductive structures include decreasing the carbon cost of reproduction and 'use' of transpiratory loss of water to deliver phloem-immobile calcium Ca(2+) and silicon [Si(OH)4] via the xylem. The possible costs of photosynthesis in reproductive structures are increasing damage to DNA from photosynthetically active, and hence UV-B, radiation and the production of reactive oxygen species.

  16. Challenges in Understanding Photosynthesis in a University Introductory Biosciences Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södervik, Ilona; Virtanen, Viivi; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2015-01-01

    University students' understanding of photosynthesis was examined in a large introductory biosciences class. The focus of this study was to first examine the conceptions of photosynthesis among students in class and then to investigate how a certain type of text could enhance students' understanding of photosynthesis. The study was based on pre-…

  17. CAD-CAM at Bendix Kansas city: the BICAM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, D.R.

    1983-04-01

    Bendix Kansas City Division (BEKC) has been involved in Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) technology since the late 1950's when the numerical control (N/C) analysts installed computers to aid in N/C tape preparation for numerically controlled machines. Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology was introduced in 1976, when a number of 2D turnkey drafting stations were procured for printed wiring board (PWB) drawing definition and maintenance. In June, 1980, CAD-CAM Operations was formed to incorporate an integrated CAD-CAM capability into Bendix operations. In March 1982, a ninth division was added to the existing eight divisions at Bendix. Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) is a small organization, reporting directly to the general manager, who has responsibility to coordinate the overall integration of computer aided systems at Bendix. As a long range plan, CIM has adopted a National Bureau of Standards (NBS) architecture titled Factory of the Future. Conceptually, the Bendix CAD-CAM system has a centrally located data base which can be accessed by both CAD and CAM tools, processes, and personnel thus forming an integrated Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) System. This is a key requirement of the Bendix CAD-CAM system that will be presented in more detail.

  18. Operation of the xanthophyll cycle and degradation of D1 protein in the inducible CAM plant, Talinum triangulare, under water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Alejandro J; Tezara, Wilmer; Herrera, Ana

    2003-09-01

    Changes in photochemical activity induced by water deficit were investigated in Talinum triangulare, an inducible CAM plant. The aim was to analyse the interactions between C3 photosynthesis, induction and activity of CAM, photosynthetic energy regulation and the mechanisms responsible for photoprotection and photoinhibition under water stress. Gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, titratable acidity, carotenoid composition and relative contents of the PSII reaction centre protein (D1) were measured. A decrease in xylem tension (psi) from -0.14 to -0.2 MPa substantially decreased daytime net CO2 assimilation and daily carbon gain, and induced CAM, as shown by CO2 assimilation during the night and changes in titratable acidity; a further decrease in psi decreased nocturnal acid accumulation by 60%. Non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence (NPQ) increased with water deficit, but decreased with a more severe drought (psi below -0.2 MPa), when CAM activity was low. NPQ was lower at 0900 h (during maximum decarboxylation rates) than at 1400 h, when malate pools were depleted. Down-regulation of PSII activity related to the rise in NPQ was indicated by a smaller quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (phiPSII) in droughted compared with watered plants. However, phiPSII was larger at 0900 h than at 1400 h. The de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle increased with drought and was linearly related to NPQ. Intrinsic quantum yield of PSII (FV/FM) measured at dusk was also lower in severely stressed plants than in controls. Under maximum photosynthetic photon flux and high decarboxylation rates of organic acids, the D1 content in leaves of droughted plants showing maximal CAM activity was identical to the controls; increased drought decreased D1 content by more than 30%. Predawn samples had D1 contents similar to leaves sampled at peak irradiance, with no signs of recovery after 12 h of darkness. It is concluded that under mild water stress, early

  19. AEGIS Automated Targeting for the MSL ChemCam Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estlin, T.; Anderson, R. C.; Blaney, D. L.; Bornstein, B.; Burl, M. C.; Castano, R.; Gaines, D.; Judd, M.; Thompson, D. R.; Wiens, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science (AEGIS) system enables automated science data collection by a planetary rover. AEGIS has been in use on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission Opportunity rover since 2010 to provide onboard targeting of the MER Panoramic Camera based on scientist-specified objectives. AEGIS is now being applied for use with the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission ChemCam spectrometer. ChemCam uses a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) to analyze the elemental composition of rocks and soil from up to seven meters away. ChemCam's tightly-focused laser beam (350-550 um) enables targeting of very fine-scale terrain features. AEGIS is being applied in two ways to help ChemCam collect valuable science data. The first application is to enable automated targeting of ChemCam during or after or in the middle of long drives. The majority of ChemCam measurements are collected by allowing the science team to select specific targets in rover images. However this requires the rover to stay in the same area while images are downlinked, analyzed for targets, and new commands uplinked. The only data that can be acquired without this communication cycle is via blind targeting, where measurements are often of soil patches vs. instead of more valuable targets such as rocks with specific properties. AEGIS is being applied to automatically analyze images onboard and select targets for ChemCam analysis. This approach allows the rover to autonomously select and sequence targeted measurements in an opportunistic fashion at different points along the rover's drive path. Rock targets can be prioritized for measurement based on various geologically relevant features, including size, shape and albedo. A second application is to enable intelligent pointing refinement of ChemCam when acquiring data of small targets, such as veins or concretions that are only a few millimeters wide. Due to backlash and other pointing challenges, it can often

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Drought-Tolerant CAM plants Agave deserti and Agave tequilana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Stephen M.; Martin, Jeffrey A.; Simpson, June; Wang, Zhong; Visel, Axel

    2013-03-25

    Agaves are succulent monocotyledonous plants native to hot and arid environments of North America. Because of their adaptations to their environment, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM, a water-efficient form of photosynthesis) and existing technologies for ethanol production, agaves have gained attention both as potential lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstocks and models for exploring plant responses to abiotic stress. However, the lack of comprehensive Agave sequence datasets limits the scope of investigations into the molecular-genetic basis of Agave traits. Here, we present comprehensive, high quality de novo transcriptome assemblies of two Agave species, A. tequilana and A. deserti, from short-read RNA-seq data. Our analyses support completeness and accuracy of the de novo transcriptome assemblies, with each species having approximately 35,000 protein-coding genes. Comparison of agave proteomes to those of additional plant species identifies biological functions of gene families displaying sequence divergence in agave species. Additionally, we use RNA-seq data to gain insights into biological functions along the A. deserti juvenile leaf proximal-distal axis. Our work presents a foundation for further investigation of agave biology and their improvement for bioenergy development.

  1. Bendix CAD-CAM site plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.L.

    1982-12-01

    The Bendix Site Plan for CAD-CAM encompasses the development and integration of interactive graphics systems, factory data management systems, robotics, direct numerical control, automated inspection, factory automation, and shared data bases to achieve significant plant-wide gains in productivity. This plan does not address all current or planned computerization projects within our facility. A summary of planning proposals and rationale is presented in the following paragraphs. Interactive Graphics System (IGS) capability presently consists of two Applicon CAD systems and the CD-2000 software program processing on a time-shared CYBER 174 computer and a dedicated CYBER 173. Proposed plans include phased procurment through FY85 of additional computers and sufficient graphics terminals to support projected needs in drafting, tool/gage design, N/C programming, and process engineering. Planned procurement of additional computer equipment in FY86 and FY87 will provide the capacity necessary for a comprehensive graphics data base management system, computer-aided process planning graphics, and special graphics requirements in facilities and test equipment design. The overall IGS plan, designated BICAM (Bendix Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing), will provide the capability and capacity to integrate manufacturing activities through a shared product data base and standardized data exchange format. Planned efforts in robotics will result in productive applications of low to medium technology robots beginning in FY82, and extending by FY85 to work cell capabilities utilizing higher technology robots with sensors such as vision and instrumented remote compliance devices. A number of robots are projected to be in service by 1990.

  2. CO2 Sequestration and Recycle by Photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven S.C. Chuang

    2004-02-01

    Visible light-photocatalysis could provide a cost-effective route to recycle CO2 to useful chemicals or fuels. Research is planned to study the reactivity of adsorbates, their role in the photosynthesis reaction, and their relation to the nature of surface sites during photosynthesis of methanol and hydrocarbons from CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O. The year two research focus catalyst screening and IR studies. Key research results show Pd/TiO2 exhibits the highest activity for hydrocarbon synthesis from photocatalytic reactions. The in situ IR could successfully monitor the adsorbate hydrocarbon species on Cu/TiO2. Year III research will focus on developing a better understanding of the key factors which control the catalyst activity.

  3. A quantum protective mechanism in photosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Marais, Adriana; Petruccione, Francesco; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2016-01-01

    Since the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, living systems have developed protective mechanisms against reactive oxygen species. During charge separation in photosynthetic reaction centres, triplet states can react with molecular oxygen generating destructive singlet oxygen. The triplet product yield in bacteria is observed to be reduced by weak magnetic fields. Reaction centres from plants' photosystem II share many features with bacterial reaction centres, including a high-spin iron whose function has remained obscure. To explain observations that the magnetic field effect is reduced by the iron, we propose that its fast-relaxing spin plays a protective role in photosynthesis by generating an effective magnetic field. We consider a simple model of the system, derive an analytical expression for the effective magnetic field and analyse the resulting triplet yield reduction. The protective mechanism is robust for realistic parameter ranges, constituting a clear example of a quantum effect playing a macros...

  4. Prevalence of Cam Morphology in Females with Femoroacetabular Impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Levy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cam and pincer are two common morphologies responsible for femoroacetabular impingement. Previous literature has reported that cam deformity is predominantly a male morphology, while being significantly less common in females. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cam morphology in female subjects diagnosed with symptomatic FAI. All females presenting to the senior author’s clinic diagnosed with symptomatic FAI between December 2006 and Cam and pincer are two common morphologies responsible for femoroacetabular impingement. Previous literature has reported that cam deformity is predominantly a male morphology, while being significantly less common in females. Cam morphology is commonly assessed with the alpha angle, measured on radiographs. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cam morphology utilizing the alpha angle in female subjects diagnosed with symptomatic FAI. All females presenting to the senior author’s clinic diagnosed with symptomatic FAI between December 2006 and January 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Alpha (α angles were measured on AP (anteroposterior and lateral (Dunn 90°, cross-table lateral, and/or frog-leg lateral plain radiographs by two blinded physicians, and the largest measured angle was used. Using Gosvig et al.’s classification, alpha angle was characterized as (pathologic > 57°, borderline (51-56°, subtle (46-50°, very subtle (43-45°, or normal (≤42°. Three hundred and ninety-one patients (438 hips were analyzed (age 36.2 ± 12.3 years. Among the hips included, 35.6% were normal, 14.6% pathologic, 15.1% borderline, 14.6% subtle, and 20.1% very subtle. There was no correlation between alpha angle and patient age (R = 0.17 or body mass index (BMI (R = 0.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for α-angle measurements was 0.84. Sixty-four percent of females in this cohort had an alpha angle > 42°. Subtle cam deformity plays a significant role in

  5. Energy Conversion in Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    McConnell, Iain; Li, Gonghu; Brudvig, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Modern civilization is dependent upon fossil fuels, a nonrenewable energy source originally provided by the storage of solar energy. Fossil fuel dependence has severe consequences including energy security issues and greenhouse gas emissions. The consequences of fossil fuel dependence could be avoided by fuel-producing artificial systems that mimic natural photosynthesis, directly converting solar energy to fuel. This review describes the three key components of solar energy conversion in pho...

  6. Manganese and the Evolution of Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Woodward W; Hemp, James; Johnson, Jena E

    2015-09-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the most important bioenergetic event in the history of our planet-it evolved once within the Cyanobacteria, and remained largely unchanged as it was transferred to algae and plants via endosymbiosis. Manganese plays a fundamental role in this history because it lends the critical redox behavior of the water-oxidizing complex of photosystem II. Constraints from the photoassembly of the Mn-bearing water-oxidizing complex fuel the hypothesis that Mn(II) once played a key role as an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis prior to the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Here we review the growing body of geological and geochemical evidence from the Archean and Paleoproterozoic sedimentary records that supports this idea and demonstrates that the oxidative branch of the Mn cycle switched on prior to the rise of oxygen. This Mn-oxidizing phototrophy hypothesis also receives support from the biological record of extant phototrophs, and can be made more explicit by leveraging constraints from structural biology and biochemistry of photosystem II in Cyanobacteria. These observations highlight that water-splitting in photosystem II evolved independently from a homodimeric ancestral type II reaction center capable of high potential photosynthesis and Mn(II) oxidation, which is required by the presence of homologous redox-active tyrosines in the modern heterodimer. The ancestral homodimer reaction center also evolved a C-terminal extension that sterically precluded standard phototrophic electron donors like cytochrome c, cupredoxins, or high-potential iron-sulfur proteins, and could only complete direct oxidation of small molecules like Mn(2+), and ultimately water.

  7. PRODUCT DATA MANAGEMENT DALAM KAITAN DENGAN CAD/CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Nugroho Yahya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The future industry is the one who can manage the information system. Today, communication technology and distributed system computerization already have the ability to implement system that able to exchange and share information between different users. Product Data Management (PDM is an up-to-date and excellent method on managing the exchange and share of information. PDM is able to integrate and manage data analyzing process and documentation of the related product component physically. By adjusting the CAD/CAM on certain condition, the PDM will function maximally by using the information based on STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product Data model. This article will explain the relationship between PDM system and CAD/CAM on industry. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sistem informasi merupakan ujung tombak sebuah perusahaan yang unggul di masa depan. Komputerisasi dengan sistem yang terdistribusi dan teknologi komunikasi saat ini memiliki kemampuan untuk mengimplementasikan sistem yang dapat menukar dan men-share informasi antar user yang berbeda. Teknologi yang mendapat cukup perhatian luas dalam hal pertukaran dan sharing informasi ini adalah Product Data Management (PDM. PDM dapat mengintegrasikan dan mengatur proses pengolahan data dan dokumen teknik yang berhubungan dengan komponen fisik produk yang bersangkutan. PDM akan berfungsi maksimal apabila kesesuaian dengan CAD/CAM diatur sedemikian rupa, dihubungkan dengan informasi berbasiskan STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product Data model. Artikel ini akan menjelaskan hubungan antara sistem PDM dengan CAD/CAM dalam industri. Kata kunci: PDM, Manajemen Data, CAD/CAM, STEP.

  8. Exploring adolescent complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) use in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Chris; Arthur, Heather; Noesgaard, Charlotte; Caldwell, Patricia; Vohra, Julie; Francoeur, Chera; Swinton, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach investigated adolescents' perceptions about complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) use. Adolescents, attending a clinic at the Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine, were interviewed after receiving ethics approval. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. The decision of adolescents to use CAM was based within the context of their world and how it shaped influencing factors. Factors that influenced adolescents' decision to use CAM were identified as certain personality traits, culture, media, social contacts and the ability of CAM providers to develop therapeutic relationships. The barriers and benefits of CAM use influenced evaluation of choices. The importance of barriers in limiting freedom of choice in health care decisions should be investigated by practitioners as they provide care to adolescents. Health care planning for integrative models of care requires determining the "right" blend of expertise by knowing interprofessional boundaries, determining mixed skill sets to provide the essential services and ensuring appropriate regulation that allows practitioners to use their full scope of practice. PMID:18202985

  9. CamBAfx: Workflow Design, Implementation and Application for Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cinly; Bullmore, Edward T; Wink, Alle-Meije; Sendur, Levent; Barnes, Anna; Achard, Sophie; Aspden, John; Abbott, Sanja; Yue, Shigang; Kitzbichler, Manfred; Meunier, David; Maxim, Voichita; Salvador, Raymond; Henty, Julian; Tait, Roger; Subramaniam, Naresh; Suckling, John

    2009-01-01

    CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers) and those who design them (designers). It provides a front-end (user interface) optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platform application, CamBAfx's pipelines and functions can be bundled with the software or downloaded post-installation. The user interface contains all the workflow facilities expected by consumers. Using the Eclipse Extension Mechanism designers are encouraged to customize CamBAfx for their own pipelines. CamBAfx wraps a workflow facility around neuroinformatics software without modification. CamBAfx's design, licensing and Eclipse Branding Mechanism allow it to be used as the user interface for other software, facilitating exchange of innovative computational tools between originating labs.

  10. CamBAfx: workflow design, implementation and application for neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinly Ooi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers and those who design them (designers. It provides a front-end (user interface optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platform application, CamBAfx's pipelines and functions can be bundled with the software or downloaded post-installation. The user interface contains all the workflow facilities expected by consumers. Using the Eclipse Extension Mechanism designers are encouraged to customize CamBAfx for their own pipelines. CamBAfx wraps a workflow facility around neuroinformatics software without modification. CamBAfx's design, licensing and Eclipse Branding Mechanism allow it to be used as the user interface for other software, facilitating exchange of innovative computational tools between originating labs.

  11. Concerns of Hydrothermal Degradation in CAD/CAM Zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.-W.; Covel, N.S.; Guess, P.C.; Rekow, E.D.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia-based restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry; however, their susceptibility to hydrothermal degradation remains elusive. We hypothesized that CAD/CAM machining and subsequent surface treatments, i.e., grinding and/or grit-blasting, have marked effects on the hydrothermal degradation behavior of Y-TZP. CAD/CAM-machined Y-TZP plates (0.5 mm thick), both with and without subsequent grinding with various grit sizes or grit-blasting with airborne alumina particles, were subjected to accelerated aging tests in a steam autoclave. Results showed that the CAD/CAM-machined surfaces initially exhibited superior hydrothermal degradation resistance, but deteriorated at a faster rate upon prolonged autoclave treatment compared with ground and grit-blasted surfaces. The accelerated hydrothermal degradation of CAD/CAM surfaces is attributed to the CAD/CAM machining damage and the absence of surface compressive stresses in the fully sintered material. Clinical relevance for surface treatments of zirconia frameworks in terms of hydrothermal and structural stabilities is addressed. PMID:19966039

  12. GravityCam: Higher Resolution Visible Wide-Field Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Craig; Steele, Iain

    2016-01-01

    The limits to the angular resolution achievable with conventional ground-based telescopes are unchanged over 70 years. Atmospheric turbulence limits image quality to typically ~1 arcsec in practice. We have developed a new concept of ground-based imaging instrument called GravityCam capable of delivering significantly sharper images from the ground than is normally possible without adaptive optics. The acquisition of visible images at high speed without significant noise penalty has been made possible by advances in optical and near IR imaging technologies. Images are recorded at high speed and then aligned before combination and can yield a 3-5 fold improvement in image resolution. Very wide survey fields are possible with widefield telescope optics. We describe GravityCam and detail its application to accelerate greatly the rate of detection of Earth size planets by gravitational microlensing. GravityCam will also improve substantially the quality of weak shear studies of dark matter distribution in distant...

  13. IGES data exchange between dissimilar CAD-CAM systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theilen, D.F.; Jones, J.F.

    1982-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNLL), and Bendix Kansas City have successfully transferred geometric model data by using a neutral graphics format, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). Data was exchanged between two dissimilar CAD-CAM systems without the need for special translators. The exchanged data was used to fabricate a mechanical part. Design information developed on a CAD-CAM system was translated to IGES with a commercial preprocessor at Sandia. A second vendor's postprocessor translated the design information from IGES to the CAD-CAM system at Bendix. The Bendix system was used to generate the numerical control tape from the exchanged data. The tape was used to fabricate the part. A production print from Sandia was used during final inspection to verify part accuracy. Project results indicated that both vendor-furnished translators correctly transferred the three-dimensional geometric model of points, lines, and arcs.

  14. Illness narratives in cancer: CAM and spiritual practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    be related to CAM. The analysis is based on empirical findings from a recent PhD project. During a two-year period first author followed 32 cancer patients, family, friends and alternative practitioners through interviews, telephone conversations, treatments and in focus groups. Results: As a general pattern......Objectives: In this paper,we investigate Danish cancer patients’ narratives on spiritual beliefs and practices and the relationship these practices may have to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design: Narrative inquiry is used to uncover how spiritual beliefs and practices may......, religious and spiritual issues were not extensively unfolded in participants’ illness narratives. However, these issues were significantly elaborated on in narratives by four female participants. Conclusion: We propose that for some cancer patients CAM may function, not only or primarily as a treatment...

  15. Xi-CAM v1.2.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-06

    Xi-CAM aims to provide a community driven platform for multimodal analysis in synchrotron science. The platform core provides a robust plugin infrastructure for extensibility, allowing continuing development to simply add further functionality. Current modules include tools for characterization with (GI)SAXS, Tomography, and XAS. This will continue to serve as a development base as algorithms for multimodal analysis develop. Seamless remote data access, visualization and analysis are key elements of Xi-CAM, and will become critical to synchrotron data infrastructure as expectations for future data volume and acquisition rates rise with continuously increasing throughputs. The highly interactive design elements of Xi-cam will similarly support a generation of users which depend on immediate data quality feedback during high-throughput or burst acquisition modes.

  16. CAM Modalities Can Stimulate Advances in Theoretical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Alex

    2005-03-01

    Most complementary medicine is distinguished by not being supported by underlying theory accepted by Western science. However, for those who accept their validity, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities offer clues to understanding physiology and medicine more deeply. Ayurveda and vibrational medicine are stimulating new approaches to biological regulation. The new biophysics can be integrated to yield a single consistent theory, which may well underly much of CAM-a true 'physics of physick'. The resulting theory seems to be a new, fundamental theory of health and etiology. It suggests that many CAM approaches to health care are scientifically in advance of those based on current Western biology. Such theories may well constitute the next steps in our scientific understanding of biology itself. If successfully developed, these ideas could result in a major paradigm shift in both biology and medicine, which will benefit all interested parties-consumers, health professionals, scientists, institutions and governments. PMID:15841271

  17. Concerns of Hydrothermal Degradation in CAD/CAM Zirconia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J.-W.; Covel, N.S.; Guess, P.C.; Rekow, E.D.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia-based restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry; however, their susceptibility to hydrothermal degradation remains elusive. We hypothesized that CAD/CAM machining and subsequent surface treatments, i.e., grinding and/or grit-blasting, have marked effects on the hydrothermal degradation behavior of Y-TZP. CAD/CAM-machined Y-TZP plates (0.5 mm thick), both with and without subsequent grinding with various grit sizes or grit-blasting with airborne alumina particles, were subj...

  18. Update on CAD/CAM activities at Sandia Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, D.A.

    1977-09-01

    Development of systems for Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) has been underway at Sandia Laboratories for several years. These include systems for circuit design and analysis, systems for design and fabrication of printed circuit boards and hybrid microcircuits, and systems for mechanical applications, such as mass properties calculations and stress analysis. CAD/CAM operations have proved successful for electronic applications. Current emphasis is on development of mechanical support software, and with putting into production a machine-aided design and definition system (MADDS) utilizing Applicon Graphics Systems (AGS). 14 figures. (RWR)

  19. CAD/CAM system based upon the IAPX 432

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criscione, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Intel Corporation has developed a 32 bit microprocessor which provides hardware support for object oriented applications, accommodates concurrent processing in a manner invisible to the user, and allows easy interfacing to peripherals. These features, along with numerous others that have never been offered before in a microprocessor, makes the IAPX 432 an attractive base for CAD/CAM. The author outlines one possible implementation of a CAD/CAM system with the 432 at its heart. The advantages offered by the 432 are weighed against its limitations. 5 references.

  20. CAD/CAM: improved design quality, increased productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, D. E.; England, J.

    1980-01-01

    Maintaining productivity levels while assuring the quality of engineering products grows increasingly more difficult and costly for industries such as the energy industry which are heavily committed to product design. The man/machine interface made possible through the development of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology can be applied to the design process as a tool for increased control to assure the quality of the final engineering product. The quality-control aspects of CAD/CAM technology are addressed in this presentation.

  1. CAD/CAM in the Brazilian aeronautical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampi, L. H.; Embraer, S. A.

    Features, applications and progress in the usage of CAD/CAM since 1980 by an aircraft manufacturer in Brazil are described. The system comprises 34 graphics work stations dedicated to structural design, lofting, electrical cable routing, finite element modeling and quality control. Standardized work methods have been devised to enhance productivity. Programs have been defined for finite element stress analysis and generating wiring diagrams. The computerized design capabilities have increased productivity for hole boring accuracy through work on digitized controllers. Psychological testing has been initiated to identify users who can adapt more easily to CAD/CAM utilization.

  2. Marginal Integrity of CAD/CAM Fixed Partial Dentures

    OpenAIRE

    Rosentritt, Martin; Behr, Michael; Kolbeck, Carola; Handel, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM) allows the milling of high strength zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPD), however bonding to an inert ZrO2 ceramic surface may effect the marginal integrity of the FPDs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of zirconia FPDs at the interfaces between zirconia, cement, and tooth. Methods 32 3-unit FPDs were fabricated of the CAD/CAM Y-TZP zirconia (Lava, 3M Espe, Germany) according to the manufactur...

  3. Soil temperature triggers the onset of photosynthesis in Korean pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiabing; Guan, Dexin; Yuan, Fenhui; Wang, Anzhi; Jin, Changjie

    2013-01-01

    In forest ecosystems, the onset of spring photosynthesis may have an important influence on the annual carbon balance. However, triggers for the onset of photosynthesis have yet to be clearly identified, especially for temperate evergreen conifers. The effects of climatic factors on recovery of photosynthetic capacity in a Korean pine forest were investigated in the field. No photosynthesis was detectable when the soil temperature was below 0 °C even if the air temperature was far beyond 15 °C. The onset of photosynthesis and sap flow was coincident with the time of soil thawing. The rates of recovery of photosynthetic capacity highly fluctuated with air temperature after onset of photosynthesis, and intermittent frost events remarkably inhibited the photosynthetic capacity of the needles. The results suggest that earlier soil thawing is more important than air temperature increases in triggering the onset of photosynthesis in Korean pine in temperate zones under global warming scenarios.

  4. CAM visual stimulation with conventional method of occlusion treatment in amblyopia: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Jafari

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Using of CAM visual stimulation along with conventional occlusion will further improve visual acuity and stereopsis in amblyopic children. These findings recommended the CAM visual stimulation as an accompanying and complementary method in amblyopia treatment.

  5. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... for low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

  6. Electrical signaling and photosynthesis: Can they co-exist together?

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovič, Andrej; Mancuso, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical irritation of trigger hairs and subsequent generation of action potentials have significant impact on photosynthesis and respiration in carnivorous Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula). Action potential-mediated inhibition of photosynthesis and stimulation of respiration is confined only to the trap and was not recorded in adjacent photosynthetic lamina. We showed that the main primary target of electrical signals on assimilation is in the dark enzymatic reaction of photosynthesis. Wi...

  7. Mitochondrial respiration in ME-CAM, PEPCK-CAM, and C₃ succulents: comparative operation of the cytochrome, alternative, and rotenone-resistant pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, Klaus; von Willert, Dieter J; Martin, Craig E; Herppich, Werner B

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondria are important in the function and control of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) during organic acid accumulation at night and acid decarboxylation in the day. In plants of the malic enzyme-(ME) type and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase- (PEPCK) type, mitochondria may exert their role in the control of the diurnal rhythm of malic and citric acids to a differential degree. In plants of both CAM types, the oxidative capacity of mitochondria, as well as the activity of CAM-linked mitochondrial enzymes, and of the alternative and the rotenone-resistant pathways of substrate oxidation were compared. Furthermore, a C₃ succulent was included, as well as both C₃ and CAM forms of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum during a salt-induced C₃-to-CAM shift. Mitochondria of PEPCK-type CAM plants exhibited a lower activity of malate oxidation, ratio of malate to succinate oxidation, and activity of mitochondrial NAD-ME. With the exception of Kalanchoë daigremontiana, leaf mitochondria of all other CAM species were highly sensitive to cyanide (80-100%), irrespective of the oxidant used. This indicates that the alternative oxidase is not of general importance in CAM. By contrast, rotenone-insensitive substrate oxidation was very high (50-90%) in all CAM species. This is the first comparison of the rotenone-insensitive pathway of respiration in plants with different CAM-types. The results of this study confirm that mitochondria are involved in the control of CAM to different degrees in the two CAM types, and they highlight the multiple roles of mitochondria in CAM.

  8. CAD-CAM experiences at Bendix Kansas City: the user perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentesana, C.

    1983-04-01

    The Bendix Kansas City Division manufactures a variety of precision mechanical, electrical and electronic components and assemblies for the Department of Energy. CAD-CAM has been in use at Bendix for about two years. Development of CAD-CAM is the responsibility of the CAD-CAM Operations group. This group works with users, in-house computer professionals and vendors to provide CAD-CAM products and services.

  9. EFFECT OF AIR TEMPERATURE ON LEAF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN ELDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature with solar radiation intensity is the main external factor affecting photosynthesis process. Measurements were collected in the 2011 growing season. Photosynthesis and respiration measurements were made at Sambucus nigra leaves with a CO2 analyzer. The aim was to develop a model of photosynthesis in relation to temperature (which is in close relationship with air humidity. Photosynthesis of Sambucus nigra leaves is sensitive to temperature with an optimum around 25-28oC and rates declining by 18% with air temperature around 33-35oC.

  10. Engineering photosynthesis in plants and synthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurino, Veronica G; Weber, Andreas P M

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, algae, and plants, sustain life on earth by converting light energy, water, and CO(2) into chemical energy. However, due to global change and a growing human population, arable land is becoming scarce and resources, including water and fertilizers, are becoming exhausted. It will therefore be crucial to design innovative strategies for sustainable plant production to maintain the food and energy bases of human civilization. Several different strategies for engineering improved photosynthesis in crop plants and introducing novel photosynthetic capacity into microorganisms have been reviewed. PMID:23028016

  11. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis. XIV.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin; Bassham, J.A.; Benson, A.A.; Kawaguchi, S.; Lynch, V.H.; Stepka, W.; Tolbert, N.E.

    1951-06-30

    It seems hardly necessary to repeat to an audience of this kind the importance of the process known as photosynthesis in the interaction and the interdependence of organisms and in the very existence of life as we know it. This process by which green plants are able to capture electromagnetic energy in the form of sunlight and transform it into stored chemical energy in the form of a wide variety of reduced (relative to carbon dioxide) carbon compounds provides the only major source of energy for the maintenance and propagation of all life.

  12. Photosynthesis in Hydrogen-Dominated Atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    William Bains; Sara Seager; Andras Zsom

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of extrasolar planets discovered in the last decade shows that we should not be constrained to look for life in environments similar to early or present-day Earth. Super-Earth exoplanets are being discovered with increasing frequency, and some will be able to retain a stable, hydrogen-dominated atmosphere. We explore the possibilities for photosynthesis on a rocky planet with a thin H[subscript 2]-dominated atmosphere. If a rocky, H[subscript 2]-dominated planet harbors life, th...

  13. Engineering photosynthesis in plants and synthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurino, Veronica G; Weber, Andreas P M

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, algae, and plants, sustain life on earth by converting light energy, water, and CO(2) into chemical energy. However, due to global change and a growing human population, arable land is becoming scarce and resources, including water and fertilizers, are becoming exhausted. It will therefore be crucial to design innovative strategies for sustainable plant production to maintain the food and energy bases of human civilization. Several different strategies for engineering improved photosynthesis in crop plants and introducing novel photosynthetic capacity into microorganisms have been reviewed.

  14. Photosynthesis and obtaining hydrogen. Photosynthese und Wasserstoffgewinnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlhoff, J.

    1989-01-01

    The individual processes of photo synthesis can be divided into groups of primary and secondary reactions. The primary reactions include the processes due to the effect of light and lead to splitting of water to form oxygen and to instituting both and hydrogen store and an energy store. Chlorophyl acts as an absorber and transmitter of light energy. The photolysis of water can only occur with the photons of visible light of relatively low energy, because the photosynthesis reaction centres have membranes which catch the light, collect it (by using its energy to separate electric charges) and this makes a multi-quantum process possible. (orig.).

  15. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, Melvin; Bassham, J. A.; Benson, A. A.; Kawaguchi, S.; Lynch, V. H.; Stepka, W.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1951-06-30

    It seems hardly necessary to repeat to an audience of this kind the importance of the process known as photosynthesis in the interaction and the interdependence of organisms and in the very existence of life as we know it. This process by which green plants are able to capture electromagnetic energy in the form of sunlight and transform it into stored chemical energy in the form of a wide variety of reduced (relative to carbon dioxide) carbon compounds provides the only major source of energy for the maintenance and propagation of all life.

  16. The detection of EpCAM+ and EpCAM– circulating tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de Sanne; Dalum, van Guus; Lenferink, Aufried; Tibbe, Arjan G.J.; Hilterman, T. Jeroen N.; Groen, Harry J.M.; Rijn, van Cees J.M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM+ CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM– CTC discarded by CellSearch, after EpCAM based enr

  17. The development of cam-type deformity in adolescent and young male soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Agricola (Rintje); J.H.J.M. Bessems (Gert); A.Z. Ginai (Abida); M.P. Heijboer (Rien); R.A. van der Heijden (Rianne); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); H.H. Weinans (Harrie); J.H. Waarsing (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cam impingement is a well-recognized cause of hip pain and might cause osteoarthritis of the hip. Clinically, cam impingement is mostly observed in young, active male patients, but only a few studies have focused on the manifestation of cam-type deformities during skeletal de

  18. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Germany - a focus group study of GPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joos, S.; Musselmann, B.; Miksch, A.; Rosemann, T.J.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners), some general practitioners (GPs) provide CAM in their practices. This paper aim

  19. Invitation to the 17th international congress on photosynthesis research in 2016: photosynthesis in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

    2016-02-01

    The 17th International Congress on Photosynthesis will be held from August 7 to 12, 2016 in Maastricht, The Netherlands. The congress will include an opening reception, 15 plenary lectures, 28 scientific symposia, many poster sessions, displays by scientific companies, excursions, congress dinner, social activities, and the first photosynthesis soccer world championship. See http://www.ps2016.com/ . The congress is organized as an official event of the International Society of Photosynthesis Research (see http://www.photosynthesisresearch.org/).

