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Sample records for cam bromeliad aechmea

  1. Effects of leaf herbivory on the bromeliad Aechmea blanchetiana: a study of selective feeding by the scraper Acentroptera pulchella

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The scraper Acentroptera pulchella (Chrysomelidae, Hispinae) feeds on the leaves of Aechmea blanchetiana (Bromeliaceae), but not indiscriminately. This insect apparently concentrates its attack on the apical region of the intermediate leaves from the bromeliad tank. To characterise the potential influence of leaf defensive strategies on the intraspecific feeding pattern of A. pulchella on the leaves of the bromeliad A. blanchetiana, we quantified the apparent intraspecific preference of this ...

  2. Bimodal pollination system of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis involving hummingbirds and bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, S; Schmid, V S; Zillikens, A; Harter-Marques, B; Steiner, J

    2011-01-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of birds and insects as pollinators, we studied the floral biology of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Grisebach in the biome of the Atlantic rain forest, southern Brazil. On Santa Catarina Island, flowering extends from mid-September to the end of December, with diurnal anthesis. The reproductive system is obligatory xenogamy, thus pollinator-dependent. Flowers secrete 31.84 μl of nectar per day, with a mean sugar concentration of 23.2%. Highest nectar volume and sugar concentration occur at the beginning of anthesis. Most floral traits are characteristic for ornithophily, and nectar production appears to be adapted to the energy demand of hummingbirds. Continued secretion of the sucrose-dominated nectar attracts and binds visitors to inflorescences, strengthening trapline foraging behaviour. Experiments assessing seed set after single flower visits were performed with the most frequent visitors, revealing the hummingbird Thalurania glaucopis as the most effective pollen vector. In addition, bees are also functional pollinators, as substantiated by their high visitation frequency. We conclude that this pollination system is bimodal. Thus, there is redundancy in the pollination service provided by birds and bees, granting a high probability of successful reproduction in Ae. nudicaulis.

  3. Micropropagation of the ornamental vulnerable bromeliads Aechmea blanchetiana and Aechmea distichantha Micropropagação das bromélias ornamentais vulneráveis Aechmea blanchetiana e Aechmea distichantha

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    Sandra Santa-Rosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aechmea blanchetiana and Aechmea distichantha are Brazilian native bromeliads with great ornamental value, although none of the species are produced commercially. Therefore, market demands are met through nature predatory exploitation. This study intended to (1 evaluate the in vitro seed germination of A. blanchetiana and A. distichantha and (2 establish micropropagation protocols for both species, aiming at producing plantlets for the market, as well as to germplasm in vitro conservation. Germination experiments were carried out in completely randomized designs with two treatments (presence and absence of light and seven and eight replications respectively for A. blanchetiana and A. distichantha. In vitro seedlings, produced under light conditions, were used as explants in the multiplication experiment (MS medium. The experimental design was again completely randomized, with treatments in factorial 2 (NAA concentrations; 0.05 and 0.5 μM x 2 (cytokines: BAP and KIN x 2 (cytokine levels: 2.2 and 4.4 μM + 1 (control with basal MS, without growth regulators, with ten replications per treatment. We evaluated fungal and bacterial contamination, total and cumulative seed germination and number of shoots per treatment in each subculture. We observed only fungal contamination and only in A. blanchetiana (14.0%. Light favored in vitro seed germination in both species (99 and 62% respectively for A. blanchetiana and A. distichantha. MS medium + 0.5 μM NAA + 2.2 μM BAP resulted in the highest multiplication rate for both species, with significant contrasts between this treatment and the control in both species (105.62 more shoots in A. blanchetiana; 223.80 in A. distichantha. BAP promoted the formation of rootless shoots, while kinetin favored the formation of roots rather than shoots. A. blanchetiana and A. distichantha showed 90 and 97% of survival respectively in plantlet acclimatization.Aechmea blanchetiana e Aechmea distichantha são brom

  4. Effects of leaf herbivory on the bromeliad Aechmea blanchetiana: a study of selective feeding by the scraper Acentroptera pulchella Efeito da herbivoria foliar na bromélia Aechmea blanchetiana: estudo sobre o padrão seletivo de forrageamento do inseto raspador Acentroptera pulchella

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The scraper Acentroptera pulchella (Chrysomelidae, Hispinae) feeds on the leaves of Aechmea blanchetiana (Bromeliaceae), but not indiscriminately. This insect apparently concentrates its attack on the apical region of the intermediate leaves from the bromeliad tank. To characterise the potential influence of leaf defensive strategies on the intraspecific feeding pattern of A. pulchella on the leaves of the bromeliad A. blanchetiana, we quantified the apparent intraspecific preference of this ...

  5. Oil road effects on the anuran community of a high canopy tank bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina in the upper Amazon basin, Ecuador.

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    Shawn F McCracken

    Full Text Available Tropical forest canopies are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats on earth and one of the remaining relatively unexplored biotic frontiers. Epiphytic bromeliads provide microhabitat for a high diversity of organisms in tropical forest canopies and are considered a keystone resource. A number of amphibians inhabit these phytotelmata, yet their ecological role and status in forest canopies remains unknown. For this study, anurans were collected from an upper canopy tank bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina at ∼20-45 m (x¯ = 33 m above the forest floor. Bromeliads were sampled from trees located near trails in undisturbed primary rainforest and oil access roads in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of Amazonian Ecuador. We collected 95 anurans representing 10 species from 160 bromeliads in 32 trees. We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the effects of disturbance and habitat factors on the occupancy and abundance of anurans collected. Bromeliads in forest along oil roads had a lower occupancy and abundance of anurans than those in undisturbed forest, a somewhat unexpected result due to the intactness and quality of forest adjacent to the roads. Recorded habitat variables had no relationship with occupancy or abundance of anurans, and did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings reveal that even the minimal footprint of natural resource extraction operations, primarily roads, in rainforest environments can have significant negative impacts on the unique upper canopy anuran community. Based on these results, we recommend that natural resource development treat rainforest habitat as an offshore system where roads are not used, employ industry best practice guidelines, and current access roads be protected from colonization and further deforestation.

  6. Oil road effects on the anuran community of a high canopy tank bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina) in the upper Amazon basin, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Shawn F; Forstner, Michael R J

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forest canopies are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats on earth and one of the remaining relatively unexplored biotic frontiers. Epiphytic bromeliads provide microhabitat for a high diversity of organisms in tropical forest canopies and are considered a keystone resource. A number of amphibians inhabit these phytotelmata, yet their ecological role and status in forest canopies remains unknown. For this study, anurans were collected from an upper canopy tank bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina) at ∼20-45 m (x¯ = 33 m) above the forest floor. Bromeliads were sampled from trees located near trails in undisturbed primary rainforest and oil access roads in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of Amazonian Ecuador. We collected 95 anurans representing 10 species from 160 bromeliads in 32 trees. We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the effects of disturbance and habitat factors on the occupancy and abundance of anurans collected. Bromeliads in forest along oil roads had a lower occupancy and abundance of anurans than those in undisturbed forest, a somewhat unexpected result due to the intactness and quality of forest adjacent to the roads. Recorded habitat variables had no relationship with occupancy or abundance of anurans, and did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings reveal that even the minimal footprint of natural resource extraction operations, primarily roads, in rainforest environments can have significant negative impacts on the unique upper canopy anuran community. Based on these results, we recommend that natural resource development treat rainforest habitat as an offshore system where roads are not used, employ industry best practice guidelines, and current access roads be protected from colonization and further deforestation.

  7. Correlation between citric acid and nitrate metabolisms during CAM cycle in the atmospheric bromeliad Tillandsia pohliana.

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    Freschi, Luciano; Rodrigues, Maria Aurineide; Tiné, Marco Aurélio Silva; Mercier, Helenice

    2010-12-15

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) confers crucial adaptations for plants living under frequent environmental stresses. A wide metabolic plasticity can be found among CAM species regarding the type of storage carbohydrate, organic acid accumulated at night and decarboxylating system. Consequently, many aspects of the CAM pathway control are still elusive while the impact of this photosynthetic adaptation on nitrogen metabolism has remained largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated a possible link between the CAM cycle and the nitrogen assimilation in the atmospheric bromeliad Tillandsia pohliana by simultaneously characterizing the diel changes in key enzyme activities and metabolite levels of both organic acid and nitrate metabolisms. The results revealed that T. pohliana performed a typical CAM cycle in which phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase phosphorylation seemed to play a crucial role to avoid futile cycles of carboxylation and decarboxylation. Unlike all other bromeliads previously investigated, almost equimolar concentrations of malate and citrate were accumulated at night. Moreover, a marked nocturnal depletion in the starch reservoirs and an atypical pattern of nitrate reduction restricted to the nighttime were also observed. Since reduction and assimilation of nitrate requires a massive supply of reducing power and energy and considering that T. pohliana lives overexposed to the sunlight, we hypothesize that citrate decarboxylation might be an accessory mechanism to increase internal CO₂ concentration during the day while its biosynthesis could provide NADH and ATP for nocturnal assimilation of nitrate. Therefore, besides delivering photoprotection during the day, citrate might represent a key component connecting both CAM pathway and nitrogen metabolism in T. pohliana; a scenario that certainly deserves further study not only in this species but also in other CAM plants that nocturnally accumulate citrate.

  8. Effects of leaf herbivory on the bromeliad Aechmea blanchetiana: a study of selective feeding by the scraper Acentroptera pulchella Efeito da herbivoria foliar na bromélia Aechmea blanchetiana: estudo sobre o padrão seletivo de forrageamento do inseto raspador Acentroptera pulchella

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    Noa Magalhães

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The scraper Acentroptera pulchella (Chrysomelidae, Hispinae feeds on the leaves of Aechmea blanchetiana (Bromeliaceae, but not indiscriminately. This insect apparently concentrates its attack on the apical region of the intermediate leaves from the bromeliad tank. To characterise the potential influence of leaf defensive strategies on the intraspecific feeding pattern of A. pulchella on the leaves of the bromeliad A. blanchetiana, we quantified the apparent intraspecific preference of this feeding pattern; compared distinct leaves and portions in relation to morpho-physiological, mechanical, nutritional and chemical anti-herbivore strategies; and investigated whether some or all these defensive strategies help explain the observed feeding pattern. A. pulchella preferentially attacked the mid-upper portions of mature and adult leaves of A. blanchetiana, but not the mid-lower portions of the same leaves, which are more resistant to punch, are thicker and present less nitrogen content than the upper portions. However, soft young leaves were not attacked. Attacked portions also presented higher total phenol content than did non-attacked portions, indicating that phenols do not act defensively. Other morpho-physiological and chemical anti-herbivore strategies evaluated did not differ between portions and leaves. This herbivore feeds preferentially on leaf portions that have higher nitrogen levels, avoiding others that present increased punch resistance. The scraper A. pulchella exhibits a clearly selective feeding pattern that is driven by nutritional benefits rather than strictly mechanical or chemical anti-herbivore strategies.O raspador Acentroptera pulchella (Chrysomelidae, Hispinae foi observado se alimentando de folhas de Aechmea blanchetiana (Bromeliaceae, mas não de forma indiscriminada. Este inseto aparentemente concentra seu ataque na metade superior das folhas intermediárias do tanque da bromélia. A fim de caracterizar a potencial influ

  9. Adjustments in CAM and enzymatic scavenging of H2O2 in juvenile plants of the epiphytic bromeliad Guzmania monostachia as affected by drought and rewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Victória; Abreu, Maria E; Mercier, Helenice; Nievola, Catarina C

    2017-04-01

    Juvenile plants of epiphytes such as bromeliads are highly prone to dehydration under drought conditions. It is likely that young epiphytes evolved mostly metabolic strategies to resist drought, which may include the plastic modulation of the enzymatic antioxidant system and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Few studies have investigated such strategies in juvenile epiphytes, although such research is important to understand how these plants might face drought intensification derived from potential climatic alterations. The epiphytic CAM bromeliad Guzmania monostachia (L.) Rusby ex Mez var. monostachia is known to have plastic responses to drought, but no reports have focused on the metabolism of juvenile plants to drought and recovery. Hence, we aimed to verify how juvenile G. monostachia plants adjust malate (indicative of CAM), H2O2 content and enzymatic scavenging in response to drought (eight days without irrigation) and rewatering (six days of irrigation post-drought). Interestingly, drought decreased H2O2 content and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the pre-dusk period, although glutathione reductase (GR) and CAM activity increased. Rewatering restored H2O2, but activities of APX, CAT and GR exceeded pre-stress levels in the pre-dusk and/or pre-dawn periods. Results suggest that recovery from a first drought redefines the homeostatic balance of H2O2 scavenging, in which rewatered plants stimulate the enzymatic antioxidant system while drought-exposed plants intensify CAM activity to regulate H2O2 content, a photosynthetic pathway known to prevent oxidative stress. Such data show that young G. monostachia plants adjust CAM and H2O2 scavenging to adapt to water availability.

  10. Spider-fed bromeliads: seasonal and interspecific variation in plant performance

    OpenAIRE

    GONCALVES, Ana Zangirolame; MERCIER, Helenice; MAZZAFERA, Paulo; Romero,Gustavo Quevedo

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Several animals that live on bromeliads can contribute to plant nutrition through nitrogen provisioning (digestive mutualism). The bromeliad-living spider Psecas chapoda (Salticidae) inhabits and breeds on Bromelia balansae in regions of South America, but in specific regions can also appear on Ananas comosus (pineapple) plantations and Aechmea distichantha. Methods Using isotopic and physiological methods in greenhouse experiments, the role of labelled ((15)N) spider faec...

  11. Potential sources of nitrogen in an ant-garden tank-bromeliad

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Epiphytic plants in general and bromeliads in particular live in a water and nutrient-stressed environment often limited in nitrogen. Thus, these plants have developed different ways to survive in such an environment. We focused on Aechmea mertensii (Bromeliaceae), which is both a tank-bromeliad and an ant-garden (AG) epiphyte initiated by either the ants Camponotus femoratus or Pachycondyla goeldii. By combining a study of plant morphology and physiology associated with aquatic insect biolog...

  12. Antioxidant content in two CAM bromeliad species as a response to seasonal light changes in a tropical dry deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Salvatierra, Claudia; Luis Andrade, José; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; García-Sosa, Karlina; Manuel Peña-Rodríguez, Luis

    2010-07-01

    Plants have evolved photoprotective mechanisms to limit photodamage; one of these mechanisms involves the biosynthesis of antioxidant metabolites to neutralize reactive oxygen species generated when plants are exposed to excess light. However, it is known that exposure of plants to conditions of extreme water stress and high light intensity results in their enhanced susceptibility to over-excitation of photosystem II and to photooxidative stress. In this investigation we used the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl reduction assay to conduct a broad survey of the effect of water availability and light exposure conditions on the antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts of two bromeliad species showing crassulacean acid metabolism. One of these was an epiphyte, Tillandsia brachycaulos, and the other a terrestrial species, Bromelia karatas. Both species were found growing wild in the tropical dry deciduous forest of Dzibilchaltún National Park, México. The microenvironment of T. brachycaulos and B. karatas experiences significant diurnal and seasonal light variations as well as changes in temperature and water availability. The results obtained showed that, for both bromeliads, increases in antioxidant activity occurred during the dry season, as a consequence of water stress and higher light conditions. Additionally, in T. brachycaulos there was a clear correlation between high light intensity conditions and the content of anthocyanins which accumulated below the leaf epidermis. This result suggests that the role of these pigments is as photoprotective screens in the leaves. The red coloration below the leaf epidermis of B. karatas was not due to anthocyanins but to other unidentified pigments.

  13. A Tank Bromeliad Favors Spider Presence in a Neotropical Inundated Forest.

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    Yann Hénaut

    Full Text Available Tank bromeliads are good models for understanding how climate change may affect biotic associations. We studied the relationships between spiders, the epiphytic tank bromeliad, Aechmea bracteata, and its associated ants in an inundated forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico, during a drought period while, exceptionally, this forest was dry and then during the flooding that followed. We compared spider abundance and diversity between 'Aechmea-areas' and 'control-areas' of the same surface area. We recorded six spider families: the Dipluridae, Ctenidae, Salticidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae and Linyphiidae among which the funnel-web tarantula, Ischnothele caudata, the only Dipluridae noted, was the most abundant. During the drought period, the spiders were more numerous in the Aechmea-areas than in the control-areas, but they were not obligatorily associated with the Aechmea. During the subsequent flooding, the spiders were concentrated in the A. bracteata patches, particularly those sheltering an ant colony. Also, a kind of specificity existed between certain spider taxa and ant species, but varied between the drought period and subsequent flooding. We conclude that climatic events modulate the relationship between A. bracteata patches and their associated fauna. Tank bromeliads, previously considered only for their ecological importance in supplying food and water during drought, may also be considered refuges for spiders during flooding. More generally, tank bromeliads have an important role in preserving non-specialized fauna in inundated forests.

  14. In vitro culture systems and acclimatization of Aechmea setigera Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae

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    Janaína Medeiros Vasconcelos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aechmea setigera is an endemic bromeliad from Amazon with ornamental potential. Bromeliads have been propagated by tissue culture. The consistency of the culture medium in vitro multiplication influences the rate of propagation. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate different culture systems with the use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP on in vitro propagation and the effect of different substrates in acclimatization of plantlets Aechmea setigera. In vitro germinated seedlings were inoculated in MS medium in liquid stationary, semisolid, double-phase systems, plus 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP in different concentrations (0, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8 and 17.7 μM. The ex vitro rooting and acclimatization were performed on substrate Plantmax Forest ®, vermiculite and sawdust eucalyptus. After three successive subcultures, the double-phase system showed a higher number of regenerated shoots in comparison to other systems. Acclimatization using the combination of commercial substrate Plantmax Forest ® and vermiculite favored the growth of micropropagated plants. The use of a culture medium double-phase without growth regulator, and the rooting in acclimatization are feasible strategy for the micropropagation of A. setigera. Indexação

  15. Heterogeneity of terrestrial bromeliad colonies and regeneration of Acacia praecox (Fabaceae) in a humid-subtropical-Chaco forest, Argentina.

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    Barberis, Ignacio M; Lewis, Juan Pablo

    2005-01-01

    In several tropical and subtropical forests, plants of the understorey act as an ecological filter that differentially affects woody species regeneration. In convex sectors of the Schinopsis balansae (Anacardiaceae) forests of the Southeastern Chaco there are dense colonies of terrestrial bromeliads. These may influence forest regeneration by intercepting rain water and propagules in their tanks. Within colonies, the spatial distribution of bromeliads is clumped because their clonal growth leaves numerous internal gaps. In this study we describe the internal heterogeneity of three bromeliad colonies (plots) and analyze how this heterogeneity affects Acacia praecox regeneration (i.e. seedling recruitment and survival). In January 1996, we randomly placed three transects with 150 contiguous quadrats of 100 cm(2) in each plot. For each quadrat we recorded the type of floor cover (i.e. bromeliads, herbs, litter, or bare soil) and the presence of A. praecox seeds or seedlings. In July 1996 we relocated the transects and recorded seedling survival. Bromeliad colonies showed a high internal heterogeneity. Almost half of the 450 quadrats were covered by two terrestrial bromeliads. Aechmea distichantha was recorded in 81% of all quadrats with bromeliads, and Bromelia serra in the others. All quadrats with bromeliads were covered by litter. Half of them were occupied by the bases of bromeliads and the others were covered by their leaves. In contrast, where bromeliads were not present, soil surface was covered by litter in 83% and by herbaceous vegetation in 11% of the quadrats; very few quadrats were covered by bare soil. In January 1996, we recorded 127 seeds and 176 seedlings of A. praecox. Seed and seedling densities of A. praecox were similar in quadrats with and without bromeliads, but variability in seedling density of A. praecox was higher within than among plots. Seed density was higher in quadrats covered by bromeliad leaves than inside the tanks. Seedling survival

  16. Analysis of an alternative method for the study of bromeliad-associated fauna in plants with different foliar organization.

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    Müller, Gerson A; Name, Fernando T; Pacheco, Frederico C L; Marcondes, Carlos B

    2010-12-01

    The efficiency of an alternative method of collection (by suction of water) for the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae (Diptera), Scirtidae (Coleoptera) and Coenagrionidae (Odonata) in bromeliads with different foliar architecture in a restinga at Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, was studied. The alternative method was less efficient to collect Culicidae and Chironomidae (Wilcoxon test p 0.05) from Aechmea lindenii. This method was less efficient to collect insects of all groups from Vriesea friburgensis (Wilcoxon test p insects in both species of bromeliads. The higher mobility of immature forms of beetles and dragonflies, and the availability of only one tank in Aechea lindenii, contrasting to several tanks in Vriesea friburgensis that help the suction of these immature, probably influenced the results, which indicated that the suction method should not replace the dismantling in the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae. This method can be useful to get immature forms of Scirtidae and Coenagrionidae in one-tank bromeliads.

  17. SEED MORPHOMETRY AND GERMINATION OF Aechmea costantinii (Mez L. B. Sm. (BROMELIACEAE

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    PETRÚCIO ALEXANDRE FONSECA RIOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential economic and environmental benefits brought by bromeliads production are significant. It is noteworthy that the high degree of degradation of some ecosystems as the Atlantic forest involve reduction of these species. This factor has been worsened by the elevated degree of endemism of these plants, e.g. Aechmea costantinii (Mez L. B. Sm., which is a high ornamental potential bromeliad but understudied. Thus, the present research aimed to characterize physical and morphological features of A. costantinii fruit and seeds, describing the different stages of post - seminal development, as well as evaluating seed germination behavior with respect to temperature and light. For this purpose, we used fruit and seeds freshly harvested from an Atlantic Forest fragment, located in the city of Maceió, Alagoas State, Brazil. Tests were carried out under a completely randomized design, in a 6x4 factorial scheme (temperature x light with four replications of 25 seeds. The polyspermic fruit are of tricarpellate/triloculate type and originated from inferior ovary, containing an average of 73 elliptical and mucilaginous seeds with basal embryo. The germination is epigeal - type and occurs in a great intensity and high speed at 35 °C, regardless light presence or quality.

  18. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment

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    Ming Lei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions as a transcriptional activator, and the activation domain is located in the C-terminal region. The expression level of AfAP2-1 is higher in juvenile plants than in adult plants, and the AfAP2-1 transcript level was rapidly and transiently reduced in plants treated with exogenous ethylene. Overexpression of AfAP2-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in an extremely delayed flowering phenotype. These results suggested that AfAP2-1 responds to ethylene and is a putative age-dependent flowering regulator in A. fasciata.

  19. Potential sources of nitrogen in an ant-garden tank-bromeliad.

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    Leroy, Céline; Corbara, Bruno; Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis

    2009-09-01

    Epiphytic plants in general and bromeliads in particular live in a water and nutrient-stressed environment often limited in nitrogen. Thus, these plants have developed different ways to survive in such an environment. We focused on Aechmea mertensii (Bromeliaceae), which is both a tank-bromeliad and an ant-garden (AG) epiphyte initiated by either the ants Camponotus femoratus or Pachycondyla goeldii. By combining a study of plant morphology and physiology associated with aquatic insect biology, we demonstrate that the ant species influences the leaf structure of the bromeliad, the structure of the aquatic community in its tank, and nutrient assimilation by the leaves. Based on nitrogen and nitrogen stable isotope measurements of the A. mertensii leaves, the leaf litter inside of the tank and the root-embedded carton nest, we discuss the potential sources of available nitrogen for the plant based on the ant partner. We demonstrate the existence of a complex ant-plant interaction that subsequently affects the biodiversity of a broader range of organisms that are themselves likely to influence nutrient assimilation by the A. mertensii leaves in a kind of plant-invertebrate-plant feedback loop.

  20. Natural history and morphology of the hoverfly Pseudomicrodon biluminiferus and its parasitic relationship with ants nesting in bromeliads.

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    Schmid, Volker S; Morales, Mírian N; Marinoni, Luciane; Kamke, Rafael; Steiner, Josefina; Zillikens, Anne

    2014-03-12

    The syrphid subfamily Microdontinae is characterized by myrmecophily of their immature stages, i.e., they develop in ant nests. Data on natural history of microdontines are scarce, especially in the Neotropics. Based on fieldwork in southern Brazil, this study provided new data on development and ecology of the hoverfly Pseudomicrodon biluminiferus (Hull) (Diptera: Syrphidae) as well as the first morphological descriptions of male genitalia, larvae, and pupa. Immature specimens were specifically found in colonies of the ant species Crematogaster limata Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) found in rosettes of the bromeliad species Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren) Baker (Poales: Bromeliaceae) and A. nudicaulis (L.) Grisebach. Third instar larvae were observed preying on ant larvae, revealing the parasitic nature of P. biluminiferus. In this and several other aspects, the natural history of P. biluminiferus is similar to that of Holarctic microdontine species. Exceptions include: (i) indications that adults of P. biluminiferus outlast the winter months (in contrast to 3(rd)instar larvae in Holarctic species) and (ii) P. biluminiferus' relationship with bromeliads. The importance of bromeliads for this host-parasite system is evaluated in this paper. The single occurrence of another, unidentified microdontine species' pupae in a nest of the ant species Camponotus melanoticus Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is reported.

  1. Analysis of an alternative method for the study of bromeliad-associated fauna in plants with different foliar organization

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    Gerson A. Müller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of an alternative method of collection (by suction of water for the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae (Diptera, Scirtidae (Coleoptera and Coenagrionidae (Odonata in bromeliads with different foliar architecture in a restinga at Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, was studied. The alternative method was less efficient to collect Culicidae and Chironomidae (Wilcoxon test p 0.05 from Aechmea lindenii. This method was less efficient to collect insects of all groups from Vriesea friburgensis (Wilcoxon test p A eficiência do método alternativo de coleta (por sucção da água para o estudo de Culicidae e Chironomidae (Diptera, Scirtidae (Coleoptera e Coenagrionidae (Odonata em bromélias com diferentes estruturas foliares de restinga em Florianópolis, SC, Brasil, foi estudada. O método alternativo foi menos eficiente para coletar Culicidae e Chironomidae (teste de Wilcoxon p 0, 05 a partir de Aechmea lindenii. Esse foi menos eficiente para coletar insetos de todos os grupos a partir de Vriesea friburgensis (teste de Wilcoxon p < 0,05. O método alternativo se mostrou eficiente em estimar a diversidade desses insetos nas duas espécies de bromélias. A alta mobilidade das formas imaturas dos coleópteros e libélulas e a disponibilidade de apenas um tanque em Aechea lindenii, em contraste com as várias axilas e Vriesea friburgensis, facilitando a sucção destas formas imaturas provavelmente influenciaram os resultados. Os resultados indicam que o método de sucção não deve substituir o desmanche no estudo de Culicidae e Chironomidae; ele pode ser útil para a obtenção de formas imaturas de Scirtidae e Coenagrionidae em bromélias de um só tanque.

  2. Bromeliad selection by two salamander species in a harsh environment.

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    Gustavo Ruano-Fajardo

    Full Text Available Bromeliad phytotelmata are frequently used by several Neotropical amphibian taxa, possibly due to their high humidity, microclimatic stability, and role as a refuge from predators. Indeed, the ability of phytotelmata to buffer against adverse environmental conditions may be instrumental in allowing some amphibian species to survive during periods of environmental change or to colonize sub-optimal habitats. Association between bromeliad traits and salamanders has not been studied at a fine scale, despite the intimate association of many salamander species with bromeliads. Here, we identify microhabitat characteristics of epiphytic bromeliads used by two species of the Bolitoglossa morio group (B. morio and B. pacaya in forest disturbed by volcanic activity in Guatemala. Specifically, we measured multiple variables for bromeliads (height and position in tree, phytotelma water temperature and pH, canopy cover, phytotelma size, leaf size, and tree diameter at breast height, as well as salamander size. We employed a DNA barcoding approach to identify salamanders. We found that B. morio and B. pacaya occurred in microsympatry in bromeliads and that phytotelmata size and temperature of bromeliad microhabitat were the most important factors associated with the presence of salamanders. Moreover, phytotelmata with higher pH contained larger salamanders, suggesting that larger salamanders or aggregated individuals might modify pH. These results show that bromeliad selection is nonrandom with respect to microhabitat characteristics, and provide insight into the relationship between salamanders and this unique arboreal environment.

  3. Insects and allies associated with bromeliads: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, J H; Lounibos, L P

    2009-01-01

    Bromeliads are a Neotropical plant family (Bromeliaceae) with about 2,900 described species. They vary considerably in architecture. Many impound water in their inner leaf axils to form phytotelmata (plant pools), providing habitat for terrestrial arthropods with aquatic larvae, while their outer axils provide terraria for an assemblage of fully terrestrial arthropods. Many bromeliads are epiphytic.Dominant terrestrial arthropods with aquatic larvae inhabiting bromeliad phytotelmata are typically larvae of Diptera, of which at least 16 families have been reported, but in some circumstances are Coleoptera, of which only three families have been reported. Other groups include crabs and the insect orders Odonata, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, plus Hemiptera with adults active on the water surface. The hundreds of arthropod species are detritivores or predators and do not harm their host plants. Many of them are specialists to this habitat.Terrestrial arthropods with terrestrial larvae inhabiting bromeliad terraria include many more arachnid and insect orders, but relatively few specialists to this habitat. They, too, are detritivores or predators.Arthropod herbivores, especially Curculionidae (Coleoptera) and Lepidoptera, consume leaves, stems, flowers, pollen, and roots of bromeliads. Some herbivores consume nectar, and some of these and other arthropods provide pollination and even seed-dispersal.Ants have complex relationships with bromeliads, a few being herbivores, some guarding the plants from herbivory, and some merely nesting in bromeliad terraria. A few serve as food for carnivorous bromeliads, which also consume other terrestrial insects.Bromeliads are visited by far more species of arthropods than breed in them. This is especially notable during dry seasons, when bromeliads provide moist refugia.

  4. Species-Specific Effects of Ant Inhabitants on Bromeliad Nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Z Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Predator activities may lead to the accumulation of nutrients in specific areas of terrestrial habitats where they dispose of prey carcasses. In their feeding sites, predators may increase nutrient availability in the soil and favor plant nutrition and growth. However, the translocation of nutrients from one habitat to another may depend on predator identity and diet, as well as on the amount of prey intake. Here we used isotopic (15N and physiological methods in greenhouse experiments to evaluate the effects of the identity of predatory ants (i.e., the consumption of prey and nest sites on the nutrition and growth of the bromeliad Quesnelia arvensis. We showed that predatory ants with protein-based nutrition (i.e., Odontomachus hastatus, Gnamptogenys moelleri improved the performance of their host bromeliads (i.e., increased foliar N, production of soluble proteins and growth. On the other hand, the contribution of Camponotus crassus for the nutritional status of bromeliads did not differ from bromeliads without ants, possibly because this ant does not have arthropod prey as a preferred food source. Our results show, for the first time, that predatory ants can translocate nutrients from one habitat to another within forests, accumulating nutrients in their feeding sites that become available to bromeliads. Additionally, we highlight that ant contribution to plant nutrition may depend on predator identity and its dietary requirements. Nest debris may be especially important for epiphytic and terrestrial bromeliads in nutrient-poor environments.

  5. Tank bromeliad - a natural model ecosystem for methane cycling research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Guntars; Brandt, Franziska; Conrad, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Tank bromeliads are common epiphytes throughout neotropical forest ecosystems. They are relatively small discrete habitats for terrestrial and aquatic macro- and microorganisms and naturally replicated. Their tanks effectively collect leaf litter and water and harbor a diverse microbial community. Up to several thousands of these tank bromeliads per hectare of tropical forest create a unique wetland ecosystem responsible for significant methane emissions. In a field study in tropical montane forests of southern Ecuador we sampled tank bromeliads of different species, size and canopy height and found that tank water availability controlled community composition of methanogenic archaea, determined by molecular analysis of the archaeal 16S rRNA genes. We set up a greenhouse experiment to investigate drying and re-wetting effects on microbial community composition and methanogenesis. Additionally, we conducted 13-CH-4 and 13-CO-2 labeling studies to investigate potential interaction of plant and microbial metabolism during methane cycling in tank bromeliads. Drying resulted in rapid change of the microbial community composition. The relative abundance of acetoclastic methanogens increased and that of hydrogenotrophic methanogens decreased with decreasing tank water availability confirming our field observations. Labeling studies showed that carbon was released from the plant into the tank supporting methanogenesis and that tank-produced methane was ventilated through the bromeliad leaf structure into the atmosphere which is analogous to the rhizosphere environment of wetland ecosystems. The bromeliad ecosystem may therefore provide a natural model to study how environmental changes and plant-microbe interactions drive methane cycling in aquatic-terrestrial ecosystems.

  6. Plant structure predicts leaf litter capture in the tropical montane bromeliad Tillandsia turneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ospina-Bautista

    Full Text Available Abstract Leaves intercepted by bromeliads become an important energy and matter resource for invertebrate communities, bacteria, fungi, and the plant itself. The relationship between bromeliad structure, defined as its size and complexity, and accumulated leaf litter was studied in 55 bromeliads of Tillandsia turneri through multiple regression and the Akaike information criterion. Leaf litter accumulation in bromeliads was best explained by size and complexity variables such as plant cover, sheath length, and leaf number. In conclusion, plant structure determines the amount of litter that enters bromeliads, and changes in its structure could affect important processes within ecosystem functioning or species richness.

  7. Bromeliad-living spiders improve host plant nutrition and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Mazzafera, Paulo; Vasconcellos-Neto, Joao; Trivelin, Paulo C O

    2006-04-01

    Although bromeliads are believed to obtain nutrients from debris deposited by animals in their rosettes, there is little evidence to support this assumption. Using stable isotope methods, we found that the Neotropical jumping spider Psecas chapoda (Salticidae), which lives strictly associated with the terrestrial bromeliad Bromelia balansae, contributed 18% of the total nitrogen of its host plant in a greenhouse experiment. In a one-year field experiment, plants with spiders produced leaves 15% longer than plants from which the spiders were excluded. This is the first study to show nutrient provisioning in a spider-plant system. Because several animal species live strictly associated with bromeliad rosettes, this type of facultative mutualism involving the Bromeliaceae may be more common than previously thought.

  8. Bromeliad catchments as habitats for methanogenesis in tropical rainforest canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana K. Goffredi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical epiphytic plants within the family Bromeliaceae are unusual in that they possess foliage capable of retaining water and impounded material. This creates an acidic (pH 3.5-6.5 and anaerobic (< 1 ppm O2 environment suspended in the canopy. Results from a Costa Rican rainforest show that most bromeliads (n = 75/86 greater than ~20 cm in plant height or ~4-5 cm tank depth, showed presence of methanogens within the lower anoxic horizon of the tank. Archaea were dominated by methanogens (77-90% of recovered ribotypes and community structure, although variable, was generally comprised of a single type, closely related to either hydrogenotrophic Methanoregula or Methanocella, a specific clade of aceticlastic Methanosaeta, or Methanosarcina. Juvenile bromeliads, or those species, such as Guzmania, with shallow tanks, generally did not possess methanogens, as assayed by PCR specific for methanogen 16S rRNA genes, nor did artificial catchments (~ 100 ml volume, in place 6-12 months prior to sample collection. Methanogens were not detected in soil (n = 20, except in one case, in which the dominant ribotype was different from nearby bromeliads. Recovery of methyl coenzyme M reductase genes supported the occurrence of hydrogenotrophic and aceticlastic methanogens within bromeliad tanks, as well as the trend, via QPCR analysis of mcrA, of increased methanogenic capacity with increased plant height. Methane production rates of up to 300 nmol CH4 ml tank water -1 day-1 were measured in microcosm experiments. These results suggest that bromeliad-associated archaeal communities may play an important role in the cycling of carbon in neotropical forests.

  9. Cryogenic Cam Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Kenneth J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A cryogenic cam butterfly valve has a body that includes an axially extending fluid conduit formed there through. A disc lug is connected to a back side of a valve disc and has a circular bore that receives and is larger than a cam of a cam shaft. The valve disc is rotatable for a quarter turn within the body about a lug axis that is offset from the shaft axis. Actuating the cam shaft in the closing rotational direction first causes the camming side of the cam of the cam shaft to rotate the disc lug and the valve disc a quarter turn from the open position to the closed position. Further actuating causes the camming side of the cam shaft to translate the valve disc into sealed contact with the valve seat. Opening rotational direction of the cam shaft reverses these motions.

  10. Fauna fitotelmata en las bromelias Aechmea fendleri André y Aechmea fendleri y Aechmea fendler del Parque Nacional San Esteban, Venezuela stellata S c h u l t d e l P a r q u e N a c i o n a l S a n E s t e b a n , V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Liria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo caracteriza la asociación de mosquitos y otros invertebrados sobre bromelias del Parque Nacional San Esteban del Estado Carabobo, Venezuela. Se estudiaron 18 plantas de Aechmea fendleri (11 Aechmea fendleri (1 1 Aechmea fendleri y Hohenbergia stellata (7 durante las épocas lluvia (Septiembre 2004 y sequía (Marzo 2005. Fueron colectados un total de 2020 macroinvertebrados. Los taxa más importantes fueron las Familias Chironomidae (43%, Culicidae (25% y Chaoboridae (6% del Orden Diptera, y Scyrtidae (5% del Orden Coleoptera. En Culicidae las especies más abundan- tes fueron: Culex consolador (31%, Cx. neglectus (27% y Wyeomyia celaenocephala (17%. La mayor abundancia y riqueza se encontró en la época de sequía, con el aumento de diversidad en Culicidae. La diversidad y equitabilidad de macroinvertebrados fue mayor H. stellata , pero similares entre estaciones para las comunidades de A. fendleri y A. fendleri y A. fendleri H. stellata .

  11. A new species of Erythrodiplax breeding in bromeliads in Costa Rica (Odonata: Libellulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, William A; Wagner, David L; De La Rosa, Carlos

    2015-04-16

    We describe a new species, Erythrodiplax laselva (Libellulidae), that breeds in bromeliads and Cochliostema (Commelinaceae) in the eastern lowlands of Costa Rica. The closest known relative is thought to be E. castanea, widespread in Central and South America, and not E. bromeliicola, which is known to breed in bromeliads in Cuba and Jamaica. The male, female, genitalia, and larva are described and illustrated.

  12. Leaf anatomy and its contribution to the systematics of Aechmea subgenus Macrochordion (de Vriese Baker (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula G. de Faria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The leaf anatomy of the species Aechmea subgenus Macrochordion was analyzed to obtain valuable data on their taxonomic delimitation and to identify anatomical adaptations to their respective habitats and habits. All leaves of these species are hypostomatic, and present: peltate trichomes on both surfaces; stomata sunk in epidermal depressions; small epidermal cells with thick walls and inclusions of silica bodies; a mechanical hypodermis; an aquiferous parenchyma; chlorenchyma with fibrous clusters and air channels; and vascular bundles surrounded by a parenchymatic sheath and a cap of fibers. The results are evaluated within an adaptive and taxonomic context. Variations in hypodermic thickening, amount of water parenchyma, position of the air channels and shape of the cells filling the air channels are useful for delimiting groups of species, strengthening the relationships suggested by their external morphology.A anatomia foliar de espécies de Aechmea subgênero Macrochordion foi analisada visando obter caracteres úteis para sua delimitação taxonômica e identificar adaptações anatômicas aos seus respectivos habitats e hábitos. Todas as folhas são hipoestomáticas e apresentam: tricomas peltados nas duas superfícies; estômatos inseridos em depressões da epiderme; células epidérmicas pequenas, com paredes espessadas e inclusões de corpos de sílica; hipoderme mecânica; parênquima aquífero; clorênquima com feixes de fibras e canais de aeração; feixes vasculares envolvidos por bainha parenquimática e calotas de fibras. Os resultados são avaliados dentro de um contexto adaptativo e taxonômico. Variações no espessamento da hipoderme, na quantidade de parênquima aquífero, na posição dos canais de aeração e na forma das células que preenchem os canais de aeração mostraram-se úteis para separar grupos de espécies, corroborando relações de similaridade apontadas pela morfologia externa.

  13. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro - Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Goulart Mocellin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07% and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18% were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.

  14. Microdrile Oligochaeta in bromeliad pools of a Honduran cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, Rüdiger M; Jocque, Merlijn; Collado, Rut

    2015-04-17

    Phytotelmata, or plant-held water bodies, often house complex aquatic invertebrate communities. Microdrile oligochaetes (Clitellata, Annelida) are known to be part of that community, but specimens are rarely identified to species level. Here we report three species of Enchytraeidae and three species of Naididae from a collection sampled in phytotelms of bromeliads in Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Two species of enchytraeids are new to science. Bryodrilus hondurensis sp. nov. is distinguished from other members of the genus by the high number of ventral chaetae, up to 11 per bundle. The genus is Holarctic and this is the southernmost record so far of a Bryodrilus species. Hemienchytraeus phytotelmatus sp. nov. is distinguished by a combination of characters, among which the huge spermathecae and seminal vesicles are most conspicuous. The genus is common in tropical and subtropical soils around the world. A third species of enchytraeids in the collection, Cernosvitoviella atrata (Bretscher), is redescribed, together with three known species of Naididae, Pristina jenkinae (Stephenson), Pristina osborni (Walton) and Pristina terrena Collado & Schmelz. Presence of ingested debris and humus in the intestine of most specimens suggests that the collected animals live and reproduce in the phytotelms. We provide a list of oligochaete species recorded so far from bromeliad pools in Central and South America.

  15. Microhabitat use and spatial distribution in Picado’s Bromeliad Treefrog, Isthmohyla picadoi (Anura, Hylidae

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    Adam M. M. Stuckert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Isthmohyla picadoi is a Neotropical hylid frog found in upper humid montane forests of Costa Rica and Panama. The species is of particular interest because it continues to persist in an area in which the amphibian community has otherwise been decimated by the pathogenic fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Ground search, ladder climbing, and tree climbing techniques were used to locate 32 individuals; including adult males and females, juveniles, andmetamorphosing frogs. The majority of frogs were found in bromeliads, although some individuals were found on plants of the Euphorbiaceae, Musaceae, and Heliconiaceae families. Most frogs were found in larger bromeliads (45 cm or wider. There was a positive correlation between SUL and bromeliad width within the population but not within maturity classes (adult males, adult females, all adults, nonmetamorphosingjuveniles, suggesting that juvenile and adult frogs differ in bromeliad usage. Ranges of SUL and body weight in this particular population are much greater than those reported in previous species accounts.

  16. Forest strata drive spatial structure of bacterial and archaeal communities and microbial methane cycling in neotropical bromeliad wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Guntars; Brandt, Franziska; Conrad, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Several thousands of tank bromeliads per hectare of neotropical forest create a unique wetland ecosystem that harbors diverse communities of archaea and bacteria and emit substantial amounts of methane. We studied spatial distribution of archaeal and bacterial communities, microbial methane cycling and their environmental drivers in tank bromeliad wetlands. We selected tank bromeliads of different species and functional types (terrestrial and canopy bromeliads) in a neotropical montane forest of Southern Ecuador and sampled the organic tank slurry. Archaeal and bacterial communities were characterized using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Illumina MiSeq sequencing, respectively, and linked with physico-chemical tank-slurry properties. Additionally, we performed tank-slurry incubations to measure methane production potential, stable carbon isotope fractionation and pathway of methane formation. Archaeal and bacterial community composition in bromeliad wetlands was dominated by methanogens and by Alphaproteobacteria, respectively, and did not differ between species but between functional types. Hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales were the dominant methanogens among all bromeliads but the relative abundance of aceticlastic Methanosaetaceae increased in terrestrial bromeliads. Complementary, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant pathway of methane formation but the relative contribution of aceticlastic methanogenesis increased in terrestrial bromeliads and led to a concomitant increase in total methane production. Rhodospirillales were characteristic for canopy bromeliads, Planctomycetales and Actinomycetalis for terrestrial bromeliads. While nitrogen concentration and pH explained 32% of the archaeal community variability, 29% of the bacterial community variability was explained by nitrogen, acetate and propionate concentrations. Our study demonstrates that bromeliad functional types, associated with different forest strata

  17. Consumer Health: CAM Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Consumer health Don't take all CAM claims at face value. Do your homework when considering CAM therapies. By ... dose of skepticism. Federal Trade Commission. http://www.consumer.ftc.gov/articles/0167-miracle-health-claims. Accessed ...

  18. Nitrogen fluxes from treefrogs to tank epiphytic bromeliads: an isotopic and physiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Nomura, Fausto; Gonçalves, Ana Z; Dias, Natacha Y N; Mercier, Helenice; Conforto, Elenice de C; Rossa-Feres, Denise de C

    2010-04-01

    Diverse invertebrate and vertebrate species live in association with plants of the large Neotropical family Bromeliaceae. Although previous studies have assumed that debris of associated organisms improves plant nutrition, so far little evidence supports this assumption. In this study we used isotopic ((15)N) and physiological methods to investigate if the treefrog Scinax hayii, which uses the tank epiphytic bromeliad Vriesea bituminosa as a diurnal shelter, contributes to host plant nutrition. In the field, bromeliads with frogs had higher stable N isotopic composition (delta(15)N) values than those without frogs. Similar results were obtained from a controlled greenhouse experiment. Linear mixing models showed that frog feces and dead termites used to simulate insects that eventually fall inside the bromeliad tank contributed, respectively, 27.7% (+ or - 0.07 SE) and 49.6% (+ or - 0.50 SE) of the total N of V. bituminosa. Net photosynthetic rate was higher in plants that received feces and termites than in controls; however, this effect was only detected in the rainy, but not in the dry season. These results demonstrate for the first time that vertebrates contribute to bromeliad nutrition, and that this benefit is seasonally restricted. Since amphibian-bromeliad associations occur in diverse habitats in South and Central America, this mechanism for deriving nutrients may be important in bromeliad systems throughout the Neotropics.

  19. Composite cam carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, Christopher Donald; Madin, Mark Michael

    2017-03-14

    A cam carrier assembly includes a cylinder head having valves and a camshaft having lobes. A cam carrier has a first side coupled with the cylinder head engaging around the valves and a second side with bearing surfaces supporting the camshaft. A series of apertures extend between the first and second sides for the lobes to interface with the valves. The cam carrier is made of carbon fiber composite insulating the camshaft from the cylinder head and providing substantial weight reduction to an upper section of an associated engine.

  20. CAM and NK Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Takeda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that tumor development, outgrowth and metastasis are under the surveillance of the immune system. Although both innate and acquired immune systems play roles, innate immunity is the spearhead against tumors. Recent studies have revealed the critical role of natural killer (NK cells in immune surveillance and that NK cell activity is considerably influenced by various agents, such as environmental factors, stress, foods and drugs. Some of these NK cell stimulants have been used in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM since ancient times. Therefore, the value of CAM should be re-evaluated from this point of view. In this review, we overview the intimate correlation between NK cell functions and CAM agents, and discuss possible underlying mechanisms mediating this. In particular, neuro-immune crosstalk and receptors for CAM agents are the most important and interesting candidates for such mechanisms.

  1. Ants mediate the structure of phytotelm communities in an ant-garden bromeliad

    OpenAIRE

    Céréghino, Régis; Leroy, Céline; Dejean,Alain; Corbara, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The main theories explaining the biological diversity of rain forests often confer a limited understanding of the contribution of interspecific interactions to the observed patterns. We show how two-species mutualisms can affect much larger segments of the invertebrate community in tropical rain forests. Aechmea mertensii (Bromeliaceae) is both a phytotelm (plant-held water) and an ant-garden epiphyte. We studied the influence of its associated ant species (Pachycondyl...

  2. Ancient associations of aquatic beetles and tank bromeliads in the Neotropical forest canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balke, Michael; Gómez-Zurita, Jesús; Ribera, Ignacio; Viloria, Angel; Zillikens, Anne; Steiner, Josephina; García, Mauricio; Hendrich, Lars; Vogler, Alfried P

    2008-04-29

    Water reservoirs formed by the leaf axils of bromeliads are a highly derived system for nutrient and water capture that also house a diverse fauna of invertebrate specialists. Here we investigate the origin and specificity of bromeliad-associated insects using Copelatinae diving beetles (Dytiscidae). This group is widely distributed in small water bodies throughout tropical forests, but a subset of species encountered in bromeliad tanks is strictly specialized to this habitat. An extensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of Neotropical Copelatinae places these bromeliadicolous species in at least three clades nested within other Copelatus. One lineage is morphologically distinct, and its origin was estimated to reach back to 12-23 million years ago, comparable to the age of the tank habitat itself. Species of this clade in the Atlantic rainforest of southern Brazil and mountain ranges of northern Venezuela and Trinidad show marked phylogeographical structure with up to 8% mtDNA divergence, possibly indicating allopatric speciation. The other two invasions of bromeliad water tanks are more recent, and haplotype distributions within species are best explained by recent expansion into newly formed habitat. Hence, bromeliad tanks create a second stratum of aquatic freshwater habitat independent of that on the ground but affected by parallel processes of species and population diversification at various temporal scales, possibly reflecting the paleoclimatic history of neotropical forests.

  3. Spatial heterogeneity and the distribution of bromeliad pollinators in the Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varassin, Isabela Galarda; Sazima, Marlies

    2012-08-01

    Interactions between plants and their pollinators are influenced by environmental heterogeneity, resulting in small-scale variations in interactions. This may influence pollinator co-existence and plant reproductive success. This study, conducted at the Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia (EBSL), a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, investigated the effect of small-scale spatial variations on the interactions between bromeliads and their pollinators. Overall, hummingbirds pollinated 19 of 23 bromeliad species, of which 11 were also pollinated by bees and/or butterflies. However, spatial heterogeneity unrelated to the spatial location of plots or bromeliad species abundance influenced the presence of pollinators. Hummingbirds were the most ubiquitous pollinators at the high-elevation transect, with insect participation clearly declining as transect elevation increased. In the redundancy analysis, the presence of the hummingbird species Phaethornis eurynome, Phaethornis squalidus, Ramphodon naevius, and Thalurania glaucopis, and the butterfly species Heliconius erato and Heliconius nattereri in each plot was correlated with environmental factors such as bromeliad and tree abundance, and was also correlated with horizontal diversity. Since plant-pollinator interactions varied within the environmental mosaics at the study site, this small-scale environmental heterogeneity may relax competition among pollinators, and may explain the high diversity of bromeliads and pollinators generally found in the Atlantic Forest.

  4. The presence of Abronia oaxacae (Squamata: Anguidae in tank bromeliads in temperate forests of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GI. Cruz-Ruiz

    Full Text Available The presence of lizards in bromeliads has been widely documented. Nevertheless, the possibility of some type of preference or specificity among lizards for particular bromeliad species has not yet been investigated. Therefore, this study aims to document the presence of Abronia oaxacae in six species of tank bromeliads found in pine forests, pine-live oak forests, and live oak groves during both the rainy season and the dry season. Three adult individuals of Abronia oaxacae were collected; one in a Tillandsia violácea (pine-live oak forest, one in a T. calothyrsus (live oak grove, and one in a T. prodigiosa (live oak grove. All three specimens were collected in sampling efforts carried out during the dry season. The results of the present study suggest that A. oaxacae shows no preference for a single, specific bromeliad species, although it does have a certain preference for a few select species. The presence of A. oaxacae in bromeliads during the dry season could be related to the cooler, moister microhabitat that these plants represent.

  5. The presence of Abronia oaxacae (Squamata: Anguidae) in tank bromeliads in temperate forests of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ruiz, G I; Mondragón, D; Santos-Moreno, A

    2012-05-01

    The presence of lizards in bromeliads has been widely documented. Nevertheless, the possibility of some type of preference or specificity among lizards for particular bromeliad species has not yet been investigated. Therefore, this study aims to document the presence of Abronia oaxacae in six species of tank bromeliads found in pine forests, pine-live oak forests, and live oak groves during both the rainy season and the dry season. Three adult individuals of Abronia oaxacae were collected; one in a Tillandsia violácea (pine-live oak forest), one in a T. calothyrsus (live oak grove), and one in a T. prodigiosa (live oak grove). All three specimens were collected in sampling efforts carried out during the dry season. The results of the present study suggest that A. oaxacae shows no preference for a single, specific bromeliad species, although it does have a certain preference for a few select species. The presence of A. oaxacae in bromeliads during the dry season could be related to the cooler, moister microhabitat that these plants represent.

  6. PreCam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allam, Sahar S. [Fermilab; Tucker, Douglas L. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) will be taking the next step in probing the properties of Dark Energy and in understanding the physics of cosmic acceleration. A step towards the photometric calibration of DES is to have a quick, bright survey in the DES footprint (PreCam), using a pre-production set of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) CCDs and a set of 100 mm×100 mm DES filters. The objective of the PreCam Survey is to create a network of calibrated DES grizY standard stars that will be used for DES nightly calibrations and to improve the DES global relative calibrations. Here, we describe the first year of PreCam observation, results, and photometric calibrations.

  7. Germinação de Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb. (Bromeliaceae em diferentes substratos alternativos ao pó de xaxim = Germination of Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb. (Bromeliaceae in different substracts as alternatives to Dicksonia sellowiana Hook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Anacleto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a germinação das sementes de Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb. (Bromeliaceae. As tentativas de produção desta espécie, a partir de sementes, têm ocorrido de forma empírica, utilizando-se substrato à base de pó de xaxim (Dicksonia sellowiana Hook., que tem restrições de uso, por estar ameaçada de extinção. Foram testados cinco tipos alternativos de substratos de fácil acessibilidade: húmus de minhoca, areia, fibra de casca de coco, serapilheira e Plantmax®. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e 50 sementes por unidade experimental, àtemperatura ambiente, em viveiro rústico, coberto com sombrite (70%. Leituras semanais foram efetuadas, durante 70 dias. A melhor performance, como substituto alternativo, foi a da serapilheira, que apresentou valores de germinação de 79,5% e sobrevivência de 97%,estatisticamente similares aos obtidos com xaxim (78%; 94,75%; Tukey, p For this study, the germination of Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb. (Bromeliaceae was evaluated. Production attempts from seeds for this species have taken place in an empirical form, using substratebased on xaxim (Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. powder, the use of which is currently restricted, as it is an endangered species. Five easily accessible alternative substratum were tested: worm humus, sand, coconut shell fiber, forest litter, and Plantmax®. The experiment wasconducted using a completely randomized design, with four replications and 50 seeds per experimental unit, at room temperature in a rustic nursery covered with 70% shade cloth. Weekly readings were performed during 70 days. The best alternative as a substitute toxaxim was forest litter, due to its germinability of 79.5% and survival rates of 97%, significantly similar to xaxim (78%; 94.75%; Tukey p < 0,05. Additionally, this product features positive characteristics such as high availability, low cost, and easy recycling.

  8. Estrutura foliar de espécies de Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Leaf anatomy of Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Lúcia Proença

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da estrutura foliar de Aechmea bromeliifolia (Rudge Baker, A. distichantha Lem., A. ornata Baker, A. nudicaulis (L. Griseb., A. pectinata Baker, A. coelestis (K. Koch E. Morren, A. cylindrata Lindm. e A. gracilis Lindm. mostrou que, em todas as espécies, as folhas são hipoestomáticas e revestidas por células epidérmicas de paredes sinuosas e portadoras de corpos silicosos. Apresentam também hipoderme mecânica e aqüífera, escamas nas duas superfícies e canais de aeração, interrompidos por diafragmas de células braciformes, no parênquima clorofiliano. A ocorrência restrita de algumas características permitiu elaborar uma chave de identificação para os representantes estudados. Tais características incluem a ocorrência de grupos de fibras extravasculares, de parênquima paliçádico adaxial, de extensão de bainha nos feixes vasculares de menor calibre, de obstrução nas câmaras subestomáticas, além de variação na espessura da hipoderme aqüífera e no número de células que formam o pedículo das escamas.The leaf anatomy of Aechmea bromeliifolia (Rudge Baker, A. distichantha Lem., A. ornata Baker, A. nudicaulis (L. Griseb., A. pectinata Baker, A. coelestis (K. Koch E. Morren, A. cylindrata Lindm. and A. gracilis Lindm. was studied. All the leaves are hypostomatic and they present: sinuous walls epidermal cells with silica bodies; aquiferous and mechanical hypodermis; scales on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces; and chlorenchyma with air canals filled with braciforms cells. The restricted occurence of some features allowed us to elaborate a identification key for the studied species. Such characteristics include the presence of extravascular fibrous groups; adaxial palisade parenchyma; smaller vascular bundles with conspicuous extensions of the bundle sheath; oclusion in the substomatic chambers; variation in the thickness of the aquiferous hypodermis, and in the number of stalks cells of the scales.

  9. Drying effects on archaeal community composition and methanogenesis in bromeliad tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Franziska B; Martinson, Guntars O; Pommerenke, Bianca; Pump, Judith; Conrad, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    Tank bromeliads are highly abundant epiphytes in neotropical forests and form a unique canopy wetland ecosystem which is involved in the global methane cycle. Although the tropical climate is characterized by high annual precipitation, the plants can face periods of restricted water. Thus, we hypothesized that water is an important controller of the archaeal community composition and the pathway of methane formation in tank bromeliads. Greenhouse experiments were established to investigate the resident and active archaeal community targeting the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA in the tank slurry of bromeliads at three different moisture levels. Archaeal community composition and abundance were determined using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and quantitative PCR. Release of methane and its stable carbon isotopic signature were determined in a further incubation experiment under two moisture levels. The relative abundance of aceticlastic Methanosaetaceae increased up to 34% and that of hydrogenotrophic Methanobacteriales decreased by more than half with decreasing moisture. Furthermore, at low moisture levels, methane production was up to 100-fold lower (≤0.1-1.1 nmol gdw(-1) d(-1)) than under high moisture levels (10-15 nmol gdw(-1) d(-1)). The rapid response of the archaeal community indicates that the pathway of methane formation in bromeliad tanks may indeed be strongly susceptible to periods of drought in neotropical forest canopies.

  10. Are algae relevant to the detritus-based food web in tank-bromeliads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouard, Olivier; Le Jeune, Anne-Hélène; Leroy, Céline; Cereghino, Régis; Roux, Olivier; Pelozuelo, Laurent; Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Carrias, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the occurrence of algae in five species of tank-bromeliads found in contrasting environmental sites in a Neotropical, primary rainforest around the Nouragues Research Station, French Guiana. The distributions of both algal abundance and biomass were examined based on physical parameters, the morphological characteristics of bromeliad species and with regard to the structure of other aquatic microbial communities held in the tanks. Algae were retrieved in all of the bromeliad species with mean densities ranging from ∼10(2) to 10(4) cells/mL. Their biomass was positively correlated to light exposure and bacterial biomass. Algae represented a tiny component of the detrital food web in shaded bromeliads but accounted for up to 30 percent of the living microbial carbon in the tanks of Catopsis berteroniana, located in a highly exposed area. Thus, while nutrient supplies are believed to originate from wind-borne particles and trapped insects (i.e., allochtonous organic matter), our results indicate that primary producers (i.e., autochtonous organic matter) are present in this insectivorous bromeliad. Using a 24-h incubation of size-fractionated and manipulated samples from this plant, we evaluated the impact of mosquito foraging on algae, other microorganisms and rotifers. The prey assemblages were greatly altered by the predation of mosquito larvae. Grazing losses indicated that the dominant algal taxon, Bumilleriopsis sp., like protozoa and rotifers, is a significant part of the diet of mosquito larvae. We conclude that algae are a relevant functional community of the aquatic food web in C. berteroniana and might form the basis of a complementary non-detrital food web.

  11. Spatial variation in the strength of mutualism between a jumping spider and a terrestrial bromeliad: Evidence from the stable isotope 15N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Q.; Vasconcellos-Neto, João; Trivelin, Paulo C. O.

    2008-05-01

    Psecas chapoda, a neotropical jumping spider strictly associated with the terrestrial bromeliad Bromelia balansae in cerrados and semi-deciduous forests in South America, effectively contributes to plant nutrition and growth. In this study, our goal was to investigate if spider density caused spatial variations in the strength of this spider-plant mutualism. We found a positive significant relationship between spider density and δ15N values for bromeliad leaves in different forest fragments. Open grassland Bromeliads were associated with spiders and had higher δ15N values compared to forest bromeliads. Although forest bromeliads had no association with spiders their total N concentrations were higher. These results suggest that bromeliad nutrition is likely more litter-based in forests and more spider-based in open grasslands. This study is one of the few to show nutrient provisioning and conditionality in a spider-plant system.

  12. Roller Cam Positioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, Gordon B.

    2010-12-07

    Roller Cam Positioners could support the LCLS undulator sections allowing micron sized alignment adjustment of each undulator in 5 degrees of freedom. The supports are kinematic with the number of degrees of freedom matched to the number of constraints. Ton loads are supported on simple ball bearings. Motion is intrinsically bounded. Positioning mechanisms are based on pure rolling motion with sub-micron hysteresis and micron resolution. This note describes a general purpose positioning mechanism suitable for undulator support.

  13. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro--are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Márcio Goulart; Simões, Taynãna César; Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes Silva do; Teixeira, Maria Lucia França; Lounibos, Leon Philip; Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenço de

    2009-12-01

    Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex) pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07%) and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18%) were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.

