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Sample records for cam bromeliad aechmea

  1. Bimodal pollination system of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis involving hummingbirds and bees.

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    Schmid, S; Schmid, V S; Zillikens, A; Harter-Marques, B; Steiner, J

    2011-01-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of birds and insects as pollinators, we studied the floral biology of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Grisebach in the biome of the Atlantic rain forest, southern Brazil. On Santa Catarina Island, flowering extends from mid-September to the end of December, with diurnal anthesis. The reproductive system is obligatory xenogamy, thus pollinator-dependent. Flowers secrete 31.84 μl of nectar per day, with a mean sugar concentration of 23.2%. Highest nectar volume and sugar concentration occur at the beginning of anthesis. Most floral traits are characteristic for ornithophily, and nectar production appears to be adapted to the energy demand of hummingbirds. Continued secretion of the sucrose-dominated nectar attracts and binds visitors to inflorescences, strengthening trapline foraging behaviour. Experiments assessing seed set after single flower visits were performed with the most frequent visitors, revealing the hummingbird Thalurania glaucopis as the most effective pollen vector. In addition, bees are also functional pollinators, as substantiated by their high visitation frequency. We conclude that this pollination system is bimodal. Thus, there is redundancy in the pollination service provided by birds and bees, granting a high probability of successful reproduction in Ae. nudicaulis. PMID:21134086

  2. Micropropagation of the ornamental vulnerable bromeliads Aechmea blanchetiana and Aechmea distichantha Micropropagação das bromélias ornamentais vulneráveis Aechmea blanchetiana e Aechmea distichantha

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    Sandra Santa-Rosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aechmea blanchetiana and Aechmea distichantha are Brazilian native bromeliads with great ornamental value, although none of the species are produced commercially. Therefore, market demands are met through nature predatory exploitation. This study intended to (1 evaluate the in vitro seed germination of A. blanchetiana and A. distichantha and (2 establish micropropagation protocols for both species, aiming at producing plantlets for the market, as well as to germplasm in vitro conservation. Germination experiments were carried out in completely randomized designs with two treatments (presence and absence of light and seven and eight replications respectively for A. blanchetiana and A. distichantha. In vitro seedlings, produced under light conditions, were used as explants in the multiplication experiment (MS medium. The experimental design was again completely randomized, with treatments in factorial 2 (NAA concentrations; 0.05 and 0.5 μM x 2 (cytokines: BAP and KIN x 2 (cytokine levels: 2.2 and 4.4 μM + 1 (control with basal MS, without growth regulators, with ten replications per treatment. We evaluated fungal and bacterial contamination, total and cumulative seed germination and number of shoots per treatment in each subculture. We observed only fungal contamination and only in A. blanchetiana (14.0%. Light favored in vitro seed germination in both species (99 and 62% respectively for A. blanchetiana and A. distichantha. MS medium + 0.5 μM NAA + 2.2 μM BAP resulted in the highest multiplication rate for both species, with significant contrasts between this treatment and the control in both species (105.62 more shoots in A. blanchetiana; 223.80 in A. distichantha. BAP promoted the formation of rootless shoots, while kinetin favored the formation of roots rather than shoots. A. blanchetiana and A. distichantha showed 90 and 97% of survival respectively in plantlet acclimatization.Aechmea blanchetiana e Aechmea distichantha são brom

  3. Oil road effects on the anuran community of a high canopy tank bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina in the upper Amazon basin, Ecuador.

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    Shawn F McCracken

    Full Text Available Tropical forest canopies are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats on earth and one of the remaining relatively unexplored biotic frontiers. Epiphytic bromeliads provide microhabitat for a high diversity of organisms in tropical forest canopies and are considered a keystone resource. A number of amphibians inhabit these phytotelmata, yet their ecological role and status in forest canopies remains unknown. For this study, anurans were collected from an upper canopy tank bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina at ∼20-45 m (x¯ = 33 m above the forest floor. Bromeliads were sampled from trees located near trails in undisturbed primary rainforest and oil access roads in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of Amazonian Ecuador. We collected 95 anurans representing 10 species from 160 bromeliads in 32 trees. We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the effects of disturbance and habitat factors on the occupancy and abundance of anurans collected. Bromeliads in forest along oil roads had a lower occupancy and abundance of anurans than those in undisturbed forest, a somewhat unexpected result due to the intactness and quality of forest adjacent to the roads. Recorded habitat variables had no relationship with occupancy or abundance of anurans, and did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings reveal that even the minimal footprint of natural resource extraction operations, primarily roads, in rainforest environments can have significant negative impacts on the unique upper canopy anuran community. Based on these results, we recommend that natural resource development treat rainforest habitat as an offshore system where roads are not used, employ industry best practice guidelines, and current access roads be protected from colonization and further deforestation.

  4. Oil road effects on the anuran community of a high canopy tank bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina) in the upper Amazon basin, Ecuador.

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    McCracken, Shawn F; Forstner, Michael R J

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forest canopies are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats on earth and one of the remaining relatively unexplored biotic frontiers. Epiphytic bromeliads provide microhabitat for a high diversity of organisms in tropical forest canopies and are considered a keystone resource. A number of amphibians inhabit these phytotelmata, yet their ecological role and status in forest canopies remains unknown. For this study, anurans were collected from an upper canopy tank bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina) at ∼20-45 m (x¯ = 33 m) above the forest floor. Bromeliads were sampled from trees located near trails in undisturbed primary rainforest and oil access roads in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of Amazonian Ecuador. We collected 95 anurans representing 10 species from 160 bromeliads in 32 trees. We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the effects of disturbance and habitat factors on the occupancy and abundance of anurans collected. Bromeliads in forest along oil roads had a lower occupancy and abundance of anurans than those in undisturbed forest, a somewhat unexpected result due to the intactness and quality of forest adjacent to the roads. Recorded habitat variables had no relationship with occupancy or abundance of anurans, and did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings reveal that even the minimal footprint of natural resource extraction operations, primarily roads, in rainforest environments can have significant negative impacts on the unique upper canopy anuran community. Based on these results, we recommend that natural resource development treat rainforest habitat as an offshore system where roads are not used, employ industry best practice guidelines, and current access roads be protected from colonization and further deforestation.

  5. Correlation between citric acid and nitrate metabolisms during CAM cycle in the atmospheric bromeliad Tillandsia pohliana.

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    Freschi, Luciano; Rodrigues, Maria Aurineide; Tiné, Marco Aurélio Silva; Mercier, Helenice

    2010-12-15

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) confers crucial adaptations for plants living under frequent environmental stresses. A wide metabolic plasticity can be found among CAM species regarding the type of storage carbohydrate, organic acid accumulated at night and decarboxylating system. Consequently, many aspects of the CAM pathway control are still elusive while the impact of this photosynthetic adaptation on nitrogen metabolism has remained largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated a possible link between the CAM cycle and the nitrogen assimilation in the atmospheric bromeliad Tillandsia pohliana by simultaneously characterizing the diel changes in key enzyme activities and metabolite levels of both organic acid and nitrate metabolisms. The results revealed that T. pohliana performed a typical CAM cycle in which phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase phosphorylation seemed to play a crucial role to avoid futile cycles of carboxylation and decarboxylation. Unlike all other bromeliads previously investigated, almost equimolar concentrations of malate and citrate were accumulated at night. Moreover, a marked nocturnal depletion in the starch reservoirs and an atypical pattern of nitrate reduction restricted to the nighttime were also observed. Since reduction and assimilation of nitrate requires a massive supply of reducing power and energy and considering that T. pohliana lives overexposed to the sunlight, we hypothesize that citrate decarboxylation might be an accessory mechanism to increase internal CO₂ concentration during the day while its biosynthesis could provide NADH and ATP for nocturnal assimilation of nitrate. Therefore, besides delivering photoprotection during the day, citrate might represent a key component connecting both CAM pathway and nitrogen metabolism in T. pohliana; a scenario that certainly deserves further study not only in this species but also in other CAM plants that nocturnally accumulate citrate.