  20. Strength influencing variables on CAD/CAM zirconia frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wang; M.N.M. Abou Shelib; A.J. Feilzer

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. Many studies in the dental literature look at the effect of different surface treatment methods on the flexure strength of zirconia where polished zirconia has been used as control. However, zirconia is subjected to different types of surface damage as a result of the CAD/CAM milling proced

  1. Footage: Action Cam Shorts as Cartographic Captures of Time.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, N.

    2015-01-01

    This short article reflects on short videos of action cam footage that are widely disseminated on online platforms. These first-person perspective shorts are compared to early cinema’s phantom rides in the use of point-of-view shots, and a dizzying effect of heightened mobility and versatility in ca

  2. An Updated and Upgraded L1CAM Mutation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Yvonne J.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.

    2010-01-01

    The L1 syndrome is an X-linked recessive disease caused by mutations in the L1CAM gene. To date more than 200 different mutations have been reported, scattered over the entire gene, about 35% being missense mutations. Although it is tempting to consider these missense mutations as being disease-caus

  3. Potential worker risk as a function of CAM airflow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, J.J.

    1994-03-21

    The goal of the continuous air monitor (CAM) system at the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Plutonium Facility (PF-4) is to have a flow rate of 1 cubic feet per minute (cfm) drawn through the CAMs. However, design limitations in the house vacuum result in many CAMs having less than 1 cfm being drawn through them. Reduced flow rates through CAMs present a compromise in worker protection. Laboratory Health and Safety personnel and DOE officials established a flow rate of 0.5 cfm or less as operationally unacceptable. This report quantitatively estimated the difference in risk to workers from a reduced flow rate of 0.5 cfm relative to the risk inherent with a flow rate of 1 cfm. I calculated risk in terms of Committed Effective Dose Equivalent (CEDE) and used units of rem. Estimates for the increase in risk for 0.5 cfm compared to 1 cfm ranged from 0.32 rem to 3.3 rem. The difference in the minimum alarm concentration between 0.5 cfm and I cfm was also compared and was estimated to range from 0.4 rem to 4 rem.

  4. Computer-aided engineering: the step beyond CAD/CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatfield, L.; Trost, S.R.; O' Brien, D.W.; Pomernacki, C.L.

    1981-11-06

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the need for increased engineering productivity, coupled with increasingly difficult engineering problems, presents a significant challenge. Advances in computer technology coupled with successful CAD/CAM experiences suggest that computer-aided engineering (CAE) will help meet this challenge. Requirements for a CAE system are developed, a CAE system plan is outlined, and some remaining problem areas are discussed.

  5. Making IGES work for CAD/CAM data exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, A.L.; Fletcher, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    This report outlines Sandia National Laboratories effort to integrate the CAE/CAD/CAM capabilities of three laboratories and six production plants in the DOE weapons complex with the Initial Graphics Exchange Specifications (IGES). The problems with IGES are addressed and solutions are explained. The implementation of the IGES concept is also outlined.

  6. Automated regression testing of CAD/CAM systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burd, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    A description of automated software quality assurance techniques is presented. These techniques detect regression in the ''unchanged'' functions of CAD/CAM software during new updates from a vendor. Interfaces for the test mechanisms, methods for automatic results analysis, test management requirements, and experience gained from a prototype automatic regression test system are included. 7 figs.

  7. Schools (Students) Exchanging CAD/CAM Files over the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Gary S.; Smallwood, James E.

    This document discusses how students and schools can benefit from exchanging computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) files over the Internet, explains how files are exchanged, and examines the problem of selected hardware/software incompatibility. Key terms associated with information search services are defined, and several…

  8. Doing Performance Appraisal the Right Way: The CAM Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsgard, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Explains the CAM (Clarity, Awareness, Merit Recognition) process for performance reviews in which supervisors declare personal values, expectations, and operational methods; select employee skills for enhancement and define results; provide feedback, recognition and reinforcement; and distribute merit rewards and build deeper mutual commitments to…

  9. An approach towards fully integration of CAD and CAM technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tolouei-Rad

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An integrated CAD/CAM system for milling operations has been developed which helps designers tosolve machining problems at the design stage.Design/methodology/approach: A methodology has been employed which provides all necessary informationfor machining products automatically. Use of these system results in reduced machining leadtimes and costthrough designing machinable components; using available cutting tools; improving machining efficiency. Thesystem is menu driven with a user friendly interface.Findings: Different components for developing such a system have been identified and various problems thatarose in the development of this system have been dealt with The system developed leads to an adequate basisfor fully integration of CAD and CAM technologies in one system. It allows simultaneous generation of allinformation required to satisfy machining requirements of the design such as its machinability and availabilityof the required tooling resources.Research limitations/implications: Different components required for developing such systems have beenidentified and various problems that arose in the development of these systems have been dealt with, leadingto an adequate basis for complete integration of CAD and CAM technologies. Although much of the workdescribed here goes beyond the scope of published literature, however, it should be noted that the systemdeveloped couldn’t be considered as a complete solution to the CAD/CAM integration problem. Further workrequires including other manufacturing activities that are considered in concurrent engineering concept. In thisdirection, further integration of the system developed with systems such as MRP, MRP II and assembly sequenceplanning packages are highly desirable.Originality/value: CAD/CAM integration is regarded as a solution for bridging the gap between design andmanufacturing, one of the ultimate goals for concurrent engineering. Since the advent of CAD and CAMnumerous

  10. ChemCam analysis of Martian fine dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Mangold, Nicolas; Cousin, Agnes; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Wiens, Roger; Gasnault, Olivier; Rapin, William; Schroder, Susanne; Ollila, Ann; Fabre, Cécile; Berger, Gilles; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Dehouck, Erwin; Forni, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre; Anderson, Ryan; Bridges, Nathan; Clark, Benton; Clegg, Samuel; d'Uston, Claude; Goetz, Walter; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Lanza, Nina; Madsen, Morten; Melikechi, Noureddine; Newsom, Horton; Sautter, Violaine; Martin-Torres, Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we examine the chemical composition of dust observed by the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover at Gale Crater. The Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique analyses samples without preparation, which allows detection of the elemental composition of surface deposits. Mars aeolian fine dust (Mars target. It is reproducible over time and present a composition characteristic of the global martian fine dust, which covers the entire planet and contributes to the local geology analyzed by MSL. Its composition can also be retrieved on the ChemCam Calibration Targets (CCCT) by subtraction of the well characterized CCCT spectra. The CCCT include eight glasses and ceramics that have been generated to simulate Martian rocks of interest and two targets of a single element (graphite for carbon and an alloy of titanium). ChemCam passive spectroscopy also indicates varying deposition of the dust cover on the CCCT.Major elements are quantified and shown to be very similar to the fine soils encountered at Gale crater. The composition is also similar to the soils and fine dust measured by APXS for the elements common to both instruments. The minor elements quantified by ChemCam (Ba, Sr, Rb, Li, Mn, Cr) are within the range of soil surveys, but we see a higher concentration of Li than in other types of remotely characterized targets. Sulfur is possibly detected at the ChemCam limit of detection. Hydrogen is clearly identified, indicating that this fine dust is a contributor to the H content of the martian soils, as also detected by the SAM and CheMin instruments, and provides constraints as to which fraction of the Martian surface is hydrated and altered. In conclusion, the finest fraction of dust particles on the surface of Mars contains hydrated components mixed intimately within the fine aeolian dust fraction, suggesting that this dust likely originates from mechanical weathering of altered grains.

  11. CAMS newly detected meteor showers and the sporadic background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    The Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteoroid orbit survey adds 60 newly identified showers to the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers (numbers 427, 445-446, 506-507, and part of 643-750). 28 of these are also detected in the independent SonotaCo survey. In total, 230 meteor showers and shower components are identified in CAMS data, 177 of which are detected in at least two independent surveys. From the power-law size frequency distribution of detected showers, we extrapolate that 36% of all CAMS-observed meteors originated from ∼700 showers above the N = 1 per 110,000 shower limit. 71% of mass falling to Earth from streams arrives on Jupiter-family type orbits. The transient Geminids account for another 15%. All meteoroids not assigned to streams form a sporadic background with highest detected numbers from the apex source, but with 98% of mass falling in from the antihelion source. Even at large ∼7-mm sizes, a Poynting-Robertson drag evolved population is detected, which implies that the Grün et al. collisional lifetimes at these sizes are underestimated by about a factor of 10. While these large grains survive collisions, many fade on a 104-y timescale, possibly because they disintegrate into smaller particles by processes other than collisions, leaving a more resilient population to evolve. The meteors assigned to the various showers are identified in the CAMS Meteoroid Orbit Database 2.0 submitted to the IAU Meteor Data Center, and can be accessed also at cams.seti.org" xlink:type="simple"

  12. CAD/CAM-mathematical models and information processing. CAD/CAM-sugaku model to joho shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, F. (The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research center for advanced Science and Technology)

    1990-09-05

    Works concerning industrial product design and production design are comprehensive works and it is said that its technique has not been systematized and there are many aspects of relying on human creativity and experience in the past. On the other hand, technological theories are the works of analysis and have well been developed based upon scientific academic systems. In the field of designing, standardized design procedures, etc. have been enciphered and its computerized automation has been progressed, but in normal design works including new design to a certain extent, its design procedures cannot be made as mathematical models, consequently its automation is obliged to base on an information processing model. The models which can express comprehensively all technical information concerning products necessary for design and production of industrial products are called product models. In this article, product modelling is roughly explained and the features of numerical models in CAD/CAM (computer assisted automation of mechanical design and production) are discussed taking geometrical modelling as a subject for discussion. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Physical stage of photosynthesis charge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, A. G.; Shuvalov, V. A.

    2016-06-01

    An analytical review is given concerning the biophysical aspects of light-driven primary charge separation in photosynthesis reaction centers (RCs) which are special pigment-protein complexes residing in a cell membrane. The primary (physical) stage of charge separation occurs in the pico- and femtosecond ranges and consists of transferring an electron along the active A-branch of pigments. The review presents vast factual material on both the general issues of primary photosynthesis and some more specific topics, including (1) the role of the inactive B-branch of pigments, (2) the effect of the protein environment on the charge separation, and (3) the participation of monomeric bacteriochlorophyll BA in primary electron acceptance. It is shown that the electron transfer and stabilization are strongly influenced by crystallographic water and tyrosine M210 molecules from the nearest environment of BA. A linkage between collective nuclear motions and electron transfer upon charge separation is demonstrated. The nature of the high quantum efficiency of primary charge separation reactions is discussed.

  14. Carbon dioxide fixation by artificial photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibusuki, Takashi; Koike, Kazuhide; Ishitani, Osamu [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, AIST, MITI, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Green plants can absorb atmospheric CO{sub 2} and transform it to sugars, carbohydrates through their photosynthetic systems, but they become the source of CO{sub 2} when they are dead. This is the reason why artificial leaves which can be alive forever should be developed to meet with global warming due to the increase of CO{sub 2} concentration. The goal of artificial photosynthesis is not to construct the same system as the photosynthetic one, but to mimic the ability of green plants to utilize solar energy to make high energy chemicals. Needless to say, the artificial photosynthetic system is desired to be as simple as possible and to be as efficient as possible. From the knowledge on photosynthesis and the results of previous investigations, the critical components of artificial photosynthetic system are understood as follows: (1) light harvesting chromophore, (2) a center for electron transfer and charge separation, (3) catalytic sites for converting small molecules like water and CO{sub 2} (mutilelectron reactions) which are schematically described.

  15. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassham, J. A.; Calvin, Melvin

    1960-10-01

    Biosynthesis begins with photosynthesis. Green plants and other photosynthetic organisms use the energy of absorbed visible light to make organic compounds from inorganic compounds. These organic compounds are the starting point for all other biosynthetic pathways. The products of photosynthesis provide not only the substrate material but also chemical energy for all subsequent biosynthesis. For example, nonphotosynthetic organisms making fats from sugars would first break down the sugars to smaller organic molecules. Some of the smaller molecules might be oxidized with O{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} and water. These reactions are accompanied by a release of chemical energy because O{sub 2} and sugar have a high chemical potential energy towards conversion to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In a biochemical system only part of this energy would be released as heat. The heat would be used to bring about the conversion of certain enzymic cofactors to their more energetic forms. These cofactors would then enter into specific enzymic reactions in such a way as to supply energy to drive reactions in the direction of fat synthesis. Fats would be formed from the small organic molecules resulting from the breakdown of sugars. Thus sugar, a photosynthetic product, can supply both the energy and the material for the biosynthesis of fats.

  16. Abnormal placental development and early embryonic lethality in EpCAM-null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nagao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: EpCAM (CD326 is encoded by the tacstd1 gene and expressed by a variety of normal and malignant epithelial cells and some leukocytes. Results of previous in vitro experiments suggested that EpCAM is an intercellular adhesion molecule. EpCAM has been extensively studied as a potential tumor marker and immunotherapy target, and more recent studies suggest that EpCAM expression may be characteristic of cancer stem cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain insights into EpCAM function in vivo, we generated EpCAM -/- mice utilizing an embryonic stem cell line with a tacstd1 allele that had been disrupted. Gene trapping resulted in a protein comprised of the N-terminus of EpCAM encoded by 2 exons of the tacstd1 gene fused in frame to betageo. EpCAM +/- mice were viable and fertile and exhibited no obvious abnormalities. Examination of EpCAM +/- embryos revealed that betageo was expressed in several epithelial structures including developing ears (otocysts, eyes, branchial arches, gut, apical ectodermal ridges, lungs, pancreas, hair follicles and others. All EpCAM -/- mice died in utero by E12.5, and were small, developmentally delayed, and displayed prominent placental abnormalities. In developing placentas, EpCAM was expressed throughout the labyrinthine layer and by spongiotrophoblasts as well. Placentas of EpCAM -/- embryos were compact, with thin labyrinthine layers lacking prominent vascularity. Parietal trophoblast giant cells were also dramatically reduced in EpCAM -/- placentas. CONCLUSION: EpCAM was required for differentiation or survival of parietal trophoblast giant cells, normal development of the placental labyrinth and establishment of a competent maternal-fetal circulation. The findings in EpCAM-reporter mice suggest involvement of this molecule in development of vital organs including the gut, kidneys, pancreas, lungs, eyes, and limbs.

  17. Trend of CAD/CAM system in steel structure. Kenchiku tekkotsu CAD/CAM system no genjo to tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, K.; Tayama, K.

    1994-06-01

    The present situation and the future trend of the CAD/CAM system in steel structure were explained. In Japan, the CAD/CAM system in steel structure was introduced in 1983 for responding to the shortage of operators, shortening the construction period, and cost reduction. The systems introduced by fabricators can be classified into two types, i.e., the single functional type and the consistent type. Most of the single functional type system employs personal computers as for the hardware. Though it can be easily operated, there is a certain limit to functionality and treatment capacity. The consistent type system can provide many information such as fabrication drawing, full size template, and management document, though it is expensive and complicated. When the function of the system is heightened, the system becomes complicated. The future trend was considered. The combination of CAD/CAM, NC machine, and welding robot is indispensable for the rationalization. The completion of software for making the three-dimensional data is expected, for it will make it possible to fabricate the steel structure promptly and accurately. The network linkage of different CAD/CAM systems will be also promoted. In the future, it will be developed into the computer-aided integrated production system (CIM). 1 ref., 6 figs.

  18. ST Chamaeleontis and BP Coronae Australis: Two Southern Dwarf Novae Confirmed as Z Cam Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Simonsen, Mike; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Stubbings, Rod

    2014-01-01

    Z Camelopardalis (Z Cam) stars are a subset of dwarf novae distinguished by the occurrence of standstills, periods of relative constant brightness one to one and a half magnitudes fainter than maximum brightness. As part of an ongoing observing campaign, the Z CamPaign, the authors focused attention on several Z Cam suspects in the southern hemisphere. Two stars, BP Coronae Australis and ST Chamaeleontis were found to exhibit standstill behavior in 2013, thus confirming them as Z Cam type systems. This adds two more bona fide members to the 19 confirmed Z Cams, bringing the total to 21.

  19. The detection of EpCAM+ and EpCAM– circulating tumor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sanne de Wit; Guus van Dalum; Lenferink, Aufried T. M.; Arjan G. J. Tibbe; T. Jeroen N. Hiltermann; Groen, Harry J. M.; van Rijn, Cees J. M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM(+) CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM(-) CTC discarded by CellSearch, after EpCAM based enrichment. EpCAM(-) CTC were identified by filtration and fluorescent labelling. This approach was validated using different cell lines spiked into blood and evaluated on blood samples of 27 meta...

  20. The influence of temperature on photosynthesis of different tomato genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosiewski, W.; Nilwik, H.J.M.; Bierhuizen, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Net photosynthesis and dark respiration from whole plants of various tomato genotypes were measured in a closed system. At low irradiance (27 W m−2) and low external CO2 concentration (550 mg m−3), net photosynthesis of 10 genotypes was found to vary between 0.122 and 0.209 mg CO2 m−2 s−1. Correlati

  1. Modelling C₃ photosynthesis from the chloroplast to the ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacchi, Carl J; Bagley, Justin E; Serbin, Shawn P; Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Rosenthal, David M; Vanloocke, Andy

    2013-09-01

    Globally, photosynthesis accounts for the largest flux of CO₂ from the atmosphere into ecosystems and is the driving process for terrestrial ecosystem function. The importance of accurate predictions of photosynthesis over a range of plant growth conditions led to the development of a C₃ photosynthesis model by Farquhar, von Caemmerer & Berry that has become increasingly important as society places greater pressures on vegetation. The photosynthesis model has played a major role in defining the path towards scientific understanding of photosynthetic carbon uptake and the role of photosynthesis on regulating the earth's climate and biogeochemical systems. In this review, we summarize the photosynthesis model, including its continued development and applications. We also review the implications these developments have on quantifying photosynthesis at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and discuss the model's role in determining photosynthetic responses to changes in environmental conditions. Finally, the review includes a discussion of the larger-scale modelling and remote-sensing applications that rely on the leaf photosynthesis model and are likely to open new scientific avenues to address the increasing challenges to plant productivity over the next century. PMID:23590343

  2. Modulated Chlorophyll "a" Fluorescence: A Tool for Teaching Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva, Jorge; Bernardes da Silva, Anabela; Padua, Mario

    2007-01-01

    "In vivo" chlorophyll "a" fluorescence is a key technique in photosynthesis research. The recent release of a low cost, commercial, modulated fluorometer enables this powerful technology to be used in education. Modulated chlorophyll a fluorescence measurement "in vivo" is here proposed as a tool to demonstrate basic photosynthesis phenomena to…

  3. Exploring Photosynthesis and Plant Stress Using Inexpensive Chlorophyll Fluorometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessna, Stephen; Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, William W., III

    2010-01-01

    Mastering the concept of photosynthesis is of critical importance to learning plant physiology and its applications, but seems to be one of the more challenging concepts in biology. This teaching challenge is no doubt compounded by the complexity by which plants alter photosynthesis in different environments. Here we suggest the use of chlorophyll…

  4. A model for chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis at leaf scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van der C.; Verhoef, W.; Rosema, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a leaf biochemical model for steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis of C3 and C4 vegetation. The model is a tool to study the relationship between passively measured steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence and actual photosynthesis, and its evolution during the da

  5. Photosynthesis sensitivity to climate change in land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Sunen, Andrea; Black, Emily; Verhoef, Anne; Balsamo, Gianpaolo

    2016-04-01

    Accurate representation of vegetation processes within land surface models is key to reproducing surface carbon, water and energy fluxes. Photosynthesis determines the amount of CO2 fixated by plants as well as the water lost in transpiration through the stomata. Photosynthesis is calculated in land surface models using empirical equations based on plant physiological research. It is assumed that CO2 assimilation is either CO2 -limited, radiation -limited ; and in some models export-limited (the speed at which the products of photosynthesis are used by the plant) . Increased levels of atmospheric CO2 concentration tend to enhance photosynthetic activity, but the effectiveness of this fertilization effect is regulated by environmental conditions and the limiting factor in the photosynthesis reaction. The photosynthesis schemes at the 'leaf level' used by land surface models JULES and CTESSEL have been evaluated against field photosynthesis observations. Also, the response of photosynthesis to radiation, atmospheric CO2 and temperature has been analysed for each model, as this is key to understanding the vegetation response that climate models using these schemes are able to reproduce. Particular emphasis is put on the limiting factor as conditions vary. It is found that while at present day CO2 concentrations export-limitation is only relevant at low temperatures, as CO2 levels rise it becomes an increasingly important restriction on photosynthesis.

  6. On the relation between phototaxis and photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum Rubrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.; Nijenhuis, L.E.

    1950-01-01

    The relation between phototaxis and photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum rubrum has been studied. The light intensity at which saturation is reached in photosynthesis proved to coincide with that at which the contrast sensitivity starts to decrease. Potassium cyanide, which preferably inhibits the Bla

  7. Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Photosynthesis Using Diagnostic Question Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce M.; Anderson, Charles W.; Heidemann, Merle; Merrill, John; Merritt, Brett; Richmond, Gail; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present a diagnostic question cluster (DQC) that assesses undergraduates' thinking about photosynthesis. This assessment tool is not designed to identify individual misconceptions. Rather, it is focused on students' abilities to apply basic concepts about photosynthesis by reasoning with a coordinated set of practices based on a few scientific…

  8. Modelling C₃ photosynthesis from the chloroplast to the ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacchi, Carl J; Bagley, Justin E; Serbin, Shawn P; Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Rosenthal, David M; Vanloocke, Andy

    2013-09-01

    Globally, photosynthesis accounts for the largest flux of CO₂ from the atmosphere into ecosystems and is the driving process for terrestrial ecosystem function. The importance of accurate predictions of photosynthesis over a range of plant growth conditions led to the development of a C₃ photosynthesis model by Farquhar, von Caemmerer & Berry that has become increasingly important as society places greater pressures on vegetation. The photosynthesis model has played a major role in defining the path towards scientific understanding of photosynthetic carbon uptake and the role of photosynthesis on regulating the earth's climate and biogeochemical systems. In this review, we summarize the photosynthesis model, including its continued development and applications. We also review the implications these developments have on quantifying photosynthesis at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and discuss the model's role in determining photosynthetic responses to changes in environmental conditions. Finally, the review includes a discussion of the larger-scale modelling and remote-sensing applications that rely on the leaf photosynthesis model and are likely to open new scientific avenues to address the increasing challenges to plant productivity over the next century.

  9. Can the photosynthesis first step quantum mechanism be explained?

    CERN Document Server

    Sacilotti, Marco; Mota, Claudia C B O; Nunes, Frederico Dias; Gomes, Anderson S L

    2010-01-01

    Photosynthesis first step mechanism concerns the sunlight absorption and both negative and positive charges separation. Recent and important photosynthesis literature claims that this mechanism is quantum mechanics controlled, however without presenting qualitative or quantitative scientifically based mechanism. The present accepted and old-fashioned photosynthesis mechanism model suffers from few drawbacks and an important issue is the absence of driving force for negative and positive charges separation. This article presents a new qualitative model for this first step mechanism in natural catalytic systems such as photosynthesis in green leaves. The model uses a concept of semiconductor band gap engineering, such as the staggered energy band gap line-up in semiconductors. To explain the primary mechanism in natural photosynthesis the proposal is the following: incident light is absorbed inside the leaves causing charges separation. The only energetic configuration that allows charges separation under illum...

  10. The Unsuspecting CAM User: Cancer patients and the changing nature of holistic health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M. Kabel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of cancer patients using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in the United States is growing, yet little is known about the meaning these activities have for users. Current literature supports the assumption that stigma surrounding CAM and holistic health practices are responsible for the reluctance of many cancer patients to self-identify as CAM users. This study explored the frequency of use, and familiarity with CAM among 25 female patients at a Midwestern oncology clinic. Findings suggest that patients need to be asked about CAM use multiple times and in multiple formats to gain an accurate assessment. Also, the assumptions about stigma may no longer be the reason patients are less than forthcoming about CAM use. The rise of integrative medicine and shifting boundaries of the holistic health movement may be equally, or in some cases, more responsible for the reluctance for CAM users to self-identify.

  11. JunoCam: Science and Outreach Opportunities with Juno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C. J.; Orton, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    JunoCam is a visible imager on the Juno spacecraft en route to Jupiter. Although the primary role of the camera is for outreach, science objectives will be addressed too. JunoCam is a wide angle camera (58 deg field of view) with 4 color filters: red, green and blue (RGB) and methane at 889 nm. Juno's elliptical polar orbit will offer unique views of Jupiter's polar regions with a spatial scale of ~50 km/pixel. The polar vortex, polar cloud morphology, and winds will be investigated. RGB color mages of the aurora will be acquired. Stereo images and images taken with the methane filter will allow us to estimate cloudtop heights. Resolution exceeds that of Cassini about an hour from closest approach and at closest approach images will have a spatial scale of ~3 km/pixel. JunoCam is a push-frame imager on a rotating spacecraft. The use of time-delayed integration takes advantage of the spacecraft spin to build up signal. JunoCam will acquire limb-to-limb views of Jupiter during a spacecraft rotation, and has the possibility of acquiring images of the rings from in-between Jupiter and the inner edge of the rings. Galilean satellite views will be fairly distant but some images will be acquired. Small ring moons Metis and Adrastea will also be imaged. The theme of our outreach is "science in a fish bowl", with an invitation to the science community and the public to participate. Amateur astronomers will supply their ground-based images for planning, so that we can predict when prominent atmospheric features will be visible. With the aid of professional astronomers observing at infrared wavelengths, we'll predict when hot spots will be visible to JunoCam. Amateur image processing enthusiasts are prepared to create image products. Between the planning and products will be the decision-making on what images to take when and why. We invite our colleagues to propose science questions for JunoCam to address, and to be part of the participatory process of deciding how to use

  12. Different CAD/CAM-processing routes for zirconia restorations: influence on fitting accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohorst, Philipp; Junghanns, Janet; Dittmer, Marc P; Borchers, Lothar; Stiesch, Meike

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different processing routes on the fitting accuracy of four-unit zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) fabricated by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Three groups of zirconia frameworks with ten specimens each were fabricated. Frameworks of one group (CerconCAM) were produced by means of a laboratory CAM-only system. The other frameworks were made with different CAD/CAM systems; on the one hand by in-laboratory production (CerconCAD/CAM) and on the other hand by centralized production in a milling center (Compartis) after forwarding geometrical data. Frameworks were then veneered with the recommended ceramics, and marginal accuracy was determined using a replica technique. Horizontal marginal discrepancy, vertical marginal discrepancy, absolute marginal discrepancy, and marginal gap were evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with the level of significance chosen at 0.05. Mean horizontal discrepancies ranged between 22 μm (CerconCAM) and 58 μm (Compartis), vertical discrepancies ranged between 63 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 162 μm (CerconCAM), and absolute marginal discrepancies ranged between 94 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 181 μm (CerconCAM). The marginal gap varied between 72 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 112 μm (CerconCAM, Compartis). Statistical analysis revealed that, with all measurements, the marginal accuracy of the zirconia FDPs was significantly influenced by the processing route used (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, all restorations showed a clinically acceptable marginal accuracy; however, the results suggest that the CAD/CAM systems are more precise than the CAM-only system for the manufacture of four-unit FDPs. PMID:20495937

  13. ENERGY RECEPTION AND TRANSFER IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1958-09-23

    The basic information about the path of carbon in photosynthesis is reviewed together with the methods that were used to discover it. This has led to the knowledge of what is required of the photochemical reaction in the form of chemical species. Attention is then directed to the structure of the photochemical apparatus itself insofar as it is viewable by electron microscopy, and some principoles of ordered structure are devised for the types of molecules to be found in the chloroplasts. From the combination of these, a structure for the grana lamella is suggested and a mode of function proposed. Experimental test for this mode of function is underway; one method is to examine photoproduced unpaired electrons. This is discussed.

  14. Chloroplast transformation for engineering of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Maureen R; Gray, Benjamin N; Ahner, Beth A

    2013-01-01

    Many efforts are underway to engineer improvements in photosynthesis to meet the challenges of increasing demands for food and fuel in rapidly changing environmental conditions. Various transgenes have been introduced into either the nuclear or plastid genomes in attempts to increase photosynthetic efficiency. We examine the current knowledge of the critical features that affect levels of expression of plastid transgenes and protein accumulation in transplastomic plants, such as promoters, 5' and 3' untranslated regions, RNA-processing sites, translation signals and amino acid sequences that affect protein turnover. We review the prior attempts to manipulate the properties of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) through plastid transformation. We illustrate how plastid operons could be created for expression of the multiple genes needed to introduce new pathways or enzymes to enhance photosynthetic rates or reduce photorespiration. We describe here the past accomplishments and future prospects for manipulating plant enzymes and pathways to enhance carbon assimilation through plastid transformation. PMID:23162121

  15. Measurements of photosynthesis and respiration in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Stephen

    2003-03-01

    Methods for measuring the rates of photosynthesis and respiration in plants are reviewed. Closed systems that involve manometric techniques, 14CO2 fixation, O2 electrodes and other methods for measuring dissolved and gas phase O2 are described. These methods typically provide time-integrated rate measurements, and limitations to their use are discussed. Open gas exchange systems that use infra-red CO2 gas analysers and differential O2 analysers for measuring instantaneous rates of CO2 and O2 exchange are described. Important features of the analysers, design features of gas exchange systems, and sources of potential error are considered. The analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for estimating the quantum yield for O2 evolution and CO2 fixation is described in relation to new fluorescence imaging systems for large scale screening of photosynthetic phenotypes, and the microimaging of individual chloroplasts. PMID:12654031

  16. Functional quantum biology in photosynthesis and magnetoreception

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Neill; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Li, Che-Ming; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Is there a functional role for quantum mechanics or coherent quantum effects in biological processes? While this question is as old as quantum theory, only recently have measurements on biological systems on ultra-fast time-scales shed light on a possible answer. In this review we give an overview of the two main candidates for biological systems which may harness such functional quantum effects: photosynthesis and magnetoreception. We discuss some of the latest evidence both for and against room temperature quantum coherence, and consider whether there is truly a functional role for coherence in these biological mechanisms. Finally, we give a brief overview of some more speculative examples of functional quantum biology including the sense of smell, long-range quantum tunneling in proteins, biological photoreceptors, and the flow of ions across a cell membrane.

  17. Does coherence enhance transport in photosynthesis?

    CERN Document Server

    Kassal, Ivan; Rahimi-Keshari, Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Recent observations of coherence in photosynthetic complexes have led to the question of whether quantum effects can occur in vivo, not under femtosecond laser pulses but in incoherent sunlight and at steady state, and, if so, whether the coherence explains the high exciton transfer efficiency. We distinguish several types of coherence and show that although some photosynthetic pathways are partially coherent processes, photosynthesis in nature proceeds through stationary states. This distinction allows us to rule out several mechanisms of transport enhancement in sunlight. In particular, although they are crucial for understanding exciton transport, neither wavelike motion nor microscopic coherence, on their own, enhance the efficiency. By contrast, two partially coherent mechanisms---ENAQT and supertransfer---can enhance transport even in sunlight and thus constitute motifs for the optimisation of artificial sunlight harvesting. Finally, we clarify the importance of ultrafast spectroscopy in understanding i...

  18. Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Controls Oxygenic Photosynthesis in a Cyanobacterium from a Sulfidic Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Klatt, Judith M.; Al-Najjar, Mohammad A. A.; Yilmaz, Pelin; Lavik, Gaute; Beer, Dirk de; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    Before the Earth's complete oxygenation (0.58 to 0.55 billion years [Ga] ago), the photic zone of the Proterozoic oceans was probably redox stratified, with a slightly aerobic, nutrient-limited upper layer above a light-limited layer that tended toward euxinia. In such oceans, cyanobacteria capable of both oxygenic and sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis played a fundamental role in the global carbon, oxygen, and sulfur cycle. We have isolated a cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena strain FS39,...

  19. Photosynthesis and fish production in culture ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szyper, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    The widely-cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, has been the major species used in standardized experiments by the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program (PD/ACRSP). Yields of Nile Tilapia from fertilized, unfed ponds have served as a bioassay for effectiveness of pond management protocols developed during worldwide tropical experiments. Yield rates near 10 T/ha/y can be achieved without feed inputs in ponds which maintain high standing stocks of phytoplankton and exhibit high rates near 10 T/ha/y can be achieved without feed inputs in ponds which maintain high standing stocks of phytoplankton and exhibit high rates of primary production. Fish production is related to daytime net photosynthetic production, but it is not clear whether production of food materials or oxygen is the more direct influence. Excessively high standing stocks of phytoplankton are not the best net producers, and increase and risk of nighttime oxygen depletion. Fish readily grow to individual sizes of 200-300 g/fish in fertilized ponds, which is sufficient market size in many locations. Supplemental feeding of caged or free-ranging fish greatly accelerates growth beyond 300 g and potentiates high areal yields; the PD/A CRSP has also developed efficient feeding regimes and shown that supplemental feeding need not begin before fish reach 200 g weight. High standing stocks of phytoplankton and high photosynthetic rates in eutrophic ponds make study of photosynthesis possible without radioisotopes. Such ponds also exhibit complete extinction of incident solar radiation within shallow depths, and vertical temperature structure resembling that of deeper bodies of water. These characteristics make ponds useful as microcosms for study of some aspects of photosynthesis in natural waters.

  20. Research of CamShift Algorithm to Track Motion Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available At present, objects detection, identification and tracking are the very popular research areas in computing vision. A real-time objects tracking system was proposed in this paper. This paper focuses on improve CamShift algorithm, which can track the motion objects with high a accuracy. An Adaptive Gaussian Background Model is proposed in the system , which was established in order to automatically update the background and detect the outline of moving objects. By analyzing different algorithms, this paper brings out approaches to promote the performance.The CamShift algorithm to complete motion detection and objects tracking, which applied for static background video sequences. And the experimental results show that this algorithm can detect all motion objects and track almost motion objects.  