  14. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  15. Visitantes florais de Aechmea constantinii (Mez) L. B. Sm.(Bromeliaceae) em um remanescente da Mata Atlântica do Nordeste Oriental

    OpenAIRE

    Rios, Petrúcio Alexandre Fonseca; da Silva, Juliana Braga; Moura, Flávia de Barros Prado

    2010-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n4p29Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal a determinação dos visitantes florais e potenciais polinizadores de Aechmea constantinii (Mez) L. B. Sm., uma bromélia endêmica da Mata Atlântica do Nordeste Oriental do Brasil. Indivíduos reprodutivos foram acompanhados e seus visitantes florais foram registrados e determinados. Os principais visitantes florais foram: os beija-flores Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis ruber e Phaethornis pretrei, que efetua...

  16. Variações na morfoanatomia foliar de Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae sob distintas condições ambientais Leaf morphoanatomy variation in Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae under distinct environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Heinig Voltolini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae-Bromelioideae ocorre em restingas e Floresta Pluvial de Encosta Atlântica em Santa Catarina e Nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul, BR. Pode ser encontrada total ou parcialmente exposta à irradiação solar e em distintas formas de vida - terrícola, rupícola e epifítica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar morfoanatomicamente às características de folhas de A. lindenii var. lindenii em distintas condições ambientais. Foram coletadas, na Ilha de Santa Catarina (Florianópolis, SC, folhas de plantas terrícolas em restinga herbácea (alta irradiação solar, rupícolas de costões rochosos (alta irradiação solar, terrícolas e epifíticas de sub-bosques (baixa irradiação solar de restinga arbórea e rupícolas de sub-bosque (baixa irradiação solar de Floresta Pluvial de Encosta Atlântica. Foram mensurados comprimento, largura, área da lâmina e bainha foliar, densidade estomática, comprimento e largura das células-guarda, espessura total e das estruturas constituintes na lâmina foliar. As características anatômicas qualitativas são semelhantes nas distintas condições analisadas. A baixa irradiação solar determina maior expansão da área foliar, decorrente do alongamento da lâmina. Lâmina e bainha foliares têm maior largura sob alta irradiação. A densidade estomática foi maior em folhas de plantas sob alta irradiação solar. A espessura total da lâmina foliar foi menor em plantas terrícolas sob alta irradiação, porém não mostrou diferenças estatísticas significativas entre as outras condições.Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae-Bromelioideae occurs in restingas and hillside Atlantic rain forest in Santa Catarina and northeastern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It is found totally or partially exposed to solar radiation and in different life forms - terricolous, rupicolous and epiphytes. The aim of this work was to compare

  17. Hydraulic involute cam actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Lonnie J.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-11-01

    Mechanical joints are provided in which the angle between a first coupled member and a second coupled member may be varied by mechanical actuators. In some embodiments the angle may be varied around a pivot axis in one plane and in some embodiments the angle may be varied around two pivot axes in two orthogonal planes. The joints typically utilize a cam assembly having two lobes with an involute surface. Actuators are configured to push against the lobes to vary the rotation angle between the first and second coupled member.

  18. CAD/CAM data management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, O. H.

    1984-01-01

    The role of data base management in CAD/CAM, particularly for geometric data is described. First, long term and short term objectives for CAD/CAM data management are identified. Second, the benefits of the data base management approach are explained. Third, some of the additional work needed in the data base area is discussed.

  19. Optimisation Methods for Cam Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia–Mari Popa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the criteria which represent the base of optimizing the cam mechanisms and also we perform the calculations for several types of mechanisms. We study the influence of the constructive parameters in case of the simple machines with rotation cam and follower (flat or curve of translation on the curvature radius and that of the transmission angle. As it follows, we present the optimization calculations of the cam and flat rotation follower mechanisms, as well as the calculations for optimizing the cam mechanisms by circular groove followers’ help. For an easier interpretation of the results, we have visualized the obtained cam in AutoCAD according to the script files generated by a calculation program.

  20. Dominant predators mediate the impact of habitat size on trophic structure in bromeliad invertebrate communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Jana S; Farjalla, Vinicius F; Jocque, Merlijn; Kratina, Pavel; MacDonald, A Andrew M; Marino, Nicholas A C; De Omena, Paula M; Piccoli, Gustavo C O; Richardson, Barbara A; Richardson, Michael J; Romero, Gustavo Q; Videla, Martin; Srivastava, Diane S

    2015-02-01

    Local habitat size has been shown to influence colonization and extinction processes of species in patchy environments. However, species differ in body size, mobility, and trophic level, and may not respond in the same way to habitat size. Thus far, we have a limited understanding of how habitat size influences the structure of multitrophic communities and to what extent the effects may be generalizable over a broad geographic range. Here, we used water-filled bromeliads of different sizes as a natural model system to examine the effects of habitat size on the trophic structure of their inhabiting invertebrate communities. We collected composition and biomass data from 651 bromeliad communities from eight sites across Central and South America differing in environmental conditions, species pools, and the presence of large-bodied odonate predators. We found that trophic structure in the communities changed dramatically with changes in habitat (bromeliad) size. Detritivore : resource ratios showed a consistent negative relationship with habitat size across sites. In contrast, changes in predator: detritivore (prey) ratios depended on the presence of odonates as dominant predators in the regional pool. At sites without odonates, predator: detritivore biomass ratios decreased with increasing habitat size. At sites with odonates, we found odonates to be more frequently present in large than in small bromeliads, and predator: detritivore biomass ratios increased with increasing habitat size to the point where some trophic pyramids became inverted. Our results show that the distribution of biomass amongst food-web levels depends strongly on habitat size, largely irrespective of geographic differences in environmental conditions or detritivore species compositions. However, the presence of large-bodied predators in the regional species pool may fundamentally alter this relationship between habitat size and trophic structure. We conclude that taking into account the

  1. Rad Pole Cam Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckendorn, F. M.; Odell, D. M. C; Harpring, L. J.; Peterson, K. D.

    2005-10-05

    The RadPoleCam was developed to provide Department Of Energy (DOE) first responders the capability to assess the radiological and visual condition of remote or inaccessible locations. Real time gamma isotopic identification is provided to the first responder in the form of audio feedback (i.e. spoken through head phones) from a gamma detector mounted on a collapsible pole that can extend from 1 to 9 meters (6 to 29 feet). Simultaneously, selectable direct and side looking visual images are provided from the 5cm (2in) diameter, waterproof probe tip. The lightweight, self contained, ruggedized, system will provide a rapidly deployable field system for visual and radiological search and assessment of confined spaces and extended reach locations.

  2. Bromeliad ornamental species: conservation issues and challenges related to commercialization - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i1.7314

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Mitchell

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bromeliads grow almost exclusively in the New World tropics and subtropics, mainly in South America in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (ca. 1200 species. Within the last few decades, their beautiful shapes and colors, low maintenance and easy adaptability to small gardens have brought bromeliads into worldwide use as ornamental plants. While the ornamental bromeliad trade could make significant contributions to household economies in rural areas, the trade may represent a significant threat in some of the bromeliad biodiversity hotspot countries such as Brazil, Bolivia and Colombia. This paper presents an overview of production volumes, analysis of the Brazilian bromeliads trade chain – at the state, national and international levels – and recommendations to address development and conservation challenges.

  3. Transcriptomics in the tropics: Total RNA-based profiling of Costa Rican bromeliad-associated communities

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq was used to examine the microbial, eukaryotic, and viral communities in water catchments (‘tanks’) formed by tropical bromeliads from Costa Rica. In total, transcripts with taxonomic affiliation to a wide array of bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, were observed, as well as RNA-viruses that appeared related to the specific presence of eukaryotes. Bacteria from 25 phyla appeared to comprise the majority of transcripts in one tank (Wg24), compared to only 14 phyla in the other (Wg25). C...

  4. Kazachstania rupicola sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from water tanks of a bromeliad in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Silvana Vilas Boas; Gomes, Fátima C O; Marques, Andréa R; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2013-03-01

    Two isolates of a novel yeast species were obtained from water tanks (phytotelmata) of the bromeliad Vriesea minarum collected in a tableland ('campo rupestre') ecosystem in Brazil. The sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene showed that this species is related to Kazachstania exigua and others, from which it differs by 8-10 nucleotide substitutions. The novel species Kazachstania rupicola sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain is UFMG-BRO-80(T) ( = CBS 12684(T)  = CBMAI 1466(T)).

  5. CAD/CAM for optomechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haiguang; Han, Min

    2003-10-01

    We focus at CAD/CAM for optomechatronics. We have developed a kind of CAD/CAM, which is not only for mechanics but also for optics and electronic. The software can be used for training and education. We introduce mechanical CAD, optical CAD and electrical CAD, we show how to draw a circuit diagram, mechanical diagram and luminous transmission diagram, from 2D drawing to 3D drawing. We introduce how to create 2D and 3D parts for optomechatronics, how to edit tool paths, how to select parameters for process, how to run the post processor, dynamic show the tool path and generate the CNC programming. We introduce the joint application of CAD&CAM. We aim at how to match the requirement of optical, mechanical and electronics.

  6. Scleroderma, Stress and CAM Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka-Kit Hui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease influenced by interplay among genetic and environmental factors, of which one is stress. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is frequently used to treat stress and those diseases in which stress has been implicated. Results are presented from a survey of patients with scleroderma. Respondents were a convenient sample of those attending a national conference in Las Vegas in 2002. Findings implicate stress in the onset, continuation and exacerbation of scleroderma. The implication is that CAM providers may be filling an important patient need in their provision of services that identify and treat stress and its related disorders.

  7. Bullera vrieseae sp. nov., a tremellaceous yeast species isolated from bromeliads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landell, Melissa Fontes; Brandão, Luciana R; Safar, Silvana V B; Gomes, Fatima C O; Félix, Ciro R; Santos, Ana Raquel O; Pagani, Danielle M; Ramos, Jesus P; Broetto, Leonardo; Mott, Tamí; Vainstein, Marilene H; Valente, Patricia; Rosa, Carlos A

    2015-08-01

    Two independent surveys of yeasts associated with different bromeliads in different Brazilian regions led to the proposal of a novel yeast species, Bullera vrieseae sp. nov., belonging to the Tremellales clade (Agaricomycotina, Basidiomycota). Analysis of the sequences in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA gene suggested affinity to a phylogenetic lineage that includes Bullera miyagiana and Bullera sakaeratica. Six isolates of the novel species were obtained from different bromeliads and regions in Brazil. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene showed that the novel species differs from B. miyagiana and B. sakaeratica by 85 and 64 nt substitutions, respectively and by more than 75 nt substitutions in the ITS region. Phenotypically, Bullera vrieseae sp. nov. can be distinguished from both species based on the assimilation of meso-erythritol, which was negative for B. vrieseae sp. nov. but positive for the others, assimilation of d-glucosamine, which was positive for B. vrieseae sp. nov. but negative for B. miyagiana and of l-sorbose, which was negative for B. vrieseae sp. nov. but positive for B. sakaeratica. The novel species Bullera vrieseae sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain of Bullera vrieseae sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y379T (BRO443T; ex-type CBS 13870T).

  8. Habitat structure, trophic structure and ecosystem function: interactive effects in a bromeliad-insect community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Diane S

    2006-09-01

    Although previous studies have shown that ecosystem functions are affected by either trophic structure or habitat structure, there has been little consideration of their combined effects. Such interactions may be particularly important in systems where habitat and trophic structure covary. I use the aquatic insects in bromeliads to examine the combined effects of trophic structure and habitat structure on a key ecosystem function: detrital processing. In Costa Rican bromeliads, trophic structure naturally covaries with both habitat complexity and habitat size, precluding any observational analysis of interactions between factors. I therefore designed mesocosms that allowed each factor to be manipulated separately. Increases in mesocosm complexity reduced predator (damselfly larva) efficiency, resulting in high detritivore abundances, indirectly increasing detrital processing rates. However, increased complexity also directly reduced the per capita foraging efficiency of the detritivores. Over short time periods, these trends effectively cancelled each other out in terms of detrital processing. Over longer time periods, more complex patterns emerged. Increases in mesocosm size also reduced both predator efficiency and detritivore efficiency, leading to no net effect on detrital processing. In many systems, ecosystem functions may be impacted by strong interactions between trophic structure and habitat structure, cautioning against examining either effect in isolation.

  9. The detection of EpCAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, De Sanne; Dalum, Van Guus; Lenferink, Aufried T.M.; Tibbe, Arjan G.J.; Hiltermann, T.J.N.; Groen, Harry J.M.; Rijn, Van C.J.M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM+ CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM- CTC discarded by CellSear

  10. Kockovaella libkindii sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from water tanks of bromeliad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fatima C O; Safar, Silvana V B; Santos, Ana Raquel O; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2016-12-01

    During a study of yeast community associated with water tanks (phytotelmata) of the bromeliad Vriesea minarum, two strains of a novel stalk-forming yeast species were found. The sequences of the region spanning the ITS and D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene showed that this species belongs to the genus Kockovaella. The novel species differs by 14 or more nucleotide substitutions in the D1/D2 domains and by 26 or more substitutions in the ITS-5.8S region from all other Kockovaella species. We describe this species as Kockovaella libkindii sp. nov. The type strain of Kockovaella libkindii sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y6053T (=UFMG-BRO-488T=CBS 12685T). The MycoBank number is MB 817710.

  11. Transcriptomics in the tropics: Total RNA-based profiling of Costa Rican bromeliad-associated communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana K. Goffredi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA-Seq was used to examine the microbial, eukaryotic, and viral communities in water catchments (‘tanks’ formed by tropical bromeliads from Costa Rica. In total, transcripts with taxonomic affiliation to a wide array of bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, were observed, as well as RNA-viruses that appeared related to the specific presence of eukaryotes. Bacteria from 25 phyla appeared to comprise the majority of transcripts in one tank (Wg24, compared to only 14 phyla in the other (Wg25. Conversely, eukaryotes from only 16 classes comprised the majority of transcripts in Wg24, compared to 24 classes in the Wg25, revealing a greater eukaryote diversity in the latter. Given that these bromeliads had tanks of similar size (i.e. vertical oxygen gradient, and were neighboring with presumed similar light regime and acquisition of leaf litter through-fall, it is possible that pH was the factor governing these differences in bacterial and eukaryotic communities (Wg24 had a tank pH of 3.6 and Wg25 had a tank pH of 6.2. Archaeal diversity was similar in both tanks, represented by 7 orders, with the exception of Methanocellales transcripts uniquely recovered from Wg25. Based on measures of FPKG (fragments mapped per kilobase of gene length, genes involved in methanogenesis, in addition to a spirochaete flagellin gene, were among those most highly expressed in Wg25. Conversely, aldehyde dehydrogenase and monosaccharide-binding protein were among genes most highly expressed in Wg24. The ability to observe specific presence of insect, plant, and fungi-associated RNA-viruses was unexpected. As with other techniques, there are inherent biases in the use of RNA-Seq, however, these data suggest the possibility of understanding the entire community, including ecological interactions, via simultaneous analysis of microbial, eukaryotic, and viral transcripts.

  12. Transcriptomics in the tropics: Total RNA-based profiling of Costa Rican bromeliad-associated communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredi, Shana K; Jang, Gene E; Haroon, Mohamed F

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq was used to examine the microbial, eukaryotic, and viral communities in water catchments ('tanks') formed by tropical bromeliads from Costa Rica. In total, transcripts with taxonomic affiliation to a wide array of bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, were observed, as well as RNA-viruses that appeared related to the specific presence of eukaryotes. Bacteria from 25 phyla appeared to comprise the majority of transcripts in one tank (Wg24), compared to only 14 phyla in the other (Wg25). Conversely, eukaryotes from only 16 classes comprised the majority of transcripts in Wg24, compared to 24 classes in the Wg25, revealing a greater eukaryote diversity in the latter. Given that these bromeliads had tanks of similar size (i.e. vertical oxygen gradient), and were neighboring with presumed similar light regime and acquisition of leaf litter through-fall, it is possible that pH was the factor governing these differences in bacterial and eukaryotic communities (Wg24 had a tank pH of 3.6 and Wg25 had a tank pH of 6.2). Archaeal diversity was similar in both tanks, represented by 7 orders, with the exception of Methanocellales transcripts uniquely recovered from Wg25. Based on measures of FPKG (fragments mapped per kilobase of gene length), genes involved in methanogenesis, in addition to a spirochaete flagellin gene, were among those most highly expressed in Wg25. Conversely, aldehyde dehydrogenase and monosaccharide-binding protein were among genes most highly expressed in Wg24. The ability to observe specific presence of insect, plant, and fungi-associated RNA-viruses was unexpected. As with other techniques, there are inherent biases in the use of RNA-Seq, however, these data suggest the possibility of understanding the entire community, including ecological interactions, via simultaneous analysis of microbial, eukaryotic, and viral transcripts.

  13. Leaf hydraulic conductance for a tank bromeliad: axial and radial pathways for moving and conserving water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Gretchen B; Lynch, Frank H; Maharaj, Franklin D R; Phillips, Carly A; Woodside, Walter T

    2013-01-01

    Epiphytic plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata were investigated in a lowland tropical forest in Costa Rica and a shaded glasshouse in Los Angeles, CA, USA. Stomatal conductance to water vapor and leaf anatomical variables related to hydraulic conductance were measured for both groups. Tracheid diameters and numbers of vascular bundles (veins) were used with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation to calculate axial hydraulic conductance. Measurements of leaf hydraulic conductance using the evaporative flux method were also made for glasshouse plants. Values for axial conductance and leaf hydraulic conductance were used in a model based on leaky cable theory to estimate the conductance of the radial pathway from the vein to the leaf surface and to assess the relative contributions of both axial and radial pathways. In keeping with low stomatal conductance, low stomatal density, low vein density, and narrow tracheid diameters, leaf hydraulic conductance for G. lingulata was quite low in comparison with most other angiosperms. Using the predicted axial conductance in the leaky cable model, the radial resistance across the leaf mesophyll was predicted to predominate; lower, more realistic values of axial conductance resulted in predicted radial resistances that were closer to axial resistance in their impact on total leaf resistance. Tracer dyes suggested that water uptake through the tank region of the leaf was not limiting. Both dye movement and the leaky cable model indicated that the leaf blade of G. lingulata was structurally and

  14. Variação morfológica e reprodutiva de Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae Morphological and reproductive variation of Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Lenzi

    2006-06-01

    luminosity and on an understory of a "restinga arbórea" (low luminosity, in Florianópolis, SC, where the results indicate that the luminosity can influence the bromeliad's phenotype, nectar production, phenology and reproductive success. The shade tolerant plants are bigger and present a flowering period of around 120 days, while the heliophytic plants are smaller and blossom throughout all year. The species presents ornithophilous floral attributes, being the volume (16,7 µL ± 4 and concentration (27,25% of the nectar produced by the flowers characteristic of a hummingbird pollinated flower. The frequent visitation of Amazilia fimbriata, Thalurania glaucopis and Thalurania sp. (Trochilidae confirms this suggestion; however bees and butterflies can also be considered potential pollinators, suggesting co-evolution of secondary floral syndromes. Based on the results of manual pollination tests and on the development of the polinic tubes, can be concluded that the species does not present self-incompatibility, forming fruits with fertile seeds, with a germination rate higher than 80%, both in cross-pollination as well as in selfing tests. The heliophytic population presented a high rate of parthenocarpy (52, 95% and showed to be a safe and efficient method to evaluate the fertilization of the flowers, being possible to relate the frequency and abundance of parthenocarpy to the absence or inefficiency of the pollinators. The fruits and seeds were dispersed by birds of the families Thraupidae and Pipridae and predated by larva of the butterfly Tecla sp. (Lycaenidae.

  15. Nota sobre o encontro de Aedes aegypti em bromélias Finding of Aedes aegypti breeding in bromeliad

    OpenAIRE

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini; Gisela Rita Alvarenga Monteiro Marques

    2000-01-01

    Descreve-se o encontro de formas imaturas de Aedes aegypti em bromélia domesticada para fins decorativos. São feitas considerações sobre as implicações desse encontro para o controle desse mosquito.A breeding place of Aedes aegypti immature forms were found in bromeliads domesticated for decorative purposes. Implications for the control measures were considered.

  16. Why are predators more sensitive to habitat size than their prey? Insights from bromeliad insect food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, D S; Trzcinski, M K; Richardson, B A; Gilbert, B

    2008-12-01

    Ecologists have hypothesized that the exponent of species-area power functions (z value) should increase with trophic level. The main explanation for this pattern has been that specialist predators require prior colonization of a patch by their prey, resulting in a compounding of the effects of area up trophic levels. We propose two novel explanations, neither of which assumes trophic coupling between species. First, sampling effects can result in different z values if the abundances of species differ (in mean or evenness) between trophic levels. Second, when body size increases between trophic levels, effects of body size on z values may appear as differences between trophic levels. We test these alternative explanations using invertebrate food webs in 280 bromeliads from three countries. The z value of predators was higher than that of prey. Much of the difference in z values could be explained by sampling effects but not by body size effects. When damselflies occurred in the species pool, predator z values were even higher than predicted, as damselflies avoid small, drought-prone bromeliads. In one habitat, dwarf forests, detrital biomass became decoupled from bromeliad size, which also caused large trophic differences in z values. We argue that there are often simpler explanations than trophic coupling to explain differences in z values between trophic levels.

  17. Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Young

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System and its application to emergency response involving chemical, biological or radiological contamination. The Idaho National Laboratory designed the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System to assist the National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction - Civil Support Teams during their mission of emergency response to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction. The lightweight, handheld camera transmits encrypted, real-time video from inside a contaminated area, or hot-zone, to a command post located a safe distance away. The system includes a small wireless video camera, a true-diversity receiver, viewing console, and an optional extension link that allows the command post to be placed up to five miles from danger. It can be fully deployed by one person in a standalone configuration in less than 10 minutes. The complete system is battery powered. Each rechargeable camera battery powers the camera for 3 hours with the receiver and video monitor battery lasting 22 hours on a single charge. The camera transmits encrypted, low frequency analog video signals to a true-diversity receiver with three antennas. This unique combination of encryption and transmission technologies delivers encrypted, interference-free images to the command post under conditions where other wireless systems fail. The lightweight camera is completely waterproof for quick and easy decontamination after use. The Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System is currently being used by several National Guard Teams, the US Army, and by fire fighters. The system has been proven to greatly enhance situational awareness during the crucial, initial phase of a hazardous response allowing commanders to make better, faster, safer decisions.

  18. Onzichtbare beugels dankzij CAD-CAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R. de Winter

    2011-01-01

    De introductie van de cad-cam-techniek in de tandheelkunde heeft in de orthodontie geleid tot het orthodontisch verplaatsen van gebitselementen met een serie opeenvolgende dieptrekplaten, ontworpen en gefabriceerd met behulp van cad-cam. Daarbij is iedere plaat een kleine stap in de richting van de

  19. From "forest malaria" to "bromeliad malaria": a case-study of scientific controversy and malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, P

    1994-08-01

    The article analyses the evolution of knowledge and rationale of control of a special case of malaria transmission based on Bromelia-Kerteszia complex. Since bromeliaceae function as a 'host of the carrier' and were previously associated with natural forests, the elucidation of bromeliad malaria historically elicited controversies concerning the imputation of Kertesziae as transmitters as well as over control strategies directed to bromelia eradication (manual removal, herbicides and deforestation), use of insecticides and chemoprophylaxis. Established authority, disciplinary traditions, conceptual premises and contemporary criteria for validating knowledge in the field partly explain the long time gap since Adolpho Lutz announced at the beginning of the century the existence of a new mosquito and breeding site as responsible for a 'forest malaria' epidemic occurring at a high altitude. The article brings attention to how economic, political and institutional determinants played an important role in redefining studies that led both in Trinidad and Brazil to the recognition of the importance of kerteszia transmission, including urban areas, and establishing new approaches to its study, most relevant of all the concurrence of broad ecological research. The article then describes the Brazilian campaign strategies which showed significant short-term results but had to wait four decades to achieve the goal of eradication due to the peculiar characteristics of this pathogenic complex. Finally, it brings attention to the importance of encompassing social values and discourses, in this case, environmental preservation, to understanding historical trends of malaria control programs.

  20. Potential impact of harvesting on the population dynamics of two epiphytic bromeliads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Aceves, Tarin; Hernández-Apolinar, Mariana; Valverde, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Large numbers of epiphytes are extracted from cloud forests for ornamental use and illegal trade in Latin America. We examined the potential effects of different harvesting regimes on the population dynamics of the epiphytic bromeliads Tillandsia multicaulis and Tillandsia punctulata. The population dynamics of these species were studied over a 2-year period in a tropical montane cloud forest in Veracruz, Mexico. Prospective and retrospective analyses were used to identify which demographic processes and life-cycle stages make the largest relative contribution to variation in population growth rate (λ). The effect of simulated harvesting levels on population growth rates was analysed for both species. λ of both populations was highly influenced by survival (stasis), to a lesser extent by growth, and only slightly by fecundity. Vegetative growth played a central role in the population dynamics of these organisms. The λ value of the studied populations did not differ significantly from unity: T. multicaulis λ (95% confidence interval) = 0.982 (0.897-1.060) and T. punctulata λ = 0.967 (0.815-1.051), suggesting population stability. However, numerical simulation of different levels of extraction showed that λ would drop substantially even under very low (2%) harvesting levels. Matrix analysis revealed that T. multicaulis and T. punctulata populations are likely to decline and therefore commercial harvesting would be unsustainable. Based on these findings, management recommendations are outlined.

  1. Materials for chairside CAD/CAM restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasbinder, Dennis J

    2010-01-01

    Chairside computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems have become considerably more accurate, efficient, and prevalent as the technology has evolved in the past 25 years. The initial restorative material option for chairside CAD/CAM restorations was limited to ceramic blocks. Restorative material options have multiplied and now include esthetic ceramics, high-strength ceramics, and composite materials for both definitive and temporary restoration applications. This article will review current materials available for chairside CAD/CAM restorations.

  2. CAM Stochastic Volatility Model for Option Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupled additive and multiplicative (CAM noises model is a stochastic volatility model for derivative pricing. Unlike the other stochastic volatility models in the literature, the CAM model uses two Brownian motions, one multiplicative and one additive, to model the volatility process. We provide empirical evidence that suggests a nontrivial relationship between the kurtosis and skewness of asset prices and that the CAM model is able to capture this relationship, whereas the traditional stochastic volatility models cannot. We introduce a control variate method and Monte Carlo estimators for some of the sensitivities (Greeks of the model. We also derive an approximation for the characteristic function of the model.

  3. [Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in bromeliads grown in the Bauru Municipal Botanical Gardens, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Viviane Camila de; Almeida, Luiz Carlos de

    2017-01-23

    The aim of this study was to observe the occurrence of mosquito larvae, especially Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, in the tanks and axillae of bromeliads at the Bauru Municipal Botanical Gardens, São Paulo, Brazil, highlighting the epidemiological implications for the use of these plants. The majority of the larvae belonged to mosquitos from genus Culex, with only occasional findings of A. aegypti and A. albopictus. The use of screens for protection of the plants, exposure to sunlight, and larger amounts of water in the tanks may have influenced the occurrence and grouping of larvae.

  4. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... interventions that focus on the interplay between emotional, mental, social, spiritual, and behavioral factors and their influence on health. Examples include prayer, tai chi, hypnosis, meditation, biofeedback, and yoga. Some techniques that were considered CAM in the ...

  5. AFSC/FMA/CAMS Data Objects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CAMS system consists of a set of tables and packages that provide authentication services to all other North Pacific Groundfish and Halibut Observing Program...

  6. Patients’ views of CAM as spiritual practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This paper explores Danish cancer patients’ narratives on spiritual beliefs, practices and the relationship these practices may have to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design: Narrative inquiry was used to understand how spiritual beliefs and practices might be related t....... For some individuals a belief in the ‘spiritual’ role of CAM per se may be analogous to religious belief.......Objectives: This paper explores Danish cancer patients’ narratives on spiritual beliefs, practices and the relationship these practices may have to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design: Narrative inquiry was used to understand how spiritual beliefs and practices might be related...... to CAM. Thirty-two cancer patients, family, friends and alternative practitioners were followed up over a two year period by face to face interview, telephone and focus groups. Results: Although religious and spiritual issues were not manifestly expressed by many of the subjects, these issues were...

  7. Knowledge and training needs among Danish nurses about CAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita

    2010-01-01

    to explore nurses’ knowledge about CAM and their needs for training. Methods: Similar to international investigations a Danish “CAM-knowledge” questionnaire was developed that included multiple choice, yes/no and 5 points scale answers. Validity was established through initial pilot testing. Contacts...... of CAM also tend to have a theoretical background of CAM. Around 75 % of the nurses agree or partly agree that it is important for nurses to receive education about CAM and that nurses have knowledge about CAM that enables them to advise patients. Training needs concerning CAM were indicated by 52....... Conclusion: Among Danish nurses CAM knowledge can be described as minor or average and a minority already has CAM education. Additional CAM training would be welcomed by more than half of the respondents in this survey....

  8. Model Documentation for the MiniCAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Smith, Steven J.; Kim, Son H.; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2003-07-17

    The MiniCAM, short for the Mini-Climate Assessment Model, is an integrated assessment model of moderate complexity focused on energy and agriculture sectors. The model produces emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) and other radiatively important substances such as sulfur dioxide. Through incorporation of the simple climate model MAGICC, the consequences of these emissions for climate change and sea-level rise can be examined. The MiniCAM is designed to be fast and flexible.

  9. Chiropractic and CAM Utilization: A Descriptive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeker William C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To conduct a descriptive review of the scientific literature examining use rates of modalities and procedures used by CAM clinicians to manage chronic LBP and other conditions Data Sources A literature of PubMed and MANTIS was performed using the key terms Chiropractic; Low Back Pain; Utilization Rate; Use Rate; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; and Health Services in various combinations. Data Selection A total of 137 papers were selected, based upon including information about chiropractic utilization, CAM utilization and low back pain and other conditions. Data Synthesis Information was extracted from each paper addressing use of chiropractic and CAM, and is summarized in tabular form. Results Thematic analysis of the paper topics indicated that there were 5 functional areas covered by the literature: back pain papers, general chiropractic papers, insurance-related papers, general CAM-related papers; and worker's compensation papers. Conclusion Studies looking at chiropractic utilization demonstrate that the rates vary, but generally fall into a range from around 6% to 12% of the population, most of whom seek chiropractic care for low back pain and not for organic disease or visceral dysfunction. CAM is itself used by people suffering from a variety of conditions, though it is often used not as a primary intervention, but rather as an additional form of care. CAM and chiropractic often offer lower costs for comparable results compared to conventional medicine.

  10. Genomic analyses of the CAM plant pineapple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jisen; Liu, Juan; Ming, Ray

    2014-07-01

    The innovation of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis in arid and/or low CO2 conditions is a remarkable case of adaptation in flowering plants. As the most important crop that utilizes CAM photosynthesis, the genetic and genomic resources of pineapple have been developed over many years. Genetic diversity studies using various types of DNA markers led to the reclassification of the two genera Ananas and Pseudananas and nine species into one genus Ananas and two species, A. comosus and A. macrodontes with five botanical varieties in A. comosus. Five genetic maps have been constructed using F1 or F2 populations, and high-density genetic maps generated by genotype sequencing are essential resources for sequencing and assembling the pineapple genome and for marker-assisted selection. There are abundant expression sequence tag resources but limited genomic sequences in pineapple. Genes involved in the CAM pathway has been analysed in several CAM plants but only a few of them are from pineapple. A reference genome of pineapple is being generated and will accelerate genetic and genomic research in this major CAM crop. This reference genome of pineapple provides the foundation for studying the origin and regulatory mechanism of CAM photosynthesis, and the opportunity to evaluate the classification of Ananas species and botanical cultivars.

  11. Development and Application of an eDNA Method to Detect the Critically Endangered Trinidad Golden Tree Frog (Phytotriades auratus) in Bromeliad Phytotelmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozio, Sarah; Manson, Chloe; Gourevitch, Eleanor; Burns, Thomas J.; Greener, Mark S.; Downie, J. Roger

    2017-01-01

    The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) to monitor rare and elusive species has great potential for conservation biology. Traditional surveying methods can be time-consuming, labour-intensive, subject to error or can be invasive and potentially damaging to habitat. The Trinidad golden treefrog (Phytotriades auratus) is one such species that would benefit from such an approach. This species inhabits the giant bromeliad (Glomeropitcairnia erectiflora) on two peaks on the Caribbean island of Trinidad. Traditional survey methods for this species have required the destruction of the giant bromeliad, which is the only known habitat of this frog. Here we described the development of an eDNA PCR-based assay that uses water drawn from the water-filled phytotelmata of the giant bromeliad along with the use of a synthetic DNA positive control that can be easily amplified in the bacterium Escherichia coli. The assay can detect to a DNA concentration of 1.4ng. Sampling of 142 bromeliads using this method revealed 9% were positive for P. auratus DNA. These data suggest that eDNA methods also have great potential for revealing the presence of elusive species in arboreal habitats. PMID:28199338

  12. Isolation and genotyping of free-living environmental isolates of Acanthamoeba spp. from bromeliads in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landell, Melissa Fontes; Salton, Juliana; Caumo, Karin; Broetto, Leonardo; Rott, Marilise B

    2013-07-01

    Species of Acanthamoeba are frequently isolated from distinct environmental sources such as water, soil, dust and air. They are responsible to cause infections and disease in humans and animals. In addition, Acanthamoeba sp. are considered an important reservoir of bacteria, virus and fungi, which act as "Trojan horses" to protect these microorganisms of harsh environmental conditions. In this study, nine Acanthamoeba isolates from bromeliads phylloplane were identified based on the morphology of cyst and trophozoite forms. The genotype level was accessed by the sequence analysis of Acanthamoeba small-subunit rRNA gene. Genotypic characterization grouped five isolates in the genotype T2/T6, three in the T4 genotype and one in the genotype T16. The results obtained indicate that the genotype T2/T6 is common on phylloplane. To predict the pathogenic potential of the Acanthamoeba isolates, thermo and osmotolerance assays were employed, although all isolates were capable of surviving at temperatures of 37°C, other tests will be conducted in the future to determine the potential pathogenic of the isolates. Altogether, our results revealed the importance of the presence of Acanthamoeba associated with bromeliads in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and the necessity for further studies to determine the environmental distribution and the role of these species.

  13. Inflorescences of the Bromeliad Vriesea friburgensis as Nest Sites and Food Resources for Ants and Other Arthropods in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker S. Schmid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, the usage of bromeliad inflorescences as nesting sites for ants and other arthropods was studied. Frequencies of occurrence of nests were recorded from hollow stems of dried infructescences of the bromeliad Vriesea friburgensis on Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil. Three habitat types were studied: miconietum and two types of restinga, one with low (restinga-low and one with high vegetation cover (restinga-high. Additionally, flower visitation by ants was examined in restinga-low. Out of 619 infructescences, 33% contained nests. Ants were the most frequent occupants (82–96% of nests, followed by termites (3–18% and bees (0–0.6%. Species accumulation curves and diversity indices indicate that the diversity of stem-occupying ant species is highest in restinga-low (eight species observed, 18 predicted and lowest in restinga-high (four observed and predicted. Highest similarity of compositions of infructescence-inhabiting ant species was recorded between miconietum and restinga-high, lowest between restinga-low and restinga-high. Similarity between compositions of inflorescence-visiting and infructescence-inhabiting species in restinga-low was even higher (compared with the cases described in the previous sentence although 50% of the involved species were present in only one of the samples. Altogether, our results indicate that inflorescences are important resources for ants and other nest-building insects from flowering season to past-fruiting season.

  14. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceretti-Junior, Walter; de Oliveira Christe, Rafael; Rizzo, Marco; Strobel, Regina Claudia; de Matos Junior, Marco Otavio; de Mello, Maria Helena Silva Homem; Fernandes, Aristides; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be retained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for immature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages) in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects. Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 municipal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically. Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected), followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens) and Cx. (Microculex) imitator (444). The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. PMID:27047978

  15. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ceretti-Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be re­tained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for im­mature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects.Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 munici­pal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically.Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens and Cx. (Microculex imitator (444. The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. 

  16. Transparency in Dutch CAM practices: a comparison between CAM and GP physicians.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.; Dulmen, S. van

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: CAM (Complementary and Alternative Medicine) is increasing worldwide because the demand is growing. Transparency is needed to provide more objective information about CAM services, to date largely unknown by a majority of care users and mainstream care providers. Despite the fact that

  17. Light and temperature requirements for germination of seeds of Aechmea nudicaulis (l. Griesebach and Streptocalyx floribundus (Martius ex Shultes f. Mez (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro Fernanda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of A. nudicaulis and S. floribundus were collected in a restinga located at Presidente Kennedy (ES, Brazil. This sandy community is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation interspersed by open areas with a sparse plant covering. In order to evaluate the capacity of A. nudicaulis and S. floribundus to recruit individuals from seeds in the distinct microclimates generated by this heterogeneous plant covering, experiments were conducted in laboratory to test the effects of light and temperature on the germination for both species. Seeds of A. nudicaulis were unable to germinate in darkness but they achieved high germinability (≥90% from 15 to 40°C under red light. Seeds of S. floribundus germinated in darkness only at 40ºC (22.5%, whereas the germinability was high (≥90% from 15 to 30ºC under light. For both species, the germination rate was highest at 25ºC. For these bromeliads, alternating temperature (20/30ºC promoted high germinability (≥92.5% only under red light. The seeds at 20/30°C in darkness were later transferred to light and a high germinability (>89% was achieved for both species. No seed germinated at alternating temperatures of 20/50ºC and they were dead after 720h of incubation. The seeds showed to be photoblastic and did not tolerate high temperatures. The results suggest that under natural conditions the germination of seeds of A. nudicaulis and S. floribundus is restricted to microclimates where light and moderate temperatures are present. The microsites generated by the plant covering seem to provide these requirements.

  18. Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This document contains presentations from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems held at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia on March 18-19, 1997. The presentations focused on current capabilities and future directions of CAD/CAM/CAE systems, aerospace industry projects, and university activities related to simulation-based design. Workshop attendees represented NASA, commercial software developers, the aerospace industry, government labs, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the potential of emerging CAD/CAM/CAE technology for use in intelligent simulation-based design and to provide guidelines for focused future research leading to effective use of CAE systems for simulating the entire life cycle of aerospace systems.

  19. CAM practitioners in the Australian health workforce: an underutilized resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Sandra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CAM practitioners are a valuable but underutilizes resource in Australian health care. Despite increasing public support for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM little is known about the CAM workforce. Apart from the registered professions of chiropractic, osteopathy and Chinese medicine, accurate information about the number of CAM practitioners in the workforce has been difficult to obtain. It appears that many non-registered CAM practitioners, although highly qualified, are not working to their full capacity. Discussion Increasing public endorsement of CAM stands in contrast to the negative attitude toward the CAM workforce by some members of the medical and other health professions and by government policy makers. The marginalisation of the CAM workforce is evident in prejudicial attitudes held by some members of the medical and other health professions and its exclusion from government policy making. Inconsistent educational standards has meant that non-registered CAM practitioners, including highly qualified and competent ones, are frequently overlooked. Legitimising their contribution to the health workforce could alleviate workforce shortages and provide opportunities for redesigned job roles and new multidisciplinary teams. Priorities for better utilisation of the CAM workforce include establishing a guaranteed minimum education standard for more CAM occupation groups through national registration, providing interprofessional education that includes CAM practitioners, developing courses to upgrade CAM practitioners' professional skills in areas of indentified need, and increasing support for CAM research. Summary Marginalisation of the CAM workforce has disadvantaged those qualified and competent CAM practitioners who practise evidence-informed medicine on the basis of many years of university training. Legitimising and expanding the important contribution of CAM practitioners could alleviate projected health

  20. Georeferencing CAMS data: Polynomial rectification and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghe

    The Calibrated Airborne Multispectral Scanner (CAMS) is a sensor used in the commercial remote sensing program at NASA Stennis Space Center. In geographic applications of the CAMS data, accurate geometric rectification is essential for the analysis of the remotely sensed data and for the integration of the data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The commonly used rectification techniques such as the polynomial transformation and ortho rectification have been very successful in the field of remote sensing and GIS for most remote sensing data such as Landsat imagery, SPOT imagery and aerial photos. However, due to the geometric nature of the airborne line scanner which has high spatial frequency distortions, the polynomial model and the ortho rectification technique in current commercial software packages such as Erdas Imagine are not adequate for obtaining sufficient geometric accuracy. In this research, the geometric nature, especially the major distortions, of the CAMS data has been described. An analytical step-by-step geometric preprocessing has been utilized to deal with the potential high frequency distortions of the CAMS data. A generic sensor-independent photogrammetric model has been developed for the ortho-rectification of the CAMS data. Three generalized kernel classes and directional elliptical basis have been formulated into a rectification model of summation of multisurface functions, which is a significant extension to the traditional radial basis functions. The preprocessing mechanism has been fully incorporated into the polynomial, the triangle-based finite element analysis as well as the summation of multisurface functions. While the multisurface functions and the finite element analysis have the characteristics of localization, piecewise logic has been applied to the polynomial and photogrammetric methods, which can produce significant accuracy improvement over the global approach. A software module has been implemented with full

  1. Web-based CAD and CAM for optomechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min; Zhou, Hai-Guang

    2001-10-01

    CAD & CAM technologies are being used in design and manufacturing process, and are receiving increasing attention from industries and education. We have been researching to develop a new kind of software that is for web-course CAD & CAM. It can be used either in industries or in training, it is supported by IE. Firstly, we aim at CAD/CAM for optomechatronics. We have developed a kind of CAD/CAM, which is not only for mechanics but also for optics and electronic. That is a new kind of software in China. Secondly, we have developed a kind of software for web-course CAD & CAM, we introduce the basis of CAD, the commands of CAD, the programming, CAD/CAM for optomechatronics, the joint application of CAD & CAM. We introduce the functions of MasterCAM, show the whole processes of CAD/CAM/CNC by examples. Following the steps showed on the web, the trainer can not miss. CAD & CAM are widely used in many areas, development of web-course CAD & CAM is necessary for long- distance education and public education. In 1992, China raised: CAD technique, as an important part of electronic technology, is a new key technique to improve the national economic and the modernization of national defence. As so for, the education. Of CAD & CAM is mainly involved in manufacturing industry in China. But with the rapidly development of new technology, especially the development of optics and electronics, CAD & CAM will receive more attention from those areas.

  2. Integrated design of cam mechanisms and servo-control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚燕安[1; 颜鸿森[2; 张策[3; 邹慧君[4

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, in a cam mechanism, the cam is driven by an actuator at a constant speed. The motion characteristics of the follower are determined once the cam profile is designed. This paper presents a novel theory named "integrated design of cam mechanisms and servo-control systems" whose basic idea is varying the input speed trajectory of the cam by a microcomputer-controlled servomotor to improve kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the follower system. The philosophy of the theory is developing superior machines by taking advantage of the flexibility of servo-control systems to compensate for disadvantages of rigid cam mechanisms. The systematic design criteria of the cam-servo-integrated system are developed and an approach based on optimal-control theory is presented for to select suitable cam speed functions, hence the basis of the theory is formed.

  3. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  4. DFM/CAPP/CAM System in a Concurrent Engineering Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the importance of DFM/CAPP/CAM system in Concurrent Engineering (CE) is discussed. Based on the analyses of the character of concurrent product design and manufacturing process design, the workflow of DFM/CAPP/CAM system in CE is given. DFM/CAPP/CAM theories, methods and functions are investigated in a delicate and all-round way, and are implemented in the developed DFM/CAPP/CAM system.

  5. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Some Peritrichs (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) from Tank Bromeliads, Including Two New Genera: Orborhabdostyla and Vorticellides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissner, Wilhelm; Blake, Natalie; Wolf, Klaus; Breiner, Hans-Werner; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2010-01-22

    Using standard methods, we studied the morphology and 18S rDNA sequence of some peritrich ciliates from tank bromeliads of Costa Rica, Jamaica, and Ecuador. The new genus Orborhabdostyla differs from Rhabdostyla by the discoidal macronucleus. Two species from the literature and a new species from Ecuadoran tank bromeliads are combined with the new genus: O. previpes (Claparède and Lachmann, 1857) nov. comb., O. kahli (Nenninger, 1948) nov. comb., and O. bromelicola nov. spec. Orborhabdostyla bromelicola is a slender species with stalk-like narrowed posterior half and operculariid/epistylidid oral apparatus. An epistylidid relationship is also suggested by the gene sequence. Vorticella gracilis, described by Dujardin (1841) from French freshwater, belongs to the V. convallaria complex but differs by the yellowish colour and the number of silverlines. The classification as a distinct species is supported by the 18S rDNA, which differs nearly 10% from that of V. convallaria s. str. Based on the new data, especially the very stable yellowish colour, we neotypify V. gracilis with the Austrian population studied by Foissner (1979). Vorticella gracilis forms a strongly supported phyloclade together with V. campanula, V. fusca and V. convallaria, while Vorticellides astyliformis and Vorticella microstoma branch in a separate, fully-supported clade that includes Astylozoon and Opisthonecta. The new genus Vorticellides comprises five small (usually < 60 μm), barrel-shaped species with two epistomial membranes: V. aquadulcis (Stokes, 1887) nov. comb., V. astyliformis (Foissner, 1981) nov. comb., V. platysoma (Stokes, 1887) nov. comb., V. infusionum (Dujardin, 1841) nov. comb., and V. (Spinivorticellides) echini (King, 1931) nov. comb. Two of these species are redescribed in the present study: V. astyliformis and V. aquadulcis, which is neotypified with a Costa Rican population. Pseudovorticella bromelicola nov. spec. differs from the congeners by the location of the two

  6. CAD/CAM. High-Technology Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuleger, Robert

    This high technology training module is an advanced course on computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for grades 11 and 12. This unit, to be used with students in advanced drafting courses, introduces the concept of CAD/CAM. The content outline includes the following seven sections: (1) CAD/CAM software; (2) computer…

  7. Education and Training Packages for CAD/CAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, I. C.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses educational efforts in the fields of Computer Assisted Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Describes two educational training initiatives underway in the United Kingdom, one of which is a resource materials package for teachers of CAD/CAM at the undergraduate level, and the other a training course for managers of CAD/CAM systems. (TW)

  8. Current techniques in CAD/CAM denture fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Nadim Z; AlRumaih, Hamad S; Goodacre, Brian J; Goodacre, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to produce complete dentures has seen exponential growth in the dental market, and the number of commercially available CAD/CAM denture systems grows every year. The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical and laboratory procedures of 5 CAD/CAM denture systems.

  9. Faint stars and OmegaCAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, K; Cristiani, S; Renzini, A; Williams, RE

    2001-01-01

    OmegaCAM will be the wide-field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope. In this contribution I present applications of this instrument to the study of faint stellar populations. Two projects are highlighted: a proper motion study to uncover the galactic halo population, and a microlensing study towards

  10. DATA TRANSLATION BETWEEN PADS AND CAM350

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Romanova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the paper is the process of data translation between computer-aided design system for electronic devices PADS VX and system for technological preparation of production of printed circuit boards CAM350 10. The object of this study is two-way translation of data in these systems. Experimental researches are applied as research methods based on repeated playback of forward and reverse data translation process between PADS and CAM350 systems. The aim is to examine the challenges of data exchange between systems and to find out the ways of their solution. The basis of the work is functionality analysis of PADS and CAM350 systems while data translation, which was carried out in the course of operating experience of these systems. The paper presents advantages and disadvantages of translation methods and their comparison. Errors arising in the process are analyzed. Possible reasons of errors origination are described. The main results are recommendations for data exchange between PADS and CAM350 systems. The proposed recommendations give the possibility to optimize the exchange of data between these systems. Practical significance of the work lies in the implementation of results at LLC «Abeo». Recommendations have been used in the development of dozens of different electronic devices. The use of these results made it possible to reduce the production run-up time, to increase data transmission correctness, thereby improving the quality of products and reduction of their cost.

  11. Bridging CAM practice and research: teaching CAM practitioners about research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Suzanna M; Benn, Rita

    2004-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is continuing to provide funds directed to support research in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). CAM providers typically have insufficient knowledge of scientific language or research methodology to develop rigorous proposals. Their ability to contribute meaningfully as advisors, teachers, or research partners in academic settings, is hence limited. To address this issue, we have developed and implemented a 7-week course designed to teach community-based CAM providers: (1) to understand scientific terminology, research design and grantsmanship; (2) to critically evaluate the research literature; and (3) to design pilot studies in areas of their interest. In this article, we describe the recruitment process for selecting course participants, the course design and instructional process and the evaluation results based on qualitative and quantitative methodology. We offer suggestions for developing training opportunities both at the local and national level that would increase the expertise of CAM providers in participating and seeking funded research.

  12. The diversity and extracellular enzymatic activities of yeasts isolated from water tanks of Vriesea minarum, an endangered bromeliad species in Brazil, and the description of Occultifur brasiliensis f.a., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fátima C O; Safar, Silvana V B; Marques, Andrea R; Medeiros, Adriana O; Santos, Ana Raquel O; Carvalho, Cláudia; Lachance, Marc-André; Sampaio, José Paulo; Rosa, Carlos A

    2015-02-01

    The diversity of yeast species collected from the bromeliad tanks of Vriesea minarum, an endangered bromeliad species, and their ability to produce extracellular enzymes were studied. Water samples were collected from 30 tanks of bromeliads living in a rupestrian field site located at Serrada Piedade, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, during both the dry and rainy seasons. Thirty-six species were isolated, representing 22 basidiomycetous and 14 ascomycetous species. Occultifur sp., Cryptococcus podzolicus and Cryptococcus sp. 1 were the prevalent basidiomycetous species. The yeast-like fungus from the order Myriangiales, Candida silvae and Aureobasidium pullulans were the most frequent ascomycetous species. The diversity of the yeast communities obtained between seasons was not significantly different, but the yeast composition per bromeliad was different between seasons. These results suggest that there is significant spatial heterogeneity in the composition of populations of the yeast communities within bromeliad tanks, independent of the season. Among the 352 yeast isolates tested, 282 showed at least one enzymatic activity. Protease activity was the most widely expressed extracellular enzymatic activity, followed by xylanase, amylase, pectinase and cellulase activities. These enzymes may increase the carbon and nitrogen availability for the microbial food web in the bromeliad tank of V. minarum. Sequence analyses revealed the existence of 10 new species, indicating that bromeliad tanks are important sources of new yeasts. The novel species Occultifur brasiliensis, f.a., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate the most frequently isolated yeast associated with V. minarum. The type strain of O. brasiliensis, f.a., sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y375(T) (= CBS 12687(T)). The Mycobank number is MB 809816.

  13. Nutrient limitation restricts growth and reproductive output in a tropical montane cloud forest bromeliad: findings from a long-term forest fertilization experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasso, Eloisa; Ackerman, James D

    2013-01-01

    From studies in seasonal lowland tropical forests, bromeliad epiphytes appear to be limited mainly by water, and to a lesser extent by nutrient supply, especially phosphorous. Less is understood about the mineral nutrition of tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) epiphytes, even though their highest diversity is in this habitat. Nutrient limitation is known to be a key factor restricting forest productivity in TMCF, and if epiphytes are nutritionally linked to their host trees, as has been suggested, we would expect that they are also nutrient limited. We studied the effect of a higher nutrient input on reproduction and growth of the tank bromeliad Werauhia sintenisii in experimental plots located in a TMCF in Puerto Rico, where all macro- and micronutrients had been added quarterly starting in 1989 and continuing throughout the duration of this study. We found that bromeliads growing in fertilized plots were receiving litterfall with higher concentrations of N, P, and Zn and had higher concentrations of P, Zn, Fe, Al, and Na in their vegetative body. The N:P ratios found (fertilized = 27.5 and non-fertilized = 33.8) suggest that W. sintenisii may also be phosphorous limited as are lowland epiphytes. Fertilized plants had slightly longer inflorescences, and more flowers per inflorescence, than non-fertilized plants, but their flowers produced nectar in similar concentrations and quantities. Fertilized plants produced more seeds per fruit and per plant. Frequency of flowering in two consecutive years was higher for fertilized plants than for controls, suggesting that fertilized plants overcome the cost of reproduction more readily than non-fertilized plants. These results provide evidence that TMCF epiphytic bromeliads are nutrient limited like their lowland counterparts.

  14. Complementary and alternative medicine use of women with breast cancer : Self-help CAM attracts other women than guided CAM therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo-Fo-Wong, Deborah N. N.; Ranchor, Adelita V.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Henselmans, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine stability of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) of breast cancer patients, reasons for CAM use, and sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological predictors of CAM use. Methods: CAM use was assessed after adjuvant therapy and six months later. Following the CAM He

  15. Potential N2O Emissions from the Tanks of Bromeliads Suggest an Additional Source of N2O in the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Marcel; Brandt, Franziska B; Brenzinger, Kristof; Martinson, Guntars O; Braker, Gesche

    2016-12-06

    We studied the propensity of the tank bromeliad Werauhia gladioliflora to emit the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) at current and at increased N deposition levels in the range of predicted future scenarios. Potential production rates and net accumulation of N2O from tank substrate corresponded to N availability. N2O was produced in excess at all N levels due to a low level of N2O reductase activity which agreed well with a low abundance of N2O reducers compared to nitrite reducers. Transcriptional activation, however, indicated that expression of denitrification genes may be enhanced with increasing N supply eventually leading to more efficient N2O turnover with potential for adaptation of denitrifier communities to higher N levels. Our findings indicate that tank bromeliads may constitute a novel source of N2O in Neotropical forest canopies but further studies are required to understand the size and significance of in situ N2O fluxes from tank bromeliads to the environment.

  16. Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J J

    2013-01-01

    Modern design methods of Automotive Cam Design require the computation of a range of parameters. This book provides a logical sequence of steps for the derivation of the relevant equations from first principles, for the more widely used cam mechanisms. Although originally derived for use in high performance engines, this work is equally applicable to the design of mass produced automotive and other internal combustion engines.   Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms provides the equations necessary for the design of cam lift curves with an associated smooth acceleration curve. The equations are derived for the kinematics and kinetics of all the mechanisms considered, together with those for cam curvature and oil entrainment velocity. This permits the cam shape, all loads, and contact stresses to be evaluated, and the relevant tribology to be assessed. The effects of asymmetry on the manufacture of cams for finger follower and offset translating curved followers is ...

  17. Research on the processing speed of cam grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Baoying; Han, Qiushi

    2011-05-01

    Cam Grinding is a special kind of non-circular machining. The processing speed of cam grinding has a major influence on cam machining precision. In this paper, decomposed the X-axis feed speed and C-axis velocity by the tangential speed and normal speed in accordance with the curvature circle at the point of cam profile grinding. Proposed the cam grinding processing speed model and linear velocity calculation formula, the processing experiment on the CNC camshaft grinding machine results show that the cam grinding speed model is correct. Constant angular speed grinding and constant linear speed grinding are analyzed respectively, which provides a theoretical basis for cam grinding processing speed optimization.

  18. Formal Management of CAD/CAM Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhase, Michael; Lemburg, Johannes; Schröder, Lutz; Schulz, Ewaryst

    Systematic engineering design processes have many aspects in common with software engineering, with CAD/CAM objects replacing program code as the implementation stage of the development. They are, however, currently considerably less formal. We propose to draw on the mentioned similarities and transfer methods from software engineering to engineering design in order to enhance in particular the reliability and reusability of engineering processes. We lay out a vision of a document-oriented design process that integrates CAD/CAM documents with requirement specifications; as a first step towards supporting such a process, we present a tool that interfaces a CAD system with program verification workflows, thus allowing for completely formalised development strands within a semi-formal methodology.

  19. CAD/CAM-assisted breast reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchels, Ferry; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 60 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059 (Australia); Wiggenhauser, Paul Severin; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten [Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Warne, David; Barry, Mark [High Performance Computing and Research Support, Queensland University of Technology, Gardens Point Road, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Ong, Fook Rhu; Chong, Woon Shin, E-mail: Dietmar.Hutmacher@qut.edu.au, E-mail: jtschantz@lrz.tu-muenchen.de [Singapore Polytechnic, 500 Dover Road, 139651 Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-09-15

    The application of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the clinic is growing slowly but steadily. The ability to build patient-specific models based on medical imaging data offers major potential. In this work we report on the feasibility of employing laser scanning with CAD/CAM techniques to aid in breast reconstruction. A patient was imaged with laser scanning, an economical and facile method for creating an accurate digital representation of the breasts and surrounding tissues. The obtained model was used to fabricate a customized mould that was employed as an intra-operative aid for the surgeon performing autologous tissue reconstruction of the breast removed due to cancer. Furthermore, a solid breast model was derived from the imaged data and digitally processed for the fabrication of customized scaffolds for breast tissue engineering. To this end, a novel generic algorithm for creating porosity within a solid model was developed, using a finite element model as intermediate.

  20. CAM and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hankey

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the form of the Transcendental Meditation program CAM offers a method of eliminating deep-rooted stress, the efficacy of which has been demonstrated in several related studies. Any discussion of CAM and post-traumatic stress disorder should include a study of its application to Vietnam War Veterans in which improvements were observed on all variables, and several participants were able to return to work after several years of being unable to hold a job. The intervention has been studied for its impact on brain and autonomic nervous system function. It has been found to be highly effective against other stress-related conditions such as hypertension, and to improve brain coherence—a measure of effective brain function. It should be considered a possible ‘new and improved mode of treatment’ for PTSD, and further studies of its application made.

  1. CAM/LIFTER forces and friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbey, D. J.; Lee, J.; Patterson, D. J.

    1992-02-01

    This report details the procedures used to measure the cam/lifter forces and friction. The present effort employed a Cummins LTA-10, and focuses on measurements and dynamic modeling of the injector train. The program was sponsored by the US Department of Energy in support of advanced diesel engine technology. The injector train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod force, injector link force, and cam speed. These measurements, together with lift profiles for pushrod and injector link displacement, enabled the friction work loss in the injector train to be determined. Other significant design criteria such as camshaft roller follower slippage and maximum loads on components were also determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the dynamic model, with tests run as required for correlation.

  2. Extrativismo de bromélias no Estado do Paraná Bromeliads wild harvesting in State of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Visando a contribuir para o melhor entendimento da participação da atividade extrativista no âmbito da comercialização de bromélias no Brasil, apresentou-se resultado de pesquisa que buscou: a identificar e caracterizar os extrativistas de bromélias formalmente registrados e os informais no Estado do Paraná; b identificar e caracterizar as metodologias de coleta, o preparo e vias de comercialização das plantas coletadas; c levantar a opinião dos extrativistas sobre facilidades e dificuldades desta atividade. O extrativismo de bromélias no Paraná foi identificado em 12 municípios, englobando 31 famílias extratoras, predominantemente concentradas no litoral do Paraná (n=10 e Município de Ortigueira (n=7. Foram identificados dois tipos básicos de extrativistas: residente e oportunista, com diferenças marcantes entre estes, especialmente no que se refere a volume e forma de extração. Foram identificadas 21 espécies submetidas ao extrativismo, sendo as mais frequentemente coletadas: Vriesea incurvata Gaudich. comercializada por 90% dos entrevistados, Nidularium innocentii Lem. (77%, Vriesea platynema Gaudich. (67%, Tillandsia stricta Sol. ex Ker Gawl. (55% e Vriesea carinata Lem. (55%.Aiming to contribute to the better understanding of the wild harvesting participation in the context of the bromeliads trade, the results from a study focused on: a identifying and to characterizing the bromeliads wild harvesters (formally and not formally registered in the State of the Paraná; b identifying and characterizing the harvesting methodologies, preparation and trade routes, and c surveying the harvesters opinion on the facilities and difficulties of bromeliads wild harvesting are presented. The bromeliads wild harvesting was detected in 12 municipalities at Parana State, involving 31 harvester families, most of them concentrated at the coastal zone (n=10 and Ortigueira Mun. (7. Two basic harvester types were identified: resident and

  3. Chiropractic and CAM Utilization: A Descriptive Review

    OpenAIRE

    Meeker William C; Lawrence Dana J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Objective To conduct a descriptive review of the scientific literature examining use rates of modalities and procedures used by CAM clinicians to manage chronic LBP and other conditions Data Sources A literature of PubMed and MANTIS was performed using the key terms Chiropractic; Low Back Pain; Utilization Rate; Use Rate; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; and Health Services in various combinations. Data Selection A total of 137 papers were selected, based upon including inform...

  4. An investigation of cam-roller mechanism applied in sphere cam engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 潘存云; 徐小军; 徐海军; 张正洲

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative power source for hybrid electrical vehicle(HEV), electric generating system(EGS) driven by sphere cam engine(SCE) is said to own higher power density and integration. In this work, the structure and working principle of EGS were introduced, based on which the advantages of EGS were displayed. The profile of sphere cam was achieved after the desired motion of piston was given. After establishing the dynamic model of power transmission mechanism, the characteristics of cam-roller mechanism were studied. The results show that the optimal cam profile of SCE is a sinusoid curve which has two peaks and two valleys and a mean pressure angle of 47.19°. Because of the special cam shape, the trace of end surface center of piston is an eight-shape curve on a specific sphere surface. SCE running at speed of 3000 r/min can generate the power of 33.81 kW, which could satisfy the need of HEVs. However, the force between cylinder and piston skirt caused by Coriolis acceleration can reach up to 1182 N, which leads to serious wear between cylinder liner and piston skirt and may shorten the lifespan of SCE.