  6. A Tank Bromeliad Favors Spider Presence in a Neotropical Inundated Forest

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    Yann Hénaut; Bruno Corbara; Laurent Pélozuelo; Frédéric Azémar; Régis Céréghino; Bruno Herault; Alain Dejean

    2014-01-01

    Tank bromeliads are good models for understanding how climate change may affect biotic associations. We studied the relationships between spiders, the epiphytic tank bromeliad, Aechmea bracteata, and its associated ants in an inundated forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico, during a drought period while, exceptionally, this forest was dry and then during the flooding that followed. We compared spider abundance and diversity between 'Aechmea-areas' and 'control-areas' of the same surface area. We rec...

  7. Antioxidant content in two CAM bromeliad species as a response to seasonal light changes in a tropical dry deciduous forest.

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    González-Salvatierra, Claudia; Luis Andrade, José; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; García-Sosa, Karlina; Manuel Peña-Rodríguez, Luis

    2010-07-01

    Plants have evolved photoprotective mechanisms to limit photodamage; one of these mechanisms involves the biosynthesis of antioxidant metabolites to neutralize reactive oxygen species generated when plants are exposed to excess light. However, it is known that exposure of plants to conditions of extreme water stress and high light intensity results in their enhanced susceptibility to over-excitation of photosystem II and to photooxidative stress. In this investigation we used the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl reduction assay to conduct a broad survey of the effect of water availability and light exposure conditions on the antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts of two bromeliad species showing crassulacean acid metabolism. One of these was an epiphyte, Tillandsia brachycaulos, and the other a terrestrial species, Bromelia karatas. Both species were found growing wild in the tropical dry deciduous forest of Dzibilchaltún National Park, México. The microenvironment of T. brachycaulos and B. karatas experiences significant diurnal and seasonal light variations as well as changes in temperature and water availability. The results obtained showed that, for both bromeliads, increases in antioxidant activity occurred during the dry season, as a consequence of water stress and higher light conditions. Additionally, in T. brachycaulos there was a clear correlation between high light intensity conditions and the content of anthocyanins which accumulated below the leaf epidermis. This result suggests that the role of these pigments is as photoprotective screens in the leaves. The red coloration below the leaf epidermis of B. karatas was not due to anthocyanins but to other unidentified pigments.

  8. A Tank Bromeliad Favors Spider Presence in a Neotropical Inundated Forest.

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    Yann Hénaut

    Full Text Available Tank bromeliads are good models for understanding how climate change may affect biotic associations. We studied the relationships between spiders, the epiphytic tank bromeliad, Aechmea bracteata, and its associated ants in an inundated forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico, during a drought period while, exceptionally, this forest was dry and then during the flooding that followed. We compared spider abundance and diversity between 'Aechmea-areas' and 'control-areas' of the same surface area. We recorded six spider families: the Dipluridae, Ctenidae, Salticidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae and Linyphiidae among which the funnel-web tarantula, Ischnothele caudata, the only Dipluridae noted, was the most abundant. During the drought period, the spiders were more numerous in the Aechmea-areas than in the control-areas, but they were not obligatorily associated with the Aechmea. During the subsequent flooding, the spiders were concentrated in the A. bracteata patches, particularly those sheltering an ant colony. Also, a kind of specificity existed between certain spider taxa and ant species, but varied between the drought period and subsequent flooding. We conclude that climatic events modulate the relationship between A. bracteata patches and their associated fauna. Tank bromeliads, previously considered only for their ecological importance in supplying food and water during drought, may also be considered refuges for spiders during flooding. More generally, tank bromeliads have an important role in preserving non-specialized fauna in inundated forests.

  9. A Tank Bromeliad Favors Spider Presence in a Neotropical Inundated Forest.

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    Hénaut, Yann; Corbara, Bruno; Pélozuelo, Laurent; Azémar, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis; Herault, Bruno; Dejean, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Tank bromeliads are good models for understanding how climate change may affect biotic associations. We studied the relationships between spiders, the epiphytic tank bromeliad, Aechmea bracteata, and its associated ants in an inundated forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico, during a drought period while, exceptionally, this forest was dry and then during the flooding that followed. We compared spider abundance and diversity between 'Aechmea-areas' and 'control-areas' of the same surface area. We recorded six spider families: the Dipluridae, Ctenidae, Salticidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae and Linyphiidae among which the funnel-web tarantula, Ischnothele caudata, the only Dipluridae noted, was the most abundant. During the drought period, the spiders were more numerous in the Aechmea-areas than in the control-areas, but they were not obligatorily associated with the Aechmea. During the subsequent flooding, the spiders were concentrated in the A. bracteata patches, particularly those sheltering an ant colony. Also, a kind of specificity existed between certain spider taxa and ant species, but varied between the drought period and subsequent flooding. We conclude that climatic events modulate the relationship between A. bracteata patches and their associated fauna. Tank bromeliads, previously considered only for their ecological importance in supplying food and water during drought, may also be considered refuges for spiders during flooding. More generally, tank bromeliads have an important role in preserving non-specialized fauna in inundated forests. PMID:25494055

  10. Floral visitors of Aechmea constantinii (Mez) L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae) in a remnant of the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest

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    Petrúcio Alexandre Fonseca Rios J; uliana Braga da Silva; Flávia de Barros Prado Moura

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the floral visitors and potential pollinators of Aechmea constantinii (Mez) L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae), a bromeliad endemic to the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest. Reproductively-active individuals were observed systematically and their visitors were recorded and determined. The main recorded fl oral visitors were Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis ruber and Phaethornis pretrei (hummingbirds) which executed frontal functional floral visits in which they touched t...

  11. In vitro culture systems and acclimatization of Aechmea setigera Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae

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    Janaína Medeiros Vasconcelos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aechmea setigera is an endemic bromeliad from Amazon with ornamental potential. Bromeliads have been propagated by tissue culture. The consistency of the culture medium in vitro multiplication influences the rate of propagation. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate different culture systems with the use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP on in vitro propagation and the effect of different substrates in acclimatization of plantlets Aechmea setigera. In vitro germinated seedlings were inoculated in MS medium in liquid stationary, semisolid, double-phase systems, plus 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP in different concentrations (0, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8 and 17.7 μM. The ex vitro rooting and acclimatization were performed on substrate Plantmax Forest ®, vermiculite and sawdust eucalyptus. After three successive subcultures, the double-phase system showed a higher number of regenerated shoots in comparison to other systems. Acclimatization using the combination of commercial substrate Plantmax Forest ® and vermiculite favored the growth of micropropagated plants. The use of a culture medium double-phase without growth regulator, and the rooting in acclimatization are feasible strategy for the micropropagation of A. setigera. Indexação

  12. Reproductive biology and pollination of Aechmea distichantha Lem. (Bromeliaceae Biologia reprodutiva e polinização em Aechmea distichantha Lem. (Bromeliaceae