  1. Tooth-colored CAD/CAM monolithic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, S

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic restoration (also known as a full contour restoration) is one that is manufactured from a single material for the fully anatomic replacement of lost tooth structure. Additional staining (followed by glaze firing if ceramic materials are used) may be performed to enhance the appearance of the restoration. For decades, monolithic restoration has been the standard for inlay and partial crown restorations manufactured by both pressing and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. A limited selection of monolithic materials is now available for dental crown and bridge restorations. The IDS (2015) provided an opportunity to learn about and evaluate current trends in this field. In addition to new developments, established materials are also mentioned in this article to complete the picture. In line with the strategic focus of the IJCD, the focus here is naturally on CAD/CAM materials. PMID:26110926

  2. GlastCam: A Telemetry-Driven Spacecraft Visualization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Eric T.; Tsai, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Developed for the GLAST project, which is now the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, GlastCam software ingests telemetry from the Integrated Test and Operations System (ITOS) and generates four graphical displays of geometric properties in real time, allowing visual assessment of the attitude, configuration, position, and various cross-checks. Four windows are displayed: a "cam" window shows a 3D view of the satellite; a second window shows the standard position plot of the satellite on a Mercator map of the Earth; a third window displays star tracker fields of view, showing which stars are visible from the spacecraft in order to verify star tracking; and the fourth window depicts

  3. The faulty statistics of complementary alternative medicine (CAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Maurizio; Carreras, Giulia

    2014-09-01

    The authors illustrate the difficulties involved in obtaining a valid statistical significance in clinical studies especially when the prior probability of the hypothesis under scrutiny is low. Since the prior probability of a research hypothesis is directly related to its scientific plausibility, the commonly used frequentist statistics, which does not take into account this probability, is particularly unsuitable for studies exploring matters in various degree disconnected from science such as complementary alternative medicine (CAM) interventions. Any statistical significance obtained in this field should be considered with great caution and may be better applied to more plausible hypotheses (like placebo effect) than that examined - which usually is the specific efficacy of the intervention. Since achieving meaningful statistical significance is an essential step in the validation of medical interventions, CAM practices, producing only outcomes inherently resistant to statistical validation, appear not to belong to modern evidence-based medicine.

  4. CAM Modalities Can Stimulate Advances in Theoretical Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hankey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most complementary medicine is distinguished by not being supported by underlying theory accepted by Western science. However, for those who accept their validity, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM modalities offer clues to understanding physiology and medicine more deeply. Ayurveda and vibrational medicine are stimulating new approaches to biological regulation. The new biophysics can be integrated to yield a single consistent theory, which may well underly much of CAM—a true ‘physics of physick’. The resulting theory seems to be a new, fundamental theory of health and etiology. It suggests that many CAM approaches to health care are scientifically in advance of those based on current Western biology. Such theories may well constitute the next steps in our scientific understanding of biology itself. If successfully developed, these ideas could result in a major paradigm shift in both biology and medicine, which will benefit all interested parties—consumers, health professionals, scientists, institutions and governments.

  5. Application of CAD/CAM at VEB Lufttechnische Anlagen Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsch, B.; Aschenbrenner, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    This contribution presents the concept for the introduction of CAD/CAM systems to an enterprise of Kombinat ILKA Luft- und Kaeltetechnik. This concept is based on the use of a local computer network with a K 1630 microcomputer as the central computer and multi-terminals in the special departments. Special reference is made to the problems of the structured or modular software development and the work with centralised data files.

  6. Oclusión y Cad-Cam

    OpenAIRE

    Llombart Jaques, Daniel; Cadafalch Cabaní, Juan; Sabrià, J.; Cortada Colomer, Miquel

    1994-01-01

    Las restauraciones construidas con sistema CAD-CAM, a pesar de sus ventajas, tienen el inconveniente de no dejar una superficie oclusal con las características morfológicas adecuadas. Describimos un sistema, que uniendo al diseño electrónico previo un tallado, que sigue aproximadamente los pasos del tallado selectivo nos permite conseguir una oclusión correcta.

  7. Complete denture fabrication supported by CAD/CAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Timea; Gallus, Korbinian; Eichberger, Marlis; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-05-01

    The inclusion of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology into complete denture fabrication facilitates the procedures. The presented workflow for complete denture fabrication combines conventional and digitally supported treatment steps for improving dental care. With the presented technique, the registration of the occlusal plane, the determination of the ideal lip support, and the verification of the maxillomandibular relationship record are considered. PMID:26774323

  8. Simulation tools for CAD/CAM robot programming

    OpenAIRE

    Zapletal, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor’s thesis is focused on simulation, off-line programming and familiarization with KUKA robot. It informs about the composition, coordinate systems and the possibilities of movement of the industrial robot. It introduces methods of on-line and off-line programming and analysis of software for off-line programming aimed on CAD / CAM machining. It describes the creation of specific robot movements and explains the generated code for the implementation of created movements. The result is ...

  9. An approach towards fully integration of CAD and CAM technologies

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tolouei-Rad

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: An integrated CAD/CAM system for milling operations has been developed which helps designers tosolve machining problems at the design stage.Design/methodology/approach: A methodology has been employed which provides all necessary informationfor machining products automatically. Use of these system results in reduced machining leadtimes and costthrough designing machinable components; using available cutting tools; improving machining efficiency. Thesystem is menu driven with a user f...

  10. CamBAfx: workflow design, implementation and application for neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Cinly Ooi; Bullmore, Edward T; Alle-Meije Wink; Levent Sendur; Anna Barnes; Sophie Achard; John Aspden; Sanja Abbott; Shigang Yue; Manfred Kitzbichler; David Meunier; Voichita Maxim; Raymond Salvador; Julian Henty; Roger Tait

    2009-01-01

    CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers) and those who design them (designers). It provides a front-end (user interface) optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platf...

  11. CamBAfx: Workflow Design, Implementation and Application for Neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Cinly; Bullmore, Edward T; Wink, Alle-Meije; Sendur, Levent; Barnes, Anna; Achard, Sophie; Aspden, John; Abbott, Sanja; Yue, Shigang; Kitzbichler, Manfred; Meunier, David; Maxim, Voichita; Salvador, Raymond; Henty, Julian; Tait, Roger

    2009-01-01

    CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers) and those who design them (designers). It provides a front-end (user interface) optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platf...

  12. Potentials for the Modified Cam-Clay model

    OpenAIRE

    Zouain, Nestor; Pontes, Ivaldo; Vaunat, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Energy and dissipation pseudo-potentials are employed to derive constitutive relationships, in the context of thermodynamic concepts, for the widely used Modified Cam-Clay (MCC) model for soil mechanics. A variational formulation of the MCC evolution equations is proposed in this paper. Since plastic collapse of MCC soils cannot be embedded in the classical limit analysis theory, finding the critical amplification of the load that produces plastic collapse is formulated in...

  13. CAM Modalities Can Stimulate Advances in Theoretical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Hankey

    2005-01-01

    Most complementary medicine is distinguished by not being supported by underlying theory accepted by Western science. However, for those who accept their validity, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities offer clues to understanding physiology and medicine more deeply. Ayurveda and vibrational medicine are stimulating new approaches to biological regulation. The new biophysics can be integrated to yield a single consistent theory, which may well underly much of CAM—a true ‘...

  14. Optical spectroscopy of RU Cam, a pulsating carbon star

    CERN Document Server

    Kipper, Tonu

    2007-01-01

    We analysed the high resolution spectra of a RU Cam, classified as W Vir type star. The atmospheric parameters of RU Cam were estimated Teff=5250K and log g=1.0. The hydrogen deficiency of RU Cam was not confirmed. The iron abundance, [Fe/H]=-0.37, is close to the solar one. Abundances of most other elements are also close to normal. We found considerable excesses of carbon and nitrogen: [C/Fe]=+0.98, [N/Fe]=+0.60. The carbon to oxygen ratio is C/O$\\ge$1. The carbon isotopic abundance ratio is equal to C^12/C^13=4.5. For sodium a moderate overabundance Na/Fe=+0.55 was obtained. For two moments of observations we found close heliocentric velocity values, Vr=-21.7+/-0.8 and -23.1+/-1.0 km/s. Both spectra contain a peculiar feature - an emission component of NaI doublet which location agrees with the radial velocity from the bulk of metallic lines. For our two observing moments we found no dependence of radial velocities on the formation depth or on excitation energy for metallic lines.

  15. Human Face Detection and Recognition using Web-Cam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcharat Pattanasethanon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The illuminance insensitivity that reflects the angle of human facial aspects occurs once the distance between the object and the camera is too different such as animated images. This has been a problem for facial recognition system for decades. Approach: For this reason, our study represents a novel technique for facial recognition through the implementation of Successes Mean Quantization Transform and Spare Network of Winnow with the assistance of Eigenface computation. After having limited the frame of the input image or images from Web-Cam, the image is cropped into an oval or eclipse shape. Then the image is transformed into greyscale color and is normalized in order to reduce color complexities. We also focus on the special characteristics of human facial aspects such as nostril areas and oral areas. After every essential aspectsarescrutinized, the input image goes through the recognition system for facial identification. In some cases where the input image from the Web-Cam does not exist in the database, the user will be notified for the error handled. However, in cases where the image exists in the database, that image will be computed for similarity measurement using Euclidean Distance measure from the input image. Results and Conclusion: The result of our experiment reveals that the recognition process of 150 images in the database and 10 images from the Web-Cam provides 100% accuracy in terms of recognition. The runtime in this case is at 0.04 sec.

  16. Evaluating rare amino acid substitutions (RGC_CAMs in a yeast model clade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Polzin

    Full Text Available When inferring phylogenetic relationships, not all sites in a sequence alignment are equally informative. One recently proposed approach that takes advantage of this inequality relies on sites that contain amino acids whose replacement requires multiple substitutions. Identifying these so-called RGC_CAM substitutions (after Rare Genomic Changes as Conserved Amino acids-Multiple substitutions requires that, first, at any given site in the amino acid sequence alignment, there must be a minimum of two different amino acids; second, each amino acid must be present in at least two taxa; and third, the amino acids must require a minimum of two nucleotide substitutions to replace each other. Although theory suggests that RGC_CAM substitutions are expected to be rare and less likely to be homoplastic, the informativeness of RGC_CAM substitutions has not been extensively evaluated in biological data sets. We investigated the quality of RGC_CAM substitutions by examining their degree of homoplasy and internode certainty in nearly 2.7 million aligned amino acid sites from 5,261 proteins from five species belonging to the yeast Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade whose phylogeny is well-established. We identified 2,647 sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions, a number that contrasts sharply with the 100,887 sites containing RGC_non-CAM substitutions (i.e., changes between amino acids that require only a single nucleotide substitution. We found that RGC_CAM substitutions had significantly lower homoplasy than RGC_non-CAM ones; specifically RGC_CAM substitutions showed a per-site average homoplasy index of 0.100, whereas RGC_non-CAM substitutions had a homoplasy index of 0.215. Internode certainty values were also higher for sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions than for RGC_non-CAM ones. These results suggest that RGC_CAM substitutions possess a strong phylogenetic signal and are useful markers for phylogenetic inference despite their rarity.

  17. EpCAM modulates NF-κB signaling and interleukin-8 expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankpal, Narendra V; Fleming, Timothy P; Gillanders, William E

    2013-04-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a 40-kD type I transmembrane protein that is overexpressed in human epithelial cancers and is currently the target of molecular therapy based on its overexpression at the cell surface. Recently, we and others have shown a role for EpCAM in cell signaling and carcinogenesis, and EpCAM expression seems to promote breast cancer invasion. Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL-8) is an inflammatory cytokine that has recently been shown to modulate breast cancer invasion and angiogenesis. In preliminary experiments, we identified a correlation between EpCAM and IL-8 expression in primary human breast cancers. Specific ablation of EpCAM in breast cancer cell lines results in decreased IL-8 expression, and IL-8 contributes to EpCAM-dependent breast cancer invasion. Specific ablation of EpCAM is also associated with decreased NF-κB transcription factor activity, decreased phosphorylation of the NF-κB family member RELA, and increased IκBα protein expression. EpCAM modulates IL-8 expression at baseline, and following IL-1β stimulation, which is known to be a potent inducer of NF-κB in breast cancer. In functional rescue experiments, specific ablation of RELA or forced expression of the NF-κB inhibitor protein IκBα prevented EpCAM-dependent rescue of IL-8 promoter activity. These studies show for the first time that EpCAM can modulate NF-κB transcription factor activity and IL-8 expression in breast cancer and confirm the role of EpCAM signaling in modulating breast cancer invasion. Further study is required to define the molecular mechanism(s) of EpCAM signaling in breast cancer and to direct the rational development of molecular therapies targeting EpCAM.

  18. ChemCam Passive Reflectance Spectroscopy at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Bell, J. F.; Cloutis, E.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D. L.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Gasnault, O.; Kinch, K. M.; Le Mouelic, S.; Rice, M. S.; Wiens, R. C.; DeFlores, L.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) portion of the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover uses 3 dispersive spectrometers to cover the ultraviolet (240-342 nm), visible (382-469 nm) and visible/near-infrared (474-906 nm) spectral regions at high spectral (spectra (acquired with the LIBS laser off) used to remove the background signal from the LIBS measurement. Similar 'passive' observations of the ChemCam calibration target holder can be made at similar times of day and at identical exposure times (to minimize variations from dark current). Because this target exhibits ~95% flat reflectance in the ~400-900 nm region, radiance spectra ratios (surface/calibration target) can be normalized to known calibration target lab spectra to produce relative reflectance spectra (400-900 nm) with an estimated accuracy of 10-20%. Initial results replicated the known spectral shape and overall reflectance values of the ChemCam calibration targets and green color chip on the Mastcam calibration target. Dust contamination was evident, although dust on the ChemCam calibration targets is minimized by their tilted placement on the rover deck. All ChemCam targets that were sunlit during LIBS acquisition (~80% of all measurements) provide 'dark' spectra for which relative reflectance spectra can be obtained. Owing to the dusty nature of the Gale landing sites, passive spectra observed to date exhibit spectral shapes indicative of ferric phases, similar to spectra of palagonitic soils. Most spectra are bracketed in reflectance by typical 'bright' and 'dark' spectra from the OMEGA and CRISM orbital spectrometers. Preliminary Mastcam reflectance spectra are similar, providing additional confidence regarding the first-order calibration of the ChemCam spectra. The spectral similarity to palagonitic soils is consistent with the results from the CheMin instrument for Rocknest sands. Changes in the 535 nm band depth are likely indicative of differences in

  19. CO2 Sequestration and Recycle by Photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven S.C. Chuang

    2003-02-01

    Visible light-photocatalysis could provide a cost-effective route to recycle CO{sub 2} to useful chemicals or fuels. Research is planned to study the reactivity of adsorbates, their role in the photosynthesis reaction, and their relation to the nature of surface sites during photosynthesis of methanol and hydrocarbons from CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O over four types of MCM-41/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported TiO{sub 2} and CdS catalysts: (1) ion-exchanged metal cations, (2) highly dispersed cations, (3) monolayer sites, and (4) modified monolayer catalysts. TiO{sub 2} was selected since it has exhibited higher activity than other oxide catalysts; CdS was selected for its photocatalytic activity in the visible light region. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} provides excellent hydrothermal stability. MCM-41 offers high surface area (more than 800 m{sup 2}/g), providing a platform for preparing and depositing a large number of active sites per gram catalyst. The unique structure of these ion exchange cations, highly dispersed cations, and monolayer sites provides an opportunity to tailor their chemical/coordination environments for enhancing visible-light photocatalytic activity and deactivation resistance. The year one research tasks include (1) setting up experimental system, (2) preparing ion-exchanged metal cations, highly dispersed cations, monolayer sites of TiO{sub 2} and CdS, and (3) determination of the dependence of methanol activity/selectivity on the catalyst preparation techniques and their relation to adsorbate reactivity. During the first quarter, we have purchased a Gas Chromatography and all the necessary components for building 3 reactor systems, set up the light source apparatus, and calibrated the light intensity. In addition, monolayer TiO{sub 2}/MCM-41 and TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst were prepared. TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was found to exhibit high activity for methanol synthesis. Repeated runs was planned to insure the reproducibility of the data.

  20. Oxygenic photosynthesis: translation to solar fuel technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian David Janna Olmos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of man-made climate change, rapid depletion of readily available fossil fuel reserves and facing the growing energy demand that faces mankind in the near future drive the rapid development of economically viable, renewable energy production technologies. It is very likely that greenhouse gas emissions will lead to the significant climate change over the next fifty years. World energy consumption has doubled over the last twenty-five years, and is expected to double again in the next quarter of the 21st century. Our biosphere is at the verge of a severe energy crisis that can no longer be overlooked. Solar radiation represents the most abundant source of clean, renewable energy that is readily available for conversion to solar fuels. Developing clean technologies that utilize practically inexhaustible solar energy that reaches our planet and convert it into the high energy density solar fuels provides an attractive solution to resolving the global energy crisis that mankind faces in the not too distant future. Nature’s oxygenic photosynthesis is the most fundamental process that has sustained life on Earth for more than 3.5 billion years through conversion of solar energy into energy of chemical bonds captured in biomass, food and fossil fuels. It is this process that has led to evolution of various forms of life as we know them today. Recent advances in imitating the natural process of photosynthesis by developing biohybrid and synthetic “artificial leaves” capable of solar energy conversion into clean fuels and other high value products, as well as advances in the mechanistic and structural aspects of the natural solar energy converters, photosystem I and photosystem II, allow to address the main challenges: how to maximize solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency, and most importantly: how to store the energy efficiently and use it without significant losses. Last but not least, the question of how to make the process of solar

  1. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--the digital workflow from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapie, L; Lebon, N; Mawussi, B; Fron Chabouis, H; Duret, F; Attal, J-P

    2015-01-01

    As digital technology infiltrates every area of daily life, including the field of medicine, so it is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Apart from chairside practice, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental solutions can be considered a chain of digital devices and software for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use the technology often do not have the time or knowledge to understand it. A basic knowledge of the CAD/CAM digital workflow for dental restorations can help dentists to grasp the technology and purchase a CAM/CAM system that meets the needs of their office. This article provides a computer-science and mechanical-engineering approach to the CAD/CAM digital workflow to help dentists understand the technology. PMID:25911827

  2. Hydrogen peroxide and the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, C. P.; Hartman, H.

    1991-01-01

    Possible pathways for the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis in the early reducing atmosphere of the earth are discussed. It is suggested that the abiotic production of atmospheric oxidants could have provided a mechanism by which locally oxidizing conditions were sustained within spatially confined habitats thus removing the available reductants and forcing photosynthetic organisms to utilize water (rather than ferrous or sulfide ions) as the electron donor. It is argued that atmospheric H2O2 played the key role in inducing oxygenic photosynthesis, because, as peroxide concentrations local environments increased, primitive organisms would not only be faced with a loss of a reductant, but would be also forced to develop a biochemical apparatus (such as catalase) that would protect them against the products of oxygenic photosynthesis. This scenario allows for the early evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis at the time when global conditions were still anaerobic.

  3. Artificial photosynthesis combines biology with technology for sustainable energy transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Gust, Devens

    2013-03-01

    Photosynthesis supports the biosphere. Currently, human activity appropriates about one fourth of terrestrial photosynthetic net primary production (NPP) to support our GDP and nutrition. The cost to Earth systems of "our cut" of NPP is thought to be rapidly driving several Earth systems outside of bounds that were established on the geological time scale. Even with a fundamental realignment of human priorities, changing the unsustainable trajectory of the anthropocene will require reengineering photosynthesis to more efficiently meet human needs. Artificial photosynthetic systems are envisioned that can both supply renewable fuels and serve as platforms for exploring redesign strategies for photosynthesis. These strategies can be used in the nascent field of synthetic biology to make vast, much needed improvements in the biomass production efficiency of photosynthesis.

  4. Demand for CAM Practice at Hospitals in Japan: A Population Survey in Mie Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    Toshihiro Togo; Shigeru Urata; Kenta Sawazaki; Hinata Sakuraba; Torao Ishida; Kazuhito Yokoyama

    2011-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies have been provided at hospitals along with conventional medicine in industrialized nations. Previous studies conducted in Japan revealed high proportion of Japanese had experience of using CAM, but failed to discuss how it should be provided. The present study aims to clarify the demand for CAM practice at hospitals in Japan. A questionnaire consisting of 41 questions was mailed to 10 000 adults randomly selected from the electoral roll o...

  5. Demand for CAM Practice at Hospitals in Japan: A Population Survey in Mie Prefecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Togo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies have been provided at hospitals along with conventional medicine in industrialized nations. Previous studies conducted in Japan revealed high proportion of Japanese had experience of using CAM, but failed to discuss how it should be provided. The present study aims to clarify the demand for CAM practice at hospitals in Japan. A questionnaire consisting of 41 questions was mailed to 10 000 adults randomly selected from the electoral roll of Mie prefecture, Japan in January 2007. The questionnaire asked the subjects about demand for CAM practice at hospitals, types of CAM therapy to be provided and associated reasons. Sociodemographic characteristics, perceived health status, experience and purpose of CAM use, and information resource for CAM were also surveyed. Completed answers were collected from 2824 (28.6% respondents. Two thousand and nineteen (71.5% of the respondents demanded CAM practice at hospitals with the most likely reason of “patients can receive treatment under the guidance of a physicians”. The three most popular CAM therapies were Kampo, acupressure/massage/Shiatsu and acupuncture/moxibustion. The demand was positively associated with gender, ages of 40–59 years, annual household incomes of 5–7 million yen, occupation of specialist and technical workers and sales workers and poor health status. Higher demand was observed among those who used both CAM and conventional medical therapies for curative purposes. In conclusion, Japanese show a high demand for CAM practice, hoping to use CAM for curative purposes with monitoring by physicians at hospitals.

  6. From molecules to materials pathways to artificial photosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhkova, Elena A

    2015-01-01

    This interdisciplinary book focuses on the various aspects transformation of the energy from sunlight into the chemical bonds of a fuel, known as the artificial photosynthesis, and addresses the emergent challenges connected with growing societal demands for clean and sustainable energy technologies. The editors assemble the research of world-recognized experts in the field of both molecular and materials artificial systems for energy production. Contributors cover the full scope of research on photosynthesis and related energy processes.

  7. Genetic analysis of photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum centenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, F H; Gest, H; Bauer, C E

    1991-01-01

    A genetic system has been developed for studying bacterial photosynthesis in the recently described nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum centenum. Nonphotosynthetic mutants of R. centenum were obtained by enrichment for spontaneous mutations, by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis coupled to penicillin selection on solid medium, and by Tn5 transposition mutagenesis with an IncP plasmid vector containing a temperature-sensitive origin of replication. In vivo and in vitro characterization of individual strains demonstrated that 38 strains contained mutations that blocked bacteriochlorophyll a biosynthesis at defined steps of the biosynthetic pathway. Collectively, these mutations were shown to block seven of eight steps of the pathway leading from protoporphyrin IX to bacteriochlorophyll a. Three mutants were isolated in which carotenoid biosynthesis was blocked early in the biosynthetic pathway; the mutants also exhibited pleiotropic effects on stability or assembly of the photosynthetic apparatus. Five mutants failed to assemble a functional reaction center complex, and seven mutants contained defects in electron transport as shown by an alteration in cytochromes. In addition, several regulatory mutants were isolated that acquired enhanced repression of bacteriochlorophyll in response to the presence of molecular oxygen. The phenotypes of these mutants are discussed in relation to those of similar mutants of Rhodobacter and other Rhodospirillum species of purple photosynthetic bacteria. Images PMID:1648078

  8. Biosynthetic porphyrins and the origin of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauzerall, D.; Ley, A.; Mercer-Smith, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Since the prebiotic atmosphere was anaerobic, if not reducing, a useful function of primordial photosynthesis would have been to photooxidize reduced substrates such as Fe(+2), S(-2) or reduced organic molecules and to emit hydrogen. Experiments have shown that the early biogenic pigments uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin do photooxidize organic compounds and emit hydrogen in the presence of a platinum catalyst. These experiments were carried out in dilute aqueous solution near neutral pH under anaerobic atmosphere, and quantum yields near 10-2 were obtained. Thus relevant prebiotic conditions were maintained. Rather then to further optimize conditions, attempts were made to replace the platinum catalyst by a more prebiotically suitable catalyst. Trials with an Fe4S4(SR)4 cluster, in analogy to the present hydrogenase and nitrogenase, were not successful. However, experiments using cobalt complexes to catalyze the formation of hydrogen are promising. In analogy with biological photosynthetic systems which group pigments, electron transfer molecules and enzymes in clusters for efficiency, it was found that binding the biogenic porphyrins to the polyvinyl alcohol used to support the platinum catalyst did increase the quantum yield of the reaction. It was also found that ultraviolet light can serve to photo-oxidize porphyrinogens to porphyrins under anaerobic conditions. Thus the formation of the colorless porphyriogens by the extraordinarily simple biosynthetic pathway would not be a problem because of the prevalence of UV light in the prebiotic, anoxic atmosphere.

  9. Origin and early evolution of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Photosynthesis was well-established on the earth at least 3.5 thousand million years ago, and it is widely believed that these ancient organisms had similar metabolic capabilities to modern cyanobacteria. This requires that development of two photosystems and the oxygen evolution capability occurred very early in the earth's history, and that a presumed phase of evolution involving non-oxygen evolving photosynthetic organisms took place even earlier. The evolutionary relationships of the reaction center complexes found in all the classes of currently existing organisms have been analyzed using sequence analysis and biophysical measurements. The results indicate that all reaction centers fall into two basic groups, those with pheophytin and a pair of quinones as early acceptors, and those with iron sulfur clusters as early acceptors. No simple linear branching evolutionary scheme can account for the distribution patterns of reaction centers in existing photosynthetic organisms, and lateral transfer of genetic information is considered as a likely possibility. Possible scenarios for the development of primitive reaction centers into the heterodimeric protein structures found in existing reaction centers and for the development of organisms with two linked photosystems are presented.

  10. Applications of Satellite Fluorescence to Constrain Global Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazoo, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) by plant photosynthesis is the largest flux component of the global carbon budget and primary conduit for biological sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. While much is known about the functioning of photosynthesis at the leave-level, gross photosynthetic fluxes are still only loosely constrained at ecosystem, regional, and global scales. Uncertainty in the response of photosynthesis to the environment at these scales is a major source of uncertainty in prediction of biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks under climate change, and thus novel methods are needed to push the boundaries of carbon cycle science beyond leaf-level. Chlorophyll fluorescence has been a major tool for basic research in photosynthesis for nearly a century. It was recently discovered that solar induced fluorescence (SIF) can be accurately retrieved from space using high spectral resolution radiances, providing a new way to study photosynthesis at scales ranging from the ecosystem to the globe. Over the last 5-10 years, satellite based measurements of SIF have provided key new insights into the global distribution and functioning of plant photosynthesis, providing new ways to quantify global GPP, detect regional-scale changes in plant productivity in relation to light use efficiency and environmental controls, disentangle biological contributions to atmospheric carbon dioxide mole fractions, and refine process understanding in terrestrial biosphere models. Here, we highlight some of the key research advances emerging from satellite SIF.

  11. Springtime resumption of photosynthesis in balsam fir (Abies balsamea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodine, G K; Lavigne, M B; Krasowski, M J

    2008-07-01

    Photosynthesis in balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) was measured in the field at two locations in New Brunswick, Canada from late winter to late spring in 2004 and 2005. No photosynthesis was detectable while the soil remained below 0 degrees C throughout the rooting zone. In both years, photosynthesis began once soil temperature rose to 0 degrees C. In potted seedlings in growth chambers, there was no photosynthesis at an air temperature of 10 degrees C if the pots were frozen. These findings suggest that, once air temperatures permit photosynthesis, it is the availability of unfrozen soil water that triggers the onset of photosynthesis. In the field, full recovery of photosynthetic capacity following the onset of soil thaw was dependent on air temperature and took 5 weeks in 2005, but 10 weeks in 2004. There were two substantial frost events during the recovery period in 2004 that may explain the extended recovery period. In 2005, recovery was complete after the accumulation of 200 growing degree days above 0 degrees C after the start of soil thaw. PMID:18450571

  12. A Space Cam Mechanism for Power Transmission of an Opposite-cylinder Piston Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Haoyue; Xu Xiaojun; Zhang Lei; Zhou Faliang

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of improving the engine’s power density, we put forward a new type of power transmission mechanism which is used for opposed-cylinder engine. The gas pressure acts on the cam through the piston and push rod, and the spindle rotation of external is driven by the cam. The design of spatial cam work surface is completed by using the enveloping theory of a family of space curves, the force between roller and cam is analyzed using dynamic analysis software. Under the condition of e...

  13. The use of CAM by women suffering from nausea and vomiting during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Michael

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP affects two-thirds of pregnant women to varying degrees and over the years many modalities have been used to try to alleviate this often debilitating condition. There is a paucity of information in the literature about the use or efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM for the treatment of this condition that affects so many women. Our primary objective was to examine the prevalence of CAM usage by women suffering from NVP. Our secondary objective was to ascertain if women had any supervision in the use of these treatments. Methods Women who called The Motherisk NVP helpline, were asked after the counseling session to complete a questionnaire, which included demographic data as well as information about their CAM use. Results Seventy women completed the questionnaire. 61% reported using CAM therapies, of which the three most popular were: ginger, vitamin B6 and acupressure. 21% of those who reported using CAM, had consulted CAM practitioners, 8% their physicians or pharmacists and 71% discussed the usage with family, friends and other allied health professionals. Women who did not use CAM stated they would probably use these modalities if there was more information about the safety in pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnant women with NVP are mirroring the trend in the general population of the use of CAM. They are also using CAM therapies with little supervision from practitioners experienced in the use of these modalities.

  14. ON DESIGN METHOD OF THE PRECISION CAM PROFILE WITH RANDOM PROCESSING ERRORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on probability and statistic, a design method of precision cam profile concerning the influence of random processing errors is advanced. Combining the design with the process, which can be used to predict that cam profiles will be successfully processed or not in the design stage, design of the cam can be done by balancing the economization and reliability. In addition, an fuzzy deduction method based on Bayers formula is advanced to estimate processing reasonable of the designed precision cam profile, and it take few samples.

  15. Initiating a Reiki or CAM program in a healthcare organization--developing a business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) services, such as Reiki, continue to be offered to consumers in many hospitals and other health care organizations. There is growing interest among nurses, doctors, and other health care providers for the integration of CAM therapies into traditional settings. Health care organizations are responding to this need but may not know how to start CAM programs. Starting a Reiki program in a health care setting must be envisioned in a business model approach. This article introduces nurses and other health care providers to the basic concepts of business plan development and important steps to follow when starting a Reiki or CAM program. PMID:25314111

  16. Nucleic acid encoding DS-CAM proteins and products related thereto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenberg, Julie R.

    2005-11-01

    In accordance with the present invention, there are provided Down Syndrome-Cell Adhesion Molecule (DS-CAM) proteins. Nucleic acid sequences encoding such proteins and assays employing same are also disclosed. The invention DS-CAM proteins can be employed in a variety of ways, for example, for the production of anti-DS-CAM antibodies thereto, in therapeutic compositions and methods employing such proteins and/or antibodies. DS-CAM proteins are also useful in bioassays to identify agonists and antagonists thereto.

  17. Operability of the Ventilation Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock Analysis of Proposed Upgrade to the 241AW Farm Primary Exhauster CAM System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis (FSAR) assumes that a ventilation stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) interlock system detects high radiation in the exhaust stream and shuts off the associated ventilation system within 10 minutes of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter system failure (CHG, 2002). Previous analysis of the as-built CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster (stack 296-A-27) showed that this system potentially required significantly longer than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure and initiate shutdown of the ventilation system (Short, 2002). The purpose of this report is to determine the CAM interlock system response time for a proposed upgrade of the 296-A-27 CAM system. The approach to be used in this analysis is essentially the same as used in RPP-10799, Rev. 0 (Short, 2002), which is to conservatively estimate the time required by the proposed upgraded CAM sampling/monitoring system to detect a FSAR-defined HEPA filter failure and automatically shutdown the exhaust fan. For the HEPA filter failure over-temperature accident scenario in the FSAR, the upgraded CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster will require significantly less than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure, actuate the CAM Interlock, and shutdown the exhauster fan. Therefore, the analyzed system is adequate to meet the operability requirements specified in the FSAR and the Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements (CHG, 2001; CHG, 2002)

  18. Korištenje CAD/CAM tehnologije u praksi

    OpenAIRE

    Jolić, Robert; Kukec, Đuro; Pavlic, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    Ovaj rad opisuje korakeristike CNC tehnologije, njeno korištenje i prednosti korištenja u proizvodnji. Opisana je ideja, izrada 3D modela u CAD programskome alatu, zatim su u CAM programskome alatu definirani svi parametri glodanja i na kraju je sve glodano na stroju. Prikazano je koliko se brže ovom tehnologijom proizvod može koristiti i proizvoditi, u odnosu na način da se sve radi ručno. Sve je modelirano u programskome alatu SolidWorks, parametri glodanja su definirani u programskome alat...

  19. Creative WebCam Live最新摄像头

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Creative WebCam Live摄像头拥有高达1024×768的静态影像捕捉能力,进了步提供无与伦比的影像输出效果。另外.其更拥有灵活的固定方式,让你可以轻轻松松将它固定在PC,不同厚度的LCD屏幕甚至是Notebook上。不仅如此,

  20. CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, P.

    1984-01-01

    The history of CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault are presented. Emphasis is put on the targets of the now commercially available software CATIA. The links with scientific computations such as aerodynamics and structural analysis are presented. Comments are made on the principles followed within the company. The consequences of the approximative nature of scientific data are examined. Consequence of the new history function is mainly its protection against copy or alteration. Future plans at Dassault for scientific data appear to be in opposite directions compared to some general tendencies.

  1. FEAT-REP : representing features in CAD/CAM

    OpenAIRE

    Klauck, Christoph; Bernardi, Ansgar; Legleitner, Ralf

    1991-01-01

    When CAD/CAM experts view a workpiece, they perceive it in terms of their own expertise. These terms, called features, which are build upon a syntax (geometry) and a semantic (e.g. skeletal plans in manufacturing or functional relations in design), provide an abstraction mechanism to facilitate the creation, manufacturing and analysis of workpieces. Our goal is to enable experts to represent their own feature-language via a feature-grammar in the computer to build feature-based systems e.g. C...