  5. The NectarCAM camera project

    CERN Document Server

    Glicenstein, J-F; Barrio, J-A; Blanch, O; Boix, J; Bolmont, J; Boutonnet, C; Cazaux, S; Chabanne, E; Champion, C; Chateau, F; Colonges, S; Corona, P; Couturier, S; Courty, B; Delagnes, E; Delgado, C; Ernenwein, J-P; Fegan, S; Ferreira, O; Fesquet, M; Fontaine, G; Fouque, N; Henault, F; Gascón, D; Herranz, D; Hermel, R; Hoffmann, D; Houles, J; Karkar, S; Khelifi, B; Knödlseder, J; Martinez, G; Lacombe, K; Lamanna, G; LeFlour, T; Lopez-Coto, R; Louis, F; Mathieu, A; Moulin, E; Nayman, P; Nunio, F; Olive, J-F; Panazol, J-L; Petrucci, P-O; Punch, M; Prast, J; Ramon, P; Riallot, M; Ribó, M; Rosier-Lees, S; Sanuy, A; Siero, J; Tavernet, J-P; Tejedor, L A; Toussenel, F; Vasileiadis, G; Voisin, V; Waegebert, V; Zurbach, C

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the next generation of Cherenkov telescopes, the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), NectarCAM is a camera designed for the medium size telescopes covering the central energy range of 100 GeV to 30 TeV. NectarCAM will be finely pixelated (~ 1800 pixels for a 8 degree field of view, FoV) in order to image atmospheric Cherenkov showers by measuring the charge deposited within a few nanoseconds time-window. It will have additional features like the capacity to record the full waveform with GHz sampling for every pixel and to measure event times with nanosecond accuracy. An array of a few tens of medium size telescopes, equipped with NectarCAMs, will achieve up to a factor of ten improvement in sensitivity over existing instruments in the energy range of 100 GeV to 10 TeV. The camera is made of roughly 250 independent read-out modules, each composed of seven photo-multipliers, with their associated high voltage base and control, a read-out board and a multi-service backplane board. The read-out b...

  6. Modeled hydraulic redistribution in tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations: the implications of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kailiang; Foster, Adrianna

    2016-04-01

    Past studies have largely focused on hydraulic redistribution (HR) in trees, shrubs, and grasses, and recognized its role in interspecies interactions. HR in plants that conduct crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), however, remains poorly investigated, as does the effect of HR on transpiration in different vegetation associations (i.e., tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations). We have developed a mechanistic model to investigate the net direction and magnitude of HR at the patch scale for tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations at the growing season to yearly timescale. The modeling results show that deep-rooted CAM plants in CAM-grass associations could perform hydraulic lift at a higher rate than trees in tree-grass associations in a relatively wet environment, as explained by a significant increase in grass transpiration rate in the shallow soil layer, balancing a lower transpiration rate by CAM plants. By comparison, trees in tree-CAM associations may perform hydraulic descent at a higher rate than those in tree-grass associations in a dry environment. Model simulations also show that hydraulic lift increases the transpiration of shallow-rooted plants, while hydraulic descent increases that of deep-rooted plants. CAM plants transpire during the night and thus perform HR during the day. Based on these model simulations, we suggest that the ability of CAM plants to perform HR at a higher rate may have different effects on the surrounding plant community than those of plants with C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathways (i.e., diurnal transpiration).

  7. Starch distribution in anthers, microspores and pollen grains in Aechmea recurvata (Klotzsch. L.B.Sm., Dyckia racinae L.B.Sm. and Tillandsia aeranthos (Loisel. L.B.Sm. (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Santos de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative description of the starch distribution in the anthers, microspores and pollen grains of Aechmea recurvata, Dyckia racinae and Tillandsia aeranthos. Flowers at different stages of development were processed according to plant microtechniques for observation by light microscope. Ten stages of embryological development were used as references for the comparative analysis of starch distribution and dynamics. The structural data showed a greater starch accumulation in the parietal layers and connective of D. racinae. It was observed that in the species studied, starch began to accumulate in microspore mother cell stage. The pollen grains in D. racinae and in T. aeranthos present two amylogenesis-amylolysis cycles, while A. recurvata presents only one. One amylogenesis-amylolysis cycle occurs in the parietal layers and/or connective tissue in all three species. The pollen grains in the three species are dispersed without starch and are characterized as the starchless type. Starch dynamics presents a close relation to the development of sporangia, microspores and pollen grains. It is believed that differences in the starch distribution and accumulation are related to the abiotic factors where the species are found.

  8. Fit of CAD/CAM implant frameworks: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar

    2014-12-01

    Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is a strongly emerging prosthesis fabrication method for implant dentistry. Currently, CAD/CAM allows the construction of implant frameworks from different materials. This review evaluates the literature pertaining to the precision fit of fixed implant frameworks fabricated by CAD/CAM. Following a comprehensive electronic search through PubMed (MEDLINE), 14 relevant articles were identified. The results indicate that the precision fit of CAD/CAM frameworks exceeded the fit of the 1-piece cast frameworks and laser-welded frameworks. A similar fit was observed for CAD/CAM frameworks and bonding of the framework body to prefabricated cylinders. The influence of CAD/CAM materials on the fit of a framework is minimal.

  9. Research in non-equalization machining method for spatial cam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-hua CHEN; Yi-jie WU

    2008-01-01

    Many kinds of devices with cam have been widely used in various mechanical equipments.However,non-equalization machining for spatial cam trough remains to be a difficult problem.This paper focuses on the analysis of ruaning conditions and machining processes of spatial cam with oscillating follower.We point out the common errors in the biased distance cutting.By analyzing the motion of oscillating follower of spatial cam,we present a new 3D curve expansion model of spatial cam trough-outline.Based on this model.we have proposed a machining method for trochoidal milling with non-equalization diameter cutter.This new method has led to a creative and effective Way for non.equalization diameter machining for spatial cam with oscillating follower.

  10. A panorama of dental CAD/CAM restorative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Perng-Ru

    2005-07-01

    In the last 2 decades, exciting new developments in dental materials and computer technology have led to the success of contemporary dental computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. Several highly sophisticated chairside and laboratory CAD/CAM systems have been introduced or are under development. This article provides an overview of the development of various CAD/CAM systems. Operational components, methodologies, and restorative materials used with common CAD/CAM systems are discussed. Research data and clinical studies are presented to substantiate the clinical performance of these systems.

  11. Panorama of dental CAD/CAM restorative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Perng-Ru; Essig, Milton E

    2008-10-01

    In the past two decades, exciting new developments in dental materials and computer technology have led to the success of contemporary dental computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology. Several highly sophisticated in-office and laboratory CAD/CAM systems have been introduced or are under development. This article provides an overview of the development of various CAD/CAM systems. Operational components, methodologies, and restorative materials used with common CAD/CAM systems are discussed. Research data and clinical studies are presented to substantiate the clinical performance of these systems.

  12. Growth of epiphytic bromeliads in a changing world: The effects of CO 2, water and nutrient supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotz, Gerhard; Bogusch, Wiebke; Hietz, Peter; Ketteler, Nadine

    2010-11-01

    Vascular epiphytes, which respond to varying water supply more than any other life form, are thought to be particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are de-coupled from the soil and are thus more directly affected by atmospheric conditions. The few available studies addressing the effect of climate change on epiphytes have either studied plant responses to changes in water supply or to elevated CO 2, but none has looked at possible interactions of these abiotic factors. Here, we present a growth chamber study on the response of individuals of 11 species of epiphytic bromeliads from both tropical lowlands and montane areas to varying CO 2, water and nutrient levels. Water availability had by far the strongest and most consistent impact on plant growth, while the effects of elevated CO 2 and increased nutrient supply were much less consistent across species or habitats. A significant mitigation of reduced water availability by increased CO 2 levels could not be detected. While some species from montane areas were very susceptible to low water availability, lowland species were mostly quite drought-tolerant. These results suggest that global change can pose a real threat to vascular epiphytes through changes in the altitude of cloud formation and altered precipitation patterns, acknowledging substantial differences between species and habitats. Other aspects of global change like the increase of atmospheric CO 2 levels as such seem of limited relevance for the functioning of epiphytic plants.

  13. Subaru Prime Focus Camera -- Suprime-Cam --

    CERN Document Server

    Miyazaki, S; Sekiguchi, M; Okamura, S; Doi, M; Furusawa, H; Hamabe, M; Imi, K; Kimura, M; Nakata, F; Okada, N; Ouchi, M; Shimasaku, K; Yagi, M; Yasuda, N; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Maki; Okamura, Sadanori; Doi, Mamoru; Furusawa, Hisanori; Hamabe, Masaru; Imi, Katsumi; Kimura, Masahiki; Nakata, Fumiaki; Okada, Norio; Ouchi, Masami; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Masafumi; Yasuda, Naoki

    2002-01-01

    We have built an 80 mega pixels (10240 X 8192) mosaic CCD camera, called Suprime-Cam, for the wide field prime focus of the 8.2 m Subaru telescope. Suprime-Cam covers a field of view 34 arcmin X 27 arcmin, a unique facility among the the 8 - 10 m class telescopes, with a resolution of 0.202 arcsec per pixel. The focal plane consists of ten high-resistivity 2kX4k CCDs developed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory and these are cooled by a large stirling cycle cooler. The CCD readout electronics are developed originally by our group (M-Front & Messia-III) and the system is designed scalable that allows multiple read-out of tens of CCDs. It takes 50 seconds to readout entire arrays. We have designed a filter exchange mechanism of jukebox type that can holds up to ten large filters (205 X 170 X 15 mm^3). The wide field corrector is basically a three-lens Wynne-type but has a new type of atmospheric dispersion corrector. The corrector provides flat focal plane and un-vignetted field of view of 30 arcmin in diameter. Ach...

  14. A new species of bromeliad-feeding Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) from Costa Rica: evidence from DNA barcodes, larval and adult morphology and insect diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Robledo, Carlos; Staines, Charles L; Kress, W John

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) includes 214 species distributed from the south of Mexico to Argentina. Cephaloleia beetles feed mostly on plants from the order Zingiberales. The interactions between Cephaloleia beetles and their Zingiberales host plants is proposed as one of the oldest and most conservative associations. Here we describe a new species of Cephaloleia (Cephaloleiakuprewiczae sp. n.) that feeds on two species of bromeliads (Pitcairniaarcuata and Pitcairniabrittoniana, Bromeliaceae: Pitcairnioideae). Cephaloleiakuprewiczae was previously described as Cephaloleiahistrionica. This study includes evidence from DNA barcodes (COI), larval and adult morphology and insect diets that separates Cephaloleiakuprewiczae from Cephaloleiahistrionica as a new species.

  15. A new species of bromeliad-feeding Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae from Costa Rica: evidence from DNA barcodes, larval and adult morphology and insect diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garcia-Robledo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae includes 214 species distributed from the south of Mexico to Argentina. Cephaloleia beetles feed mostly on plants from the order Zingiberales. The interactions between Cephaloleia beetles and their Zingiberales host plants is proposed as one of the oldest and most conservative associations. Here we describe a new species of Cephaloleia (C. kuprewiczae sp. n. that feeds on two species of bromeliads (Pitcairnia arcuata and P. brittoniana, Bromeliaceae: Pitcairnioideae. Cephaloleia kuprewiczae was previously described as Cephaloleia histrionica. This study includes evidence from DNA barcodes (COI, larval and adult morphology and insect diets that separates C. kuprewiczae from C. histrionica as a new species.

  16. CAD/CAM: Practical and Persuasive in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willms, Ed

    2007-01-01

    Chances are that many high school students would not know how to use drafting instruments, but some might want to gain competence in computer-assisted design (CAD) and possibly computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM). These students are often attracted to tech courses by the availability of CAD/CAM instructions, and many go on to impress employers…

  17. A systematic review of CAD/CAM fit restoration evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitelle, P; Mawussi, B; Tapie, L; Fromentin, O

    2014-11-01

    The evolution and development of CAD/CAM systems have led to the production of prosthetic reconstructions by going beyond the use of traditional techniques. Precision adjustment of prosthetic elements is considered essential to ensure sustainable restoration and dental preparation. The purpose of this article was to summarise the current literature on the fitting quality of fixed prostheses obtained by CAD/CAM technology.

  18. Mechanics of post-cam engagement during simulated dynamic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Clare K; Clary, Chadd W; Cyr, Adam J; Maletsky, Lorin P; Rullkoetter, Paul J

    2013-09-01

    Posterior-stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) components employ a tibial post and femoral cam mechanism to guide anteroposterior knee motion in lieu of the posterior cruciate ligament. Some PS TKA patients report a clicking sensation when the post and cam engage, while severe wear and fracture of the post; we hypothesize that these complications are associated with excessive impact velocity at engagement. We evaluated the effect of implant design on engagement dynamics of the post-cam mechanism and resulting polyethylene stresses during dynamic activity. In vitro simulation of a knee bend activity was performed for four cadaveric specimens implanted with PS TKA components. Post-cam engagement velocity and flexion angle at initial contact were determined. The experimental data were used to validate computational predictions of PS mechanics using the same loading conditions. A lower limb model was subsequently utilized to compare engagement mechanics of eight TKA designs, relating differences between implants to geometric design features. Flexion angle and post-cam velocity at engagement demonstrated considerable ranges among designs (23°-89°, and 0.05-0.22 mm/°, respectively). Post-cam velocity was correlated (r = 0.89) with tibiofemoral condylar design features. Condylar geometry, in addition to post-cam geometry, played a significant role in minimizing engagement velocity and forces and stresses in the post. This analysis guides selection and design of PS implants that facilitate smooth post-cam engagement and reduce edge loading of the post.

  19. EpCAM : Structure and function in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnell, Ulrike; Cirulli, Vincenzo; Giepmans, Ben N. G.

    2013-01-01

    Injection of tumor cells in mice more than 30 years ago resulted in the discovery of an epithelial antigen, later defined as a cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). Although EpCAM has since evoked significant interest as a target in cancer therapy, mechanistic insights on the functions of this glycoprotei

  20. UY Puppis A New Anomalous Z Cam Type Dwarf Nova

    CERN Document Server

    Stubbings, Rod

    2016-01-01

    The defining characteristic of Z Cam stars are standstills in their light curves. Some Z Cams exhibit atypical behaviour by going into outburst from a standstill. It has previously been suggested that UY Pup had been a Z Cam star, but it was ruled out due to its long-term light curve. However, in December 2015 UY Pup went into outburst and unexpectedly entered into a short standstill instead of returning to quiescence. Furthermore, UY Pup exhibited additional unusual behaviour with two outbursts detected during its standstill. After this standstill UY Pup made a brief excursion to a quiescence state and slowly rose to a longer and well-defined standstill, where it again went into another outburst. Through comparative analysis, researching and observational data of UY Pup it is evident and thus concluded that it is indeed a Z Cam star, in which renders it to be one of only four known anomalous Z Cam stars.

  1. Treatment Preferences for CAM in Children with Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. I. Tsao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls (mean age = 14.5 years ± 2.4; range = 8–18 years presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between CAM treatment preferences and patient's sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their self-reported level of functioning. Over 60% of patients elected to try at least one CAM approach for pain. The most popular CAM therapies were biofeedback, yoga and hypnosis; the least popular were art therapy and energy healing, with craniosacral, acupuncture and massage being intermediate. Patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (80% were the most likely to try CAM versus those with other pain diagnoses. In multivariate analyses, pain duration emerged as a significant predictor of CAM preferences. For mind-based approaches (i.e. hypnosis, biofeedback and art therapy, pain duration and limitations in family activities were both significant predictors. When given a choice of CAM therapies, this sample of children with chronic pain, irrespective of pain diagnosis, preferred non-invasive approaches that enhanced relaxation and increased somatic control. Longer duration of pain and greater impairment in functioning, particularly during family activities increased the likelihood that such patients agreed to engage in CAM treatments, especially those that were categorized as mind-based modalities.

  2. Treatment Preferences for CAM in children with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jennie C I; Meldrum, Marcia; Kim, Su C; Jacob, Margaret C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2007-09-01

    CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls) (mean age = 14.5 years +/- 2.4; range = 8-18 years) presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between CAM treatment preferences and patient's sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their self-reported level of functioning. Over 60% of patients elected to try at least one CAM approach for pain. The most popular CAM therapies were biofeedback, yoga and hypnosis; the least popular were art therapy and energy healing, with craniosacral, acupuncture and massage being intermediate. Patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (80%) were the most likely to try CAM versus those with other pain diagnoses. In multivariate analyses, pain duration emerged as a significant predictor of CAM preferences. For mind-based approaches (i.e. hypnosis, biofeedback and art therapy), pain duration and limitations in family activities were both significant predictors. When given a choice of CAM therapies, this sample of children with chronic pain, irrespective of pain diagnosis, preferred non-invasive approaches that enhanced relaxation and increased somatic control. Longer duration of pain and greater impairment in functioning, particularly during family activities increased the likelihood that such patients agreed to engage in CAM treatments, especially those that were categorized as mind-based modalities.

  3. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM providers’ views of chronic low back pain patients’ expectations of CAM therapies: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schafer Lisa M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some researchers think that patients with higher expectations for CAM therapies experience better outcomes and that enthusiastic providers can enhance treatment outcomes. This is in contrast to evidence suggesting conventional medical providers often reorient patient expectations to better match what providers believe to be realistic. However, there is a paucity of research on CAM providers’ views of their patients’ expectations regarding CAM therapy and the role of these expectations in patient outcomes. Methods To better understand how CAM providers view and respond to their patients’ expectations of a particular therapy, we conducted 32 semi-structured, qualitative interviews with acupuncturists, chiropractors, massage therapists and yoga instructors identified through convenience sampling. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically using Atlas ti version 6.1. Results CAM providers reported that they attempt to ensure that their patients’ expectations are realistic. Providers indicated they manage their patients’ expectations in a number of domains— roles and responsibilities of providers and patients, treatment outcomes, timeframe for improvement, and treatment experience. Providers reported that patients’ expectations change over time and that they need to continually manage these expectations to enhance patient engagement and satisfaction with treatment. Conclusions Providers of four types of CAM therapies viewed patients’ expectations as an important component of their experiences with CAM therapy and indicated that they try to align patient expectations with reality. These findings suggest that CAM providers are similar in this respect to conventional medical providers.

  4. 2-Cam LWIR imaging Stokes polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudenov, Michael W.; Dereniak, Eustace L.; Pezzaniti, Larry; Gerhart, Grant R.

    2008-04-01

    A 2-Cam micro-bolometer imaging polarimeter operating in the LWIR is presented. The system is capable of snapshot imaging Stokes polarimetry in any one channel (S I, S II, or S 3) by taking two simultaneous measurements of a scene. For measurements of S I or S II, the instrument relies on a specially optimized wire-grid beam-splitter. For measurements of S 3, a form birefringent quarter-wave retarder is inserted into the optical path. Specifics associated with the design of the wire-grid beam-splitter and the form birefringent quarter-wave retarder will be overviewed, with inclusion of RCWA simulations. Calibration and simulation procedures, as well as calibration targets, will be highlighted, and initial data from the instrument are presented.

  5. Immediate CAD/ CAM Custom Fabricated Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There will almost always be gaps between cylin-drical or screw shaped prefabricated implant surface and funnel-shaped tooth socket when an implant is placed immediately after tooth extraction. Hence expensive and difficult bone grafting is re-quired. A custom fabricated implant will be a pragmatic solution for this limitation.The hypothesis: First step following extraction of a tooth is data capture or scanning via a 3D scan method e.g. coordinate measuring machine or non-contact laser scanners such as triangulation range finder. Second step is reconstruction or modeling via editable CAD (computer-aided design model, allowing us to add retentive holes and correction of implant angle. Third step is fabrication via CAM (computer aided manufacturing followed by plasma cleaning process. Fourth step is insertion of the CAD/CAM custom fabricated one-stage implant in the fresh tooth socket. Optimal time for this step is 24-48 hours after extraction. The custom fabricated implant should not load 3-4 months. Usage of chlorhexidine mouth-rinse or chewing gum twice daily for 2 weeks and, in some cases oral antibiotic is recommended. Evaluation of the hypothesis: Contemporary dental implant system faced with several clinical and anatomical limitations such is low sinuses or nerve bundles. Complex and expensive surgical procedures such as nerve repositioning and sinus lift are frequently required. With custom fabricated implant we can overcome several of these limitations because insertion of custom fabricated implant will perform before alveolar bone recession.

  6. Camerobiid mites (Acariformes: Raphignathina: Camerobiidae inhabiting epiphytic bromeliads and soil litter of tropical dry forest with analysis of setal homology in the genus Neophyllobius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Paredes-León

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the camerobiid mites living on epiphytic bromeliads and the forest floor of a Mexican tropical dry forest was carried out. We found three new species of the genus Neophyllobius, which are described in this paper; the first two, namely N. cibyci sp. nov. and N. tepoztlanensis sp. nov., were both found inhabiting bromeliads (Tillandsia spp. and living on two tree species (Quercus obtusata and Sapium macrocarpum; the third, N. tescalicola sp. nov., was found in soil and litter under Q. obtusata. These three new species can be differentiated from other species in the genus by a combination of morphological characters in adult females, mainly those setae on femora and genua I. The idiosoma and leg setal ontogeny of a camerobiid mite is presented for the first time in this paper, illustrating chaetotaxic notations and their relative positions in N. cibyci sp. nov. larva, protonymph and adults (female and male, and establishing setal homologies among instars. Setal homology with other species in the cohort Raphignathina is briefly discussed. Additionally, a compilation and an identification key to all known species of camerobiid mites in Mexico is provided.

  7. Turnkey CAD/CAM systems' integration with IPAD systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauth, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Today's commercially available turnkey CAD/CAM systems provide a highly interactive environment, and support many specialized application functions for the design/drafting/manufacturing process. This paper presents an overview of several aerospace companies which have successfully integrated turnkey CAD/CAM systems with their own company wide engineering and manufacturing systems. It also includes a vendor's view of the benefits as well as the disadvantages of such integration efforts. Specific emphasis is placed upon the selection of standards for representing geometric engineering data and for communicating such information between different CAD/CAM systems.

  8. Single unit CAD/CAM restorations: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Michael; Quinn, Frank; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) has been used in dentistry since 1987. Since then, many CAD/CAM systems have been described, which enable the production of chair-side single unit dental restorations. These restorations are of comparable quality to those made by conventional techniques and have some specific advantages, including rapid production, improved wear properties, decreased laboratory fee and improved cross infection control. This literature review investigates the evidence base for the use of single unit CAD/CAM restorations. Materials, marginal gap, aesthetics, post-operative sensitivity, cementation, cost-effectiveness and longevity are discussed.

  9. Camønoen: Mobilizing pilgrim trails along collaborative platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Widtfeld Meged, Jane

    2016-01-01

    and citizens alike? The recently opened pilgrim trail, Camønoen represents an adapted collaborative business model and as such an appropriate case to study new coastal value creation processes. Camønoen is a 175 km long newly designed walking trail across the islands of Møn, Nyord and Bogø. The trail...... is augmented by a digital platform on which hikers may directly connect with local citizens and book experiences ranging from private dinners to bird-watching and berry-picking. The platform Camønoen.org is hosted by the regional museum, which neither charges for intermediation, nor is responsible for vetting...

  10. CAD/CAM approach to improving industry productivity gathers momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results and planning for the NASA/industry Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) program for improving productivity with CAD/CAM methods are outlined. The industrial group work is being mainly done by Boeing, and progress has been made in defining the designer work environment, developing requirements and a preliminary design for a future CAD/CAM system, and developing CAD/CAM technology. The work environment was defined by conducting a detailed study of a reference design process, and key software elements for a CAD/CAM system have been defined, specifically for interactive design or experiment control processes. Further work is proceeding on executive, data management, geometry and graphics, and general utility software, and dynamic aspects of the programs being developed are outlined

  11. Resin-composite blocks for dental CAD/CAM applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, N D; Sadoun, M J

    2014-12-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and resin composites. While glass-ceramics/ceramics have overall superior mechanical and esthetic properties, resin-composite materials may offer significant advantages related to their machinability and intra-oral reparability. This review summarizes recent developments in resin-composite materials for CAD/CAM applications, focusing on both commercial and experimental materials.

  12. Complementary and alternative (CAM) dietary therapies for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Sheila

    2008-02-01

    Complementary and alternative (CAM) therapies include a wide spectrum of dietary practices, some of which are claimed to cure cancer. Observational studies have shown consistently that predominantly plant-based diets reduce the risk for some adult type cancers such as breast cancer and prostate cancer. These studies form the basis of the American Cancer Society (ACS) nutritional guidelines. Many CAM diets prescribe a similar low fat, high fiber, high fruit and vegetable type diet, but also add detoxification and many different supplements to the basic diet which is then claimed to cure cancer. The potential advantages and disadvantages of CAM diets are discussed. Many aspects can be potentially harmful, particularly to the child with cancer. Advantages include involvement of the child and family in decision-making and care. There is no evidence to support the claims that CAM dietary therapies cure cancer.

  13. Surgical hip dislocation for treatment of cam femoroacetabular impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M Chaudhary

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Cam femoroacetabular Impingement causing pain and limitation of hip movements was treated by open osteochondroplasty after surgical hip dislocation. This reduced pain, improved hip motion and gave good to excellent results in the short term.

  14. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Time to Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with your health care providers any complementary and alternative medicines you take or are thinking about starting. Photo: ... and older use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). But less than one-third who use ...

  15. Finding the Evidence in CAM: a Student's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Ghassemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This commentary offers a future health care provider's perspective on the role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in Western (namely, in US medical education and practice. As a student of both public health and medicine in the United States, Jeffrey Ghassemi is interested in CAM's contribution to improving medical practice and teaching. The commentary highlights the ambiguous definitions of CAM to Westerners despite the rising popularity of and expenditures for alternative modalities of care. It then argues for collaboration between alternative and established medical communities to ascertain the scientific merits of CAM. It concludes by calling for a new medical paradigm that embraces the philosophies of both communities to advance education and patient care.

  16. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    Young, J

    2000-01-01

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies, and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability.

  17. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C; Bowers, John E; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Zhangyao; Miao, Chenyong; Lin, Zhicong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Hongye; Yim, Won C; Priest, Henry D; Zheng, Chunfang; Woodhouse, Margaret; Edger, Patrick P; Guyot, Romain; Guo, Hao-Bo; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Guangyong; Singh, Ratnesh; Sharma, Anupma; Min, Xiangjia; Zheng, Yun; Lee, Hayan; Gurtowski, James; Sedlazeck, Fritz J; Harkess, Alex; McKain, Michael R; Liao, Zhenyang; Fang, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Weichang; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Chen, Li-Yu; Shirley, Neil; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Li-Yu; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Wright, Chris L; Bulone, Vincent; Tuskan, Gerald A; Heath, Katy; Zee, Francis; Moore, Paul H; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Leebens-Mack, James H; Mockler, Todd; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Freeling, Michael; Sankoff, David; Paterson, Andrew H; Zhu, Xinguang; Yang, Xiaohan; Smith, J Andrew C; Cushman, John C; Paull, Robert E; Yu, Qingyi

    2015-12-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 and MD2 and a wild pineapple relative, Ananas bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole-genome duplication event than sequenced grass genomes and a conserved karyotype with seven chromosomes from before the ρ duplication event. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM, with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues. CAM pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements associated with the regulation of circadian clock genes, providing the first cis-regulatory link between CAM and circadian clock regulation. Pineapple CAM photosynthesis evolved by the reconfiguration of pathways in C3 plants, through the regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting genes and not through the acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole-genome or tandem gene duplication.

  18. Aquatic CAM photosynthesis: a brief history of its discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) photosynthesis was discovered while investigating an unrelated biochemical pathway concerned with anaerobic metabolism. George Bowes was a significant contributor to this project early in its infancy. Not only did he provide me with some valuable perspectives on peer review rejections, but by working with his gas exchange system I was able to take our initial observations of diel fluctuations in malic acid to the next level, showing this aquatic plant exhibited dark CO2 uptake. CAM is universal in all aquatic species of the worldwide Lycophyta genus Isoetes and non-existent in terrestrial Isoetes. Outside of this genus aquatic CAM has a limited occurrence in three other families, including the Crassulaceae. This discovery led to fascinating adventures in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes in search of Stylites, a terrestrial relative of Isoetes. Stylites is a plant that is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere and obtains all of its carbon from terrestrial sources and recycles carbon through CAM. Considering the Mesozoic origin of Isoetes in shallow pools, coupled with the fact that aquatic Isoetes universally possess CAM, suggests the earliest evolution of CAM photosynthesis was most likely not in terrestrial plants.

  19. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Enolase Gene from Ornamental Bromeliads%观赏凤梨烯醇酶基因的克隆及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴吉林; 刘建新

    2012-01-01

    Enolase catalyze only one-step dehydration reaction in glycolytic pathway, and relate closely to plant stress resistance. Based on EST monoclones of enolase gene obtained from bromeliads full length cD-NA library of ornamental bromeliads,its full length cDNA sequence was obtained by Primer Walking sequencing. The gene,named for GoEnolasel (GenBank accession No. JN896863) .consisted of 1 703 bp cD-NA sequence, 1 335 bp ORF(open reading frame) which encoded a protem with 445 amino acids residues, and a putative protein which was 47. 9 kD at estimated molecular weight,5. 7 at isoelectric point and had a 'TIM-phosphate-binding superfamily' conservative domain. The secondary structure of the protein was composed of alpha helix (44. 49%), random coil (33. 71%), extend strand (13. 71%) and beta turn (8. 09%) by SPOMA analysis. Furthermore, its tertiary structure was also build based on A chain of 2PSN. Through phylogenetic tree analysis,GoEnolasel was gather to a same group with enolase protein in Oryza sativa ,Zea mays and Elaeis guineensis. The research was beneficial to breeding for stress resistance in ornamental bromeliads.%烯醇酶催化着糖酵解途径中的唯一一步脱水反应,与植物的抗逆性有着密切的联系.基于前期从擎天凤梨全长cDNA文库中获得的烯醇酶基因的EST单克隆,进行引物步移测序,获得其全长cDNA序列.序列长1703hp,编码445个氨基酸残基,命名为GoEnolasel(GenBank登录号JN896863),蛋白质理论分子质量为47.9kD,等电点为5.7,包含1个TIM磷酸结合超家族保守区,二级结构主要由α螺旋(44.49%)、随机卷曲(33.71%)、延伸链(13.71%)和β转角(8.09%)组成.系统进化树分析表明,GoEnolasel蛋白与水稻、玉米、油棕等的烯醇酶蛋白聚为一类,它们的亲缘关系最近.

  20. The Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Michael A.; Hyper Suprime-Cam Team

    2017-01-01

    High-latitude wide-field optical imaging surveys allow us to address scientific questions ranging from the properties of asteroids in the Solar System, to the structure of the Milky Way halo, to galaxy evolution, to the distribution of dark matter in the universe and the properties and evolution of dark energy. Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) is an imaging camera with a 1.77 deg2 field of view, mounted at the Prime Focus of the Subaru 8.2-m telescope operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan on the summit of Maunakea in Hawaii. A consortium of astronomers from Japan, Taiwan and Princeton University is carrying out a three-layer, 300-night, multiband survey with this instrument. The Wide Layer will cover 1400 deg2 in five broad bands (grizy), to a 5 sigma point-source depth of r~26. The Deep Layer will cover 28 deg2 in four separate fields, going a magnitude deeper, and including narrow-band imaging to identify Lyman-alpha emitters at high redshift. The Ultradeep Layer will go a magnitude deeper still in two pointings (3.5 deg2), allowing studies of supernovae and other variable phenomenae.The survey started in 2014, and will continue through 2019. We have covered 240 deg2 of the Wide Layer in all five bands, and the median seeing in the i band is 0.60 arcseconds. In this introductory talk to the HSC special session, I will describe the quality of the data, plans for public data release, and touch upon some of the early science results, which range from the discovery of an ultrafaint dwarf galaxy in the Milky Way halo, to significant numbers of quasars and galaxies with redshifts between 5.7 and 7, to measurements of gravitational weak lensing around clusters.

  1. PRODUCT DATA MANAGEMENT DALAM KAITAN DENGAN CAD/CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Nugroho Yahya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The future industry is the one who can manage the information system. Today, communication technology and distributed system computerization already have the ability to implement system that able to exchange and share information between different users. Product Data Management (PDM is an up-to-date and excellent method on managing the exchange and share of information. PDM is able to integrate and manage data analyzing process and documentation of the related product component physically. By adjusting the CAD/CAM on certain condition, the PDM will function maximally by using the information based on STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product Data model. This article will explain the relationship between PDM system and CAD/CAM on industry. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sistem informasi merupakan ujung tombak sebuah perusahaan yang unggul di masa depan. Komputerisasi dengan sistem yang terdistribusi dan teknologi komunikasi saat ini memiliki kemampuan untuk mengimplementasikan sistem yang dapat menukar dan men-share informasi antar user yang berbeda. Teknologi yang mendapat cukup perhatian luas dalam hal pertukaran dan sharing informasi ini adalah Product Data Management (PDM. PDM dapat mengintegrasikan dan mengatur proses pengolahan data dan dokumen teknik yang berhubungan dengan komponen fisik produk yang bersangkutan. PDM akan berfungsi maksimal apabila kesesuaian dengan CAD/CAM diatur sedemikian rupa, dihubungkan dengan informasi berbasiskan STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product Data model. Artikel ini akan menjelaskan hubungan antara sistem PDM dengan CAD/CAM dalam industri. Kata kunci: PDM, Manajemen Data, CAD/CAM, STEP.

  2. CamBAfx: Workflow Design, Implementation and Application for Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cinly; Bullmore, Edward T; Wink, Alle-Meije; Sendur, Levent; Barnes, Anna; Achard, Sophie; Aspden, John; Abbott, Sanja; Yue, Shigang; Kitzbichler, Manfred; Meunier, David; Maxim, Voichita; Salvador, Raymond; Henty, Julian; Tait, Roger; Subramaniam, Naresh; Suckling, John

    2009-01-01

    CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers) and those who design them (designers). It provides a front-end (user interface) optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platform application, CamBAfx's pipelines and functions can be bundled with the software or downloaded post-installation. The user interface contains all the workflow facilities expected by consumers. Using the Eclipse Extension Mechanism designers are encouraged to customize CamBAfx for their own pipelines. CamBAfx wraps a workflow facility around neuroinformatics software without modification. CamBAfx's design, licensing and Eclipse Branding Mechanism allow it to be used as the user interface for other software, facilitating exchange of innovative computational tools between originating labs.

  3. CamBAfx: workflow design, implementation and application for neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinly Ooi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers and those who design them (designers. It provides a front-end (user interface optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platform application, CamBAfx's pipelines and functions can be bundled with the software or downloaded post-installation. The user interface contains all the workflow facilities expected by consumers. Using the Eclipse Extension Mechanism designers are encouraged to customize CamBAfx for their own pipelines. CamBAfx wraps a workflow facility around neuroinformatics software without modification. CamBAfx's design, licensing and Eclipse Branding Mechanism allow it to be used as the user interface for other software, facilitating exchange of innovative computational tools between originating labs.

  4. The Pleiotropic Role of L1CAM in Tumor Vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolini, Francesca; Cavallaro, Ugo

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new vessels, is a key step in the development, invasion, and dissemination of solid tumors and, therefore, represents a viable target in the context of antitumor therapy. Indeed, antiangiogenic approaches have given promising results in preclinical models and entered the clinical practice. However, in patients, the results obtained so far with antiangiogenic drugs have not completely fulfilled expectations, especially because their effect has been transient with tumors developing resistance and evasion mechanisms. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie tumor vascularization and the functional regulation of cancer vessels is a prerequisite for the development of novel and alternative antiangiogenic treatments. The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM), a cell surface glycoprotein previously implicated in the development and plasticity of the nervous system, is aberrantly expressed in the vasculature of various cancer types. L1CAM plays multiple pro-angiogenic roles in the endothelial cells of tumor-associated vessels, thus emerging as a potential therapeutic target. In addition, L1CAM prevents the maturation of cancer vasculature and its inhibition promotes vessel normalization, a process that is thought to improve the therapeutic response of tumors to cytotoxic drugs. We here provide an overview on tumor angiogenesis and antiangiogenic therapies and summarize the current knowledge on the biological role of L1CAM in cancer vasculature. Finally, we highlight the clinical implications of targeting L1CAM as a novel antiangiogenic and vessel-normalizing approach. PMID:28134764

  5. On the nature of facultative and constitutive CAM: environmental and developmental control of CAM expression during early growth of Clusia, Kalanchöe, and Opuntia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Garcia, Milton; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2008-01-01

    The capacity to induce crassulacean acid metabolism developmentally (constitutive CAM) and to up-regulate CAM expression in response to drought stress (facultative CAM) was studied in whole shoots of seven species by measuring net CO(2) gas exchange for up to 120 day-night cycles during early growth. In Clusia rosea, CAM was largely induced developmentally. Well-watered seedlings began their life cycle as C(3) plants and developed net dark CO(2) fixation indicative of CAM after the initiation of the fourth leaf pair following the cotyledons. Thereafter, CAM activity increased progressively and drought stress led to only small additional, reversible increases in dark CO(2) fixation. In contrast, CAM expression was overwhelmingly under environmental control in seedlings and mature plants of Clusia pratensis. C(3)-type CO(2) exchange was maintained under well-watered conditions, but upon drought stress, CO(2) exchange shifted, in a fully reversible manner, to a CAM-type pattern. Clusia minor showed CO(2) exchange reponses intermediate to those of C. rosea and C. pratensis. Clusia cretosa operated in the C(3) mode at all times. Notably, reversible stress-induced increases of dark CO(2) fixation were also observed during the developmental progression to pronounced CAM in young Kalanchoë daigremontiana and Kalanchoë pinnata, two species considered constitutive CAM species. Drought-induced up-regulation of CAM was even detected in young cladodes of a cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica, an archetypal constitutive CAM species. Evidently, the defining characteristics of constitutive and facultative CAM are shared, to variable degrees, by all CAM species.

  6. Principle and curve of planetary indexing cam mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming-tao; ZHANG Ce; YANG Yu-hu

    2006-01-01

    A new type of planetary indexing cam mechanism called type IV is presented.The transmission principle of type IV is discussed.Based on the principle of formarion of conjugate tooth contour,the equations of the cam's pitch curve are derived.The continuity and symmetry of the cain's pitch curve are also analyzed.It can be concluded that:1) This type has no output institution so the output precision can be improved;2) The asymmetrical two-ring structure is used to-overcome dead point and its phase angle is equal to (π-2π/n) ;3) The continuous condition of the cam's pitch curve is that the average transmission ratio is -n in an intermittent motion period.

  7. GravityCam: Higher Resolution Visible Wide-Field Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Craig; Steele, Iain

    2016-01-01

    The limits to the angular resolution achievable with conventional ground-based telescopes are unchanged over 70 years. Atmospheric turbulence limits image quality to typically ~1 arcsec in practice. We have developed a new concept of ground-based imaging instrument called GravityCam capable of delivering significantly sharper images from the ground than is normally possible without adaptive optics. The acquisition of visible images at high speed without significant noise penalty has been made possible by advances in optical and near IR imaging technologies. Images are recorded at high speed and then aligned before combination and can yield a 3-5 fold improvement in image resolution. Very wide survey fields are possible with widefield telescope optics. We describe GravityCam and detail its application to accelerate greatly the rate of detection of Earth size planets by gravitational microlensing. GravityCam will also improve substantially the quality of weak shear studies of dark matter distribution in distant...

  8. Xi-CAM v1.2.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-06

    Xi-CAM aims to provide a community driven platform for multimodal analysis in synchrotron science. The platform core provides a robust plugin infrastructure for extensibility, allowing continuing development to simply add further functionality. Current modules include tools for characterization with (GI)SAXS, Tomography, and XAS. This will continue to serve as a development base as algorithms for multimodal analysis develop. Seamless remote data access, visualization and analysis are key elements of Xi-CAM, and will become critical to synchrotron data infrastructure as expectations for future data volume and acquisition rates rise with continuously increasing throughputs. The highly interactive design elements of Xi-cam will similarly support a generation of users which depend on immediate data quality feedback during high-throughput or burst acquisition modes.

  9. MegaPipe: the MegaCam image stacking pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Gwyn, Stephen D J

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the MegaPipe image processing pipeline at the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre (CADC). The pipeline takes multiple images from the MegaCam mosaic camera on CFHT and combines them into a single output image. MegaPipe takes as input detrended MegaCam images and does a careful astrometric and photometric calibration on them. The calibrated images are then resampled and combined into image stacks. MegaPipe is run on PI data by request, data from large surveys (the CFHT Legacy Survey and the Next Generation Virgo Survey) and all non-proprietary MegaCam data in the CFHT archive. The stacked images and catalogs derived from these images are available through the CADC website. Currently, 1500 square degrees have been processed.

  10. Passivity of conventional and CAD/CAM fabricated implant frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Gabriela Monteiro; de França, Danilo Gonzaga Bernardo; Silva Neto, João Paulo; Barbosa, Gustavo Augusto Seabra

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the passivity by measuring the passive fit and strain development of frameworks screwed on abutments, made by CAD/CAM technology, and to compare these parts with samples manufactured by conventional casting. Using CAD/CAM technology, four samples were made from zirconia (Zircad) and four samples were manufactured from cobalt-chrome (CoCrcad). The control groups were four specimens of cobalt-chrome, made by one-piece casting (CoCrci), with a total of 12 frameworks. To evaluate the passive fit, the vertical misfit at the abutment-framework interface was measured with scanning electron microscopy (250×) when only one screw was tightened. The mean strain in these frameworks was analyzed by photoelasticity test. A significant difference in the passive fit was observed between the control and sample groups. CoCrcad exhibited the best value of passive fit (48.76±13.45 µm) and CoCrci the worst (187.55±103.63 µm); Zircad presented an intermediate value (103.81±43.15 µm). When compared to the other groups, CoCrci showed the highest average stress around the implants (17.19±7.22 kPa). It was concluded that CAD/CAM-fabricated frameworks exhibited better passivity compared with conventionally fabricated frameworks. CAD/CAM-fabricated Co-Cr frameworks may exhibit better passive fit compared with CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia frameworks. Even so, similar levels of stress were achieved for CAD/CAM-fabricated frameworks.

  11. CAD/CAM generated all-ceramic primary telescopic prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbad, A; Ganz, S; Kurbad, S

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems have proven effective not only for the manufacture of crown and bridge frameworks, inlays, onlays and veneers, but also for the generation of all-ceramic primary telescopic prostheses in more than 10 years of use in dental technology. The new InLab 4.0 software generation makes it possible to design and mill primary telescopic prostheses with CAD/CAM technology. The computer-generated raw crowns for these restorations require very little manual adaptation. The secondary crowns are manufactured by electroforming and bonded onto the tertiary structure or framework.

  12. Impact of IPAD on CAD/CAM database university research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, L. M.; Wozny, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    IPAD program has provided direction, focus and software products which impacted on CAD/CAM data base research and follow-on research. The relationship of IPAD to the research projects which involve the storage of geometric data in common data ase facilities such as data base machines, the exchange of data between heterogeneous data bases, the development of IGES processors, the migration of lrge CAD/CAM data base management systems to noncompatible hosts, and the value of RIM as a research tool is described.

  13. CAD/CAM in the Brazilian aeronautical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampi, L. H.; Embraer, S. A.

    Features, applications and progress in the usage of CAD/CAM since 1980 by an aircraft manufacturer in Brazil are described. The system comprises 34 graphics work stations dedicated to structural design, lofting, electrical cable routing, finite element modeling and quality control. Standardized work methods have been devised to enhance productivity. Programs have been defined for finite element stress analysis and generating wiring diagrams. The computerized design capabilities have increased productivity for hole boring accuracy through work on digitized controllers. Psychological testing has been initiated to identify users who can adapt more easily to CAD/CAM utilization.

  14. FlashCam: A fully digital camera for CTA telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pühlhofer, G; Biland, A; Florin, D; Föhr, C; Gadola, A; Hermann, G; Kalkuhl, C; Kasperek, J; Kihm, T; Koziol, J; Manalaysay, A; Marszalek, A; Rajda, P J; Schanz, T; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Tenzer, C; Vogler, P; Vollhardt, A; Weitzel, Q; Winiarski, K; Zietara, K

    2012-01-01

    The future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will consist of several tens of telescopes of different mirror sizes. CTA will provide next generation sensitivity to very high energy photons from few tens of GeV to >100 TeV. Several focal plane instrumentation options are currently being evaluated inside the CTA consortium. In this paper, the current status of the FlashCam prototyping project is described. FlashCam is based on a fully digital camera readout concept and features a clean separation between photon detector plane and signal digitization/triggering electronics.

  15. CAM visual stimulation with conventional method of occlusion treatment in amblyopia: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Jafari

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Using of CAM visual stimulation along with conventional occlusion will further improve visual acuity and stereopsis in amblyopic children. These findings recommended the CAM visual stimulation as an accompanying and complementary method in amblyopia treatment.

  16. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... for low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

  17. Criadouros de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 em bromélias nativas na Cidade de Vitória, ES Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 breeding sites in native bromeliads in Vitória City, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Benedito Malta Varejão

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Alguns insetos transmissores de doenças procriam exclusivamente nas proximidades das residências. O Aedes aegypti, responsável por epidemias de dengue em cidades brasileiras, representa sério risco também para a febre amarela. Com o insucesso da campanha de erradicação do inseto, justifica-se a busca de criadouros fora do alcance das medidas de controle atualmente adotadas. Na Cidade de Vitória, ES, investigou-se a ocorrência de criadouros de Aedes aegypti na água coletada em bromélias nativas, sobre as rochas. Paralelamente, avaliou-se a infestação predial nas áreas urbanas contíguas. Em quatro das cinco áreas investigadas foram encontradas larvas de culicídeos nas bromélias, sendo que em duas foi identificado Aedes aegypti. A presença dos criadouros em bromélias não guardou relação com a infestação predial nas áreas próximas. Torna-se necessário definir se os criadouros em bromélias constituem focos primários do Aedes aegypti, ou se representam uma conseqüência da elevada infestação urbana.Some insects that are vectors of human diseases have accompanied man in his migrations throughout the world and breed exclusively in the proximity of human dwellings. The mosquito Aedes aegypti has been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Brazil and its presence also constitutes a serious risk for future outbreaks of urban yellow fever. The failure of campaigns to eradicate this species justifies the search for alternative breeding sites, which may be beyond the reach of present control measures. In this study the occurrence of Aedes aegypti breeding sites in native bromeliads on rocky slopes was investigated in five areas of Vitória, capital of the Brazilian State of Espírito Santo, ES. Water contained in the bromeliads was collected with the aid of a suction apparatus to search for culicid larvae. The degree of infestation of buildings in adjacent urban areas was evaluated simultaneously. Culicid larvae were found in

  18. Mitochondrial respiration in ME-CAM, PEPCK-CAM, and C₃ succulents: comparative operation of the cytochrome, alternative, and rotenone-resistant pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, Klaus; von Willert, Dieter J; Martin, Craig E; Herppich, Werner B

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondria are important in the function and control of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) during organic acid accumulation at night and acid decarboxylation in the day. In plants of the malic enzyme-(ME) type and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase- (PEPCK) type, mitochondria may exert their role in the control of the diurnal rhythm of malic and citric acids to a differential degree. In plants of both CAM types, the oxidative capacity of mitochondria, as well as the activity of CAM-linked mitochondrial enzymes, and of the alternative and the rotenone-resistant pathways of substrate oxidation were compared. Furthermore, a C₃ succulent was included, as well as both C₃ and CAM forms of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum during a salt-induced C₃-to-CAM shift. Mitochondria of PEPCK-type CAM plants exhibited a lower activity of malate oxidation, ratio of malate to succinate oxidation, and activity of mitochondrial NAD-ME. With the exception of Kalanchoë daigremontiana, leaf mitochondria of all other CAM species were highly sensitive to cyanide (80-100%), irrespective of the oxidant used. This indicates that the alternative oxidase is not of general importance in CAM. By contrast, rotenone-insensitive substrate oxidation was very high (50-90%) in all CAM species. This is the first comparison of the rotenone-insensitive pathway of respiration in plants with different CAM-types. The results of this study confirm that mitochondria are involved in the control of CAM to different degrees in the two CAM types, and they highlight the multiple roles of mitochondria in CAM.

  19. Effects of Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) on the Metabolism and Transport of Anticancer Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Mooiman, K.D.

    2013-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM), such as herbs and dietary supplements, has become more popular among cancer patients. Cancer patients use these supplements for different reasons such as reduction of side effects and improvement of their quality of life. In general, the use of CAM is considered as safe. However, concomitant use of CAM and anticancer drugs could result in serious safety issues since CAM have the potential to cause pharmacokinetic interactions with conv...

  20. Aedes albopictus em bromélias de solo em Ilhabela, litoral do Estado de São Paulo Aedes albopictus in soil bromeliads in Ilhabela, coastal area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela R A M Marques

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a presença de Aedes albopictus em bromélias de solo localizadas em ambientes ecologicamente distintos, em termos de positividade, densidade e volume de água. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado no município de Ilhabela, litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo. Realizaram-se coletas quinzenais, de março de 1998 a julho de 1999, em tanques de bromélias localizadas nos ambientes urbano, periurbano e mata; o conteúdo aquático das plantas foi medido e registrado. O tratamento dos dados baseou-se na análise da freqüência de bromélias com presença de Ae. albopictus (ANOVA, abundância (Kruskal-Wallis e volume de água das bromélias positivas (Teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: A presença e a densidade de Ae. albopictus em bromélias de solo variou com o tipo de ambiente. Os maiores percentuais de positividade (85% e abundância (81% foram observados nas plantas localizadas em ambiente urbano. Constatou-se ainda preferência dos mosquitos pelas bromélias com maiores volumes de água (média de 300 ml. CONCLUSÕES: As diferentes freqüências com que Ae. albopictus foi registrado nos ambientes e suas respectivas densidades mostraram sua capacidade de invasão a novos habitats. Recomenda-se intensificar a vigilância entomológica nessas plantas, dada a sua capacidade em traduzir-se em criadouros permanentes. A presença desse mosquito de importância médica em bromélias em área preservada da Mata Atlântica poderá resultar em agravo à saúde.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the presence of Aedes albopictus in soil bromeliads in ecologically distinct environments in terms of positivity, density and volume of water. METHODS: The study was carried out in the municipality of Ilhabela, North coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Collections were fortnightly performed between March 1998 and July 1999, in containers of bromeliads located in urban, peri-urban and forest environments. The water content in plants was measured and recorded

  1. 21 CFR 872.3661 - Optical Impression Systems for CAD/CAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optical Impression Systems for CAD/CAM. 872.3661... (CAD/CAM) is a device used to record the topographical characteristics of teeth, dental impressions, or... Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of Dental Restorations; Guidance for Industry and FDA.” For...

  2. The detection of EpCAM+ and EpCAM– circulating tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de Sanne; Dalum, van Guus; Lenferink, Aufried; Tibbe, Arjan G.J.; Hilterman, T. Jeroen N.; Groen, Harry J.M.; Rijn, van Cees J.M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM+ CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM– CTC discarded by CellSearch, after EpCAM based enr

  3. Mechanical properties and DIC analyses of CAD/CAM materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roperto, Renato; Akkus, Anna; Akkus, Ozan; Porto-Neto, Sizenando; Teich, Sorin; Lang, Lisa; Campos, Edson

    2016-01-01

    Background This study compared two well-known computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufactured (CAD/CAM) blocks (Paradigm MZ100 [3M ESPE] and Vitablocs Mark II [Vita] in terms of fracture toughness (Kic), index of brittleness (BI) and stress/strain distributions. Material and Methods Three-point bending test was used to calculate the fracture toughness, and the relationship between the Kic and the Vickers hardness was used to calculate the index of brittleness. Additionally, digital image correlation (DIC) was used to analyze the stress/strain distribution on both materials. Results The values for fracture toughness obtained under three-point bending were 1.87Pa√m (±0.69) for Paradigm MZ100 and 1.18Pa√m (±0.17) for Vitablocs Mark II. For the index of brittleness, the values for Paradigm and Vitablocs were 73.13μm-1/2 (±30.72) and 550.22μm-1/2 (±82.46). One-way ANOVA was performed to find differences (α=0.05) and detected deviation between the stress/strain distributions on both materials. Conclusions Both CAD/CAM materials tested presented similar fracture toughness, but, different strain/stress distributions. Both materials may perform similarly when used in CAD/CAM restorations. Key words:Ceramic, CAD/CAM, hybrid materials, composite resin, fracture toughness. PMID:27957262

  4. Schools (Students) Exchanging CAD/CAM Files over the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Gary S.; Smallwood, James E.

    This document discusses how students and schools can benefit from exchanging computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) files over the Internet, explains how files are exchanged, and examines the problem of selected hardware/software incompatibility. Key terms associated with information search services are defined, and several…

  5. Fabricating Complete Dentures with CAD/CAM and RP Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Erdem, Ali; Aglarci, Osman Sami; Dilber, Erhan

    2015-06-01

    Two techological approaches for fabricating dentures; computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and rapid prototyping (RP), are combined with the conventional techniques of impression and jaw relation recording to determine their feasibility and applicability. Maxillary and mandibular edentulous jaw models were produced using silicone molds. After obtaining a gypsum working model, acrylic bases were crafted, and occlusal rims for each model were fabricated with previously determined standard vertical and centric relationships. The maxillary and mandibular relationships were recorded with guides. The occlusal rims were then scanned with a digital scanner. The alignment of the maxillary and mandibular teeth was verified. The teeth in each arch were fabricated in one piece, or set, either by CAM or RP. Conventional waxing and flasking was then performed for both methods. These techniques obviate a practitioner's need for technicians during design and provide the patient with an opportunity to participate in esthetic design with the dentist. In addition, CAD/CAM and RP reduce chair time; however, the materials and techniques need further improvements. Both CAD/CAM and RP techniques seem promising for reducing chair time and allowing the patient to participate in esthetics design. Furthermore, the one-set aligned artificial tooth design may increase the acrylic's durability.

  6. Including CAD/CAM dentistry in a dental school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, William D; Reifeis, Paul; Willis, Lisa; Kirkup, Michele L

    2013-01-01

    Shaping a clinical curriculum that is appropriate for novice dentists, is based on high-quality evidence of efficacy, yet reflects current practices is challenging. CAD/CAM units have been available to dentists since the late '80s. Recent improvements in the software, hardware and the clinical performance of available all-ceramic blocks have keyed a surge in interest. Based on a careful review of the systems available and, equally importantly, a review of the research regarding the longevity of reinforced glass ceramics, IUSD decided to add training on the use of the E4D CAD/CAM system to the curriculum. Students now receive lectures, preclinical hands-on training and clinical experience in fabricating all-ceramic restorations. At present any student who is interested in providing an all-ceramic restoration for his/her patient can do so using our CAD/CAM system. In a little less than one year our undergraduate dental students have provided 125 all-ceramic crowns to their patients. Clinical faculty have been impressed with the marginal fit and esthetics of the crowns. Finally, with students designing, milling, sintering and staining the restorations the CAD/CAM systems has reduced lab costs significantly.

  7. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 ...

  8. Footage: Action Cam Shorts as Cartographic Captures of Time.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, N.

    2015-01-01

    This short article reflects on short videos of action cam footage that are widely disseminated on online platforms. These first-person perspective shorts are compared to early cinema’s phantom rides in the use of point-of-view shots, and a dizzying effect of heightened mobility and versatility in ca

  9. Doing Performance Appraisal the Right Way: The CAM Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsgard, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Explains the CAM (Clarity, Awareness, Merit Recognition) process for performance reviews in which supervisors declare personal values, expectations, and operational methods; select employee skills for enhancement and define results; provide feedback, recognition and reinforcement; and distribute merit rewards and build deeper mutual commitments to…

  10. Abnormal placental development and early embryonic lethality in EpCAM-null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nagao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: EpCAM (CD326 is encoded by the tacstd1 gene and expressed by a variety of normal and malignant epithelial cells and some leukocytes. Results of previous in vitro experiments suggested that EpCAM is an intercellular adhesion molecule. EpCAM has been extensively studied as a potential tumor marker and immunotherapy target, and more recent studies suggest that EpCAM expression may be characteristic of cancer stem cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain insights into EpCAM function in vivo, we generated EpCAM -/- mice utilizing an embryonic stem cell line with a tacstd1 allele that had been disrupted. Gene trapping resulted in a protein comprised of the N-terminus of EpCAM encoded by 2 exons of the tacstd1 gene fused in frame to betageo. EpCAM +/- mice were viable and fertile and exhibited no obvious abnormalities. Examination of EpCAM +/- embryos revealed that betageo was expressed in several epithelial structures including developing ears (otocysts, eyes, branchial arches, gut, apical ectodermal ridges, lungs, pancreas, hair follicles and others. All EpCAM -/- mice died in utero by E12.5, and were small, developmentally delayed, and displayed prominent placental abnormalities. In developing placentas, EpCAM was expressed throughout the labyrinthine layer and by spongiotrophoblasts as well. Placentas of EpCAM -/- embryos were compact, with thin labyrinthine layers lacking prominent vascularity. Parietal trophoblast giant cells were also dramatically reduced in EpCAM -/- placentas. CONCLUSION: EpCAM was required for differentiation or survival of parietal trophoblast giant cells, normal development of the placental labyrinth and establishment of a competent maternal-fetal circulation. The findings in EpCAM-reporter mice suggest involvement of this molecule in development of vital organs including the gut, kidneys, pancreas, lungs, eyes, and limbs.

  11. The Unsuspecting CAM User: Cancer patients and the changing nature of holistic health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M. Kabel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of cancer patients using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in the United States is growing, yet little is known about the meaning these activities have for users. Current literature supports the assumption that stigma surrounding CAM and holistic health practices are responsible for the reluctance of many cancer patients to self-identify as CAM users. This study explored the frequency of use, and familiarity with CAM among 25 female patients at a Midwestern oncology clinic. Findings suggest that patients need to be asked about CAM use multiple times and in multiple formats to gain an accurate assessment. Also, the assumptions about stigma may no longer be the reason patients are less than forthcoming about CAM use. The rise of integrative medicine and shifting boundaries of the holistic health movement may be equally, or in some cases, more responsible for the reluctance for CAM users to self-identify.

  12. Different CAD/CAM-processing routes for zirconia restorations: influence on fitting accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohorst, Philipp; Junghanns, Janet; Dittmer, Marc P; Borchers, Lothar; Stiesch, Meike

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different processing routes on the fitting accuracy of four-unit zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) fabricated by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Three groups of zirconia frameworks with ten specimens each were fabricated. Frameworks of one group (CerconCAM) were produced by means of a laboratory CAM-only system. The other frameworks were made with different CAD/CAM systems; on the one hand by in-laboratory production (CerconCAD/CAM) and on the other hand by centralized production in a milling center (Compartis) after forwarding geometrical data. Frameworks were then veneered with the recommended ceramics, and marginal accuracy was determined using a replica technique. Horizontal marginal discrepancy, vertical marginal discrepancy, absolute marginal discrepancy, and marginal gap were evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with the level of significance chosen at 0.05. Mean horizontal discrepancies ranged between 22 μm (CerconCAM) and 58 μm (Compartis), vertical discrepancies ranged between 63 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 162 μm (CerconCAM), and absolute marginal discrepancies ranged between 94 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 181 μm (CerconCAM). The marginal gap varied between 72 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 112 μm (CerconCAM, Compartis). Statistical analysis revealed that, with all measurements, the marginal accuracy of the zirconia FDPs was significantly influenced by the processing route used (p CAD/CAM systems are more precise than the CAM-only system for the manufacture of four-unit FDPs.

  13. Hagleromyces gen. nov., a yeast genus in the Saccharomycetaceae, and description of Hagleromyces aurorensis sp. nov., isolated from water tanks of bromeliads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Francisca M P; Morais, Paula B; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-08-01

    Three strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from water tanks (phytotelmata) of a bromeliad species collected in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analysis of sequences for the region spanning the SSU rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer, the 5.8S rRNA gene and the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene and RNA polymerase II gene showed that these novel yeasts belong to a species that is distinct from all recognized ascomycetous yeast species. Based on the results of gene sequence analyses, a novel species representing a new genus in the Saccharomycetaceae is proposed. The novel species is assigned to the genus Hagleromyces gen. nov. The three isolates of the novel yeast species failed to form sexual spores alone or in mixtures. The name Hagleromyces aurorensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain of H. aurorensis sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y311(T) ( = CBS 13264(T)).