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    Gilson João Scrok

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive biology, including phenology, flower biology, pollination, and the reproductive system in the bromeliad Aechmea distichantha were studied in an Araucaria forest in the state of Paraná. Phenology and reproduction in terricolous plants were followed in October 2006 and May - October of 2007. Flowering peaked from June to September and fruiting was from June to October. Flower anthesis lasted one day. Flowers were pollinated the most by the hummingbird Stephanoxis lalandi and the most common butterfly visitor was Lychnuchoides ozias ozias. Nectar concentration declined during anthesis, while nectar volume was constant. Aechmea distichantha is self-compatible with 30-45% fruit formation in self-pollination tests. Sunlight influences reproduction: when controlling for bromeliad and inflorescence size, plants in sunlight produced more seeds per fruit than plants in the shade. Reproduction was also associated with inflorescence size when controlling for bromeliad size. That is, larger inflorescences in similar sized plants produced more flowers and more seeds per fruit.A biologia reprodutiva, incluindo fenologia, biologia floral, polinização e sistemas reprodutivos foram estudados em Floresta com Araucária no Paraná. A fenologia e reprodução de plantas terrícolas foram acompanhadas em outubro 2006 e de maio a outubro de 2007. O pico de floração ocorreu de junho a setembro e a frutificação de junho a outubro. A antese durou um dia. As flores foram polinizadas principalmente por Stephanoxis lalandi e a borboleta mais freqüente foi Lychnuchoides ozias ozias. A concetração de nectar declinou durante a antese, enquanto que o volume de néctar permaneceu constante. Aechmea distichantha é auto-compatível com 30-45% de frutificação nos testes de autopolinização. A luz solar influenciou a reprodução: quando controlados o tamanho das bromélias e das inflorescências, plantas no sol produziram mais sementes por frutos que

  13. Heterogeneity of terrestrial bromeliad colonies and regeneration of Acacia praecox (Fabaceae) in a humid-subtropical-Chaco forest, Argentina.

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    Barberis, Ignacio M; Lewis, Juan Pablo

    2005-01-01

    In several tropical and subtropical forests, plants of the understorey act as an ecological filter that differentially affects woody species regeneration. In convex sectors of the Schinopsis balansae (Anacardiaceae) forests of the Southeastern Chaco there are dense colonies of terrestrial bromeliads. These may influence forest regeneration by intercepting rain water and propagules in their tanks. Within colonies, the spatial distribution of bromeliads is clumped because their clonal growth leaves numerous internal gaps. In this study we describe the internal heterogeneity of three bromeliad colonies (plots) and analyze how this heterogeneity affects Acacia praecox regeneration (i.e. seedling recruitment and survival). In January 1996, we randomly placed three transects with 150 contiguous quadrats of 100 cm(2) in each plot. For each quadrat we recorded the type of floor cover (i.e. bromeliads, herbs, litter, or bare soil) and the presence of A. praecox seeds or seedlings. In July 1996 we relocated the transects and recorded seedling survival. Bromeliad colonies showed a high internal heterogeneity. Almost half of the 450 quadrats were covered by two terrestrial bromeliads. Aechmea distichantha was recorded in 81% of all quadrats with bromeliads, and Bromelia serra in the others. All quadrats with bromeliads were covered by litter. Half of them were occupied by the bases of bromeliads and the others were covered by their leaves. In contrast, where bromeliads were not present, soil surface was covered by litter in 83% and by herbaceous vegetation in 11% of the quadrats; very few quadrats were covered by bare soil. In January 1996, we recorded 127 seeds and 176 seedlings of A. praecox. Seed and seedling densities of A. praecox were similar in quadrats with and without bromeliads, but variability in seedling density of A. praecox was higher within than among plots. Seed density was higher in quadrats covered by bromeliad leaves than inside the tanks. Seedling survival

  14. Floral visitors of Aechmea constantinii (Mez L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae in a remnant of the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest

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    Petrúcio Alexandre Fonseca Rios J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the floral visitors and potential pollinators of Aechmea constantinii (Mez L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae, a bromeliad endemic to the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest. Reproductively-active individuals were observed systematically and their visitors were recorded and determined. The main recorded fl oral visitors were Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis ruber and Phaethornis pretrei (hummingbirds which executed frontal functional floral visits in which they touched the parts of the fl owers. Visits of Plebeia flavocincta, Plebeia sp., Trigona spinipes and Euglossa cordata (bees and Talides sergestu and Strymon ziba (butterflies were also recorded. In addition, two ants (Hymenoptera, Insecta, Formicidae were identifi ed in activity on the fl oral scapes and flowers of the studied bromeliad. The suggestion is made in the study that the A. constantinii is pollinated by hummingbirds since these birds executed direct frontal visits to the fl owers, touching reproductive structures. The identification of pollen on the bodies of bees and butterflies, as well as the contact executed by visitors, with the stigma of the visited flowers, offered an indication that these species may exert an influence as secondary pollinators of Aechmea constantinii.

  15. SEED MORPHOMETRY AND GERMINATION OF Aechmea costantinii (Mez L. B. Sm. (BROMELIACEAE

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    PETRÚCIO ALEXANDRE FONSECA RIOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential economic and environmental benefits brought by bromeliads production are significant. It is noteworthy that the high degree of degradation of some ecosystems as the Atlantic forest involve reduction of these species. This factor has been worsened by the elevated degree of endemism of these plants, e.g. Aechmea costantinii (Mez L. B. Sm., which is a high ornamental potential bromeliad but understudied. Thus, the present research aimed to characterize physical and morphological features of A. costantinii fruit and seeds, describing the different stages of post - seminal development, as well as evaluating seed germination behavior with respect to temperature and light. For this purpose, we used fruit and seeds freshly harvested from an Atlantic Forest fragment, located in the city of Maceió, Alagoas State, Brazil. Tests were carried out under a completely randomized design, in a 6x4 factorial scheme (temperature x light with four replications of 25 seeds. The polyspermic fruit are of tricarpellate/triloculate type and originated from inferior ovary, containing an average of 73 elliptical and mucilaginous seeds with basal embryo. The germination is epigeal - type and occurs in a great intensity and high speed at 35 °C, regardless light presence or quality.

  16. Relacionamento entre anfíbios anuros e bromélias da restinga de Regência, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brasil Relationship between anuran amphibians and bromeliads of the sandy coastal plain of Regência, linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    José Alberto P. Schineider

    Full Text Available Some anuran amphibians use the bromeliads during the entire life cycle and others only as diurnal shelter. At the sandy coastal plain of Linhares, State of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, 676 bromeliads were examined, of which 303 of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker L. B. Smith., 1955, 287 of Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb., 1864, and 86 of Vrisea procera (Mart. Ex Schult. f. Wittm, 1891. The morphometric and physical-chemical analysis of different bromeliads evidenced variations among plants. During the period sampled, six anuran species were found inside the plant axils. The hylid frog Phyllodytes luteolus (Wied, 1824 was the most abundant species (260 specimens. Its abundance was higher in the epiphyte bromeliad Vrisea procera. Phyllodytes luteolus had higher occurrences in bromeliads located at a transitional area between open and under the shrub vegetation. Specimens of Scinax alterus (Lutz, B., 1973 and Aparasphenodon brunoi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920, were more frequent mainly in transitional areas; Bufo granulosus Spix, 1824 occurred in open and transitional areas, whereas Gastrotheca fissipis (Boulenger, 1888 and Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 were found only in bromeliads located in open areas.

  17. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment

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    Ming Lei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions as a transcriptional activator, and the activation domain is located in the C-terminal region. The expression level of AfAP2-1 is higher in juvenile plants than in adult plants, and the AfAP2-1 transcript level was rapidly and transiently reduced in plants treated with exogenous ethylene. Overexpression of AfAP2-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in an extremely delayed flowering phenotype. These results suggested that AfAP2-1 responds to ethylene and is a putative age-dependent flowering regulator in A. fasciata.

  18. Suitability of Tillandsia usneoides and Aechmea fasciata for biomonitoring toxic elements under tropical seasonal climate.