  2. CAD/CAM from the graphic-design perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, A.

    1982-11-01

    CAD/CAM systems have evolved elaborate human-computer interfaces in order to facilitate the creation of highly detailed and specialized schematic diagrams and texts. Although these systems have powerful capacities in terms of graphics editing, data manipulation, and data storage, insufficient attention has been given to making the online interface (together with supporting documentation) user-friendly, i.e., understandable, memorable, and appealing to the general user. Graphic-design considerations in particular have been routinely overlooked. Graphic design concerns typography, symbol design, color, spatial layout, and temporal sequencing. Graphic design can assist computer science by providing insight and expertise in designing effective communication between human being and machine.

  3. Strong discontinuity with cam clay under large deformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katic, Natasa; Hededal, Ole

    2008-01-01

    and an enhanced part. The localized deformations are approximated by means of a discontinuous displacement field. The applied algorithm leads to a predictor/corrector procedure which is formally identical to the returnmapping algorithm of classical (local and continuous) Cam clay model.......The work shows simultaneous implementation of Strong discontinuity approach (SDA) by means of Enhanced Assumed Strain (EAS) and Critical State Soil Mechanics CSSM) in large strain regime. The numerical model is based on an additive decomposition of the displacement gradient into a conforming...

  4. Applying DER-CAM for IIT Microgrid Explansion Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Li, Zuyi [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Chen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-19

    The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is an economic and environmental model of customer DER adoption. This model has been in development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory since 2000. The objective of the model is to find optimal DER investments while minimizing total energy costs or carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, or achieving a weighted objective that simultaneously considers both criteria. The Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Microgrid project started in August 2008, and the majority of the project was completed in May 2013. IIT Microgrid, funded mostly by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy as well as State and philanthropic contributions, empowers the campus consumers with the objective of establishing a smart microgrid that is highly reliable, economically viable, environmentally friendly, fuel-efficient, and resilient in extreme circumstances with a self-healing capability. In this project, we apply DER-CAM to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid. First, the load data, environmental data, utility data, and technology data for the IIT Microgrid are gathered and organized to follow the DER-CAM input requirements. Then, DERCAM is applied to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid for different cases, where different objectives in DER-CAM and different utility conditions are tested. Case 1 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with fixed utility rates and 100% electric utility availability. Case 2 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with real-time utility rates and 4 emergency weeks when the IIT Microgrid does not have access to the electric utility grid and has to operate in island mode. In Case 3, the utility rates are restored to fixed values and 100% electric utility availability is assumed, but a weighted multi-objective (Obj: a × costs + b × CO2 emissions, where a and b are weights for cost minimization and CO2 emissions minimization) is utilized to

  5. Oxomanganese complexes for natural and artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalta, Ivan; Brudvig, Gary W; Batista, Victor S

    2012-04-01

    The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of Photosystem II (PSII) is an oxomanganese complex that catalyzes water-splitting into O2, protons and electrons. Recent breakthroughs in X-ray crystallography have resolved the cuboidal OEC structure at 1.9 Å resolution, stimulating significant interest in studies of structure/function relations. This article summarizes recent advances on studies of the OEC along with studies of synthetic oxomanganese complexes for artificial photosynthesis. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics hybrid methods have enabled modeling the S1 state of the OEC, including the ligation proposed by the most recent X-ray data where D170 is bridging Ca and the Mn center outside the CaMn3 core. Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations have explored the structural/functional roles of chloride, suggesting that it regulates the electrostatic interactions between D61 and K317 that might be critical for proton abstraction. Furthermore, structural studies of synthetic oxomanganese complexes, including the [H2O(terpy)MnIII(μ-O)2MnIV(terpy)OH2]3+ (1, terpy=2,2':6',2″-terpyridine) complex, provided valuable insights on the mechanistic influence of carboxylate moieties in close contact with the Mn catalyst during oxygen evolution. Covalent attachment of 1 to TiO2 has been achieved via direct deposition and by using organic chromophoric linkers. The (III,IV) oxidation state of 1 attached to TiO2 can be advanced to (IV,IV) by visible-light photoexcitation, leading to photoinduced interfacial electron transfer. These studies are particularly relevant to the development of artificial photosynthetic devices based on inexpensive materials.

  6. Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A. A.; Calvin, M.

    1948-06-01

    Although the overall reaction of photosynthesis can be specified with some degree of certainty (CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + light {yields} sugars + possibly other reduced substances), the intermediates through which the carbon passes during the course of this reduction have, until now, been largely a matter of conjecture. The availability of isotopic carbon, that is, a method of labeling the carbon dioxide, provides the possibility of some very direct experiments designed to recognize these intermediates and, perhaps, help to understand the complex sequence and interplay of reactions which must constitute the photochemical process itself. The general design of such experiments is an obvious one, namely the exposure of the green plant to radioactive carbon dioxide and light under a variety of conditions and for continually decreasing lengths of time, followed by the identification of the compounds into which the radioactive carbon is incorporated under each condition and time period. From such data it is clear that in principle, at least, it should be possible to establish the sequence of compounds in time through which the carbon passes on its path from carbon dioxide to the final products. In the course of shortening the photosynthetic times, one times, one ultimately arrives at the condition of exposing the plants to the radioactive carbon dioxide with a zero illumination time, that is, in the dark. Actually, in the work the systematic order of events was reversed, and they have begun by studying first the dark fixation and then the shorter photosynthetic times. The results of the beginnings of this sort of a systematic investigation are given in Table I which includes three sets of experiments, namely a dark fixation experiment and two photosynthetic experiments, one of 30 seconds duration and the other of 60 seconds duration.

  7. A Prospective, Multicenter Study of Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) Utilization During Definitive Radiation for Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, William W. Backus Hospital, Norwich, Connecticut (United States); Ma Shuangge [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [University of Michigan, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Yang, Tzu-I Jonathan [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Higgins, Susan A. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Shoreline Medical Center, Guilford, Connecticut (United States); Weidhaas, Joanne B. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Lawrence and Memorial Hospital, New London, Connecticut (United States); Lloyd, Shane [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Peschel, Richard [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Lawrence and Memorial Hospital, New London, Connecticut (United States); Gaudreau, Bryant [Department of Radiation Therapy, William W. Backus Hospital, Norwich, Connecticut (United States); Rockwell, Sara [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in breast cancer patients is reported to be high, there are few data on CAM practices in breast patients specifically during radiation. This prospective, multi-institutional study was conducted to define CAM utilization in breast cancer during definitive radiation. Materials/Methods: A validated CAM instrument with a self-skin assessment was administered to 360 Stage 0-III breast cancer patients from 5 centers during the last week of radiation. All data were analyzed to detect significant differences between users/nonusers. Results: CAM usage was reported in 54% of the study cohort (n=194/360). Of CAM users, 71% reported activity-based CAM (eg, Reiki, meditation), 26% topical CAM, and 45% oral CAM. Only 16% received advice/counseling from naturopathic/homeopathic/medical professionals before initiating CAM. CAM use significantly correlated with higher education level (P<.001), inversely correlated with concomitant hormone/radiation therapy use (P=.010), with a trend toward greater use in younger patients (P=.066). On multivariate analysis, level of education (OR: 6.821, 95% CI: 2.307-20.168, P<.001) and hormones/radiation therapy (OR: 0.573, 95% CI: 0.347-0.949, P=.031) independently predicted for CAM use. Significantly lower skin toxicity scores were reported in CAM users vs nonusers, respectively (mild: 34% vs 25%, severe: 17% vs 29%, P=.017). Conclusion: This is the first prospective study to assess CAM practices in breast patients during radiation, with definition of these practices as the first step for future investigation of CAM/radiation interactions. These results should alert radiation oncologists that a large percentage of breast cancer patients use CAM during radiation without disclosure or consideration for potential interactions, and should encourage increased awareness, communication, and documentation of CAM practices in patients undergoing radiation treatment for breast

  8. Preparation and Preliminary Application of MAdCAM-1 Polyclonal Antibody in Dairy Cows with Subclinical Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Chen, Yuanyuan; Chang, Qiaocheng; Xia, Cheng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Hongyou

    2015-08-01

    MAdCAM-1 plays an important role in mediating immune response and inflammation. This study aimed to express and purify a fusion protein of MAdCAM-1 in prokaryotic cells and to prepare rat anti-bovine MAdCAM-1 polyclonal antibodies. Prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1-MAdCAM-1 and pET-28a-MAdCAM-1 were constructed, respectively. The above plasmids were transformed into BL21 Escherichia coli strain. These recombinant strains were induced by IPTG and identified by Western blot analysis and SDS-PAGE. Wistar rats were immunized with recombinant protein (pET-28a-MAdCAM-1) emulsified with Freund's adjuvant, and antibody titers were measured by indirect ELISA. Antibody titers reached the highest value (1:128,000) after the third immunization. Western blot showed that rat anti-bovine MAdCAM-1 polyclonal antibody can not only recognize recombinant MAdCAM-1 protein expressed in E. coli but also recognizes natural MAdCAM-1 protein extracted from bovine tissues. However, commercial anti-mouse MAdCAM-1 monoclonal antibodies did not recognize the recombinant MAdCAM-1 protein or natural protein, which indicated no cross-reactivity between bovine MAdCAM-1 and mouse MAdCAM-1. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis showed that MAdCAM-1 expression was limited in mammary lymphoid nodes of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. We speculate that MAdCAM-1 expression is inconsistent in different periods of the dairy cows. The successful preparation of rat anti-bovine MAdCAM-1 polyclonal antibody and its preliminary application in dairy cows provide the foundation for further study of the mechanism of anti-inflammation of MAdCAM-1 in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis. PMID:26301930

  9. A Prospective, Multicenter Study of Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) Utilization During Definitive Radiation for Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in breast cancer patients is reported to be high, there are few data on CAM practices in breast patients specifically during radiation. This prospective, multi-institutional study was conducted to define CAM utilization in breast cancer during definitive radiation. Materials/Methods: A validated CAM instrument with a self-skin assessment was administered to 360 Stage 0-III breast cancer patients from 5 centers during the last week of radiation. All data were analyzed to detect significant differences between users/nonusers. Results: CAM usage was reported in 54% of the study cohort (n=194/360). Of CAM users, 71% reported activity-based CAM (eg, Reiki, meditation), 26% topical CAM, and 45% oral CAM. Only 16% received advice/counseling from naturopathic/homeopathic/medical professionals before initiating CAM. CAM use significantly correlated with higher education level (P<.001), inversely correlated with concomitant hormone/radiation therapy use (P=.010), with a trend toward greater use in younger patients (P=.066). On multivariate analysis, level of education (OR: 6.821, 95% CI: 2.307-20.168, P<.001) and hormones/radiation therapy (OR: 0.573, 95% CI: 0.347-0.949, P=.031) independently predicted for CAM use. Significantly lower skin toxicity scores were reported in CAM users vs nonusers, respectively (mild: 34% vs 25%, severe: 17% vs 29%, P=.017). Conclusion: This is the first prospective study to assess CAM practices in breast patients during radiation, with definition of these practices as the first step for future investigation of CAM/radiation interactions. These results should alert radiation oncologists that a large percentage of breast cancer patients use CAM during radiation without disclosure or consideration for potential interactions, and should encourage increased awareness, communication, and documentation of CAM practices in patients undergoing radiation treatment for breast

  10. CAD/CAM/HSM CAXAME of piston rods die%CAXAME-连杆模具的CAD/CAM/HSM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖

    2005-01-01

    针对传统连杆模具制造工艺的不足,提出CAD/CAM/HSM加工技术的完整解决方案.首先使用CAXAME2004的造型功能进行三维实体造型,然后用CAXAME2004的加工功能生成数控加工程序,最后在HSM一600型高速铣削加工中心上完成整个加工过程.

  11. Aplikace CAD/CAM softwaru EdgeCAM při obrábění

    OpenAIRE

    Trčka, Vojtěch

    2010-01-01

    Bakalářská práce obsahuje souhrn informací o CAD/CAM softwaru Edgecam, nastavení post procesoru pro použití na výrobní stroj ZPS VMC 1060 s řídicím systémem DynaPath Delta MU Control 50. Popis jednotlivých výrobních strategií, řezných nástrojů, experimentální ověření CNC kódu na výrobním zařízení.

  12. Status of the CAMS-BeNeLux network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggemans, P.; Johannink, C.; Breukers, M.

    2016-01-01

    An overview is being given of the further expansion of the CAMS@BeNeLux network since previous IMC, July 2015 until May 2016. The weather proved less favorable than in the year before, but thanks to a number of new cameras and extra observing stations, the overall performance of the network remained at the same level in spite of the often poor weather circumstances. This paper compares the Kappa-Cygnids performance of 2015 with the analyses made for the 2014 data, following the same methodology. In 2015 the Kappa Cygnids were remarkable absent which confirms the periodic nature of the abundant Kappa-Cygnids display in 2014. The CAMS@BeNeLux network was the first to draw attention to enhanced activity of the newly discovered Chi Cygnids meteor shower with 5 accurate orbits in the night of 14-15 September 2015. A search through a selection of all orbits of September 2015 yield 71 possible Chi Cygnid orbits of which 18 were selected to calculate the average orbital elements.

  13. Radiation transport analysis with the aid of CAD/CAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of radiation exposure to sensitive parts in spacecraft involves complex shielding configurations and multi-directional exposures. Ray tracing is commonly used to determine shielding along different directions for transport calculations and dose conversions. Ray tracing requires geometric modeling of the spacecraft, structures, equipment and enclosures. Modeling by manual procedures is inefficient and slow. Combinatorial geometry codes are a substantial improvement over manual procedures but modeling a spacecraft and its contents can take many man months; and still involves many approximations. The increasing use of CAD/CAM in engineering and design results in the convenient accessibility of geometric modeling data. A CAD/CAM system, CADAM, was used to develop an ancillary program which provides one-dimensional ray trace information from CADAM models. The resultant ray trace information is used in subsequent transport analysis on a DEC computer. The result is a timesavings of man-months, by utilizing an existing data base and an increase in accuracy by using up-to-date geometrical information

  14. Rational redesign of the biodegradative enzyme cytochrome P450 cam:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytochromes P450, a superfamily of monooxygenase enzymes present in all kingdoms of living organisms, are very versatile with respect to substrate range and catalytic functionality. Many recalcitrant halogenated hydrocarbons, on DOE sites and throughout the nation, result in serious environmental impact. Cytochromes P450 have been shown to be catalytically capable of, at least partial, dehalogenation of some such compounds. Clearly, however, their active site stereochemistry and related functional components are not well suited for this role because the rates of dehalogenation are generally rather modest. The evolution of modified active site and access channel structures may proceed very slowly if multiple genetic changes are simultaneously required for enzyme adaptation. Since each mutational event is by itself a rare event, a basic premise of our research is that designing multiple changes into an enzyme may be more timely than waiting for them to occur biologically either via natural selection or under laboratory-controlled conditions. Starting with available high-resolution x-ray crystal structures, molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations have been used to probe the basic structure/function principles and conformational fluctuations of the biodegradative enzyme, cytochrome P450cam (camphor hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida) and active site mutants, to provide the fundamental understanding necessary for rational engineering of the enzyme for modified substrate specificity. In the present paper, we review our progress to data, in the area of molecular dynamics simulations and active site redesign of P450cam. 36 refs., 2 figs

  15. The ExoMars PanCam Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Andrew; Coates, Andrew; Muller, Jan-Peter; Jaumann, Ralf; Josset, Jean-Luc; Paar, Gerhard; Barnes, David

    2010-05-01

    The ExoMars mission has evolved into a joint European-US mission to deliver a trace gas orbiter and a pair of rovers to Mars in 2016 and 2018 respectively. The European rover will carry the Pasteur exobiology payload including the 1.56 kg Panoramic Camera. PanCam will provide multispectral stereo images with 34 deg horizontal field-of-view (580 microrad/pixel) Wide-Angle Cameras (WAC) and (83 microrad/pixel) colour monoscopic "zoom" images with 5 deg horizontal field-of-view High Resolution Camera (HRC). The stereo Wide Angle Cameras (WAC) are based on Beagle 2 Stereo Camera System heritage [1]. Integrated with the WACs and HRC into the PanCam optical bench (which helps the instrument meet its planetary protection requirements) is the PanCam interface unit (PIU); which provides image storage, a Spacewire interface to the rover and DC-DC power conversion. The Panoramic Camera instrument is designed to fulfil the digital terrain mapping requirements of the mission [2] as well as providing multispectral geological imaging, colour and stereo panoramic images and solar images for water vapour abundance and dust optical depth measurements. The High Resolution Camera (HRC) can be used for high resolution imaging of interesting targets detected in the WAC panoramas and of inaccessible locations on crater or valley walls. Additionally HRC will be used to observe retrieved subsurface samples before ingestion into the rest of the Pasteur payload. In short, PanCam provides the overview and context for the ExoMars experiment locations, required to enable the exobiology aims of the mission. In addition to these baseline capabilities further enhancements are possible to PanCam to enhance it's effectiveness for astrobiology and planetary exploration: 1. Rover Inspection Mirror (RIM) 2. Organics Detection by Fluorescence Excitation (ODFE) LEDs [3-6] 3. UVIS broadband UV Flux and Opacity Determination (UVFOD) photodiode This paper will discuss the scientific objectives and resource

  16. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) sensitive phosphorylation of calmodulin (CAM) in A431 cell membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A431, a transformed cell line, is known to contain a high concentration of EGF receptors (EGFR). Exogenous CAM, when combined with purified membrane from A431 is strongly phosphorylated in the presence of EGF. The EGF-dependent phosphorylation of CAM did not alter the normal profile of the A431 EGFR autophosphorylation, as demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. In addition to its EGF dependency, the presence of divalent cations is also critical for CAM phosphorylation. The presence of a divalent cation chelator, such as EGTA, caused a complete inhibition of CAM phosphorylation, which can be reversed with cations in the following order of effectiveness: Mg++ > Mn++ > Ca++. Divalent cations also break up CAM into four co-migrating bands as indicated by Coomassie Blue stained gels and the corresponding autoradiograms. Double antibody precipitation followed by phospho-amino acid analysis revealed that the EGF-sensitive CAM phosphorylation occurs exclusively on the serine residue. Using radioimmunoassay, purified A431 membrane was shown to contain a significant amount of endogenous CAM. The implications of the EGF-sensitive CAM phosphorylation are currently under investigation

  17. A new radiological index for assessing asphericity of the femoral head in cam impingement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, K K; Jacobsen, S; Palm, H;

    2007-01-01

    Femoroacetabular cam impingement is thought to be a cause of premature osteoarthritis of the hip. The presence of cam malformation was determined in 2803 standardised anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs from the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study by measuring the alpha (alpha) angle and the...

  18. Cam deformity and hip degeneration are common after fixation of a slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Jakob; Gosvig, Kasper; Magnussen, Erland;

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose - Slipped capital femoral epiphysis is thought to result in cam deformity and femoroacetabular impingement. We examined: (1) cam-type deformity, (2) labral degeneration, chondrolabral damage, and osteoarthritic development, and (3) the clinical and patient-reported outcome...

  19. Numerical verification of similar Cam-clay model based on generalized potential theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟志辉; 杨光华; 傅旭东; 温勇; 张玉成

    2014-01-01

    From the mathematical principles, the generalized potential theory can be employed to create constitutive model of geomaterial directly. The similar Cam-clay model, which is created based on the generalized potential theory, has less assumptions, clearer mathematical basis, and better computational accuracy. Theoretically, it is more scientific than the traditional Cam-clay models. The particle flow code PFC3D was used to make numerical tests to verify the rationality and practicality of the similar Cam-clay model. The verification process was as follows: 1) creating the soil sample for numerical test in PFC3D, and then simulating the conventional triaxial compression test, isotropic compression test, and isotropic unloading test by PFC3D; 2) determining the parameters of the similar Cam-clay model from the results of above tests; 3) predicting the sample’s behavior in triaxial tests under different stress paths by the similar Cam-clay model, and comparing the predicting results with predictions by the Cam-clay model and the modified Cam-clay model. The analysis results show that the similar Cam-clay model has relatively high prediction accuracy, as well as good practical value.

  20. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. RESULTS The mean fracture strengths were as follows: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed a complete fracture of both the veneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. CONCLUSION The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain. PMID:23755332

  1. Bidirectional modulation of endogenous EpCAM expression to unravel its function in ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gun, B. T. F.; Huisman, C.; Stolzenburg, S.; Kazemier, H. G.; Ruiters, M. H. J.; Blancafort, P.; Rots, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is overexpressed on most carcinomas. Dependent on the tumour type, its overexpression is either associated with improved or worse patient survival. For ovarian cancer, however, the role of EpCAM remains unclear. Methods: Cell survival of ovar

  2. L1CAM whole gene deletion in a child with L1 syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidsey, Brandalyn A; Baldwin, Erin E; Toydemir, Reha; Ahles, Lauren; Hanson, Heather; Stevenson, David A

    2014-06-01

    L1 syndrome is a group of overlapping, X-linked disorders caused by mutations in L1CAM. Clinical phenotypes within L1 syndrome include X-linked hydrocephalus with stenosis of the aqueduct of sylvius (HSAS); mental retardation, adducted thumbs, shuffling gait, and aphasia (MASA) syndrome; spastic paraplegia type 1; and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Over 200 mutations in L1CAM have been reported; however, only a few large gene deletions have been observed. We report on a 4-month-old male with a de novo whole gene deletion of L1CAM presenting with congenital hydrocephalus, aqueductal stenosis, and adducted thumbs. Initial failure of L1CAM gene sequencing suggested the possibility of a whole gene deletion of L1CAM. Further investigation through chromosome microarray analysis showed a 62Kb deletion encompassing the first exon of the PDZD4 gene and the entire L1CAM gene. Investigations into genotype-phenotype correlations have suggested that mutations leading to truncated or absent L1 protein cause more severe forms of L1 syndrome. Based on the presentation of the proband and other reported patients with whole gene deletions, we provide further evidence that L1CAM whole gene deletions result in L1 syndrome with a severe phenotype, deletions of PDZD4 do not cause additional manifestations, and that X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus reported in a subset of patients with large L1CAM deletions results from the loss of AVPR2. PMID:24668863

  3. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments by Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, Lillian M.; Mackintosh, Virginia H.; Myers, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may elect to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments with their children in place of, or in addition to, conventional treatments. CAM treatments are controversial and understudied and, for most, the efficacy has not been established. The current study (n = 248) examined…

  4. A methodological framework for evaluating the evidence for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Robert; Johannesen, Helle

    2011-01-01

    In spite of lacking evidence for effects on cancer progression itself, an increasing number of cancer patients use various types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). There is disagreement between CAM practitioners, researchers and clinical oncologists, as to how evidence concerning...

  5. Photosynthesis 2008 Gordon Research Conferences - June 22-27, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willem Vermaas

    2009-08-28

    Photosynthesis is the most prevalent, natural way to convert solar energy to chemical energy in living systems, and is a major mechanism to ameliorate rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere and to contribute to sustainable biofuels production. Photosynthesis is a particularly interdisciplinary field of research, with contributions from plant and microbial physiology, biochemistry, spectroscopy, etc. The Photosynthesis GRC is a venue by which scientists with expertise in complementary approaches such as solar energy conversion, molecular mechanisms of electron transfer, and 'systems biology' (molecular physiology) of photosynthetic organisms come together to exchange data and ideas and to forge new collaborations. The 2008 Photosynthesis GRC will focus on important new findings related to, for example: (1) function, structure, assembly, degradation, motility and regulation of photosynthetic complexes; (2) energy and electron transfer in photosynthetic systems; regulation and rate limitations; (3) synthesis, degradation and regulation of cofactors (pigments, etc.); (4) functional, structural and regulatory interactions between photosynthesis and the physiology of the organism; (5) organisms with unusual photosynthetic properties, and insights from metagenomics and evolution; and (6) bioenergy strategies involving solar energy conversion, and practical applications for photosynthetic organisms.

  6. Optimal Design of a Cam Mechanism with Translating Flat-Face Follower using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Tsiafis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimum design of a cam mechanism is a time consuming task, due to the numerous alternatives considerations. In the present work, the problem of design parameters optimization of a cam mechanism with translating flat - face follower is investigated from a multi - objective point of view. The design parameters, just like the cam base circle radius, the follower face width and the follower offset can be determined considering as the optimization criteria minimization of the cam size, of the input torque and of the contact stress. During the optimization procedure, a number of constraints regarding the pressure angle, the contact stress, etcare taken into account. The optimization approach, based on genetic algorithm, is applied to find the optimal solutions with respect to the a fore - mentioned objective function and to Ensure the kinematic requirements. Finally, the dynamic behavior of the designed cam mechanism is investigated considering the frictional forces.

  7. Analysis of 3D curve expansion of conical cam with oscillating tapered roller follower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of running conditions and machining processes of conical cam with oscillating follower. We point out the common errors existing in the design and machining of the widely used plane expansion method of conical cam trough-out line. We show that the motion can be divided into two parts, i.e. the oscillating motion of oscillating bar and the rotary motion of oscillating bar relative to the conical cam. By increasing the rotary motion of oscillating bar, the motion path of tapered roller on oscillating bar (i.e. contour surface of conical cam) can be expanded on the cylinder. Based on these analyses,we present a creative and effective designing and machining method for 3D curve expansion of conical cam with oscillating follower.

  8. Aplikace CAD/CAM softwaru FeatureCAM při obrábění

    OpenAIRE

    Foltán, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Diplomová práce obsahuje vypracovaný postup výroby části kokily pro gravitační lití pístů s využitím softwaru FeatureCAM. Zabývá se výběrem vhodného strojního a nástrojového vybavení, určením řezných podmínek a řešením výběru optimálních strategií obrábění v softwaru FeatureCAM. Celý proces obrábění je ověřen grafickou simulací a je doplněn výkresovou dokumentací součásti.

  9. Hierarchical Inorganic Assemblies for Artificial Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooyul; Edri, Eran; Frei, Heinz

    2016-09-20

    Artificial photosynthesis is an attractive approach for renewable fuel generation because it offers the prospect of a technology suitable for deployment on highly abundant, non-arable land. Recent leaps forward in the development of efficient and durable light absorbers and catalysts for oxygen evolution and the growing attention to catalysts for carbon dioxide activation brings into focus the tasks of hierarchically integrating the components into assemblies for closing of the photosynthetic cycle. A particular challenge is the efficient coupling of the multi-electron processes of CO2 reduction and H2O oxidation. Among the most important requirements for a complete integrated system are catalytic rates that match the solar flux, efficient charge transport between the various components, and scalability of the photosynthetic assembly on the unprecedented scale of terawatts in order to have impact on fuel consumption. To address these challenges, we have developed a heterogeneous inorganic materials approach with molecularly precise control of light absorption and charge transport pathways. Oxo-bridged heterobinuclear units with metal-to-metal charge-transfer transitions absorbing deep in the visible act as single photon, single charge transfer pumps for driving multi-electron catalysts. A photodeposition method has been introduced for the spatially directed assembly of nanoparticle catalysts for selective coupling to the donor or acceptor metal of the light absorber. For CO2 reduction, a Cu oxide cluster is coupled to the Zr center of a ZrOCo light absorber, while coupling of an Ir nanoparticle catalyst for water oxidation to the Co donor affords closing of the photosynthetic cycle of CO2 conversion by H2O to CO and O2. Optical, vibrational, and X-ray spectroscopy provide detailed structural knowledge of the polynuclear assemblies. Time resolved visible and rapid-scan FT-IR studies reveal charge transfer mechanisms and transient surface intermediates under

  10. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XVI. Kinetic Relationships of the Intermediates in Steady State Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A. A.; Kawaguchi, S.; Hayes, P.; Calvin, M.

    1952-06-05

    A kinetic study of the accumulation of C{sup 14} in the intermediates of steady state photosynthesis in C{sup 14}O{sub 2} provides information regarding the sequence of reactions involved. The work described applied the radio-chromatographic technique for analysis of the labeled early products. The simultaneous carboxylation reaction resulting in malic acid as well as phosphoglycerate is demonstrated in experiments at high light intensity. A comparison of radioactivities in a number of phosphorylated sugars as a function of time reveals concurrent synthesis of fructose and sedoheptulose phosphates followed by that of ribulose phosphates and later by that of glucose phosphates. The possibility that the cleavage of C{sub 4} compounds to C{sub 2} carbon dioxide acceptors may involve C{sub 7} and C{sub 5} sugars and evidence for this mechanism is presented.

  11. SIMPLE SIMULATION OF THE ANNUAL VARIATION OF THE SPECIFIC PHOTOSYNTHESIS RATE IN JIAOZHOU BAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A simple diagnostic simulation of the annual cycling of the surface specific photosynthesis rate (SPR) in Jiaozhou Bay is described in this paper. Light intensity, temperature and nutrients (nitrate + ammonia, phosphate) were considered as main factors controlling photosynthesis of phytoplankton and were introduced into the model by different function equations. The simulated variation of specific photosynthesis rate coincided with the measured data. Analysis of the effect of every factor on photosynthesis indicated that the variation of photosynthesis rate was controlled by all these three factors, while temperature showed good correlation with SPR as measurement showed. This diagnostic simulation yielded the values of some parameter relating with the photosynthesis in Jiaozhou Bay.

  12. A scoping review of research on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the mass media: Looking back, moving forward

    OpenAIRE

    Strudsholm Tina; Weeks Laura C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become more common in Western developed countries in recent years, as has media reporting on CAM and related issues. Correspondingly, media reports are a primary information source regarding decisions to use CAM. Research on CAM related media reports is becoming increasingly relevant and important; however, identifying key concepts to guide future research is problematic due to the dispersed nature of completed re...

  13. Cam Deformity and Hip Degeneration Presents 10 to 17 Years After Fixation of a Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Jakob; Gosvig, Kasper; Magnussen, Erland;

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is hypothesized to result in cam deformity and femoroacetabular impingement. We examined: (1)cam-type deformity, (2) labral degeneration, chondrolabral damage, and osteoarthritic development, (3) the clinical and patient-reported ou......Background and purpose: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is hypothesized to result in cam deformity and femoroacetabular impingement. We examined: (1)cam-type deformity, (2) labral degeneration, chondrolabral damage, and osteoarthritic development, (3) the clinical and patient...

  14. Bilgisayar destekli diş hekimliği ve güncel CAD/CAM sistemleri

    OpenAIRE

    Gözde Çelik; Tuğrul Sarı; Aslıhan Üşümez

    2013-01-01

    CAD/CAM systems (computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing) has been used in dentistry since 1987. In the past 25 years, development of various high quality chairside and laboratory CAD/CAM systems has been continued with the progress of technology. This article describes currently used CAD/CAM systems.

    Keywords: Dental, CAD/CAM systems.

     

    ÖZET

  15. CAM use in pediatric neurology: an exploration of concurrent use with conventional medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Galicia-Connolly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that up to 60% of children with neurologic conditions have tried complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of CAM among patients presenting to neurology clinics at two academic centers in Canada. METHODS: A survey instrument was developed to inquire about use of CAM products and therapies, including reasons for use, perceived helpfulness, and concurrent use with conventional medicine, and administered to patients or their parents/guardians at the Stollery Children's Hospital in Edmonton and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO in Ottawa. RESULTS: Overall CAM use at the Stollery was 78%, compared to 48% at CHEO. The most common CAM products used were multi-vitamins (84%, vitamin C (37%, homeopathic remedies (24%, and fish oil/omega 3 s (22%. The most common CAM practices used were massage (47%, chiropractic (37%, faith healing (18%, aromatherapy (16%, homeopathy (16%, and relaxation (16%. Many patients used CAM products at the same time as conventional medicine but just over half (57% discussed this concurrent use with their physician. CONCLUSION: CAM use is common in pediatric neurology patients and most respondents felt that it was helpful, with few or no harms associated. However, this use is often undisclosed, increasing possibility of interactions with conventional drugs. We urge clinicians to inquire about CAM use during routine history taking at every patient visit. Parents would clearly like more information about CAM from their specialty clinics; such information would be easier to share if more primary data were available about the safety and effectiveness of commonly used therapies.

  16. Effector Roles of Putidaredoxin on Cytochrome P450cam Conformational States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shu-Hao; Mahomed, Mavish; Lee, Young-Tae; Goodin, David B

    2016-08-17

    In this study, the effector role of Pdx (putidaredoxin) on cytochrome P450cam conformation is refined by attaching two different spin labels, MTSL or BSL (bifunctional spin-label) onto the F or G helices and using DEER (double electron-electron resonance) to measure the distance between labels. Recent EPR and crystallographic studies have observed that oxidized Pdx induces substrate-bound P450cam to change from the closed to the open state. However, this change was not observed by DEER in the reduced Pdx complex with carbon-monoxide-bound P450cam (Fe(2+)CO). In addition, recent NMR studies have failed to observe a change in P450cam conformation upon binding Pdx. Hence, resolving these issues is important for a full understanding the effector role of Pdx. Here we show that oxidized Pdx induces camphor-bound P450cam to shift from the closed to the open conformation when labeled on either the F or G helices with MTSL. BSL at these sites can either narrow the distance distribution widths dramatically or alter the extent of the conformational change. In addition, we report DEER spectra on a mixed oxidation state containing oxidized Pdx and ferrous CO-bound P450cam, showing that P450cam remains closed. This indicates that CO binding to the heme prevents P450cam from opening, overriding the influence exerted by Pdx binding. Finally, we report the open form P450cam crystal structure with substrate bound, which suggests that crystal packing effects may prevent conformational conversion. Using multiple labeling approaches, DEER provides a unique perspective to resolve how the conformation of P450cam depends on Pdx and ligand states. PMID:27452076

  17. DETERMINATION OF SENSITIVE SITES IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS DURING LONGTERM PLANT DEHYDRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M BRESTIČ

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to measure the net CO2 assimilation, O2 evolution, Rubisco activity, 13C content, actual photochemical PSII efficiency, stomatal conductance, water and osmotic potentials as well as relative water content during increasing plant dehydration. The measurements allowed to determine vulnerability of individual segments of complex process of photosynthesis and characterise the stomatal and non-stomatal responses to dehydration and resistance of mechanisms of photosynthesis to gradual water stress. The sensitiveness of stomata, osmoprotection and isotopic 13C discrimination seem to be the most interesting parameters which act dynamically in plant acclimation to drought. They may be successfully used in screening new genotypes with efficient water and carbon use and in quantification of threshold of deleterious environmental effect to photosynthesis.