  14. Are vascular epiphytes nitrogen or phosphorus limited? A study of plant (15) N fractionation and foliar N : P stoichiometry with the tank bromeliad Vriesea sanguinolenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanek, Wolfgang; Zotz, Gerhard

    2011-10-01

    Although there is unambiguous evidence for vascular epiphytic plants to be limited by insufficient water and nutrient supply under natural conditions, it is an open debate whether they are primarily phosphorus (P) or nitrogen (N) limited. Plant (15) N fractionation and foliar N : P stoichiometry of a tank epiphyte (Vriesea sanguinolenta), and its response to combined N-P fertilization, were studied under semi-natural conditions over 334 d to clarify the type of nutrient limitation. Plants collected in the field and experimental plants with limited nutrient supply showed significant plant (15) N fractionation (mean 5‰) and plant N : P ratios of c. 13.5. Higher relative growth rates and declines in plant (15) N fractionation (0.5‰) and in foliar N : P ratios to 8.5 in the high N-P treatment indicated that these epiphytes were P limited in situ. The critical foliar N : P ratio was 10.4, as derived from the breakpoint in the relationship between plant (15) N fractionation and foliar N : P. We interpret the widespread (15) N depletion of vascular epiphytes relative to their host trees as deriving from (15) N fractionation of epiphytes as a result of P limitation. High foliar N : P ratios (> 12) corroborate widespread P limitation (or co-limitation by N and P) of epiphytic bromeliads and, possibly, other epiphyte species.

  15. Tufting enteropathy with EpCAM mutation: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Lais Pêgas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tufting enteropathy (TE, also known as intestinal epithelial dysplasia (IED, is a rare congenital enteropathy related to an earlyonset of severe intractable diarrhea due to specific abnormalities of the intestinal epithelium and mutations of the EpCAM gene. TE is characterized by clinical and histological heterogeneity, such as with low or without mononuclear cell infiltration of the lamina propria, and abnormalities of basement membrane. TE can be associated with malformations, other epithelial diseases, or to abnormal enterocytes development and/or differentiation. The authors report a case of a Brazilian child with TE associated with c.556-14A>G mutation in the EpCAM gene (NM_002354.2.

  16. CAM Modalities Can Stimulate Advances in Theoretical Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hankey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most complementary medicine is distinguished by not being supported by underlying theory accepted by Western science. However, for those who accept their validity, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM modalities offer clues to understanding physiology and medicine more deeply. Ayurveda and vibrational medicine are stimulating new approaches to biological regulation. The new biophysics can be integrated to yield a single consistent theory, which may well underly much of CAM—a true ‘physics of physick’. The resulting theory seems to be a new, fundamental theory of health and etiology. It suggests that many CAM approaches to health care are scientifically in advance of those based on current Western biology. Such theories may well constitute the next steps in our scientific understanding of biology itself. If successfully developed, these ideas could result in a major paradigm shift in both biology and medicine, which will benefit all interested parties—consumers, health professionals, scientists, institutions and governments.

  17. The faulty statistics of complementary alternative medicine (CAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Maurizio; Carreras, Giulia

    2014-09-01

    The authors illustrate the difficulties involved in obtaining a valid statistical significance in clinical studies especially when the prior probability of the hypothesis under scrutiny is low. Since the prior probability of a research hypothesis is directly related to its scientific plausibility, the commonly used frequentist statistics, which does not take into account this probability, is particularly unsuitable for studies exploring matters in various degree disconnected from science such as complementary alternative medicine (CAM) interventions. Any statistical significance obtained in this field should be considered with great caution and may be better applied to more plausible hypotheses (like placebo effect) than that examined - which usually is the specific efficacy of the intervention. Since achieving meaningful statistical significance is an essential step in the validation of medical interventions, CAM practices, producing only outcomes inherently resistant to statistical validation, appear not to belong to modern evidence-based medicine.

  18. Illness narratives in cancer: CAM and spiritual practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: In this paper,we investigate Danish cancer patients’ narratives on spiritual beliefs and practices and the relationship these practices may have to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design: Narrative inquiry is used to uncover how spiritual beliefs and practices may......, religious and spiritual issues were not extensively unfolded in participants’ illness narratives. However, these issues were significantly elaborated on in narratives by four female participants. Conclusion: We propose that for some cancer patients CAM may function, not only or primarily as a treatment...... for cancer related symptoms and side effects, but as a spiritual practice as well. For some individuals this may be true to an even higher extent than in established religious institutions....

  19. Integrated CAD/CAM: Problems, prognosis, and role of IPAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Major technology problems impede the development and evolution of totally integrated interactive CAD/CAM systems. IPAD is playing an important role in the identification of these problems and is contributing significantly to their solution. It is the purpose of this presentation to examine some of these issues, look at the prognosis of obtaining effective solutions, and point up some of the past and expected contributions of IPAD to this technology.

  20. Lucrécio, Camões e os deuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Torres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata do uso que Lucrécio e Camões fizeram dos deuses da mitologia clássica, por razões pertinentes às convenções da poesia épica e a despeito de sua descrença na existência dos mesmos, sugerindo que ambos constróem os deuses para depois desconstruí-los de forma cabal e definitiva.

  1. ChemCam analysis of Martian fine dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Mangold, Nicolas; Cousin, Agnes; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Wiens, Roger; Gasnault, Olivier; Rapin, William; Schroder, Susanne; Ollila, Ann; Fabre, Cécile; Berger, Gilles; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Dehouck, Erwin; Forni, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre; Anderson, Ryan; Bridges, Nathan; Clark, Benton; Clegg, Samuel; d'Uston, Claude; Goetz, Walter; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Lanza, Nina; Madsen, Morten; Melikechi, Noureddine; Newsom, Horton; Sautter, Violaine; Martin-Torres, Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we examine the chemical composition of dust observed by the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover at Gale Crater. The Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique analyses samples without preparation, which allows detection of the elemental composition of surface deposits. Mars aeolian fine dust (soils encountered at Gale crater. The composition is also similar to the soils and fine dust measured by APXS for the elements common to both instruments. The minor elements quantified by ChemCam (Ba, Sr, Rb, Li, Mn, Cr) are within the range of soil surveys, but we see a higher concentration of Li than in other types of remotely characterized targets. Sulfur is possibly detected at the ChemCam limit of detection. Hydrogen is clearly identified, indicating that this fine dust is a contributor to the H content of the martian soils, as also detected by the SAM and CheMin instruments, and provides constraints as to which fraction of the Martian surface is hydrated and altered. In conclusion, the finest fraction of dust particles on the surface of Mars contains hydrated components mixed intimately within the fine aeolian dust fraction, suggesting that this dust likely originates from mechanical weathering of altered grains.

  2. Comparison Between GAMIL, and CAM2 on Interannual Variability Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Recently, a new atmospheric general circulation model (GAMIL: Grid-point Atmospheric Model of IAP LASG) has been developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), which is based on the Community Atmospheric Model Version 2 (CAM2) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Since the two models have the same physical processes but different dynamical cores, the interannual variability simulation performances of the two models are compared. The ensemble approach is used to reduce model internal variability.In general, the simulation performances of the two models are similar. Both models have good performance in simulating total space-time variability and the Southern Oscillation Index. GAMIL performs better in the Eastern Asian winter circulation simulation than CAM2, and the model internal variability of GAMIL has a better response to external forcing than that of CAM2. These indicate that the improvement of the dynamic core is very important. It is also verified that there is less predictability in the middle and high latitudes than in the low latitudes.

  3. Optical spectroscopy of RU Cam, a pulsating carbon star

    CERN Document Server

    Kipper, Tonu

    2007-01-01

    We analysed the high resolution spectra of a RU Cam, classified as W Vir type star. The atmospheric parameters of RU Cam were estimated Teff=5250K and log g=1.0. The hydrogen deficiency of RU Cam was not confirmed. The iron abundance, [Fe/H]=-0.37, is close to the solar one. Abundances of most other elements are also close to normal. We found considerable excesses of carbon and nitrogen: [C/Fe]=+0.98, [N/Fe]=+0.60. The carbon to oxygen ratio is C/O$\\ge$1. The carbon isotopic abundance ratio is equal to C^12/C^13=4.5. For sodium a moderate overabundance Na/Fe=+0.55 was obtained. For two moments of observations we found close heliocentric velocity values, Vr=-21.7+/-0.8 and -23.1+/-1.0 km/s. Both spectra contain a peculiar feature - an emission component of NaI doublet which location agrees with the radial velocity from the bulk of metallic lines. For our two observing moments we found no dependence of radial velocities on the formation depth or on excitation energy for metallic lines.

  4. Product Recommendation System Based on Personal Preference Model Using CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tomoko; Yoshioka, Nobukazu; Orihara, Ryohei; Furukawa, Koichi

    Product recommendation system is realized by applying business rules acquired by data maining techniques. Business rules such as demographical patterns of purchase, are able to cover the groups of users that have a tendency to purchase products, but it is difficult to recommend products adaptive to various personal preferences only by utilizing them. In addition to that, it is very costly to gather the large volume of high quality survey data, which is necessary for good recommendation based on personal preference model. A method collecting kansei information automatically without questionnaire survey is required. The constructing personal preference model from less favor data is also necessary, since it is costly for the user to input favor data. In this paper, we propose product recommendation system based on kansei information extracted by text mining and user's preference model constructed by Category-guided Adaptive Modeling, CAM for short. CAM is a feature construction method that can generate new features constructing the space where same labeled examples are close and different labeled examples are far away from some labeled examples. It is possible to construct personal preference model by CAM despite less information of likes and dislikes categories. In the system, retrieval agent gathers the products' specification and user agent manages preference model, user's likes and dislikes. Kansei information of the products is gained by applying text mining technique to the reputation documents about the products on the web site. We carry out some experimental studies to make sure that prefrence model obtained by our method performs effectively.

  5. An open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and industrial CAM software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Liu, Shusheng; Shi, Shenggen; Yang, Jianzhong

    2011-10-01

    China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestically developed industrial computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology were used for full crown fabrication and measurement of crown accuracy, with an attempt to establish an open CAM system for dental processing and to promote the introduction of domestic dental computer-aided design (CAD)/CAM system. Commercially available scanning equipment was used to make a basic digital tooth model after preparation of crown, and CAD software that comes with the scanning device was employed to design the crown by using domestic industrial CAM software to process the crown data in order to generate a solid model for machining purpose, and then China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool was used to complete machining of the whole crown and the internal accuracy of the crown internal was measured by using 3D-MicroCT. The results showed that China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool in combination with domestic industrial CAM technology can be used for crown making and the crown was well positioned in die. The internal accuracy was successfully measured by using 3D-MicroCT. It is concluded that an open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestic industrial CAM software has been established, and development of the system will promote the introduction of domestically-produced dental CAD/CAM system.

  6. EpCAM modulates NF-κB signaling and interleukin-8 expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankpal, Narendra V; Fleming, Timothy P; Gillanders, William E

    2013-04-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a 40-kD type I transmembrane protein that is overexpressed in human epithelial cancers and is currently the target of molecular therapy based on its overexpression at the cell surface. Recently, we and others have shown a role for EpCAM in cell signaling and carcinogenesis, and EpCAM expression seems to promote breast cancer invasion. Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL-8) is an inflammatory cytokine that has recently been shown to modulate breast cancer invasion and angiogenesis. In preliminary experiments, we identified a correlation between EpCAM and IL-8 expression in primary human breast cancers. Specific ablation of EpCAM in breast cancer cell lines results in decreased IL-8 expression, and IL-8 contributes to EpCAM-dependent breast cancer invasion. Specific ablation of EpCAM is also associated with decreased NF-κB transcription factor activity, decreased phosphorylation of the NF-κB family member RELA, and increased IκBα protein expression. EpCAM modulates IL-8 expression at baseline, and following IL-1β stimulation, which is known to be a potent inducer of NF-κB in breast cancer. In functional rescue experiments, specific ablation of RELA or forced expression of the NF-κB inhibitor protein IκBα prevented EpCAM-dependent rescue of IL-8 promoter activity. These studies show for the first time that EpCAM can modulate NF-κB transcription factor activity and IL-8 expression in breast cancer and confirm the role of EpCAM signaling in modulating breast cancer invasion. Further study is required to define the molecular mechanism(s) of EpCAM signaling in breast cancer and to direct the rational development of molecular therapies targeting EpCAM.

  7. Evaluating rare amino acid substitutions (RGC_CAMs in a yeast model clade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Polzin

    Full Text Available When inferring phylogenetic relationships, not all sites in a sequence alignment are equally informative. One recently proposed approach that takes advantage of this inequality relies on sites that contain amino acids whose replacement requires multiple substitutions. Identifying these so-called RGC_CAM substitutions (after Rare Genomic Changes as Conserved Amino acids-Multiple substitutions requires that, first, at any given site in the amino acid sequence alignment, there must be a minimum of two different amino acids; second, each amino acid must be present in at least two taxa; and third, the amino acids must require a minimum of two nucleotide substitutions to replace each other. Although theory suggests that RGC_CAM substitutions are expected to be rare and less likely to be homoplastic, the informativeness of RGC_CAM substitutions has not been extensively evaluated in biological data sets. We investigated the quality of RGC_CAM substitutions by examining their degree of homoplasy and internode certainty in nearly 2.7 million aligned amino acid sites from 5,261 proteins from five species belonging to the yeast Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade whose phylogeny is well-established. We identified 2,647 sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions, a number that contrasts sharply with the 100,887 sites containing RGC_non-CAM substitutions (i.e., changes between amino acids that require only a single nucleotide substitution. We found that RGC_CAM substitutions had significantly lower homoplasy than RGC_non-CAM ones; specifically RGC_CAM substitutions showed a per-site average homoplasy index of 0.100, whereas RGC_non-CAM substitutions had a homoplasy index of 0.215. Internode certainty values were also higher for sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions than for RGC_non-CAM ones. These results suggest that RGC_CAM substitutions possess a strong phylogenetic signal and are useful markers for phylogenetic inference despite their rarity.

  8. Life history and description of larva and pupa of Platyphileurus felscheanus Ohaus, 1910, a scarabaeid feeding on bromeliad tissues in Brazil, to be excluded from Phileurini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertoni, Fabiano F.; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Steiner, Josefina; Zillikens, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The third instar larvae and the pupae of Platyphileurus felscheanus Ohaus, 1910 (Phileurini), recently synonymized with Surutu jelineki Endrődi, 1975 (Cyclocephalini), are described and illustrated, and some life history information is given. The larvae were collected and reared in bromeliads in rain forests of Santa Catarina state in southern Brazil. The systematic position of this monotypic genus is reassessed at the tribe level by considering larval and adult morphological characters. Both character sets, being described and illustrated, suggest the placement of Platyphileurus in the tribe Oryctini. PMID:24715774

  9. Pattern and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among pediatric patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Jan H; Reuner, Gitta; Kadish, Navah E; Pietz, Joachim; Schubert-Bast, Susanne

    2013-10-01

    Parents of pediatric patients with chronic conditions such as epilepsy increasingly opt for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, data on the pattern and reasons of CAM use in childhood epilepsy are scarce. The objectives of this study were as follows: first, to characterize CAM use among pediatric patients with epilepsy by assessing its spectrum, prevalence, costs, and frequency of use; second, to evaluate the influence of CAM use on compliance and satisfaction with conventional care as well as to explore parent-child neurologist communication concerning CAM; and third, to investigate predictors of CAM use. A postal survey was administered to all parents of pediatric outpatients with epilepsy aged 6 to 12, who have received treatment at the neuropediatric outpatient clinic of the University Children's Hospital Heidelberg between 2007 and 2009. One hundred thirty-two of the 297 distributed questionnaires were suitable for inclusion in statistical analysis (44.7%). Forty-nine participants indicated that their children used CAM during the previous year (37.1%). Thirty different types of CAM were used, with homeopathy (55.1%), osteopathy (24.5%), and kinesiology (16.3%) being the most commonly named. A mean of 86€ (0€-500€) and 3h (1 h-30 h) per month was committed to CAM treatment. Only 53% of the users informed their child neurologist of the additional CAM treatment, while 85.6% of all parents wished to discuss CAM options with their child neurologist. Seventy-five percent of users considered the CAM treatment effective. Among the participants most likely to seek CAM treatment are parents whose children show a long duration of epileptic symptoms, parents who make use of CAM treatment themselves, and parents who value a holistic and natural treatment approach. A substantial portion of pediatric patients with epilepsy receive CAM treatment. The high prevalence of use and significant level of financial and time resources spent on CAM indicate the

  10. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--the digital workflow from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapie, L; Lebon, N; Mawussi, B; Fron Chabouis, H; Duret, F; Attal, J-P

    2015-01-01

    As digital technology infiltrates every area of daily life, including the field of medicine, so it is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Apart from chairside practice, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental solutions can be considered a chain of digital devices and software for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use the technology often do not have the time or knowledge to understand it. A basic knowledge of the CAD/CAM digital workflow for dental restorations can help dentists to grasp the technology and purchase a CAM/CAM system that meets the needs of their office. This article provides a computer-science and mechanical-engineering approach to the CAD/CAM digital workflow to help dentists understand the technology.

  11. Genetic relationships and variation in reproductive strategies in four closely related bromeliads adapted to neotropical ‘inselbergs’: Alcantarea glaziouana, A. regina, A. geniculata and A. imperialis (Bromeliaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbará, Thelma; Martinelli, Gustavo; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Fay, Michael F.; Mayo, Simon; Lexer, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) adapted to rock outcrops or ‘inselbergs’ in neotropical rain forests have been identified as suitable plant models for studying population divergence and speciation during continental plant radiations. Little is known about genetic relationships and variation in reproductive strategies within and among inselberg-adapted species, yet knowledge of these parameters is important for understanding divergence processes and for conservation planning. Methods Nuclear microsatellites were used to assess the role of clonal reproduction, estimate genetic diversity and explore genetic relationships and variation in reproductive strategies for a total of 15 populations of four closely related Alcantarea inselberg species in south-eastern Brazil: A. glaziouana, A. regina, A. geniculata and A. imperialis. Key Results Clonal propagation is frequent in coastal populations of A. glaziouana and A. regina, but absent in the high-altitude species A. geniculata and A. imperialis. Considerable variation in clonal diversity, gene diversity (He), allelic richness, and Wright's inbreeding coefficient (FIS) exists within and between species of Alcantarea. A Bayesian analysis of coastal inselberg species indicated pronounced genetic structure. A neighbor-joining analysis grouped populations of each species together with moderate bootstrap support, except for the high altitude species A. imperialis. Conclusions The coastal inselberg species A. glaziouana and A. regina tend to propagate asexually via vegetative clonal growth, and both reproductive strategies and breeding systems vary greatly between populations and species of Alcantarea. The microsatellite data indicate a history of hybridization and reticulation involving the high-altitude species A. geniculata and A. imperialis in areas of co-occurrence. The results highlight the need to understand similarities and differences in reproductive strategies both within and between related species

  12. Effects of EpCAM overexpression on human breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krobitsch Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, EpCAM has attracted major interest as a target for antibody- and vaccine-based cancer immunotherapies. In breast cancer, the EpCAM antigen is overexpressed in 30-40% of all cases and this increased expression correlates with poor prognosis. The use of EpCAM-specific monoclonal antibodies is a promising treatment approach in these patients. Methods In order to explore molecular changes following EpCAM overexpression, we investigated changes of the transcriptome upon EpCAM gene expression in commercially available human breast cancer cells lines Hs578T and MDA-MB-231. To assess cell proliferation, a tetrazolium salt based assay was performed. A TCF/LEF Reporter Kit was used to measure the transcriptional activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. To evaluate the accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus, a subcellular fractionation assay was performed. Results For the first time we could show that expression profiling data of EpCAM transfected cell lines Hs578TEpCAM and MDA-MB-231EpCAM indicate an association of EpCAM overexpression with the downregulation of the Wnt signaling inhibitors SFRP1 and TCF7L2. Confirmation of increased Wnt signaling was provided by a TCF/LEF reporter kit and by the finding of the nuclear accumulation of ß-catenin for MDA-MB-231EpCAM but not Hs578TEpCAM cells. In Hs578T cells, an increase of proliferation and chemosensitivity to Docetaxel was associated with EpCAM overexpression. Conclusions These data show a cell type dependent modification of Wnt signaling components after EpCAM overexpression in breast cancer cell lines, which results in marginal functional changes. Further investigations on the interaction of EpCAM with SFRP1 and TCF7L2 and on additional factors, which may be causal for changes upon EpCAM overexpression, will help to characterize unique molecular properties of EpCAM-positive breast cancer cells.

  13. CamOn: A Real-Time Autonomous Camera Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Jhala, Arnav Harish

    2009-01-01

    contributes to the potential field that is used to determine po- sition and movement of the camera. Composition constraints for the camera are modelled as potential fields for controlling the view target of the camera. CamOn combines the compositional benefits of constraint- based camera systems, and improves......This demonstration presents CamOn, an autonomous cam- era control system for real-time 3D games. CamOn employs multiple Artificial Potential Fields (APFs), a robot motion planning technique, to control both the location and orienta- tion of the camera. Scene geometry from the 3D environment...

  14. ON DESIGN METHOD OF THE PRECISION CAM PROFILE WITH RANDOM PROCESSING ERRORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on probability and statistic, a design method of precision cam profile concerning the influence of random processing errors is advanced. Combining the design with the process, which can be used to predict that cam profiles will be successfully processed or not in the design stage, design of the cam can be done by balancing the economization and reliability. In addition, an fuzzy deduction method based on Bayers formula is advanced to estimate processing reasonable of the designed precision cam profile, and it take few samples.

  15. Polarized targeting of L1-CAM regulates axonal and dendritic bundling in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Joshua; Gu, Yuanzheng; Gu, Chen

    2010-11-01

    Proper axonal and dendritic bundling is essential for the establishment of neuronal connections and the synchronization of synaptic inputs, respectively. Cell adhesion molecules of the L1-CAM (L1-cell adhesion molecule) family regulate axon guidance and fasciculation, neuron migration, dendrite morphology, and synaptic plasticity. It remains unclear how these molecules play so many different roles. Here we show that polarized axon-dendrite targeting of an avian L1-CAM protein, NgCAM (neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule), can regulate the switch of bundling of the two major compartments of rat hippocampal neurons. Using a new in-vitro model for studying neurite-neurite interactions, we found that expressed axonal NgCAM induced robust axonal bundling via the trans-homophilic interaction of immunoglobulin domains. Interestingly, dendritic bundling was induced by the dendritic targeting of NgCAM, caused by either deleting its fibronectin repeats or blocking activities of protein kinases. Consistent with the NgCAM results, expression of mouse L1-CAM also induced axonal bundling and blocking kinase activities disrupted its axonal targeting. Furthermore, the trans-homophilic interaction stabilized the bundle formation, probably through recruiting NgCAM proteins to contact sites and promoting guided axon outgrowth. Taken together, our results suggest that precise localization of L1-CAM is important for establishing proper cell-cell contacts in neural circuits.

  16. Initiating a Reiki or CAM program in a healthcare organization--developing a business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) services, such as Reiki, continue to be offered to consumers in many hospitals and other health care organizations. There is growing interest among nurses, doctors, and other health care providers for the integration of CAM therapies into traditional settings. Health care organizations are responding to this need but may not know how to start CAM programs. Starting a Reiki program in a health care setting must be envisioned in a business model approach. This article introduces nurses and other health care providers to the basic concepts of business plan development and important steps to follow when starting a Reiki or CAM program.

  17. The use of CAM by women suffering from nausea and vomiting during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Michael

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP affects two-thirds of pregnant women to varying degrees and over the years many modalities have been used to try to alleviate this often debilitating condition. There is a paucity of information in the literature about the use or efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM for the treatment of this condition that affects so many women. Our primary objective was to examine the prevalence of CAM usage by women suffering from NVP. Our secondary objective was to ascertain if women had any supervision in the use of these treatments. Methods Women who called The Motherisk NVP helpline, were asked after the counseling session to complete a questionnaire, which included demographic data as well as information about their CAM use. Results Seventy women completed the questionnaire. 61% reported using CAM therapies, of which the three most popular were: ginger, vitamin B6 and acupressure. 21% of those who reported using CAM, had consulted CAM practitioners, 8% their physicians or pharmacists and 71% discussed the usage with family, friends and other allied health professionals. Women who did not use CAM stated they would probably use these modalities if there was more information about the safety in pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnant women with NVP are mirroring the trend in the general population of the use of CAM. They are also using CAM therapies with little supervision from practitioners experienced in the use of these modalities.

  18. CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, P.

    1984-01-01

    The history of CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault are presented. Emphasis is put on the targets of the now commercially available software CATIA. The links with scientific computations such as aerodynamics and structural analysis are presented. Comments are made on the principles followed within the company. The consequences of the approximative nature of scientific data are examined. Consequence of the new history function is mainly its protection against copy or alteration. Future plans at Dassault for scientific data appear to be in opposite directions compared to some general tendencies.

  19. Applying DER-CAM for IIT Microgrid Explansion Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Li, Zuyi [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Chen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-19

    The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is an economic and environmental model of customer DER adoption. This model has been in development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory since 2000. The objective of the model is to find optimal DER investments while minimizing total energy costs or carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, or achieving a weighted objective that simultaneously considers both criteria. The Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Microgrid project started in August 2008, and the majority of the project was completed in May 2013. IIT Microgrid, funded mostly by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy as well as State and philanthropic contributions, empowers the campus consumers with the objective of establishing a smart microgrid that is highly reliable, economically viable, environmentally friendly, fuel-efficient, and resilient in extreme circumstances with a self-healing capability. In this project, we apply DER-CAM to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid. First, the load data, environmental data, utility data, and technology data for the IIT Microgrid are gathered and organized to follow the DER-CAM input requirements. Then, DERCAM is applied to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid for different cases, where different objectives in DER-CAM and different utility conditions are tested. Case 1 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with fixed utility rates and 100% electric utility availability. Case 2 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with real-time utility rates and 4 emergency weeks when the IIT Microgrid does not have access to the electric utility grid and has to operate in island mode. In Case 3, the utility rates are restored to fixed values and 100% electric utility availability is assumed, but a weighted multi-objective (Obj: a × costs + b × CO2 emissions, where a and b are weights for cost minimization and CO2 emissions minimization) is utilized to

  20. Relevant Applications of Tools in UG NX CAM Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang En Guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the methods to establish the custom magazine have been proposed while the UG NX CAM module is employed to conduct the CNC milling programming. At the same time, how to set the parameters of the cutting tool has been also analyzed; in the creation of tools, the use of shank and holder as well as the use of handle check functions in NC machining has been introduced; meanwhile, the secondary rough machining of corner and the application of clean-cut features have been discussed.

  1. CAD/CAM from the graphic-design perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, A.

    1982-11-01

    CAD/CAM systems have evolved elaborate human-computer interfaces in order to facilitate the creation of highly detailed and specialized schematic diagrams and texts. Although these systems have powerful capacities in terms of graphics editing, data manipulation, and data storage, insufficient attention has been given to making the online interface (together with supporting documentation) user-friendly, i.e., understandable, memorable, and appealing to the general user. Graphic-design considerations in particular have been routinely overlooked. Graphic design concerns typography, symbol design, color, spatial layout, and temporal sequencing. Graphic design can assist computer science by providing insight and expertise in designing effective communication between human being and machine.

  2. Experimental and analytical investigation of finger-follower cam systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wensyang

    A predictive dynamic model to compute the motions of components in cam systems, along with the experimental work to verify the model are described. The major components in finger-follower cam systems include the cam, the follower, the hydraulic lash adjuster, and the valve spring, equipped sometimes with a helical valve spring cup damper. In order to fully describe the dynamics of such a system, a lumped/distributed parameter model for the finger-follower cam system with a moving follower pivot is proposed. The valve spring is modeled as a distributed parameter element, and the adjuster is modeled as a stiff spring with viscous damping. The coulomb friction combined with viscous damping between sliding surfaces are also considered. The model predicts toss between the adjuster and the follower at 2535 rpm, and experiment indicates toss starting at 2520 rpm. It is found by simulation that designing hydraulic lash adjuster to be as rigid as possible is essential to successful high speed operation of finger-follower valve trains because a 50 percent decrease in the compliance of the adjuster could increase the maximum camshaft operating speed 150 rpm. Total elimination of the hydraulic lash adjuster is not always feasible because hydraulic lash adjusters can eliminate the clearance between components and do not need to be mechanically, manually adjusted. In order to provide a more stable and precise description on the dynamic response of the adjuster, a two-mode dynamic model for the adjuster is proposed by considering the oil compressibility in the oil chamber, as well as the oil leakage through the annular gap. Furthermore, the effect due to the oil flow from the central orifice to the oil chamber is also studied analytically and experimentally. The inertia effects of the helical valve spring can be suppressed by a cup damper. Damping between the damper and spring wire is found to depend only weakly on relative sliding velocity. The current formula in computing

  3. Importância das bromélias epífitas na ciclagem de nutrientes da Floresta Atlântica The importance of epiphytic bromeliads on the turnover of nutrients at the Atlantic Rain Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O material epifítico pode ser considerado como importante fonte de nutrientes para florestas localizadas em solos pobres. O presente trabalho foi realizado em um trecho de Floresta Atlântica com características primárias localizado no Pico do Papagaio, Ilha Grande, RJ. Pelo período de um ano, a serapilheira total e a produzida por bromélias epífitas foram coletadas por meio de diferentes coletores (16 de 0,25m² para serapilheira total e 10 de 25m² para a de bromélias. Alíquotas completas do material coletado foram usadas para determinação dos teores de N, P, K, Na, Ca e Mg em espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Ao longo de um ano, a produção de serapilheira oriunda de bromélias foi de 327,8 kg/ha, o que representou 3,1% da serapilheira total produzida no mesmo período (10.690,9kg/ha. A contribuição da serapilheira de bromélias apresentou distribuição espacial irregular em relação à da serapilheira total. Em relação ao fluxo destes nutrientes, as maiores participações foram Na (4,4kg/ha/ano; K (7,6kg/ha/ano e Mg (7,0kg/ha/ano, o que correspondeu, respectivamente, a 27,5, 18,7 e 13,9% dos aportes feitos pela serapilheira em geral. Esta participação ocorreu em função da concentração relativamente elevada destes nutrientes na serapilheira de bromélias.Epiphytic material can be considered an important source of nutrients for forests found on poor soils. This work was done in a tract of a primary Atlantic Forest with located in the Pico do Papagaio, Ilha Grande, RJ, Brazil. Over a year, the total litter and that produced by epiphytic bromeliads were collected by different ways (16 of 0.25m² for total litter and 10 of 25m² for that of bromeliads. Complete aliquots of matter collected were used to determine the composition of N, P, K, Na, Ca and Mg with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. During one year, litter production of bromeliads was of 327.8kg/ha, which represented 3.1% of total litter produced in

  4. Status of the CAMS-BeNeLux network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggemans, P.; Johannink, C.; Breukers, M.

    2016-01-01

    An overview is being given of the further expansion of the CAMS@BeNeLux network since previous IMC, July 2015 until May 2016. The weather proved less favorable than in the year before, but thanks to a number of new cameras and extra observing stations, the overall performance of the network remained at the same level in spite of the often poor weather circumstances. This paper compares the Kappa-Cygnids performance of 2015 with the analyses made for the 2014 data, following the same methodology. In 2015 the Kappa Cygnids were remarkable absent which confirms the periodic nature of the abundant Kappa-Cygnids display in 2014. The CAMS@BeNeLux network was the first to draw attention to enhanced activity of the newly discovered Chi Cygnids meteor shower with 5 accurate orbits in the night of 14-15 September 2015. A search through a selection of all orbits of September 2015 yield 71 possible Chi Cygnid orbits of which 18 were selected to calculate the average orbital elements.

  5. CamShift Tracking Method Based on Target Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunbo Xiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid the inaccurate location or the failure tracking caused by the occlusion or the pose variation, a novel tracking method is proposed based on CamShift algorithm by decomposing the target into multiple subtargets for location separately. Distance correlation matrices are constructed by the subtarget sets in the template image and the scene image to evaluate the correctness of the location results. The error locations of the subtargets can be corrected by resolving the optimization function constructed according to the relative positions among the subtargets. The directions and sizes of the correctly located subtargets with CamShift algorithm are updated to reduce the disturbance of the background in the tracking progress. Simulation results show that the method can perform the location and tracking of the target and has better adaptability to the scaling, translation, rotation, and occlusion. Furthermore, the computational cost of the method increases slightly, and its average tracking computational time of the single frame is less than 25 ms, which can meet the real-time requirement of the TV tracking system.

  6. Preparation and Preliminary Application of MAdCAM-1 Polyclonal Antibody in Dairy Cows with Subclinical Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Chen, Yuanyuan; Chang, Qiaocheng; Xia, Cheng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Hongyou

    2015-08-01

    MAdCAM-1 plays an important role in mediating immune response and inflammation. This study aimed to express and purify a fusion protein of MAdCAM-1 in prokaryotic cells and to prepare rat anti-bovine MAdCAM-1 polyclonal antibodies. Prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1-MAdCAM-1 and pET-28a-MAdCAM-1 were constructed, respectively. The above plasmids were transformed into BL21 Escherichia coli strain. These recombinant strains were induced by IPTG and identified by Western blot analysis and SDS-PAGE. Wistar rats were immunized with recombinant protein (pET-28a-MAdCAM-1) emulsified with Freund's adjuvant, and antibody titers were measured by indirect ELISA. Antibody titers reached the highest value (1:128,000) after the third immunization. Western blot showed that rat anti-bovine MAdCAM-1 polyclonal antibody can not only recognize recombinant MAdCAM-1 protein expressed in E. coli but also recognizes natural MAdCAM-1 protein extracted from bovine tissues. However, commercial anti-mouse MAdCAM-1 monoclonal antibodies did not recognize the recombinant MAdCAM-1 protein or natural protein, which indicated no cross-reactivity between bovine MAdCAM-1 and mouse MAdCAM-1. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis showed that MAdCAM-1 expression was limited in mammary lymphoid nodes of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. We speculate that MAdCAM-1 expression is inconsistent in different periods of the dairy cows. The successful preparation of rat anti-bovine MAdCAM-1 polyclonal antibody and its preliminary application in dairy cows provide the foundation for further study of the mechanism of anti-inflammation of MAdCAM-1 in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis.

  7. A Prospective, Multicenter Study of Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) Utilization During Definitive Radiation for Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, William W. Backus Hospital, Norwich, Connecticut (United States); Ma Shuangge [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [University of Michigan, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Yang, Tzu-I Jonathan [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Higgins, Susan A. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Shoreline Medical Center, Guilford, Connecticut (United States); Weidhaas, Joanne B. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Lawrence and Memorial Hospital, New London, Connecticut (United States); Lloyd, Shane [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Peschel, Richard [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Lawrence and Memorial Hospital, New London, Connecticut (United States); Gaudreau, Bryant [Department of Radiation Therapy, William W. Backus Hospital, Norwich, Connecticut (United States); Rockwell, Sara [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in breast cancer patients is reported to be high, there are few data on CAM practices in breast patients specifically during radiation. This prospective, multi-institutional study was conducted to define CAM utilization in breast cancer during definitive radiation. Materials/Methods: A validated CAM instrument with a self-skin assessment was administered to 360 Stage 0-III breast cancer patients from 5 centers during the last week of radiation. All data were analyzed to detect significant differences between users/nonusers. Results: CAM usage was reported in 54% of the study cohort (n=194/360). Of CAM users, 71% reported activity-based CAM (eg, Reiki, meditation), 26% topical CAM, and 45% oral CAM. Only 16% received advice/counseling from naturopathic/homeopathic/medical professionals before initiating CAM. CAM use significantly correlated with higher education level (P<.001), inversely correlated with concomitant hormone/radiation therapy use (P=.010), with a trend toward greater use in younger patients (P=.066). On multivariate analysis, level of education (OR: 6.821, 95% CI: 2.307-20.168, P<.001) and hormones/radiation therapy (OR: 0.573, 95% CI: 0.347-0.949, P=.031) independently predicted for CAM use. Significantly lower skin toxicity scores were reported in CAM users vs nonusers, respectively (mild: 34% vs 25%, severe: 17% vs 29%, P=.017). Conclusion: This is the first prospective study to assess CAM practices in breast patients during radiation, with definition of these practices as the first step for future investigation of CAM/radiation interactions. These results should alert radiation oncologists that a large percentage of breast cancer patients use CAM during radiation without disclosure or consideration for potential interactions, and should encourage increased awareness, communication, and documentation of CAM practices in patients undergoing radiation treatment for breast

  8. The ExoMars PanCam Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Andrew; Coates, Andrew; Muller, Jan-Peter; Jaumann, Ralf; Josset, Jean-Luc; Paar, Gerhard; Barnes, David

    2010-05-01

    The ExoMars mission has evolved into a joint European-US mission to deliver a trace gas orbiter and a pair of rovers to Mars in 2016 and 2018 respectively. The European rover will carry the Pasteur exobiology payload including the 1.56 kg Panoramic Camera. PanCam will provide multispectral stereo images with 34 deg horizontal field-of-view (580 microrad/pixel) Wide-Angle Cameras (WAC) and (83 microrad/pixel) colour monoscopic "zoom" images with 5 deg horizontal field-of-view High Resolution Camera (HRC). The stereo Wide Angle Cameras (WAC) are based on Beagle 2 Stereo Camera System heritage [1]. Integrated with the WACs and HRC into the PanCam optical bench (which helps the instrument meet its planetary protection requirements) is the PanCam interface unit (PIU); which provides image storage, a Spacewire interface to the rover and DC-DC power conversion. The Panoramic Camera instrument is designed to fulfil the digital terrain mapping requirements of the mission [2] as well as providing multispectral geological imaging, colour and stereo panoramic images and solar images for water vapour abundance and dust optical depth measurements. The High Resolution Camera (HRC) can be used for high resolution imaging of interesting targets detected in the WAC panoramas and of inaccessible locations on crater or valley walls. Additionally HRC will be used to observe retrieved subsurface samples before ingestion into the rest of the Pasteur payload. In short, PanCam provides the overview and context for the ExoMars experiment locations, required to enable the exobiology aims of the mission. In addition to these baseline capabilities further enhancements are possible to PanCam to enhance it's effectiveness for astrobiology and planetary exploration: 1. Rover Inspection Mirror (RIM) 2. Organics Detection by Fluorescence Excitation (ODFE) LEDs [3-6] 3. UVIS broadband UV Flux and Opacity Determination (UVFOD) photodiode This paper will discuss the scientific objectives and resource

  9. 基于逆向工程技术圆柱凸轮机构的CAD/CAM%CAD/CAM of cylindrical cam mechanism based on re-verse engineering technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋萌; 葛正浩; 屈毅; 李艳妮

    2011-01-01

    The papeer presents a new process and method of revere design and manufacturing of the cylindrical cam mechanism.By applying the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) and the PRO/E software as the platform to carry out aided design, by taking Microsoft Visual C + + 6.0 as the development tool, and based on Windows platform, the cylindrical cam mechanism dealgn and manufacturing software is generated, allowing the design of cycle map and cam profile, checking the pressure angle and curvature radius rapidly, almulating the motion of cam. And the NC machining codes which can be directly used for numerical control machine were generated, achieviug the integration of design and manufacture of cylindrical cam mechanism. This CAD/CAM system can not only be applied in the reverse design of cylindrical cam mechanism, but alao used to achieve the forward de-sign of cylindrical ,cam mechanism quickly and easily. Finally, by taking reverse, design and manufacture of the cylindrical indexing cam as an example, the reverse design and manufacturing process and method of cylindrical cam mechanism based on reverse engineering technology has been explained in detail.%介绍了圆柱凸轮机构逆向设计与制造的流程和方法.利用三坐标测量机和Pro/E软件为平台实现辅助设计,以Microsolft Visual C++6.0为开发工具,基于Windows平台编制了圆柱凸轮机构设计与制造软件,实现了圆柱凸轮机构的循环图和轮廓设计,并可进行压力角及曲率半径的快速校核和凸轮的运动仿真,生成了直接用于数控机床的刀具NC加工代码,实现了圆柱凸轮机构设计制造一体化.此CAD/CAM系统不仅可用于圆柱凸轮机构的反求设计,亦可简单快捷地实现圆柱凸轮机构的正向设计.文中以圆柱分度凸轮的反求与制造为例详细说明了基于逆向工程技术圆柱凸轮机构的设计与制造方法和流程.

  10. Some Aspects on Technological Design of a Cam Type Workpiece Using CATIA Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin-Octavian Miclosina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the geometrical models of cam and of semi-finished piece, obtained with CATIA software. Two cam technological routes are shown and the optimal route is chosen. From the technological route, rough milling operation is simulated with CATIA software. By using different milling parameters, various machining time values are obtained.

  11. Numerical verification of similar Cam-clay model based on generalized potential theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟志辉; 杨光华; 傅旭东; 温勇; 张玉成

    2014-01-01

    From the mathematical principles, the generalized potential theory can be employed to create constitutive model of geomaterial directly. The similar Cam-clay model, which is created based on the generalized potential theory, has less assumptions, clearer mathematical basis, and better computational accuracy. Theoretically, it is more scientific than the traditional Cam-clay models. The particle flow code PFC3D was used to make numerical tests to verify the rationality and practicality of the similar Cam-clay model. The verification process was as follows: 1) creating the soil sample for numerical test in PFC3D, and then simulating the conventional triaxial compression test, isotropic compression test, and isotropic unloading test by PFC3D; 2) determining the parameters of the similar Cam-clay model from the results of above tests; 3) predicting the sample’s behavior in triaxial tests under different stress paths by the similar Cam-clay model, and comparing the predicting results with predictions by the Cam-clay model and the modified Cam-clay model. The analysis results show that the similar Cam-clay model has relatively high prediction accuracy, as well as good practical value.

  12. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments by Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, Lillian M.; Mackintosh, Virginia H.; Myers, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may elect to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments with their children in place of, or in addition to, conventional treatments. CAM treatments are controversial and understudied and, for most, the efficacy has not been established. The current study (n = 248) examined…

  13. Bidirectional modulation of endogenous EpCAM expression to unravel its function in ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gun, B. T. F.; Huisman, C.; Stolzenburg, S.; Kazemier, H. G.; Ruiters, M. H. J.; Blancafort, P.; Rots, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is overexpressed on most carcinomas. Dependent on the tumour type, its overexpression is either associated with improved or worse patient survival. For ovarian cancer, however, the role of EpCAM remains unclear. Methods: Cell survival of ovar

  14. A Methodological Framework for Evaluating the Evidence for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Robert; Johannessen, Helle

    2011-01-01

    In spite of lacking evidence for effects on cancer progression itself, an increasing number of cancer patients use various types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). There is disagreement between CAM practitioners, researchers and clinical oncologists, as to how evidence concerning...

  15. A new radiological index for assessing asphericity of the femoral head in cam impingement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, K K; Jacobsen, S; Palm, H;

    2007-01-01

    Femoroacetabular cam impingement is thought to be a cause of premature osteoarthritis of the hip. The presence of cam malformation was determined in 2803 standardised anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs from the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study by measuring the alpha (alpha) angle and the tria...

  16. Transcription factors and molecular epigenetic marks underlying EpCAM overexpression in ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gun, B. T. F.; de Groote, M. L.; Kazemier, H. G.; Arendzen, A. J.; Terpstra, P.; Ruiters, M. H. J.; McLaughlin, P. M. J.; Rots, M. G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is overexpressed on carcinomas, and its downregulation inhibits the oncogenic potential of multiple tumour types. Here, we investigated underlying mechanisms of epcam overexpression in ovarian carcinoma. METHODS: Expression of EpCAM and DNA m

  17. 基于CamShift的手势跟踪算法的定点实现%Fixed-Point Implementation of Gesture Tracking Algorithm Based on CamShift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖凌宇

    2012-01-01

    在OpenCV 1.0中CamShift浮点算法的基础上,对算法进行定点实现。介绍CamShift算法的基本原理,详细阐述对CamShift浮点程序定点化的方案、流程和具体方法。定点化结果表明,定点化后程序与原浮点程序偏差较小。满足跟踪性能的要求.可用于下一步的硬件实现。%Describes the fixed-point implementation of CamShift algorithm based on OpenCV 1.0. Intro- duces the basic principles of the CamShift algorithm, and elaborates the float-point to fixed- point program and flow of CamShift algorithm. The result of experimentation shows that the de- viation between the float-point and fixed-point is small, can meet the requirement of tracking application, and can be used to the hardware implementation of next step.

  18. Aplikace CAD/CAM softwaru FeatureCAM při obrábění

    OpenAIRE

    Foltán, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Diplomová práce obsahuje vypracovaný postup výroby části kokily pro gravitační lití pístů s využitím softwaru FeatureCAM. Zabývá se výběrem vhodného strojního a nástrojového vybavení, určením řezných podmínek a řešením výběru optimálních strategií obrábění v softwaru FeatureCAM. Celý proces obrábění je ověřen grafickou simulací a je doplněn výkresovou dokumentací součásti. The diploma thesis contains the manufacturing process of ingot mold part for pistons manufactured by gravity casting u...

  19. Introduction to exploring opportunities for advancing collaborative adaptive management (CAM: integrating experience and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Galat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This Special Feature of Ecology and Society seeks to communicate a practitioner’s perspective on the application of collaborative adaptive management (CAM to contemporary natural resource management problems. One goal is to create an ongoing mechanism for dialogue that can connect practitioners, researchers, and policy makers. The core 15 papers are grouped into 3 categories that: (1 describe lessons learned through the practice of applying CAM principles to a specific project or generalizing principles from outcomes of a specific project; (2 summarize lessons learned from the author’s extensive CAM experiences; and (3 seek to be instructive of one or more CAM principles through a survey, evaluation, or comparison of multiple projects. Follow-up questions were submitted by authors to the online discussion section of Ecology and Society to stimulate interactive communication among readers and authors about their papers and CAM in general.

  20. Optimal Design of a Cam Mechanism with Translating Flat-Face Follower using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Tsiafis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimum design of a cam mechanism is a time consuming task, due to the numerous alternatives considerations. In the present work, the problem of design parameters optimization of a cam mechanism with translating flat - face follower is investigated from a multi - objective point of view. The design parameters, just like the cam base circle radius, the follower face width and the follower offset can be determined considering as the optimization criteria minimization of the cam size, of the input torque and of the contact stress. During the optimization procedure, a number of constraints regarding the pressure angle, the contact stress, etcare taken into account. The optimization approach, based on genetic algorithm, is applied to find the optimal solutions with respect to the a fore - mentioned objective function and to Ensure the kinematic requirements. Finally, the dynamic behavior of the designed cam mechanism is investigated considering the frictional forces.

  1. The C. elegans ROR receptor tyrosine kinase, CAM-1, non-autonomously inhibits the Wnt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer L; Inoue, Takao; Sternberg, Paul W

    2007-11-01

    Inhibitors of Wnt signaling promote normal development and prevent cancer by restraining when and where the Wnt pathway is activated. ROR proteins, a class of Wnt-binding receptor tyrosine kinases, inhibit Wnt signaling by an unknown mechanism. To clarify how RORs inhibit the Wnt pathway, we examined the relationship between Wnts and the sole C. elegans ROR homolog, cam-1, during C. elegans vulval development, a Wnt-regulated process. We found that loss and overexpression of cam-1 causes reciprocal defects in Wnt-mediated cell-fate specification. Our molecular and genetic analyses revealed that the CAM-1 extracellular domain (ECD) is sufficient to non-autonomously antagonize multiple Wnts, suggesting that the CAM-1/ROR ECD sequesters Wnts. A sequestration model is supported by our findings that the CAM-1 ECD binds to several Wnts in vitro. These results demonstrate how ROR proteins help to refine the spatial pattern of Wnt activity in a complex multicellular environment.

  2. Analysis of 3D curve expansion of conical cam with oscillating tapered roller follower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of running conditions and machining processes of conical cam with oscillating follower. We point out the common errors existing in the design and machining of the widely used plane expansion method of conical cam trough-out line. We show that the motion can be divided into two parts, i.e. the oscillating motion of oscillating bar and the rotary motion of oscillating bar relative to the conical cam. By increasing the rotary motion of oscillating bar, the motion path of tapered roller on oscillating bar (i.e. contour surface of conical cam) can be expanded on the cylinder. Based on these analyses,we present a creative and effective designing and machining method for 3D curve expansion of conical cam with oscillating follower.

  3. Survey of UK dentists regarding the use of CAD/CAM technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D; Nesbit, M; Petridis, H

    2016-11-18

    Statement of the problem Digital workflows (CAD/CAM) have been introduced in dentistry during recent years. No published information exists on dentists' use and reporting of this technology.Purpose The purpose of this survey was to identify the infiltration of CAD/CAM technology in UK dental practices and to investigate the relationship of various demographic factors to the answers regarding use or non-use of this technology.Materials and methods One thousand and thirty-one online surveys were sent to a sample of UK dentists composing of both users and non-users of CAD/CAM. It aimed to reveal information regarding type of usage, materials, perceived benefits, barriers to access, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM dentistry. Statistical analysis was undertaken to test the influence of various demographic variables such as country of work, dentist experience, level of training and type of work (NHS or private).Results The number of completed responses totalled 385. Most of the respondents did not use any part of a digital workflow, and the main barriers to CAD/CAM use were initial costs and a lack of perceived benefit over conventional methods. Dentists delivering mostly private work were most likely to have adopted CAD/CAM technology (P CAD/CAM usage (P CAD/CAM had a big role to play in the future.Conclusion Most of the respondents did not use any part of a digital workflow. However, the majority of surveyed dentists were interested in incorporating CAD/CAM into their workflow, while most believed that it will have a big role in the future. There are still some concerns from dentists about the quality of chairside CAD/CAM restorations while the costs are still in the main hugely prohibitive (especially for NHS dentistry).

  4. CAM use in pediatric neurology: an exploration of concurrent use with conventional medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Galicia-Connolly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that up to 60% of children with neurologic conditions have tried complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of CAM among patients presenting to neurology clinics at two academic centers in Canada. METHODS: A survey instrument was developed to inquire about use of CAM products and therapies, including reasons for use, perceived helpfulness, and concurrent use with conventional medicine, and administered to patients or their parents/guardians at the Stollery Children's Hospital in Edmonton and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO in Ottawa. RESULTS: Overall CAM use at the Stollery was 78%, compared to 48% at CHEO. The most common CAM products used were multi-vitamins (84%, vitamin C (37%, homeopathic remedies (24%, and fish oil/omega 3 s (22%. The most common CAM practices used were massage (47%, chiropractic (37%, faith healing (18%, aromatherapy (16%, homeopathy (16%, and relaxation (16%. Many patients used CAM products at the same time as conventional medicine but just over half (57% discussed this concurrent use with their physician. CONCLUSION: CAM use is common in pediatric neurology patients and most respondents felt that it was helpful, with few or no harms associated. However, this use is often undisclosed, increasing possibility of interactions with conventional drugs. We urge clinicians to inquire about CAM use during routine history taking at every patient visit. Parents would clearly like more information about CAM from their specialty clinics; such information would be easier to share if more primary data were available about the safety and effectiveness of commonly used therapies.

  5. Microhabitat selection and co-occurrence of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock (Araneae, Theraphosidae and Nothroctenus fuxico sp. nov. (Araneae, Ctenidae in tank bromeliads from Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidclay Calaça Dias

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Microhabitat selection and co-occurrence of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock (Theraphosidae and Nothroctenus fuxico sp. nov. (Ctenidae, in tank bromeliads were investigated. Thermal conditions, inside and outside the plants, were measured in order to verify if the temperature of the water that accumulates inside the plant affects the behavior of these species. Measurements of foliar parameters were taken in order to evaluate if and how plant structure affects spider abundance and microhabitat selection. Apparently, differences in plant structure do not affect either spider abundance or microhabitat selection. No microhabitat preference was observed and co-ocurrence of both species was a random event. In addition, notes on the distribution range of P. rufonigrum and the description of N. fuxico sp. nov. from State of Sergipe, Brazil are presented.Foram estudadas a seleção de microhabitat e co-ocorrência de Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock (Theraphosidae e Nothroctenus fuxico sp. nov. (Ctenidae em bromélias-tanque. A condição da temperatura dentro e fora das plantas foi medida para verificar se a temperatura da água acumulada dentro da bromélia afeta algum aspecto comportamental das aranhas que ali vivem. Medidas dos parâmetros foliares foram realizadas para avaliar se a estrutura das plantas chega a afetar a abundância ou a seleção de microhabitat dessas aranhas. Aparentemente, as diferenças na estrutura das duas espécies de bromélias estudadas não afetam nem a abundância, nem a seleção de microhabitat de P. rufonigrum e N. fuxico sp. nov. A preferência e co-ocorrência de ambas as espécies de aranhas parece ser um evento ao acaso. Adicionalmente, apresenta-se notas sobre os limites de distribuição de P. rufonigrum e descreve-se N. fuxico sp. nov. do Estado de Sergipe, Brasil.

  6. Prevalence and Predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use among Ivy League College Students: Implications for Student Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versnik Nowak, Amy L.; DeGise, Joe; Daugherty, Amanda; O'Keefe, Richard; Seward, Samuel, Jr.; Setty, Suma; Tang, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Determine prevalence and types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies used and test the significance of demographics and social cognitive constructs as predictors of CAM use in a college sample. Secondary purpose was to guide the integration of CAM therapies into college health services. Participants: Random,…

  7. EpCAM-selective elimination of carcinoma cells by a novel MAP-based cytolytic fusion protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hristodorov, Dmitrij; Amoury, Manal; Mladenov, Radoslav; Niesen, Judith; Arens, Katharina; Berges, Nina; Hein, Lea; di Fiore, Stefano; Pham, Anh-Tuan; Huhn, Michael; Helfrich, Wijnand; Fischer, Rainer; Thepen, Theo; Barth, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In normal epithelia, the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) expression is relatively low and only present at the basolateral cell surface. In contrast, EpCAM is aberrantly overexpressed in various human carcinomas. Therefore, EpCAM is considered to be a highly promising target for antibody-ba

  8. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM Use during Menopause in Sydney and Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne van der Sluijs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous surveys found CAM use during menopause to be popular. This paper compares the results from two surveys (Sydney and Bologna to examine factors that determine the extent and pattern of CAM use to alleviate menopausal symptoms. Methods. Women, aged 45–65 years, who were symptomatic when transitioning through menopause or asymptomatic but taking menopause-specific treatments, were recruited in Sydney (n=1,296 and Bologna (n=1,106 to complete the same voluntary, anonymous, and self-administered questionnaire. The results were reanalysed using stratified analyses to determine similarities and differences. Results. Demographics of the two cohorts differed significantly. CAM was more popular in Sydney. The most significant determinants of CAM use were the use of CAM for other conditions besides menopause and the severity of vasomotor symptoms. Occupational status was a determinant of CAM use amongst Bologna respondents only. In order to relieve symptoms, Australian and Italian women used different CAM modalities whose effectiveness was generally perceived as good. Conclusion. CAM use is popular amongst menopausal women from Sydney and Bologna. Differences in the patterns of CAM use seem to depend on CAM availability and on the educational level and professional status of users. The complex interaction between market, social, and cultural factors of CAM use seems to be more influential on women’s choice of CAM than the available evidence of their effectiveness.

  9. Using CAD/CAM to improve productivity - The IPAD approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Progress in designing and implementing CAD/CAM systems as a result of the NASA Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design is discussed. Essential software packages have been identified as executive, data management, general user, and geometry and graphics software. Data communication, as a means to integrate data over a network of computers of different vendors, provides data management with the capability of meeting design and manufacturing requirements of the vendors. Geometry software is dependent on developmental success with solid geometry software, which is necessary for continual measurements of, for example, a block of metal while it is being machined. Applications in the aerospace industry, such as for design, analysis, tooling, testing, quality control, etc., are outlined.

  10. Chemical composition of umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Vilela Borges

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The umbu tree (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam is an important fruit tree the economy of the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil. With the objective of finding use for the seeds, physical and chemical characterizations of the seeds from 2 cultivars in 2 maturation stages were carried out and their fatty acid and mineral profiles determined. The results showed no differences between the seeds analyzed. The yield was about 10% and the dimensions as follows: length from 1.48 to 2.11 cm and width from 0.76 to 1.16 cm. The average lipid content was 55% of which 69% was unsaturated and the average protein content was 24%. The seeds were a good source of the following minerals: P, K, Mg, Fe and Cu. The overall results indicated that the oil or the seeds could be used for food stuffs if no toxic agents were found.

  11. Photon counting phosphorescence lifetime imaging with TimepixCam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Fisher-Levine, Merlin; Suhling, Klaus; Nomerotski, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    TimepixCam is a novel fast optical imager based on an optimized silicon pixel sensor with a thin entrance window and read out by a Timepix Application Specific Integrated Circuit. The 256 × 256 pixel sensor has a time resolution of 15 ns at a sustained frame rate of 10 Hz. We used this sensor in combination with an image intensifier for wide-field time-correlated single photon counting imaging. We have characterised the photon detection capabilities of this detector system and employed it on a wide-field epifluorescence microscope to map phosphorescence decays of various iridium complexes with lifetimes of about 1 μs in 200 μm diameter polystyrene beads.

  12. Innovative Design of Cam-Controlled Planetary Gear Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiang Hsieh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to perform the innovation design for the new structures of cam-controlled planetary gear trains (CCPGTs, based on the creative mechanism design methodology. Firstly, the design requirements and design constraints are summarized according to the kinematics characteristics of existing CCPGTs. Then, the (4, 5 and (5, 7 graphs are generated by the theory of number synthesis. After that, the atlas of feasible specialized graphs is obtained. Finally, the atlas of new designs is obtained through the particularization process. In addition, an illustrated example is given, and the feasibility of the design is verified by computer simulation using ADAMS software. The result indicates that new design can produce a more wide range of non-uniform motion than the existing design. Therefore, they are better alternatives for driving a variable speed input mechanism.

  13. Lacie phase 1 Classification and Mensuration Subsystem (CAMS) rework experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhikara, R. S.; Hsu, E. M.; Liszcz, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment was designed to test the ability of the Classification and Mensuration Subsystem rework operations to improve wheat proportion estimates for segments that had been processed previously. Sites selected for the experiment included three in Kansas and three in Texas, with the remaining five distributed in Montana and North and South Dakota. The acquisition dates were selected to be representative of imagery available in actual operations. No more than one acquisition per biophase were used, and biophases were determined by actual crop calendars. All sites were worked by each of four Analyst-Interpreter/Data Processing Analyst Teams who reviewed the initial processing of each segment and accepted or reworked it for an estimate of the proportion of small grains in the segment. Classification results, acquisitions and classification errors and performance results between CAMS regular and ITS rework are tabulated.

  14. Building a Sectional Aerosol Model in CAM5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, P.; Toon, O. B.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols are widely distributed around the globe. In the current study I use a sectional aerosol microphysics model (CARMA) coupled with the NCAR global climate model, CAM5, to simulate the spatial-temporal distribution of various types of aerosols including organics, black carbon, sulfate, sea salt and dust. Organics and black carbon surface concentrations are simulated within ~50% over the U.S, and Europe compared with observations; the amount of modeled sulfate and organics are equal in UTLS region as observed by the Pre-AVE field campaign; aerosol extinction in the UTLS observed by SAGEII can be explained by secondary organic aerosols combined with sulfate aerosol. For treating secondary organic aerosols, the volatility-basis-set method improves the budget at surface level relative to the traditional two-product partitioning method; black carbon global budget is largely improved especially in high latitudes by introducing new emission database.

  15. Hydrogen detection with ChemCam at Gale crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, S.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Gasnault, O.; Maurice, S.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R. C.; Rapin, W.; Dyar, M. D.; Mangold, N.; Forni, O.; Nachon, M.; Clegg, S.; Johnson, J. R.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouélic, S.; Ollila, A.; Pinet, P.; Sautter, V.; Vaniman, D.

    2015-03-01

    One of the main advantages of ChemCam's LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument onboard the Curiosity rover is its potential to detect light elements such as hydrogen at fine scales, which has never been achieved on Mars. Hydrogen lines are detected in most of the data obtained within the first 320 sols of the mission at Gale crater, Mars. This work is a description of the hydrogen signal and its variability in the ChemCam LIBS spectra; it discusses the challenges of qualitative and quantitative analysis. Data acquisition and processing steps are investigated and optimized for the detection of hydrogen on Mars. Subtraction of an appropriate dark spectrum and the deconvolution of the superimposed emission of carbon from the low-pressure CO2-dominated atmosphere are particularly important. Because the intensities of hydrogen are also affected by matrix effects, the hydrogen signal was investigated within groups of targets sharing common chemical features and similar matrices. The different groups cover a variety of rock and soil compositions encountered along the traverse (calcium sulfate veins, mafic soils, felsic, Mg-rich and Fe-rich rocks) including data from both drill holes and their tailings. Almost all these targets were found to be hydrated to variable extents. Soils have systematically higher hydrogen signals than rocks and pebbles, probably as a result of their alteration. The results from rocks suggest that various alteration processes leading to their hydration have taken place, which is consistent with the fluvial lacustrine context, the diagenetic features, and the mineralogy observed by Curiosity in Yellowknife Bay.