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    Giampaoli, Patricia; Wannaz, Eduardo D; Tavares, Armando R; Domingos, Marisa

    2016-04-01

    Aechmea fasciata was evaluated for the first time as a biomonitor of toxic elements, in comparison to the biomonitoring capacity of Tillandsia usneoides, a well-established biomonitor bromeliad species. Plants of both species were exposed to air pollutants from industrial, urban, and agricultural sources, under the tropical seasonal climate, from June/2011 to April/2013, in five sites of São Paulo State, Brazil, for 8 consecutive exposure periods of 12 weeks each. The levels of essential and non-essential elements, including trace metals, were quantified at the end of each exposure. T. usneoides and A. fasciata indicated N, Fe, Zn, Co, Cr, and V as air contaminants in the studied sites, during wet and dry seasons and both species were recommended for qualitative biomonitoring. Concentration levels of N, Ca, S, Fe, Zn, Cu, B, Co, and Ni were significantly higher in T. usneoides than in A. fasciata. However, A. fasciata showed a higher effective retention capacity of Ni, Pb, V, Cu, Fe, Cr, and Co during field exposure, as indicated by the estimate of enrichment factor relative to basal concentrations. This species is more suitable for detecting the atmospheric pollution level of those metals than the T. usneoides. Both species indicated adequately the seasonal differences in the pollution levels of several elements, but T. usneoides presented higher ability for biomonitoring the spatial variations and for indicating more properly the sources of each element in the studied region than the A. fasciata. PMID:26844661

  19. Fauna fitotelmata en las bromelias Aechmea fendleri André y Aechmea fendleri y Aechmea fendler del Parque Nacional San Esteban, Venezuela stellata S c h u l t d e l P a r q u e N a c i o n a l S a n E s t e b a n , V

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    Jonathan Liria

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo caracteriza la asociación de mosquitos y otros invertebrados sobre bromelias del Parque Nacional San Esteban del Estado Carabobo, Venezuela. Se estudiaron 18 plantas de Aechmea fendleri (11) Aechmea fendleri (1 1) Aechmea fendleri y Hohenbergia stellata (7) durante las épocas lluvia (Septiembre 2004) y sequía (Marzo 2005). Fueron colectados un total de 2020 macroinvertebrados. Los taxa más importantes fueron las Familias Chironomidae (43%), Culicidae (25%) y Chaoboridae (6...

  20. Analysis of an alternative method for the study of bromeliad-associated fauna in plants with different foliar organization

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    Gerson A. Müller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of an alternative method of collection (by suction of water for the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae (Diptera, Scirtidae (Coleoptera and Coenagrionidae (Odonata in bromeliads with different foliar architecture in a restinga at Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, was studied. The alternative method was less efficient to collect Culicidae and Chironomidae (Wilcoxon test p 0.05 from Aechmea lindenii. This method was less efficient to collect insects of all groups from Vriesea friburgensis (Wilcoxon test p A eficiência do método alternativo de coleta (por sucção da água para o estudo de Culicidae e Chironomidae (Diptera, Scirtidae (Coleoptera e Coenagrionidae (Odonata em bromélias com diferentes estruturas foliares de restinga em Florianópolis, SC, Brasil, foi estudada. O método alternativo foi menos eficiente para coletar Culicidae e Chironomidae (teste de Wilcoxon p 0, 05 a partir de Aechmea lindenii. Esse foi menos eficiente para coletar insetos de todos os grupos a partir de Vriesea friburgensis (teste de Wilcoxon p < 0,05. O método alternativo se mostrou eficiente em estimar a diversidade desses insetos nas duas espécies de bromélias. A alta mobilidade das formas imaturas dos coleópteros e libélulas e a disponibilidade de apenas um tanque em Aechea lindenii, em contraste com as várias axilas e Vriesea friburgensis, facilitando a sucção destas formas imaturas provavelmente influenciaram os resultados. Os resultados indicam que o método de sucção não deve substituir o desmanche no estudo de Culicidae e Chironomidae; ele pode ser útil para a obtenção de formas imaturas de Scirtidae e Coenagrionidae em bromélias de um só tanque.

  1. Substratos alternativos ao xaxim na produção de bromélia ornamental Alternative substrates to fern tree fiber in the production of ornamental bromeliad

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    Shoey Kanashiro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar substratos alternativos para o cultivo da bromélia Aechmea fasciata (Lindley Baker, para substituir com eficiência as misturas formuladas com o xaxim Dicksonia sellowiana (Presl. Hook. Foram testados os substratos: casca de Pinus, casca de Eucalyptus, coxim, fibra de coco e xaxim, misturados com turfa e perlita, nas proporções 2:7:1, 5:4:1 e 8:1:1. O experimento foi realizado em condições de estufa com cobertura de polietileno, sombreada com tela a 70%. As bromélias foram cultivadas durante 435 dias, até o início do florescimento - estádio de comercialização. As variáveis analisadas foram as massas de matéria seca de: folhas, raiz, inflorescência, escapo floral e caule; além da massa de matéria seca total e a qualidade comercial. Os substratos formulados com xaxim ou casca de Pinus, nas proporções 2:7:1, 5:4:1 e 8:1:1, e com casca de Eucalyptus, fibra de coco ou coxim, na proporção 2:7:1, foram as misturas que apresentaram os melhores resultados. Os substratos formulados com casca de Eucalyptus, fibra de coco ou coxim, com 10% de turfa e 10% de perlita, na proporção 8:1:1, apresentaram os piores resultados.The objective of this study was to evaluate alternative substrates for the cultivation of the bromeliad Aechmea fasciata (Lindley Baker, to substitute the formulated mixtures with fern tree fiber from Dicksonia sellowiana (Presl. Hook. Tested substrates were: Pinus bark, Eucalyptus bark, coxim (made of coconut fiber, coir or fern tree fiber, mixed with peat and perlite, in the proportions 2:7:1, 5:4:1 and 8:1:1. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse covered with polyethylene and shaded with shade cloth 70%. The bromeliads were cultivated during 435 days, until the beginning of the flowering, when they were suitable for commercialization. The evaluated parameters were dry masses of leaf, root, inflorescence, floral scape, and stem, besides total dry mass and the commercial

  2. Species-Specific Effects of Ant Inhabitants on Bromeliad Nutrition.

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    Ana Z Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Predator activities may lead to the accumulation of nutrients in specific areas of terrestrial habitats where they dispose of prey carcasses. In their feeding sites, predators may increase nutrient availability in the soil and favor plant nutrition and growth. However, the translocation of nutrients from one habitat to another may depend on predator identity and diet, as well as on the amount of prey intake. Here we used isotopic (15N and physiological methods in greenhouse experiments to evaluate the effects of the identity of predatory ants (i.e., the consumption of prey and nest sites on the nutrition and growth of the bromeliad Quesnelia arvensis. We showed that predatory ants with protein-based nutrition (i.e., Odontomachus hastatus, Gnamptogenys moelleri improved the performance of their host bromeliads (i.e., increased foliar N, production of soluble proteins and growth. On the other hand, the contribution of Camponotus crassus for the nutritional status of bromeliads did not differ from bromeliads without ants, possibly because this ant does not have arthropod prey as a preferred food source. Our results show, for the first time, that predatory ants can translocate nutrients from one habitat to another within forests, accumulating nutrients in their feeding sites that become available to bromeliads. Additionally, we highlight that ant contribution to plant nutrition may depend on predator identity and its dietary requirements. Nest debris may be especially important for epiphytic and terrestrial bromeliads in nutrient-poor environments.