  18. Method and apparatus for nondestructive in vivo measurement of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1988-01-01

    A device for in situ, nondestructive measurement of photosynthesis in live plants and photosynthetic microorganisms is disclosed which comprises a Clark-type oxygen electrode having a substantially transparent cathode comprised of an optical fiber having a metallic grid microetched onto its front face and sides, an anode, a substantially transparent electrolyte film, and a substantially transparent oxygen permeable membrane. The device is designed to be placed in direct contact with a photosynthetic portion of a living plant, and nondestructive, noninvasive measurement of photosynthetic oxygen production from the plant can be taken by passing light through the fiber-optic cathode, transparent electroyte and transparent membrane, and onto the plant so that photosynthesis occurs. The oxygen thus produced by the plant is measured polargraphically by the electrode. The present invention allows for rapid, nondestructive measurements of photosynthesis in living plants in a manner heretofore impossible using prior art methods.

  19. e-Photosynthesis: a comprehensive dynamic mechanistic model of C3 photosynthesis: from light capture to sucrose synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Yu; Ort, Donald R; Long, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    Photosynthesis is arguably the most researched of all plant processes. A dynamic model of leaf photosynthesis that includes each discrete process from light capture to carbohydrate synthesis, e-photosynthesis, is described. It was developed by linking and extending our previous models of photosystem II (PSII) energy transfer and photosynthetic C3 carbon metabolism to include electron transfer processes around photosystem I (PSI), ion transfer between the lumen and stroma, ATP synthesis and NADP reduction to provide a complete representation. Different regulatory processes linking the light and dark reactions are also included: Rubisco activation via Rubisco activase, pH and xanthophyll cycle-dependent non-photochemical quenching mechanisms, as well as the regulation of enzyme activities via the ferredoxin-theoredoxin system. Although many further feedback and feedforward controls undoubtedly exist, it is shown that e-photosynthesis effectively mimics the typical kinetics of leaf CO₂ uptake, O₂ evolution, chlorophyll fluorescence emission, lumen and stromal pH, and membrane potential following perturbations in light, [CO₂] and [O₂] observed in intact C3 leaves. The model provides a framework for guiding engineering of improved photosynthetic efficiency, for evaluating multiple non-invasive measures used in emerging phenomics facilities, and for quantitative assessment of strengths and weaknesses within the understanding of photosynthesis as an integrated process.

  20. Comparative survey of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM attitudes, use, and information-seeking behaviour among medical students, residents & faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boker John

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is significant and growing national interest for introducing Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM instruction into allopathic medical education. We measured CAM attitudes, use, and information-seeking behaviors as a baseline to evaluate future planned CAM instruction. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal survey data on CAM attitudes, modality use, and common information resources was collected for (a medical students (n = 355, (b interns entering residencies in medical and surgical disciplines (n = 258, and (c faculty from diverse health professions attending workshops on evidence-based CAM (n = 54. One student cohort was tracked longitudinally in their first, second and third years of training. Results Compared to medical students and interns, faculty who teach or intend to integrate CAM into their instruction had significantly (p p Conclusion Students, interns and a selected faculty group demonstrate positive attitudes toward CAM and frequently use various CAM modalities. CAM instruction should therefore be focused on acquiring knowledge of available CAM modalities and skills to appraise evidence to appropriately advise patients on best approaches to CAM use. Trainees may benefit from exposure to a wider array of CAM information resources.

  1. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM Use during Menopause in Sydney and Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne van der Sluijs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous surveys found CAM use during menopause to be popular. This paper compares the results from two surveys (Sydney and Bologna to examine factors that determine the extent and pattern of CAM use to alleviate menopausal symptoms. Methods. Women, aged 45–65 years, who were symptomatic when transitioning through menopause or asymptomatic but taking menopause-specific treatments, were recruited in Sydney (n=1,296 and Bologna (n=1,106 to complete the same voluntary, anonymous, and self-administered questionnaire. The results were reanalysed using stratified analyses to determine similarities and differences. Results. Demographics of the two cohorts differed significantly. CAM was more popular in Sydney. The most significant determinants of CAM use were the use of CAM for other conditions besides menopause and the severity of vasomotor symptoms. Occupational status was a determinant of CAM use amongst Bologna respondents only. In order to relieve symptoms, Australian and Italian women used different CAM modalities whose effectiveness was generally perceived as good. Conclusion. CAM use is popular amongst menopausal women from Sydney and Bologna. Differences in the patterns of CAM use seem to depend on CAM availability and on the educational level and professional status of users. The complex interaction between market, social, and cultural factors of CAM use seems to be more influential on women’s choice of CAM than the available evidence of their effectiveness.

  2. Chemical composition of umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Vilela Borges

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The umbu tree (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam is an important fruit tree the economy of the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil. With the objective of finding use for the seeds, physical and chemical characterizations of the seeds from 2 cultivars in 2 maturation stages were carried out and their fatty acid and mineral profiles determined. The results showed no differences between the seeds analyzed. The yield was about 10% and the dimensions as follows: length from 1.48 to 2.11 cm and width from 0.76 to 1.16 cm. The average lipid content was 55% of which 69% was unsaturated and the average protein content was 24%. The seeds were a good source of the following minerals: P, K, Mg, Fe and Cu. The overall results indicated that the oil or the seeds could be used for food stuffs if no toxic agents were found.

  3. Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing CAD/CAM Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    than a single computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system. The Inteznet was a technology that all companies were considering to either transport information more easily throughout the corporation or as a conduit for business, as the small firm was doing Successfully. Because PrdEngineer is the de facto CAD standard fbr the NWC, the Benchmark Team targeted companies using Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) software tools. Most of the companies used Pm'Engineer for design to some degree, but found the PTC CAM product, PdManufacture lacking as compared to alternate CAM solutions. All of the companies visited found the data exchange between CAD/CAM systems problematic. It was apparent that these companies were trying to consolidate their software tools to reduce translation but had not been able to do so because no single solution had all the needed capabilities. In regard to organizational structure and human resources, two companies were found to be using product or program teams. These teams consisted of the technical staff capable of completing the entire task and were xmintained throughout the project. This same strategy was evident at another of the companies but with more mobility of members. For all companies visited except the small work structure breakdown and responsibility were essentially the same as Y-12's at this time. The functions of numerical control (NC), desi and process planning were separate and distinct. The team made numerous recommendations that are detailed in the report

  4. Compact Atomic Magnetometer for Global Navigation (NAV-CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Larsen, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Northrop Grumman Navigation Systems Division is developing an atom-based magnetometer technology that has the potential for providing a global position reference independent of GPS. The NAV-CAM sensor is a direct outgrowth of the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyro under development by the same technical team. It will be the only known magnetic field sensor capable of providing all 3 axes of magnetic vector direction and magnitude simultaneously with a whole-field scalar measurement, all within a single multi-axis sensing element measuring 4mm cube or smaller, essentially eliminating many of the problems encountered when using physically separate sensors or sensing elements. According to information presented by Ariyur et al. at the 2010 American Control Conference [1], the anticipated accuracy of 10 pico-Tesla (pT) and precision of sensor will enable magnetic determination of position with 20 meter accuracy and 1 meter resolution.

  5. Paper-Less CAD/CAM For Accelerator Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, R M; Alford, O; Bertolini, L R

    2001-01-12

    Computer-aided design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) have enabled advances in the design and manufacture of many accelerator components, though government procurement rules tend to inhibit its use. We developed and executed a method that provides adequate documentation for the procurement process, industrial vendor manufacturing processes, and laboratory installation activities. We detail our experiences in the design and manufacture of 60 separate and unique PEP-II Low Energy Ring Interaction Region vacuum chambers totaling {approx} 140m in length as an example of how we used this technique, reducing design effort and manufacturing risk while streamlining the production process. We provide ''lessons learned'' to better implement and execute the process in subsequent iterations. We present our study to determine the estimated savings in the design and production of the Spallation Neutron Source room temperature linac if this process were utilized.

  6. Intelligent gateway processors as integrators of CAD/CAM networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, V.E.; Garner, B.L.; Matthews, J.R.

    1985-07-01

    The integration of dissimilar CAD/CAM hardware and software on local and geographically distributed networks is the major problem faced by large organizations today. We begin by examining the existing system for storage, retrieval, control, and distribution of design information at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and describe a new prototype Engineering Information System (EIS). We then discuss the Department of Energy neutral Data Exchange Format (DOE/DEF) for the sharing of mechanical drawings among DOE installations. Finally, we describe the potential role of the Intelligent Gateway Processor (IGP) as a transaction controller for engineering resources among contractors of the Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC). IGP capabilities include a unique interpreter-driven user interface which permits the installation and modification of resources and the translation of dissimilar data formats, commands, and protocols, in a unified manner while running non-stop.

  7. Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing CAD/CAM Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domm, T.D.; Underwood, R.S.

    1999-04-26

    than a single computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system. The Inteznet was a technology that all companies were considering to either transport information more easily throughout the corporation or as a conduit for business, as the small firm was doing Successfully. Because PrdEngineer is the de facto CAD standard fbr the NWC, the Benchmark Team targeted companies using Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) software tools. Most of the companies used Pm'Engineer for design to some degree, but found the PTC CAM product, PdManufacture lacking as compared to alternate CAM solutions. All of the companies visited fOund the data exchange between CAD/CAM systems problematic. It was apparent that these companies were trying to consolidate their software tools to reduce translation but had not been able to do so because no single solution had all the needed capabilities. In regard to organizational slructure and human resoukes, two companies were found to be using product or program teams. These teams consisted of the technical staff capable of completing the entire task and were xmintained throughout the project. This same strategy was evident at another of the companies but with more mobility of members. For all eornpanies visited except the small ~ work structure breakdown and responsibility were essentially the same as Y-12's at this time. The functions of numerical control (NC), desi~ and process planning were separate and distinct. The team made numerous recommendations that are detailed in the report.

  8. A CAD/CAM system for operating overburden conveyor bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pause, M.; Nadeborn, H.; Klus, R.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews introduction of computer systems for control of conveyor bridges for overburden removal in GDR brown coal surface mines. Three F 60 high capacity bridges at Welzow, Nochten and Jaenschwalde have been automated since 1978, achieving a 10% increase in annual production. A pilot project of complex automation of a F 45 brige at the Meuro mine was started to fully automate bridge movement according to continuous mine geometrical digital survey data. Hardware employed is the U 5000 control system with various peripheral equipment, the A 5120 office computer and the EC 1040 data processing unit. Automation of the Meuro bridge resulted in an annual economic benefit of 2.8 million Marks. A new, fourth F 60 bridge for which a CAD/CAM system based on the U 5000 and K 1520 computer systems is being developed will begin operation at the Reichwalde mine.

  9. Paper-Less CAD/CAM For Accelerator Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer-aided design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) have enabled advances in the design and manufacture of many accelerator components, though government procurement rules tend to inhibit its use. We developed and executed a method that provides adequate documentation for the procurement process, industrial vendor manufacturing processes, and laboratory installation activities. We detail our experiences in the design and manufacture of 60 separate and unique PEP-II Low Energy Ring Interaction Region vacuum chambers totaling ∼ 140m in length as an example of how we used this technique, reducing design effort and manufacturing risk while streamlining the production process. We provide ''lessons learned'' to better implement and execute the process in subsequent iterations. We present our study to determine the estimated savings in the design and production of the Spallation Neutron Source room temperature linac if this process were utilized

  10. Off-line programming: key to CAD/CAM (robots)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, T.

    1983-06-23

    Off-line programming is essential if robots are to be fully integrated into the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) process. It is also fundamental to the use of robots with touch and vision sensors, since the movements of such a robot depend on real-world data and cannot be taught in advance. Edinburgh (UK) University's Department of Artificial Intelligence is developing a high-level language called Rapt, for the programming of assembly robots. Rapt is described as an object-level language. Its statements refer to material objects and their physical relationships and motions. It uses higher level descriptions than those of commercially available robot languages such as unimation's val. The developments in off-line programming which are crucial to the successful integration of industrial robots into computer-aided design and manufacturing processes are discussed.

  11. Standardizing PhenoCam Image Processing and Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliman, T. E.; Richardson, A. D.; Klosterman, S.; Gray, J. M.; Hufkens, K.; Aubrecht, D.; Chen, M.; Friedl, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The PhenoCam Network (http://phenocam.unh.edu) contains an archive of imagery from digital webcams to be used for scientific studies of phenological processes of vegetation. The image archive continues to grow and currently has over 4.8 million images representing 850 site-years of data. Time series of broadband reflectance (e.g., red, green, blue, infrared bands) and derivative vegetation indices (e.g. green chromatic coordinate or GCC) are calculated for regions of interest (ROI) within each image series. These time series form the basis for subsequent analysis, such as spring and autumn transition date extraction (using curvature analysis techniques) and modeling the climate-phenology relationship. Processing is relatively straightforward but time consuming, with some sites having more than 100,000 images available. While the PhenoCam Network distributes the original image data, it is our goal to provide higher-level vegetation phenology products, generated in a standardized way, to encourage use of the data without the need to download and analyze individual images. We describe here the details of the standard image processing procedures, and also provide a description of the products that will be available for download. Products currently in development include an "all-image" file, which contains a statistical summary of the red, green and blue bands over the pixels in predefined ROI's for each image from a site. This product is used to generate 1-day and 3-day temporal aggregates with 90th percentile values of GCC for the specified time-periodwith standard image selection/filtering criteria applied. Sample software (in python, R, MATLAB) that can be used to read in and plot these products will also be described.

  12. Marginal Integrity of CAD/CAM Fixed Partial Dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentritt, Martin; Behr, Michael; Kolbeck, Carola; Handel, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM) allows the milling of high strength zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPD), however bonding to an inert ZrO2 ceramic surface may effect the marginal integrity of the FPDs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of zirconia FPDs at the interfaces between zirconia, cement, and tooth. Methods 32 3-unit FPDs were fabricated of the CAD/CAM Y-TZP zirconia (Lava, 3M Espe, Germany) according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Resin cements with corresponding primer and bonding systems were used to lute the FPDs: Compolute/EBS multi (3M Espe, Germany), Panavia F/ED (Kuraray, Japan), Variolink 2/Syntac classic (Ivoclar-Vivadent, FL) and RelyX Unicem/without treatment (3M Espe, Germany). Aualloy FPDs (BioPontostar, Bego, Germany) were cemented with RelyX Unicem and Harvard (Harvard, Germany) as the control. Marginal adaptation was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy using replica specimen before and after artificial aging. After aging, microleakage tests were performed with fuchsine solution. The interfaces between cement-tooth and cement-FPD were examined. Results At the interfaces (cement-tooth and cement-FPD), the systems showed a 95% or higher perfect margin before and after aging. Only Variolink2/Syntac had a marginal adaptation, lower than a 70% perfect margin. Generally, the fuchsine penetration was below 20%, only BioPontstar/Harvard andLava/Variolink2 showed penetration results between 80% and 100%. Conclusion The success of the adhesive cementation of zirconia FPDs depends on the cement system. Under the conditions of this study, zirconia FPDs showed good to sufficient marginal integrity in combination with Panavia/ED, Compolute/EBS and RelyX Unicem. PMID:19212494

  13. CARBON DIOXIDE MITIGATION THROUGH CONTROLLED PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-10-01

    This research was undertaken to meet the need for a robust portfolio of carbon management options to ensure continued use of coal in electrical power generation. In response to this need, the Ohio Coal Research Center at Ohio University developed a novel technique to control the emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil-fired power plants by growing organisms capable of converting CO{sub 2} to complex sugars through the process of photosynthesis. Once harvested, the organisms could be used in the production of fertilizer, as a biomass fuel, or fermented to produce alcohols. In this work, a mesophilic organism, Nostoc 86-3, was examined with respect to the use of thermophilic algae to recycle CO{sub 2} from scrubbed stack gases. The organisms were grown on stationary surfaces to facilitate algal stability and promote light distribution. The testing done throughout the year examined properties of CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, light intensity, and light duration on process viability and the growth of the Nostoc. The results indicate that the Nostoc species is suitable only in a temperature range below 125 F, which may be practical given flue gas cooling. Further, results indicate that high lighting levels are not suitable for this organism, as bleaching occurs and growth rates are inhibited. Similarly, the organisms do not respond well to extended lighting durations, requiring a significant (greater than eight hour) dark cycle on a consistent basis. Other results indicate a relative insensitivity to CO{sub 2} levels between 7-12% and CO levels as high as 800 ppm. Other significant results alluded to previously, relate to the development of the overall process. Two processes developed during the year offer tremendous potential to enhance process viability. First, integration of solar collection and distribution technology from Oak Ridge laboratories could provide a significant space savings and enhanced use of solar energy. Second, the use of translating slug flow

  14. Design of Cylindrical Cam with Oscillating Follower Based on 3D Expansion of Planar Profile Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Junhua; LIN Zuan; WU Yijie

    2009-01-01

    Cylindrical cam with oscillating follower is widely applicable and used in many mechanical devices and machines. However, a common error exists in the methods of designing planar profile for oscillating follower cylinder cam. In this study, we propose a new hypothesis to solve this design problem with the inclusion of deviation angle. On the basis of this new concept, equations for planar profile expansion and methods of calculating pressure angle are deduced by applying 3D expansion formula of the follower's motion orbit. When the pressure angle is less than allowable value, the minimum base radius can be determined by using MATLAB software. Accordingly, the planar profile of oscillating follower cylinder cam is generated by CAD software. This new method is practical and can be easily adopted for the design of oscillating follower cylindrical cam with desirable accuracy. We applied the method in the design of cylindrical cam for paper feeding mechanism used in high-speed printers. We calculated the planar profile and used it to direct the NC machine for the manufacture of the groove of cylindrical cam. The improved cylindrical cam met all of the requirements of speed and accuracy demanded by high-speed printers. Therefore, our new method has been validated by practical application.

  15. Effect of degradative plasmid CAM-OCT on responses of Pseudomonas bacteria to UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of plasmid CAM-OCT on responses to UV irradiation was compared in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in Pseudomonas putida, and in Pseudomonas putida mutants carrying mutations in UV response genes. CAM-OCT substantially increased both survival and mutagenesis in the two species. P. aeruginosa strains without CAM-OCT exhibited much higher UV sensitivity than did P. putida strains. UV-induced mutagenesis of plasmid-free P. putida was easily detected in three different assays (two reversion assays and one forward mutation assay), whereas UV mutagenesis of P. aeruginosa without CAM-OCT was seen only in the forward mutation assay. These results suggest major differences in DNA repair between the two species and highlight the presence of error-prone repair functions on CAM-OCT. A number of P. putida mutants carrying chromosomal mutations affecting either survival or mutagenesis after UV irradiation were isolated, and the effect of CAM-OCT on these mutants was determined. All mutations producing a UV-sensitive phenotype in P. putida were fully suppressed by the plasmid, whereas the plasmid had a more variable effect on mutagenesis mutations, suppressing some and producing no suppression of others. On the basis of the results reported here and results obtained by others with plasmids carrying UV response genes, it appears that CAM-OCT may differ either in regulation or in the number and functions of UV response genes encoded

  16. COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM THERAPIES FOR MANAGEMENT OF PAIN RELATED TO ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda Roshni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a gynaecological disease with a complex etiology. It is associated with severe pelvic pain, sub fertility and reduced quality of life. Endometriosis has a multifactorial etiology and therefore its management is also multidimensional. The main targets of therapy are controlling of the pain symptoms and increasing fertility where it is desired. Hormonal and surgical therapies are the two major treatment modalities available currently. But they are not without their side effects. Therefore many women explore Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM forms of treatment for symptomatic relief from pain. These CAM therapies have been used as an adjuvant to conventional therapy or as an independent form of treatment. CAM therapies are purported to have lesser side effects as compared to conventional medical formulations. Ancient Chinese and Indian medicine system have laid the foundation of several of the prevalent Cam practices. The following CAM practices have been discussed in the article-Acupuncture, Herbal therapy, Meditation and Hypnotherapy, Yoga, Exercise, Dietary therapy Aromatherapy and Massage, Reiki, Magnet therapy and Chiropractice. Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT have been conducted for some of the CAM therapies in Endometriosis and Acupuncture and Herbal and Dietary therapies have been found to have some positive effect on the patients. The efficacy of CAM therapies still needs substantial evidence to be integrated into general healthcare practices.

  17. Comparative evaluation of RetCam vs. gonioscopy images in congenital glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj V Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare clarity, exposure and quality of anterior chamber angle visualization in congenital glaucoma patients, using RetCam and indirect gonioscopy images. Design: Cross-sectional study Participants. Congenital glaucoma patients over age of 5 years. Materials and Methods: A prospective consecutive pilot study was done in congenital glaucoma patients who were older than 5 years. Methods used are indirect gonioscopy and RetCam imaging. Clarity of the image, extent of angle visible and details of angle structures seen were graded for both methods, on digitally recorded images, in each eye, by two masked observers. Outcome Measures: Image clarity, interobserver agreement. Results: 40 eyes of 25 congenital glaucoma patients were studied. RetCam image had excellent clarity in 77.5% of patients versus 47.5% by gonioscopy. The extent of angle seen was similar by both methods. Agreement between RetCam and gonioscopy images regarding details of angle structures was 72.50% by observer 1 and 65.00% by observer 2. Conclusions: There was good agreement between RetCam and indirect gonioscopy images in detecting angle structures of congenital glaucoma patients. However, RetCam provided greater clarity, with better quality, and higher magnification images. RetCam can be a useful alternative to gonioscopy in infants and small children without the need for general anesthesia.

  18. Investigation of grapevine photosynthesis using hyperspectral techniques and development of hyperspectral band ratio indices sensitive to photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozelkan, Emre; Karaman, Muhittin; Candar, Serkan; Coskun, Zafer; Ormeci, Cankut

    2015-01-01

    The photosynthetic rate of 9 different grapevines were analyzed with simultaneous photosynthesis and spectroradiometric measurements on 08.08.2012 (veraison) and 06.09.2012 (harvest). The wavelengths and spectral regions, which most properly express photosynthetic rate, were determined using correlation and regression analysis. In addition, hyperspectral band ratio (BR) indices sensitive to photosynthesis were developed using optimum band ratio (OBRA) method. The relation of BR results with photosynthesis values are presented with the correlation matrix maps created in this study. The examinations were performed for both specific dates (i.e., veraison and harvest) and also in aggregate (i.e., correlation between total spectra and photosynthesis data). For specific dates wavelength based analysis, the photosynthesis were best determined with -0.929 correlation coefficient (r) 609 nm of yellow region at veraison stage, and -0.870 at 641 nm of red region at harvest stage. For wavelength based aggregate analysis, 640 nm of red region was found to be correlated with 0.921 and -0.867 r values respectively and red edge (RE) (695 nm) was found to be correlated with -0.922 and -0.860 r values, respectively. When BR indices results were analyzed with photosynthetic values for specific dates, -0.987 r with R8../R, at veraison stage and -0.911 r with R696/R944 at harvest stage were found most correlated. For aggregate analysis of BR, common BR presenting great correlation with photosynthesis for both measurements was found to be R632/R971 with -0.974, -0.881 r values, respectively and other R610/R760 with -0.976, -0.879 r values. The final results of this study indicate that the proportion of RE region to a region with direct or indirect correlation with photosynthetic provides information about rate of photosynthesis. With the indices created in this study, the photosynthesis rate of vineyards can be determined using in-situ hyperspectral remote sensing. The findings of this

  19. Role of L1CAM in the Regulation of the Canonical Wnt Pathway and Class I MAGE Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkurnikov, M Yu; Knyazev, E N; Wicklein, D; Schumacher, U; Samatov, T R; Tonevitskii, A G

    2016-04-01

    Molecule L1CAM is specific for nerve cells and tumors of various localizations. The expression of L1CAM is significantly higher in melanoma in comparison with benign nevi and correlates with the progress of melanoma and transition from radial to vertical growth. Monoclonal antibodies to L1CAM effectively and specifically attenuate melanoma growth, though stimulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. shRNA-mediated knock-down of L1CAM showed the involvement of L1CAM in regulation of activity of the canonical Wnt pathway and expression of genes of class I melanoma-associated antigens (MAGE). PMID:27165065

  20. Initial activation of EpCAM cleavage via cell-to-cell contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epithelial cell adhesion molecule EpCAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is frequently over-expressed in simple epithelia, progenitors, embryonic and tissue stem cells, carcinoma and cancer-initiating cells. Besides functioning as a homophilic adhesion protein, EpCAM is an oncogenic receptor that requires regulated intramembrane proteolysis for activation of its signal transduction capacity. Upon cleavage, the extracellular domain EpEX is released as a soluble ligand while the intracellular domain EpICD translocates into the cytoplasm and eventually into the nucleus in combination with four-and-a-half LIM domains protein 2 (FHL2) and β-catenin, and drives cell proliferation. EpCAM cleavage, induction of the target genes, and transmission of proliferation signals were investigated under varying density conditions using confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunoblotting, cell counting, and conditional cell systems. EpCAM cleavage, induction of the target genes, and transmission of proliferation signals were dependent on adequate cell-to-cell contact. If cell-to-cell contact was prohibited EpCAM did not provide growth advantages. If cells were allowed to undergo contact to each other, EpCAM transmitted proliferation signals based on signal transduction-related cleavage processes. Accordingly, the pre-cleaved version EpICD was not dependent on cell-to-cell contact in order to induce c-myc and cell proliferation, but necessitated nuclear translocation. For the case of contact-inhibited cells, although cleavage of EpCAM occurred, nuclear translocation of EpICD was reduced, as were EpCAM effects. Activation of EpCAM's cleavage and oncogenic capacity is dependent on cellular interaction (juxtacrine) to provide for initial signals of regulated intramembrane proteolysis, which then support signalling via soluble EpEX (paracrine)

  1. An isozyme of the NADP-malic enzyme of a CAM plant, Aloe arborescens, with variation on conservative amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, H; Akagi, H; Shimada, H

    2000-02-01

    In Aloe arborescens, an obligate CAM plant, Western analysis detected three major isoforms of NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), 72kDa with a pI of 6.0, 65kDa with a pI of 5.6 and 65kDa with a pI of 5.5. Among them, the 65kDa protein with a pI of 5.5 was leaf-specific, and the 65kDa protein with a pI of 5.6 was found only in roots, whereas the 72kDa protein was uniformly detected in both organs. Activity staining indicated enzyme activity of both 65kDa NADP-MEs but little activity of the 72kDa protein. A cDNA clone encoding a leaf-abundant NADP-ME, AME1, was isolated. Deduced amino acid sequence of AME1 showed a high degree of homology to known NADP-MEs, but it was also found that AME1 contained substitutions on five conservative amino acid residues, some of which have been predicted to be important for their enzyme activity. Transgenic rice carrying the aloe AME1 gene efficiently produced an additional 65kDa protein with a pI of 5.5 as an active NADP-ME. These results indicate that AME1 corresponds to the leaf-specific 65kDa NADP-ME, which may be involved in CAM photosynthesis. It was also shown that substitutions of these conservative amino acid residues identified in AME1 still allowed it to give enzyme activity. PMID:10675616

  2. Process Chain in Automotive Industry - Present Day Demands versus Long Term Open CAD/CAM Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Dankwort, C. Werner

    1997-01-01

    The automotive industry was a pioneer in using CAD/CAM technology. Now the car manufacturers development process is almost completely done with this technology. Substantial initiative for the standardisation of CAD/CAM technics comes from the automotive industry, as e.g. for neutral CAD data interfaces. The R&D departments of German car manufacturers have founded a working group ii with the aim to develop a common long term CAD/CAM strategy. One important result is the concept of a future CAx...

  3. Marginal and internal fit of nano-composite CAD/CAM restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Park, So-Hyun; Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Shin, Yoo-Jin; Cho, Byeong-Hoon; Baek, Seung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal and internal fit of nano-composite CAD-CAM restorations. Materials and Methods A full veneer crown and an mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) inlay cavity, which were prepared on extracted human molars, were used as templates of epoxy resin replicas. The prepared teeth were scanned and CAD-CAM restorations were milled using Lava Ultimate (LU) and experimental nano-composite CAD/CAM blocks (EB) under the same milling parameters. To assess...

  4. Strength of CAD/CAM-generated esthetic ceramic molar implant crowns

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, D; Bindl, A; Schmidlin, P R; Lüthy, H; Mörmann, W H

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: One-visit in-office CAD/CAM fabrication of esthetic ceramic crowns as a superstructure for posterior implants is quite new. The aim of the study was to evaluate the strength of esthetic ceramic CAD/CAM crowns with varied occlusal thickness and seated with adhesive and nonadhesive cements on titanium and zirconia abutments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Esthetic ceramic CAD/CAM-generated molar crowns (n = 15 per group) with occlusal thicknesses of 0.5 mm and 1.5 mm were seated on titanium (1...

  5. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Yang, Jae-Ho; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun; Yeo, In-Sung

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also ...

  6. Spatial data software integration - Merging CAD/CAM/mapping with GIS and image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Thomas L.; Bryant, Nevin A.

    1987-01-01

    The integration of CAD/CAM/mapping with image processing using geographic information systems (GISs) as the interface is examined. Particular emphasis is given to the development of software interfaces between JPL's Video Image Communication and Retrieval (VICAR)/Imaged Based Information System (IBIS) raster-based GIS and the CAD/CAM/mapping system. The design and functions of the VICAR and IBIS are described. Vector data capture and editing are studied. Various software programs for interfacing between the VICAR/IBIS and CAD/CAM/mapping are presented and analyzed.

  7. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRIMPING DEVICE WITH MULTIPLE CAMS USING MSC ADAMS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Through the present paper, the author presents the results of the dynamic analysis with MSC ADAMS of the mechanism with a crimping device with 12 tightening cams, designed and used in the technological process of assembly of the indigenous electrical detonators. In this sense, the mechanism with multiple cams is considered a mechanical system and is treated as an assembly of rigid bodies connected by mechanical connections and elastic elements. For shaping and simulation of the mechanism with multiple cams using ADAMS program, the author got through the following stages: construction of the pattern, its testing and simulation, validation, finishing, parametrization, optimization of the pattern.

  8. CAM operated tool for proximate or remote holding of an object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrum, P.B.; Gajdzik, G.P. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    A tool for releasably holding an object includes a receptacle having an outer sleeve and a rotatable inner sleeve. The inner sleeve is coaxially positioned within the outer sleeve and includes a locking member. An insert which is adapted to be operably associated with the receptacle includes a cam. The cam includes a guide and a slot so that when the cam is inserted into the inner sleeve, the guide aligns the locking member with the slot allowing the locking member to engage the slot thereby holding the receptacle and the insert together.

  9. Coupling the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) with the Statistical Spectral Interpolation (SSI) System under ESMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    daSilva, Arlindo

    2004-01-01

    The first set of interoperability experiments illustrates the role ESMF can play in integrating the national Earth science resources. Using existing data assimilation technology from NCEP and the National Weather Service, the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) was able to ingest conventional and remotely sensed observations, a capability that could open the door to using CAM for weather as well as climate prediction. CAM, which includes land surface capabilities, was developed by NCAR, with key components from GSFC. In this talk we will describe the steps necessary for achieving the coupling of these two systems.

  10. Ecosystem respiration depends strongly on photosynthesis in a temperate heath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, A.; Beier, C.;

    2007-01-01

    .65) was improved when the P-g rate was incorporated into the model (second year; R-2 = 0.79), suggesting that daytime R-E increased with increasing photosynthesis. Furthermore, the temperature sensitivity of R-E decreased from apparent Q(10) values of 3.3 to 3.9 by the classic equation to a more realistic Q(10...

  11. Chlorophyll f-driven photosynthesis in a cavernous cyanobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Lars; Brejnrod, Asker; Schliep, Martin; Sørensen, Søren J; Larkum, Anthony W D; Kühl, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) f is the most recently discovered chlorophyll and has only been found in cyanobacteria from wet environments. Although its structure and biophysical properties are resolved, the importance of Chl f as an accessory pigment in photosynthesis remains unresolved. We found Chl f in a cyanobacterium enriched from a cavernous environment and report the first example of Chl f-supported oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria from such habitats. Pigment extraction, hyperspectral microscopy and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of Chl a and f in unicellular cyanobacteria found in enrichment cultures. Amplicon sequencing indicated that all oxygenic phototrophs were related to KC1, a Chl f-containing cyanobacterium previously isolated from an aquatic environment. Microsensor measurements on aggregates demonstrated oxygenic photosynthesis at 742 nm and less efficient photosynthesis under 768- and 777-nm light probably because of diminished overlap with the absorption spectrum of Chl f and other far-red absorbing pigments. Our findings suggest the importance of Chl f-containing cyanobacteria in terrestrial habitats.

  12. ‘Direct Conversion’: Artificial Photosynthesis With Cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Q. Chen; D. Montesarchio; K.J. Hellingwerf

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria, the only bacteria that can carry out oxygenic, (ie, plant-type) photosynthesis, can be engineered with the methods of synthetic biology so that they acquire the ability to convert CO2 directly into biofuel and/or commodity chemicals. In such an approach one bypasses the formation of t

  13. Photosynthesis of Digitaria ciliaris during repeated soil drought and rewatering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YaYong Luo; XueYong Zhao; JingHui Zhang; YuLin Li; XiaoAn Zuo; DianChao Sun

    2015-01-01

    The ability of psammophyte photosynthesis to withstand and recover from severe droughts is crucial for vegetation sta-bility in semi-arid sandy lands. The responses of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of an annual grass, Digitaria ciliaris, were measured through three soil drought and rewatering cycles. Results showed that the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) decreased by 92%, 95%, and 63%at end of the three drought periods, respectively, water use efficiency (WUE) de-creased by 67%, 54%, and 48%, while the constant intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) increased by 1.08, 0.88, and 0.45 times. During those three cycles, the trapping probability with no dark adaptation (Fv′/Fm′) decreased by 55%, 51%, and 9%, the electron transport per cross section (ET0′/CS0′) decreased by 63%, 42%, and 18%, and the dissipation per cross section (DI0′/CS0′) increased by 97%, 96%, and 21%. These results indicated that D. ciliaris was subjected to photoinhi-bition and some non-stomatal limitation of photosynthesis under drought. However, after four days of rewatering, its photosynthetic characteristics were restored to control values. This capability to recover from drought may contribute to making the plant's use of water as efficient as possible. Furthermore, the photosynthesis decreased more slowly in the subsequent drought cycles than in the first cycle, allowing D. ciliaris to enhance its future drought tolerance after drought hardening. Thus, it acclimatizes itself to repeated soil drought.