  16. Comparative evaluation of RetCam vs. gonioscopy images in congenital glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj V Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare clarity, exposure and quality of anterior chamber angle visualization in congenital glaucoma patients, using RetCam and indirect gonioscopy images. Design: Cross-sectional study Participants. Congenital glaucoma patients over age of 5 years. Materials and Methods: A prospective consecutive pilot study was done in congenital glaucoma patients who were older than 5 years. Methods used are indirect gonioscopy and RetCam imaging. Clarity of the image, extent of angle visible and details of angle structures seen were graded for both methods, on digitally recorded images, in each eye, by two masked observers. Outcome Measures: Image clarity, interobserver agreement. Results: 40 eyes of 25 congenital glaucoma patients were studied. RetCam image had excellent clarity in 77.5% of patients versus 47.5% by gonioscopy. The extent of angle seen was similar by both methods. Agreement between RetCam and gonioscopy images regarding details of angle structures was 72.50% by observer 1 and 65.00% by observer 2. Conclusions: There was good agreement between RetCam and indirect gonioscopy images in detecting angle structures of congenital glaucoma patients. However, RetCam provided greater clarity, with better quality, and higher magnification images. RetCam can be a useful alternative to gonioscopy in infants and small children without the need for general anesthesia.

  17. Design of Cylindrical Cam with Oscillating Follower Based on 3D Expansion of Planar Profile Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Junhua; LIN Zuan; WU Yijie

    2009-01-01

    Cylindrical cam with oscillating follower is widely applicable and used in many mechanical devices and machines. However, a common error exists in the methods of designing planar profile for oscillating follower cylinder cam. In this study, we propose a new hypothesis to solve this design problem with the inclusion of deviation angle. On the basis of this new concept, equations for planar profile expansion and methods of calculating pressure angle are deduced by applying 3D expansion formula of the follower's motion orbit. When the pressure angle is less than allowable value, the minimum base radius can be determined by using MATLAB software. Accordingly, the planar profile of oscillating follower cylinder cam is generated by CAD software. This new method is practical and can be easily adopted for the design of oscillating follower cylindrical cam with desirable accuracy. We applied the method in the design of cylindrical cam for paper feeding mechanism used in high-speed printers. We calculated the planar profile and used it to direct the NC machine for the manufacture of the groove of cylindrical cam. The improved cylindrical cam met all of the requirements of speed and accuracy demanded by high-speed printers. Therefore, our new method has been validated by practical application.

  18. The CAM Education Program of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Nancy J; Chesney, Margaret A

    2007-10-01

    The authors provide a historical context and overview of the experience of education projects at 14 health professions schools in the United States and the American Medical Students Association that were funded by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine at the National Institutes of Health in cohorts of five per year in 2000, 2001, and 2002-2003. These 15 projects were designed to incorporate CAM information into the curricula of conventional health professions schools. A longer-term goal was to accelerate the integration of CAM and conventional medicine. The overall program started in 2000 at a time when discussions about the definition, goals, and value of integrative medicine were already well underway. The efforts specific to each project, as well as the shared challenges, accomplishments, and collaborative efforts of all 15 projects, can provide guidance for the education of conventional health care providers about CAM in an integrative medicine environment. Challenging issues that must be faced include (1) the need to develop successful strategies to incorporate information about CAM into already dense health professions school curricula, (2) the need for conventional health professionals to have authoritative resources to provide their patients information about risks and benefits of CAM practices, and (3) the need to identify appropriate roles for CAM practitioners in educating conventional health professionals about CAM therapies. The authors discuss these issues and others and present some recommendations.

  19. Modeling analysis of the benefits of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for sustainable agriculture in arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, M. S.; Vico, G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    In view of the pressing needs to sustainably manage water and soil resources, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, here we propose a new carbon assimilation model that couples a simple yet mechanistic description of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis to the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. The model captures the full coupling of the CAM photosynthetic pathway with fluctuations in environmental conditions (cycles of light availability and air humidity, changes in soil moisture as driven by plant transpiration and rainfall occurrence). As such, the model is capable of reproducing the different phases of CAM, including daytime stomatal closure and photosynthesis from malic acid, afternoon stomatal opening for direct carbon assimilation, and nighttime stomatal opening for CO2 uptake and malic acid synthesis. Thanks to its versatility, our model allows us to relate CAM productivity, for both obligate and facultative CAM plants, to various soil moisture conditions including hydroclimatic scenarios of rainfall frequency and intensity as well as different night-time conditions of temperature, wind speed, and humidity. Our analyses show the potential productive benefits of CAM cultivation in dryland environments as feedstock and possible biofuel source, in terms of sustainable water use and economic benefits. In particular, the model is used to explore conditions where CAM plant resiliency to water stress makes these plants a more sustainable alternative to C3 and C4 species for potential deficit irrigation.

  20. COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM THERAPIES FOR MANAGEMENT OF PAIN RELATED TO ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda Roshni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a gynaecological disease with a complex etiology. It is associated with severe pelvic pain, sub fertility and reduced quality of life. Endometriosis has a multifactorial etiology and therefore its management is also multidimensional. The main targets of therapy are controlling of the pain symptoms and increasing fertility where it is desired. Hormonal and surgical therapies are the two major treatment modalities available currently. But they are not without their side effects. Therefore many women explore Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM forms of treatment for symptomatic relief from pain. These CAM therapies have been used as an adjuvant to conventional therapy or as an independent form of treatment. CAM therapies are purported to have lesser side effects as compared to conventional medical formulations. Ancient Chinese and Indian medicine system have laid the foundation of several of the prevalent Cam practices. The following CAM practices have been discussed in the article-Acupuncture, Herbal therapy, Meditation and Hypnotherapy, Yoga, Exercise, Dietary therapy Aromatherapy and Massage, Reiki, Magnet therapy and Chiropractice. Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT have been conducted for some of the CAM therapies in Endometriosis and Acupuncture and Herbal and Dietary therapies have been found to have some positive effect on the patients. The efficacy of CAM therapies still needs substantial evidence to be integrated into general healthcare practices.

  1. CAM therapies among primary care patients using opioid therapy for chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundt Marlon P

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is an increasingly common therapy used to treat chronic pain syndromes. However; there is limited information on the utilization and efficacy of CAM therapy in primary care patients receiving long-term opioid therapy. Method A survey of CAM therapy was conducted with a systematic sample of 908 primary care patients receiving opioids as a primary treatment method for chronic pain. Subjects completed a questionnaire designed to assess utilization, efficacy and costs of CAM therapies in this population. Results Patients were treated for a variety of pain problems including low back pain (38.4%, headaches (9.9%, and knee pain (6.5%; the average duration of pain was 16 years. The median morphine equivalent opioid dose was 41 mg/day, and the mean dose was 92 mg/day. Forty-four percent of the sample reported CAM therapy use in the past 12 months. Therapies utilized included massage therapy (27.3%, n = 248, chiropractic treatment (17.8%, n = 162, acupuncture (7.6%, n = 69, yoga (6.1%, n = 55, herbs and supplements (6.8%, n = 62, and prolotherapy (5.9%, n = 54. CAM utilization was significantly related to age female gender, pain severity income pain diagnosis of neck and upper back pain, and illicit drug use. Medical insurance covered chiropractic treatment (81.8% and prolotherapy (87.7%, whereas patients primarily paid for other CAM therapies. Over half the sample reported that one or more of the CAM therapies were helpful. Conclusion This study suggests CAM therapy is widely used by patients receiving opioids for chronic pain. Whether opioids can be reduced by introducing such therapies remains to be studied.

  2. Regulated intramembrane proteolysis and degradation of murine epithelial cell adhesion molecule mEpCAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Hachmeister

    Full Text Available Epithelial cell adhesion molecule EpCAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is highly and frequently expressed in carcinomas and (cancer-stem cells, and which plays an important role in the regulation of stem cell pluripotency. We show here that murine EpCAM (mEpCAM is subject to regulated intramembrane proteolysis in various cells including embryonic stem cells and teratocarcinomas. As shown with ectopically expressed EpCAM variants, cleavages occur at α-, β-, γ-, and ε-sites to generate soluble ectodomains, soluble Aβ-like-, and intracellular fragments termed mEpEX, mEp-β, and mEpICD, respectively. Proteolytic sites in the extracellular part of mEpCAM were mapped using mass spectrometry and represent cleavages at the α- and β-sites by metalloproteases and the b-secretase BACE1, respectively. Resulting C-terminal fragments (CTF are further processed to soluble Aβ-like fragments mEp-β and cytoplasmic mEpICD variants by the g-secretase complex. Noteworthy, cytoplasmic mEpICD fragments were subject to efficient degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. In addition the γ-secretase complex dependent cleavage of EpCAM CTF liberates different EpICDs with different stabilities towards proteasomal degradation. Generation of CTF and EpICD fragments and the degradation of hEpICD via the proteasome were similarly demonstrated for the human EpCAM ortholog. Additional EpCAM orthologs have been unequivocally identified in silico in 52 species. Sequence comparisons across species disclosed highest homology of BACE1 cleavage sites and in presenilin-dependent γ-cleavage sites, whereas strongest heterogeneity was observed in metalloprotease cleavage sites. In summary, EpCAM is a highly conserved protein present in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, and is subject to shedding, γ-secretase-dependent regulated intramembrane proteolysis, and proteasome-mediated degradation.

  3. Spatial data software integration - Merging CAD/CAM/mapping with GIS and image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Thomas L.; Bryant, Nevin A.

    1987-01-01

    The integration of CAD/CAM/mapping with image processing using geographic information systems (GISs) as the interface is examined. Particular emphasis is given to the development of software interfaces between JPL's Video Image Communication and Retrieval (VICAR)/Imaged Based Information System (IBIS) raster-based GIS and the CAD/CAM/mapping system. The design and functions of the VICAR and IBIS are described. Vector data capture and editing are studied. Various software programs for interfacing between the VICAR/IBIS and CAD/CAM/mapping are presented and analyzed.

  4. Aesthetic treatment option for completely edentulous patients using CAD/CAM technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Alejandro; Avendano, Sergio; Leyva, Francisco

    2008-04-01

    In recent years, advancements have been made in CAD/CAM technology that have allowed for the development of different treatments regarding the rehabilitation of patients with natural dentition, as well as patients with dental implants. Contemporary systems can also allow prosthetic rehabilitation for partially and completely edentulous patients. This article describes a restorative alternative to fixed implant-supported reconstruction of completely edentulous patients, utilizing a CAD/CAM-generated framework and CAD/CAM-generated all-ceramic cement-retained crowns. In addition to delivering an optimally aesthetic restoration, this design permits a precise and passive prosthetic fit.

  5. Digital data management for CAD/CAM technology. An update of current systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreiotelli, M; Kamposiora, P; Papavasiliou, G

    2013-03-01

    Abstract - Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology continues to rapidly evolve in the dental community. This review article provides an overview of the operational components and methodologies used with some of the CAD/CAM systems. Future trends are also discussed. While these systems show great promise, the quality of performance varies among systems. No single system currently acquires data directly in the oral cavity and produces restorations using all materials available. Further refinements of these CAD/CAM technologies may increase their capabilities, but further special training will be required for effective use.

  6. Conservative restorative treatment using a single-visit, all-ceramic CAD/CAM system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benk, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) continues to radically change the way in which the dental team plans, prepares, and fabricates a patient's restoration. This advancing technology offers the clinician the ability to scan the patient's failing dentition and then designs a long-lasting, reliable restoration based on this data. CAD/CAM systems also permit efficient, single-visit placement of the restoration while preserving much of the natural tooth structure. This article discusses how a chairside CAD/CAM system can be used to provide such a restoration in the posterior region in a single-visit.

  7. Aesthetic quadrant dentistry using a chairside CAD/CAM system: a case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klim, James

    2006-04-01

    There are numerous CAD/CAM technologies available today for the production of highly aesthetic restorations with strength and precision. Laboratory-based CAD/CAM systems typically require the patient to receive a provisional restoration and then return to the dental office for a second visit for placement of the definitive restoration upon receipt from the laboratory. Chairside systems, as described in the following case presentation, allow excellent benefits to be achieved in one patient visit. Thus, this case presentation describes the sequences associated with single-visit, in-office CAD/CAM quadrant dentistry.

  8. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Yang, Jae-Ho; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun; Yeo, In-Sung

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also ...

  9. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRIMPING DEVICE WITH MULTIPLE CAMS USING MSC ADAMS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Through the present paper, the author presents the results of the dynamic analysis with MSC ADAMS of the mechanism with a crimping device with 12 tightening cams, designed and used in the technological process of assembly of the indigenous electrical detonators. In this sense, the mechanism with multiple cams is considered a mechanical system and is treated as an assembly of rigid bodies connected by mechanical connections and elastic elements. For shaping and simulation of the mechanism with multiple cams using ADAMS program, the author got through the following stages: construction of the pattern, its testing and simulation, validation, finishing, parametrization, optimization of the pattern.

  10. Bonding Effectiveness of Luting Composites to Different CAD/CAM Materials

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of different surface treatments of six novel CAD/CAM materials on the bonding effectiveness of two luting composites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six different CAD/CAM materials were tested: four ceramics - Vita Mark II; IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD; Celtra Duo - one hybrid ceramic, Vita Enamic, and one composite CAD/CAM block, Lava Ultimate. A total of 60 blocks (10 per material) received various mechanical surface treatments: 1. 600-grit SiC ...

  11. Computer-assisted myelography (CAM) in the diagnosis of cervical disk disease. Correlation with surgical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotwica, Z.; Kasprzak, P. (Medical Univ. of Lodz, Dept. of Neurosurgery (Poland)); Chmielowski, M. (Medical Univ. of Lodz, School of Medicine, Dept. of Medical Imaging (Poland))

    A comparison was made between results obtained from preoperative computer-assisted myelography (CAM), on the one hand, and surgical findings, on the other, for 45 patients with suspicion of cervical disk disease. Full and correct diagnosis, subsequently confirmed by surgery, was enabled by CAM in 98% of all cases. Only one case was left in which preoperative diagnosis had been extraspinal tumour, while surgery revealed prolapse of the nucleus pulposus, the latter lying exposed on the anterior wall of the dural sac. The authors feel CAM to be sufficient for planning of surgical treatment for cervical disk desease, with other neuroradiological investigations, myelography or magnetic resonance tomography usually not being necessary. (orig.).

  12. CAM operated tool for proximate or remote holding of an object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrum, P.B.; Gajdzik, G.P. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    A tool for releasably holding an object includes a receptacle having an outer sleeve and a rotatable inner sleeve. The inner sleeve is coaxially positioned within the outer sleeve and includes a locking member. An insert which is adapted to be operably associated with the receptacle includes a cam. The cam includes a guide and a slot so that when the cam is inserted into the inner sleeve, the guide aligns the locking member with the slot allowing the locking member to engage the slot thereby holding the receptacle and the insert together.

  13. Strength of CAD/CAM-generated esthetic ceramic molar implant crowns

    OpenAIRE

    D. Wolf; Bindl, A; Schmidlin, P.R; Lüthy, H; Mörmann, W H

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: One-visit in-office CAD/CAM fabrication of esthetic ceramic crowns as a superstructure for posterior implants is quite new. The aim of the study was to evaluate the strength of esthetic ceramic CAD/CAM crowns with varied occlusal thickness and seated with adhesive and nonadhesive cements on titanium and zirconia abutments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Esthetic ceramic CAD/CAM-generated molar crowns (n = 15 per group) with occlusal thicknesses of 0.5 mm and 1.5 mm were seated on titanium (1...

  14. Electronic cam motion generation with special reference to constrained velocity, acceleration, and jerk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chung-Shu; Jeng, Shyr-Long; Chieng, Wei-Hua

    2004-07-01

    Electronic cam motion involves velocity tracking control of the master motor and trajectory generation of the slave motor. Special concerns such as the limits of the velocity, acceleration, and jerk are beyond the considerations in the conventional electronic cam motion control. This study proposes the curve-fitting of a Lagrange polynomial to the cam profile, based on trajectory optimization by cubic B-spline interpolation. The proposed algorithms may yield a higher tracking precision than the conventional master-slaves control method does, providing an optimization problem is concerned. The optimization problem contains three dynamic constraints including velocity, acceleration, and jerk of the motor system.

  15. IFEMS, an Interactive Finite Element Modeling System Using a CAD/CAM System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckellip, S.; Schuman, T.; Lauer, S.

    1980-01-01

    A method of coupling a CAD/CAM system with a general purpose finite element mesh generator is described. The three computer programs which make up the interactive finite element graphics system are discussed.

  16. Development of CAD/CAM System for Cross Section’s Changing Hole Electrical Discharge Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Tohru; Ishiguro, Eiki; Kita, Masahiko; Nakamoto, Keiichi; Takeuchi, Yoshimi

    This study deals with the development of a new CAD/CAM system for fabricating holes whose cross sections change variously. The cross sections of machined holes are generally constant. The limitations in the shapes of holes that can be machined make obstacles in the design stage of industrial products. A new device that utilizes electrical discharge machining has been developed that can create holes with various cross sections to solve this problem. However, it has been impossible to put the device into practical use since there has been no software that has enabled the designed shapes to be easily machined. Therefore, we aimed at developing a new CAD/CAM system for machining the beforehand designed holes with changing cross sections by using the device. As the first step in developing the CAD/CAM system, the post processor in the CAM system is formulated in this paper.

  17. A Unique Opportunity for an Intercultural Discussion on CAM and Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marotta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The meeting of the APASL, Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver, was held in December 2004, in New Delhi, India. The meeting was held under the patronage of the APASL Committee and Board of Presidents of the National Liver Association and in conjunction with the annual conference of the Indian Association for the Study of Liver (INASL. The congress was designed to have a core meeting with three parallel sessions running throughout, dedicated research workshops and intensive breakfast sessions. This report concentrates on the two sessions devoted to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM and shows the latest research in CAM for liver disease and the concerns of doctors about integrating CAM with more traditional treatments. With researchers and practitioners gathering from all over the world, it was a unique opportunity for an intercultural discussion on CAM and liver disease.

  18. Commissioning and First Observations with Wide FastCam at the Telescopio Carlos S\\'anchez

    CERN Document Server

    Velasco, Sergio; Oscoz, Alejandro; López, Roberto L; Puga, Marta; Murga, Gaizka; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio; Pallé, Enric; Ricci, Davide; Ayuso, Ismael; Hernández-Sánchez, Mónica; Truant, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The FastCam instrument platform, jointly developed by the IAC and the UPCT, allows, in real-time, acquisition, selection and storage of images with a resolution that reaches the diffraction limit of medium-sized telescopes. FastCam incorporates a specially designed software package to analyse series of tens of thousands of images in parallel with the data acquisition at the telescope. Wide FastCam is a new instrument that, using the same software for data acquisition, does not look for lucky imaging but fast observations in a much larger field of view. Here we describe the commissioning process and first observations with Wide FastCam at the Telescopio Carlos S\\'anchez (TCS) in the Observatorio del Teide.

  19. O-Cam: a new paradigm for investigating the effects of ostracism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodacre, Rani; Zadro, Lisa

    2010-08-01

    A new ostracism paradigm-O-Cam-was designed to combine the best qualities of both social ostracism (i.e., face-to-face interaction between the target and sources of ostracism) and cyber ostracism (i.e., confederate-free, highly controlled designs) paradigms. O-Cam consists of a simulated Web conference during which participants are either ostracized or included by 2 other participants whose actions, unbeknownst to the participants, are actually pretaped. The findings of preliminary studies indicate that O-Cam provides a powerful ostracism experience that yields psychological and behavioral responses that are consistent with those in other ostracism paradigms (e.g., Cyberball; Williams, 2007). Moreover, unlike in many previous ostracism paradigms, O-Cam provides researchers with the flexibility to manipulate the physical appearance and the verbal/nonbehavior of the sources of ostracism without the need for confederates.

  20. SuperCam Remote Sensing on the Mars 2020 Rover: Science Goals and Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Rull, F.; SuperCam Team

    2016-10-01

    The Mars 2020 Science Definition Team (SDT) report emphasized the importance of fine-scale measurements, suggesting that the numerous pin-point observations made at remote distances by ChemCam was a very desirable capability.

  1. Involvement of Ca2+/CaM in the signal transduction of acetylcholine regulating stomatal movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    It has been known that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) also exists in plants and is able to regulate the movement of stomata. In another aspect, Ca2+/CaM as the second messengers have a critical role of signal transduction in stomatal guard-cell. Here we showed that Ca2+/CaM were also involved in theACh regulated stomatal movement. In the medium containing Ca2+, the Ca2+ channel blockers (NIF and Ver) and CaM inhibitors (TFP and W7) could neutralize the ACh induced stomatal opening, however, they are ineffective in the medium containing K+. Those results indicated that Ca2+/CaM were involved in the signal transduction pathway of ACh regulating stomatal movement.

  2. CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Postnov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CAD/CAM/CAI application solutions for internal combustion engine pistons machining was analyzed. Low-volume technology of internal combustion engine pistons production was proposed. Fixture for CNC turning center was designed.

  3. Study on glass infiltrated alumina(GIA) ceramic for CAD/CAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mingzhe; LI Hong; WANG Wei; Zhao Yunfeng

    2001-01-01

    @@ With the rapid development of computer technique , Computer aided design(CAD) and computer aided manufacturing(CAM) or computer integrated manufacturing(CIM) has became an alternative to the conventional technique for producingdental restorations.

  4. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) following traumatic brain injury (TBI): Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Theresa D; Brenner, Lisa A; Walter, Kristen H; Bormann, Jill E; Johansson, Birgitta

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is highly prevalent and occurs in a variety of populations. Because of the complexity of its sequelae, treatment strategies pose a challenge. Given this complexity, TBI provides a unique target of opportunity for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. The present review describes and discusses current opportunitites and challenges associated with CAM research and clinical applications in civilian, veteran and military service populations. In addition to a brief overview of CAM, the translational capacity from basic to clinical research to clinical practice will be described. Finally, a systematic approach to developing an adoptable evidence base, with proof of effectiveness based on the literature will be discussed. Inherent in this discussion will be the methodological and ethical challenges associated with CAM research in those with TBI and associated comorbidities, specifically in terms of how these challenges relate to practice and policy issues, implementation and dissemination. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:Brain injury and recovery.

  5. An automated qualification framework for the MeerKAT CAM (Control-And-Monitoring)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heever, Lize; Marais, Neilen; Slabber, Martin

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces and discusses the design of an Automated Qualification Framework (AQF) that was developed to automate as much as possible of the formal Qualification Testing of the Control And Monitoring (CAM) subsystem of the 64 dish MeerKAT radio telescope currently under construction in the Karoo region of South Africa. The AQF allows each Integrated CAM Test to reference the MeerKAT CAM requirement and associated verification requirement it covers and automatically produces the Qualification Test Procedure and Qualification Test Report from the test steps and evaluation steps annotated in the Integrated CAM Tests. The MeerKAT System Engineers are extremely happy with the AQF results, but mostly by the approach and process it enforces.

  6. Health psychology as a context for massage therapy: a conceptual model with CAM as mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymel, Glenn M; Rich, Grant J

    2014-04-01

    Health psychology represents a context within which massage therapy research, education, and practice can be positioned for the mutual benefit of both. Furthermore, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) more often than not plays a mediating role in relating massage therapy to health psychology. On occasion, though, the linkage between health psychology and massage therapy can be quite direct without the mediating influence of CAM. This paper, accordingly, advances a conceptual model via both flowchart and Venn diagram displays for viewing the health psychology context for massage therapy with the possibility of CAM as a mediating factor. Attention is also given to the broad range of issues constituting contemporary health psychology as well as its correspondence to an equally diverse array of client populations and health conditions addressed in massage therapy research. Future directions in the areas of health psychology, CAM, and massage therapy are proposed with a view toward a mutual and reciprocal benefit accruing to these behavioral and health science arenas.

  7. Cooverexpression of EpCAM and c-myc genes in malignant breast tumours

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAMIRA SADEGHI; ZOHREH HOJATI; HOSSEIN TABATABAEIAN

    2017-03-01

    The overexpression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), a proto-oncogene, affects progression, treatment, and diagnosis of many adenocarcinomas. C-myc has been shown to be a downstream target of EpCAM and is also one of the most important proto-oncogenes routinely overexpressed in breast cancer. However, cooverexpression of EpCAM and c-mycgenes has not been investigated in breast cancer tissues, particularly in Iranian population. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of EpCAM and c-myc genes in malignant breast cancer tissues using reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) followed by analyses of the association between the outcomes. In this study, 122 fresh tissues, including 104 malignant and 18 benign samples, were disrupted by mortar and pestle, and then the RNA was isolated from the samples and converted to cDNA. The relative expression levels of EpCAM and c-myc genes were measured by2−ΔΔCt method using RT-qPCR. EpCAM protein level was also assessed in 66 cases using Western blot technique. UsingRT-qPCR method, our results showed that EpCAM was overexpressed in 48% of malignant and 11.1% of benign samples. Evaluating EpCAM protein overexpression in a portion of samples depicted the fully concordance rate between Western blot and RT-qPCR techniques. C-myc expression was first evaluated by RT-qPCR method, showing the overexpression rate of 39%and 28% in malignant and benign samples, respectively. These data were also quite concordant with the clinically available immunohistochemistry reports of the same samples studied in this study. Importantly, overexpression of EpCAM and c-myc was significantly associated and showed an agreement of 57.3%. This study demonstrated the cooverexpression of EpCAM and c-myc in breast tumours collected from breast cancer patients of the Iranian population. EpCAM and c-myc positive cases were significantly associated with reduced and enhanced risk of ER/PR positivity

  8. Genome sequence of a new Streptomyces coelicolor generalized transducing bacteriophage, ΦCAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Rita; Salmond, George P C

    2012-12-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor is a model system for the study of Streptomyces, a genus of bacteria responsible for the production of many clinically important antibiotics. Here we report the genome sequence of ΦCAM, a new S. coelicolor generalized transducing bacteriophage, isolated from a soil sample originating from Lincolnshire, United Kingdom. Many open reading frames within ΦCAM shared high levels of similarity to a prophage from Salinispora tropica and a putative prophage in Streptomyces sp. strain C.

  9. CAM within a field force of countervailing powers: The case of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joana; Gabe, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the position of the medical profession and the state towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners has changed since the late 1990s, taking Portugal as a case study. Using Light's concept of countervailing powers, we consider the alliances, interests, rhetoric and degrees of control between these three actors over time, focussing particularly on the extent to which CAM practitioners have acted as a countervailing force in their relationship with the medical profession and the state. It also brings to the fore the position of supra-state agencies concerning CAM regulation. A critical discourse analysis was conducted on data derived from a systematic search of information dating from the late 1990s up to 2015. Our analysis suggests that CAM has emerged as an active player and a countervailing power in that it has had significant influence on the process of state policy-making. The medical profession, in turn, has moved from rejecting to 'incorporating' CAM, while the state has acted as a 'broker', trying to accommodate the demands and preferences of both actors while simultaneously demonstrating its power and autonomy in shaping health policy. In sum, the history of countermoves of CAM, the medical profession and the state in recasting power relations regarding CAM regulation in Portugal has highlighted the explanatory value of Light's countervailing power theory and the need to move away from a professional dominance and corporatist approach, in which CAM has simply been seen as subjugated to the power of the medical profession and the state.

  10. Cognitive interviews guide design of a new CAM patient expectations questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Karen J.; Eaves, Emery R; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Hsu, Clarissa; Cherkin, Daniel C; Turner, Judith A

    2014-01-01

    Background No consistent relationship exists between pre-treatment expectations and therapeutic benefit from various complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies in clinical trials. However, many different expectancy measures have been used in those studies, with no validated questionnaires clearly focused on CAM and pain. We undertook cognitive interviews as part of a process to develop and validate such a questionnaire. Methods We reviewed questions about expectations of benefits ...

  11. Novel Diagnosis of Lyme Disease: Potential for CAM Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristo Vojdani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease (LD is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere, producing a wide range of disabling effects on multiple human targets, including the skin, the nervous system, the joints and the heart. Insufficient clinical diagnostic methods, the necessity for prompt antibiotic treatment along with the pervasive nature of infection impel the development and establishment of new clinical diagnostic tools with increased accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The goal of this article is 4-fold: (i to detail LD infection and pathology, (ii to review prevalent diagnostic methods, emphasizing inherent problems, (iii to introduce the usage of in vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT in clinical diagnostics and (iv to underscore the relevance of a novel comprehensive LD diagnostic approach to practitioners of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM. Utilization of this analytical method will increase the accuracy of the diagnostic process and abridge the time to treatment, with antibiotics, herbal medicines and nutritional supplements, resulting in improved quality of care and disease prognosis.

  12. CanariCam/GTC observations of (99942) Apophis

    CERN Document Server

    Licandro, J; Alvarez, C; Alí-Lagoa, V; Delbò, M

    2015-01-01

    The potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) (99942) Apophis is one of the most remarkable near-Earth asteroids (NEA) in terms of impact hazard. A good determination of its surface thermal inertia is very important in order to evaluate the Yarkovsky effect on its orbital evolution. We present thermal infrared observations obtained on January 29, 2013, with CanariCam mid-infrared camera/spectrograph attached to the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma, Spain) using the Si2-8.7, Si6-12.5, and Q1-17.65 filters with the aim of deriving Apophis' diameter ($D$), geometric albedo ($p_V$), and thermal inertia ($\\Gamma$). We performed a detailed thermophysical model analysis of the GTC data combined with previously published thermal data obtained using Herschel Space Observatory PACS instrument at 70, 100, and 160 $\\mu$m.The thermophysical model fit of the data favors low surface roughness solutions (within a range of roughness slope angles $rms$ between 0.1 and 0.5), and constrains ...

  13. The Systemic Theory of Living Systems and Relevance to CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Olalde Rangel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Systemic Theory of Living Systems is being published in several parts in eCAM. The theory is axiomatic. It originates from the phenomenological idea that physiological health is based on three factors: integrity of its structure or organization, O, functional organic energy reserve, E, and level of active biological intelligence, I. From the theory is derived a treatment strategy called Systemic Medicine (SM. This is based on identifying and prescribing phytomedicines and/or other medications that strengthen each factor. Energy-stimulating phytomedicines increase available energy and decrease total entropy of an open biological system by providing negative entropy. The same occurs with phytomedicines that act as biological intelligence modulators. They should be used as the first line of treatment in all ailments, since all pathologies, by definition, imply a higher than normal organic entropy. SM postulates that the state of health, H, of an individual, is effectively equal to the product of the strength of each factor H = O × E × I. SM observes that when all three factors are brought back to ideal levels, patients' conditions begin the recovery to normal health.

  14. SuprimeCam Observation of Sporadic Meteors during Perseids 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Iye, M; Yanagisawa, M; Ebizuka, N; Ohnishi, K; Hirose, C; Asami, N; Komiyama, Yu; Furusawa, H

    2007-01-01

    We report the serendipitous findings of 13 faint meteors and 44 artificial space objects by Subaru SuprimeCam imaging observations during 11-16 August 2004. The meteors, at about 100km altitude, and artificial satellites/debris in orbit, at 500km altitude or higher, were clearly discriminated by their apparent defocused image sizes. CCD photometry of the 13 meteors, including 1 Perseid, 1 Aquarid, and 11 sporadic meteors, was performed. We defined a peak video-rate magnitude by comparing the integrated photon counts from the brightest portion of the track traversed within 33ms to those from a 0-mag star during the same time duration. This definition gives magnitudes in the range 4.0< V_{vr} <6.4 and 4.1< I_{vr}<5.9 for these 13 meteors. The corresponding magnitude for virtual naked-eye observers could be somewhat fainter especially for the V-band observation, in which the [OI] 5577 line lasting about 1 sec as an afterglow could contribute to the integrated flux of the present 5-10 min CCD exposure...

  15. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--accuracy from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapie, Laurent; Lebon, Nicolas; Mawussi, Bernardin; Fron-Chabouis, Hélène; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    As is the case in the field of medicine, as well as in most areas of daily life, digital technology is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available not only for chairside practice but also for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental practice can be considered as the handling of devices and software processing for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use dental CAD/CAM systems often do not have enough information to understand the variations offered by such technology practice. Knowledge of the random and systematic errors in accuracy with CAD/CAM systems can help to achieve successful restorations with this technology, and help with the purchasing of a CAD/CAM system that meets the clinical needs of restoration. This article provides a mechanical engineering viewpoint of the accuracy of CAD/ CAM systems, to help dentists understand the impact of this technology on restoration accuracy.

  16. Validation of aerosols, reactive gases and greenhouse gases in the CAMS forecasts, analyses and reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Henk; Basart, Sara; Blechschmidt, Anne; Chabrillat, Simon; Clark, Hannah; Cuevas, Emilio; Engelen, Richard; Kapsomenakis, John; Katragkou, Eleni; Mantzius Hansen, Kaj; Niemeijer, Sander; Ramonet, Michel; Schulz, Michael; Sudarchikova, Natalia; Wagner, Annette; Warneke, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    The Atmosphere Monitoring Service of the European Copernicus Programme (CAMS) is an operational service providing analyses, reanalyses and daily forecasts of aerosols, reactive gases and greenhouse gases on a global scale, and air quality forecasts and reanalyses on a regional scale. CAMS is based on the systems developed during the European MACC I-II-III (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) research projects. In CAMS data assimilation techniques are applied to combine in-situ and remote sensing observations with global and European-scale models of atmospheric reactive gases, aerosols and greenhouse gases. The global component is based on the Integrated Forecast System of the ECMWF, and the regional component on an ensemble of 7 European air quality models. CAMS is implemented by ECMWF, and the transition from MACC to CAMS is currently being implemented (2015-2016). CAMS has a dedicated validation activity, a partnership of 13 institutes co-ordinated by KNMI, to document the quality of the atmospheric composition products. In our contribution we discuss this validation activity, including the measurement data sets, validation requirements, the operational aspects, the upgrade procedure, the validation reports and scoring methods, and the model configurations and assimilation systems validated. Of special concern are the forecasts of high pollution concentration events (fires, dust storms, air pollution events, volcano ash and SO2). A few interesting validation results will be shown.

  17. Complementing a Rural Pharmacy Course with CAM: Reflections from a Decade of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maree Simpson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Substantial complementary medicines (CAM use is reported worldwide. Australian consumers use CAM for health maintenance, minor self-limiting disease states, and also for chronic conditions. The increasing use of CAM has required pharmacists to become increasingly more knowledgeable about CAM and the ethics of CAM recommendation. When the first Australian non-metropolitan pharmacy program was started at Charles Sturt University, in 1997, it was decided to incorporate two innovative courses to assist rurally educated students to engage with health consumers who expect pharmacists to be able to assist them with CAM. This discussion traces and reflects on the development, implementation and current situation of the Complementary Medicines for Pharmacy course. Over time, this course has evolved from a final year elective with a focus on familiarization to a mandated course with a phytomedicine focus to an integrated topic in final year with a focus on evidence, quality of evidence and professional decision-making demonstrated in a reflective professional portfolio. Of potentially greater importance, however, has been the introduction of complementary medicines as a topic in every year of the course with the goal of facilitating effective professional engagement with health consumers.

  18. Strategies for the Design of a Slide-o-Cam Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Chablat, Damien

    2007-01-01

    The optimization of the pressure angle in a cam-follower transmission is reported in this paper. This transmission is based on Slide-o-Cam, a cam mechanism with multiple rollers mounted on a common translating follower. The design of Slide-o-Cam, a transmission intended to produce a sliding motion from a turning drive, or vice versa, was reported elsewhere. This transmission provides pure-rolling motion, thereby reducing the friction of rack-and-pinions and linear drives. The pressure angle is a suitable performance index for this transmission because it determines the amount of force transmitted to the load vs. that transmitted to the machine frame. Two alternative design strategies are studied, namely, (i) increase the number of lobes on each cam or (ii) increase the number of cams. This device is intended to replace the current ball-screws in Orthoglide, a three-DOF parallel robot for the production of translational motions, currently under development at Ecole Centrale de Nantes for machining applications...

  19. Mutation in the sixth immunoglobulin domain of L1CAM is associated with migrational brain anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Christine; Moser, Franklin; Graham, John M.; Watiker, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the phenotype of a patient with classical features of X-linked L1 syndrome associated with novel brain malformations. Methods: Diagnostic analysis included physical and dysmorphology examinations, MRI of the brain, and exome sequencing of the family trio. Results: We report a 2.5-year-old boy with developmental delay, dysmorphic facies, and adducted thumbs. MRI of the brain showed a truncated corpus callosum and periventricular heterotopias associated with polymicrogyria (PMG). Variant segregation analysis with exome sequencing discovered a novel maternally derived hemizygous variant in exon 14 of the L1CAM gene (c.1759 G>C; p.G587R). Conclusions: This novel L1CAM mutation was located in the protein's sixth immunoglobin domain and involved glycine-587, a key residue in the structure of L1CAM because of its interactions with lysine-606, which indicates that any mutation at this site would likely affect the secondary structure and function of the protein. The replacement of the small nonpolar glycine residue with a large basic arginine would have an even more dramatic result. The presentation of periventricular nodular heterotopias with overlying PMG is very uncommon, and its association with L1CAM may provide insight into other similar cases. Furthermore, this presentation indicates the important role that L1CAM plays in neuronal migration and brain development and extends the phenotype associated with L1CAM-associated disorders. PMID:27066571

  20. EpCAM Aptamer-siRNA Chimera Targets and Regress Epithelial Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Subramanian

    Full Text Available Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM, a cancer stem cell (CSC marker is over expressed in epithelial cancers and in retinoblastoma (RB. We fabricated an EpCAM targeting aptamer-siRNA chimera and investigated its anti-tumor property and EpCAM intracellular domain (EpICD mediated signaling in epithelial cancer. The anti-tumor efficacy of EpCAM aptamer-siEpCAM chimera (EpApt-siEp was evaluated by qPCR, northern and Western blotting in WERI-Rb1- RB cell line, primary RB tumor cells and in MCF7- breast cancer cell line. Anti-tumor activity of EpApt-siEp was studied in vivo using epithelial cancer (MCF7 mice xenograft model. The mechanism and pathways involved in the anti-tumor activity was further studied using protein arrays and qPCR. EpApt-siEp chimera was processed in vitro by dicer enzyme. Treatment of the WERI-Rb1 and MCF7 cells with EpApt-siEp revealed statistically significant down regulation of EpCAM expression (P<0.005 and concomitant reduction in cellular proliferation. In primary RB cells cultured from RB tumors, EpApt-siEp silenced EpCAM, significantly inhibited (P<0.01 cell proliferation and induced cytotoxicity. Knockdown of EpICD expressed in RB primary tumors led to repression of pluripotency markers, SOX2, OCT4, NANOG, and CD133. In vivo studies showed complete tumor growth regression without any toxicity in animals (P<0.001 and tumor tissues showed significant downregulation (P<0.05 of EpCAM, MRP1, ABCG2, stathmin, survivin and upregulation of ATM (P<0.05 leading to apoptosis by intrinsic pathway with minor alteration in cytokines. Our results revealed that EpApt-siEp potentially eradicated EpCAM positive cancer cells through CSC marker suppression and apoptosis, while sparing normal EpCAM negative adjacent cells.

  1. Advances in computer-aided engineering: CAD/CAM-research at Delft University of Technology. Report of the VF-project CAD/CAM 1989-1994

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1994-01-01

    This book contains a collection of articles describing on-going CAD/CAM-research at several engineering faculties at Delft University of Technology. Two main themes covered in this book are 'Conceptual design of complex products' and 'Product modelling and product data exchange'.

  2. Additive CAD/CAM process for dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nelson R F A; Witek, Lukasz; Coelho, Paulo G; Thompson, Van P; Rekow, Elizabeth D; Smay, Jim

    2011-02-01

    This article describes the evolution of a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) process where ceramic paste is deposited in a layer-by-layer sequence using a computer numerical control machine to build up core and fixed partial denture (FPD) structures (robocasting). Al(2)O(3) (alumina) or ZrO(2) (Y-TZP) are blended into a 0.8% aqueous solution of ammonium polyacrylate in a ratio of approximately 1:1 solid:liquid. A viscosifying agent, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, is added to a concentration of 1% in the liquid phase, and then a counter polyelectrolyte is added to gel the slurry. There are two methods for robocasting crown structures (cores or FPD framework). One is for the core to be printed using zirconia ink without support materials, in which the stereolithography (STL) file is inverted (occlusal surface resting on a flat substrate) and built. The second method uses a fugitive material composed of carbon black codeposited with the ceramic material. During the sintering process, the carbon black is removed. There are two key challenges to successful printing of ceramic crowns by the robocasting technique. First is the development of suitable materials for printing, and second is the design of printing patterns for assembly of the complex geometry required for a dental restoration. Robocasting has room for improvement. Current development involves enhancing the automation of nozzle alignment for accurate support material deposition and better fidelity of the occlusal surface. An accompanying effort involves calculation of optimal support structures to yield the best geometric results and minimal material usage.

  3. From Artisanal to CAD-CAM Blocks: State of the Art of Indirect Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, A K; Dupont, N M; Oudkerk, J C; Dewael, T Y; Sadoun, M J

    2016-05-01

    Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites. Indeed, new polymerization modes used for CAD-CAM blocks-especially high temperature (HT) and, most of all, high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP)-are shown to significantly increase the degree of conversion in comparison with light-cured composites. Industrial processes also allow for the augmentation of the filler content and for the realization of more homogeneous structures with fewer flaws. In addition, due to their increased degree of conversion and their different monomer composition, some CAD-CAM blocks are more advantageous in terms of toxicity and monomer release. Finally, materials with a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) microstructure exhibit higher flexural strength and a more favorable elasticity modulus than materials with a dispersed filler microstructure. Consequently, some high-performance composite CAD-CAM blocks-particularly experimental PICNs-can now rival glass-ceramics, such as lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics, for use as bonded partial restorations and crowns on natural teeth and implants. Being able to be manufactured in very low thicknesses, they offer the possibility of developing innovative minimally invasive treatment strategies, such as "no prep" treatment of worn dentition. Current issues are related to the study of bonding and wear properties of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composites. There is also a crucial

  4. Information management and complementary alternative medicine: the anatomy of information about CAMs through PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Salvatore; Argano, Christiano; Colomba, Daniela; Ippolito, Calogero; Gargano, Vincenzo; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Licata, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and the use of CAM interventions has become more common among people. For these reasons, health professionals must be able to effectively manage information in this field of knowledge according to an evidence-based point of view. This study assessed the anatomy of the available information about CAMs using PubMed, to give practical instructions to manage information in this field. We also analyzed the anatomy of information according to each alternative medicine branch, narrow and broad search methods, subset filters for indexed-for-Medline and non-indexed citations, and different publication types including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses. Our results demonstrated that the use of CAMs subset (supplied by PubMed search engine) leads to a great number of citations determining an information overload. Our data reveal that it would be more useful to search for the CAM separately, identifying specific items and study design. Moreover, we found the largest number of randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses related to herbal medicine and acupuncture, neither RCTs nor meta-analyses were available for bach and flower remedies, auriculoacupuncture, iridology, and pranotherapy. For the first time, our study gives a comprehensive view of the anatomy of information regarding CAMs and each branch of them. We suggest a methodological approach to face with searching information about this emerging issue from an evidence-based point of view. Finally, our data pointed out some "grey zones" since neither RCTs nor meta-analyses were available for some CAMs.

  5. Fenologia reprodutiva de espécies de bromélias na Serra da Piedade, MG, Brasil Reproductive phenology of bromeliad species at Serra da Piedade, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Rodrigues Marques

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar a fenologia reprodutiva das espécies de Bromeliaceae da Serra da Piedade. Das dezoito espécies estudadas, 72% floresceram na estação chuvosa e 28% na estação seca. Observou-se que a floração das bromélias ao longo do gradiente altitudinal da Serra da Piedade foi seqüencial e influenciada pela sazonalidade das chuvas. A maioria das espécies que ocorrem no habitat xérico pedregoso (acima de 1.400 m de altitude apresentou a floração na estação chuvosa, enquanto que três das cinco espécies que ocorrem no ambiente mésico florestal (abaixo de 1.300 m de altitude floresceram na estação seca. Espécies simpátricas com características florais semelhantes, como Tillandsia stricta, T. gardneri, Vriesea crassa e V. citrina, também apresentaram floração seqüencial. A dispersão das espécies com sementes aladas (Pitcairnoideae e plumosas (Tillandsioideae ocorreu na estação seca, exceto para Dyckia saxatilis e Racinaea aerisincola. Foi observada assincronia na maturação dos frutos e dispersão das sementes entre as bromélias zoocóricas. É provável que essas condições permitam às espécies de bromélias da Serra da Piedade evitar a sobreposição do uso de animais vetores de pólen e de sementes.This work characterizes the phenology of Bromeliaceae species at Serra da Piedade. Of the i8 species studied, 72% flowered in the rainy season and 28% in the dry season. We observed sequential flowering of bromeliads along the entire altitudinal gradient at Serra da Piedade; flowering was also influenced by rainfall seasonality. Most species that occur in the rocky xeric habitat (above 1400 m altitude flowered during the rainy season, while three of the five species found in the mesic forest (below 1300 m altitude flowered in the dry season. Sympatric species with similar floral characteristics, such as Tillandsia stricta, T. gardneri, Vriesea citrina and V. crassa, also flowered

  6. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in Germany – A focus group study of GPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners, some general practitioners (GPs provide CAM in their practices. This paper aims to explore the attitudes of GPs about the role of CAM in Germany, in relation to the healthcare system, quality of care, medical education and research. Furthermore, experiences of GPs integrating CAM in their daily practice were explored. Methods Using a qualitative methodological approach 3 focus groups with a convenience sample of 17 GPs were conducted. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The majority of the participating GPs had integrated one or more CAM therapies into their every-day practice. Four key themes were identified based on the topics covered in the focus groups: the role of CAM within the German healthcare system, quality of care, education and research. Within the theme 'role of CAM within the healthcare system' there were five categories: integration of CAM, CAM in the Statutory Health Insurance, modernisation of the Statutory Health Insurance Act, individual healthcare services and 'Heilpraktiker'. Regarding quality of care there were two broad groups of GPs: those who thought patients would benefit from standardizing CAM and those who feared that quality control would interfere with the individual approach of CAM. The main issues identified relating to research and education were the need for the development of alternative research strategies and the low quality of existing CAM education respectively. Conclusion The majority of the participating GPs considered CAM as a reasonable complementary approach within primary care. The study increased our understanding of GPs attitudes about the role of CAM within the German healthcare system and the use of

  7. Is complementary and alternative medicine (CAM cost-effective? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspi Opher

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-pocket expenditures of over $34 billion per year in the US are an apparent testament to a widely held belief that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies have benefits that outweigh their costs. However, regardless of public opinion, there is often little more than anecdotal evidence on the health and economic implications of CAM therapies. The objectives of this study are to present an overview of economic evaluation and to expand upon a previous review to examine the current scope and quality of CAM economic evaluations. Methods The data sources used were Medline, AMED, Alt-HealthWatch, and the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Citation Index; January 1999 to October 2004. Papers that reported original data on specific CAM therapies from any form of standard economic analysis were included. Full economic evaluations were subjected to two types of quality review. The first was a 35-item checklist for reporting quality, and the second was a set of four criteria for study quality (randomization, prospective collection of economic data, comparison to usual care, and no blinding. Results A total of 56 economic evaluations (39 full evaluations of CAM were found covering a range of therapies applied to a variety of conditions. The reporting quality of the full evaluations was poor for certain items, but was comparable to the quality found by systematic reviews of economic evaluations in conventional medicine. Regarding study quality, 14 (36% studies were found to meet all four criteria. These exemplary studies indicate CAM therapies that may be considered cost-effective compared to usual care for various conditions: acupuncture for migraine, manual therapy for neck pain, spa therapy for Parkinson's, self-administered stress management for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, pre- and post-operative oral nutritional supplementation for lower gastrointestinal tract surgery, biofeedback for patients with

  8. Design and fabrication of complete dentures using CAD/CAM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weili; Li, Yanfeng; Zhang, Yue; lv, Yuan; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Ping; Liu, Huanyue; Ma, Zheng; Shen, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to test the feasibility of using commercially available computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology including 3Shape Dental System 2013 trial version, WIELAND V2.0.049 and WIELAND ZENOTEC T1 milling machine to design and fabricate complete dentures. The modeling process of full denture available in the trial version of 3Shape Dental System 2013 was used to design virtual complete dentures on the basis of 3-dimensional (3D) digital edentulous models generated from the physical models. The virtual complete dentures designed were exported to CAM software of WIELAND V2.0.049. A WIELAND ZENOTEC T1 milling machine controlled by the CAM software was used to fabricate physical dentitions and baseplates by milling acrylic resin composite plates. The physical dentitions were bonded to the corresponding baseplates to form the maxillary and mandibular complete dentures. Virtual complete dentures were successfully designed using the software through several steps including generation of 3D digital edentulous models, model analysis, arrangement of artificial teeth, trimming relief area, and occlusal adjustment. Physical dentitions and baseplates were successfully fabricated according to the designed virtual complete dentures using milling machine controlled by a CAM software. Bonding physical dentitions to the corresponding baseplates generated the final physical complete dentures. Our study demonstrated that complete dentures could be successfully designed and fabricated by using CAD/CAM. PMID:28072686

  9. Management of CAD/CAM information: Key to improved manufacturing productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R. E.; Brainin, J.

    1984-01-01

    A key element to improved industry productivity is effective management of CAD/CAM information. To stimulate advancements in this area, a joint NASA/Navy/Industry project designated Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) is underway with the goal of raising aerospace industry productivity through advancement of technology to integrate and manage information involved in the design and manufacturing process. The project complements traditional NASA/DOD research to develop aerospace design technology and the Air Force's Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) program to advance CAM technology. IPAD research is guided by an Industry Technical Advisory Board (ITAB) composed of over 100 repesentatives from aerospace and computer companies. The IPAD accomplishments to date in development of requirements and prototype software for various levels of company-wide CAD/CAM data management are summarized and plans for development of technology for management of distributed CAD/CAM data and information required to control future knowledge-based CAD/CAM systems are discussed.

  10. Tilting double-prism scanner driven by cam-based mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anhu; Yi, Wanli; Sun, Wansong; Liu, Liren

    2015-06-20

    A pair of orthogonal tilting prisms has been explored in our previous work to perform the orientation and position tracking function with tracking accuracy better than submicroradian order. Crucial to the function implementation, however, is the real-time nonlinear control of the tilting angles of double prisms for tracking a given target trajectory. In previous papers [Proc. SPIE5892, 1-5 (2005).PSISDG0277-786X; Appl. Opt.45, 8063 (2006).PSISDG0277-786X; Proc. SPIE6709, 41 (2007).PSISDG0277-786X; Appl. Opt.51, 356 (2011).10.1364/AO.51.000356APOPAI1559-128X; Appl. Opt.53, 3712 (2014).10.1364/AO.53.003712APOPAI1559-128X], a new driving method by a cam-based mechanism, which can transfer the control problem to the design of corresponding cam configuration, is investigated. The design process of a cam-based mechanism is explained from the mapping relation between the tilting angles of a prism and the configuration curve of a corresponding cam. Based on the designed cam-based mechanism, a tracking error less than 0.375% is depicted between the tracking trajectory and the original one. Moreover, the dynamic characteristic of the tracking mechanism is discussed in detail as well as the impacts of different tilting speeds on the tracking trajectory. The proposed tracking mechanism of a tilting double-prism scanner can create a new avenue for passively tracking a given target.

  11. Expression of EpCam and Villin in Barrett’s Esophagus and in Gastric Cardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Anders

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study we aimed to clarify the potential of EpCAM and villin as in vivo biomarkers for both Barrett esophagus (BE-associated neoplasia and BE versus cardiac mucosa. Immunohistochemical staining in BE with various degrees of intraepithelial neoplasia (IN, Barrett carcinoma (BC and in normal cardiac mucosa (CM revealed a lack of EpCam and villin in squamous esophageal epithelium. All specimens of IN and BC showed EpCam with varying staining intensities. In 57% of CM samples a weak signal was detected; the remainder displayed strong EpCam expression. Villin was found in 97% of BE specimens and in all those with IN; 37% of BC and 75% of CM specimens were also positive. We conclude that expression of EpCam and villin differs only between squamous epithelium and BE. Determination of these proteins does not allow discrimination between different degrees of neoplasia or between esophageal intestinal metaplasia and cardiac mucosa.

  12. Treatment Expectations for CAM Interventions in Pediatric Chronic Pain Patients and their Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. I. Tsao

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient expectations regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM interventions have important implications for treatment adherence, attrition and clinical outcome. Little is known, however, about parent and child treatment expectations regarding CAM approaches for pediatric chronic pain problems. The present study examined ratings of the expected benefits of CAM (i.e. hypnosis, massage, acupuncture, yoga and relaxation and conventional medicine (i.e. medications, surgery interventions in 45 children (32 girls; mean age = 13.8 years ± 2.5 and parents (39 mothers presenting for treatment at a specialty clinic for chronic pediatric pain. Among children, medications and relaxation were expected to be significantly more helpful than the remaining approaches (P < 0.01. However, children expected the three lowest rated interventions, acupuncture, surgery and hypnosis, to be of equal benefit. Results among parents were similar to those found in children but there were fewer significant differences between ratings of the various interventions. Only surgery was expected by parents to be significantly less helpful than the other approaches (P < 0.01. When parent and child perceptions were compared, parents expected hypnosis, acupuncture and yoga, to be more beneficial than did children, whereas children expected surgery to be more helpful than did parents (P < 0.01. Overall, children expected the benefits of CAM to be fairly low with parents' expectations only somewhat more positive. The current findings suggest that educational efforts directed at enhancing treatment expectations regarding CAM, particularly among children with chronic pain, are warranted.

  13. Engineering task plan for rotary mode core sampling exhausters CAM high radiation interlock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-05-19

    The Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) system is primarily made up of the Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks (RMCST) and the RMCS Exhausters. During RMCS operations an Exhauster is connected to a tank riser and withdraws gases from the tank dome vapor space at approximately 200 Standard Cubic Feet per Minute (SCFM). The gases are passed through two High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters before passing out the exhaust stack to the atmosphere. A Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) monitors the exhaust gases in the exhaust stack for beta particle and gamma radiation. The CAM has a high radiation alarm output and a detector fail alarm output. The CAM alarms are currently connected to the data logger only. The CAM alarms require operator response per procedure LMHC 1998 but no automatic functions are initiated by the CAM alarms. Currently, there are three events that can cause an automatic shut down of the Exhauster. These are, Low Tank Pressure, Highnow Stack Flow and High HEPA Filter Differential Pressure (DP).

  14. ANATOMIC STUDY OF THE PROXIMAL THIRD OF THE FEMUR: FEMOROACETABULAR IMPACT AND THE CAM EFFECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labronici, Pedro José; Alves, Sergio Delmonte; da Silva, Anselmo Fernandes; Giuberti, Gilberto Ribeiro; de Azevedo Neto, Justino Nóbrega; Mezzalira Penedo, Jorge Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To analyze anatomical variations of the proximal end of femur that could cause a femoroacetabular impact. Methods: 199 skeletically mature anatomical specimens of femurs were used. The femurs were measured in order to determine the anteversion angle of the femoral neck, neckshaft angle, sphericity of the femoral head at anteroposterior and superoinferior, angle between epiphysis and the anterior femoral neck, angle between epiphysis and the neck at lateral plane, anteroposterior distance at 5mm of the head and neck junction and anteroposterior distance of the neck base. Results: we found that the impact subgroup presented a significantly larger junction diameter of 5mm (p = 0.0001) and cam-head (%) (p= 0.0001), while base-cam (%) (p = 0.0001) showed a significantly smaller diameter than the subgroup without impact. It was identified that cam-head (%) ≤ 80 e base-cam (%) ≤ 73 were identified as the optimal impact points. Conclusion: our study showed that the effect cam, caused by anatomical variations of the proximal femoral end focused the head-neck junction and base of the neck-junction head-neck. These rates can be predictive factors of the impact. PMID:26998462

  15. Millora del camí que uneix Can Tintorer amb Molins de Rei

    OpenAIRE

    Canalias Suquet, Ignasi

    2013-01-01

    El projecte té com a finalitat la millora del camí que uneix la població de Molins de Rei amb el restaurant de Can Tintorer. Aquest camí forma part del parc natural de Collserola i és molt utilitzat per accedir amb cotxe fins al restaurant i a l’hípica del Bosc que hi ha al costat seu; com també per molts usuaris del parc natural ja sigui per passejar-hi a peu, bicicleta o cavall. L’objectiu del projecte és donar solució als problemes que presenta el camí com són passos estrets pe...

  16. Soil diversity and hydration as observed by ChemCam at Gale crater, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslin, P-Y; Gasnault, O; Forni, O; Schröder, S; Cousin, A; Berger, G; Clegg, S M; Lasue, J; Maurice, S; Sautter, V; Le Mouélic, S; Wiens, R C; Fabre, C; Goetz, W; Bish, D; Mangold, N; Ehlmann, B; Lanza, N; Harri, A-M; Anderson, R; Rampe, E; McConnochie, T H; Pinet, P; Blaney, D; Léveillé, R; Archer, D; Barraclough, B; Bender, S; Blake, D; Blank, J G; Bridges, N; Clark, B C; DeFlores, L; Delapp, D; Dromart, G; Dyar, M D; Fisk, M; Gondet, B; Grotzinger, J; Herkenhoff, K; Johnson, J; Lacour, J-L; Langevin, Y; Leshin, L; Lewin, E; Madsen, M B; Melikechi, N; Mezzacappa, A; Mischna, M A; Moores, J E; Newsom, H; Ollila, A; Perez, R; Renno, N; Sirven, J-B; Tokar, R; de la Torre, M; d'Uston, L; Vaniman, D; Yingst, A

    2013-09-27

    The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of widespread martian soils and is similar in composition to the martian dust. It possesses a ubiquitous hydrogen signature in ChemCam spectra, corresponding to the hydration of the amorphous phases found in the soil by the CheMin instrument. This hydration likely accounts for an important fraction of the global hydration of the surface seen by previous orbital measurements. ChemCam analyses did not reveal any significant exchange of water vapor between the regolith and the atmosphere. These observations provide constraints on the nature of the amorphous phases and their hydration.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSMISSION QUALITY CONTROL CHARTS FOR SINGLE ROLLER- TO- CAM INTERMITTENT MOTION MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. K. S. TRIPATHI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses itself to a portion of a systematic investigation of a very simple intermittent motion mechanism consisting of a single roller crank and a single cam. The mechanism presented in this paper, being continuous contact type, does not have dynamic problems such as sudden jerk experienced in traditional genevamechanism. The cam being the output and the cam radius being a varying quantity, the conventional transmission angle cannot be used. A new rational transmission index is introduced in the present nvestigation. Here transmission index charts are developed as design aids in synthesizing a law of motion ( in general and not just forintermittent motion mechanisms . The variation of transmission index along the motion law curve may be readily seen by superimposing the chosen motion law on the transmission index chart. Appropriate changes may then be made in the motion law as found necessary.

  18. Design Alteration of Motor-Cycle Engine Cam for Pneumatic Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimil M. Shah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Power produced by pressurized gases/air has been used in many applications since decades. The power produced by that means is pollution free too. Hence substitution of petrol/diesel in engines with compressed air will be a step towards pollution free engine. The 4-stroke IC engine is to be converted into a 2-stroke pneumatic engine. Various design changes in camshaft design were carried out. The valve timing diagram was derived for the same. The cam profile of a double lobed cam as required in the valve timing diagram was designed in Pro-e software and was cut on a wire cut machine. The cam and camshaft were manufactured separately and then assembled.

  19. Management of CAD/CAM information: Key to improved manufacturing productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R. E.; Brainin, J.

    1984-01-01

    A key element to improved industry productivity is effective management of CAD/CAM information. To stimulate advancements in this area, a joint NASA/Navy/industry project designated Intergrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) is underway with the goal of raising aerospace industry productivity through advancement of technology to integrate and manage information involved in the design and manufacturing process. The project complements traditional NASA/DOD research to develop aerospace design technology and the Air Force's Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) program to advance CAM technology. IPAD research is guided by an Industry Technical Advisory Board (ITAB) composed of over 100 representatives from aerospace and computer companies.

  20. Calibrating the ChemCam LIBS for carbonate minerals on Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ollila, Ann M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lanza, Nina [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Newsom, Horton E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover includes the first LIBS instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment using the LIDS technique in order to better understand the in situ signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Our initial results suggest that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between carbonate materials on Mars.

  1. Mathematical model of the Beta Rand Cam{trademark} engine vane seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braden, C.H.; Thompson, G.J.; Smith, J.E.; Mucino, V.H. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A mathematical model of the vane sealing mechanism is presented to determine how the loading on the seals will affect the performance of the Rand Cam{trademark} engine. Within the Rand Cam{trademark} engine, sacrificial linear seals in the vane are used as the main sealing mechanism to prevent blowby from one chamber to the next. Throughout this investigation a kinetostatic analysis, based upon Yamamoto`s Wankel apex seal analysis, is extended into three dimensions. The input data to the model can be varied to study the effects of seal dimensions, seal material, seal dynamics, and friction.

  2. 28th International Conference on CAD/CAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future

    CERN Document Server

    Syan, Chanan

    2016-01-01

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the 28th International Conference on CAD/CAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future. This book specially focuses on the positive changes made in the field of robotics, CAD/CAM and future outlook for emerging manufacturing units. Some of the important topics discussed in the conference are product development and sustainability, modeling and simulation, automation, robotics and handling systems, supply chain management and logistics, advanced manufacturing processes, human aspects in engineering activities, emerging scenarios in engineering education and training. The contents of this set of proceedings will prove useful to both researchers and practitioners.