  3. Bromeliad-living spiders improve host plant nutrition and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Mazzafera, Paulo; Vasconcellos-Neto, Joao; Trivelin, Paulo C O

    2006-04-01

    Although bromeliads are believed to obtain nutrients from debris deposited by animals in their rosettes, there is little evidence to support this assumption. Using stable isotope methods, we found that the Neotropical jumping spider Psecas chapoda (Salticidae), which lives strictly associated with the terrestrial bromeliad Bromelia balansae, contributed 18% of the total nitrogen of its host plant in a greenhouse experiment. In a one-year field experiment, plants with spiders produced leaves 15% longer than plants from which the spiders were excluded. This is the first study to show nutrient provisioning in a spider-plant system. Because several animal species live strictly associated with bromeliad rosettes, this type of facultative mutualism involving the Bromeliaceae may be more common than previously thought.

  4. Bromeliad catchments as habitats for methanogenesis in tropical rainforest canopies

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    Shana K. Goffredi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical epiphytic plants within the family Bromeliaceae are unusual in that they possess foliage capable of retaining water and impounded material. This creates an acidic (pH 3.5-6.5 and anaerobic (< 1 ppm O2 environment suspended in the canopy. Results from a Costa Rican rainforest show that most bromeliads (n = 75/86 greater than ~20 cm in plant height or ~4-5 cm tank depth, showed presence of methanogens within the lower anoxic horizon of the tank. Archaea were dominated by methanogens (77-90% of recovered ribotypes and community structure, although variable, was generally comprised of a single type, closely related to either hydrogenotrophic Methanoregula or Methanocella, a specific clade of aceticlastic Methanosaeta, or Methanosarcina. Juvenile bromeliads, or those species, such as Guzmania, with shallow tanks, generally did not possess methanogens, as assayed by PCR specific for methanogen 16S rRNA genes, nor did artificial catchments (~ 100 ml volume, in place 6-12 months prior to sample collection. Methanogens were not detected in soil (n = 20, except in one case, in which the dominant ribotype was different from nearby bromeliads. Recovery of methyl coenzyme M reductase genes supported the occurrence of hydrogenotrophic and aceticlastic methanogens within bromeliad tanks, as well as the trend, via QPCR analysis of mcrA, of increased methanogenic capacity with increased plant height. Methane production rates of up to 300 nmol CH4 ml tank water -1 day-1 were measured in microcosm experiments. These results suggest that bromeliad-associated archaeal communities may play an important role in the cycling of carbon in neotropical forests.

  5. Host trait combinations drive abundance and canopy distribution of atmospheric bromeliad assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Cleber Juliano Neves; Dyonisio, Júlio César; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Epiphytes are strongly dependent on the conditions created by their host's traits and a certain degree of specificity is expected between them, even if these species are largely abundant in a series of tree hosts of a given environment, as in the case of atmospheric bromeliads. Despite their considerable abundance in these environments, we hypothesize that stochasticity alone cannot explain the presence and abundance of atmospheric bromeliads on host trees, since host traits could have a greater influence on the establishment of these bromeliads. We used secondary and reforested seasonal forests and three distinct silvicultures to test whether species richness, phylogenetic diversity and functional diversity of trees can predict the differential presence, abundance and distribution of atmospheric bromeliads on hosts. We compared the observed parameters of their assemblage with null models and performed successive variance hierarchic partitions of abundance and distribution of the assemblage to detect the influence of multiple traits of the tree hosts. Our results do not indicate direct relationships between the abundance of atmospheric bromeliads and phylogenetic or functional diversity of trees, but instead indicate that bromeliads occurred on fewer tree species than expected by chance. We distinguished functional tree patterns that can improve or reduce the abundance of atmospheric bromeliads, and change their distribution on branches and trunk. While individual tree traits are related to increased abundance, species traits are related to the canopy distribution of atmospheric bromeliad assemblages. A balance among these tree functional patterns drives the atmospheric bromeliad assemblage of the forest patches. PMID:26888951

  6. Leaf anatomy and its contribution to the systematics of Aechmea subgenus Macrochordion (de Vriese) Baker (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Ana Paula G de; Vieira, Ana Claudia M; Wendt, Tânia

    2012-12-01

    The leaf anatomy of the species Aechmea subgenus Macrochordion was analyzed to obtain valuable data on their taxonomic delimitation and to identify anatomical adaptations to their respective habitats and habits. All leaves of these species are hypostomatic, and present: peltate trichomes on both surfaces; stomata sunk in epidermal depressions; small epidermal cells with thick walls and inclusions of silica bodies; a mechanical hypodermis; an aquiferous parenchyma; chlorenchyma with fibrous clusters and air channels; and vascular bundles surrounded by a parenchymatic sheath and a cap of fibers. The results are evaluated within an adaptive and taxonomic context. Variations in hypodermic thickening, amount of water parenchyma, position of the air channels and shape of the cells filling the air channels are useful for delimiting groups of species, strengthening the relationships suggested by their external morphology.

  7. Revisión del género Aechmea (Bromeliaceae para Colombia

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    Betancur Betancur Julio César

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la lista de las especies de Aechmea (Bromeliaceae: Bromelioideae para Colombia, en la que se incluyen algunos comentarios taxonómicos y sobre su distribución geográfica y altitudinal. Se registran 42 especies para Colombia, de las cuales tres son nuevas para la ciencia, siete son endémicas (A. anomala, A. nivea, A. stenosepala, A. subpetiolata y las tres especies nuevas y tres son nuevos registros para el país (A. politii, A. retusa y A. tocantina. La mayor parte de las especies se concentran en la región amazónica (con el 61 % de las
    especies y andina (54 %, así como en las subregiones llanura amazónica (54 %, vertiente magdalenense (34
    %, otras serranías de la Amazonía (32 % y la vertiente oriental andina (29 %. Por otra parte, las especies se
    distribuyen entre 0 y 2.400 m de altitud, pero la mayor riqueza se encontró entre 0 y 600 m, punto a partir
    del cual se presenta una disminución gradual en el número de especies con respecto a la altitud. Así, Colombia
    se convierte en el segundo país del mundo con más especies de Aechmea, después de Brasil, la mayor parte
    de las cuales prefieren los bosques húmedos de tierras bajas.

  8. Macroinvertebrate fauna associated to the bromeliad Vriesea inflata of the Atlantic Forest (Paraná State, southern Brazil

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    Mestre Luiz Augusto M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulated water inside the bromeliad leaf rosette is a microhabitat for several animal and plant species. In this study, the associated fauna of bromeliad Vriesea inflata was analyzed related to seasons, bromeliad height in relation to the ground and environmental factors. The samples were seasonally collected in Quatro Barras (a municipality of Paraná State, southern Brazil between March 1996 and March 1997. The associated fauna was very rich and it was grouped in 23 taxonomic groups, with a dominance of Coleoptera Scirtidae, Diptera and Hymenoptera Formicidae. We found higher abundance of macroinvertebrates in terrestrial bromeliads during the spring/1996 and in epiphyte bromeliads in the autumn/1997.

  9. Fauna fitotelmata en las bromelias Aechmea fendleri André y Aechmea fendleri y Aechmea fendler del Parque Nacional San Esteban, Venezuela stellata S c h u l t d e l P a r q u e N a c i o n a l S a n E s t e b a n , V

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    Jonathan Liria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo caracteriza la asociación de mosquitos y otros invertebrados sobre bromelias del Parque Nacional San Esteban del Estado Carabobo, Venezuela. Se estudiaron 18 plantas de Aechmea fendleri (11 Aechmea fendleri (1 1 Aechmea fendleri y Hohenbergia stellata (7 durante las épocas lluvia (Septiembre 2004 y sequía (Marzo 2005. Fueron colectados un total de 2020 macroinvertebrados. Los taxa más importantes fueron las Familias Chironomidae (43%, Culicidae (25% y Chaoboridae (6% del Orden Diptera, y Scyrtidae (5% del Orden Coleoptera. En Culicidae las especies más abundan- tes fueron: Culex consolador (31%, Cx. neglectus (27% y Wyeomyia celaenocephala (17%. La mayor abundancia y riqueza se encontró en la época de sequía, con el aumento de diversidad en Culicidae. La diversidad y equitabilidad de macroinvertebrados fue mayor H. stellata , pero similares entre estaciones para las comunidades de A. fendleri y A. fendleri y A. fendleri H. stellata .