  14. [Effects of Ozone on Photosynthesis of Several Plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao-miao

    2015-05-01

    In order to investigate the effect of ozone on photosynthesis of Machilus pauhoi, Lindera setchuenensis, Phoebe bournei, Phoebe chekiangensis and Machilus thunbergii, the study was carried out in 12 open-top chambers( OTCs) with different levels of ozone in Qianyanzhou experimental station, and net photosynthesis rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (Cond) were detected. The results indicated that ozone treatments changed the variation trend of photosynthesis of all tested plants, but ozone exposure did not always play an inhibitory role on them. In fact, photosynthesis changed with ozone concentration, experimental period, season and specific species. Exposed to ozone could even promote Pn to a peak in a short term, and the indicator of plants treated with ozone was higher than that of the control at this point. Low and medium concentrations of ozone treatment enhanced Pn of Phoebe bournei and Machilus thunbergii. The peak of treatment group also came earlier because of ozone. Furthermore, the positive correlation between Pn and Cond did not existed under the condition of ozone. Machilus thunbergii had the strongest resistance to ozone, followed by Phoebe bournei, by comparison, Phoebe chekiangensis, Machilus pauhoi and Lindera setchuenensis were more sensitive.

  15. Connecting Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration: Preservice Teachers' Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary H.; Schwartz, Renee S.

    2009-01-01

    The biological processes of photosynthesis and plant cellular respiration include multiple biochemical steps, occur simultaneously within plant cells, and share common molecular components. Yet, learners often compartmentalize functions and specialization of cell organelles relevant to these two processes, without considering the interconnections…

  16. Glucose Synthesis in a Protein-Based Artificial Photosynthesis System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Yuan, Wenqiao; Zhou, Jack; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to understand glucose synthesis of a protein-based artificial photosynthesis system affected by operating conditions, including the concentrations of reactants, reaction temperature, and illumination. Results from non-vesicle-based glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) and glucose synthesis showed that the initial concentrations of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), lighting source, and temperature significantly affected glucose synthesis. Higher initial concentrations of RuBP and ATP significantly enhanced GAP synthesis, which was linearly correlated to glucose synthesis, confirming the proper functions of all catalyzing enzymes in the system. White fluorescent light inhibited artificial photosynthesis and reduced glucose synthesis by 79.2 % compared to in the dark. The reaction temperature of 40 °C was optimum, whereas lower or higher temperature reduced glucose synthesis. Glucose synthesis in the vesicle-based artificial photosynthesis system reconstituted with bacteriorhodopsin, F 0 F 1 ATP synthase, and polydimethylsiloxane-methyloxazoline-polydimethylsiloxane triblock copolymer was successfully demonstrated. This system efficiently utilized light-induced ATP to drive glucose synthesis, and 5.2 μg ml(-1) glucose was synthesized in 0.78-ml reaction buffer in 7 h. Light-dependent reactions were found to be the bottleneck of the studied artificial photosynthesis system.

  17. Photosynthesis in Plants with Non-Green Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Rehka

    2006-01-01

    Enquiry based learning is an important tool in science teaching. Students of Class XI (16-17 years old) were asked to hypothesise on the role of different pigments found in plants with non-green leaves. The majority hypothesised that these plants were devoid of chlorophylls and some other pigments performed the function of photosynthesis. Their…

  18. Light dependence of carboxylation capacity for C3 photosynthesis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photosynthesis at high light is often modelled by assuming limitation by the maximum capacity of Rubisco carboxylation at low carbon dioxide concentrations, by electron transport capacity at higher concentrations, and sometimes by triose-phosphate utilization rate at the highest concentrations. Pho...

  19. Future Elementary School Teachers' Conceptual Change Concerning Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahopelto, Ilona; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Anto, Erkki; Penttinen, Marjaana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine conceptual change among future elementary school teachers while studying a scientific text concerning photosynthesis. Students' learning goals in relation to their learning outcomes were also examined. The participants were future elementary school teachers. The design consisted of pre- and post-tests. The…

  20. Plants and Photosynthesis: Peer Assessment to Help Students Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Lucy; Winterbottom, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how peer assessment can help students to learn about photosynthesis in a "high attaining," year nine class in a UK 11-18 comprehensive school. There is limited research on how peer assessment can influence the learning of "high attaining students"; most existing research focuses on how formative assessment can benefit…

  1. Photoinduced electron transfer in model systems of photosynthesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, U.

    1988-01-01

    This Thesis describes Investigations on photoinduced electron transfer (ET) for several compounds, serving as model systems of the natural photosynthesis. In addition, the properties of the systems, e.g. the conformation in solution and the electronic properties of the photoexcited states are treate

  2. Overcoming Student Misconceptions about Photosynthesis: A Model- and Inquiry-Based Approach Using Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Andrew M.; Beardsley, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Even though photosynthesis is an obligatory part of the science curriculum, research has shown that students often have a poor understanding of it. The authors advocate that classroom coverage of the topic of photosynthesis should include not only its biochemical properties but also the role of photosynthesis or photosynthetic organisms in matter…

  3. Measurement of Solar Spectra Relating to Photosynthesis and Solar Cells: An Inquiry Lab for Secondary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggirello, Rachel M.; Balcerzak, Phyllis; May, Victoria L.; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The process of photosynthesis is central to science curriculum at all levels. This article describes an inquiry-based laboratory investigation developed to explore the impact of light quality on photosynthesis and to connect this process to current research on harvesting solar energy, including bioenergy, artificial photosynthesis, and solar…

  4. Expression of EpCAM Increases in the Hepatitis B Related and the Treatment-Resistant Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Kimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports the important role of cancer stem cells (CSCs. Many reports suggest that epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM is a useful marker for cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. To elucidate the mechanisms of cancer stem cells, the development of specific molecular targeted drugs has become very important. In the present study, we examined the EpCAM expression pattern and its characteristic expression in resected HCC. We studied the drug resistance of EpCAM expression cells. EpCAM expression was detected significantly more frequently with hepatitis B virus (HBV than with other etiologies. In HCC resection patients who had received prior treatment (transcatheter arterial embolization or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, EpCAM was strongly expressed. In particular, very strong expression was observed after hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. The PLC/PRF/5 human HCC cell line expressed bimodal EpCAM, and EpCAM-positive cells had CSC cell potency. The EpCAM expression in EpCAM-positive cells increased significantly by treatment with cisplatin. EpCAM-positive cells showed better viability than EpCAM-negative cells when treated with ciplatin. Collectively, our results suggest that cancer stem cells are highly expressed in hepatitis B and have potential anticancer drug resistance.

  5. 基于广义塑性力学的Cam-clay模型的改进%Improvement of Cam-clay Model Based on Generalized Plastic Mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林德; 张向霞

    2005-01-01

    针对Cam-clay模型计算中存在没有充分考虑剪切变形的缺点,首先采用理论分析的手段,指出产生此现象的原因,同时提出由剪应力和体应力引起的应变分量分别采用不同的分配比例系数的思想.在此基础上采用南京水利科学院的剪切试验对Cam-clay模型进行改进,给出了基于不同分配比例系数的、改进后的Cam-clay模型的应力与应变关系的计算式,最终得到改进了的Cam-clay模型含有4个独立的试验参数.通过算例对改进后的模型与Cam-clay模型进行比较,揭示了改进后的模型能够有效地考虑剪切变形.

  6. C4 Photosynthesis (The CO2-Concentrating Mechanism and Photorespiration).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Ku, MSB.; Edwards, G. E.

    1993-09-01

    Despite previous reports of no apparent photorespiration in C4 plants based on measurements of gas exchange under 2 versus 21% O2 at varying [CO2], photosynthesis in maize (Zea mays) shows a dual response to varying [O2]. The maximum rate of photosynthesis in maize is dependent on O2 (approximately 10%). This O2 dependence is not related to stomatal conductance, because measurements were made at constant intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci); it may be linked to respiration or pseudocyclic electron flow. At a given Ci, increasing [O2] above 10% inhibits both the rate of photosynthesis, measured under high light, and the maximum quantum yield, measured under limiting light ([phi]CO2). The dual effect of O2 is masked if measurements are made under only 2 versus 21% O2. The inhibition of both photosynthesis and [phi]CO2 by O2 (measured above 10% O2) with decreasing Ci increases in a very similar manner, characteristically of O2 inhibition due to photorespiration. There is a sharp increase in O2 inhibition when the Ci decreases below 50 [mu]bar of CO2. Also, increasing temperature, which favors photorespiration, causes a decrease in [phi]CO2 under limiting CO2 and 40% O2. By comparing the degree of inhibition of photosynthesis in maize with that in the C3 species wheat (Triticum aestivum) at varying Ci, the effectiveness of C4 photosynthesis in concentrating CO2 in the leaf was evaluated. Under high light, 30[deg]C, and atmospheric levels of CO2 (340 [mu]bar), where there is little inhibition of photosynthesis in maize by O2, the estimated level of CO2 around ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) in the bundle sheath compartment was 900 [mu]bar, which is about 3 times higher than the value around Rubisco in mesophyll cells of wheat. A high [CO2] is maintained in the bundle sheath compartment in maize until Ci decreases below approximately 100 [mu]bar. The results from these gas exchange measurements indicate that photorespiration occurs in maize but

  7. 2009 Photosynthesis to be held June 28 - July 3, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doug Bruce

    2009-07-06

    The capture of solar energy by photosynthesis has had a most profound influence on the development and sustenance of life on earth. It is the engine that has driven the proliferation of life and, as the source of both energy and oxygen, has had a major hand in shaping the forms that life has taken. Both ancient and present day photosynthetic carbon fixation is intimately tied to issues of immediate human concern, global energy and global warming. Decreasing our reliance on fossil fuels by tapping photosynthesis in a more direct way is an attractive goal for sustainable energy. Meeting this challenge means understanding photosynthetic energy conversion at a molecular level, a task requiring perspectives ranging through all disciplines of science. Researchers in photosynthesis have a strong history of working across conventional boundaries and engaging in multidisciplinary collaborations. The Gordon conference in photosynthesis has been a key focal point for the dissemination of new results and the establishment of powerful research collaborations. In this spirit the 2009 Gordon conference on biophysical aspects of photosynthesis will bring together top international researchers from diverse and complementary disciplines, all working towards understanding how photosynthesis converts light into the stable chemical energy that powers so much of our world. Focal points for talks and discussions will include: (1) Watersplitting, structure and function of the oxygen evolving complex; (2) Antenna, the diversity, optimization and regulation of energy capture and transfer; (3) Reaction center structure and function, including functional roles for the protein; (4) Electron transport, proton transport and energy coupling; (5) Photoprotection mechanisms, including secondary electron transport pathways; (6) Biofuels, hydrogen production; and (7) Artificial photosynthesis and solar energy conversion strategies. The 2009 conference will have a close eye on practical applications

  8. L1CAM protein expression is associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weder Walter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM is potentially involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. EMT marker expression is of prognostic significance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The relevance of L1CAM for NSCLC is unclear. We investigated the protein expression of L1CAM in a cohort of NSCLC patients. L1CAM protein expression was correlated with clinico-pathological parameters including survival and markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Results L1CAM protein expression was found in 25% of squamous cell carcinomas and 24% of adenocarcinomas and correlated with blood vessel invasion and metastasis (p Conclusions A subset of NSCLCs with vessel tropism and increased metastasis aberrantly expresses L1CAM. L1CAM is a novel prognostic marker for NSCLCs that is upregulated by EMT induction and appears to be instrumental for enhanced cell invasion.

  9. Scale dependence in the effects of leaf ecophysiological traits on photosynthesis: Bayesian parameterization of photosynthesis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaohui; Dietze, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Relationships between leaf traits and carbon assimilation rates are commonly used to predict primary productivity at scales from the leaf to the globe. We addressed how the shape and magnitude of these relationships vary across temporal, spatial and taxonomic scales to improve estimates of carbon dynamics. Photosynthetic CO2 and light response curves, leaf nitrogen (N), chlorophyll (Chl) concentration and specific leaf area (SLA) of 25 grassland species were measured. In addition, C3 and C4 photosynthesis models were parameterized using a novel hierarchical Bayesian approach to quantify the effects of leaf traits on photosynthetic capacity and parameters at different scales. The effects of plant physiological traits on photosynthetic capacity and parameters varied among species, plant functional types and taxonomic scales. Relationships in the grassland biome were significantly different from the global average. Within-species variability in photosynthetic parameters through the growing season could be attributed to the seasonal changes of leaf traits, especially leaf N and Chl, but these responses followed qualitatively different relationships from the across-species relationship. The results suggest that one broad-scale relationship is not sufficient to characterize ecosystem condition and change at multiple scales. Applying trait relationships without articulating the scales may cause substantial carbon flux estimation errors. PMID:23952643

  10. Photosynthesis Activates Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase via Sugar Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Kuwata, Keiko; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-05-01

    Plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase acts as a primary transporter via proton pumping and regulates diverse physiological responses by controlling secondary solute transport, pH homeostasis, and membrane potential. Phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine and the subsequent binding of 14-3-3 proteins in the carboxyl terminus of the enzyme are required for H(+)-ATPase activation. We showed previously that photosynthesis induces phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in the nonvascular bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha However, (1) whether this response is conserved in vascular plants and (2) the process by which photosynthesis regulates H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation at the plasma membrane remain unresolved issues. Here, we report that photosynthesis induced the phosphorylation and activation of H(+)-ATPase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves via sugar accumulation. Light reversibly phosphorylated leaf H(+)-ATPase, and this process was inhibited by pharmacological and genetic suppression of photosynthesis. Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses indicated that light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase occurred autonomously in mesophyll cells. We also show that the phosphorylation status of H(+)-ATPase and photosynthetic sugar accumulation in leaves were positively correlated and that sugar treatment promoted phosphorylation. Furthermore, light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase was strongly suppressed in a double mutant defective in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (adg1-1 tpt-2); these mutations strongly inhibited endogenous sugar accumulation. Overall, we show that photosynthesis activated H(+)-ATPase via sugar production in the mesophyll cells of vascular plants. Our work provides new insight into signaling from chloroplasts to the plasma membrane ion transport mechanism. PMID:27016447

  11. Timescales of Oxygenation Following the Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Lewis M; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Fischer, Woodward W

    2016-03-01

    Among the most important bioenergetic innovations in the history of life was the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis-autotrophic growth by splitting water with sunlight-by Cyanobacteria. It is widely accepted that the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis ultimately resulted in the rise of oxygen by ca. 2.35 Gya, but it is debated whether this occurred more or less immediately as a proximal result of the evolution of oxygenic Cyanobacteria or whether they originated several hundred million to more than one billion years earlier in Earth history. The latter hypothesis involves a prolonged period during which oxygen production rates were insufficient to oxidize the atmosphere, potentially due to redox buffering by reduced species such as higher concentrations of ferrous iron in seawater. To examine the characteristic timescales for environmental oxygenation following the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, we applied a simple mathematical approach that captures many of the salient features of the major biogeochemical fluxes and reservoirs present in Archean and early Paleoproterozoic surface environments. Calculations illustrate that oxygenation would have overwhelmed redox buffers within ~100 kyr following the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, a geologically short amount of time unless rates of primary production were far lower than commonly expected. Fundamentally, this result arises because of the multiscale nature of the carbon and oxygen cycles: rates of gross primary production are orders of magnitude too fast for oxygen to be masked by Earth's geological buffers, and can only be effectively matched by respiration at non-negligible O2 concentrations. These results suggest that oxygenic photosynthesis arose shortly before the rise of oxygen, not hundreds of millions of years before it.

  12. A Space Cam Mechanism for Power Transmission of an Opposite-cylinder Piston Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Haoyue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of improving the engine’s power density, we put forward a new type of power transmission mechanism which is used for opposed-cylinder engine. The gas pressure acts on the cam through the piston and push rod, and the spindle rotation of external is driven by the cam. The design of spatial cam work surface is completed by using the enveloping theory of a family of space curves, the force between roller and cam is analyzed using dynamic analysis software. Under the condition of equal number, size and stroke of piston, the new one with larger power density is more compact in structure than the traditional power transmission mechanism, and the reaction force on either side of the main shaft and the acting force between pistons and cylinders are smaller than those in traditional one, which prolongs the service life of the pistons.

  13. Health psychology as a context for massage therapy: a conceptual model with CAM as mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymel, Glenn M; Rich, Grant J

    2014-04-01

    Health psychology represents a context within which massage therapy research, education, and practice can be positioned for the mutual benefit of both. Furthermore, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) more often than not plays a mediating role in relating massage therapy to health psychology. On occasion, though, the linkage between health psychology and massage therapy can be quite direct without the mediating influence of CAM. This paper, accordingly, advances a conceptual model via both flowchart and Venn diagram displays for viewing the health psychology context for massage therapy with the possibility of CAM as a mediating factor. Attention is also given to the broad range of issues constituting contemporary health psychology as well as its correspondence to an equally diverse array of client populations and health conditions addressed in massage therapy research. Future directions in the areas of health psychology, CAM, and massage therapy are proposed with a view toward a mutual and reciprocal benefit accruing to these behavioral and health science arenas.

  14. Commissioning and First Observations with Wide FastCam at the Telescopio Carlos S\\'anchez

    CERN Document Server

    Velasco, Sergio; Oscoz, Alejandro; López, Roberto L; Puga, Marta; Murga, Gaizka; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio; Pallé, Enric; Ricci, Davide; Ayuso, Ismael; Hernández-Sánchez, Mónica; Truant, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The FastCam instrument platform, jointly developed by the IAC and the UPCT, allows, in real-time, acquisition, selection and storage of images with a resolution that reaches the diffraction limit of medium-sized telescopes. FastCam incorporates a specially designed software package to analyse series of tens of thousands of images in parallel with the data acquisition at the telescope. Wide FastCam is a new instrument that, using the same software for data acquisition, does not look for lucky imaging but fast observations in a much larger field of view. Here we describe the commissioning process and first observations with Wide FastCam at the Telescopio Carlos S\\'anchez (TCS) in the Observatorio del Teide.

  15. CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Postnov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CAD/CAM/CAI application solutions for internal combustion engine pistons machining was analyzed. Low-volume technology of internal combustion engine pistons production was proposed. Fixture for CNC turning center was designed.

  16. Cam Femoroacetabular Impingement as a Possible Explanation of Recalcitrant Anterior Knee Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sanchis-Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a patient with chronic anterior knee pain (AKP recalcitrant to conservative treatment who returned to our office for severe hip pain secondary to Cam femoroacetabular impingement (Cam FAI at 10 months after the onset of knee pain. This case highlights the fact that the main problem is not in the patella but in the hip in some patients with AKP. We hypothesize that there is an external femoral rotation in order to avoid the impingement and therefore the hip pain in patients with Cam FAI. This functional femoral rotation could provoke a patellofemoral imbalance that may be, in theory, responsible for patellofemoral pain in this particular patient. In our case, Cam FAI resolution was related to the resolution of AKP.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of the Numerical Control Cam Grinder Wheel Center Displacement and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaojun; LIU Zhaohui

    2006-01-01

    Considering grinding a cam with numerical control (NC) cam grinder, a mathematical model should be established with the unified parameter based on the original cam-lobe lift data to describe the movement of wheel and establish the relation between the wheel center coordinate, the measuring angle and workpiece's spindle rotation angle. By analyzing, the grinding wheel can be regarded as different followers. To the planar and roller followers, different mathematical models are established, but they can be unified in Eqs.(17) of this paper with the different value of the roller radius r1. And also the model is suit for the edged follower when assuming the roller radius r1=0. Experimental verification was done with TKM120 CNC/CBN grinder with NC sets' interpolation according to the model, which shows that high precision parts can be manufactured and this mathematical model can be practically applied for NC cam grinder.

  18. Development of CAD/CAM System for Cross Section’s Changing Hole Electrical Discharge Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Tohru; Ishiguro, Eiki; Kita, Masahiko; Nakamoto, Keiichi; Takeuchi, Yoshimi

    This study deals with the development of a new CAD/CAM system for fabricating holes whose cross sections change variously. The cross sections of machined holes are generally constant. The limitations in the shapes of holes that can be machined make obstacles in the design stage of industrial products. A new device that utilizes electrical discharge machining has been developed that can create holes with various cross sections to solve this problem. However, it has been impossible to put the device into practical use since there has been no software that has enabled the designed shapes to be easily machined. Therefore, we aimed at developing a new CAD/CAM system for machining the beforehand designed holes with changing cross sections by using the device. As the first step in developing the CAD/CAM system, the post processor in the CAM system is formulated in this paper.

  19. Involvement of Ca2+/CaM in the signal transduction of acetylcholine regulating stomatal movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    It has been known that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) also exists in plants and is able to regulate the movement of stomata. In another aspect, Ca2+/CaM as the second messengers have a critical role of signal transduction in stomatal guard-cell. Here we showed that Ca2+/CaM were also involved in theACh regulated stomatal movement. In the medium containing Ca2+, the Ca2+ channel blockers (NIF and Ver) and CaM inhibitors (TFP and W7) could neutralize the ACh induced stomatal opening, however, they are ineffective in the medium containing K+. Those results indicated that Ca2+/CaM were involved in the signal transduction pathway of ACh regulating stomatal movement.

  20. CamOn: A Real-Time Autonomous Camera Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Jhala, Arnav Harish

    2009-01-01

    This demonstration presents CamOn, an autonomous cam- era control system for real-time 3D games. CamOn employs multiple Artificial Potential Fields (APFs), a robot motion planning technique, to control both the location and orienta- tion of the camera. Scene geometry from the 3D environment...... on real-time motion planning of the camera. Moreover, the recasting of camera constraints into potential fields is visually more accessible to game designers and has the potential to be implemented as a plug-in to 3D level design and editing tools currently avail- able with games. Introduction...... contributes to the potential field that is used to determine po- sition and movement of the camera. Composition constraints for the camera are modelled as potential fields for controlling the view target of the camera. CamOn combines the compositional benefits of constraint- based camera systems, and improves...

  1. ROLLING CONDITION FOR ROLLERS ALONG CAMS IN COLD DOUBLE-SET MULTI-ROLLER TUBE ROLLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The necessary condition of pure rolling for the rollers moving along its individual cams are obtained by the analysis of the loading status of the rollers and it provides a theoretical basis for adjustment of rolling stand.

  2. A Unique Opportunity for an Intercultural Discussion on CAM and Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marotta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The meeting of the APASL, Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver, was held in December 2004, in New Delhi, India. The meeting was held under the patronage of the APASL Committee and Board of Presidents of the National Liver Association and in conjunction with the annual conference of the Indian Association for the Study of Liver (INASL. The congress was designed to have a core meeting with three parallel sessions running throughout, dedicated research workshops and intensive breakfast sessions. This report concentrates on the two sessions devoted to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM and shows the latest research in CAM for liver disease and the concerns of doctors about integrating CAM with more traditional treatments. With researchers and practitioners gathering from all over the world, it was a unique opportunity for an intercultural discussion on CAM and liver disease.

  3. Study on glass infiltrated alumina(GIA) ceramic for CAD/CAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mingzhe; LI Hong; WANG Wei; Zhao Yunfeng

    2001-01-01

    @@ With the rapid development of computer technique , Computer aided design(CAD) and computer aided manufacturing(CAM) or computer integrated manufacturing(CIM) has became an alternative to the conventional technique for producingdental restorations.

  4. Genome sequence of a new Streptomyces coelicolor generalized transducing bacteriophage, ΦCAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Rita; Salmond, George P C

    2012-12-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor is a model system for the study of Streptomyces, a genus of bacteria responsible for the production of many clinically important antibiotics. Here we report the genome sequence of ΦCAM, a new S. coelicolor generalized transducing bacteriophage, isolated from a soil sample originating from Lincolnshire, United Kingdom. Many open reading frames within ΦCAM shared high levels of similarity to a prophage from Salinispora tropica and a putative prophage in Streptomyces sp. strain C.

  5. CAM within a field force of countervailing powers: The case of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joana; Gabe, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the position of the medical profession and the state towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners has changed since the late 1990s, taking Portugal as a case study. Using Light's concept of countervailing powers, we consider the alliances, interests, rhetoric and degrees of control between these three actors over time, focussing particularly on the extent to which CAM practitioners have acted as a countervailing force in their relationship with the medical profession and the state. It also brings to the fore the position of supra-state agencies concerning CAM regulation. A critical discourse analysis was conducted on data derived from a systematic search of information dating from the late 1990s up to 2015. Our analysis suggests that CAM has emerged as an active player and a countervailing power in that it has had significant influence on the process of state policy-making. The medical profession, in turn, has moved from rejecting to 'incorporating' CAM, while the state has acted as a 'broker', trying to accommodate the demands and preferences of both actors while simultaneously demonstrating its power and autonomy in shaping health policy. In sum, the history of countermoves of CAM, the medical profession and the state in recasting power relations regarding CAM regulation in Portugal has highlighted the explanatory value of Light's countervailing power theory and the need to move away from a professional dominance and corporatist approach, in which CAM has simply been seen as subjugated to the power of the medical profession and the state.

  6. The Systemic Theory of Living Systems and Relevance to CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Olalde Rangel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Systemic Theory of Living Systems is being published in several parts in eCAM. The theory is axiomatic. It originates from the phenomenological idea that physiological health is based on three factors: integrity of its structure or organization, O, functional organic energy reserve, E, and level of active biological intelligence, I. From the theory is derived a treatment strategy called Systemic Medicine (SM. This is based on identifying and prescribing phytomedicines and/or other medications that strengthen each factor. Energy-stimulating phytomedicines increase available energy and decrease total entropy of an open biological system by providing negative entropy. The same occurs with phytomedicines that act as biological intelligence modulators. They should be used as the first line of treatment in all ailments, since all pathologies, by definition, imply a higher than normal organic entropy. SM postulates that the state of health, H, of an individual, is effectively equal to the product of the strength of each factor H = O × E × I. SM observes that when all three factors are brought back to ideal levels, patients' conditions begin the recovery to normal health.

  7. Novel Diagnosis of Lyme Disease: Potential for CAM Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristo Vojdani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease (LD is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere, producing a wide range of disabling effects on multiple human targets, including the skin, the nervous system, the joints and the heart. Insufficient clinical diagnostic methods, the necessity for prompt antibiotic treatment along with the pervasive nature of infection impel the development and establishment of new clinical diagnostic tools with increased accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The goal of this article is 4-fold: (i to detail LD infection and pathology, (ii to review prevalent diagnostic methods, emphasizing inherent problems, (iii to introduce the usage of in vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT in clinical diagnostics and (iv to underscore the relevance of a novel comprehensive LD diagnostic approach to practitioners of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM. Utilization of this analytical method will increase the accuracy of the diagnostic process and abridge the time to treatment, with antibiotics, herbal medicines and nutritional supplements, resulting in improved quality of care and disease prognosis.

  8. CAD-CAM database management at Bendix Kansas City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    The Bendix Kansas City Division of Allied Corporation began integrating mechanical CAD-CAM capabilities into its operations in June 1980. The primary capabilities include a wireframe modeling application, a solid modeling application, and the Bendix Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (BICAM) System application, a set of software programs and procedures which provides user-friendly access to graphic applications and data, and user-friendly sharing of data between applications and users. BICAM also provides for enforcement of corporate/enterprise policies. Three access categories, private, local, and global, are realized through the implementation of data-management metaphors: the desk, reading rack, file cabinet, and library are for the storage, retrieval, and sharing of drawings and models. Access is provided through menu selections; searching for designs is done by a paging method or a search-by-attribute-value method. The sharing of designs between all users of Part Data is key. The BICAM System supports 375 unique users per quarter and manages over 7500 drawings and models. The BICAM System demonstrates the need for generalized models, a high-level system framework, prototyping, information-modeling methods, and an understanding of the entire enterprise. Future BICAM System implementations are planned to take advantage of this knowledge.

  9. Optical properties of manually and CAD/CAM-fabricated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güth, Jan-Frederik; Zuch, Timo; Zwinge, Sebastian; Engels, Jörg; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Edelhoff, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the light translucency and fluorescence 5 manually and 11 CAD/CAM polymer materials to a glass-ceramic material. Light-transmission was measured using a spectrophotometer. Overall light transmission (n=40) was calculated as the integration (tc (λ) dλ [10(-5)]) of all tc values for the wavelengths from 400 to 700 nm. One-Way-ANOVA, (Scheffe's post hoc) revealed following light transmission values: Artbloc Temp (33.1%; A), Polycon ae (33.6%; A), Cercon base PMMA (38.3%; B), Luxatemp Fluorescence (40.7%; C), Protemp 4 (41.6%; C), Structur 2 SC (43.1%; D), CAD Temp (45.0%; E), Paradigm MZ 100 (45.4%; E), New Outline (45.6%,E), Ambarino High-Class (45.9%; E, F), Fixtemp C&B (46.1%; E, F, G), Lava Ultimate (47.1%; F, G), Telio-CAD (47.3%; G), glass-ceramic Vita Mark II (50.8%; H), New Outline CAD (52.1%; H, I), QUATTRO DISC Eco PMMA (53.0%; I) and Zenotec PMMA (54.5%, J). Polymers from conventional and industrial polymerization show widely varying translucent and fluorescent properties when compared with glass-ceramics of the same color. PMID:24240888

  10. FastCam optomechanical system design and manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga, Gaizka; Sanquirce, Rubén; Campo, Ramón; Oscoz, Alex; López, Roberto; Rebolo, Rafael

    2010-07-01

    FastCam is an instrument jointly developed by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UPCT), designed to obtain high spatial resolution images in the optical wavelength range from ground-based telescopes (http://www.iac.es/proyecto/fastcam and http://www.iac.es/telescopes/Manuales/manualfastcam.pdf). The instrument is equipped with a very low noise and very fast readout speed EMCCD camera which provides short exposure images to an FPGA-based processor which performs the selection, recenterg and combination of images in real-time (applying Lucky Imaging techniques) to provide diffraction limited resolution images in 1-4 m class telescopes from 500 to 1100 nm. IDOM has contributed to this new state-of-the-art instrument with the design of an optomechanical system conceived to maximize the image scale stability of the system for astrometry. The combination of aluminum plates, carbon fiber (CFRP) rods and stainless steel mounts in the optical bench defines an athermalized and stiff design to meet the requirements of thermal and mechanical stability. This work has been done with the support of the Aerospace Subprogramme of the Spanish Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI) and the INTEK programme of the Basque Development Agency (SPRI).

  11. SuprimeCam Observation of Sporadic Meteors during Perseids 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Iye, M; Yanagisawa, M; Ebizuka, N; Ohnishi, K; Hirose, C; Asami, N; Komiyama, Yu; Furusawa, H

    2007-01-01

    We report the serendipitous findings of 13 faint meteors and 44 artificial space objects by Subaru SuprimeCam imaging observations during 11-16 August 2004. The meteors, at about 100km altitude, and artificial satellites/debris in orbit, at 500km altitude or higher, were clearly discriminated by their apparent defocused image sizes. CCD photometry of the 13 meteors, including 1 Perseid, 1 Aquarid, and 11 sporadic meteors, was performed. We defined a peak video-rate magnitude by comparing the integrated photon counts from the brightest portion of the track traversed within 33ms to those from a 0-mag star during the same time duration. This definition gives magnitudes in the range 4.0< V_{vr} <6.4 and 4.1< I_{vr}<5.9 for these 13 meteors. The corresponding magnitude for virtual naked-eye observers could be somewhat fainter especially for the V-band observation, in which the [OI] 5577 line lasting about 1 sec as an afterglow could contribute to the integrated flux of the present 5-10 min CCD exposure...

  12. CanariCam/GTC observations of (99942) Apophis

    CERN Document Server

    Licandro, J; Alvarez, C; Alí-Lagoa, V; Delbò, M

    2015-01-01

    The potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) (99942) Apophis is one of the most remarkable near-Earth asteroids (NEA) in terms of impact hazard. A good determination of its surface thermal inertia is very important in order to evaluate the Yarkovsky effect on its orbital evolution. We present thermal infrared observations obtained on January 29, 2013, with CanariCam mid-infrared camera/spectrograph attached to the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma, Spain) using the Si2-8.7, Si6-12.5, and Q1-17.65 filters with the aim of deriving Apophis' diameter ($D$), geometric albedo ($p_V$), and thermal inertia ($\\Gamma$). We performed a detailed thermophysical model analysis of the GTC data combined with previously published thermal data obtained using Herschel Space Observatory PACS instrument at 70, 100, and 160 $\\mu$m.The thermophysical model fit of the data favors low surface roughness solutions (within a range of roughness slope angles $rms$ between 0.1 and 0.5), and constrains ...