  3. Calibrating the ChemCam LIBS for Carbonate Minerals on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Ollila, Ann M.; Barefield, James E.; Lanza, Nina; Newsom, Horton E.

    2009-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover includes the first LIBS instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment using the LIDS technique in order to better understand the in situ signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Our initial results suggest that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between carbonate materials on Mars.

  4. DISEÑO E IMPLEMENTACIÓN DE UN LABORATORIO DE CAD/CAM

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Lazo, Oswaldo; Ingeniero industrial de la UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    El diseño y fabricación asistida con computadora comúnmente denominado CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Desing / Computer Aided Manufacturing) es una tecnología indispensable en los procesos productivos que se encuentran sometidos al alto nivel de competitividad en el mercado nacional e internacional, debido fundamentalmente a que las compañías necesitan abatir sus tiempos de diseño y manufactura con altos niveles de calidad. Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing commonly called CAD / CAM ...

  5. Calcium Sulfate Characterized by ChemCam/Curiosity at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachon, M.; Clegg, S. N.; Mangold, N.; Schroeder, S.; Kah, L. C.; Dromart, G.; Ollila, A.; Johnson, J. R.; Oehler, D. Z.; Bridges, J. C.; LeMouelic, S.; Forni, O.; Wiens, R. C.; Rapin, W.; Anderson, R. B.; Blaney, D. L.; Bell, J. F. , III; Clark, B.; Cousin, A.; Dyar, M. D.; Ehlmann, B.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Grotzinger, J.; Lasue, J.; Lewin, E.; Leveille, R.; McLennan, S.; Maurice, S.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Rice, M.; Squyres, S. W.; Stack, K.; Sumner, D. Y.; Vaniman, D.; Wellington, D.

    2014-01-01

    Onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, the ChemCam instrument consists of :(1) a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) for elemental analysis of the targets [1;2] and (2) a Remote Micro Imager (RMI), for the imaging context of laser analysis [3]. Within the Gale crater, Curiosity traveled from Bradbury Landing through the Rocknest region and into Yellowknife Bay (YB). In the latter, abundant light-toned fracture-fill material were seen [4;5]. ChemCam analysis demonstrate that those fracture fills consist of calcium sulfates [6].

  6. Eye tracking method on improved CamShift algorithm%改进CamShift算法的眼动跟踪方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yuan-gang; SANG Nan; HAO Zong-bo; JIANG Wei

    2014-01-01

    Since the CamShift algorithm only adopted color feature, which would result in the inaccuracy or failure of eye tracking in the situation of similar color objects,rapid movement of the head or deformation of the iris, this paper proposed an eye tracking m%针对CamShift跟踪算法仅采用颜色特征,在存在颜色相近干扰目标、头部快速运动或者虹膜发生形变等情况易发生眼动跟踪不准确或失败等问题,提出一种基于改进CamShift算法的眼动跟踪方法。在CamShift算法中,计算边缘直方图分布,在颜色特征基础上融合边缘特征,同时通过分析饱和度分量抑制噪声影响,并利用基于边缘特征的自定义方法判断虹膜是否发生形变。当发生形变时,自动更新模板,根据历史运动轨迹预测虹膜中心。实验表明,该方法能有效改善眼动跟踪性能,且定位虹膜精确、错误率低、速度快,预测虹膜中心与实际虹膜中心

  7. Evaluating the prevalence, content and readability of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) web pages on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaram, Smitha; Walji, Muhammad; Bernstam, Elmer

    2002-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is growing rapidly. As CAM is relatively unregulated, it is important to evaluate the type and availability of CAM information. The goal of this study is to deter-mine the prevalence, content and readability of online CAM information based on searches for arthritis, diabetes and fibromyalgia using four common search engines. Fifty-eight of 599 web pages retrieved by a "condition search" (9.6%) were CAM-oriented. Of 216 CAM pages found by the "condition" and "condition + herbs" searches, 78% were authored by commercial organizations, whose pur-pose involved commerce 69% of the time and 52.3% had no references. Although 98% of the CAM information was intended for consumers, the mean read-ability was at grade level 11. We conclude that consumers searching the web for health information are likely to encounter consumer-oriented CAM advertising, which is difficult to read and is not supported by the conventional literature.

  8. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Comparison of Chinese and Western Culture (Part A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, V. C. N.

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of the use of CAM by children was undertaken in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital in Hong Kong (March-December 2006). A questionnaire survey concerning the use of CAM was administered to chief caretakers (only the mothers) who accompanied children with neurodevelopmental disabilities followed up in our…

  9. Criterios para Seleccionar Sistemas de Diseño y Manufactura Asistidos por Computadora (CAD/CAM Criteria for the Selection of Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing Systems (CAD/CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Martínez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo presentar en forma clara los principios fundamentales que se requieren para tener un criterio sobre las bondades e inconvenientes de los sistemas Diseño y Manufactura Asistidos por Computadora (CAD/CAM. La inquietud nació por algunos problemas presentados en la primera adquisición de un sistema de CAD/CAM. Se adaptó a una máquina de Control Numérico por Computadora (CNC las dos modalidades de CAM, el primero con el sistema de CAD integrado y la otra con interacción en AutoCAD. Del análisis se determinó la indiferencia de usar un software de CAD desarrollado por la misma compañía del CAM. El resultado de estos experimentos y observaciones proporciona una herramienta fundamental para seleccionar un sistema de CAD/CAM eficienteThe objective of this study was to present in clear form the fundamental principles required to obtain a criterion of the advantages and disadvantages of computer aided design and manufacturing systems (CAD/CAM. The idea for setting these selection criteria were obtained during the initial acquisition of a CAD/CAM system. A Numerical Control by Computer (CNC machine was adapted to two modalities of CAM, the first with an integrated CAD system and another with AutoCAD interaction. From the analysis it was determined that it was immaterial whether or not the use of CAD software was from the same company that produced the CAM software. The results of these experiments and observations provide a fundamental tool for selecting an efficient CAD/CAM system

  10. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in an Italian cohort of pediatric headache patients: the tip of the iceberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Libera, D; Colombo, B; Pavan, G; Comi, G

    2014-05-01

    The use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) in paediatric populations is considerably increased, especially for pain and chronic conditions, as demonstrated by epidemiological surveys both in Europe and in the USA. In our study, CAM was used in 76 % patients of a cohort of 124 children affected by headache (age 4-16 years; 67 % female; 70 % migraine without aura, 12 % migraine with aura, 18 % tensive headache according to IHS criteria) consecutively recruited at a Pediatric Headache University Center. CAM was used as preventive treatment in 80 % cases. The main reasons for seeking CAM were: the wish of avoiding chronic use of drugs with their related side effects, the desire of an integrated approach, the reported inefficacy of conventional medicine, and a more suitable children disposition to CAM than to pharmacological compound. Female gender, younger age, migraine without aura, parents' higher educational status, maternal use of CAM and other associated chronic conditions, correlated with CAM use (p insomnia, muscle-scheletric disorders and dysmenorrhoea). The most assumed CAM were: herbal remedies (64 %) such as Valeriana, Ginkgo biloba, Boswellia serrata, Vitex agnus-castus, passion flower, Linden tree; vitamins/minerals supplements (40 %) with magnesium, 5-Hydroxytryptophan, vitamin B6 or B12, Multivitamin compounds; Homeopathy (47 %) with Silicea, Ignatia Amara, Pulsatilla, Aconitum, Nux Vomica, Calcarea phosphorica; physical treatment (45 %) such as Ayurvedic massage, shiatsu, osteopathy; yoga (33 %); acupuncture (11 %). CAM-often integrated with conventional care-was auto-prescribed in 30 % of the cases, suggested by non-physician in 22 %, by the General Practitioner in 24 % and by paediatrician in 24 %. Both general practitioners and neurologists were mostly unaware of their patients' CAM use. In conclusion, neurologists should inquire for CAM use and be prepared to learn about CAM therapies or to directly interact with CAM trained experts, in

  11. A review of dental CAD/CAM: current status and future perspectives from 20 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Kunii, Jun; Kuriyama, Soichi; Tamaki, Yukimichi

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we review the recent history of the development of dental CAD/CAM systems for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures (FPDs), based on our 20 years of experience in this field. The current status of commercial dental CAD/CAM systems developed around the world is evaluated, with particular focus on the field of ceramic crowns and FPDs. Finally, we discuss the future perspectives applicable to dental CAD/CAM. The use of dental CAD/CAM systems is promising not only in the field of crowns and FPDs but also in other fields of dentistry, even if the contribution is presently limited. CAD/CAM technology will contribute to patients' health and QOL in the aging society.

  12. Predictable aesthetic replacement of a metal-ceramic crown using CAD/CAM technology: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poticny, Daniel; Conrad, Robert

    2005-08-01

    The currently available CAD/CAM technologies present clinicians with various clinical benefits that include durability, marginal adaptation, and precision aesthetics. The clinical and laboratory procedures associated with these CAD/CAM systems differ from one another, and practitioners must understand the indications for each. Office-based systems, as demonstrated in the following case presentation, allow excellent results to be achieved in a single patient visit and provide a viable alternative for today's practice. This case report describes the associated sequences for a posterior CAD/CAM restoration. Learning Objectives This article discusses a protocol for the use of CAD/CAM restorations in the aesthetic replacement of defective posterior crowns. Upon reading this article, the reader should have: * Greater understanding of the in-office CAD/CAM procedures used to fabricate single-visit crowns. * Improved awareness of the bonding protocol used for these all-ceramic crowns.

  13. Thermography of semi-transparent materials by a FLIR ThermaCAM SC3000 infrared camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Tempel, L.

    2011-01-01

    An acceptance test for thermography of semi-transparent materials by a FLIR ThermaCAM SC3000 infrared camera with 8.0 µm low-wavelength-pass filter has been developed and performed on polycarbonate, PEN, quartz, Corning 1737 glass, G427 cone glas, G443 screen glass, Schott Zerodur, silicon and a bl

  14. Education & Training for CAD/CAM: Results of a National Probability Survey. Krannert Institute Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Ann

    A study was conducted of the training programs used by plants with Computer Automated Design/Computer Automated Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to help their employees adapt to automated manufacturing. The study sought to determine the relative priorities of manufacturing establishments for training certain workers in certain skills; the status of…

  15. Classroom Experiences in an Engineering Design Graphics Course with a CAD/CAM Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ronald E.; Juricic, Davor

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the development of a new CAD/CAM laboratory experience for an Engineering Design Graphics (EDG) course. The EDG curriculum included freehand sketching, introduction to Computer-Aided Design and Drafting (CADD), and emphasized 3-D solid modeling. Reviews the project and reports on the testing of the new laboratory components which were…

  16. ESA ExoMars: Pre-launch PanCam Geometric Modeling and Accuracy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Li, R.; Yilmaz, A.

    2014-08-01

    ExoMars is the flagship mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) Aurora Programme. The mobile scientific platform, or rover, will carry a drill and a suite of instruments dedicated to exobiology and geochemistry research. As the ExoMars rover is designed to travel kilometres over the Martian surface, high-precision rover localization and topographic mapping will be critical for traverse path planning and safe planetary surface operations. For such purposes, the ExoMars rover Panoramic Camera system (PanCam) will acquire images that are processed into an imagery network providing vision information for photogrammetric algorithms to localize the rover and generate 3-D mapping products. Since the design of the ExoMars PanCam will influence localization and mapping accuracy, quantitative error analysis of the PanCam design will improve scientists' awareness of the achievable level of accuracy, and enable the PanCam design team to optimize its design to achieve the highest possible level of localization and mapping accuracy. Based on photogrammetric principles and uncertainty propagation theory, we have developed a method to theoretically analyze how mapping and localization accuracy would be affected by various factors, such as length of stereo hard-baseline, focal length, and pixel size, etc.

  17. Effects of Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) on the Metabolism and Transport of Anticancer Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooiman, K.D.

    2013-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM), such as herbs and dietary supplements, has become more popular among cancer patients. Cancer patients use these supplements for different reasons such as reduction of side effects and improvement of their quality of life. In general, the use

  18. The Cyborg Astrobiologist: porting from a wearable computer to the Astrobiology Phone-cam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Alexandra; McGuire, Patrick C.; Camilleri, Kenneth P.; Spiteri, Christopher; Borg, Jonathan C.; Farrugia, Philip J.; Ormö, Jens; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Rodriguez-Manfredi, José Antonio; Díaz-Martínez, Enrique; Ritter, Helge; Haschke, Robert; Oesker, Markus; Ontrup, Jörg

    2007-08-01

    We have used a simple camera phone to significantly improve an `exploration system' for astrobiology and geology. This camera phone will make it much easier to develop and test computer-vision algorithms for future planetary exploration. We envision that the `Astrobiology Phone-cam' exploration system can be fruitfully used in other problem domains as well.

  19. Input torque balancing using a cam-based centrifugal pendulum: design procedure and example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeulenaere, Bram; Spaepen, Pieter; De Schutter, Joris

    2005-05-01

    Input torque balancing is a well-known way to reduce drive speed fluctuations in high-speed machinery and combustion engines. This paper introduces a cam-based centrifugal pendulum (CBCP) and a design procedure for it which results in quasi-perfect balancing of inertial torques for any drive speed. The CBCP combines the centrifugal pendulum vibration absorber, well-known in mechanical vibration literature, with a torque balancing principle well-known in mechanism literature, that is, the use of cams to generate arbitrary torques. For given design parameters (such as the link lengths and link inertial parameters), the cam design is governed by a nonlinear, second-order, explicit differential equation. This differential equation is numerically solved by reformulating it as a nonlinear least-squares problem. The design parameters themselves are determined by means of an optimization problem, the goal of which is to minimize the (constant) equivalent inertia of the combined system, consisting of the original mechanism to be balanced and the CBCP. Application of the CBCP to torque balance a high-speed, purely inertial cam-follower mechanism, driving the sley of a weaving loom, shows that the optimization results in a compact and technologically feasible mechanism.

  20. The C.A.M.S. 54 G.R. transatlantic seaplane (French)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, John Jay

    1928-01-01

    Tested at the end of March, 1928, the C.A.M.S. 54 G.R. was built for the purpose of crossing the Atlantic from Europe by way of the azores. It has a biplane construction with wings mounted above the hull. It is powered by two new series 500 HP. geared Hispano Suiza V type engines.

  1. EpCAM Expression in Lymph Node and Bone Metastases of Prostate Carcinoma : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos, Anna K.; Hoving, Hilde D.; Rosati, Stefano; van Leenders, Geert J. L. H.; de Jong, Igle J.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new imaging modalities in prostate carcinoma staging. A non-invasive modality that can assess lymph node and bone metastases simultaneously is preferred. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a membranous protein of interest as an imaging target since it is overexp

  2. EpCAM expression in lymph node and bone metastases of prostate carcinoma: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos, A.K. (Anna K.); Hoving, H.D. (Hilde D.); S. Rosati (Stefano); G.J.H.L. Leenders (Geert); I.J. de Jong (Igle)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThere is an urgent need for new imaging modalities in prostate carcinoma staging. A non-invasive modality that can assess lymph node and bone metastases simultaneously is preferred. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a membranous protein of interest as an imaging target since i

  3. Motorized CPM/CAM physiotherapy device with sliding-mode Fuzzy Neural Network control loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hung-Jung; Chen, Tien-Chi

    2009-11-01

    Continuous passive motion (CPM) and controllable active motion (CAM) physiotherapy devices promote rehabilitation of damaged joints. This paper presents a computerized CPM/CAM system that obviates the need for mechanical resistance devices such as springs. The system is controlled by a computer which performs sliding-mode Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN) calculations online. CAM-type resistance force is generated by the active performance of an electric motor which is controlled so as to oppose the motion of the patient's leg. A force sensor under the patient's foot on the device pedal provides data for feedback in a sliding-mode FNN control loop built around the motor. Via an active impedance control feedback system, the controller drives the motor to behave similarly to a damped spring by generating and controlling the amplitude and direction of the pedal force in relation to the patient's leg. Experiments demonstrate the high sensitivity and speed of the device. The PC-based feedback nature of the control loop means that sophisticated auto-adaptable CPM/CAM custom-designed physiotherapy becomes possible. The computer base also allows extensive data recording, data analysis and network-connected remote patient monitoring.

  4. Perapation of mica-based glassceramics for denta CAD/CAM system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong; RAN Junguo; GOU Li; ZHAO Yunfeng

    2001-01-01

    @@ Ceramic materials have received considerable application in biomedical and dental restoration because of their relative higher mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and good natural aesthetics. Development of machinable glass-ceramicsin dental CAD/CAM maching system have provided a new impetus for fabrication ofceramic restorations.

  5. The RCCM 2009 Survey: Mapping Doctoral and Postdoctoral CAM Research in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Robinson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM is widely available in the UK and used frequently by the public, but there is little high quality research to sustain its continued use and potential integration into the NHS. There is, therefore, a need to develop rigorous research in this area. One essential way forward is to train and develop more CAM researchers so that we can enhance academic capacity and provide the evidence upon which to base strategic healthcare decisions. This UK survey identified 80 research active postgraduates registered for MPhils/PhDs in 21 universities and were either current students or had completed their postgraduate degree during the recent UK Research Assessment Exercise (RAE 2001–2008. The single largest postgraduate degree funder was the university where the students registered (26/80. Thirty-two projects involved randomized controlled trials and 33 used qualitative research methods. The UK RAE also indicates a significant growth of postdoctoral and tenured research activity over this period (in 2001 there were three full time equivalents; in 2008 there were 15.5 with a considerable improvement in research quality. This mapping exercise suggests that considerable effort is currently being invested in developing UK CAM research capacity and thus inform decision making in this area. However, in comparative international terms UK funding is very limited. As in the USA and Australia, a centralized and strategic approach by the National Institute of Health Research to this currently uncoordinated and underfunded activity may benefit CAM research in the UK.

  6. Leadless Chip Carrier Packaging and CAD/CAM-Supported Wire Wrap Interconnect Technology for Subnanosecond ECL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Aided Manufacturing Software J. M. Dubin : CAD/CAM Demonstration Circuit Design, Fabrica- tion, and Test L. M. Krueger: ECL Design Protocols R. D...the electro - plating fingers is further compounded by the presence of yet another set of plating fingers, which may be detected in Figure 24 between the

  7. Soil diversity and hydration as observed by ChemCam at Gale Crater, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meslin, P.-Y.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Schröder, S.; Cousin, A.; Berger, G.; Clegg, S.M.; Lasue, J.; Maurice, S.; Sautter, V.; Le Mouélic, S.; Wiens, R.C.; Fabre, C.; Goetz, W.; Bish, D.; Mangold, N.; Ehlmann, B.; Lanza, N.; Harri, A.-M.; Anderson, R.; Rampe, E.; McConnochie, T.H.; Pinet, P.; Blaney, D.; Léveillé, R.; Archer, D.; Barraclough, B.; Bender, S.; Blake, D.; Blank, J.G.; Bridges, N.; Clark, B.C.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dromart, G.; Dyar, M.D.; Fisk, M.; Gondet, B.; Grotzinger, J.; Herkenhoff, K.; Johnson, J.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Leshin, L.; Lewin, E.; Madsen, M.B.; Melikechi, N.; Mezzacappa, A.; Mischna, M.A.; Moores, J.E.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; Perez, R.; Renno, N.; Sirven, J.-B.; Tokar, R.; De La Torre, M.; D'Uston, L.; Vaniman, D.; Yingst, A.; MSL Science Team, the

    2013-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of wi

  8. THE FOURIER SERIES USED IN ANALYSE OF THE CAM MECHANISMS FOR THE SHOEMAKING MACHINES (PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOVAN-DRAGOMIR Alina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A computer assisted procedure for the cinematic analysis of the mechanism of a cam is essential in making a certain type of research operations. They mainly refer to the optimization of operations running on specific machinery, or to the re-design of the mechanism, in order to make the mechanism digital. This analysis seems even more important, when we consider the fact that most of the machines used in shoe industry nowadays use a cam mechanism. The paper is devided in two parts. In first part, it is elaborated a method of finding of a function G(x, belonging to a Fourier series, which approximates the numerical values {xi, yi}, with the biggest accuracy. Finding the function that approximates the most accurately the data set, for the position parameters of the follower S(ω, ( will lead to a complete kinematic and dynamic analysis of the cam mechanism. These values repeat with T = 2π period. In second part, the method is tasted using MatCAD work sessions which allow a numerical and graphical analysis of the mathematical relations involved, in order to test the reability of the method. The set of experimental data are resulted after measuring a cam mechanism of a machine used in shoemaking.

  9. Monitoring the photometric behavior of OmegaCAM with Astro-WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Kleijn, Gijs A Verdoes; Valentijn, Edwin A; Boxhoorn, Danny R; Begeman, Kor G; Deul, Erik R; Helmich, Ewout M; Rengelink, Roeland

    2012-01-01

    The OmegaCAM wide-field optical imager is the sole instrument on the VLT Survey Telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory. The instrument, as well as the telescope, have been designed for surveys with very good, natural seeing-limited image quality over a 1 square degree field. OmegaCAM was commissioned in 2011 and has been observing three ESO Public Surveys in parallel since October 15, 2011. We use the Astro-WISE information system to monitor the calibration of the observatory and to produce the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS). Here we describe the photometric monitoring procedures in Astro-WISE and give a first impression of OmegaCAM's photometric behavior as a function of time. The long-term monitoring of the observatory goes hand in hand with the KiDS survey production in Astro-WISE. KiDS is observed under partially non-photometric conditions. Based on the first year of OmegaCAM operations it is expected that a $\\sim 1%-2%$ photometric homogeneity will be achieved for KiDS.

  10. CLIC main beam quadrupole active pre-alignment based on cam movers

    CERN Document Server

    Kemppinen, J; Leuxe, R; Mainaud Durand, H; Sandomierski, J; Sosin, M

    2012-01-01

    Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a study for a future 48 km long linear electron-positron collider in the multi TeV range. Its target luminosity can only be reached if the main beam quadrupoles (MB quads) are actively pre-aligned within 17 µm in sliding windows of 200 m with respect to a straight reference line. In addition to the positioning requirement, the pre-alignment system has to provide a rigid support for the nano-stabilization system to ensure that the first eigenfrequency is above 100 Hz. Re-adjustment based on cam movers was chosen for detailed studies to meet the stringent pre-alignment requirements. There are four different types of MB quads in CLIC. Their lengths and masses vary so that at least two types of cam movers have to be developed. The validation of the cams with less stringent space restrictions has proceeded to a test setup in 5 degrees of freedom (DOF). Prototypes of the more demanding, smaller cams have been manufactured and they are under tests in 1 DOF. This paper describes the...

  11. THE FOURIER SERIES USED IN ANALYSE OF THE CAM MECHANISMS FOR THE SHOEMAKING MACHINES (PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOVAN-DRAGOMIR Alina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A computer assisted procedure for the cinematic analysis of the mechanism of a cam is essential in making a certain type of research operations. They mainly refer to the optimization of operations running on specific machinery, or to the re-design of the mechanism, in order to make the mechanism digital. This analysis seems even more important, when we consider the fact that most of the machines used in shoe industry nowadays use a cam mechanism. The paper is devided in two parts. In first part, it is elaborated a method of finding of a function G(x, belonging to a Fourier series, which approximates the numerical values {xi, yi}, with the biggest accuracy. Finding the function that approximates the most accurately the data set, for the position parameters of the follower S(ω, ( will lead to a complete kinematic and dynamic analysis of the cam mechanism. These values repeat with T = 2π period. In second part, the method is tasted using MatCAD work sessions which allow a numerical and graphical analysis of the mathematical relations involved, in order to test the reability of the method. The set of experimental data are resulted after measuring a cam mechanism of a machine used in shoemaking.

  12. A distributed data base management facility for the CAD/CAM environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balza, R. M.; Beaudet, R. W.; Johnson, H. R.

    1984-01-01

    Current/PAD research in the area of distributed data base management considers facilities for supporting CAD/CAM data management in a heterogeneous network of computers encompassing multiple data base managers supporting a variety of data models. These facilities include coordinated execution of multiple DBMSs to provide for administration of and access to data distributed across them.

  13. MASA syndrome is caused by mutations in the neural cell adhesion gene, L1CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, C.E.; Wang, Y.; Schroer, R.J.; Stevenson, R.E. [Greenwood Genetic Center, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The MASA syndrome is a recessive X-linked disorder characterized by Mental retardation, Adducted thumbs, Shuffling gait and Aphasia. Recently we found that MASA in one family was likely caused by a point mutation in exon 6 of the L1CAM gene. This gene has also been shown to be involved in X-linked hydrocephalus (HSAS). We have screened 60 patients with either sporadic HSAS or MASA as well as two additional families with MASA. For the screening, we initially utilized 3 cDNA probes for the L1CAM gene. In one of the MASA families, K8310, two affected males were found to have an altered BglII band. The band was present in their carrier mother but not in their normal brothers. This band was detected by the entire cDNA probe as well as the cDNA probe for 3{prime} end of the gene. Analysis of the L1CAM sequence indicated the altered BglII site is distal to the exon 28 but proximal to the punative poly A signal site. It is hypothesized that this point mutation alters the stability of the L1CAM mRNA. This is being tested using cell lines established from the two affected males.

  14. Comparison of CAD-CAM and hand made sockets for PTB prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, P; Lindh, L; Netz, P

    1989-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare sockets for below-knee (BK) prostheses made by Computer Aided Design-Computer Aided Manufacture (CAD-CAM) to those made by hand. The patients in the study were provided with two prostheses each, which apart from the sockets, were identical. One socket was made by the CAD-CAM technique developed at the Bioengineering Centre, Roehampton, University College London and one was made by hand at the OT-Centre, Stockholm, Sweden. The results were based on investigation of eight unilateral below-knee amputees evaluating their own sockets by Visual Analogous Scale with respect to comfort, pressure, and pain. The sockets were evaluated on seven occasions, at two tests, on delivery, after use every second day for six days and every second week for two weeks. All CAD-CAM sockets except one had to be changed once as compared to the hand made of which only two had to be changed. As to comfort it could not be demonstrated that there was any significant difference between the two types of sockets and both types were well accepted by all patients. Differences in pressure and pain were rarely reported. There were obvious differences between the two types of socket with respect to height, width, and inner surface configuration. The authors feel that CAD-CAM will in the near future be an excellent tool for design and manufacture of prosthetic sockets.

  15. An EGP-2/Ep-CAM-expressing transgenic rat model to evaluate antibody-mediated immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLaughlin, PMJ; Kroesen, BJ; Dokter, WHA; van der Molen, H; de Groot, M; Brinker, MGL; Kok, K; Ruiters, MHJ; Buys, CHCM; de Leij, LFMH

    1999-01-01

    The human pancarcinoma-associated epithelial glycoprotein-2 (EGP-2), also known as 17-1A or EpCAM, is a 38-kDa transmembrane antigen, commonly used for targeted immunotherapy of carcinomas. Although strongly expressed by most carcinomas, EGP-2 is also expressed in most simple epithelia. To evaluate

  16. Winning in the Rural Zone: How Cam Henderson Invented the Zone Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Bob

    1992-01-01

    Assesses the distinguished coaching career of Cam Henderson, who won over 611 games in 36 seasons of college basketball and coached over 151 college football wins at West Virginia colleges, mainly at Marshall University (Huntington). His influence has been so pervasive that Marshall University's basketball arena is named in his honor. (LP)

  17. Development of Integrated ASR Model Forcing Data and Their Applications to Improve CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Minghua [Research Foundation of the State University of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this project, we have (1) improved the constrained variational analysis algorithm of ARM model forcing data, and (2) used the ARM forcing data to identify systematic biases in clouds and radiation in the CAM5 and design new physical parameterizations to improve it.

  18. A Review of CAM for Procedural Pain in Infancy: Part II. Other Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. I. Tsao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the second in a two-part series reviewing the empirical evidence for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM approaches for the management of pain related to medical procedures in infants up to 6 weeks of age. Part I of this series investigated the effects of sucrose with or without non-nutritive sucking (NNS. The present article examines other CAM interventions for procedural pain including music-based interventions, olfactory stimulation, kangaroo care and swaddling. Computerized databases were searched for relevant studies including prior reviews and primary trials. Preliminary support was revealed for the analgesic effects of the CAM modalities reviewed. However, the overall quality of the evidence for these approaches remains relatively weak. Additional well-designed trials incorporating rigorous methodology are required. Such investigations will assist in the development of evidence-based guidelines on the use of CAM interventions either alone or in concert with conventional approaches to provide safe, reliable analgesia for infant procedural pain.

  19. OmegaCAM: the 16k × 16k Survey Camera for the VLT Survey Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deul, Erik; Kuijken, Konrad; Valentijn, Edwin A.; Tyson, J. Anthony; Wolff, Sidney

    2002-01-01

    OmegaCAM, a 16k×16k-pixel wide field optical camera, and the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) that is to host it, will constitute a major sky surveying machine that becomes operational in 2004 at ESO"s Paranal Observatory. It maps one square degree of sky with 0.21 arcsec sized pixels. Both individual pro

  20. Force Analysis of Geneva Wheel and Face Cam Used In Automat

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    Madhoo G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Glazerol Automat is a dedicated machine used in the Insulator pre assembly line. This automat is driven using single motor for different operations. Here the focus is on two main parts they are Geneva wheel and Face cam which are used for their respective operations. Geneva Wheel is used to index the drum which consists of 96 spindles. Due to this Geneva mechanism each of the spindles will hold the ceramic body when the drum is being indexed. Due to which there is a force which is generated in the Geneva wheel in maximum and minimum position. Face cam which is used while indexing the work piece carrier There are 2 tangential forces which are acting, one at the indexing side and the other at the driving side /cam side. The effective resultant force which is acting on the face cam while indexing work piece carrier is calculated. And these forces are analyzed using ansys and their respective Von Mises stresses and displacement plots are obtained for both the conditions based on boundary and loading conditions.

  1. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS: rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waslick Bruce D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To present the design, methods, and rationale of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS, a recently completed federally-funded, multi-site, randomized placebo-controlled trial that examined the relative efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT, sertraline (SRT, and their combination (COMB against pill placebo (PBO for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and social phobia (SoP in children and adolescents. Methods Following a brief review of the acute outcomes of the CAMS trial, as well as the psychosocial and pharmacologic treatment literature for pediatric anxiety disorders, the design and methods of the CAMS trial are described. Results CAMS was a six-year, six-site, randomized controlled trial. Four hundred eighty-eight (N = 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of SAD, GAD, or SoP were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: CBT, SRT, COMB, or PBO. Assessments of anxiety symptoms, safety, and functional outcomes, as well as putative mediators and moderators of treatment response were completed in a multi-measure, multi-informant fashion. Manual-based therapies, trained clinicians and independent evaluators were used to ensure treatment and assessment fidelity. A multi-layered administrative structure with representation from all sites facilitated cross-site coordination of the entire trial, study protocols and quality assurance. Conclusions CAMS offers a model for clinical trials methods applicable to psychosocial and psychopharmacological comparative treatment trials by using state-of-the-art methods and rigorous cross-site quality controls. CAMS also provided a large-scale examination of the relative and combined efficacy and safety of the best evidenced-based psychosocial (CBT and pharmacologic (SSRI treatments to date for the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety disorders. Primary and secondary results

  2. The prevalence, patterns of usage and people's attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM among the Indian community in Chatsworth, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raidoo Deshandra M

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine, among the Indian community of Chatsworth, South Africa, the prevalence and utilisation patterns of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, attitudes associated with CAM use and communication patterns of CAM users with their primary care doctors. Methods Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted in Chatsworth, a suburb of Durban in which South Africans of Indian origin predominantly reside. Participants were 200 randomly selected adult English-speaking Indian residents. Results The prevalence of CAM usage for period 2000/2001 was 38.5% (95% confidence interval 31.7% to 45.6%. Spiritual healing and herbal/natural medicines, including vitamins were the most common types of CAM used, accounting for 42.8% and 48.1% respectively of overall CAM usage. People used CAM to treat conditions including diabetes mellitus, headaches, arthritis and joint pains, stress, skin disorders, backaches, hypertension and nasal disorders. Half of the CAM users used allopathic medicines concurrently. The cost of CAM utilization over this 1-year period, incurred by 80.5% of users for the duration of therapy for their most troublesome condition was below R500 (approximately US$50. Age, sex, marital status, religion, level of education and income were shown not to influence the use of CAM. Greater than half (51.9% of CAM users did so either upon the advice of someone they knew, or after noticing a CAM advertisement in the local press. Seventy-nine percent of CAM users indicated that they had positive outcomes with their treatments. Fifty four percent of CAM users (excluding those using spiritual healing only failed to inform their doctors that they used CAM. The main reason given by half of this group was that informing their doctors did not seem necessary. Conclusion The prevalence of CAM in Chatsworth is similar to findings in other parts of the world. Although CAM was used to treat many different

  3. Discoloration of various CAD/CAM blocks after immersion in coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauvahutanon, Sasipin; Shiozawa, Maho; Iwasaki, Naohiko; Oki, Meiko; Finger, Werner J.; Arksornnukit, Mansuang

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated color differences (ΔEs) and translucency parameter changes (ΔTPs) of various computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) blocks after immersion in coffee. Materials and Methods Eight CAD/CAM blocks and four restorative composite resins were evaluated. The CIE L*a*b* values of 2.0 mm thick disk-shaped specimens were measured using the spectrophotometer on white and black backgrounds (n = 6). The ΔEs and ΔTPs of one day, one week, and one month immersion in coffee or water were calculated. The values of each material were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons (α = 0.05). The ΔEs after prophylaxis paste polishing of 1 month coffee immersion specimens, water sorption and solubility were also evaluated. Results After one month in coffee, ΔEs of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks and restorative composites ranged from 1.6 to 3.7 and from 2.1 to 7.9, respectively, and ΔTPs decreased. The ANOVA of ΔEs and ΔTPs revealed significant differences in two main factors, immersion periods and media, and their interaction except for ΔEs of TEL (Telio CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent). The ΔEs significantly decreased after prophylaxis polishing except GRA (Gradia Block, GC). There was no significant correlation between ΔEs and water sorption or solubility in water. Conclusions The ΔEs of CAD/CAM blocks after immersion in coffee varied among products and were comparable to those of restorative composite resins. The discoloration of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks could be effectively removed with prophylaxis paste polishing, while that of some restorative composites could not be removed. PMID:28194359

  4. Input torque balancing using a cam-based centrifugal pendulum: design optimization and robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeulenaere, B.; Spaepen, P.; De Schutter, J.

    2005-05-01

    In a companion paper (Input torque balancing using a cam-based centrifugal pendulum: design procedure and example, J. Sound Vib.), the cam-based centrifugal pendulum (CBCP) was introduced as a simple, cam-based, input torque balancing mechanism. The differential equation that governs the CBCP cam design was derived and a methodology for solving it was developed. Furthermore, in a design example, the CBCP was applied to balance the input torque of a high-speed cam-follower mechanism, driving the sley of a weaving loom. The present paper firstly shows how the design parameters for this particular design example can be optimized, so as to obtain a compact and technologically feasible mechanism. The formulation of the optimization problem is based on a parameterization of the CBCP rotor and coupler shape. Because of its nonconvex nature, the optimization problem is solved using a multi-start sequential quadratic programming (SQP) approach. A design chart, based on an exhaustive analysis, is introduced which (i) allows the designer to perform the design optimization in a quick and approximative way, and (ii) gives considerable insight into the behavior of the SQP-algorithm. Secondly, the CBCP is applied to an industrial case study, that is, a weaving loom. The robustness of the CBCP is illustrated by showing that input torque balancing solely the sley movement enhances the overall dynamic machine behavior, despite the presence of the non-balanced shed motion. A particular contribution of this part is the determination of the weaving loom regime behavior in the frequency domain, an approach which is believed to be novel in mechanism literature.

  5. Status of the photomultiplier-based FlashCam camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pühlhofer, G.; Bauer, C.; Eisenkolb, F.; Florin, D.; Föhr, C.; Gadola, A.; Garrecht, F.; Hermann, G.; Jung, I.; Kalekin, O.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kasperek, J.; Kihm, T.; Koziol, J.; Lahmann, R.; Manalaysay, A.; Marszalek, A.; Rajda, P. J.; Reimer, O.; Romaszkan, W.; Rupinski, M.; Schanz, T.; Schwab, T.; Steiner, S.; Straumann, U.; Tenzer, C.; Vollhardt, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Winiarski, K.; Zietara, K.

    2014-07-01

    The FlashCam project is preparing a camera prototype around a fully digital FADC-based readout system, for the medium sized telescopes (MST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The FlashCam design is the first fully digital readout system for Cherenkov cameras, based on commercial FADCs and FPGAs as key components for digitization and triggering, and a high performance camera server as back end. It provides the option to easily implement different types of trigger algorithms as well as digitization and readout scenarios using identical hardware, by simply changing the firmware on the FPGAs. The readout of the front end modules into the camera server is Ethernet-based using standard Ethernet switches and a custom, raw Ethernet protocol. In the current implementation of the system, data transfer and back end processing rates of 3.8 GB/s and 2.4 GB/s have been achieved, respectively. Together with the dead-time-free front end event buffering on the FPGAs, this permits the cameras to operate at trigger rates of up to several ten kHz. In the horizontal architecture of FlashCam, the photon detector plane (PDP), consisting of photon detectors, preamplifiers, high voltage-, control-, and monitoring systems, is a self-contained unit, mechanically detached from the front end modules. It interfaces to the digital readout system via analogue signal transmission. The horizontal integration of FlashCam is expected not only to be more cost efficient, it also allows PDPs with different types of photon detectors to be adapted to the FlashCam readout system. By now, a 144-pixel mini-camera" setup, fully equipped with photomultipliers, PDP electronics, and digitization/ trigger electronics, has been realized and extensively tested. Preparations for a full-scale, 1764 pixel camera mechanics and a cooling system are ongoing. The paper describes the status of the project.

  6. Diagnosing delirium in elderly Thai patients: Utilization of the CAM algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerttrakarnnon Peerasak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium is a common illness among elderly hospitalized patients. However, under-recognition of the condition by non-psychiatrically trained personnel is prevalent. This study investigated the performance of family physicians when detecting delirum in elderly hospitalized Thai patients using the Thai version of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM algorithm. Methods A Thai version of the CAM algorithm was developed, and three experienced Thai family physicians were trained in its use. The diagnosis of delirium was also carried out by four fully qualified psychiatrists using DSM-IV TR criteria, which can be considered the gold standard. Sixty-six elderly patients were assessed with MMSE Thai 2002, in order to evaluate whether they had dementia upon admission. Within three days of admission, each patient was interviewed separately by a psychiatrist using DSM-IV TR, and a family physician using the Thai version of the CAM algorithm, with both sets of interviewers diagnosing for delirium. Results The CAM algorithm tool, as used by family physicians, demonstrated a sensitivity of 91.9% and a specificity of 100.0%, with a PPV of 100.0% and an NPV of 90.6%. Interrater agreement between the family physicians and the psychiatrists was good (Cohen's Kappa = 0.91, p Conclusions Family physicians performed well when diagnosing delirium in elderly hospitalized Thai patients using the Thai version of the CAM algorithm, showing that this measurement tool is suitable for use by non-psychiatrically trained personnel, being short, quick, and easy to administer. However, proper training on use of the algorithm is required.

  7. Bilgisayar destekli diş hekimliği ve güncel CAD/CAM sistemleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Çelik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available

    CAD/CAM systems (computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing has been used in dentistry since 1987. In the past 25 years, development of various high quality chairside and laboratory CAD/CAM systems has been continued with the progress of technology. This article describes currently used CAD/CAM systems.

    Keywords: Dental, CAD/CAM systems.

     

    ÖZET

    CAD/CAM sistemleri (bilgisayar destekli tasarım/bilgisayar destekli üretim diş hekimliğinde 1987 yılından beri kullanılmaktadır. Son 25 yılda teknolojinin de ilerlemesiyle üstün özellikte çeşitli klinik ve laboratuvar CAD/CAM sistemleri geliştirilmeye devam etmektedir. Bu makalede günümüzde kullanılan CAD/CAM sistemleri anlatılmaktadır.

  8. L1CAM Binds ErbB Receptors through Ig-Like Domains Coupling Cell Adhesion and Neuregulin Signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijota-Martinez, Carmen; Lakomá, Jarmila; Baars, Sigrid; Garcia-Alonso, Luis; Cabedo, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    During nervous system development different cell-to-cell communication mechanisms operate in parallel guiding migrating neurons and growing axons to generate complex arrays of neural circuits. How such a system works in coordination is not well understood. Cross-regulatory interactions between different signalling pathways and redundancy between them can increase precision and fidelity of guidance systems. Immunoglobulin superfamily proteins of the NCAM and L1 families couple specific substrate recognition and cell adhesion with the activation of receptor tyrosine kinases. Thus it has been shown that L1CAM-mediated cell adhesion promotes the activation of the EGFR (erbB1) from Drosophila to humans. Here we explore the specificity of the molecular interaction between L1CAM and the erbB receptor family. We show that L1CAM binds physically erbB receptors in both heterologous systems and the mammalian developing brain. Different Ig-like domains located in the extracellular part of L1CAM can support this interaction. Interestingly, binding of L1CAM to erbB enhances its response to neuregulins. During development this may synergize with the activation of erbB receptors through L1CAM homophilic interactions, conferring diffusible neuregulins specificity for cells or axons that interact with the substrate through L1CAM. PMID:22815787

  9. Concurrent Complementary and Alternative Medicine CAM and Conventional Rehabilitation Therapy in the Management of Children with Developmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Yeon Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the concurrent use of conventional rehabilitations and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies for the long-term management of children with developmental disorders (DDs. Methods. The parents or caregivers of 533 children with DDs (age range, 1–19 years who visited the rehabilitation centers were surveyed using in depth face-to-face interviews. Results. Of the 533 patients enrolled, 520 completed the questionnaire (97% response rate. A total of 292 (56% children were receiving multiple therapies, more than two conventional rehabilitations and CAM, at the time of the interview. A total of 249 (48% children reported lifetime CAM use, 23% used CAM at the time of the interview, and 62% of the patients planned to use CAM therapy in the future. Conventional rehabilitation therapies used at the time of the interview included physical therapy (30%, speech therapy (28%, and occupational therapy (19%, and the CAM therapies included herbal medicine (5% and acupuncture or moxibustion (3%. The respondents indicated that in the future they planned to use acupuncture or moxibustion (57%, occupational therapy (18%, cognitive behavioral therapy (16%, speech therapy (10%, and physical therapy (8%. Conclusion. Concurrent management as conventional rehabilitations and CAM therapies is widely used by children with DDs.

  10. A focus Group Study of Medical Students’ Views of an Integrated Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM Curriculum: Students Teaching Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Lie, M.D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Student views of new curricula can shape training outcomes. This qualitative study elicited student opinions of CAM instruction to examine and distill best strategies.Methods: 49 second, third and fourth year students participated in focus groups using a predefined question route. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed.Results: Students successfully differentiated CAM curricula from other academic content and were supportive of a longitudinal integrated approach. They had positive disposition toward CAM use for themselves but this did not necessarily translate into patient recommendations. They agreed that goals of the CAM curriculum should center on awareness of patient use and evidence and information relevant to clinical practice. They advocated a case-based, hands-on, experiential strategy vs lectures. Students proposed greater institutional commitment to strengthen curricular effectiveness. The majority did not intend to practice CAM modalities but valued skills to assess them. Patient-centeredness was recognized. As training progressed, students exhibited a growing tendency to evaluate CAM efficacy, and therefore value, exclusively according to evidence.Conclusions: In-depth student input allowed examination of the effectiveness of a CAM curriculum,permitting improvement and assessment of program effectiveness.

  11. Implant-supported fixed dental prostheses with CAD/CAM-fabricated porcelain crown and zirconia-based framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaba, Masayuki; Tanaka, Shinpei; Ishiura, Yuichi; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2013-07-01

    Recently, fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with a hybrid structure of CAD/CAM porcelain crowns adhered to a CAD/CAM zirconia framework (PAZ) have been developed. The aim of this report was to describe the clinical application of a newly developed implant-supported FDP fabrication system, which uses PAZ, and to evaluate the outcome after a maximum application period of 36 months. Implants were placed in three patients with edentulous areas in either the maxilla or mandible. After the implant fixtures had successfully integrated with bone, gold-platinum alloy or zirconia custom abutments were first fabricated. Zirconia framework wax-up was performed on the custom abutments, and the CAD/CAM zirconia framework was prepared using the CAD/CAM system. Next, wax-up was performed on working models for porcelain crown fabrication, and CAD/CAM porcelain crowns were fabricated. The CAD/CAM zirconia frameworks and CAD/CAM porcelain crowns were bonded using adhesive resin cement, and the PAZ was cemented. Cementation of the implant superstructure improved the esthetics and masticatory efficiency in all patients. No undesirable outcomes, such as superstructure chipping, stomatognathic dysfunction, or periimplant bone resorption, were observed in any of the patients. PAZ may be a potential solution for ceramic-related clinical problems such as chipping and fracture and associated complicated repair procedures in implant-supported FDPs.

  12. EpCAM aptamer-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for efficient colon cancer cell-targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaodong; Li, Fengqiao; Zhang, Huijuan; Lu, Yusheng; Lian, Shu; Lin, Hang; Gao, Yu; Jia, Lee

    2016-02-15

    Targeted delivery of anticancer agents by functional nanoparticles is an attractive strategy to increase their therapeutic efficacy while reducing toxicity. In this work, doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were modified with aptamer (Ap) against the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for targeted delivery of DOX to colon cancer cells. These nanoparticles (Ap-MSN-DOX) were characterized by particle size, zeta potential, aptamer conjugation efficiency, drug encapsulation efficiency, and drug release properties. The in vitro cell recognition, cellular uptake, EpCAM protein inhibition efficiency, and cytotoxicity of Ap-MSN-DOX were also studied. Results demonstrated that EpCAM conjugation increased binding of Ap-MSN-DOX to EpCAM over-expressing SW620 colon cancer cells but not EpCAM-negative Ramos cells, resulting in enhanced cellular uptake and increased cytotoxicity of the DOX in SW620 cells when compared to non-Ap-modified nanoparticles (MSN-DOX). Additionally, Ap-MSN-DOX exhibited significant inhibition effects on the expression of EpCAM on SW620 cells. These results suggested that Ap-MSN-DOX has the potential for the targeted delivery of therapeutic agents into EpCAM positive colon cancer cells to improve therapeutic index while reducing side effects.

  13. Astrocyte-specific disruption of SynCAM1 signaling results in ADHD-like behavioral manifestations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula S Sandau

    Full Text Available SynCAM1 is an adhesion molecule involved in synaptic differentiation and organization. SynCAM1 is also expressed in astroglial cells where it mediates astrocyte-to astrocyte and glial-neuronal adhesive communication. In astrocytes, SynCAM1 is functionally linked to erbB4 receptors, which are involved in the control of both neuronal/glial development and mature neuronal and glial function. Here we report that mice carrying a dominant-negative form of SynCAM1 specifically targeted to astrocytes (termed GFAP-DNSynCAM1 mice exhibit disrupted diurnal locomotor activity with enhanced and more frequent episodes of activity than control littermates during the day (when the animals are normally sleeping accompanied by shorter periods of rest. GFAP-DNSynCAM1 mice also display high levels of basal activity in the dark period (the rodent's awake/active time that are attenuated by the psychostimulant D,L-amphetamine, and reduced anxiety levels in response to both avoidable and unavoidable provoking stimuli. These results indicate that disruption of SynCAM1-dependent astroglial function results in behavioral abnormalities similar to those described in animals model of attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD, and suggest a hitherto unappreciated contribution of glial cells to the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  14. Differential effects of human L1CAM mutations on complementing guidance and synaptic defects in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirisha Kudumala

    Full Text Available A large number of different pathological L1CAM mutations have been identified that result in a broad spectrum of neurological and non-neurological phenotypes. While many of these mutations have been characterized for their effects on homophilic and heterophilic interactions, as well as expression levels in vitro, there are only few studies on their biological consequences in vivo. The single L1-type CAM gene in Drosophila, neuroglian (nrg, has distinct functions during axon guidance and synapse formation and the phenotypes of nrg mutants can be rescued by the expression of human L1CAM. We previously showed that the highly conserved intracellular FIGQY Ankyrin-binding motif is required for L1CAM-mediated synapse formation, but not for neurite outgrowth or axon guidance of the Drosophila giant fiber (GF neuron. Here, we use the GF as a model neuron to characterize the pathogenic L120V, Y1070C, C264Y, H210Q, E309K and R184Q extracellular L1CAM missense mutations and a L1CAM protein with a disrupted ezrin-moesin-radixin (ERM binding site to investigate the signaling requirements for neuronal development. We report that different L1CAM mutations have distinct effects on axon guidance and synapse formation. Furthermore, L1CAM homophilic binding and signaling via the ERM motif is essential for axon guidance in Drosophila. In addition, the human pathological H210Q, R184Q and Y1070C, but not the E309K and L120V L1CAM mutations affect outside-in signaling via the FIGQY Ankyrin binding domain which is required for synapse formation. Thus, the pathological phenotypes observed in humans are likely to be caused by the disruption of signaling required for both, guidance and synaptogenesis.

  15. Enhanced in vitro antiproliferative effects of EpCAM antibody-functionalized paclitaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles in retinoblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Moutushy; Misra, Ranjita; Harilal, Anju; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2011-01-01

    Background To specifically deliver paclitaxel (PTX) to retinoblastoma (RB) cells, the anionic surface-charged poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs loaded with paclitaxel were conjugated with epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibody for enhancing site-specific intracellular delivery of paclitaxel against EpCAM overexpressing RB cells. Methods PTX-loaded PLGA NPs were prepared by the oil-in-water single emulsion solvent evaporation method, and the PTX content in NPs was estimated by the reverse phase isocratic mode of high performance liquid chromatography. Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry was employed for the covalent attachment of monoclonal EpCAM antibody onto the NP surface. In vitro cytotoxicity of native PTX, unconjugated PTX-loaded NPs (PTX-NPs), and EpCAM antibody-conjugated PTX-loaded nanoparticles (PTX-NP-EpCAM) were evaluated on a Y79 RB cell line by a dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, while cellular apoptosis, cysteinyl-aspartic acid protease (caspase)-3 activation, Poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and cell-cycle arrest were quantified by flow cytometry. By employing flow cytometry and fluorescence image analyses, the extent of cellular uptake was comparatively evaluated. Results PTX-NP-EpCAM had superior antiproliferation activity, increased arrested cell population at the G2-M phase, and increased activation of caspase-3, followed by PARP cleavage in parallel with the induction of apoptosis. Increased uptake of PTX-Np-EpCAM by the cells suggests that they were mainly taken up through EpCAM mediated endocytosis. Conclusions EpCAM antibody-functionalized biodegradable NPs for tumor-selective drug delivery and overcoming drug resistance could be an efficient therapeutic strategy for retinoblastoma treatment. PMID:22065926

  16. The prevalence of cam-type deformity of the hip joint: a survey of 4151 subjects of the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, K.K.; Jacobsen, S.; Sonne-Holm, S.

    2008-01-01

    . The relationships between cam malformation and self-reported hip pain were evaluated, and the relative importance of known risk factors for cam malformation estimated. RESULTS: We found a pronounced sex-related difference in cam-deformity distribution. The overall prevalence of cam deformity was approximately 17......% in men and 4% in women. The distribution of cam deformity was unaltered in subjects with normal joint-space width or other features of hip-joint degeneration. We found no significant association with self-reported hip pain, nor did we find any relative importance of possible risk factors for hip...

  17. In God and CAM we trust. Religious faith and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide cohort of women treated for early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Christina Gundgaard; Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Zachariae, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Turning to faith in God or a higher spiritual power is a common way of coping with life-threatening disease such as cancer. Little, however, is known about religious faith among cancer patients in secular societies. The present study aimed at exploring the prevalence of religious faith among Danish breast cancer patients and at identifying whether socio-demographic, pre-cancer health status, clinical, and health behavior characteristics, including their use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), were associated with their degree of faith. Information on faith in God or a higher spiritual power and use of CAM was provided by a nationwide sample of 3,128 recurrence-free Danish women who had received surgery for early-stage breast cancer 15-16 months earlier. Socio-demographic, clinical, and health status variables were obtained from national longitudinal registries, and health behaviors had been assessed at 3-4 months post-surgery. Of the women, 47.3% reported a high degree of faith (unambiguous believers), 35.9% some degree of faith (ambiguous believers), while the remaining 16.8% were non-believers. Unambiguous believers were more likely than ambiguous believers to experience their faith as having a positive impact on their disease and their disease-related quality-of-life. When compared to non-believers, unambiguous believers were also older, had poorer physical function, and were more frequent users of CAM, and more inclined to believe that their use of CAM would have a beneficial influence on their cancer. Disease- and treatment-related variables were unrelated to faith. While overall religious faith appears equally prevalent among Danish and US breast cancer patients, the majority of Danish breast cancer patients experienced ambiguous faith, whereas the majority of US patients have been found to express unambiguous faith. Our results suggest that future studies may benefit from exploring the role of faith for health behaviors, adherence to

  18. Calcium Sulfate Vein Observations at Yellowknife Bay using ChemCam on the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S. M.; Mangold, N.; Nachon, M.; Le Mouelic, S.; Ollila, A.; Vaniman, D. T.; Kah, L. C.; Dromart, G.; Bridges, J.; Rice, M. S.; Wellington, D. F.; Bell, J. F.; Anderson, R. B.; Clark, B. C.; Cousin, A.; Forni, O.; Lasue, J.; Schröder, S.; Meslin, P.; Dyar, M. D.; Blaney, D. L.; Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover completed its traverse from the Bradbury landing site into Yellowknife Bay (YKB) on sol 125, where it spent ~175 sols. The YKB region is characterized as a fluvio-lacustrine depositional environment. The entire Curiosity payload was used to thoroughly investigate parts of YKB from which significant geochemical observations were made, including the identification of anhydrite and hydrated calcium sulfate. The Curiosity ChemCam package consists of a remote Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) and a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI). LIBS is essentially an elemental analysis micro-probe capable of 300 - 550 μm spatial resolution from 1.5 - 7.0 m standoff distance from the Curiosity mast. The RMI records context images that have a resolution of 40 μrad, which corresponds to 120 μm at 3 meters. The ChemCam instrument recorded many calcium rich geochemical features as it descended ~18 m into YKB. Many light-toned veins became apparent with the ChemCam RMI and Mastcam once Curiosity entered YKB. The ChemCam LIBS instrument is uniquely capable of distinctly probing the elemental composition of these vein structures separately from the host rock. LIBS demonstrated that the white vein material was dominated by CaSO4, while the host rock had relatively low SO3 compositions. The ChemCam instrument can also qualitatively detect H, presumably due to H2O, in many samples. While some of these veins contained no H signature beyond the ubiquitous small amount of H on rock surfaces and in soils, some of the veins contained various amounts of H as a function of depth indicating that some of the samples were either bassanite or gypsum. Mastcam spectral hydration surveys detect evidence of hydration that is consistent with (but not a unique indicator of) the presence of gypsum in some, but not all, of the veins. The CheMin X-ray diffraction instrument identified both anhydrite and bassanite in the matrix of a mudstone unit but did not detect

  19. The SuperCam Remote-Sensing Instrument Suite for the Mars 2020 Rover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Clegg, S. M.; Rull, F.; Sharma, S. K.; Anderson, R. B.; Beyssac, O.; Bonal, L.; DeFlores, L. P.; Dromart, G.; Fischer, W. W.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Johnson, J. R.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Mangold, N.; McLennan, S. M.; Montmessin, F.

    2015-12-01

    The SuperCam remote-sensing instrument suite in development for the Mars 2020 rover represents a significant advance from its precursor, ChemCam, by adding Raman spectroscopy (to 12 m distance) and visible and near-infrared (VISIR) reflectance spectroscopy. For Raman spectroscopy the LIBS Nd:YAG laser is frequency-doubled to 532 nm (green Raman). A transmission spectrometer with an intensified CCD covers 150-4400 cm-1 spectral range at a resolution of 10 cm-1. The system is adjustably time-gated, removing much of the mineral fluorescence from the Raman spectra and also facilitating time-resolved fluorescence studies. The infrared range covers 1.3-2.6 microns in addition to the existing 400-840 nm range on ChemCam. Additional upgrades include doubling the LIBS resolution in the 535-860 nm range and adding color to the Remote Micro-Imager (RMI), which is the highest resolution remote imager on the rover. A large-scale effort is being applied to the on-board standards, being led by U. Valladolid in Spain, with targets contributed by many institutions. The number of geological targets will be increased from 8 (on ChemCam) to 22, planned to include end-member plagioclase feldspars, hi- and low-Ca pyroxene, olivines, several fine-grained basalts, hematite, jarosite, carbonates, apatite, and several synthetic targets doped with trace elements. Three Spectralon targets are planned for IR calibration and several color bands for the RMI. All but the Spectralon and color bands should be available for LIBS calibration, and many are also being designed for Raman and VISIR calibration. For LIBS this collection of standards will significantly improve the accuracy relative to ChemCam; other precision improvements are anticipated to come from correcting for variable plasma temperature. The presentation will illustrate how Mars datasets will be significantly improved via this multi-technique approach and will give a first look at prototype SuperCam spectra.

  20. MasterCAM in the text processing application%MasterCAM 在文字加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽; 毛洪辉

    2013-01-01

      MasterCAMA软件可以加工不同式样的文字,首先根据零件的工艺流程设置刀具和加工参数,检查刀具路径以及模拟加工过程,最后进行后置处理,生成有效的数控程序文件。以文字的建模和加工过程为例,就如何灵活运用MasterCAMA进行文字设计和加工文字进行了初步探讨。%The MasterCAM software may process different model the writing,first acts according to the components the technical processies-tablishment cutting tool and the processing parameter,inspects the cutting tool way as well as the simulation processing process,finally carries on the post-processing,produces the effective numerical control procedure document.Take the writing modelling and the processing process as exam-ples,how nimbly carried on the writing design and the processing writing using MasterCAM has carried on the preliminary discussion.

  1. ''VaneCAM'' - the third generation of camshaft adjustment systems; ''VaneCAM'' - Nockenwellenversteller der dritten Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, A. [Hydraulik-Ring GmbH, Nuertingen (Germany). Entwicklung Motorentechnik; Stephan, W. [Hydraulik-Ring GmbH, Nuertingen (Germany); Hannibal, W. [Fachhochschule Suedwestfalen, Iserlohn (Germany). Labor fuer Konstruktion und CAE-Anwendungen

    2002-04-01

    Continuously variable camphasers are now well established for modern spark-ignition engines in high-volume production. With the latest generation of camshaft adjustment systems using the vane-type actuator principle, it is possible to move rapidly and reliably through a large adjustment angle. The layout of these adjusting systems is very simple. The production costs are low in comparison to the first generation of camphasers using spur/helical gears to vary the valve timing. The new-generation systems are mechatronic, with the function depending on the coordination and tuning of hydraulic actuation and engine electronics. The term 'VaneCAM' is used for the continuously variable systems of this new generation supplied by Hydraulik-Ring in Nuertingen, Germany. (orig.) [German] Stufenlos wirkende Nockenwellenversteller haben sich an modernen Ottomotoren in den letzten Jahren in der Grossserie etabliert. Mit der neuesten Generation von Nockenwellenverstellern, die nach dem Schwenkmotor-Prinzip aufgebaut sind, lassen sich grosse Verdrehwinkel sehr schnell und betriebssicher verstellen. Der Aufbau dieser Versteller ist einfach, und die Herstellkosten sind gering im Vergleich zur ersten Generation von Verstellern. Bei den Systemen der neuen Generation handelt es sich um mechatronische Systeme, deren Funktion von dem Zusammenspiel und der Abstimmung von hydraulischer Ansteuerung und Motorelektronik abhaengt. Mit dem Begriff 'VaneCAM' werden die stufenlos wirkenden Systeme dieser neuen Generation von Hydraulik-Ring aus Nuertingen bezeichnet. (orig.)

  2. Chipping fracture resistance of dental CAD/CAM restorative materials: Part 2. Phenomenological model and the effect of indenter type

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, G. D.; Giuseppetti, A.A.; Hoffman, K. H.

    2014-01-01

    The edge chipping resistances of six CAD/CAM dental restoration materials are analyzed and correlated to other mechanical properties. A new quadratic relationship that is based on a phenomenological model is presented.

  3. FlashCam: a fully-digital camera for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Pühlhofer, G; Bernhard, S; Capasso, M; Diebold, S; Eisenkolb, F; Florin, D; Föhr, C; Funk, S; Gadola, A; Garrecht, F; Hermann, G; Jung, I; Kalekin, O; Kalkuhl, C; Kasperek, J; Kihm, T; Lahmann, R; Manalaysay, A; Marszalek, A; Pfeifer, M; Rajda, P J; Reimer, O; Santangelo, A; Schanz, T; Schwab, T; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Tenzer, C; Vollhardt, A; Weitzel, Q; Werner, F; Wolf, D; Zietara, K

    2015-01-01

    The FlashCam group is currently preparing photomultiplier-tube based cameras proposed for the medium-sized telescopes (MST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The cameras are designed around the FlashCam readout concept which is the first fully-digital readout system for Cherenkov cameras, based on commercial FADCs and FPGAs as key components for the front-end electronics modules and a high performance camera server as back-end. This contribution describes the progress of the full-scale FlashCam camera prototype currently under construction, as well as performance results also obtained with earlier demonstrator setups. Plans towards the production and implementation of FlashCams on site are also briefly presented.