  10. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro - Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

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    Márcio Goulart Mocellin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07% and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18% were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.

  11. Leaf anatomy and its contribution to the systematics of Aechmea subgenus Macrochordion (de Vriese Baker (Bromeliaceae

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    Ana Paula G. de Faria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The leaf anatomy of the species Aechmea subgenus Macrochordion was analyzed to obtain valuable data on their taxonomic delimitation and to identify anatomical adaptations to their respective habitats and habits. All leaves of these species are hypostomatic, and present: peltate trichomes on both surfaces; stomata sunk in epidermal depressions; small epidermal cells with thick walls and inclusions of silica bodies; a mechanical hypodermis; an aquiferous parenchyma; chlorenchyma with fibrous clusters and air channels; and vascular bundles surrounded by a parenchymatic sheath and a cap of fibers. The results are evaluated within an adaptive and taxonomic context. Variations in hypodermic thickening, amount of water parenchyma, position of the air channels and shape of the cells filling the air channels are useful for delimiting groups of species, strengthening the relationships suggested by their external morphology.A anatomia foliar de espécies de Aechmea subgênero Macrochordion foi analisada visando obter caracteres úteis para sua delimitação taxonômica e identificar adaptações anatômicas aos seus respectivos habitats e hábitos. Todas as folhas são hipoestomáticas e apresentam: tricomas peltados nas duas superfícies; estômatos inseridos em depressões da epiderme; células epidérmicas pequenas, com paredes espessadas e inclusões de corpos de sílica; hipoderme mecânica; parênquima aquífero; clorênquima com feixes de fibras e canais de aeração; feixes vasculares envolvidos por bainha parenquimática e calotas de fibras. Os resultados são avaliados dentro de um contexto adaptativo e taxonômico. Variações no espessamento da hipoderme, na quantidade de parênquima aquífero, na posição dos canais de aeração e na forma das células que preenchem os canais de aeração mostraram-se úteis para separar grupos de espécies, corroborando relações de similaridade apontadas pela morfologia externa.

  12. Estrutura foliar de espécies de Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae) do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Leaf anatomy of Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae) of São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Lúcia Proença; Maria das Graças Sajo

    2004-01-01

    O estudo da estrutura foliar de Aechmea bromeliifolia (Rudge) Baker, A. distichantha Lem., A. ornata Baker, A. nudicaulis (L.) Griseb., A. pectinata Baker, A. coelestis (K. Koch) E. Morren, A. cylindrata Lindm. e A. gracilis Lindm. mostrou que, em todas as espécies, as folhas são hipoestomáticas e revestidas por células epidérmicas de paredes sinuosas e portadoras de corpos silicosos. Apresentam também hipoderme mecânica e aqüífera, escamas nas duas superfícies e canais de aeração, interrompi...

  13. Microdrile Oligochaeta in bromeliad pools of a Honduran cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, Rüdiger M; Jocque, Merlijn; Collado, Rut

    2015-04-17

    Phytotelmata, or plant-held water bodies, often house complex aquatic invertebrate communities. Microdrile oligochaetes (Clitellata, Annelida) are known to be part of that community, but specimens are rarely identified to species level. Here we report three species of Enchytraeidae and three species of Naididae from a collection sampled in phytotelms of bromeliads in Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Two species of enchytraeids are new to science. Bryodrilus hondurensis sp. nov. is distinguished from other members of the genus by the high number of ventral chaetae, up to 11 per bundle. The genus is Holarctic and this is the southernmost record so far of a Bryodrilus species. Hemienchytraeus phytotelmatus sp. nov. is distinguished by a combination of characters, among which the huge spermathecae and seminal vesicles are most conspicuous. The genus is common in tropical and subtropical soils around the world. A third species of enchytraeids in the collection, Cernosvitoviella atrata (Bretscher), is redescribed, together with three known species of Naididae, Pristina jenkinae (Stephenson), Pristina osborni (Walton) and Pristina terrena Collado & Schmelz. Presence of ingested debris and humus in the intestine of most specimens suggests that the collected animals live and reproduce in the phytotelms. We provide a list of oligochaete species recorded so far from bromeliad pools in Central and South America.

  14. Microhabitat use and spatial distribution in Picado’s Bromeliad Treefrog, Isthmohyla picadoi (Anura, Hylidae

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    Adam M. M. Stuckert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Isthmohyla picadoi is a Neotropical hylid frog found in upper humid montane forests of Costa Rica and Panama. The species is of particular interest because it continues to persist in an area in which the amphibian community has otherwise been decimated by the pathogenic fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Ground search, ladder climbing, and tree climbing techniques were used to locate 32 individuals; including adult males and females, juveniles, andmetamorphosing frogs. The majority of frogs were found in bromeliads, although some individuals were found on plants of the Euphorbiaceae, Musaceae, and Heliconiaceae families. Most frogs were found in larger bromeliads (45 cm or wider. There was a positive correlation between SUL and bromeliad width within the population but not within maturity classes (adult males, adult females, all adults, nonmetamorphosingjuveniles, suggesting that juvenile and adult frogs differ in bromeliad usage. Ranges of SUL and body weight in this particular population are much greater than those reported in previous species accounts.

  15. Leaf Hydraulic Conductance for a Tank Bromeliad: Axial and Radial Pathways for Moving and Conserving Water

    OpenAIRE

    North, Gretchen B.; Lynch, Frank H.; Maharaj, Franklin D. R.; Phillips, Carly A.; Woodside, Walter T.

    2013-01-01

    Epiphytic plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata wer...

  16. Leaf hydraulic conductance for a tank bromeliad: axial and radial pathways for moving and conserving water

    OpenAIRE

    North, Gretchen B.; Lynch, Frank H.; Maharaj, Franklin D. R.; Phillips, Carly A.; Woodside, Walter T.

    2013-01-01

    Plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata were investig...

  17. Aquatic invertebrate communities in tank bromeliads: how well do classic ecological patterns apply?

    OpenAIRE

    Jocque, Merlijn; Field, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) often occur in high densities in the Neotropics and represent a key freshwater habitat in montane forests, housing quite complex invertebrate communities. We tested the extent to which there are species richness–altitude, richness–environment, richness–size, richness–habitat complexity and richness–isolation relationships for the aquatic invertebrate communities from 157 bromeliads in Cusuco National Park, Honduras. We found that invertebrate species richness an...