  13. Mutation in the sixth immunoglobulin domain of L1CAM is associated with migrational brain anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Christine; Moser, Franklin; Graham, John M.; Watiker, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the phenotype of a patient with classical features of X-linked L1 syndrome associated with novel brain malformations. Methods: Diagnostic analysis included physical and dysmorphology examinations, MRI of the brain, and exome sequencing of the family trio. Results: We report a 2.5-year-old boy with developmental delay, dysmorphic facies, and adducted thumbs. MRI of the brain showed a truncated corpus callosum and periventricular heterotopias associated with polymicrogyria (PMG). Variant segregation analysis with exome sequencing discovered a novel maternally derived hemizygous variant in exon 14 of the L1CAM gene (c.1759 G>C; p.G587R). Conclusions: This novel L1CAM mutation was located in the protein's sixth immunoglobin domain and involved glycine-587, a key residue in the structure of L1CAM because of its interactions with lysine-606, which indicates that any mutation at this site would likely affect the secondary structure and function of the protein. The replacement of the small nonpolar glycine residue with a large basic arginine would have an even more dramatic result. The presentation of periventricular nodular heterotopias with overlying PMG is very uncommon, and its association with L1CAM may provide insight into other similar cases. Furthermore, this presentation indicates the important role that L1CAM plays in neuronal migration and brain development and extends the phenotype associated with L1CAM-associated disorders. PMID:27066571

  14. Rationale for the Use of CAD/CAM Technology in Implant Prosthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar; Lyons, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Despite the predictable longevity of implant prosthesis, there is an ongoing interest to continue to improve implant prosthodontic treatment and outcomes. One of the developments is the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to produce implant abutments and frameworks from metal or ceramic materials. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate the rationale of CAD/CAM utilization for implant prosthodontics. To date, CAD/CAM allows simplified production of precise and durable implant components. The precision of fit has been proven in several laboratory experiments and has been attributed to the design of implants. Milling also facilitates component fabrication from durable and aesthetic materials. With further development, it is expected that the CAD/CAM protocol will be further simplified. Although compelling clinical evidence supporting the superiority of CAD/CAM implant restorations is still lacking, it is envisioned that CAD/CAM may become the main stream for implant component fabrication. PMID:23690778

  15. Integration of CAM and CNC operation through code editing and manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IT technology for engineering design and manufacturing has gone through significant advancement for the last 30 years. It is widely acknowledged that IT would provide competitive advantage for engineering company in term of production cycle, productivity and efficiency. The recent development in this area is on the total system integration. While standard off-shelf CAD/CAM/CNC software and hardware packages would provide solution for system integration, more often than not users will stumble upon compatibility problems. Moreover, most of the integration deals with CAD and CAM systems. CNC integration has not been fully developed. Users always found problems in the integration of CAM and CNC machine due to the different level of technological development. CNC codes have not fundamentally progressed in the last 50 years, while CAD/CAM software packages have undergone massive evolution and improvement. This paper discusses a practical solution of CAM and CNC integration through code editing and manipulation within the CAM system in order to comply with the CNC machine requirements. (Author)

  16. Rationale for the Use of CAD/CAM Technology in Implant Prosthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Abduo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the predictable longevity of implant prosthesis, there is an ongoing interest to continue to improve implant prosthodontic treatment and outcomes. One of the developments is the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM to produce implant abutments and frameworks from metal or ceramic materials. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate the rationale of CAD/CAM utilization for implant prosthodontics. To date, CAD/CAM allows simplified production of precise and durable implant components. The precision of fit has been proven in several laboratory experiments and has been attributed to the design of implants. Milling also facilitates component fabrication from durable and aesthetic materials. With further development, it is expected that the CAD/CAM protocol will be further simplified. Although compelling clinical evidence supporting the superiority of CAD/CAM implant restorations is still lacking, it is envisioned that CAD/CAM may become the main stream for implant component fabrication.

  17. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--accuracy from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapie, Laurent; Lebon, Nicolas; Mawussi, Bernardin; Fron-Chabouis, Hélène; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    As is the case in the field of medicine, as well as in most areas of daily life, digital technology is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available not only for chairside practice but also for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental practice can be considered as the handling of devices and software processing for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use dental CAD/CAM systems often do not have enough information to understand the variations offered by such technology practice. Knowledge of the random and systematic errors in accuracy with CAD/CAM systems can help to achieve successful restorations with this technology, and help with the purchasing of a CAD/CAM system that meets the clinical needs of restoration. This article provides a mechanical engineering viewpoint of the accuracy of CAD/ CAM systems, to help dentists understand the impact of this technology on restoration accuracy.

  18. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--accuracy from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapie, Laurent; Lebon, Nicolas; Mawussi, Bernardin; Fron-Chabouis, Hélène; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    As is the case in the field of medicine, as well as in most areas of daily life, digital technology is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available not only for chairside practice but also for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental practice can be considered as the handling of devices and software processing for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use dental CAD/CAM systems often do not have enough information to understand the variations offered by such technology practice. Knowledge of the random and systematic errors in accuracy with CAD/CAM systems can help to achieve successful restorations with this technology, and help with the purchasing of a CAD/CAM system that meets the clinical needs of restoration. This article provides a mechanical engineering viewpoint of the accuracy of CAD/ CAM systems, to help dentists understand the impact of this technology on restoration accuracy. PMID:26734668

  19. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in an Italian cohort of pediatric headache patients: the tip of the iceberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Libera, D; Colombo, B; Pavan, G; Comi, G

    2014-05-01

    The use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) in paediatric populations is considerably increased, especially for pain and chronic conditions, as demonstrated by epidemiological surveys both in Europe and in the USA. In our study, CAM was used in 76 % patients of a cohort of 124 children affected by headache (age 4-16 years; 67 % female; 70 % migraine without aura, 12 % migraine with aura, 18 % tensive headache according to IHS criteria) consecutively recruited at a Pediatric Headache University Center. CAM was used as preventive treatment in 80 % cases. The main reasons for seeking CAM were: the wish of avoiding chronic use of drugs with their related side effects, the desire of an integrated approach, the reported inefficacy of conventional medicine, and a more suitable children disposition to CAM than to pharmacological compound. Female gender, younger age, migraine without aura, parents' higher educational status, maternal use of CAM and other associated chronic conditions, correlated with CAM use (p minerals supplements (40 %) with magnesium, 5-Hydroxytryptophan, vitamin B6 or B12, Multivitamin compounds; Homeopathy (47 %) with Silicea, Ignatia Amara, Pulsatilla, Aconitum, Nux Vomica, Calcarea phosphorica; physical treatment (45 %) such as Ayurvedic massage, shiatsu, osteopathy; yoga (33 %); acupuncture (11 %). CAM-often integrated with conventional care-was auto-prescribed in 30 % of the cases, suggested by non-physician in 22 %, by the General Practitioner in 24 % and by paediatrician in 24 %. Both general practitioners and neurologists were mostly unaware of their patients' CAM use. In conclusion, neurologists should inquire for CAM use and be prepared to learn about CAM therapies or to directly interact with CAM trained experts, in order to coordinate an integrative approach to health, as especially required in paediatric headache patients and their parents. Further studies are required to investigate safety and efficacy of CAM in pediatric headache

  20. Anthocyanin-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis in coloured flower petals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Vladimir; Varduny, Tatyana

    2013-11-01

    Chlorophylless flower petals are known to be composed of non-photosynthetic tissues. Here, we show that the light energy storage that can be photoacoustically measured in flower petals of Petunia hybrida is approximately 10-12%. We found that the supposed chlorophylless photosynthesis is an anoxygenic, anthocyanin-dependent process occurring in blue flower petals (ADAPFP), accompanied by non-respiratory light-dependent oxygen uptake and a 1.5-fold photoinduced increase in ATP levels. Using a simple, adhesive tape stripping technique, we have obtained a backside image of an intact flower petal epidermis, revealing sword-shaped ingrowths connecting the cell wall and vacuole, which is of interest for the further study of possible vacuole-related photosynthesis. Approaches to the interpretations of ADAPFP are discussed, and we conclude that these results are not impossible in terms of the known photochemistry of anthocyanins.

  1. Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?

    CERN Document Server

    Grula, J W

    2006-01-01

    How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not ...

  2. Photochemistry of porphyrins: a model for the origin of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer-Smith, J. A.; Mauzerall, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    A series of porphyrins and catalysts has been prepared as a model for the origin of photosynthesis on the primordial earth. These compounds have been used to test the hypotheses that (1) the biosynthetic pathway to chlorophyll recapitulates the evolutionary history of photosynthesis, and (2) the proto-photosythetic function of biogenetic porphyrins (biosynthetic chlorophyll precursors) was the oxidation of organic molecules by photoexcited porphyrins with the attendant emission of molecular hydrogen. This paper describes experiments in which photoexcited biogenetic porphyrins oxidize ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The concomitant reduction of protons to hydrogen gas occurs in the presence of a colloidal platinum catalyst. The addition of methyl viologen, a one-electron shuttle, increases the amount of molecular hydrogen generated during long irradiations and the quantum yield of hydrogen production. When the porphyrin and catalyst are held in association by molecular complexes, the increased efficiency of electron transfer produces higher yields of hydrogen gas.

  3. Artificial photosynthesis: biomimetic approaches to solar energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanasundaram, K; Graetzel, M

    2010-06-01

    Using sun as the energy source, natural photosynthesis carries out a number of useful reactions such as oxidation of water to molecular oxygen and fixation of CO(2) in the form of sugars. These are achieved through a series of light-induced multi-electron-transfer reactions involving chlorophylls in a special arrangement and several other species including specific enzymes. Artificial photosynthesis attempts to reconstruct these key processes in simpler model systems such that solar energy and abundant natural resources can be used to generate high energy fuels and restrict the amount of CO(2) in the atmosphere. Details of few model catalytic systems that lead to clean oxidation of water to H(2) and O(2), photoelectrochemical solar cells for the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, solar cells for total decomposition of water and catalytic systems for fixation of CO(2) to fuels such as methanol and methane are reviewed here.

  4. Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?

    OpenAIRE

    Grula, John W.

    2006-01-01

    How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen cons...

  5. Seasonality of temperate forest photosynthesis and daytime respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, R; Munger, J W; McManus, J B; Nelson, D D; Zahniser, M S; Davidson, E A; Wofsy, S C; Saleska, S R

    2016-06-30

    Terrestrial ecosystems currently offset one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions because of a slight imbalance between global terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration. Understanding what controls these two biological fluxes is therefore crucial to predicting climate change. Yet there is no way of directly measuring the photosynthesis or daytime respiration of a whole ecosystem of interacting organisms; instead, these fluxes are generally inferred from measurements of net ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange (NEE), in a way that is based on assumed ecosystem-scale responses to the environment. The consequent view of temperate deciduous forests (an important CO2 sink) is that, first, ecosystem respiration is greater during the day than at night; and second, ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency peaks after leaf expansion in spring and then declines, presumably because of leaf ageing or water stress. This view has underlain the development of terrestrial biosphere models used in climate prediction and of remote sensing indices of global biosphere productivity. Here, we use new isotopic instrumentation to determine ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in a temperate deciduous forest over a three-year period. We find that ecosystem respiration is lower during the day than at night-the first robust evidence of the inhibition of leaf respiration by light at the ecosystem scale. Because they do not capture this effect, standard approaches overestimate ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in the first half of the growing season at our site, and inaccurately portray ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency. These findings revise our understanding of forest-atmosphere carbon exchange, and provide a basis for investigating how leaf-level physiological dynamics manifest at the canopy scale in other ecosystems. PMID:27357794

  6. Seasonality of temperate forest photosynthesis and daytime respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, R.; Munger, J. W.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.; Zahniser, M. S.; Davidson, E. A.; Wofsy, S. C.; Saleska, S. R.

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems currently offset one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions because of a slight imbalance between global terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration. Understanding what controls these two biological fluxes is therefore crucial to predicting climate change. Yet there is no way of directly measuring the photosynthesis or daytime respiration of a whole ecosystem of interacting organisms; instead, these fluxes are generally inferred from measurements of net ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange (NEE), in a way that is based on assumed ecosystem-scale responses to the environment. The consequent view of temperate deciduous forests (an important CO2 sink) is that, first, ecosystem respiration is greater during the day than at night; and second, ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency peaks after leaf expansion in spring and then declines, presumably because of leaf ageing or water stress. This view has underlain the development of terrestrial biosphere models used in climate prediction and of remote sensing indices of global biosphere productivity. Here, we use new isotopic instrumentation to determine ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in a temperate deciduous forest over a three-year period. We find that ecosystem respiration is lower during the day than at night—the first robust evidence of the inhibition of leaf respiration by light at the ecosystem scale. Because they do not capture this effect, standard approaches overestimate ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in the first half of the growing season at our site, and inaccurately portray ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency. These findings revise our understanding of forest-atmosphere carbon exchange, and provide a basis for investigating how leaf-level physiological dynamics manifest at the canopy scale in other ecosystems.

  7. Understanding of photosynthesis among pupils of technical secondary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Pavić, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our research was to examine the knowledge on photosynthesis of the students of the Secondary Technical schools, and their attitude towards it, and whether they have misconceptions about it. The research was conducted on a sample of 466 students in Vegova Secondary Technical and Grammar School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science in Ljubljana in the first, second and third year of electrical engineering and computer science programme. The test contained 27 closed-ended qu...

  8. Photosynthesis of ground vegetation in boreal Scots pine forests

    OpenAIRE

    Kulmala, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Research on carbon uptake in boreal forests has mainly focused on mature trees, even though ground vegetation species are effective assimilators and can substantially contribute to the CO2 uptake of forests. Here, I examine the photosynthesis of the most common species of ground vegetation in a series of differently aged Scots pine stands, and at two clear-cut sites with substantial differences in fertility. In general, the biomass of evergreen species was highest at poor sites and below cano...

  9. Evolution of the extended LHC protein superfamily in photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Engelken, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    In photosynthesis, sunlight interacts with colorful photosynthetic pigments like the chlorophylls, carotenoids and phycobilines. The first two of these pigments can be bound by members of the extended light-harvesting complex (LHC) protein superfamily and are organised in order to take on functions in the collection of or in the defense against sunlight. The extended LHC superfamily comprises several protein families, like the LHCs, the photosystem II subunit S (PSBS), the red algal lineage c...

  10. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XV. Ribulose and Sedoheptulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A. A.; Bassham, J. A.; Calvin, M.; Hall, A. G.; Hirsch, H.; Kawaguchi, S.; Lynch, V.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1952-01-01

    The intermediates of carbon dioxide reduction by plants include phosphorylated derivatives of hydroxy acids and sugars. Their identification became possible when the use of labeled carbon dioxide permitted discrimination between the earliest products and the many other components of photosynthetic tissues. A number of compounds were identified by virtue of the chemical and physical properties of the radioactive compounds in tracer amounts and by direct comparison of these properties with those of suspected known metabolic intermediates. It became apparent that several labeled compounds found in short exposures to radioactive carbon dioxide were not substances previously identified as metabolic intermediates. Two phosphate esters in particular were observed in the products of the first few seconds of steady-state photosynthesis by all the photosynthetic microorganisms and higher plants examined in this laboratory. These esters have been isolated by paper chromatography in tracer quantities and enzymatically hydrolyzed to give two sugars, ribulose and sedoheptulose. This paper contains a description of the chemical identification of these sugars and some observations and suggestions regarding the function of their esters. The general importance of these compounds in photosynthesis was summarized before their identification. The products of photosynthesis with C{sup 14}O{sub 2} by each plant included phosphate esters of the same two then unknown compounds in addition to those of the expected glucose, fructose, dihydroxyacetone and glyceric acid. As the time of steady-state photosynthesis in C{sup 14}O{sub 2} decreased, the fractions of total fixed radiocarbon in the esters of the two unidentified compounds increased.

  11. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AT THE FOREFRONT OF A SUSTAINABLE LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    GiuseppinaRea; PaulJ.D.Janssen; NicolasPlumeré; RaoulN.Frese

    2014-01-01

    The development of a sustainable bio-based economy has drawn much attention in recent years, and research to find smart solutions to the many inherent challenges has intensified. In nature, perhaps the best example of an authentic sustainable system is oxygenic photosynthesis. The biochemistry of this intricate process is empowered by solar radiation influx and performed by hierarchically organized complexes composed by photoreceptors, inorganic catalysts, and enzymes which define specific ni...

  12. Seasonality of temperate forest photosynthesis and daytime respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, R; Munger, J W; McManus, J B; Nelson, D D; Zahniser, M S; Davidson, E A; Wofsy, S C; Saleska, S R

    2016-06-29

    Terrestrial ecosystems currently offset one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions because of a slight imbalance between global terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration. Understanding what controls these two biological fluxes is therefore crucial to predicting climate change. Yet there is no way of directly measuring the photosynthesis or daytime respiration of a whole ecosystem of interacting organisms; instead, these fluxes are generally inferred from measurements of net ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange (NEE), in a way that is based on assumed ecosystem-scale responses to the environment. The consequent view of temperate deciduous forests (an important CO2 sink) is that, first, ecosystem respiration is greater during the day than at night; and second, ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency peaks after leaf expansion in spring and then declines, presumably because of leaf ageing or water stress. This view has underlain the development of terrestrial biosphere models used in climate prediction and of remote sensing indices of global biosphere productivity. Here, we use new isotopic instrumentation to determine ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in a temperate deciduous forest over a three-year period. We find that ecosystem respiration is lower during the day than at night-the first robust evidence of the inhibition of leaf respiration by light at the ecosystem scale. Because they do not capture this effect, standard approaches overestimate ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in the first half of the growing season at our site, and inaccurately portray ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency. These findings revise our understanding of forest-atmosphere carbon exchange, and provide a basis for investigating how leaf-level physiological dynamics manifest at the canopy scale in other ecosystems.

  13. Seasonality of temperate forest photosynthesis and daytime respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, R.; Munger, J. W.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.; Zahniser, M. S.; Davidson, E. A.; Wofsy, S. C.; Saleska, S. R.

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems currently offset one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions because of a slight imbalance between global terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration. Understanding what controls these two biological fluxes is therefore crucial to predicting climate change. Yet there is no way of directly measuring the photosynthesis or daytime respiration of a whole ecosystem of interacting organisms; instead, these fluxes are generally inferred from measurements of net ecosystem–atmosphere CO2 exchange (NEE), in a way that is based on assumed ecosystem-scale responses to the environment. The consequent view of temperate deciduous forests (an important CO2 sink) is that, first, ecosystem respiration is greater during the day than at night; and second, ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency peaks after leaf expansion in spring and then declines, presumably because of leaf ageing or water stress. This view has underlain the development of terrestrial biosphere models used in climate prediction and of remote sensing indices of global biosphere productivity. Here, we use new isotopic instrumentation to determine ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in a temperate deciduous forest over a three-year period. We find that ecosystem respiration is lower during the day than at night—the first robust evidence of the inhibition of leaf respiration by light at the ecosystem scale. Because they do not capture this effect, standard approaches overestimate ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in the first half of the growing season at our site, and inaccurately portray ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency. These findings revise our understanding of forest–atmosphere carbon exchange, and provide a basis for investigating how leaf-level physiological dynamics manifest at the canopy scale in other ecosystems.

  14. PillCam(TradeMark), a Noninvasive Endoscopic Device for the Measurement of Gastrointestinal Motility Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaksman, Zahman; Crady, Camille; Raju, G. S.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Bioavailability and effectiveness of drugs given by mouth are governed in part by gastrointestinal (GI) motility and function. Microgravity has been shown to decrease GI motility as indicated by a 3 fold increase in gastrointestinal transit time (GITT). The PillCam(TradeMark), an endoscopic camera embedded in a capsule, is a novel noninvasive and unobtrusive device that is used for the diagnosis of GI pathology. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of PillCam(TradeMark) as an alternative to the Lactulose Breath Hydrogen Test (LBHT) for estimating GI motility. The sensitivity and applicability of this device for detection and estimation of the effect of promethazine, a deterrent, and caffeine, a prokinetic, on GI motility were also examined. Method: In this semi-randomized cross-over design study, six male and six female subjects were administered the following 4 treatments: PillCam(TradeMark) alone, PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose (10g), PillCam(TradeMark)+caffeine (200mg), and PillCam(TradeMark)+Promethazine (50mg). Results: GITT ranged between 1:24 and 7:52 hr:min. Lactulose did not alter GITT. A significant increase in GITT was noticed after administration of PMZ when compared to values from PillCam(TradeMark) treatment alone or PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose treatment. No difference in GITT after caffeine treatment was noticed. While there were no gender related differences in GITT after administration of PillCam(TradeMark) or with lactulose, a significant difference (pgenders was observed after promethazine administration with mean GITT higher in males (5:50 hr:min) than females (4:15 hr:min). Conclusion: The PillCam(TradeMark) capsule is applicable for the determination of GITT using time stamped GI images. It can be successfully used for the assessment of drug induced changes in GI motility and therefore, may be applicable for microgravity and analog environment studies on GI motility and function.

  15. Epigenetic regulation of L1CAM in endometrial carcinoma: comparison to cancer–testis (CT-X) antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L1CAM was originally identified as an adhesion molecule involved in neural development. In many human carcinomas L1CAM is over-expressed and is associated with a bad prognosis. We previously reported that L1CAM was absent in the vast majority of endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (ECs) (type 1) but was strongly expressed in the more aggressive serous and clear-cell ECs (termed type 2). The differential regulation of L1CAM in ECs is not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that it can be regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. Here we investigated the role of DNA-methylation of the L1CAM promoter for expression. We also studied the relationship to cancer testis (CT-X) antigens that co-localize with L1CAM on chromosome Xq28, a region that is often activated in human tumors. We used EC cell lines and primary tumor tissues for our analysis. For expression analysis we employed RT-PCR and Western blotting. DNA-Methylation of the L1CAM promoter was determined after bisulfite conversation and DNA sequencing. Tumor tissues were examined by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. We demonstrate that the treatment of L1CAM low/negative expressing EC cell lines with 5′-Azacytidine (5-AzaC) or knock-down of DNMT1 (DNA methyltransferase 1) as well as the HDAC (histone deacetylase) inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) up-regulated L1CAM at the mRNA and protein level. The L1CAM gene has two promoter regions with two distinct CpG islands. We observed that the expression of L1CAM correlated with hypermethylation in promoter 1 and 5-AzaC treatment affected the DNA-methylation pattern in this region. The CT-X antigens NY-ESO-1, MAGE-A3 and MAGE-A4 were also strongly up-regulated by 5-AzaC or knock-down of DNMT1 but did not respond to treatment with TSA. Primary EC tumor tissues showed a variable methylation pattern of the L1CAM promoter. No striking differences in promoter methylation were observed between tumor areas with L1CAM expression and those without expression. L1CAM expression

  16. Photosynthesis and respiration of exposed salt-marsh fucoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkhuis, B.H. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook); Tempel, N.R.; Jones, R.F.

    1976-03-15

    Photosynthesis and respiration of the salt-marsh fucoids, Ascophyllum nodosum ecad scorpioides and Fucus vesiculosus, were investigated using an infrared CO/sub 2/ gas analyzer under a variety of light intensities, temperatures, and levels of desiccation while the algae were exposed to the atmosphere. Results indicated that net photosynthesis (0.5 to 2.0 mg C/g dry weight/h) saturated rapidly at light intensities (0.1 to 0.2 g cal/cm/sup 2//min) which were approximately 10 to 50 percent of the daily summer maximum intensities for algae found under phanerogam (Spartina alterniflora) canopies. Desiccation exhibited the most pronounced effect on photosynthesis, which increases slightly between 0 ad 25 percent water loss, levels off, and decreases sharply at water losses greater than 50 percent. Dark respiration (0.1 to 0.3 mg C/g dry weight/h) is also inhibited by desiccation. Both species of algae appear to be broadly adapted to all three parameters investigated.

  17. On the variation of alkalinity during phytoplankton photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The alkalinity of the organic constituents of marine phytoplankton and their participation in the total alkalinity (TA change of seawater during photosynthesis are carefully assessed. Quantification of the contribution of phytoplankton chlorophyll, proteins and phosphorus compounds to the hydrogen ion balance of seawater in terms of total inorganic nitrogen (∆[NT] = ∆[NH4 +] + ∆[N2] + ∆[NO2 –] + ∆[NO3 –] and total inorganic phosphorus (∆[PT] changes during photosynthesis yielded that the organic components of marine phytoplankton are alkaline by –0.06 × ∆[NT] – 0.49 × ∆[PT], and that the potential total alkalinity (TAP during photosynthesis is TAP = TA – [NH4 –] + 0.93 × [NO2 –] + [NO3 –] + 0.08 × [NT] + 0.23 × [PT] for unfiltered seawater samples and TAP = TA – [NH4 –] + 0.93 × [NO2 –] + [NO3 –] + 0.02 × [NT] + 0.26 × [PT] for filtered seawater samples. These equations correct the traditionally used expression TAP = TA + [NO3 –]. The TAP anomalies are produced, in order of increasing importance, by N2 fixation, DMSP production and CaCO3 fixation.

  18. The social acceptance of artificial photosynthesis: towards a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K; Gross, Allan

    2015-06-01

    Advancements in artificial photosynthesis have the potential to radically transform how societies convert and use energy. Their successful development, however, hinges not only on technical breakthroughs, but also acceptance and adoption by energy users. This article introduces a conceptual framework enabling analysts, planners and even investors to determine environments where artificial photosynthesis may thrive, and those where it may struggle. Drawn from work looking at the barriers and acceptance of solar photovoltaic and wind energy systems, the article proposes that social acceptance has multiple dimensions-socio-political, community and market-that must be met holistically in order for investors and users to embrace new technologies. The article argues that any future market acceptance for artificial photosynthesis will depend upon the prevalence of nine factors, which create conducive environments; the lack of the conditions engenders environments where they will likely be rejected. The conditions are (i) strong institutional capacity; (ii) political commitment; (iii) favourable legal and regulatory frameworks; (iv) competitive installation and/or production costs; (v) mechanisms for information and feedback; (vi) access to financing; (vii) prolific community and/or individual ownership and use; (viii) participatory project siting; and (ix) recognition of externalities or positive public image. PMID:26052424

  19. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XX. The Steady State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, M.; Massini, Peter

    1952-09-01

    The separation of the phenomenon of photosynthesis in green plants into a photochemical reaction and into the light-dependent reduction of carbon dioxide is discussed, The reduction of carbon dioxide and the fate of the assimilated carbon were investigated with the help of the tracer technique (exposure of the planks to the radioactive C{sup 14}O{sub 2}) and of paper chromatography. A reaction cycle is proposed in which phosphoglyceric acid is the first isolable assimilations product. Analyses of the algal extracts which had assimilated radioactive carbon dioxide in a stationary condition ('steady-state' photosynthesis) for a long time provided further information concerning the proposed cycle and permitted the approximate estimation, for a number of compounds of what fraction of each compound was taking part in the cycle. The earlier supposition that light influences the respiration cycle was confirmed. The possibility of the assistance of {alpha}-lipoic acid, or of a related substance, in this influence and in the photosynthesis cycle, is discussed.

  20. NDH-1 and NDH-2 Plastoquinone Reductases in Oxygenic Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Gilles; Aro, Eva-Mari; Shikanai, Toshiharu

    2016-04-29

    Oxygenic photosynthesis converts solar energy into chemical energy in the chloroplasts of plants and microalgae as well as in prokaryotic cyanobacteria using a complex machinery composed of two photosystems and both membrane-bound and soluble electron carriers. In addition to the major photosynthetic complexes photosystem II (PSII), cytochrome b6f, and photosystem I (PSI), chloroplasts also contain minor components, including a well-conserved type I NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complex that functions in close relationship with photosynthesis and likewise originated from the endosymbiotic cyanobacterial ancestor. Some plants and many microalgal species have lost plastidial ndh genes and a functional NDH-1 complex during evolution, and studies have suggested that a plastidial type II NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2) complex substitutes for the electron transport activity of NDH-1. However, although NDH-1 was initially thought to use NAD(P)H as an electron donor, recent research has demonstrated that both chloroplast and cyanobacterial NDH-1s oxidize reduced ferredoxin. We discuss more recent findings related to the biochemical composition and activity of NDH-1 and NDH-2 in relation to the physiology and regulation of photosynthesis, particularly focusing on their roles in cyclic electron flow around PSI, chlororespiration, and acclimation to changing environments. PMID:26735062

  1. Gradients of seed photosynthesis and its role for oxygen balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschiersch, Henning; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Rutten, Twan; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2011-02-01

    Seeds are generally viewed in the context of plant reproduction and the supply of food and feed, but only seldom as a site of photosynthesis. However, the seeds of many plant species are green, at least during their early development, which raises the issue of the significance of this greening for seed development. Here we describe the two contrasting modes of photosynthesis in the developing seed. The dicotyledonous pea seed has a green embryo, while the monocotyledonous barley caryopsis has a chlorenchymatic layer surrounding its non-green endosperm (storage organ). We have employed pulse-amplitude-modulated fluorescence and oxygen-sensitive microsensors to localize and describe gradient distributions of photosynthetic activity across the seed/caryopsis, and have discussed its role in maintaining the endogenous O₂ balance. We also report the lack of photosynthetic activity in the stay-green embryo axis of the sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) seed following imbibition. The observations are discussed with respect to in vivo light supply and contrasted with the characteristics of leaf photosynthesis.

  2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AT THE FOREFRONT OF A SUSTAINABLE LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J.D. Janssen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of a sustainable bio-based economy has drawn much attention in recent years, and research to find smart solutions to the many inherent challenges has intensified. In nature, perhaps the best example of an authentic sustainable system is oxygenic photosynthesis. The biochemistry of this intricate process is empowered by solar radiation influx and performed by hierarchically organized complexes composed by photoreceptors, inorganic catalysts, and enzymes which define specific niches for optimizing light-to-energy conversion. The success of this process relies on its capability to exploit the almost inexhaustible reservoirs of sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to transform photonic energy into chemical energy such as stored in adenosine triphosphate. Oxygenic photosynthesis is responsible for most of the oxygen, fossil fuels, and biomass on our planet. So, even after a few billion years of evolution, this process unceasingly supports life on earth, and probably soon also in outer-space, and inspires the development of enabling technologies for a sustainable global economy and ecosystem. The following review covers some of the major milestones reached in photosynthesis research, each reflecting lasting routes of innovation in agriculture, environmental protection, and clean energy production.

  3. Ecosystem respiration depends strongly on photosynthesis in a temperate heath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, Andreas; Beier, Claus;

    2007-01-01

    We measured net ecosystem CO2 flux (F-n) and ecosystem respiration (R-E), and estimated gross ecosystem photosynthesis (P-g) by difference, for two years in a temperate heath ecosystem using a chamber method. The exchange rates of carbon were high and of similar magnitude as for productive forest...... ecosystems with a net ecosystem carbon gain during the second year of 293 +/- 11 g C m(-2) year(-1) showing that the carbon sink strength of heather-dominated ecosystems may be considerable when C. vulgaris is in the building phase of its life cycle. The estimated gross ecosystem photosynthesis and ecosystem.......65) was improved when the P-g rate was incorporated into the model (second year; R-2 = 0.79), suggesting that daytime R-E increased with increasing photosynthesis. Furthermore, the temperature sensitivity of R-E decreased from apparent Q(10) values of 3.3 to 3.9 by the classic equation to a more realistic Q(10...

  4. Photosynthesis at the forefront of a sustainable life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paul J D; Lambreva, Maya D; Plumeré, Nicolas; Bartolucci, Cecilia; Antonacci, Amina; Buonasera, Katia; Frese, Raoul N; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Rea, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    The development of a sustainable bio-based economy has drawn much attention in recent years, and research to find smart solutions to the many inherent challenges has intensified. In nature, perhaps the best example of an authentic sustainable system is oxygenic photosynthesis. The biochemistry of this intricate process is empowered by solar radiation influx and performed by hierarchically organized complexes composed by photoreceptors, inorganic catalysts, and enzymes which define specific niches for optimizing light-to-energy conversion. The success of this process relies on its capability to exploit the almost inexhaustible reservoirs of sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to transform photonic energy into chemical energy such as stored in adenosine triphosphate. Oxygenic photosynthesis is responsible for most of the oxygen, fossil fuels, and biomass on our planet. So, even after a few billion years of evolution, this process unceasingly supports life on earth, and probably soon also in outer-space, and inspires the development of enabling technologies for a sustainable global economy and ecosystem. The following review covers some of the major milestones reached in photosynthesis research, each reflecting lasting routes of innovation in agriculture, environmental protection, and clean energy production. PMID:24971306

  5. Advances in computer-aided engineering: CAD/CAM-research at Delft University of Technology. Report of the VF-project CAD/CAM 1989-1994

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1994-01-01

    This book contains a collection of articles describing on-going CAD/CAM-research at several engineering faculties at Delft University of Technology. Two main themes covered in this book are 'Conceptual design of complex products' and 'Product modelling and product data exchange'.

  6. Porting of ship hull structure CAD/CAM system to distributed processing. Senkaku CAD/CAM system no bunsan shori eno iko ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, H.; Okazaki, M. (Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-09-04

    This paper introduces advantages of executing distributed processing in a ship hull structure CAD/CAM system, and summarizes its data base management system. A CAD/CAM system can cause a problem of aggravation in response speed in association with expanded application, attributable to a central processing system. To solve this problem, the CAD/CAM system was transplanted to an engineering workstation (EWS) and transferred to distributed processing by means of a network system. As a result, the processing speed in one EWS was improved to 2.6 times to 1.5 times as fast as in one super minicomputer. A ship hull structure CAD/CAM system comprising two data servers and 26 EWS has increased its processing amount to about 45 times. In this system, the communications between the data servers and clients have a close relation with the data base management. It is important for operation efficiency to reduce the number of communications to a minimum necessity for consideration of the response speed. Local buffering is adopted at SCON. 7 figs.

  7. Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing CAD/CAM Benchmark.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domm, T.C.; Underwood, R.S.