  4. IPAD 2: Advances in Distributed Data Base Management for CAD/CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, S. W. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) Project objective is to improve engineering productivity through better use of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. The focus is on development of technology and associated software for integrated company-wide management of engineering information. The objectives of this conference are as follows: to provide a greater awareness of the critical need by U.S. industry for advancements in distributed CAD/CAM data management capability; to present industry experiences and current and planned research in distributed data base management; and to summarize IPAD data management contributions and their impact on U.S. industry and computer hardware and software vendors.

  5. CAD/CAM method application for ear shell auto-manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarng, Soon Suck; Ting, Gao

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the engineering technique of the rapid hearing aid production with a rapid shell modelling (RSM) Computer Aided Design/Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). It will be worthwhile to describe how the virtual ear shell designed with RSM from an ear impression. And the virtual ear shell model is then used as the template to manufacture the actual ear shell by a Rapid Production (RP) machine. Some detailed description of the whole processing will be given in this thesis. The CAD/CAM method processing will enhance and provide outstanding, high-quality hearing aid shell production capabilities to customers. It reduces the time and the cost of designing products and facilitates direct and indirect manufacturing by creating actual parts directly from digital input. It determines that this technique has made a large impact on hearing aid processing and fitting.

  6. Utilizing optical coherence tomography for CAD/CAM of indirect dental restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chityala, Ravishankar; Vidal, Carola; Jones, Robert

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has seen broad application in dentistry including early carious lesion detection and imaging defects in resin composite restorations. This study investigates expanding the clinical usefulness by investigating methods to use OCT for obtaining three-dimensional (3D) digital impressions, which can be integrated to CAD/CAM manufacturing of indirect restorations. 3D surface topography `before' and `after' a cavity preparation was acquired by an intraoral cross polarization swept source OCT (CP-OCT) system with a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) scanning mirror. Image registration and segmentation methods were used to digitally construct a replacement restoration that modeled the original surface morphology of a hydroxyapatite sample. After high resolution additive manufacturing (e.g. polymer 3D printing) of the replacement restoration, micro-CT imaging was performed to examine the marginal adaptation. This study establishes the protocol for further investigation of integrating OCT with CAD/CAM of indirect dental restorations.

  7. UGS NX CAM Express在模具加工中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    普涛

    2008-01-01

    UGS NX CAM EXPRESS是UGS公司针对行业的模块化加工软件包,是专门为高级机床提供的高级CAM软件。它独立于CAD软件,不受特定CAD系统的限制,并且拥有关键的行业转换程序,可以在线访问后处理库,有利于加工数据导入,可以解决典型的CNC编程的需求。本文通过针对模具在完整的工作流环境下进行加工过程来介绍NX兴CAM Express的应用。

  8. Integrated CAD/CAM/CNC system based on STEP-NC and intelligent manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Tian, Xitian; Zhang, Zhenming; Xu, Jianxin; Zhu, Mingquan

    2005-12-01

    In order to realize bi-direction exchange of information and knowledge sharing between CAD/CAM systems and CNC machines, a method of information integration was proposed based on process data model and STEP-NC neutral file. A frame of integrated CAD/CAM/CNC systems was established, and the key integration techniques including process data modeling based on XML form and automatic feature recognition were studied. Since the STEP-NC based CNC (STEP- CNC) system can undertake various intelligent functions that cannot be performed by the conventional CNC based on ISO 6983, the intelligent manufacturing functions of STEP- CNC system was also discussed. The presented methodology combining with the modern net and communication technologies provides an effective means for developing intelligent, integrated manufacturing systems for the 21 century.

  9. Surface roughness and gloss of current CAD/CAM resin composites before and after toothbrush abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Saiki, Osamu; Nogawa, Hiroshi; Hiraba, Haruto; Okazaki, Tomoyo; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gloss and surface roughness behaviors of newly developed CAD/CAM composite blocks with different filler contents and characteristics. The gloss and surface roughness were quantified before and after a toothbrush dentifrice abrasion test; the results were compared to the gloss and surface roughness of a ceramic CAD/CAM block. Knoop hardness was determined before abrasion test. The results were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey HSD, and Dunnett t test (pVita Enamic>Gradia block>Shofu Block HC, Lava Ultimate≥Katana Avencia block≥Cerasmart. After toothbrush abrasion, a significant difference in the gloss unit was detected between the Shofu Block HC material and the ceramic block. The Ra and Rz of the Cerasmart and Shofu Block HC materials were significantly larger than those of the ceramic block after toothbrush abrasion.

  10. El pastor Quijótiz by Camón Aznar and Unamuno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Fernández Rivera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In El pastor Quijótiz (1969, Camón Aznar resorted to the antagonism ideal vs. reality, characteristic of many recreations of Cervantes’ masterpiece, to explore the problem he had in combining the ideas of his freethinking youth with his later role as an active intellectual under Franco.  El pastor Quijótiz is an attempt at saving the liberal intellectuals’ utopianism of the early 20th century by transforming it into a form of private spirituality that serves as a comforter in the face of the surrounding social injustice. Camón Aznar builds upon the figure of the rebellious Don Quixote created by Unamuno, who he had admired in his youth. However, he changes the figure by adding a resigned victimization of Stoic- Christian origin.

  11. Stachyose synthesis in source leaf tissues of the CAM plant Xerosicyos danguyi H. Humb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madore, M.A.; Mitchell, D.E.; Boyd, C.M. (Univ. of California, Riverside (USA))

    1988-07-01

    Leaf tissues from Xerosicyos danguyi H. Humb., a succulent member of the Cucurbitaceae, were found to possess both galactinol synthase activity and the capacity for photosynthetic production of stachyose, the phloem transport oligosaccahride common to other nonsucculent cucurbits, the amounts of stachyose isolated from leaf tissues, and the extractable activity of galactinol synthase, were somewhat higher in leaf tissues obtained from plants operating in the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) mode (well watered plants) compared to leaf tissues from plants operating in the CAM-idling mode (water-stressed plants). In contrast, in leaf discs, the photosynthetic incorporation of label into stachyose following pulse labeling with {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was similar for stressed and for nonstressed tissues. Stachyose could be extracted from, and was synthesized photosynthetically by, leaf discs which contained no vascular tissues, indicating that synthesis of stachyose can occur in photosynthetic mesophyll cells of Xerosicyos.

  12. Validation of a Criterion for Cam Mechanisms Optimization Using Constraints upon Cam’s Curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Alaci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For the mechanism with rotating cam and knife-edge follower, an optimization criterion by means of imposed constraints upon cam’s curvature is expressed in a special coordinate system. Thus, stating the optimization criterion in the coordinate system defined by the mechanisms constructive parameters -eccentricity and minimum follower’s stroke, a contour is obtained for any position of the mechanism. The optimization criterion assumes establishing the position of the characteristic point of the mechanism with respect to this contour. Fulfillment of optimization criterion assumes that the characteristic point is positioned in the same manner with respect to all contours. The optimization criterion is simplified when considering the envelope of the contours. The method is exemplified using two mechanisms, with the cams priori satisfying the criterion.

  13. Prediction for Dynamic Characteristics of Ring-Plate Planetary Indexing Cam Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yimin; TIAN Guangcai; ZHANG Jun; LIU Mingtao; LIU Jianping

    2009-01-01

    This paper is aimed to propose an approach to predict the dynamic characteristics of ring-plate planetary indexing cam mechanism, which is a novel type of indexing mechanism that employs internal planetary transmis-sion structure. Firstly, the geometry and structure of the mechanism are discussed and the kinematic practicability is simulated with virtual prototype design. Then a 3D finite element model of the ring-plate planetary indexing cam mechanism is developed with the commercial software of MATLAB and ANSYS. Through the finite element analysis, the natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes are predicted in one motion cycle. On the basis of the virtual prototype design and finite element analysis, an experimental prototype is made and tested to validate the prediction of the dynamic characteristics. The agreement between experimental results and the finite element analysis testifies that the finite element model developed is applicable to the prediction of the dynamic characteris-tics of this type of mechanism.

  14. Modeling the corrosion of high-level waste containers: CAM-CRM interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; Bedrossian, P.J.; McCright, R.D.

    1998-06-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological respository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 825, 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as A516 or Monel 400. At the present time, Alloy C-22 and A516 are favored. This publication addresses the development of models to account for corrosion of Alloy C-22 surfaces exposed directly to the Near Field Environmental (NFE), as well as to the exacerbated conditions in the CAM-CRM crevice.

  15. CAM use in dermatology. Is there a potential role for honey, green tea, and vitamin C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Naiara S; Kalaaji, Amer N

    2014-02-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a group of non-traditional medical practices that includes natural products, manipulations, and mind and body medicine. CAM use has grown and become popular among patients. In dermatology, honey, green tea, and vitamin C have been used as topical treatments for a variety of diseases. We performed a systematic review to explore the cutaneous effects of each of these three products. Honey's unique antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties were shown to contribute to wound healing, especially in ulcers and burns. Green tea, among many health benefits, demonstrated protection from ultraviolet-induced events, such as photoimmunosuppression and skin cancer growth. Vitamin C, known for its antioxidant properties and key role in collagen production, has been shown to produce positive effects on skin hyperpigmentation and aging. Future large well-designed clinical trials are needed in order to further investigate the potential of these agents as dermatological therapies.

  16. CAD/CAM fabricated single-unit all-ceramic post-core-crown restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilla Sekar Vinothkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report explains about an innovative treatment strategy for the management of damaged anterior teeth with reduced incisal clearance by means of a single-unit all-ceramic post-core-crown zirconia ceramic restoration fabricated by Computer-aided designing and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM technology. The reinforced zirconia ceramics allow fabrication of durable esthetic restorations in cases with high functional loading and the unification of the post, core, and crown in a single unit decreases the frequency of failure by creating a monobloc effect. In addition, the use of CAD/CAM technology for designing and fabricating ceramic restorations offers the option of expeditiously preparing these high-strength all-ceramic restorations.

  17. Tool application CAD / CAM for design and construction of a prototype of plastic injection mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Miyer Suárez Castrillón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study, development and production of injection molds comes with the implementation of CAD and CAM tools available on the market; using these tools, a prototype injection mold for thermoplastic materials was designed and built, based on a mold is injection in the laboratory of the University of Pamplona, in which a couple of modifications were made in order to experiment with its design. The prototype was manufactured through a 3D scan of the original mold to provide the CAD / CAM files with the simulated 3D printing technique for performing an experimental study with the prototype for adjusting temperature and pressure sensors and for coatings metallic materials for use in the injection molding process.

  18. CIM's bridge from CADD to CAM: Data management requirements for manufacturing engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    Manufacturing engineering represents the crossroads of technical data management in a Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) environment. Process planning, numerical control programming and tool design are the key functions which translate information from as engineered to as assembled. In order to transition data from engineering to manufacturing, it is necessary to introduce a series of product interpretations which contain an interim introduction of technical parameters. The current automation of the product definition and the production process places manufacturing engineering in the center of CAD/CAM with the responsibility of communicating design data to the factory floor via a manufacturing model of the data. A close look at data management requirements for manufacturing engineering is necessary in order to establish the overall specifications for CADD output, CAM input, and CIM integration. The functions and issues associated with the orderly evolution of computer aided engineering and manufacturing are examined.

  19. Cultural competency, autonomy, and spiritual conflicts related to Reiki/CAM therapies: Should patients be informed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvonio, Maria Marra

    2014-02-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) such as Reiki is on the rise in healthcare centers. Reiki is associated with a spirituality that conflicts with some belief systems. Catholic healthcare facilities are restricted from offering this therapy because it conflicts with the teachings of the Catholic Church. However, hospitals are offering it without disclosing the spiritual aspects of it to patients. This article will address the ethical concerns and possible legal implications associated with the present process of offering Reiki. It will address these concerns based on the Joint Commission's Standard of Cultural Competency and the ethical principles of autonomy and informed consent. A proposal will also be introduced identifying specific information which Reiki/CAM practitioners should offer to their patients out of respect of their autonomy as well as their cultural, spiritual, and religious beliefs.

  20. Environmental influences on CO sub 2 uptake by agaves, CAM plants with high productivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    Agaves have long been utilized for their leaf fiber and for beverage production. As first reported in 1968 for Agave americana, they are Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) plants, for which stomatal opening and CO{sub 2} uptake occur primarily at night when the lower temperatures greatly reduce water loss. More recently, the influences of rainfall, temperature, and photosynthetically active radiation on CO{sub 2} uptake by agaves have been determined and incorporated into an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Nutrient effects on CO{sub 2} uptake and growth can be quantified by a Nutrient Index, which multiples EPI to account for soil element effects. Because of CAM, agaves can have high productivities in regions of moderate annual rainfall, and because of EPI, such productivity can be predicted, which augurs well for the increased future cultivation of agaves.

  1. a Study on Fracture Characteristics of the SM53C Used in the Cam Shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyun-Bae; Song, Tae-Hoon; Park, Sung-Ho; Huh, Sun-Chul; Park, Won-Jo

    This experimental study investigates the fracture characteristics of the camshaft made with newly developed SM53C material. As part of the countermeasure, use the surface hardening heat treatment. Cam shaft which is a part of automobile engine is very essential when traveling and significant to fuel injection timing. Stiffness and efficiency are important for automobile sash which have a durability of the engine. High hardness and durability are necessary, because engine output is affected by cam shaft directly. So, high-frequency induction hardening is very important because of increasing the surface strength. The shape of hardening depth, hardened structure, hardness, and fracture characteristics of SM53C composed by carbon steel are also investigated.

  2. The Multiperiodic Pulsating Star Y Cam A as a Musical Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Ulas, Burak

    2015-01-01

    In this study we generate musical chords from the oscillation frequencies of the primary component of oscillating eclipsing Algol system Y Cam. The parameters and the procedure of the musical chord generation process from the stellar oscillations are described in detail. A musical piece is also composed in appropriate scale for Y Cam A by using the generated chords from the results of the asteroseismic analysis of the stellar data. The music scores and the digital sound files are provided for both the generated chords and the musical composition. Our study shows that the further orchestral compositions can be made from the frequency analysis results of several pulsating stars by using the procedure stated in present study.

  3. Diagenetic Features Analyzed by ChemCam/Curiosity at Pahrump Hills, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachon, M.; Mangold, N.; Cousin, A.; Forni, O.; Anderson, R. B.; Blank, J. G.; Calef, F.; Clegg, S.; Fabre, C.; Fisk, M.; Gasnault, O.; Kah, L. C.; Kronyak, R.; Lasue, J.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Le Mouelic, S.; Maurice, S.; Oehler, D. Z.; Payre, V.; Rapin, W.; Sumner, D.; Stack, K.; Schroeder, S.; Wiens, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    Onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, the ChemCam instrument consists of : (1) a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) for elemental analysis of targets and (2) a Remote Micro Imager (RMI), which provides imaging context for the LIBS. The LIBS/ChemCam performs analysis typically of spot sizes 350-550 micrometers in diameter, up to 7 meters from the rover. Within Gale crater, Curiosity traveled from Bradbury Landing toward the base of Mount Sharp, reaching Pahrump Hills outcrop circa sol 750. This region, as seen from orbit, represents the first exposures of lower Mount Sharp. In this abstract we focus on two types of features present within the Pahrump Hills outcrop: concretion features and light-toned veins.

  4. NectarCAM, a camera for the medium sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Glicenstein, J-F

    2016-01-01

    NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) which covers the core energy range of ~100 GeV to ~30 TeV. It has a modular design and is based on the NECTAr chip, at the heart of which is a GHz sampling Switched Capacitor Array and 12-bit Analog to Digital converter. The camera will be equipped with 265 7-photomultiplier modules, covering a field of view of 8 degrees. Each module includes photomultiplier bases, high voltage supply, pre-amplifier, trigger, readout and Ethernet transceiver. The recorded events last between a few nanoseconds and tens of nanoseconds. The expected performance of the camera are discussed. Prototypes of NectarCAM components have been built to validate the design. Preliminary results of a 19-module mini-camera are presented, as well as future plans for building and testing a full size camera.

  5. An Efficient Test Facility For The Cherenkov Telescope Array FlashCam Readout Electronics Production

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenkolb, F; Kalkuhl, C; Pühlhofer, G; Santangelo, A; Schanz, T; Tenzer, C

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the planned next-generation instrument for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy, currently under preparation by a world-wide consortium. The FlashCam group is preparing a photomultiplier-based camera for the Medium Size Telescopes of CTA, with a fully digital Readout System (ROS). For the forthcoming mass production of a substantial number of cameras, efficient test routines for all components are currently under development. We report here on a test facility for the ROS components. A test setup and routines have been developed and an early version of that setup has successfully been used to test a significant fraction of the ROS for the FlashCam camera prototype in January 2016. The test setup with its components and interface, as well as first results, are presented here.

  6. Cell organelles from crassulacean-acid-metabolism (CAM) plants : I. Enzymes in isolated peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, M; Burkhard, C; Schnarrenberger, C

    1978-01-01

    Cell organelles were isolated from the CAM plants Crassula lycopodioides Lam., Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. and Sedum rubrotinctum R.T. Clausen by isopycnic centrifugation in sucrose gradients. The inclusion of 2.5% Ficoll in the grinding medium proved to be essential for a satisfactory separation of cell organelles during the subsequent centrifugation. Peroxisomes, mitochondria, and whole and broken chloroplasts were at least partially resolved as judged by marker-enzyme-activity profiles. The isolated peroxisomes contained activities of glycollate oxidase, catalase, hydroxypyruvate reductase, glycine aminotransferase, serine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase, comparable to activities found in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaf peroxisomes. In contrast to spinach, however, only little, if any, particulate malate dehydrogenase activity could be attributed to isolated peroxisomes of the three CAM plants.

  7. Evolutionary physiology: the extent of C4 and CAM photosynthesis in the genera Anacampseros and Grahamia of the Portulacaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnick, Lonnie J; Cline, Amanda; Smith, Monica; Sage, Rowan F

    2008-01-01

    The Portulacaceae is one of the few terrestrial plant families known to have both C(4) and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. There may be multiple origins of the evolution of CAM within the Portulacaceae but the only clear evidence of C(4) photosynthesis is found in members of the genus Portulaca. In the Portulaca, CAM succulent tissue is overlaid with the C(4) tissue in a unique fashion where both pathways are operating simultaneously. Earlier reports have shown that the clade containing the genera Anacampseros and Grahamia may also contain C(4) photosynthetic species similar to the Portulaca, which would indicate multiple origins of C(4) photosynthesis within the family. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the true photosynthetic nature of these genera. An initial survey of the carbon isotope composition of the Anacampseros ranged from -12.6 per thousand to -24.0 per thousand, indicating very little CAM activity in some species, with other values close to the C(4) range. Anacampseros (=Grahamia) australiana which had been previously identified as a C(4) species had a carbon isotope composition value of -24.0 per thousand, which is more indicative of a C(3) species with a slight contribution of CAM activity. Other Anacampseros species with C(4)-like values have been shown to be CAM plants. The initial isotope analysis of the Grahamia species gave values in the range of -27.1 per thousand to -23.6 per thousand, placing the Grahamia species well towards the C(3) photosynthetic range. Further physiological studies indicated increased night-time CO(2) uptake with imposition of water stress, associated with a large diurnal acid fluctuation and a marked increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity. This showed that the Grahamia species are actually facultative CAM plants despite their C(3)-like carbon isotope values. The results indicate that the Grahamia and Anacampseros species do not utilize the C(4) photosynthetic pathway. This is the first

  8. CAD/CAM systems available for the fabrication of crown and bridge restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, T; Hotta, Y

    2011-06-01

    Dental biomaterials are widely used in all areas of routine dental practice. There are mainly two methods for their application. Firstly, dental biomaterials are placed into living tissues, such as teeth, to fill the space. Secondly, dental devices such as crown and bridge restorations and dentures are fabricated using various materials to restore the morphology and function of the dentition. Crown and bridge restorations are one of the main treatment methods used by general practitioners to achieve lifelike restoration of form and function. The recent introduction of osseointegrated implants has expanded the application of crown and bridge restorations for partially edentulous patients. Mechanical durability and precision fit are mandatory requirements for crowns and bridges. The development of various casting alloys and precise casting systems has contributed to the successful use of metal-based restorations. However, patient requests for more aesthetic and biologically 'safe' materials has led to an increased demand for metal-free restorations. There is also a growing demand to provide all-ceramic restorations more routinely. New materials such as highly sintered glass, polycrystalline alumina, zirconia based materials and adhesive monomers, will assist dentists to meet this demand. In addition, new fabrication systems combined with computer-assisted fabrication systems (dental CAD/CAM) and various networks are now available. Dental technology was centred on lost-wax casting technology but we now face a revolution in crown and bridge fabrication. This article reviews the history and recent status of dental CAD/CAM, the application of CAD/CAM fabricated tooth-coloured glass ceramic crowns, and the application of all-ceramic crowns and bridges using CAD/CAM fabricated zirconia based frameworks.

  9. Imaging of Ep-CAM Positive Metastatic Cancer in the Lymph System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    of the agent into the lymphatic space. One method for generating smaller antibody fragments is papain digestion. Anti-Ep-CAM will be digested...using papain , a specific thiol-endopeptidase that cleaves an antibody on the amino-terminal side of the disulfide bonds that link the two heavy chains...of the molecule. After papain treatment, the original whole antibody will be broken into two Fab fragments and one Fc domain fragment. The Fc

  10. The history and clinical application of a chairside CAD/CAM dental restoration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutes, Richard D

    2006-10-01

    Since its introduction by Sirona Dental Systems (Charlotte, North Carolina, USA and Bensheim, Germany) in 1985, the CEREC Chairside CAD/CAM restoration system has steadily earned a loyal following among dentists. This article describes the history and evolution of the CEREC System, its clinical application and treatment modality, the restorative materials used to fabricate the restorations and an overview of clinical findings regarding the in vivo performance of the materials.

  11. Improved Foundry Castings Utilizing CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/ Computer Aided Manufacture). Volume 1. Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-30

    temperature gradient during freezing is less than one degree Farenheit per inch. Simple routines for the analysis of fluid flow and heat loss during...casting, the gradient never goes below 6 degrees Farenheit per inch. The gradient approaches zero in Plate D. Thermal gradient is a parameter that may be...Element Methods in Stress Analysis, I. Holand and K Bell, TAPIR, 1969, pp 451 -473. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This study, part of an overall CAD-CAM process for

  12. Esthetic Rehabilitation through Crown Lengthening Surgery and Conservative CAD/CAM Veneers: A Multidisciplinary Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Passos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes a successful multidisciplinary approach used to improve the smile esthetics of a patient presenting with excessive gingival display, asymmetric gingival margins, and small upper anterior teeth and lower anterior teeth. The treatment combined esthetic crown lengthening, dental bleaching, and restorative dentistry using CAD/CAM veneer. The 6-month follow-up examination confirmed the stability of the modification and absence of adverse effects.

  13. Synthetic biology as it relates to CAM photosynthesis: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaoli, Henrique C; Borland, Anne M; Tuskan, Gerald A; Cushman, John C; Yang, Xiaohan

    2014-07-01

    To meet future food and energy security needs, which are amplified by increasing population growth and reduced natural resource availability, metabolic engineering efforts have moved from manipulating single genes/proteins to introducing multiple genes and novel pathways to improve photosynthetic efficiency in a more comprehensive manner. Biochemical carbon-concentrating mechanisms such as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), which improves photosynthetic, water-use, and possibly nutrient-use efficiency, represent a strategic target for synthetic biology to engineer more productive C3 crops for a warmer and drier world. One key challenge for introducing multigene traits like CAM onto a background of C3 photosynthesis is to gain a better understanding of the dynamic spatial and temporal regulatory events that underpin photosynthetic metabolism. With the aid of systems and computational biology, vast amounts of experimental data encompassing transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics can be related in a network to create dynamic models. Such models can undergo simulations to discover key regulatory elements in metabolism and suggest strategic substitution or augmentation by synthetic components to improve photosynthetic performance and water-use efficiency in C3 crops. Another key challenge in the application of synthetic biology to photosynthesis research is to develop efficient systems for multigene assembly and stacking. Here, we review recent progress in computational modelling as applied to plant photosynthesis, with attention to the requirements for CAM, and recent advances in synthetic biology tool development. Lastly, we discuss possible options for multigene pathway construction in plants with an emphasis on CAM-into-C3 engineering.

  14. Machining variability impacts on the strength of a 'chair-side' CAD-CAM ceramic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Addison, Owen

    2012-08-01

    To develop a novel methodology to generate specimens for bi-axial flexure strength (BFS) determination from a \\'chair-side\\' CAD-CAM feldspathic ceramic with surface defect integrals analogous to the clinical state. The hypotheses tested were: BFS and surface roughness (R(a)) are independent of machining variability introduced by the renewal or deterioration of form-grinding tools and that a post-machining annealing cycle would significantly modify BFS.

  15. Esthetic Rehabilitation through Crown Lengthening Surgery and Conservative CAD/CAM Veneers: A Multidisciplinary Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Leandro; Soares, Fernando Peixoto; Gallo, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a successful multidisciplinary approach used to improve the smile esthetics of a patient presenting with excessive gingival display, asymmetric gingival margins, and small upper anterior teeth and lower anterior teeth. The treatment combined esthetic crown lengthening, dental bleaching, and restorative dentistry using CAD/CAM veneer. The 6-month follow-up examination confirmed the stability of the modification and absence of adverse effects.

  16. Laser flash induced electron transfer in P450cam monooxygenase: putidaredoxin reductase-putidaredoxin interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevrioukova, I F; Hazzard, J T; Tollin, G; Poulos, T L

    2001-09-04

    The P450cam monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida consists of three redox proteins: NADH-putidaredoxin reductase (Pdr), putidaredoxin (Pdx), and cytochrome P450cam. The redox properties of the FAD-containing Pdr and the mechanism of Pdr-Pdx complex formation are the least studied aspects of this system. We have utilized laser flash photolysis techniques to produce the one-electron-reduced species of Pdr, to characterize its spectral and electron-transferring properties, and to investigate the mechanism of its interaction with Pdx. Upon flash-induced reduction by 5-deazariboflavin semiquinone, the flavoprotein forms a blue neutral FAD semiquinone (FADH(*)). The FAD semiquinone was unstable and partially disproportionated into fully oxidized and fully reduced flavin. The rate of FADH(*) decay was dependent on ionic strength and NAD(+). In the mixture of Pdr and Pdx, where the flavoprotein was present in excess, electron transfer (ET) from FADH(*) to the iron-sulfur cluster was observed. The Pdr-to-Pdx ET rates were maximal at an ionic strength of 0.35 where a kinetic dissociation constant (K(d)) for the transient Pdr-Pdx complex and a limiting k(obs) value were equal to 5 microM and 226 s(-1), respectively. This indicates that FADH(*) is a kinetically significant intermediate in the turnover of P450cam monooxygenase. Transient kinetics as a function of ionic strength suggest that, in contrast to the Pdx-P450cam redox couple where complex formation is predominantly electrostatic, the Pdx-Pdr association is driven by nonelectrostatic interactions.

  17. Multi Model Technology and Its Application in the Integration of CAD/CAM/CAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The globalization and the intensive competition of th e automotive market require shortening the product development cycle, improving the quality and reducing the cost. Optimizing the product development process, b uilding product's consistent defining model for life cycle, and realizing the in tegration of CAD/CAM/CAE and Concurrent Engineering (CE) become the means to acc ept the challenge. A new product modeling technology, Multi Model Technology (MM T), is provided in this paper to meet the needs of t...

  18. PERHITUNGAN IDLE CAPACITY DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN CAM-I CAPACITY MODEL DALAM RANGKA EFISIENSI BIAYA PADA PT X

    OpenAIRE

    Muammar Aditya

    2015-01-01

    Aim for this research are to analyze capacity cost which incure from company production machines and human resources whose operate the production machine using CAM-I capacity model. CAM-I capacity model is an approach which focus  upon how to manage company resources. This research initiated at PT X which focus to production activity that used small mixer machine, extruder machine, oven drying machine, enrober machine, pan coting machine which consist of hot and cold pan coating machine, and ...

  19. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity-a comparison between binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and RetCam 120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Parag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the photographic screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP using RetCam 120 with binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO, which is the current gold standard. Setting and Design: Prospective, comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 RetCam examinations were performed on 27 premature babies. They were stored in a separate file after deleting the identifying information. At the same visit using the BIO with scleral depression, an experienced vitreoretinal surgeon evaluated the fundus in detail. A masked examiner then evaluated the RetCam photographs for presence or absence of ROP, the stage and zone of the disease, and the presence or absence of plus disease. These data were then compared with the BIO findings to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values of the method. Results: ROP was detected in 63 of 87 examinations by BIO and in 56 of 87 RetCam examinations. Nine RetCam examinations were false-negative and two were false-positive. Sensitivity of RetCam was 85.71% (54/63 and specificity was 91.66% (22/24. The positive and negative predictive values were 96.43% and 70.97% respectively. Conclusion: Nine cases having ROP were missed by the RetCam. All these cases were either in zone 3 or the outer part of zone 2, which later regressed. These were missed mostly because of the restricted mobility of the camera head caused by its size and the barrier caused by the lid speculum arms. No case of threshold ROP was missed. RetCam may replace BIO for screening of ROP.

  20. Study on Approach for Computer-Aided Design and Machining of General Cylindrical Cam Using Relative Velocity and Inverse Kinematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Se-Hwan; Park; Byong-Kook; Gu; Joong-Ho; Shin; Geun-Jong; Yoo

    2002-01-01

    Cylindrical Cam Mechanism which is one of the best eq uipments to accomplish an accurate motion transmission is widely used in the fie lds of industries, such as machine tool exchangers, textile machinery and automa tic transfer equipments. This paper proposes a new approach for the shape design and manufacturing of the cylindrical cam. The design approach uses the relative velocity concept and the manufacturing approach uses the inverse kinematics concept. For the shape desig n, the contact points betw...

  1. Possibility of a white dwarf as the accreting compact Star in ci cam (xte j0421+560

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Ishida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque CI Cam, la cual present o una explosi on en abril de 1998, ha sido considerada como una fuente transitoria de rayos X suaves (SXT que alberga un agujero negro, posee a la vez ciertas caracter sticas que dif cilmente pueden hacerla encajar dentro del grupo de SXT. En este art culo proponemos una enana blanca como la estrella central acreciente en CI Cam.

  2. Circulating Tumor Cells: A Review of Non-EpCAM-Based Approaches for Cell Enrichment and Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Marta,; Calleja, Lidia,; Chalopin, Antoine; Ory, Benjamin; Heymann, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Background: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are biomarkers for non-invasively measuring the evolution of tumor genotypes during treatment and disease progression. Recent technical progress has made it possible to detect and characterize CTCs at the single-cell level in blood. Content: Most current methods are based on epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) detection, but numerous studies have demonstrated that EpCAM is not a universal marker for CTC detection since i...

  3. Digital dentistry: an overview of recent developments for CAD/CAM generated restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuer, F; Schweiger, J; Edelhoff, D

    2008-05-10

    As in many other industries, production stages are increasingly becoming automated in dental technology. As the price of dental laboratory work has become a major factor in treatment planning and therapy, automation could enable more competitive production in high-wage areas like Western Europe and the USA. Advances in computer technology now enable cost-effective production of individual pieces. Dental restorations produced with computer assistance have become more common in recent years. Most dental companies have access to CAD/CAM procedures, either in the dental practice, the dental laboratory or in the form of production centres. The many benefits associated with CAD/CAM generated dental restorations include: the access to new, almost defect-free, industrially prefabricated and controlled materials; an increase in quality and reproducibility and also data storage commensurate with a standardised chain of production; an improvement in precision and planning, as well as an increase in efficiency. As a result of continual developments in computer hardware and software, new methods of production and new treatment concepts are to be expected, which will enable an additional reduction in costs. Dentists, who will be confronted with these techniques in the future, require certain basic knowledge if they are to benefit from these new procedures. This article gives an overview of CAD/CAM-technologies and systems available for dentistry today.

  4. CAD/CAM interface design of excimer laser micro-processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Liang; Chen, Tao; Zuo, Tiechuan

    2005-12-01

    Recently CAD/CAM technology has been gradually used in the field of laser processing. The excimer laser micro-processing system just identified G instruction before CAD/CAM interface was designed. However the course of designing a part with G instruction for users is too hard. The efficiency is low and probability of making errors is high. By secondary development technology of AutoCAD with Visual Basic, an application was developed to pick-up each entity's information in graph and convert them to each entity's processing parameters. Also an additional function was added into former controlling software to identify these processing parameters of each entity and realize continue processing of graphic. Based on the above CAD/CAM interface, Users can design a part in AutoCAD instead of using G instruction. The period of designing a part is sharply shortened. This new way of design greatly guarantees the processing parameters of the part is right and exclusive. The processing of complex novel bio-chip has been realized by this new function.

  5. Effects of light intensity on the morphology and CAM photosynthesis of Vanilla planifolia Andrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Claudia Díez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla planifolia is a neotropical orchid, whose fruits produce the natural vanilla, a fundamental ingredient for the food and cosmetic industry. Because of its importance in the world market, it is cultivated in many tropical countries and recently its cultivation has started in Colombia. This species requires shade for its development; however, the optimal of light conditions are unknown. This work evaluates the effect of different light intensities on CAM photosynthesis, physiology, morphology, and growth of this species. For this, vanilla seedlings were subjected to four treatments of relative illumination (RI (T1=8%, T2=17%, T3=31% and T4=67%. Most CO2 assimilation occurred along night in all treatments, which confirms that vanilla is a strong CAM species. Plants grown under high lighting (67% RI had almost half of the photosynthesis in treatments of intermediate lighting (17 and 31%, which is consistent with the lower nocturnal acid accumulation in that treatment. Likewise, the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv / Fm showed that in plants of the 67% RI occurred high radiation stress. On the other hand, vanilla plants reached greater length, leaf area, and total biomass when grown under intermediate radiation (17 and 31% RI. These results suggest that high radiation alters the functioning of vanilla plants, inhibiting photosynthesis and growth, and that highly shaded environments not significantly affected the CAM photosynthesis of vanilla; however, in the long-term this species showed higher photosynthesis and growth under intermediate levels of radiation

  6. Medical Ethnobotany in Europe: From Field Ethnography to a More Culturally Sensitive Evidence-Based CAM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Pieroni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    European folk medicine has a long and vibrant history, enriched with the various documented uses of local and imported plants and plant products that are often unique to specific cultures or environments. In this paper, we consider the medicoethnobotanical field studies conducted in Europe over the past two decades. We contend that these studies represent an important foundation for understanding local small-scale uses of CAM natural products and allow us to assess the potential for expansion of these into the global market. Moreover, we discuss how field studies of this nature can provide useful information to the allopathic medical community as they seek to reconcile existing and emerging CAM therapies with conventional biomedicine. This is of great importance not only for phytopharmacovigilance and managing risk of herb-drug interactions in mainstream patients that use CAM, but also for educating the medical community about ethnomedical systems and practices so that they can better serve growing migrant populations. Across Europe, the general status of this traditional medical knowledge is at risk due to acculturation trends and the urgency to document and conserve this knowledge is evident in the majority of the studies reviewed. PMID:22899952

  7. Medical Ethnobotany in Europe: From Field Ethnography to a More Culturally Sensitive Evidence-Based CAM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L. Quave

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available European folk medicine has a long and vibrant history, enriched with the various documented uses of local and imported plants and plant products that are often unique to specific cultures or environments. In this paper, we consider the medicoethnobotanical field studies conducted in Europe over the past two decades. We contend that these studies represent an important foundation for understanding local small-scale uses of CAM natural products and allow us to assess the potential for expansion of these into the global market. Moreover, we discuss how field studies of this nature can provide useful information to the allopathic medical community as they seek to reconcile existing and emerging CAM therapies with conventional biomedicine. This is of great importance not only for phytopharmacovigilance and managing risk of herb-drug interactions in mainstream patients that use CAM, but also for educating the medical community about ethnomedical systems and practices so that they can better serve growing migrant populations. Across Europe, the general status of this traditional medical knowledge is at risk due to acculturation trends and the urgency to document and conserve this knowledge is evident in the majority of the studies reviewed.

  8. Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare/BugCam: An aid for research and teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, S.W.; Olney, M.; Covington, J.M.; Egerton, V.M.; Jiang, S.; Ramdeen, D.K.; ,; Schrader, H.; Sims, P.A.; Wood, A.S.; Davis, A.; Davenport, D.R.; Doepler, N.; Falcon, W.; Lopez, C.; Pressley, T.; Swedberg, O.L.; Harwood, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare/BugCam© is an interactive, icon-driven digital-image database/software package that displays over 500 illustrated Cenozoic Antarctic diatom taxa along with original descriptions (including over 100 generic and 20 family-group descriptions). This digital catalog is designed primarily for use by micropaleontologists working in the field (at sea or on the Antarctic continent) where hard-copy literature resources are limited. This new package will also be useful for classroom/lab teaching as well as for any paleontologists making or refining taxonomic identifications at the microscope. The database (Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare) is displayed via a custom software program (BugCam) written in Visual Basic for use on PCs running Windows 95 or later operating systems. BugCam is a flexible image display program that utilizes an intuitive thumbnail “tree” structure for navigation through the database. The data are stored on Micrsosoft EXCEL spread sheets, hence no separate relational database program is necessary to run the package

  9. How 'alternative' is CAM? Rethinking conventional dichotomies between biomedicine and complementary/alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ana M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this article is to interrogate the pervasive dichotomization of 'conventional' and 'alternative' therapies in popular, academic and medical literature. Specifically, I rethink the concepts such as holism, vitalism, spirituality, natural healing and individual responsibility for health care as taken-for-granted alternative ideologies. I explore how these ideologies are not necessarily 'alternative', but integral to the practice of clinical medicine as well as socially and culturally dominant values, norms and practices related to health and health care in Canada and elsewhere. These reflections address both theoretical and applied concerns central to the study of integration of different medical practices in western industrialized nations such as Canada. Overall, in examining homologies present in both biomedicine and complementary/alternative medicine (CAM), this article rethinks major social practices against binary oppositions by illustrating through literature review that the biomedical and CAM models may be homologous in their original inceptions and in recent cross-fertilizations towards a rigorous approach in medicine. By highlighting biomedicine and CAM as homologous symbolic systems, this article also sheds light on the potential for enhancing dialogue between diverse perspectives to facilitate an integrative health care system that meets multiple consumer needs.

  10. Usability of Calibrating Monitor for Soft Proof According to cie cam02 Colour Appearance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Tomić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Colour appearance models describe viewing conditions and enable simulating appearance of colours under different illuminants and illumination levels according to human perception. Since it is possible to predict how colour would look like when different illuminants are used, colour appearance models are incorporated in some monitor profiling software. Owing to these software, tone reproduction curve can be defined by taking into consideration viewing condition in which display is observed. In this work assessment of cie cam02 colour appearance model usage at calibrating lcd monitor for soft proof was tested in order to determine which tone reproduction curve enables better reproduction of colour. Luminance level was kept constant, whereas tone reproduction curves determined by gamma values and by parameters of cie cam02 model were varied. Testing was conducted in case where physical print reference is observed under illuminant which has colour temperature according to iso standard for soft-proofing (d50 and also for illuminants d65. Based on the results of calibrations assessment, subjective and objective assessment of created profiles, as well as on the perceptual test carried out on human observers, differences in image display were defined and conclusions of the adequacy of cam02 usage at monitor calibration for each of the viewing conditions reached.

  11. Design and manufacture of turbine runner blades using CAD/CAM technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmer, F.; Winkler, S.

    1986-05-01

    Advances in hydraulic and mechanical design and manufacture of hydraulic turbines have occured over the last years. The turbines have reached a high level of performance. This is especially a result of a proper design and accurate manufacture of the turbine runner due to the application of the computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing systems combined with new computerized analysis techniques. The various steps of the modular numerical system - hydraulic computation, interactive blade design, fluid flow analysis, stress analysis and CNC-manufacture of the model blade - are shown on the example of a runner blade for axial turbines. For optimizing the manufacturing of the prototype blade the CAD/CAM-technology is applied. The data flow from the model blade, measured on an electronic coordinate measurement machine, via the CAD/CAM-system, which represents the blade surface in a mathematical form and calculates the tool paths, to the five axis CNC-milling machine is demonstrated. Through the application of the CAD/CAM-technology to hydraulic blades the time frame for designing and manufacturing has been reduced while improving quality and accuracy of the blades.

  12. A CNES remote operations center for the MSL ChemCam instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lafaille, Vivian [CNES; Lorgny, Eric [CNES; Baroukh, Julien [CNES; Gaboriaud, Alain [CNES; Saccoccio, Muriel [CNES; Perez, Rene [CNES; Gasnault, Olivier [CNRS/CESR; Maurice, Sylvestre [CNRS/CESR; Blaney, Diana [JPL

    2010-01-01

    For the first time, a CNES remote operations center in Toulouse will be involved in the tactical operations of a Martian rover in order to operate the ChemCam science instrument in the framework of the NASA MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) mission in 2012. CNES/CESR and LANL have developed and delivered to JPL the ChemCam (Chemistry Camera) instrument located on the top of mast and in the body of the rover. This instrument incorporates a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) and a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI) for determining elemental compositions of rock targets or soil samples at remote distances from the rover (2-7 m). An agreement has been achieved for operating ChemCam, alternatively, from Toulouse (FR) and Los Alamos (NM, USA), through the JPL ground data system in Pasadena (CA, USA) for a complete Martian year (2 years on Earth). After a brief overview of the MSL mission, this paper presents the instrument, the mission operational system and JPL organization requirements for the scientific investigators (PI and Co-Is). This paper emphasizes innovations applied on the ground segment components and on the operational approach to satisfy the requirements and constraints due to these shared and distributed operations over the world.

  13. SuperCam, a 64-pixel heterodyne imaging array for the 870 micron atmospheric window

    CERN Document Server

    Groppi, C; Kulesa, C; Pütz, P; Golish, D; Gensheimer, P; Hedden, A; Bussmann, S; Weinreb, S; Kuiper, T; Kooi, J; Jones, G; Bardin, J; Mani, H S; Lichtenberger, A; Narayanan, G; Groppi, Christopher; Walker, Christopher; Kulesa, Craig; Puetz, Patrick; Golish, Dathon; Gensheimer, Paul; Hedden, Abigail; Bussmann, Shane; Weinreb, Sander; Kuiper, Thomas; Kooi, Jacob; Jones, Glenn; Bardin, Joseph; Mani, Hamdi; Lichtenberger, Arthur; Narayanan, Gopal

    2006-01-01

    We report on the development of SuperCam, a 64 pixel, superheterodyne camera designed for operation in the astrophysically important 870 micron atmospheric window. SuperCam will be used to answer fundamental questions about the physics and chemistry of molecular clouds in the Galaxy and their direct relation to star and planet formation. The advent of such a system will provide an order of magnitude increase in mapping speed over what is now available and revolutionize how observational astronomy is performed in this important wavelength regime. Unlike the situation with bolometric detectors, heterodyne receiver systems are coherent, retaining information about both the amplitude and phase of the incident photon stream. From this information a high resolution spectrum of the incident light can be obtained without multiplexing. SuperCam will be constructed by stacking eight, 1x8 rows of fixed tuned, SIS mixers. The IF output of each mixer will be connected to a low-noise, broadband MMIC amplifier integrated in...

  14. Relationship Between Ca2+-CaM and Ethylene-Induced PG Activity in Tomato Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Cai-qin; XI Yu-fang; GUAN Jun-feng; LI Guang-min

    2003-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG) was studied during ripening and senescence of postharvest tomatofruit at pink stage at low and normal temperature. The results showed that the PG activity increased, thendecreased during ripening and senescence of tomato. Low temperature inhibited but ethylene enhanced PGactivity. Ethylene also enhanced caimodulin content, which was dependent on Ca2+ concentration in cell.When EGTA(Ca2+ chelator), verapamil (Vp) and LaCl3 (Ca2+ channel blockers), trifluoperazine and chloro-promaize (two CaM antagonisms) were used to treat tomato fruit at green mature stage with ethylene, theycould reverse ethylene-induced increase in PG activity, but Vp, chloropromaize (CPZ), trifluoperazine(TFP) could not directly influence PG activity, which indirectly indicated that influx of Ca2+ from the ex-tracellular space including the cell wall via the Ca2+ channel localized in plasma membrane and CaM were re-quired for ethylene-induced PG activity increase and that ethylene signal transduction may be related to Ca2+- CaM messenger system.

  15. 3D-WOVEN FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITE FOR CAD/CAM DENTAL APPLICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Richard; Liu, Perng-Ru

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D)-woven noncrimp fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) was tested for mechanical properties in the two principal directions of the main XY plane and compared to different Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Machining (CAD/CAM) Dental Materials. The Dental Materials included ceramic with Vitablock Mark II®, ProCAD®, InCeram® Spinel, InCeram® Alumina and InCeram® Zirconia in addition to a resin-based 3M Corp. Paradigm® particulate-filled composite. Alternate material controls included Coors 300 Alumina Ceramic and a tungsten carbide 22% cobalt cermet. The 3D-woven FRC was vacuum assisted resin transfer molding processed as a one-depth-thickness ~19-mm preform with a vinyl-ester resin and cut into blocks similar to the commercial CAD/CAM Dental Materials. Mechanical test samples prepared for a flexural three-point span length of 10.0 mm were sectioned for minimum-depth cuts to compare machinability and fracture resistance between groups. 3D-woven FRC improved mechanical properties with significant statistical differences over all CAD/CAM Dental Materials and Coors Alumina Ceramic for flexural strength (pfracture (p<0.001), strain energy release (p<0.05), critical stress intensity factor (p<0.001) and strain (p<0.001).

  16. CAD-CAM-generated hydroxyapatite scaffold to replace the mandibular condyle in sheep: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Leonardo; Donati, Davide; Fantini, Massimiliano; Landi, Elena; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna; Tampieri, Anna; Spadari, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Noemi; Scotti, Roberto

    2013-08-01

    In this study, rapid CAD-CAM prototyping of pure hydroxyapatite to replace temporomandibular joint condyles was tested in sheep. Three adult animals were implanted with CAD-CAM-designed porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds as condyle substitutes. The desired scaffold shape was achieved by subtractive automated milling machining (block reduction). Custom-made surgical guides were created by direct metal laser sintering and were used to export the virtual planning of the bone cut lines into the surgical environment. Using the same technique, fixation plates were created and applied to the scaffold pre-operatively to firmly secure the condyles to the bone and to assure primary stability of the hydroxyapatite scaffolds during masticatory function. Four months post-surgery, the sheep were sacrificed. The hydroxyapatite scaffolds were explanted, and histological specimens were prepared. Different histological tissues penetrating the scaffold macropores, the sequence of bone remodeling, new apposition of bone and/or cartilage as a consequence of the different functional anatomic role, and osseointegration at the interface between the scaffold and bone were documented. This animal model was found to be appropriate for testing CAD-CAM customization and the biomechanical properties of porous, pure hydroxyapatite scaffolds used as joint prostheses.

  17. Optimizing global CO concentrations and emissions based on DART/CAM-CHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubert, B.; Arellano, A. F.; Barre, J.; Worden, H. M.; Emmons, L. K.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Anderson, J. L.; Deeter, M. N.; Mizzi, A. P.; Edwards, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide (CO) is an important trace gas in tropospheric chemistry through its impact on the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere, as precursor of ozone, and as a good tracer of combustion from both anthropogenic sources and wildfires. We will investigate the potential of the assimilation of TERRA/MOPITT observations to constrain the regional to global CO budget using DART (Data assimilation Research Testbed) together with the global Community Atmospheric Model (CAM-Chem). DART/CAM-Chem is based on an ensemble adjustment Kalman filter (EAKF) framework which facilitates statistical estimation of error correlations between chemical states (CO and related species) and parameters (including sources) in the model using the ensemble statistics derived from dynamical and chemical perturbations in the model. Here, we estimate CO emissions within DART/CAM-Chem using a state augmentation approach where CO emissions are added to the CO state vector being analyzed. We compare these optimized emissions to estimates derived from a traditional Bayesian synthesis inversion using the CO analyses (assimilated CO states) as observational constraints. The spatio-temporal distribution of CO and other chemical species will be compared to profile measurements from aircraft and other satellite instruments (e.g., INTEX-B, ARCTAS).

  18. Clinical Acceptability of the Internal Gap of CAD/CAM PD-AG Crowns Using Intraoral Digital Impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Gyung; Kim, Sungtae; Choi, Hyunmin; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Hong; Moon, Hong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the internal gap between CAD/CAM palladium-silver crowns and cast gold crowns generated from intraoral digital versus conventional impressions and to determine the clinical acceptability. Nickel-chrome master dies were made from the prepared resin tooth with the conventional impression method (n = 40). For ICC (Intraoral, CAD/CAM) group, 10 intraoral digital impressions were made, and 10 CAD/CAM crowns of a PD-AG (palladium-silver) machinable alloy were generated. For IC (Intraoral, Cast) group, 10 gold crowns were cast from ten intraoral digital impressions. For CCC (Conventional, CAD/CAM) group, 10 CAD/CAM PD-AG crowns were made using the conventional impression method. For CC (Conventional, Cast) group, 10 gold crowns were fabricated from 10 conventional impressions. One hundred magnifications of the internal gaps of each crown were measured at 50 points with an optical microscope and these values were statistically analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance (α = 0.05). The internal gap of the intraoral digital impression group was significantly larger than in the conventional impression group (P CAD/CAM group and the cast group (P > 0.05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, crowns from intraoral digital impressions showed larger internal gap values than crowns from conventional impressions.

  19. Climate-resilient agroforestry: physiological responses to climate change and engineering of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as a mitigation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Anne M; Wullschleger, Stan D; Weston, David J; Hartwell, James; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C

    2015-09-01

    Global climate change threatens the sustainability of agriculture and agroforestry worldwide through increased heat, drought, surface evaporation and associated soil drying. Exposure of crops and forests to warmer and drier environments will increase leaf:air water vapour-pressure deficits (VPD), and will result in increased drought susceptibility and reduced productivity, not only in arid regions but also in tropical regions with seasonal dry periods. Fast-growing, short-rotation forestry (SRF) bioenergy crops such as poplar (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) are particularly susceptible to hydraulic failure following drought stress due to their isohydric nature and relatively high stomatal conductance. One approach to sustaining plant productivity is to improve water-use efficiency (WUE) by engineering crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) into C3 crops. CAM improves WUE by shifting stomatal opening and primary CO2 uptake and fixation to the night-time when leaf:air VPD is low. CAM members of the tree genus Clusia exemplify the compatibility of CAM performance within tree species and highlight CAM as a mechanism to conserve water and maintain carbon uptake during drought conditions. The introduction of bioengineered CAM into SRF bioenergy trees is a potentially viable path to sustaining agroforestry production systems in the face of a globally changing climate.

  20. Impact of SenseCam on memory, identity and mood in Korsakoff's syndrome: a single case experimental design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, Jenny; Evans, Jonathan J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of SenseCam, a wearable, automatic camera, on subjective mood and identity in a patient with severe memory impairment due to Korsakoff's syndrome. It was hypothesised that SenseCam would improve Ms A's mood and identity through enhancing recall of autobiographical memories of recent events, therefore supporting a coherent sense of self; the lack of which was contributing to Ms A's mood deterioration. An ABA single case experimental design investigated whether using SenseCam to record regular activities impacted on Ms A's mood and identity. Ms A experienced improved recall for events recorded using SenseCam, and showed improvement on subjective ratings of identity. However, a corresponding improvement in mood was not seen, and the study was ended early at Ms A's request. Qualitative information was gathered to explore Ms A's experience of the study, and investigate psychosocial factors that may have impacted on the use of SenseCam. SenseCam may be of significant use as a compensatory memory aid for people with Korsakoff's syndrome and other types of alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD), but acceptance of memory impairment and consistent support may be among the factors required to support the use of such assistive technologies in a community setting.

  1. Diversidade de bromeliáceas epífitas na Área de Proteção Ambiental Ilha do Combu, Belém, Pará, Brasil Diversity of epiphytic bromeliads in the environmental protection area of Combu Island, Belém, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Costa Quaresma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre a diversidade no nível de espécie oferecem subsídios importantes para o desenvolvimento sustentável e a conservação biológica. Neste contexto, estudos com Bromeliaceae merecem destaque, especialmente porque o grupo é importante ecologicamente, mas ainda pouco conhecido na Região Norte. Neste trabalho, foram demarcadas duas parcelas de 100 m x 100 m em uma floresta de várzea localizada na Área de Proteção Ambiental Ilha do Combu, em Belém, Estado do Pará. Cada parcela foi subdividida em oito parcelas de 50 m x 50 m, tendo todas as espécies e espécimes de bromeliáceas epífitas registradas e quantificadas. A diversidade do grupo foi calculada utilizando o índice de Shannon-Wiener. Foram registrados 1.339 indivíduos pertencentes a oito espécies e quatro gêneros. Tillandsia e Aechmea apresentaram maior riqueza. A diversidade de espécies na área foi de H= 1,10, apresentando dominância acentuada de muitos indivíduos em poucas espécies.Information about diversity at the species level offers data for sustainable development and biological conservation. In this context, studies about Bromeliaceae are noteworthy, especially because this group is ecologically important and poorly known in the North Region of Brazil. In this study, two grids (100 m x 100 m were delineated in a floodplain forest in the environmental protection area of Combu Island, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The grids were subdivided into eight grids of 50 m x 50 m, and all species and individuals of epiphytic Bromeliaceae were recorded and quantified. The diversity was calculated using the Shannon-Wiener index. A total of 1,339 individuals, belonging to eight species and four genera were recorded. Tillandsia and Aechmea presented the greatest richness. The diversity of species was H= 1.10, presenting sharp dominance of many individuals of few species.

  2. Hyper-Cam automated calibration method for continuous hyperspectral imaging measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Jean-Philippe; Habte, Zewdu; George, Jacks; Farley, Vincent; Tremblay, Pierre; Chamberland, Martin; Romano, Joao; Rosario, Dalton

    2010-04-01

    The midwave and longwave infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum contain rich information which can be captured by hyperspectral sensors thus enabling enhanced detection of targets of interest. A continuous hyperspectral imaging measurement capability operated 24/7 over varying seasons and weather conditions permits the evaluation of hyperspectral imaging for detection of different types of targets in real world environments. Such a measurement site was built at Picatinny Arsenal under the Spectral and Polarimetric Imagery Collection Experiment (SPICE), where two Hyper-Cam hyperspectral imagers are installed at the Precision Armament Laboratory (PAL) and are operated autonomously since Fall of 2009. The Hyper-Cam are currently collecting a complete hyperspectral database that contains the MWIR and LWIR hyperspectral measurements of several targets under day, night, sunny, cloudy, foggy, rainy and snowy conditions. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an imaging spectrometer that enables the spatial and spectral analysis capabilities using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320x256 pixels at spectral resolutions of up to 0.25 cm-1. The MWIR version covers the 3 to 5 μm spectral range and the LWIR version covers the 8 to 12 μm spectral range. This paper describes the automated operation of the two Hyper-Cam sensors being used in the SPICE data collection. The Reveal Automation Control Software (RACS) developed collaboratively between Telops, ARDEC, and ARL enables flexible operating parameters and autonomous calibration. Under the RACS software, the Hyper-Cam sensors can autonomously calibrate itself using their internal blackbody targets, and the calibration events are initiated by user defined time intervals and on internal beamsplitter temperature monitoring. The RACS software is the first software developed for

  3. Validity of PALMS GPS Scoring of Active and Passive Travel Compared to SenseCam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Jankowska, Marta M.; Meseck, Kristin; Godbole, Suneeta; Natarajan, Loki; Raab, Fredric; Demchak, Barry; Patrick, Kevin; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess validity of the Personal Activity Location Measurement System (PALMS) for deriving time spent walking/running, bicycling, and in vehicle, using SenseCam as the comparison. Methods 40 adult cyclists wore a Qstarz BT-Q1000XT GPS data logger and SenseCam (camera worn around neck capturing multiple images every minute) for a mean of 4 days. PALMS used distance and speed between GPS points to classify whether each minute was part of a trip (yes/no), and if so, the trip mode (walking/running, bicycling, in vehicle). SenseCam images were annotated to create the same classifications (i.e., trip yes/no and mode). 2×2 contingency tables and confusion matrices were calculated at the minute-level for PALMS vs. SenseCam classifications. Mixed-effects linear regression models estimated agreement (mean differences and intraclass correlations [ICCs]) between PALMS and SenseCam with regards to minutes/day in each mode. Results Minute-level sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value were ≥88%, and positive predictive value was ≥75% for non mode-specific trip detection. 72–80% of outdoor walking/running minutes, 73% of bicycling minutes, and 74–76% of in-vehicle minutes were correctly classified by PALMS. For minutes/day, PALMS had a mean bias (i.e., amount of over or under estimation) of 2.4–3.1 minutes (11–15%) for walking/running, 2.3–2.9 minutes (7–9%) for bicycling, and 4.3–5 minutes (15–17%) for vehicle time. ICCs were ≥.80 for all modes. Conclusions PALMS has validity for processing GPS data to objectively measure time walking/running, bicycling, and in vehicle in population studies. Assessing travel patterns is one of many valuable applications of GPS in physical activity research that can improve our understanding of the determinants and health outcomes of active transportation as well as its impact on physical activity. PMID:25010407

  4. Distribution and role in regeneration of N-CAM in the basal laminae of muscle and Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, F; Nicolet, M; Pinçon-Raymond, M; Murawsky, M; Levi, G; Edelman, G M

    1988-08-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) is a membrane glycoprotein involved in neuron-neuron and neuron-muscle adhesion. It can be synthesized in various forms by both nerve and muscle and it becomes concentrated at the motor endplate. Biochemical analysis of a frog muscle extract enriched in basal lamina revealed the presence of a polydisperse, polysialylated form of N-CAM with an average Mr of approximately 160,000 as determined by SDS-PAGE, which was converted to a form of 125,000 Mr by treatment with neuraminidase. To define further the role of N-CAM in neuromuscular junction organization, we studied the distribution of N-CAM in an in vivo preparation of frog basal lamina sheaths obtained by inducing the degeneration of both nerve and muscle fibers. Immunoreactive material could be readily detected by anti-N-CAM antibodies in such basal lamina sheaths. Ultrastructural analysis using immunogold techniques revealed N-CAM in close association with the basal lamina sheaths, present in dense accumulation at places that presumably correspond to synaptic regions. N-CAM epitopes were also associated with collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix. The ability of anti-N-CAM antibodies to perturb nerve regeneration and reinnervation of the remaining basal lamina sheaths was then examined. In control animals, myelinating Schwann cells wrapped around the regenerated axon and reinnervation occurred only at the old synaptic areas; new contacts between nerve and basal lamina had a terminal Schwann cell capping the nerve terminal. In the presence of anti-N-CAM antibodies, three major abnormalities were observed in the regeneration and reinnervation processes: (a) regenerated axons in nerve trunks that had grown back into the old Schwann cell basal lamina were rarely associated with myelinating Schwann cell processes, (b) ectopic synapses were often present, and (c) many of the axon terminals lacked a terminal Schwann cell capping the nerve-basal lamina contact area. These

  5. Stain susceptibility of composite and ceramic CAD/CAM blocks versus direct resin composites with different resinous matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Amal; Ardu, Stefano; Bortolotto, Tissiana; Krejci, Ivo

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the stain susceptibility of CAD/CAM blocks and direct composite after long term exposure to various staining agents. 40 disk-shaped samples were fabricated from each of nine materials; six CAD/CAM (Vitablocs Mark II, Paradigm MZ100, Experimental Vita Hybrid Ceramic, Vita Enamic, Experimental Kerr and Lava Ultimate) and three direct composites (Filtek Supreme, Venus Diamond and Filtek Silorane). Samples were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8) according to different staining solutions (distilled water, tea, red wine, coffee and artificial saliva). Initial L*a*b* values were assessed using a calibrated digital spectrophotometer. Specimens were immersed in staining solutions and stored in an incubator at 37 °C for 120 days. L*a*b* values were assessed again and color change (∆E) was calculated as difference between recorded L*a*b* values. ANOVA, and Duncan test were used to identify differences between groups (α = 0.05). Significant differences in ∆E values were detected between materials (p = 0.000). Among all staining solutions, the highest ∆E value was observed with red wine. The new CAD/CAM blocks (Vita Enamic, Vita Hybrid Ceramic and Lava Ultimate) showed the highest resistance to staining compared to the MZ100 composite resin blocks. Filtek Silorane, a direct composite, showed high stain resistance values compared to CAD/CAM materials and other direct composites. Ceramic and composite CAD/CAM blocks had lower staining susceptibility than methacrylate based direct composite. Staining susceptibility of the new resin based CAD/CAM materials Vita Enamic and Lava Ultimate was comparable to feldspathic ceramic blocks (Vitablocs Mark II). Filtek Silorane showed promising results that were comparable to some CAD/CAM blocks.