  18. Forest strata drive spatial structure of bacterial and archaeal communities and microbial methane cycling in neotropical bromeliad wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Guntars; Brandt, Franziska; Conrad, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Several thousands of tank bromeliads per hectare of neotropical forest create a unique wetland ecosystem that harbors diverse communities of archaea and bacteria and emit substantial amounts of methane. We studied spatial distribution of archaeal and bacterial communities, microbial methane cycling and their environmental drivers in tank bromeliad wetlands. We selected tank bromeliads of different species and functional types (terrestrial and canopy bromeliads) in a neotropical montane forest of Southern Ecuador and sampled the organic tank slurry. Archaeal and bacterial communities were characterized using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Illumina MiSeq sequencing, respectively, and linked with physico-chemical tank-slurry properties. Additionally, we performed tank-slurry incubations to measure methane production potential, stable carbon isotope fractionation and pathway of methane formation. Archaeal and bacterial community composition in bromeliad wetlands was dominated by methanogens and by Alphaproteobacteria, respectively, and did not differ between species but between functional types. Hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales were the dominant methanogens among all bromeliads but the relative abundance of aceticlastic Methanosaetaceae increased in terrestrial bromeliads. Complementary, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant pathway of methane formation but the relative contribution of aceticlastic methanogenesis increased in terrestrial bromeliads and led to a concomitant increase in total methane production. Rhodospirillales were characteristic for canopy bromeliads, Planctomycetales and Actinomycetalis for terrestrial bromeliads. While nitrogen concentration and pH explained 32% of the archaeal community variability, 29% of the bacterial community variability was explained by nitrogen, acetate and propionate concentrations. Our study demonstrates that bromeliad functional types, associated with different forest strata

  19. VARIABLE-THROW CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsil, E.C.; Robinson, E.Y.

    1963-07-16

    A variable-throw cam comprising inner and outer eccentric sleeves which are adjustably locked together is described. The cam throw is varied by unlocking the inner and outer sleeves, rotating the outer sleeve relative to the inner one until the desired throw is obtained, and locking the sleeves together again. The cam is useful in applications wherein a continuously-variable throw is required, e.g., ram-and-die pressing operations, cyclic fatigue testing of materials, etc. (AEC)

  20. Spatial heterogeneity and the distribution of bromeliad pollinators in the Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varassin, Isabela Galarda; Sazima, Marlies

    2012-08-01

    Interactions between plants and their pollinators are influenced by environmental heterogeneity, resulting in small-scale variations in interactions. This may influence pollinator co-existence and plant reproductive success. This study, conducted at the Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia (EBSL), a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, investigated the effect of small-scale spatial variations on the interactions between bromeliads and their pollinators. Overall, hummingbirds pollinated 19 of 23 bromeliad species, of which 11 were also pollinated by bees and/or butterflies. However, spatial heterogeneity unrelated to the spatial location of plots or bromeliad species abundance influenced the presence of pollinators. Hummingbirds were the most ubiquitous pollinators at the high-elevation transect, with insect participation clearly declining as transect elevation increased. In the redundancy analysis, the presence of the hummingbird species Phaethornis eurynome, Phaethornis squalidus, Ramphodon naevius, and Thalurania glaucopis, and the butterfly species Heliconius erato and Heliconius nattereri in each plot was correlated with environmental factors such as bromeliad and tree abundance, and was also correlated with horizontal diversity. Since plant-pollinator interactions varied within the environmental mosaics at the study site, this small-scale environmental heterogeneity may relax competition among pollinators, and may explain the high diversity of bromeliads and pollinators generally found in the Atlantic Forest.

  1. Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes from Atlantic forest in Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil (Diptera, Culicidae, with new records for the State of Santa Catarina Mosquitos associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil (Diptera, Culicidae, com novos registros para o Estado de Santa Catarina

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    Gerson Azulim Müller

    Full Text Available Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Atlantic Forest in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, were studied, examining plants of Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra and Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii at secondary Atlantic rain forest, and A. lindenii and Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith at "restinga" per month, during 12 months. No immature forms of mosquitoes were collected from A. lindenii in the secondary forest. Collections obtained 368 immature mosquitoes, none of them from A. lindenii from rain forest. Culex (Microculex spp. constituted 79.8% of the total, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia spp. 17.93%, and Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii (Dyar & Knab, 1908 only 1.36%. The study shows the great predominance of species of medical importance not yet proved, and the small number of immature stages of anopheline mosquitoes. The rainfall, but not the mean temperatures, significantly influenced the quantity of mosquitoes from V. philippocoburgi. Significant differences between the quantities of immature forms of all the bromeliad species were found, and the shape of the plants could be important to the abundance of mosquitoes. All six species of Cx. (Microculex found are recorded for the first time in the State of Santa Catarina, and all six species of Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia are recorded for the first time in bromeliads in this state.Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, no Estado de Santa Catarina, foram estudados. Foram examinadas mensalmente plantas de Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra e Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii de floresta atlântica pluvial ombrófila e A. lindenii e Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith de restinga, durante 12 meses. As coletas resultaram em 368 formas imaturas de mosquitos, sendo que nenhuma foi coletada em A. lindenii de mata ombrófila. Culex (Microculex spp. constituíram 79,8% do total

  2. CAM and NK Cells

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    Kazuyoshi Takeda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that tumor development, outgrowth and metastasis are under the surveillance of the immune system. Although both innate and acquired immune systems play roles, innate immunity is the spearhead against tumors. Recent studies have revealed the critical role of natural killer (NK cells in immune surveillance and that NK cell activity is considerably influenced by various agents, such as environmental factors, stress, foods and drugs. Some of these NK cell stimulants have been used in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM since ancient times. Therefore, the value of CAM should be re-evaluated from this point of view. In this review, we overview the intimate correlation between NK cell functions and CAM agents, and discuss possible underlying mechanisms mediating this. In particular, neuro-immune crosstalk and receptors for CAM agents are the most important and interesting candidates for such mechanisms.

  3. PreCam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allam, Sahar S. [Fermilab; Tucker, Douglas L. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) will be taking the next step in probing the properties of Dark Energy and in understanding the physics of cosmic acceleration. A step towards the photometric calibration of DES is to have a quick, bright survey in the DES footprint (PreCam), using a pre-production set of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) CCDs and a set of 100 mm×100 mm DES filters. The objective of the PreCam Survey is to create a network of calibrated DES grizY standard stars that will be used for DES nightly calibrations and to improve the DES global relative calibrations. Here, we describe the first year of PreCam observation, results, and photometric calibrations.

  4. CAMS achievements in 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Oe.; Fantoni, P.; Iguchi, Y.; Meyer, G.; Soerensen, A.; Dyck, C. van

    1996-01-01

    CAMS (Computerized Accident Management Support) is a system being developed as a joint research activity at the Halden Reactor Project with additional financing from the Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) and the Nordic NKS/RAK-2 project. Three types of users are envisaged: the staff in the control room, the staff in the technical support centre and the staff at a national emergency centre. It is still an experimental system. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate kindly accepted to test CAMS at a safety exercise on the 4th of May, 1995. CAMS is designed assuming automatic data transfer from the plant. Missing the data link, a simulator running in the next room was updated now and then with data received by phone. As seen from CAMS, it did not matter if the data came from a fake plant or from a real plant, except that the data were delayed. Overall, it seemed that CAMS can be a very important tool for a national authority. A data link from the plant would increase its usefulness. Several comments on design features were collected and will be used to improve the system. The model needs more inputs to control the main parameters, and a larger repertoire of fault conditions should be put into the model. In the second half of 1995 the work on CAMS has concentrated upon designing new modules for signal validation, tracking simulation and state identification. This will provide better capabilities for on-line monitoring and assessment of the plant state. Further, it has been proposed to introduce Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) to assist in risk monitoring. A first prototype has been made on a personal computer showing the main features of such a PSA module. (au).