    1999-10-13

    The Benchmark Project was created from a desire to identify best practices and improve the overall efficiency and performance of the Y-12 Plant's systems and personnel supporting the manufacturing mission. The mission of the benchmark team was to search out industry leaders in manufacturing and evaluate their engineering practices and processes to determine direction and focus for Y-12 modernization efforts. The companies visited included several large established companies and a new, small, high-tech machining firm. As a result of this effort, changes are recommended that will enable Y-12 to become a more modern, responsive, cost-effective manufacturing facility capable of supporting the needs of the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) into the 21st century. The benchmark team identified key areas of interest, both focused and general. The focus areas included Human Resources, Information Management, Manufacturing Software Tools, and Standards/Policies and Practices. Areas of general interest included Infrastructure, Computer Platforms and Networking, and Organizational Structure. The results of this benchmark showed that all companies are moving in the direction of model-based engineering and manufacturing. There was evidence that many companies are trying to grasp how to manage current and legacy data. In terms of engineering design software tools, the companies contacted were somewhere between 3-D solid modeling and surfaced wire-frame models. The manufacturing computer tools were varied, with most companies using more than one software product to generate machining data and none currently performing model-based manufacturing (MBM) from a common model. The majority of companies were closer to identifying or using a single computer-aided design (CAD) system than a single computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system. The Internet was a technology that all companies were looking to either transport information more easily throughout the corporation or as a conduit for

  8. Additive CAD/CAM process for dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nelson R F A; Witek, Lukasz; Coelho, Paulo G; Thompson, Van P; Rekow, Elizabeth D; Smay, Jim

    2011-02-01

    This article describes the evolution of a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) process where ceramic paste is deposited in a layer-by-layer sequence using a computer numerical control machine to build up core and fixed partial denture (FPD) structures (robocasting). Al(2)O(3) (alumina) or ZrO(2) (Y-TZP) are blended into a 0.8% aqueous solution of ammonium polyacrylate in a ratio of approximately 1:1 solid:liquid. A viscosifying agent, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, is added to a concentration of 1% in the liquid phase, and then a counter polyelectrolyte is added to gel the slurry. There are two methods for robocasting crown structures (cores or FPD framework). One is for the core to be printed using zirconia ink without support materials, in which the stereolithography (STL) file is inverted (occlusal surface resting on a flat substrate) and built. The second method uses a fugitive material composed of carbon black codeposited with the ceramic material. During the sintering process, the carbon black is removed. There are two key challenges to successful printing of ceramic crowns by the robocasting technique. First is the development of suitable materials for printing, and second is the design of printing patterns for assembly of the complex geometry required for a dental restoration. Robocasting has room for improvement. Current development involves enhancing the automation of nozzle alignment for accurate support material deposition and better fidelity of the occlusal surface. An accompanying effort involves calculation of optimal support structures to yield the best geometric results and minimal material usage.

  9. Dental scanning in CAD/CAM technologies: laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda; Faur, Nicolae; Negru, Radu; Romînu, Mihai; Cozarov, Dalibor

    2008-02-01

    Scanning, also called digitizing, is the process of gathering the requisite data from an object. Many different technologies are used to collect three dimensional data. They range from mechanical and very slow, to radiation-based and highly-automated. Each technology has its advantages and disadvantages, and their applications and specifications overlap. The aims of this study are represented by establishing a viable method of digitally representing artifacts of dental casts, proposing a suitable scanner and post-processing software and obtaining 3D Models for the dental applications. The method is represented by the scanning procedure made by different scanners as the implicated materials. Scanners are the medium of data capture. 3D scanners aim to measure and record the relative distance between the object's surface and a known point in space. This geometric data is represented in the form of point cloud data. The contact and no contact scanners were presented. The results show that contact scanning procedures uses a touch probe to record the relative position of points on the objects' surface. This procedure is commonly used in Reverse engineering applications. Its merits are represented by efficiency for objects with low geometric surface detail. Disadvantages are represented by time consuming, this procedure being impractical for artifacts digitization. The non contact scanning procedure implies laser scanning (laser triangulation technology) and photogrammetry. As a conclusion it can be drawn that different types of dental structure needs different types of scanning procedures in order to obtain a competitive complex 3D virtual model that can be used in CAD/CAM technologies.

  10. From Artisanal to CAD-CAM Blocks: State of the Art of Indirect Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, A K; Dupont, N M; Oudkerk, J C; Dewael, T Y; Sadoun, M J

    2016-05-01

    Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites. Indeed, new polymerization modes used for CAD-CAM blocks-especially high temperature (HT) and, most of all, high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP)-are shown to significantly increase the degree of conversion in comparison with light-cured composites. Industrial processes also allow for the augmentation of the filler content and for the realization of more homogeneous structures with fewer flaws. In addition, due to their increased degree of conversion and their different monomer composition, some CAD-CAM blocks are more advantageous in terms of toxicity and monomer release. Finally, materials with a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) microstructure exhibit higher flexural strength and a more favorable elasticity modulus than materials with a dispersed filler microstructure. Consequently, some high-performance composite CAD-CAM blocks-particularly experimental PICNs-can now rival glass-ceramics, such as lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics, for use as bonded partial restorations and crowns on natural teeth and implants. Being able to be manufactured in very low thicknesses, they offer the possibility of developing innovative minimally invasive treatment strategies, such as "no prep" treatment of worn dentition. Current issues are related to the study of bonding and wear properties of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composites. There is also a crucial

  11. Correlation between citric acid and nitrate metabolisms during CAM cycle in the atmospheric bromeliad Tillandsia pohliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschi, Luciano; Rodrigues, Maria Aurineide; Tiné, Marco Aurélio Silva; Mercier, Helenice

    2010-12-15

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) confers crucial adaptations for plants living under frequent environmental stresses. A wide metabolic plasticity can be found among CAM species regarding the type of storage carbohydrate, organic acid accumulated at night and decarboxylating system. Consequently, many aspects of the CAM pathway control are still elusive while the impact of this photosynthetic adaptation on nitrogen metabolism has remained largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated a possible link between the CAM cycle and the nitrogen assimilation in the atmospheric bromeliad Tillandsia pohliana by simultaneously characterizing the diel changes in key enzyme activities and metabolite levels of both organic acid and nitrate metabolisms. The results revealed that T. pohliana performed a typical CAM cycle in which phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase phosphorylation seemed to play a crucial role to avoid futile cycles of carboxylation and decarboxylation. Unlike all other bromeliads previously investigated, almost equimolar concentrations of malate and citrate were accumulated at night. Moreover, a marked nocturnal depletion in the starch reservoirs and an atypical pattern of nitrate reduction restricted to the nighttime were also observed. Since reduction and assimilation of nitrate requires a massive supply of reducing power and energy and considering that T. pohliana lives overexposed to the sunlight, we hypothesize that citrate decarboxylation might be an accessory mechanism to increase internal CO₂ concentration during the day while its biosynthesis could provide NADH and ATP for nocturnal assimilation of nitrate. Therefore, besides delivering photoprotection during the day, citrate might represent a key component connecting both CAM pathway and nitrogen metabolism in T. pohliana; a scenario that certainly deserves further study not only in this species but also in other CAM plants that nocturnally accumulate citrate.

  12. Hidrocarburos sesquiterpenicos presentes en especies del genero clusia

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime González; Eduardo Martínez; Bárbara Moreno; Franco Delle Monache

    2010-01-01

    De ios extractos de los frutos de C. saruliensis, C. minor y C. criuva y de las raíces de C. eugenioides, se separaron por Cromatografía de Columna, unas fracciones oleosas incoloras, constituidas en gran mayoría por hidrocarburos sesquiterpénicos y derivados oxigenados de éstos. La identificación de los compuestos se efectuó por Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas.

  13. Effects of Different Calcium Reagents on Photosynthesis Characteristics of Catharanthus roseus%不同钙效应剂对长春花光合特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙金春; 张扬欢; 温泉; 张楠; 唐娟; 吴能表

    2011-01-01

    The effects of LaCl3 (a plasmalemma calcium channel blocker), herpain (an intracellular IP3 channel blocker) and trifluoperazine (an intracellular CaM activity inhibitor) on the photosynthesis of Ca-tharanthus roseus were researched. All the calcium channel blockers studied decreased Pn (net photosynthesis rate), maximal PSII quantum (Fv/Fm), PSII quantum yield (Yield), relative electron transport rate (ETR) and photochemical quenching (qP) of C. Roseus and increased its non-photochemical quenching (qN), chlorophyll a concentration, chlorophyll b concentration and chlorophyll a+b. It is, therefore, concluded that the calcium channel greatly influenced the photosynthesis of C. Roseus by a special way other than promoting the degradation of photosynthetic pigments or the inhibition of their synthesis to inhibit the photosynthesis of C. Roseus. Herpain affected photosynthesis of C. Roseus most significantly, which means the calcium released by intracellular calcium pool through the IP3 channel plays an important role in the photosynthesis of C. Roseus.%研究了细胞质膜钙通道阻断剂氯化镧(LaCl3)、胞内IP3通道阻断剂肝素(Heparin)、胞内CaM活性抑制剂三氟啦嗪(TFP)对长春花光合作用的影响,结果发现:Ca2+通道阻断剂处理后长春花叶片净光合速率(Pn)、PSII最大量子产量(Fv/Fm)、PSⅡ实际量子产量(Yield)、电子传递速率(ETR)、光化学淬灭系数(qP)均下降,非光化学淬灭系数(qN)及Chla、Chlb、Chla+Chlb含量上升,表明Ca2+通道阻断剂对长春花的光合作用有较大影响,且不是通过加速叶片光合色素降解或抑制其合成来实现抑制叶片的光合能力;其中Heparin处理的长春花叶片相关参数变化幅度最大,表明胞内钙库通过IP3通道释放的Ca2+在长春花叶片光合作用过程中发挥了更积极的作用.

  14. Malattransport am Tonoplasten der halophytischen und C3 – CAM-intermediären Pflanze Mesembryanthemum crystallinum

    OpenAIRE

    Epimashko, Svetlana

    2004-01-01

    In photosynthetisch aktivem Blattgewebe der halophytischen und C3-CAM-intermediären Pflanze Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. konnten erstmals Vakuolen unterschiedlicher Charakteristika, vor allem bezüglich der Azidität (saure und neutrale Vakuolen), identifiziert werden. Der Vergleich der Anteile beider Vakuolentypen in Pflanzen, in denen der CAM-Photosynthesemodus durch Salz- oder Hochlichtstress induziert wurde, zeigte, dass die CAM-bedingte Malatakkumulation in sauren Vakuolen und die NaCl...

  15. Design and research of cam linked ATC%凸轮联动ATC的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂应新

    2001-01-01

    Based on the analysis made on motions of linked cam action, design of cam curve and driving calculation are explained and the technical problems related to design of cam linked ATC are approached.%通过对凸轮联动的动作分析,对凸轮曲线的设计及驱动计算做了说明,探讨了凸轮联动ATC设计中的有关技术问题。

  16. The use of sensitive chemical antibodies for diagnosis: detection of low levels of EpCAM in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Shigdar

    Full Text Available EpCAM is expressed at low levels in a variety of normal human epithelial tissues, but is overexpressed in 70-90% of carcinomas. From a clinico-pathological point of view, this has both prognostic and therapeutic significance. EpCAM was first suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of epithelial cancers in the 1990s. However, following several immunotherapy trials, the results have been mixed. It has been suggested that this is due, at least in part, to an unknown level of EpCAM expression in the tumors being targeted. Thus, selection of patients who would benefit from EpCAM immunotherapy by determining EpCAM status in the tumor biopsies is currently undergoing vigorous evaluation. However, current EpCAM antibodies are not robust enough to be able to detect EpCAM expression in all pathological tissues. Here we report a newly developed EpCAM RNA aptamer, also known as a chemical antibody, which is not only specific but also more sensitive than current antibodies for the detection of EpCAM in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary breast cancers. This new aptamer, together with our previously described aptamer, showed no non-specific staining or cross-reactivity with tissues that do not express EpCAM. They were able to reliably detect target proteins in breast cancer xenograft where an anti-EpCAM antibody (323/A3 showed limited or no reactivity. Our results demonstrated a more robust detection of EpCAM using RNA aptamers over antibodies in clinical samples with chromogenic staining. This shows the potential of aptamers in the future of histopathological diagnosis and as a tool to guide targeted immunotherapy.

  17. Cell surface localization and tissue distribution of a hepatocyte cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein (cell-CAM 105)

    OpenAIRE

    Ocklind, C; Forsum, U; Obrink, B

    1983-01-01

    We recently identified a 105,000-dalton plasma membrane glycoprotein, denoted cell-CAM 105 (CAM, cell adhesion molecule), that is involved in intercellular adhesion of reaggregating rat hepatocytes (Ocklind, C., and B. Obrink, 1982, J. Biol. Chem., 257:6788-6795). In this communication we used a monospecific rabbit antiserum against cell-CAM 105 to localize the antigen by indirect immunofluorescence on isolated rat cells and on frozen rat tissue sections. This antiserum stained the surface of...

  18. Rising CO2 widens the transpiration-photosynthesis optimality space

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hugo J.; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Dekker, Stefan C.

    2016-04-01

    Stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic biochemistry, typically expressed by the temperature-adjusted maximum rates of carboxylation (V cmax) and electron transport (Jmax), are key traits in land ecosystem models. Contrary to the many approaches available for simulating gs responses, the biochemical parameters V cmax and Jmax are often treated as static traits in ecosystem models. However, observational evidence indicates that V cmax and Jmax respond to persistent changes in atmospheric CO2. Hence, ecosystem models may be improved by incorporating coordinated responses of photosynthetic biochemistry and gs to atmospheric CO2. Recently, Prentice et al. (2014) proposed an optimality framework (referred to as the Prentice framework from here on) to predict relationships between V cmax and gs based on Fick's law, Rubisco-limited photosynthesis and the carbon costs of transpiration and photosynthesis. Here we show that this framework is, in principle, suited to predict CO2-induced changes in the V cmax -gs relationships. The framework predicts an increase in the V cmax:gs-ratio with higher atmospheric CO2, whereby the slope of this relationship is determined by the carbon costs of transpiration and photosynthesis. For our empirical analyses we consider that the carbon cost of transpiration is positively related to the plant's Huber value (sapwood area/leaf area), while the carbon cost of photosynthesis is positively related to the maintenance cost of the photosynthetic proteins. We empirically tested the predicted effect of CO2 on the V cmax:gs-ratio in two genotypes of Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet) that were grown from seeds to maturity under 200, 400 and 800 ppm CO2 in walk-in growth chambers with tight control on light, temperature and humidity. Seeds of the two Solanum genotypes were obtained from two distinct natural populations; one adapted to well-drained sandy soil (the 'dry' genotype) and one adapted to poorly-drained clayey soil (the 'wet' genotype

  19. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in Germany – A focus group study of GPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners, some general practitioners (GPs provide CAM in their practices. This paper aims to explore the attitudes of GPs about the role of CAM in Germany, in relation to the healthcare system, quality of care, medical education and research. Furthermore, experiences of GPs integrating CAM in their daily practice were explored. Methods Using a qualitative methodological approach 3 focus groups with a convenience sample of 17 GPs were conducted. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The majority of the participating GPs had integrated one or more CAM therapies into their every-day practice. Four key themes were identified based on the topics covered in the focus groups: the role of CAM within the German healthcare system, quality of care, education and research. Within the theme 'role of CAM within the healthcare system' there were five categories: integration of CAM, CAM in the Statutory Health Insurance, modernisation of the Statutory Health Insurance Act, individual healthcare services and 'Heilpraktiker'. Regarding quality of care there were two broad groups of GPs: those who thought patients would benefit from standardizing CAM and those who feared that quality control would interfere with the individual approach of CAM. The main issues identified relating to research and education were the need for the development of alternative research strategies and the low quality of existing CAM education respectively. Conclusion The majority of the participating GPs considered CAM as a reasonable complementary approach within primary care. The study increased our understanding of GPs attitudes about the role of CAM within the German healthcare system and the use of

  20. Is complementary and alternative medicine (CAM cost-effective? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspi Opher

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-pocket expenditures of over $34 billion per year in the US are an apparent testament to a widely held belief that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies have benefits that outweigh their costs. However, regardless of public opinion, there is often little more than anecdotal evidence on the health and economic implications of CAM therapies. The objectives of this study are to present an overview of economic evaluation and to expand upon a previous review to examine the current scope and quality of CAM economic evaluations. Methods The data sources used were Medline, AMED, Alt-HealthWatch, and the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Citation Index; January 1999 to October 2004. Papers that reported original data on specific CAM therapies from any form of standard economic analysis were included. Full economic evaluations were subjected to two types of quality review. The first was a 35-item checklist for reporting quality, and the second was a set of four criteria for study quality (randomization, prospective collection of economic data, comparison to usual care, and no blinding. Results A total of 56 economic evaluations (39 full evaluations of CAM were found covering a range of therapies applied to a variety of conditions. The reporting quality of the full evaluations was poor for certain items, but was comparable to the quality found by systematic reviews of economic evaluations in conventional medicine. Regarding study quality, 14 (36% studies were found to meet all four criteria. These exemplary studies indicate CAM therapies that may be considered cost-effective compared to usual care for various conditions: acupuncture for migraine, manual therapy for neck pain, spa therapy for Parkinson's, self-administered stress management for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, pre- and post-operative oral nutritional supplementation for lower gastrointestinal tract surgery, biofeedback for patients with

  1. Extensive photometry of the intermediate polar MU Cam: detection of a spin period change

    CERN Document Server

    Kozhevnikov, V P

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate polars with known rates of spin period changes are not numerous because such tasks require measurements performed for a long time. To measure a spin period change, MU Cam is a good candidate because it has a spin oscillation with a large amplitude enabling measurements with high precision. Fortunately, in the past the spin period of MU Cam was measured with high precision. To measure the spin period anew, in 2014-2015 we performed extensive photometric observations of MU Cam, spanning a total duration of 208 h within 46 nights. We found that the spin, sideband and orbital periods are equal to 1187.16245+/-0.00047 s, 1276.3424+/-0.0022 s and 4.71942+/-0.00016 h, respectively. Comparing the measured spin period with the spin period of MU Cam in the past, we detected the spin period change with dP/dt=-(2.17+/-0.10) X 10^(-10). This rate of the spin period change was not stable and varied in a time scale of years. During four nights in 2014 April-May MU Cam was fainter than usual by 0.8 mag, and the ...

  2. Detection of EpCAM-Negative and Cytokeratin-Negative Circulating Tumor Cells in Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. Mikolajczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enrichment of rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs in blood is typically achieved using antibodies to epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM, with detection using cytokeratin (CK antibodies. However, EpCAM and CK are not expressed in some tumors and can be downregulated during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. A micro-fluidic system, not limited to EpCAM or CK, was developed to use multiple antibodies for capture followed by detection using CEE-Enhanced (CE, a novel in situ staining method that fluorescently labels the capture antibodies bound to CTCs. Higher recovery of CTCs was demonstrated using antibody mixtures compared to anti-EpCAM. In addition, CK-positive breast cancer cells were found in 15 of 24 samples (63%; range 1–60 CTCs, while all samples contained additional CE-positive cells (range 1–41; median = 11; =.02. Thus, antibody mixtures against a range of cell surface antigens enables capture of more CTCs than anti-EpCAM alone and CE staining enables the detection of CK-negative CTCs.

  3. ANATOMIC STUDY OF THE PROXIMAL THIRD OF THE FEMUR: FEMOROACETABULAR IMPACT AND THE CAM EFFECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labronici, Pedro José; Alves, Sergio Delmonte; da Silva, Anselmo Fernandes; Giuberti, Gilberto Ribeiro; de Azevedo Neto, Justino Nóbrega; Mezzalira Penedo, Jorge Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To analyze anatomical variations of the proximal end of femur that could cause a femoroacetabular impact. Methods: 199 skeletically mature anatomical specimens of femurs were used. The femurs were measured in order to determine the anteversion angle of the femoral neck, neckshaft angle, sphericity of the femoral head at anteroposterior and superoinferior, angle between epiphysis and the anterior femoral neck, angle between epiphysis and the neck at lateral plane, anteroposterior distance at 5mm of the head and neck junction and anteroposterior distance of the neck base. Results: we found that the impact subgroup presented a significantly larger junction diameter of 5mm (p = 0.0001) and cam-head (%) (p= 0.0001), while base-cam (%) (p = 0.0001) showed a significantly smaller diameter than the subgroup without impact. It was identified that cam-head (%) ≤ 80 e base-cam (%) ≤ 73 were identified as the optimal impact points. Conclusion: our study showed that the effect cam, caused by anatomical variations of the proximal femoral end focused the head-neck junction and base of the neck-junction head-neck. These rates can be predictive factors of the impact. PMID:26998462

  4. Benign synthesis of 2-ethylhexanoic acid by cytochrome P450cam: enzymatic, crystallographic, and theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, K J; Strickler, M D; Rock, D A; Rock, D A; Bennett, G A; Wahlstrom, J L; Goldstein, B M; Jones, J P

    2001-08-14

    This study examines the ability of P450cam to catalyze the formation of 2-ethylhexanoic acid from 2-ethylhexanol relative to its activity on the natural substrate camphor. As is the case for camphor, the P450cam exhibits stereoselectivity for binding (R)- and (S)-2-ethylhexanol. Kinetic studies indicate (R)-2-ethylhexanoic acid is produced 3.5 times as fast as the (S)-enantiomer. In a racemic mixture of 2-ethylhexanol, P450cam produces 50% more (R)-2-ethylhexanoic acid than (S)-2-ethylhexanoic acid. The reason for stereoselective 2-ethylhexanoic acid production is seen in regioselectivity assays, where (R)-2-ethylhexanoic acid comprises 50% of total products while (S)-2-ethylhexanoic acid comprises only 13%. (R)- and (S)-2-ethylhexanol exhibit similar characteristics with respect to the amount of oxygen and reducing equivalents consumed, however, with (S)-2-ethylhexanol turnover producing more water than the (R)-enantiomer. Crystallographic studies of P450cam with (R)- or (S)-2-ethylhexanoic acid suggest that the (R)-enantiomer binds in a more ordered state. These results indicate that wild-type P450cam displays stereoselectivity toward 2-ethylhexanoic acid synthesis, providing a platform for rational active site design. PMID:11583152

  5. Treatment Expectations for CAM Interventions in Pediatric Chronic Pain Patients and their Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. I. Tsao

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient expectations regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM interventions have important implications for treatment adherence, attrition and clinical outcome. Little is known, however, about parent and child treatment expectations regarding CAM approaches for pediatric chronic pain problems. The present study examined ratings of the expected benefits of CAM (i.e. hypnosis, massage, acupuncture, yoga and relaxation and conventional medicine (i.e. medications, surgery interventions in 45 children (32 girls; mean age = 13.8 years ± 2.5 and parents (39 mothers presenting for treatment at a specialty clinic for chronic pediatric pain. Among children, medications and relaxation were expected to be significantly more helpful than the remaining approaches (P < 0.01. However, children expected the three lowest rated interventions, acupuncture, surgery and hypnosis, to be of equal benefit. Results among parents were similar to those found in children but there were fewer significant differences between ratings of the various interventions. Only surgery was expected by parents to be significantly less helpful than the other approaches (P < 0.01. When parent and child perceptions were compared, parents expected hypnosis, acupuncture and yoga, to be more beneficial than did children, whereas children expected surgery to be more helpful than did parents (P < 0.01. Overall, children expected the benefits of CAM to be fairly low with parents' expectations only somewhat more positive. The current findings suggest that educational efforts directed at enhancing treatment expectations regarding CAM, particularly among children with chronic pain, are warranted.

  6. Calcification and photosynthesis of the coral acropora cervicornis under calcium limited conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathfon, Megan; Brewer, Debbie

    1997-01-01

    Differing hypothesis about the function of calcification are based on an interesting dilemma. Is the purpose of calcification mainly a structural and protective one or does calcification serve other functions? Does photosynthesis increase carbonate ion activity and cause calcification or does calcification increase CO2 levels and stimulate photsynthesis? It is proposed that calcification in corals is not dependent upon photosynthesis but upon calcium levels in the water. Under normal ocean conditions, corals convert a certain percentage of energy to photosynthesis and respiration and another percentage to calcification. As corals become nutrient stressed, particularly calcium limited, the ratio of photosynthesis to calcification shifts towards calcification in order to generate protons. The protons generated during calcification may stimulate photosynthesis and aid in the uptake of nutrients and biocarbonates. The results of the calcification experiment show a trend towards increased calcification and decreased photosynthesis when the coral Acropora cervicornis is calcium limited, but the data are inconclusive and further research is needed.

  7. Incorporation of leaf nitrogen observations for biochemical and environmental modeling of photosynthesis and evapotranspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegh, E; Gjetterman, B; Abrahamsen, P;

    2007-01-01

    relation to photosynthetic (Rubisco) capacity should also be known to quantify leaf N impacts on canopy photosynthesis. In this study, impacts of the amount and vertical distribution of leaf N contents on canopy photosynthesis were investigated by combining field measurements and photosynthesis modelling....... While most canopy photosynthesis models assume an exponential vertical profile of leaf N contents in the canopy, the field measurements showed that well-fertilized fields may have a uniform or exponential profile, and senescent canopies have reduced levels of N contents in upper leaves. The sensitivity...... of simulated canopy photosynthesis to the different (observed) N profiles was examined using a multi-layer sun/shade biochemically based photosynthesis model and found to be important; ie. for a well-fertilized barley field, the use of exponential instead of uniform vertical N profiles increased the annual...

  8. The effect of elevated CO{sub 2} concentration on photosynthesis of Sphagnum fuscum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauhiainen, J.; Silvola, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    The objectives of the research were to measure photosynthesis of Sphagnum fuscum in long term exposure to four CO{sub 2} levels at semi-natural conditions, to find out if there is an acclimation of net photosynthesis into prevailing CO{sub 2} concentrations and to measure the moisture dependent net photosynthesis at various CO{sub 2} concentrations of samples grown at different CO{sub 2} concentrations

  9. Calcification does not stimulate photosynthesis in the zooxanthellate scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata

    OpenAIRE

    Gattuso, J. P.; Reynaud-Vaganay, S.; P Furla; Romaine-Lioud, S.; Jaubert, J.; I Bourge; Frankignoulle, M.

    2000-01-01

    The interaction between photosynthesis and calcification remains poorly known in zooxanthellate scleracti-nian corals. We tested whether calcification is a significant source of CO2 for photosynthesis in Stylophora pistillata. Rates of net photosynthesis, respiration, and calcification were measured on colonies incubated in synthetic seawater (SSW) controlled with respect to the inorganic carbon system and containing standard (11.40 mmol kg-1 ) and low (2.85 mmol kg-1 ) calcium concentrations...

  10. Broad-Scale Comparison of Photosynthesis in Terrestrial and Aquatic Plant Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Krause-Jensen, D.

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons of photosynthesis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats have been impaired by differences in methods and time-scales of measurements. We compiled information on gross photosynthesis at high irradiance and photosynthetic efficiency at low irradiance from 109 published terrestrial studies...... of forests, grasslands and crops and 319 aquatic studies of phytoplankton, macrophyte and attached microalgal communities to test if specific differences existed between the communities. Maximum gross photosynthesis and photosynthetic efficiency were systematically higher in terrestrial than in aquatic...

  11. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VIII. The Role of Malic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassham, James A.; Benson, Andrew A.; Calvin, Melvin

    1950-01-25

    Malonate has been found to inhibit the formation of malic acid during short periods of photosynthesis with radioactive carbon dioxide. This result, together with studies which show the photosynthetic cycle to be operating normally at the same time, indicates that malic acid is not an intermediate in photosynthesis but is probably closely related to some intermediate of the cycle. Absence of labeled succinic and fumaric acids in these experiments, in addition to the failure of malonate to inhibit photosynthesis, precludes the participation of these acids as intermediates in photosynthesis.

  12. C₄ photosynthesis: from evolutionary analyses to strategies for synthetic reconstruction of the trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Alisandra K; Simon, Rüdiger; Weber, Andreas P M

    2013-06-01

    C₄ photosynthesis represents the most productive modes of photosynthesis in land plants and some of the most productive crops on the planet, such as maize and sugarcane, and many ecologically important native plants use this type of photosynthesis. Despite its ecological and economic importance, the genetic basis of C₄ photosynthesis remains largely unknown. Even many fundamental aspects of C₄ biochemistry, such as the molecular identity of solute transporters, and many aspects of C₄ plant leaf development, such as the Kranz anatomy, are currently not understood. Here, we review recent progress in gaining a mechanistic understanding of the complex C₄ trait through comparative evolutionary analyses of C₃ and C₄ species.

  13. Soil diversity and hydration as observed by ChemCam at Gale crater, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslin, P-Y; Gasnault, O; Forni, O; Schröder, S; Cousin, A; Berger, G; Clegg, S M; Lasue, J; Maurice, S; Sautter, V; Le Mouélic, S; Wiens, R C; Fabre, C; Goetz, W; Bish, D; Mangold, N; Ehlmann, B; Lanza, N; Harri, A-M; Anderson, R; Rampe, E; McConnochie, T H; Pinet, P; Blaney, D; Léveillé, R; Archer, D; Barraclough, B; Bender, S; Blake, D; Blank, J G; Bridges, N; Clark, B C; DeFlores, L; Delapp, D; Dromart, G; Dyar, M D; Fisk, M; Gondet, B; Grotzinger, J; Herkenhoff, K; Johnson, J; Lacour, J-L; Langevin, Y; Leshin, L; Lewin, E; Madsen, M B; Melikechi, N; Mezzacappa, A; Mischna, M A; Moores, J E; Newsom, H; Ollila, A; Perez, R; Renno, N; Sirven, J-B; Tokar, R; de la Torre, M; d'Uston, L; Vaniman, D; Yingst, A

    2013-09-27

    The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of widespread martian soils and is similar in composition to the martian dust. It possesses a ubiquitous hydrogen signature in ChemCam spectra, corresponding to the hydration of the amorphous phases found in the soil by the CheMin instrument. This hydration likely accounts for an important fraction of the global hydration of the surface seen by previous orbital measurements. ChemCam analyses did not reveal any significant exchange of water vapor between the regolith and the atmosphere. These observations provide constraints on the nature of the amorphous phases and their hydration.

  14. Seguiment de la diagnosi socioambiental del Camí de Cavalls : sector nord-est

    OpenAIRE

    Minguell Manero, Laia; Montero de Amezaga, Kattalin; Rossell Suma, Carolina; Ruiz Rosillo, Mª Belén

    2014-01-01

    El Camí de Cavalls és un element característic amb una importància històrica, cultural i recreativa considerable a Menorca. Aquesta illa va ser declarada Reserva de la Biosfera per l UNESCO l'any 1993; com a conseqüència, a l'any 2000 es va implantar el Pla Especial del Camí de Cavalls amb diversos objectius: definir les característiques del Camí i els seus instruments de gestió i aplicació; implantar mecanismes i normes que permetin l'ús públic que garanteixin la seva protecció i conservació...

  15. Design, Optimization and Development of Assemblies for Continuous Casting Facility using Techniques CAD, CAM and CAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Tufoi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents design methods, optimization and realization of mechanical for continuous casting plants using modern techniques: CAD,CAM and CAE. These current techniques refer to techniques CAD (Computer-Aided Design, CAE (Computer-Aided Engineering and CAM (Computer-Aided Manufacturing. Techniques mentioned above are areas of information technology aimed at helping engineering a variety of areas to be faster, more efficient and creative. A synthesis of the works published in the last 15 years shows that computer aided design and manufacturing are two areas which have developed simultaneously being treated in a common vision based on the natural links that exist between the activities of design and production or manufacturing. The paper will present a practical case application of techniques CAD, CAE and CAM.

  16. Developing a STEP-Compliant Multiagent on an Interoperable and Integrated CAD/CAM Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mokhtar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Practical implementation of a STEP-based architecture to provide a fully integrated and interoperable platform of data exchange has always been an intriguing issue. A variety of CAD/CAM environments are struggling to embed and support STEP standard and its protocols in order to seamlessly operate within global data exchange. However, apparent paucity of efficient and reliable structure for data communication, manipulation, and restoration has remarkably hindered the desired progress. In this paper, taking these shortcomings into account, a practical architecture is introduced and STEP-based agents are implemented and installed on the platform. Moreover, feature recognition, interaction, and machining precedence as crucial issues of CAD/CAM research have been considered in developing the interoperable platform. Seamless integration and interaction of CAD/CAM modules are provided in the proposed system. The prototype is finally verified and discussed through a case study.

  17. Design Alteration of Motor-Cycle Engine Cam for Pneumatic Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimil M. Shah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Power produced by pressurized gases/air has been used in many applications since decades. The power produced by that means is pollution free too. Hence substitution of petrol/diesel in engines with compressed air will be a step towards pollution free engine. The 4-stroke IC engine is to be converted into a 2-stroke pneumatic engine. Various design changes in camshaft design were carried out. The valve timing diagram was derived for the same. The cam profile of a double lobed cam as required in the valve timing diagram was designed in Pro-e software and was cut on a wire cut machine. The cam and camshaft were manufactured separately and then assembled.

  18. Cooling Tests of the NectarCAM camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Moulin, E; Durand, D; Feirreira, O; Fesquet, M; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J -F; Loiseau, D; Louis, F; Nunio, F; Rateau, S; consortia, CTA

    2015-01-01

    The NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the next-generation observatory for very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. The cameras are designed to operate in an open environment and their mechanics must provide protection for all their components under the conditions defined for the CTA observatory. In order to operate in a stable environment and ensure the best physics performance, each NectarCAM will be enclosed in a slightly overpressurized, nearly air-tight, camera body, to prevent dust and water from entering. The total power dissipation will be ~7.7 kW for a 1855-pixel camera. The largest fraction is dissipated by the readout electronics in the modules. We present the design and implementation of the cooling system together with the test bench results obtained on the NectarCAM thermal demonstrator.

  19. Application of CAD/CAE/CAM in forging process: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forging can be described as the process in which metal is plastically deformed with application of huge pressure. The process not only changes the shape but also improves the properties of the forged parts due to grain size refinement. Conventionally, the empirical trial and error method has been applied, but recently there are various tools are employed to improved product quality and economic of the process. For example, Computer Aided Design (CAD) is widely used in modeling of the process, while Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools have been utilized in analyzing the process. To physically demonstrate the process, Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) such as CNC machine has been exploited. In order to improve forging process efficiency, an integrated system that combines all advantages of CAD, CAM and CAE need to be developed. This paper presents an overview of computer aided simulation such as CAD, CAE and CAM application in forging process. (Author)

  20. Following the path of carbon in photosynthesis: a personal story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Andrew A

    2002-01-01

    Chronological recognition of the intermediates and mechanisms involved in photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation is delineated. Sam Ruben and Martin Kamen's development of application of radioactive carbon for the study of carbon dioxide fixation provided impetus and techniques for following the path of carbon in photosynthesis. Discovery The identity of the primary carboxylation enzyme and its identity with the major protein of photosynthetic tissues ('Fraction 1' protein of Sam Wildman) is reviewed. Memories are dimmed by sixty years of exciting discoveries exploration in newer fields [see Benson 2002 (Annu Rev Plant Biol 53: 1-25), for research and perspectives beyond the early Berkeley days]. PMID:16245101