  6. Hip Joint Stresses Due to Cam-Type Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Systematic Review of Finite Element Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Geoffrey Ng

    Full Text Available The cam deformity causes the anterosuperior femoral head to obstruct with the acetabulum, resulting in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI and elevated risks of early osteoarthritis. Several finite element models have simulated adverse loading conditions due to cam FAI, to better understand the relationship between mechanical stresses and cartilage degeneration. Our purpose was to conduct a systematic review and examine the previous finite element models and simulations that examined hip joint stresses due to cam FAI.The systematic review was conducted to identify those finite element studies of cam-type FAI. The review conformed to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and studies that reported hip joint contact pressures or stresses were included in the quantitative synthesis.Nine articles studied FAI morphologies using finite element methods and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Four articles specifically examined contact pressures and stresses due to cam FAI and were included in the quantitative synthesis. The studies demonstrated that cam FAI resulted in substantially elevated contact pressures (median = 10.4 MPa, range = 8.5-12.2 MPa and von Mises stresses (median 15.5 MPa, range = 15.0-16.0 MPa at the acetabular cartilage; and elevated maximum-shear stress on the bone (median = 15.2 MPa, range = 14.3-16.0 MPa, in comparison with control hips, during large amplitudes of hip motions. Many studies implemented or adapted idealized, ball-and-cup, parametric models to predict stresses, along with homogeneous bone material properties and in vivo instrumented prostheses loading data.The formulation of a robust subject-specific FE model, to delineate the pathomechanisms of FAI, remains an ongoing challenge. The available literature provides clear insight into the estimated stresses due to the cam deformity and provides an assessment of its risks leading to early joint degeneration.

  7. Early selection of elite clones of an ornamental bromeliad in vitro Seleção precoce in vitro de clones elite de uma bromélia ornamental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Elisa Manfio

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Orthophytum grossiorum is a typical bromeliad from Atlantic forestry threatened of extinction. The objectives of this research were to select O. grossiorum clones with ornamental values easy to propagate in vitro, and establish in vitro propagation protocols for these clones. The project was developed in three steps: germination and in vitro selection of seedlings responsive to BAP (6-benzylaminopurine, selection of clones with ornamental values, and establishment of protocol for in vitro propagation of the selected clones. In the first step only 18.33% of plantlets germinated in vitro were responsive to BAP. These plantlets were selected and replicated in vitro several times, each replicated plantlet constituting a clone. In the second step these clones were established ex vitro and surveyed for ornamental attributes. Five out of 11 clones were selected in this step. These clones presented distinct phenotypic traits and were considered of high ornamental quality. In the third step a protocol for in vitro propagation was developed for each selected clone.Orthophytum grossiorum é uma bromélia ameaçada de extinção típica de Mata Atlântica. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram selecionar clones de O. grossiorum com potencial ornamental e de fácil propagação in vitro e estabelecer protocolo de propagação in vitro para esses clones. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em três etapas: germinação e em seleção in vitro de plântulas responsivas a BAP (6-benzylaminopurine, seleção de clones com valores ornamentais e estabelecimento de protocolo para propagação in vitro dos clones selecionados. Na primeira etapa, foi observado que apenas 18.33% das plântulas germinadas in vitro eram responsivas a BAP. Essas plântulas foram selecionadas e reproduzidas em in vitro, e cada plântula selecionada e reproduzida constituiu um clone. Na segunda etapa, esses clones foram estabelecidos ex vitro e selecionados em relação aos atributos ornamentais

  8. Use of selected complementary and alternative medicine (CAM treatments in veterans with cancer or chronic pain: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebschutz Jane M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is emerging as an important form of care in the United States. We sought to measure the prevalence of selected CAM use among veterans attending oncology and chronic pain clinics and to describe the characteristics of CAM use in this population. Methods The self-administered, mail-in survey included questions on demographics, health beliefs, medical problems and 6 common CAM treatments (herbs, dietary supplements, chiropractic care, massage therapy, acupuncture and homeopathy use. We used the chi-square test to examine bivariate associations between our predictor variables and CAM use. Results Seventy-two patients (27.3% reported CAM use within the past 12 months. CAM use was associated with more education (p = 0.02, higher income (p = 0.006, non-VA insurance (p = 0.003, additional care outside the VA (p = 0.01 and the belief that lifestyle contributes to illness (p = 0.015. The diagnosis of chronic pain versus cancer was not associated with differential CAM use (p = 0.15. Seventy-six percent of CAM non-users reported that they would use it if offered at the VA. Conclusion Use of 6 common CAM treatments among these veterans is lower than among the general population, but still substantial. A large majority of veterans reported interest in using CAM modalities if they were offered at the VA. A national assessment of veteran interest in CAM may assist VA leaders to respond to patients' needs.

  9. Establishing CAD/CAM in Preclinical Dental Education: Evaluation of a Hands-On Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindling, Franz Sebastian; Deisenhofer, Ulrich Karl; Porsche, Monika; Rammelsberg, Peter; Kappel, Stefanie; Stober, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a hands-on computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) module in a preclinical dental course in restorative dentistry. A controlled trial was conducted by dividing a class of 56 third-year dental students in Germany into study and control groups; allocation to the two groups depended on student schedules. Prior information about CAD/CAM-based restorations was provided for all students by means of lectures, preparation exercises, and production of gypsum casts of prepared resin teeth. The study group (32 students) then participated in a hands-on CAD/CAM module in small groups, digitizing their casts and designing zirconia frameworks for single crowns. The digitization process was introduced to the control group (24 students) solely by means of a video-supported lecture. To assess the knowledge gained, a 20-question written examination was administered; 48 students took the exam. The results were analyzed with Student's t-tests at a significance level of 0.05. The results on the examination showed a significant difference between the two groups: the mean scores were 16.8 (SD 1.7, range 13-19) for the study group and 12.5 (SD 3, range 4-18) for the control group. After the control group had also experienced the hands-on module, a total of 48 students from both groups completed a questionnaire with 13 rating-scale and three open-ended questions evaluating the module. Those results showed that the module was highly regarded by the students. This study supports the idea that small-group hands-on courses are helpful for instruction in digital restoration design. These students' knowledge gained and satisfaction seemed to justify the time, effort, and equipment needed.

  10. Accuracy Assessment of Immediate and Delayed Implant Placements Using CAD/CAM Surgical Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Fawaz; Massoomi, Nima; Nattestad, Anders

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of immediately placed implants using Anatomage Invivo5 computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) surgical guides and compare the accuracy to delayed implant placement protocol. Patients who had implants placed using Anatomage Invivo5 CAD/CAM surgical guides during the period of 2012-2015 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients who received immediate implant placements and/or delayed implant placements replacing 1-2 teeth were included in this study. Pre- and postsurgical images were superimposed to evaluate deviations at the crest, apex, and angle. A total of 40 implants placed in 29 patients were included in this study. The overall mean deviations measured at the crest, apex, and angle were 0.86 mm, 1.25 mm, and 3.79°, respectively. The means for the immediate group deviations were: crest = 0.85 mm, apex = 1.10, and angle = 3.49°. The means for the delayed group deviations were: crest = 0.88 mm, apex = 1.59, and angle = 4.29°. No statistically significant difference was found at the crest and angle; however, there was a statistically significant difference between the immediate and delayed group at the apex, with the immediate group presenting more accurate placements at the apical point than the delayed group. CAD/CAM surgical guides can be reliable tools to accurately place implants immediately and/or in a delayed fashion. No statistically significant differences were found between the delayed and the immediate group at the crest and angle, however apical position was more accurate in the immediate group.

  11. Reliability, failure probability, and strength of resin-based materials for CAD/CAM restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kiatlin; Yap, Adrian U-Jin; Agarwalla, Shruti Vidhawan; Tan, Keson Beng-Choon; Rosa, Vinicius

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study investigated the Weibull parameters and 5% fracture probability of direct, indirect composites, and CAD/CAM composites. Material and Methods: Discshaped (12 mm diameter x 1 mm thick) specimens were prepared for a direct composite [Z100 (ZO), 3M-ESPE], an indirect laboratory composite [Ceramage (CM), Shofu], and two CAD/CAM composites [Lava Ultimate (LU), 3M ESPE; Vita Enamic (VE), Vita Zahnfabrik] restorations (n=30 for each group). The specimens were polished, stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C. Weibull parameters (m= modulus of Weibull, σ0= characteristic strength) and flexural strength for 5% fracture probability (σ5%) were determined using a piston-on-three-balls device at 1 MPa/s in distilled water. Statistical analysis for biaxial flexural strength analysis were performed either by both one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc (α=0.05) or by Pearson's correlation test. Results: Ranking of m was: VE (19.5), LU (14.5), CM (11.7), and ZO (9.6). Ranking of σ0 (MPa) was: LU (218.1), ZO (210.4), CM (209.0), and VE (126.5). σ5% (MPa) was 177.9 for LU, 163.2 for CM, 154.7 for Z0, and 108.7 for VE. There was no significant difference in the m for ZO, CM, and LU. VE presented the highest m value and significantly higher than ZO. For σ0 and σ5%, ZO, CM, and LU were similar but higher than VE. Conclusion: The strength characteristics of CAD/ CAM composites vary according to their composition and microstructure. VE presented the lowest strength and highest Weibull modulus among the materials.

  12. Cloning, localization and expression analysis of vacuolar sugar transporters in the CAM plant Ananas comosus (pineapple).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Edna; Taybi, Tahar; Courbot, Mikaël; Mugford, Sam T; Smith, J Andrew C; Borland, Anne M

    2008-01-01

    In photosynthetic tissues of the CAM plant pineapple (Ananas comosus), storage of soluble sugars in the central vacuole during the daytime and their remobilization at night is required to provide carbon skeletons for nocturnal CO(2) fixation. However, soluble sugars produced photosynthetically must also be exported to support growth processes in heterotrophic tissues. To begin to address how vacuolar sugar storage and assimilate partitioning are regulated in A. comosus, degenerate PCR and cDNA library screening were used to clone three candidate sugar transporters from the leaves of this species. Subcellular localization of the three transporters was investigated via expression of YFP-fusion proteins in tobacco epidermal cells and their co-localization with subcellular markers by confocal microscopy. Using this strategy, a putative hexose transporter (AcMST1) and a putative inositol transporter (AcINT1) were identified that both localized to the tonoplast, whereas a putative sucrose transporter (AcSUT1) was found to localize to prevacuolar compartments. A cDNA (AcMST2) with high similarity to a recently characterized tonoplast hexose transporter in Arabidopsis was also identified from an A. comosus fruit EST database. Analyses of transcript abundance indicated that AcMST1 was more highly expressed in fruits compared to leaves of A. comosus, whilst transcripts of AcINT1, AcSUT1, and AcMST2 were more abundant in leaves. Transcript abundance of AcINT1, the putative inositol transporter, showed day-night changes comparable to those of other CAM-related transcripts described in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. The results are discussed in terms of the role of vacuolar sugar transporters in regulating carbon flow during the diel cycle in CAM plants.

  13. Are different generations of CAD/CAM milling machines capable to produce restorations with similar quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roperto, Renato; Assaf, Hussein; Soares-Porto, Thiago; Lang, Lisa; Teich, Sorin

    2016-01-01

    Background Different CAD/CAM machines’ generation may impact the restoration overall quality. The present study evaluated the marginal fit of CAD/CAM restorations manufactured with different generations of CEREC milling unit systems. Material and Methods Sixteen typodont teeth were divided into two groups (n=8) according to the machine’s generation assigned. These are control group (G1): Cerec AC with Bluecam/Cerec 3 milling unit and (G2): Cerec AC with Bluecam/MC XL Premium Package milling unit. Scanning of the preparation were performed and crowns were milled using the Vita Mark II blocks. Blocks were cemented using epoxy glue on the pulpal floor only and finger pressure applied for 1 min. Upon completion of the cementation step, misfits between the restoration and abutment were measured by microphotography and the silicone replica technique using light body silicon material on Mesial (M) and Distal (D) surfaces. Results Mean and SDs of marginal gaps in micrometers were: G1/M: 94.90 (±38.52), G1/D: 88.53 (±44.87), G2/M: 85.65 (±29.89), G2/D: 95.28 (±28.13). Two-way ANOVA indicated no significant differences among different groups (P>0.05); surface area (P>0.05) and the interaction (P>0.05). Overall, G2 had greater margin gaps than G1, however, without statistical difference (P>0.05). Conclusions Difference in milling unit generation did not significantly affect the marginal fit. Marginal gap means were in the range of the clinical acceptance levels for both generations of Cerec milling units, regardless the teeth site area. Key words:CAD/CAM, margin, ceramics. PMID:27703611

  14. Igneous mineralogy at Bradbury Rise: The first ChemCam campaign at Gale crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, V.; Fabre, C.; Forni, O.; Toplis, M. J.; Cousin, A.; Ollila, A. M.; Meslin, P. Y.; Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Baratoux, D.; Mangold, N.; Le Mouélic, S.; Gasnault, O.; Berger, G.; Lasue, J.; Anderson, R. A.; Lewin, E.; Schmidt, M.; Dyar, D.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Bridges, J.; Clark, B.; Pinet, P.

    2014-01-01

    and compositional analyses using Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) remote microimager and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) have been performed on five float rocks and coarse gravels along the first 100 m of the Curiosity traverse at Bradbury Rise. ChemCam, the first LIBS instrument sent to another planet, offers the opportunity to assess mineralogic diversity at grain-size scales (~ 100 µm) and, from this, lithologic diversity. Depth profiling indicates that targets are relatively free of surface coatings. One type of igneous rock is volcanic and includes both aphanitic (Coronation) and porphyritic (Mara) samples. The porphyritic sample shows dark grains that are likely pyroxene megacrysts in a fine-grained mesostasis containing andesine needles. Both types have magnesium-poor basaltic compositions and in this respect are similar to the evolved Jake Matijevic rock analyzed further along the Curiosity traverse both with Alpha-Particle X-ray Spectrometer and ChemCam instruments. The second rock type encountered is a coarse-grained intrusive rock (Thor Lake) showing equigranular texture with millimeter size crystals of feldspars and Fe-Ti oxides. Such a rock is not unique at Gale as the surrounding coarse gravels (such as Beaulieu) and the conglomerate Link are dominated by feldspathic (andesine-bytownite) clasts. Finally, alkali feldspar compositions associated with a silica polymorph have been analyzed in fractured filling material of Preble rock and in Stark, a putative pumice or an impact melt. These observations document magmatic diversity at Gale and describe the first fragments of feldspar-rich lithologies (possibly an anorthosite) that may be ancient crust transported from the crater rim and now forming float rocks, coarse gravel, or conglomerate clasts.

  15. CNC programming system for complex components based on KBE within integrated environment of CAD/CAPP/CAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengwen ZHANG; Guicheng WANG; Liang ZHANG; Xifeng FANG

    2009-01-01

    To promote the research and development of modem digital and intelligent manufacturing technology and overcome shortcomings of computerized numerical control(CNC) programming for complex components, an innovative idea has been proposed to introduce knowledge based engineering (KBE) into the field of CNC program-ming within the integrated environment of CAD/CAPP/ CAM. This paper constructs the architecture of CNC programming based on KBE within CAD/CAPP/CAM and explores the key technology of applying KBE to CNC programming -- knowledge representation, knowledge acquisition, knowledge reasoning, and generalized knowl-edge base system of CNC programming. The integration of the CAD/CAM system and the CAPP system of enterprises has been achieved by taking the powerful CAD/CAM system of UG NX as a platform. The prototype system of CNC programming for complex components based on KBE within CAD/CAPP/CAM has been developed by means of UG/Open,VC ++ 6.0, and SQL Sever 2000. Finally, a frame example, one of the complex components of a marine diesel, is presented, and the academic production and the intelligence of the system are verified.

  16. Clinical Acceptability of the Internal Gap of CAD/CAM PD-AG Crowns Using Intraoral Digital Impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Gyung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the internal gap between CAD/CAM palladium-silver crowns and cast gold crowns generated from intraoral digital versus conventional impressions and to determine the clinical acceptability. Nickel-chrome master dies were made from the prepared resin tooth with the conventional impression method (n=40. For ICC (Intraoral, CAD/CAM group, 10 intraoral digital impressions were made, and 10 CAD/CAM crowns of a PD-AG (palladium-silver machinable alloy were generated. For IC (Intraoral, Cast group, 10 gold crowns were cast from ten intraoral digital impressions. For CCC (Conventional, CAD/CAM group, 10 CAD/CAM PD-AG crowns were made using the conventional impression method. For CC (Conventional, Cast group, 10 gold crowns were fabricated from 10 conventional impressions. One hundred magnifications of the internal gaps of each crown were measured at 50 points with an optical microscope and these values were statistically analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance (α=0.05. The internal gap of the intraoral digital impression group was significantly larger than in the conventional impression group (P0.05. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, crowns from intraoral digital impressions showed larger internal gap values than crowns from conventional impressions.

  17. PSMA, EpCAM, VEGF and GRPR as Imaging Targets in Locally Recurrent Prostate Cancer after Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Rybalov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this retrospective pilot study, the expression of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA, the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR in locally recurrent prostate cancer after brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT was investigated, and their adequacy for targeted imaging was analyzed. Prostate cancer specimens were collected of 17 patients who underwent salvage prostatectomy because of locally recurrent prostate cancer after brachytherapy or EBRT. Immunohistochemistry was performed. A pathologist scored the immunoreactivity in prostate cancer and stroma. Staining for PSMA was seen in 100% (17/17, EpCAM in 82.3% (14/17, VEGF in 82.3% (14/17 and GRPR in 100% (17/17 of prostate cancer specimens. Staining for PSMA, EpCAM and VEGF was seen in 0% (0/17 and for GRPR in 100% (17/17 of the specimens’ stromal compartments. In 11.8% (2/17 of cases, the GRPR staining intensity of prostate cancer was higher than stroma, while in 88.2% (15/17, the staining was equal. Based on the absence of stromal staining, PSMA, EpCAM and VEGF show high tumor distinctiveness. Therefore, PSMA, EpCAM and VEGF can be used as targets for the bioimaging of recurrent prostate cancer after EBRT to exclude metastatic disease and/or to plan local salvage therapy.

  18. Development of bioluminescent chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) models for primary pancreatic cancer cells: a platform for drug testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovithi, Maria; Avan, Amir; Funel, Niccola; Leon, Leticia G.; Gomez, Valentina E.; Wurdinger, Thomas; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Verheul, Henk M. W.; Giovannetti, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop chick-embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) bioluminescent tumor models employing low passage cell cultures obtained from primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Primary PDAC cells transduced with lentivirus expressing Firefly-luciferase (Fluc) were established and inoculated onto the CAM membrane, with >80% engraftment. Fluc signal reliably correlated with tumor growth. Tumor features were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and genetic analyses, including analysis of mutations and mRNA expression of PDAC pivotal genes, as well as microRNA (miRNA) profiling. These studies showed that CAM tumors had histopathological and genetic characteristic comparable to the original tumors. We subsequently tested the modulation of key miRNAs and the activity of gemcitabine and crizotinib on CAM tumors, showing that combination treatment resulted in 63% inhibition of tumor growth as compared to control (p < 0.01). These results were associated with reduced expression of miR-21 and increased expression of miR-155. Our study provides the first evidence that transduced primary PDAC cells can form tumors on the CAM, retaining several histopathological and (epi)genetic characteristics of original tumors. Moreover, our results support the use of these models for drug testing, providing insights on molecular mechanisms underlying antitumor activity of new drugs/combinations. PMID:28304379

  19. CAM Use and Suggestions for Medical Care of Senior Citizens: A Qualitative Study Using the World Café Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stöckigt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little data exists concerning the reasons for using complementary and alternative (CAM therapies by seniors. Therefore, the aim of this study is to learn about motives of German seniors for using CAM therapies and their wishes for health care in general. Methods. One focus group and one “World Café” following a semistructured interview guide were conducted. All discussions were recorded digitally, transcribed, and analyzed according to Qualitative Content Analysis using the software MAXQDA. Results. In total 21 seniors participated (eighteen female, three male, mean age 72.5 ± 4.3 years. Most of the participants had lifelong experiences with medicinal herbs and home remedies due to unavailable conventional care during childhood. Also important for them were nutrition and exercise. These methods were often used as self-care to enhance wellbeing, to prevent and to cure illnesses. The participants would welcome an integration of CAM in health care services. They asked especially for more empathic physicians who are better trained in CAM and respect their experiences. Conclusion. The importance of life experience in regard to health care by senior can be seen as a resource. Qualitative studies investigating physician-patient relationships and intergenerational aspects in CAM use could be of interest for further studies.

  20. Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Effects of CAM Therapies: An In Vitro Study in Normal Kidney Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagun Arora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this current study was to justify the incorporation of complementary and alternate medicine (CAM in current cancer treatments. The major drawback of anticancer drugs is their nonselective killing, which ultimately leads to attrition of normal cells. Keeping this as the foundation of our study, we made an effort to compare the cytotoxicity associated with a known chemotherapeutic drug 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU, with certain CAM therapies previously reported to have anticancer activity. The parameters chosen for the study were based on antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on normal, kidney epithelial cells (NRK-52E. The MTT assay, colony formation assay, DNA fragmentation, and differential staining using AO/EB, following treatment with either 5-FU or CAM therapies, were performed. The CAM therapies under study were various extracts of wheatgrass, roots of Achyranthes aspera (AA, mushroom extracts (Pleurotus ostreatus, Macrolepiota procera, and Auricularia polytricha, and a homeopathic drug, Ruta graveolens (Ruta. The results showed that treatment of normal cells with the CAM therapies led to minimum cell damage in comparison to 5-FU. This evidence-based study will lead to greater acceptance of alternative therapies against cancer.

  1. Comparison of the marginal gap of zirconia-fabricated copings generated by CAD/CAM and Copy-Milling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Alhavaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was conducted to compare the marginal fit of single-tooth zirconia-based copings fabricated by CAD/CAM process (Cercon; Degudent and Copy Milling (Dentium. Materials and Methods: One in vitro prepared abutment from one mandibular molar model served as a template for replication of 40 epoxy resin (highly filled dies, which had been taken by polyvinyl siloxane impression material. Copings were manufactured on epoxy replicas by two processes: the CAD/CAM (Cercon; Degudent (n = 20 and the Copy-Milling (Dentium (n = 20 processes. Four measurements were performed for each surface coping (Buccal, Lingual, Mesial, and Distal. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 statistical software using independent t-test. Results: There was a significant difference in the marginal gap values between CAD/CAM and Copy-Milling groups (P < 0.001. The mean value of the marginal gap (SD for CAD/CAM Copings (56.87 μm was significantly less than that of Copy-Milling (136.12 μm (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The marginal fit of CAD/CAM copings was better than that of Copy-Milling copings.

  2. Vane Pump Casing Machining of Dumpling Machine Based on CAD/CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yusen; Li, Shilong; Li, Chengcheng; Yang, Zhen

    Automatic dumpling forming machine is also called dumpling machine, which makes dumplings through mechanical motions. This paper adopts the stuffing delivery mechanism featuring the improved and specially-designed vane pump casing, which can contribute to the formation of dumplings. Its 3D modeling in Pro/E software, machining process planning, milling path optimization, simulation based on UG and compiling post program were introduced and verified. The results indicated that adoption of CAD/CAM offers firms the potential to pursue new innovative strategies.

  3. CAD - CAM Procedures Used for Rapid Prototyping of Prosthetic Hip Joint Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Luminita I.; Popa, Vasile N.

    2016-11-01

    The article addresses the issue of rapid prototyping CAD/ CAM procedures, based on CT imaging, for custom implants dedicated to hip arthroplasty and the correlation study to be achieved between femoral canal shape, valued by modern imaging methods, and the prosthesis form. A set of CT images is transformed into a digital model using one of several software packages available for conversion. The purpose of research is to obtain prosthesis with compatible characteristics as close to the physiological, with an optimal adjustment of the prosthesis to the bone in which it is implanted, allowing the recovery of the patient physically, mentally and socially.

  4. CAD/CAM complete dentures: a review of two commercial fabrication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattadiyil, Mathew T; Goodacre, Charles J; Baba, Nadim Z

    2013-06-01

    The use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) has become available for complete dentures through the AvaDent and Dentca systems. AvaDent uses laser scanning and computer technology. Teeth are arranged and bases formed using proprietary software.The bases are milled from prepolymerized pucks of resin. Dentca uses computer software to produce virtual maxillary and mandibular edentulous ridges, arrange the teeth and form bases. The dentures are fabricated using a conventional processing technique.

  5. DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROLLER GEAR INDEXING CAM SYSTEM CONSIDERING CLEARANCE AND MOTOR CHARACTERISTIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The dynamic responses of roller gear indexing cam mechanism are investigated .With applying Lagarange equation and Gear method,motion equations of this mechanism including clearance,motor characteristic,torsion flexibility are developed and solved.The results show that clearance affects primarily the response on turret,and has little effects on the responses on rotary table.At the same time,the velocity fluctuation of motor shaft is not serious for the existence of inertia of reducer,and the high frequency of velocity fluctuation of camshaft is related with the torsion stiffness of shaft and the clearance between pairs.

  6. An examination of atmospheric river moisture transport and hydrology using isotope-enabled CAM5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaumer, Jesse

    Atmospheric rivers are a feature of the atmospheric circulation that play a major role in terms of precipitation, flooding, drought, and even the global climate system itself. Thus understanding what the main controls on these weather systems are is critical if one wants to be able to determine the impact they could eventually impose on society. Also too, almost all climate projections are performed by global climate or earth system models. Thus there is a need to ensure that these sorts of models can accurately simulate atmospheric rivers, and the global hydrologic cycle in general, if one is to have confidence in the projections generated by these programs. These concerns are examined in this thesis. In particular, the CAM5 model is used to generate a climatology of extreme moisture transport from transient eddies and atmospheric rivers, which is compared to a reanalysis. It is found that although the average climatological results are similar, the average moisture flux per event was too weak, indicating that the model may not adequately simulate the more extreme flux and/or precipitation events, which can have the largest impact on society. To further investigate what might be causing this bias, water tracer and isotope physics were added to CAM5, where the biases present in the isotope-enabled simulations show that CAM5 generates too much precipitation. A sensitivity analysis is performed to try and determine the specific cause of the bias, and it is found that CAM5 generates deep convection too frequently, particularly in the winter midlatitudes over the ocean. This could also help explain the weakened moisture fluxes in atmospheric rivers, as too much moisture is lost in the model due to overly active convection. Finally, water tracers are used to examine the moisture sources for the West Coast of the United States, including in atmospheric rivers. It is found that atmospheric rivers pull more moisture from the tropics than average. It is also found that in

  7. Travel and exile. From Ovidio to Camões: Filinto, Garrett and Herculano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda de Abreu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Travel, in exile forced situation, provides images of identity, personal and collective representations, that literature has transmitted throughout its history. In this essay, we refer to models that in the so-called “Western Lit­erature” comes from Homer and Ovid, and that in the Portuguese one are updated by, among others, Luís de Camões, Filinto Elíseo e Almeida Gar­rett; a case study shows us the use of the topic of storm in exile writing, in the romantic Alexandre Herculano work.

  8. Research on a Dispersed Networked CAD/CAM System of Motorcycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve competitive ability of market, mo torcycle enterprises, special the small and middle sized ones must use IT to org anize social resource and adopt effective production mode, namely the dispersed networked design and manufacturing (DNDM), which was put forward and proved to b e one of vitality production modes in recent years. In responding to the new pro duction mode of VMCE, a dispersed networked CAD/CAM system (DNCADMS) of motorcyc le products should be developed. The objective of th...

  9. Simulation and Analyis of a Continuous Variable Cam Phasing Internal Combustion Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarlund, Pär

    2008-01-01

    The development of fuel efficient internal combustion engines (ICE)have resulted in a variety of different solutions. One of those are the variable valve timing and an implemenation of such is the Continuous Variable Cam Phasing (CVCP). This thesis have used a simulation package, psPack, for the simulation of the gas exchange process for an ICE with CVCP. The purpose of the simulations was to investigate what kind of design parameters, e.g. the length of an intake pipe or the duration of comb...

  10. OpenGL Based Real Time&Inline Simulation of CNC Cams Grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhanqi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OpenGL based NC machining real time simulation model is proposed in the paper, and some key techniques of the system are investigated, including input and compiling of NC program, building of display model, real time displaying procedure of machining. With this technique, operator can view the machining process at screen of CNC machining real time, without stopping machine tool, which is very convenient for operating of machining. At last of the paper, an example of CNC cams grinding machine tool is given in order to proving the algorithm.

  11. Eddy covariance measurements of net C exchange in the CAM bioenergy crop, Agave tequiliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Nick A.; Choncubhair, Órlaith Ní; Males, Jamie; del Real Laborde, José Ignacio; Rubio-Cortés, Ramón; Griffiths, Howard; Lanigan, Gary

    2016-04-01

    Bioenergy crop cultivation may focus more on low grade and marginal lands in order to avoid competition with food production for land and water resources. However, in many regions, this would require improvements in plant water-use efficiency that are beyond the physiological capacity of most C3 and C4 bioenergy crop candidates. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, such as Agave tequiliana, can combine high above-ground productivity with as little as 20% of the water demand of C3 and C4 crops. This is achieved through temporal separation of carboxylase activities, with stomata opening at night to allow gas exchange and minimise transpirational losses. Previous studies have employed 'bottom-up' methodologies to investigate carbon (C) accumulation and productivity in Agave, by scaling leaf-level gas exchange and titratable acidity (TA) with leaf area index or maximum productivity. We used the eddy covariance (EC) technique to quantify ecosystem-scale gas exchange over an Agave plantation in Mexico ('top-down' approach). Measurements were made over 252 days, including the transition from wet to dry periods. Results were cross-validated against diel changes in titratable acidity, leaf-unfurling rates, energy exchange fluxes and reported biomass yields. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 displayed a CAM rhythm that alternated from a net C sink at night to a net C source during the day and partitioned canopy fluxes (gross C assimilation, FA,EC) showed a characteristic four-phase CO2 exchange pattern. The projected ecosystem C balance indicated that the site was a net sink of -333 ± 24 g C m-2 y-1, comprising cumulative soil respiration of 692 ± 7 g C m-2 y-1 and FA,EC of -1025 ± 25 g C m-2 y-1. EC-estimated biomass yield was 20.1 Mg ha-1 y-1. Average integrated daily FA,EC was -234 ± 5 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 and persisted almost unchanged after 70 days of drought conditions. Our results suggest that the carbon acquisition strategy of drought avoidance employed by Agave

  12. Pill Cam COLON 2~? as a pan-enteroscopic test in Crohn’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barry; Hall; Grainne; Holleran; Deirdre; McNamara

    2015-01-01

    A recent paper by Boal Carvalho et al demonstrates the potential of Pill Cam COLON 2?(PCC2) as a panenteric investigation in Crohn’s disease(CD). Our own prospective data in patients with known CD also shows good correlation between PCC2 and small/large bowel investigations(R = 0.896,P < 0.0004/R = 0.6667,P <0.035). Larger studies are warranted to prospectively validate the use of PCC2 in the investigation and monitoring of both small and large bowel CD.

  13. Design & Reality of CAD/CAM in Laser Beam Scanning Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jianjun; SUN Huilai; ZHAO Fangfang; LIN Shuzhong; QI Xiangyang

    2006-01-01

    In laser beam scanning manufacturing (LSM) system the PLT file was adopted as design file. The data of design file were processed by CAD software programmed. And the control model was adopted DEA control model. The DEA model was concerned with not only the distance of the two swaying mirrors, the distance between the swaying mirror and convex lens, the mirror swaying angle and the lens focal length but also the lens central height, the lens convex radius and the medium refractive index. It improved the precision and reduced the error in LBM system. The application of CAD/CAM system in LSM improved the LSM manufacturing velocity and manufacturing quality.

  14. P450cam biocatalysis in surfactant-stabilized two-phase emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jessica D; Clark, Douglas S

    2008-04-15

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are powerful biocatalysts that have the ability to oxidize a broad range of substrates, often at non-reactive carbon centers. However, incorporation of P450s into synthetic schemes has so far been limited to a few whole-cell transformations. P450 substrates are often hydrophobic and have low water solubility, limiting the amount of product that can be produced. To help overcome this limitation, we have examined P450cam activity in two-phase hexane/water emulsions with and without the anionic surfactant, bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT). Hydroxylation of camphor to hydroxycamphor by the three- component P450cam system was chosen as the model reaction, and regeneration of NADH was accomplished with yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH). P450cam was activated in the surfactant-free emulsions, and addition of AOT improved the activity even further, at least over the range of camphor concentrations for which initial rates were readily measurable in all media. The largest observed rate enhancement was 4.5-fold. Nearly 50-times more product was formed in the surfactant-stabilized emulsions than was achieved in aqueous buffer, with total turnover numbers reaching 28,900 for P450cam and 11,800 for YADH. In the absence of surfactant, the two-phase reaction appeared to be mass-transfer limited, while inclusion of AOT alleviated transport limitations and/or afforded a larger interfacial area for P450 activation. The oxidation of hydroxycamphor to 2,5-diketocamphane was also observed, owing to the large concentration of hydroxycamphor relative to camphor in the aqueous phase of the two-phase emulsion. This competing reaction was accompanied by the uncoupled oxidation of NADH (i.e., NADH oxidation without formation of 2,5-diketocamphane), which reduced the availability of NADH for camphor oxidation and further limited the yield of hydroxycamphor in the two-phase emulsions. These results indicate that a surfactant

  15. Active site diversification of P450cam with indole generates catalysts for benzylic oxidation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Paul P; Eichler, Anja; Herter, Susanne; Kranz, David C; Turner, Nicholas J; Flitsch, Sabine L

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are useful biocatalysts for C-H activation, and there is a need to expand the range of these enzymes beyond what is naturally available. A panel of 93 variants of active self-sufficient P450cam[Tyr96Phe]-RhFRed fusion enzymes with a broad diversity in active site amino acids was developed by screening a large mutant library of 16,500 clones using a simple, highly sensitive colony-based colorimetric screen against indole. These mutants showed distinct fingerprints of activity not only when screened in oxidations of substituted indoles but also for unrelated oxidations such as benzylic hydroxylations.

  16. Active site diversification of P450cam with indole generates catalysts for benzylic oxidation reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P. Kelly

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are useful biocatalysts for C–H activation, and there is a need to expand the range of these enzymes beyond what is naturally available. A panel of 93 variants of active self-sufficient P450cam[Tyr96Phe]-RhFRed fusion enzymes with a broad diversity in active site amino acids was developed by screening a large mutant library of 16,500 clones using a simple, highly sensitive colony-based colorimetric screen against indole. These mutants showed distinct fingerprints of activity not only when screened in oxidations of substituted indoles but also for unrelated oxidations such as benzylic hydroxylations.

  17. Minimally invasive corticotomy in orthodontics: a new technique using a CAD/CAM surgical template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassetta, M; Pandolfi, S; Giansanti, M

    2015-07-01

    Accelerating orthodontic tooth movement is a topical issue. Despite the different techniques described in the literature, the corticotomy is the only effective and safe means of accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. Although effective, the corticotomy presents significant postoperative discomfort. The aggressive nature of these particular methods, related to the elevation of mucoperiosteal flaps and to the length of the surgery, has resulted in reluctance to proceed with this technique among both patients and the dental community. To overcome the disadvantages of the corticotomy, this technical note describes an innovative, minimally invasive, flapless procedure combining piezoelectric surgical cortical micro-incisions with the use of a 3D Printed CAD/CAM surgical guide.

  18. Exploration of Mars with the ChemCam LIBS Instrument and the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Horton E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover landed on Mars in August 2012, and has been exploring the planet ever since. Dr. Horton E. Newsom will discuss the MSL's design and main goal, which is to characterize past environments that may have been conducive to the evolution and sustainability of life. He will also discuss Curiosity's science payload, and remote sensing, analytical capabilities, and direct discoveries of the Chemistry & Camera (ChemCam) instrument, which is the first Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) to operate on another planetary surface and determine the chemistry of the rocks and soils.

  19. VX CAD/CAM 2009版发布会成功举行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009年4月30日,VX公司在上海隆重推出了第14个版本VX CAD/CAM 2009版,此版本超过26个大项的新增功能全部来自世界各地用户的需求,并且软件研发的重点在于更好的匹配CAD/CAM一体化的无缝工作,以提高产品设计的易用性及加工效率。

  20. Repair bond strength of resin composite to a novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic using different repair systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the repair bond strength of a nanohybrid resin composite to a novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic based on four intraoral ceramic repair systems. Vita Enamic (VE) CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic was used in this study. Specimens were divided into five test groups according to the repair method performed on the ceramic surface: Gr C (No treatment; control); Gr CZ (Cimara Zircon); Gr PR (Porcelain Repair); Gr CR (Clearfil Repair); and Gr CS (CoJet system). Nanohybrid resin composite (GrandioSO) was packed onto treated ceramic surfaces for adhesion testing using microtensile bond strength test. Debonded specimens were examined with a stereomicroscope and SEM to determine the fracture mode. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. PR and CZ repair systems significantly enhanced the bond strength of nanohybrid resin composite to VE CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic when compared with the other tested repair systems.

  1. A systematic literature review on reviews and meta-analyses of biologically based CAM-practices for cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Lunde, Anita; Johannessen, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels of evidence and were excluded from further evaluation. Among the 32 high-quality reviews the most reviewed practices were soy/plant hormones (7), Chinese herbal medicine (7), antioxidants (5) and mistletoe (4). Fifteen of the 32 reviews included data on the efficacy of biologically-based CAM......-practices against cancer, but none of the reviews concluded a positive effect on the cancer. Reviews including data on quality of life (10) and/or reduction of side effects (12) showed promising, but yet insufficient evidence for Chinese herbal medicine against pain  and side effects of chemotherapy, and mistletoe......Purpose To provide an overview and evaluate the evidence of biologically based CAM-practices for cancer patients. Methods Pubmed, Social Science Citation Index, AMED and the Cochrane library were systematically searched for reviews on effects of biologically based CAM-practices, including herbal...

  2. Leaf malate and succinate accumulation are out of phase throughout the development of the CAM plant Ananas comosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainha, N; Medeiros, V P; Ferreira, C; Raposo, A; Leite, J P; Cruz, C; Pacheco, C A; Ponte, D; Silva, A B

    2016-03-01

    In plants with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM), organic acids, mainly malate are crucial intermediates for carbon fixation. In this research we studied the circadian oscillations of three organic anions (malate, citrate, and succinate) in Ananas comosus, assessing the effect of season and plant development stage. Seasonal and plant development dependencies were observed. The circadian oscillations of malate and citrate were typical of CAM pathways reported in the literature. Citrate content was quite stable (25-30 μmol g(-1) FW) along the day, with a seasonal effect. Succinate was shown to have both diurnal and seasonal oscillations and also a correlation with malate, since it accumulated during the afternoon when malate content was normally at a minimum, suggesting a possible mechanistic effect between both anions in CAM and/or respiratory metabolisms.

  3. A comparative evaluation of implant supported zirconia framework gap of two CAD/CAM systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Ameri

    2016-11-01

    computer-aided manufacturing (CAM systems (AmannGirrbach and Zirkonzahn. Materials and Methods: The master model of 3-unit FDP was made of two implant abutments (AmannGirrbach and Zirkonzahn from canine to second premolar. Twelve frameworks were manufactured using each fabricating system from semi-sintered zirconia blanks, which had to be sintered for final density after milling. After manufacturing, the absolute marginal discrepancy in each abutment were determined by means of Video Measurement System (VMS. The data were analyzed, using independent and paired t test (P=0.05. Results: For the premolar abutment, the absolute marginal discrepancy of frameworks fabricated by AmannGirrbach system was significantly greater than those of the other system (P=0.005. There was no significant difference between the marginal discrepancy of canine and premolar abutments (P>0.05. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it could be concluded that the marginal fit of zirconia FDPs was significantly dependent on the CAD/CAM system used, but the abutment size was not an effective factor.

  4. Performance of different polishing techniques for direct CAD/CAM ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, Simon; Lussi, Adrian; Zimmerli, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the performance of three ceramic and two commonly used polishing methods on two CAD/CAM ceramics. Surface roughness and quality were compared. A glazed group (GLGR) of each ceramic material served as reference. One-hundred and twenty specimens of VITABLOCS Mark II (VITA) and 120 specimens of IPS Empress CAD (IPS) were roughened in a standardized manner. Twenty VITA and 20 IPS specimens were glazed (VITA Akzent Glaze/Empress Universal Glaze). Five polishing methods were investigated (n=20/group): 1) EVE Diacera W11DC-Set (EVE), 2) JOTA 9812-Set (JOTA), 3) OptraFine-System (OFI), 4) Sof-Lex 2382 discs (SOF) and 5) Brownie/Greenie/Occlubrush (BGO). Polishing quality was measured with a surface roughness meter (Ra and Rz values). The significance level was set at alpha=0.05. Kruskal Wallis tests and pairwise Wilcoxon rank sum tests with Bonferroni-Holm adjustment were used. Qualitative surface evaluation of representative specimens was done with SEM. On VITA ceramics, SOF produced lower Ra (psystems are still of interest to clinicians using CAD/CAM, as these methods are universally applicable and showed an increased durability compared to the investigated silicon polishers.

  5. Wear Behavior of Ceramic CAD/CAM Crowns and Natural Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella A. Naumova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluation of wear behavior of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM crowns from various restorative materials and natural antagonists. Method: Full CAD/CAM crowns fabricated with nanoceramic resin (Lava Ultimate (LU, a glass ceramic in a resin interpenetrating matrix (Vita Enamic (VE and a lithium silicate reinforced ceramic enriched with zirconia (Vita Suprinity (VS were cemented on human molars. The crown and antagonists were subjected to simulated chewing. 3D data sets, before and after the chewing simulation, were generated and matched. Occlusal surface roughness, vertical and volume loss of the crowns and antagonists were analyzed. Results: Crown roughness was significantly different between the LU and VE groups after chewing simulation. Crown vertical loss differed in all groups. The highest crown volume loss was found in the LU group, and the lowest in the VE group. Comparisons between the LU and VE groups and the LU and VS groups were significantly different. The highest antagonist volume loss was reached in the VE group, the lowest was in the LU group. Conclusion: Roughness increased after chewing simulation. LU crowns are the most natural antagonist-friendly; these were the most susceptible to vertical and volume loss. Of the tested materials, the VE crowns are the most stable regarding occlusion.

  6. An Overture for eCAM: Science, Technology and Innovation Initiation for Prosperous, Healthy Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kaphle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nepal the “Shangri-La” in the lap of the Himalayas is gearing up for modern times as it starts rebuilding after a decade of senseless violence and destruction. The nation one of the poorest in the global development index is rich in natural resources and biodiversity. Reports of medicinal plants far exceeding those recorded and reported so far are encouraging and at the same time concerns for medicinal plants under threat as a result of overexploitation are emerging from Nepal. The harsh mountain terrains, lack of industrialization and harnessing potentiality of its areas of strength; water; natural resources and tourism make it poor in per capita income which averages ~ 300 US$, with half the population living under >1$ a day. Nepal is beginning to realize that the way ahead is only possible through the path of Science and Technology (ST. Nepal Academy of Science and Technology formerly known as Royal Academy of Science and Technology organized the fifth national conference held every 4 years that took place in the capital Kathmandu during November 10-12, 2008. The ST initiation event saw the participation of ~ 1400 people representing over 150 organizations from the country and experts from abroad. The theme for the fifth national meet was “Science, Technology and Innovation for Prosperous Nepal”. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM was an important theme in the event as the realization for the need of ST research focused in CAM for harnessing the chemo diversity potential was univocally approved.

  7. [Intraoperative augmented reality visualization. Current state of development and initial experiences with the CamC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidert, S; Wang, L; von der Heide, A; Navab, N; Euler, E

    2012-03-01

    The intraoperative application of augmented reality (AR) has so far mainly taken place in the field of endoscopy. Here, the camera image of the endoscope was augmented by computer graphics derived mostly from preoperative imaging. Due to the complex setup and operation of the devices, they have not yet become part of routine clinical practice. The Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm (CamC) that extends a classic C-arm by a video camera and mirror construction is characterized by its uncomplicated handling. It combines its video live stream geometrically correct with the acquired X-ray. The clinical application of the device in 43 cases showed the strengths of the device in positioning for X-ray acquisition, incision placement, K-wire placement, and instrument guidance. With its new function and the easy integration into the OR workflow of any procedure that requires X-ray imaging, the CamC has the potential to become the first widely used AR technology for orthopedic and trauma surgery.

  8. Novel compact airborne platform for remote sensing applications using the Hyper-Cam infrared hyperspectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Caroline S.; Puckrin, Eldon; Aube, Françoys; Farley, Vincent; Savary, Simon; Chamberland, Martin

    2013-05-01

    High resolution broad-band imagery in the visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, which leads to an additional means of detecting and identifying targets based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology, which yields high spectral resolution and enables a high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently integrated and flown on a novel airborne gyro-stabilized platform inside a fixed-wing aircraft. The new platform, more compact and more advanced than its predecessor, is described in this paper. The first results of target detection and identification are also presented.

  9. Comparative in vitro evaluation of CAD/CAM vs conventional provisional crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABDULLAH, Adil Othman; TSITROU, Effrosyni A; POLLINGTON, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective This study compared the marginal gap, internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture of CAD/CAM provisional crowns with that of direct provisional crowns. Material and Methods An upper right first premolar phantom tooth was prepared for full ceramic crown following tooth preparation guidelines. The materials tested were: VITA CAD-Temp®, Polyetheretherketone “PEEK”, Telio CAD-Temp, and Protemp™4 (control group). The crowns were divided into four groups (n=10), Group1: VITA CAD-Temp®, Group 2: PEEK, Group 3: Telio CAD-Temp, and Group 4: Protemp™4. Each crown was investigated for marginal and internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism software version 6.0. Results The average marginal gap was: VITA CAD-Temp® 60.61 (±9.99) µm, PEEK 46.75 (±8.26) µm, Telio CAD-Temp 56.10 (±5.65) µm, and Protemp™4 193.07(±35.96) µm (P0.05). Conclusions CAD/CAM fabricated provisional crowns demonstrated superior fit and better strength than direct provisional crowns. PMID:27383707

  10. New developments in JAstroCam - software for astronomical data gathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zola, S.; Budyn, M.

    2014-12-01

    We present a software application called JAstroCam. It is a Java-based software package being developed in cooperation of the Astronomical Observatory of the Jagiellonian University and the Mt. Suhora Observatory of the Pedagogical University, and covers all aspects of image acquisition, including hardware control, environment monitoring and provides support for an observer in gathering high quality scientific data. The main motivation for making yet another software application is lack of advanced tools for data acquisition with CCDs available on the Linux platform. Most of the hardware vendors provide software drivers and supporting applications mainly for the Windows operating system, leaving Linux users with a limited number of open source solutions, usually not optimized for professional astronomers. With cooperation of academic researchers, we have managed to implement an application with an intuitive user interface and powerful tools that perform scheduled image acquisition and crude online data analysis, including measurements of a single frame statistical parameters as well as single and multifilter photometry. We present existing features, latest enhancements built in version 3.X as well future development plans for version 4 of JAstroCam.

  11. Testing the AGN unification model in the infrared. First results with GTC/CanariCam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Almeida, C.

    2015-05-01

    The unified model for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) accounts for a variety of observational differences in terms of viewing geometry alone. However, from the fitting of high spatial resolution infrared (IR) data with clumpy torus models, it has been hinted that the immediate dusty surroundings of Type-1 and 2 Seyfert nuclei might be intrinsically different in terms of covering factor (torus width and number of clouds). Moreover, these torus covering factors also showed variations among objects belonging to the same type, in contradiction with simple unification. Interestingly, these intrinsic differences in Seyfert tori could explain, for example, the lack of broad optical lines in the polarized spectra of about half of the brightest Seyfert 2 galaxies. On the other hand, recent IR interferometry studies have revealed that, in at least four Seyfert galaxies, the mid-IR emission is elongated in the polar direction. These results are difficult to reconcile with unified models, which claim that the bulk of the mid-IR emission comes from the torus. In this invited contribution I summarize the latest results on high angular resolution IR studies of AGN, which constitute a crucial test for AGN unification. These results include those from the mid-infrared instrument CanariCam on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC), which are starting to be published by the CanariCam AGN team, Los Piratas (https://sites.google.com/site/piratasrelatedpublications).

  12. NectarCAM : a camera for the medium size telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Glicenstein, J-F; Barrio, J-A; Blanch~Bigas, O; Bolmont, J; Bouyjou, F; Brun, P; Chabanne, E; Champion, C; Colonges, S; Corona, P; Delagnes, E; Delgado, C; Ginzov, C Diaz; Durand, D; Ernenwein, J-P; Fegan, S; Ferreira, O; Fesquet, M; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Fouque, N; Gascon, D; Giebels, B; Henault, F; Hermel, R; Hoffmann, D; Horan, D; Houles, J; Jean, P; Jocou, L; Karkar, S; Knoedlseder, J; Kossakowski, R; Lamanna, G; LeFlour, T; Lenain, J-P; Leveque, A; Louis, F; Martinez, G; Moudden, Y; Moulin, E; Nayman, P; Nunio, F; Olive, J-F; Panazol, J-L; Pavy, S; Petrucci, P-O; Pierre, E; Prast, J; Punch, M; Ramon, P; Rateau, S; Ravel, T; Rosier-Lees, S; Sanuy, A; Shayduk, M; Sizun, P-Y; Sulanke, K-H; Tavernet, J-P; Tejedor~Alvarez, L-A; Toussenel, F; Vasileiadis, G; Voisin, V; Waegebert, V; Wischnewski, R

    2015-01-01

    NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) covering the central energy range of ~100 GeV to ~30 TeV. It has a modular design and is based on the NECTAr chip, at the heart of which is a GHz sampling Switched Capacitor Array and a 12-bit Analog to Digital converter. The camera will be equipped with 265 7-photomultiplier modules, covering a field of view of 8 degrees. Each module includes the photomultiplier bases, high voltage supply, pre-amplifier, trigger, readout and Ethernet transceiver. The recorded events last between a few nanoseconds and tens of nanoseconds. The camera trigger will be flexible so as to minimize the read-out dead-time of the NECTAr chips. NectarCAM is designed to sustain a data rate of more than 4 kHz with less than 5\\% dead time. The camera concept, the design and tests of the various subcomponents and results of thermal and electrical prototypes are presented. The design includes the mechanical structure, cooling of the electro...

  13. The Role of Th17 in Neuroimmune Disorders: Target for CAM Therapy. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristo Vojdani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Decades of research went into understanding the role that Th1 autoreactive T-cells play in neuroinflammation. Here we describe another effector population, the IL-17-producing T-helper lineage (Th17, which drives the inflammatory process. Through the recruitment of inflammatory infiltration neutrophils and the activation of matrix metalloproteinases, IL-17, a cytokine secreted by Th17 cells, contributes to blood-brain barrier breakdown and the subsequent attraction of macrophages and monocytes into the nervous system. The entry of cells along with the local production of inflammatory cytokines leads to myelin and axonal damage. This activation of the inflammatory response system is induced by different pathogenic factors, such as gut bacterial endotoxins resulting in progressive neurodegeneration by Th17 cells. Through the understanding of the role of bacterial endotoxins and other pathogenic factors in the induction of autoimmune diseases by Th17 cells, CAM practitioners will be able to design CAM therapies targeting IL-17 activity. Targeted therapy can restore the integrity of the intestinal and blood-brain barriers using probiotics, N-acetyl-cysteine, α-lipoic acid, resveratrol and others for their patients with autoimmunities, in particular those with neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.

  14. Comparative in vitro evaluation of CAD/CAM vs conventional provisional crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Othman ABDULLAH

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This study compared the marginal gap, internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture of CAD/CAM provisional crowns with that of direct provisional crowns. Material and Methods An upper right first premolar phantom tooth was prepared for full ceramic crown following tooth preparation guidelines. The materials tested were: VITA CAD-Temp®, Polyetheretherketone “PEEK”, Telio CAD-Temp, and Protemp™4 (control group. The crowns were divided into four groups (n=10, Group1: VITA CAD-Temp®, Group 2: PEEK, Group 3: Telio CAD-Temp, and Group 4: Protemp™4. Each crown was investigated for marginal and internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism software version 6.0. Results The average marginal gap was: VITA CAD-Temp® 60.61 (±9.99 µm, PEEK 46.75 (±8.26 µm, Telio CAD-Temp 56.10 (±5.65 µm, and Protemp™4 193.07(±35.96 µm (P0.05. Conclusions CAD/CAM fabricated provisional crowns demonstrated superior fit and better strength than direct provisional crowns.

  15. The Potassic Sedimentary Rocks in Gale Crater, Mars, as Seen by ChemCam Onboard Curiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Deit, Laetitia; Mangold, Nicolas; Forni, Olivier; Cousin, Agnes; Lasue, Jeremie; Schröder, Susanne; Wiens, Roger C.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Fabre, Cecile; Stack, Katherine M.; Anderson, Ryan; Blaney, Diana L.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Dromart, Gilles; Fisk, Martin; Gasnault, Olivier; Grotzinger, John P.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Lanza, Nina; Le Mouélic, Stephane; Maurice, Sylvestre; McLennan, Scott M.; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Nachon, Marion; Newsom, Horton E.; Payre, Valerie; Rapin, William; Rice, Melissa; Sautter, Violaine; Treiman, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity encountered potassium-rich clastic sedimentary rocks at two sites in Gale Crater, the waypoints Cooperstown and Kimberley. These rocks include several distinct meters-thick sedimentary outcrops ranging from fine sandstone to conglomerate, interpreted to record an ancient fluvial or fluvio-deltaic depositional system (Grotzinger et al., 2015). From ChemCam LIBS chemical analyses, this suite of sedimentary rocks has an overall mean K2O abundance that is more than five times higher than that of the average Martian crust. The combined analysis of ChemCam data with stratigraphic and geographic locations reveals that the mean K2O abundance increases upward through the stratigraphic section. Chemical analyses across each unit can be represented as mixtures of several distinct chemical components, i.e. mineral phases, including K-bearing minerals, mafic silicates, Fe-oxides, and Fe-hydroxide/oxyhydroxides. Possible K-bearing minerals include alkali feldspar (including anorthoclase and sanidine) and K-bearing phyllosilicate such as illite. Mixtures of different source rocks, including a potassium-rich rock located on the rim and walls of Gale Crater are the likely origin of observed chemical variations within each unit. Physical sorting may have also played a role in the enrichment in K in the Kimberley formation. The occurrence of these potassic sedimentary rocks provides additional evidence for the chemical diversity of the crust exposed at Gale Crater.

  16. On a Long-term Variability of the Asynchronous Polar BY Cam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, M.; Pavlenko, E.; Babina, Yu.; Malanushenko, V.

    2013-01-01

    A long-term monitoring of the asynchronous polar BY Cam has been carried out by several groups of observers in a total over the years 1988-2012. Apart from the 3.3-hr periodicity related to the orbital variation and ˜15 d periodicity caused by the the spin-orbital asynchronizm, BY Cam displays the brightness variation on the much longer time scale of hundreds and thousands of days. Basing on our 8-year interval of photometric observations from 2004 to 2012, we examined the existence of 100-150 d precession of the white dwarf spin axes suggested by Piirola et al. (1994) and ˜5 year quasi-period found by Honeycutt and Kafka (2005) in brightness variations. We did not find any convincing evidence of the ˜145 d period observed by Honeycutt and Kafka (2005). Instead we found the existence of ˜ the 4.1-year variations in the years 2004-2012 and present their sine-like profile. The possible connection of these variations with ˜5 year quasi-period as well as its interpretation is considered.

  17. Fault Diagnosis of a High-Speed Cam-Driven Pin Assembly System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Cheng Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cam-driven mechanical system applied for pin assembly of connectors of electrical devices is studied in this paper. Three cooperative cams are involved in the tasks of approaching, cutting, insertion, and restoring. In order to meet the demanded productivity growth, the operation speed tends to be elevated. However, high running speeds usually cause deficiencies of pin dropping and inaccurate positioning. Diagnosis is therefore conducted to explore their physical reasons so that modification of future mechanical design can be made. Frequency responses of experimental measurements show greater natural frequency and system stiffness caused by nonlinear dynamics for higher operation speed. It also appears that the clamping force is reduced and drift of the locked pin’s location is induced for higher running speed. In addition, separation of the fixture system induced by contact oscillation generates clearance larger than the thickness of the pin. Based on the mathematical models obtained from the technique of system identification, deeper insight of the mechanical system and future system improvement can be highly expected.

  18. Luting of CAD/CAM ceramic inlays: direct composite versus dual-cure luting cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, Atsushi; Bonroy, Kim; Elsen, Caroline; Lührs, Anne-Katrin; Suyama, Yuji; Peumans, Marleen; Van Meerbeek, Bart; De Munck, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate bonding effectiveness in direct restorations. A two-step self-etch adhesive and a light-cure resin composite was compared with luting with a conventional dual-cure resin cement and a two-step etch and rinse adhesive. Class-I box-type cavities were prepared. Identical ceramic inlays were designed and fabricated with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) device. The inlays were seated with Clearfil SE Bond/Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray Medical) or ExciTE F DSC/Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent), each by two operators (five teeth per group). The inlays were stored in water for one week at 37°C, whereafter micro-tensile bond strength testing was conducted. The micro-tensile bond strength of the direct composite was significantly higher than that from conventional luting, and was independent of the operator (P<0.0001). Pre-testing failures were only observed with the conventional method. High-power light-curing of a direct composite may be a viable alternative to luting lithium disilicate glass-ceramic CAD/CAM restorations.

  19. The potassic sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater, Mars, as seen by ChemCam Onboard Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Deit, Laetitia; Mangold, Nicolas; Forni, Olivier; Cousin, Agnes; Lasue, Jeremie; Schröder, Susanne; Wiens, Roger C.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Fabre, Cecile; Stack, Katherine M.; Anderson, Ryan; Blaney, Diana L.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Dromart, Gilles; Fisk, Martin; Gasnault, Olivier; Grotzinger, John P.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Lanza, Nina; Le Mouélic, Stephane; Maurice, Sylvestre; McLennan, Scott M.; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Nachon, Marion; Newsom, Horton E.; Payre, Valerie; Rapin, William; Rice, Melissa; Sautter, Violaine; Treiman, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity encountered potassium-rich clastic sedimentary rocks at two sites in Gale Crater, the waypoints Cooperstown and Kimberley. These rocks include several distinct meters thick sedimentary outcrops ranging from fine sandstone to conglomerate, interpreted to record an ancient fluvial or fluvio-deltaic depositional system. From ChemCam Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) chemical analyses, this suite of sedimentary rocks has an overall mean K2O abundance that is more than 5 times higher than that of the average Martian crust. The combined analysis of ChemCam data with stratigraphic and geographic locations reveals that the mean K2O abundance increases upward through the stratigraphic section. Chemical analyses across each unit can be represented as mixtures of several distinct chemical components, i.e., mineral phases, including K-bearing minerals, mafic silicates, Fe-oxides, and Fe-hydroxide/oxyhydroxides. Possible K-bearing minerals include alkali feldspar (including anorthoclase and sanidine) and K-bearing phyllosilicate such as illite. Mixtures of different source rocks, including a potassium-rich rock located on the rim and walls of Gale Crater, are the likely origin of observed chemical variations within each unit. Physical sorting may have also played a role in the enrichment in K in the Kimberley formation. The occurrence of these potassic sedimentary rocks provides additional evidence for the chemical diversity of the crust exposed at Gale Crater.

  20. Evaluation of tropical cloud and precipitation statistics of CAM3 using CloudSat and CALIPSO data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Klein, S; Boyle, J; Mace, G G

    2008-11-20

    The combined CloudSat and CALIPSO satellite observations provide the first simultaneous measurements of cloud and precipitation vertical structure, and are used to examine the representation of tropical clouds and precipitation in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 3 (CAM3). A simulator package utilizing a model-to-satellite approach facilitates comparison of model simulations to observations, and a revised clustering method is used to sort the subgrid-scale patterns of clouds and precipitation into principal cloud regimes. Results from weather forecasts performed with CAM3 suggest that the model underestimates the horizontal extent of low and mid-level clouds in subsidence regions, but overestimates that of high clouds in ascending regions. CAM3 strongly overestimates the frequency of occurrence of the deep convection with heavy precipitation regime, but underestimates the horizontal extent of clouds and precipitation at low and middle levels when this regime occurs. This suggests that the model overestimates convective precipitation and underestimates stratiform precipitation consistent with a previous study that used only precipitation observations. Tropical cloud regimes are also evaluated in a different version of the model, CAM3.5, which uses a highly entraining plume in the parameterization of deep convection. While the frequency of occurrence of the deep convection with heavy precipitation regime from CAM3.5 forecasts decreases, the incidence of the low clouds with precipitation and congestus regimes increases. As a result, the parameterization change does not reduce the frequency of precipitating convection that is far too high relative to observations. For both versions of CAM, clouds and precipitation are overly reflective at the frequency of the CloudSat radar and thin clouds that could be detected by the lidar only are underestimated.