  5. Germinação de Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb. (Bromeliaceae em diferentes substratos alternativos ao pó de xaxim = Germination of Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb. (Bromeliaceae in different substracts as alternatives to Dicksonia sellowiana Hook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Anacleto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a germinação das sementes de Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb. (Bromeliaceae. As tentativas de produção desta espécie, a partir de sementes, têm ocorrido de forma empírica, utilizando-se substrato à base de pó de xaxim (Dicksonia sellowiana Hook., que tem restrições de uso, por estar ameaçada de extinção. Foram testados cinco tipos alternativos de substratos de fácil acessibilidade: húmus de minhoca, areia, fibra de casca de coco, serapilheira e Plantmax®. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e 50 sementes por unidade experimental, àtemperatura ambiente, em viveiro rústico, coberto com sombrite (70%. Leituras semanais foram efetuadas, durante 70 dias. A melhor performance, como substituto alternativo, foi a da serapilheira, que apresentou valores de germinação de 79,5% e sobrevivência de 97%,estatisticamente similares aos obtidos com xaxim (78%; 94,75%; Tukey, p For this study, the germination of Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb. (Bromeliaceae was evaluated. Production attempts from seeds for this species have taken place in an empirical form, using substratebased on xaxim (Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. powder, the use of which is currently restricted, as it is an endangered species. Five easily accessible alternative substratum were tested: worm humus, sand, coconut shell fiber, forest litter, and Plantmax®. The experiment wasconducted using a completely randomized design, with four replications and 50 seeds per experimental unit, at room temperature in a rustic nursery covered with 70% shade cloth. Weekly readings were performed during 70 days. The best alternative as a substitute toxaxim was forest litter, due to its germinability of 79.5% and survival rates of 97%, significantly similar to xaxim (78%; 94.75%; Tukey p < 0,05. Additionally, this product features positive characteristics such as high availability, low cost, and easy recycling.

  6. Estrutura foliar de espécies de Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Leaf anatomy of Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Lúcia Proença

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da estrutura foliar de Aechmea bromeliifolia (Rudge Baker, A. distichantha Lem., A. ornata Baker, A. nudicaulis (L. Griseb., A. pectinata Baker, A. coelestis (K. Koch E. Morren, A. cylindrata Lindm. e A. gracilis Lindm. mostrou que, em todas as espécies, as folhas são hipoestomáticas e revestidas por células epidérmicas de paredes sinuosas e portadoras de corpos silicosos. Apresentam também hipoderme mecânica e aqüífera, escamas nas duas superfícies e canais de aeração, interrompidos por diafragmas de células braciformes, no parênquima clorofiliano. A ocorrência restrita de algumas características permitiu elaborar uma chave de identificação para os representantes estudados. Tais características incluem a ocorrência de grupos de fibras extravasculares, de parênquima paliçádico adaxial, de extensão de bainha nos feixes vasculares de menor calibre, de obstrução nas câmaras subestomáticas, além de variação na espessura da hipoderme aqüífera e no número de células que formam o pedículo das escamas.The leaf anatomy of Aechmea bromeliifolia (Rudge Baker, A. distichantha Lem., A. ornata Baker, A. nudicaulis (L. Griseb., A. pectinata Baker, A. coelestis (K. Koch E. Morren, A. cylindrata Lindm. and A. gracilis Lindm. was studied. All the leaves are hypostomatic and they present: sinuous walls epidermal cells with silica bodies; aquiferous and mechanical hypodermis; scales on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces; and chlorenchyma with air canals filled with braciforms cells. The restricted occurence of some features allowed us to elaborate a identification key for the studied species. Such characteristics include the presence of extravascular fibrous groups; adaxial palisade parenchyma; smaller vascular bundles with conspicuous extensions of the bundle sheath; oclusion in the substomatic chambers; variation in the thickness of the aquiferous hypodermis, and in the number of stalks cells of the scales.

  7. Spatial variation in the strength of mutualism between a jumping spider and a terrestrial bromeliad: Evidence from the stable isotope 15N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Q.; Vasconcellos-Neto, João; Trivelin, Paulo C. O.

    2008-05-01

    Psecas chapoda, a neotropical jumping spider strictly associated with the terrestrial bromeliad Bromelia balansae in cerrados and semi-deciduous forests in South America, effectively contributes to plant nutrition and growth. In this study, our goal was to investigate if spider density caused spatial variations in the strength of this spider-plant mutualism. We found a positive significant relationship between spider density and δ15N values for bromeliad leaves in different forest fragments. Open grassland Bromeliads were associated with spiders and had higher δ15N values compared to forest bromeliads. Although forest bromeliads had no association with spiders their total N concentrations were higher. These results suggest that bromeliad nutrition is likely more litter-based in forests and more spider-based in open grasslands. This study is one of the few to show nutrient provisioning and conditionality in a spider-plant system.

  8. Variações na morfoanatomia foliar de Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae sob distintas condições ambientais Leaf morphoanatomy variation in Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae under distinct environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Heinig Voltolini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae-Bromelioideae ocorre em restingas e Floresta Pluvial de Encosta Atlântica em Santa Catarina e Nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul, BR. Pode ser encontrada total ou parcialmente exposta à irradiação solar e em distintas formas de vida - terrícola, rupícola e epifítica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar morfoanatomicamente às características de folhas de A. lindenii var. lindenii em distintas condições ambientais. Foram coletadas, na Ilha de Santa Catarina (Florianópolis, SC, folhas de plantas terrícolas em restinga herbácea (alta irradiação solar, rupícolas de costões rochosos (alta irradiação solar, terrícolas e epifíticas de sub-bosques (baixa irradiação solar de restinga arbórea e rupícolas de sub-bosque (baixa irradiação solar de Floresta Pluvial de Encosta Atlântica. Foram mensurados comprimento, largura, área da lâmina e bainha foliar, densidade estomática, comprimento e largura das células-guarda, espessura total e das estruturas constituintes na lâmina foliar. As características anatômicas qualitativas são semelhantes nas distintas condições analisadas. A baixa irradiação solar determina maior expansão da área foliar, decorrente do alongamento da lâmina. Lâmina e bainha foliares têm maior largura sob alta irradiação. A densidade estomática foi maior em folhas de plantas sob alta irradiação solar. A espessura total da lâmina foliar foi menor em plantas terrícolas sob alta irradiação, porém não mostrou diferenças estatísticas significativas entre as outras condições.Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae-Bromelioideae occurs in restingas and hillside Atlantic rain forest in Santa Catarina and northeastern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It is found totally or partially exposed to solar radiation and in different life forms - terricolous, rupicolous and epiphytes. The aim of this work was to compare

  9. First records of pollen rain in bromeliad tanks in an area of caatinga in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Mirella de Souza Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Species of Bromeliaceae have leaves in a spiral configuration. Because of the shape of the rosette thus formed and the imbricate configuration of the leaf sheaths, there is usually a tank in which rainwater and other components of the environment, including pollen grains, accumulate, making such tanks effective pollen rain collectors. The objective of this study was to use bromeliads as a tool to increase knowledge about the vegetation of the caatinga (shrublands in the Canudos region of the state of Bahia, located in the semi-arid zone of Brazil, as well as to analyze the dynamics of pollen dispersal and deposition. To that end, we collected samples of the water from the tanks of bromeliads at the Canudos Biological Station. A total of 149 pollen types were detected, 88 of which could be identified botanically. The families that were the most well-represented among the pollen types were Fabaceae (with 25, Asteraceae (with 9, and Euphorbiaceae (with 7. Ten pollen types were presented as potential indicators of caatinga vegetation. We conclude that tank bromeliads are useful for gathering information about pollen rain and pollen dynamics, as well as about the transport and deposition of pollen in the caatinga.

  10. Hydraulic involute cam actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Lonnie J.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-11-01

    Mechanical joints are provided in which the angle between a first coupled member and a second coupled member may be varied by mechanical actuators. In some embodiments the angle may be varied around a pivot axis in one plane and in some embodiments the angle may be varied around two pivot axes in two orthogonal planes. The joints typically utilize a cam assembly having two lobes with an involute surface. Actuators are configured to push against the lobes to vary the rotation angle between the first and second coupled member.

  11. Bromeliad ornamental species: conservation issues and challenges related to commercialization - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i1.7314

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Mitchell

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bromeliads grow almost exclusively in the New World tropics and subtropics, mainly in South America in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (ca. 1200 species. Within the last few decades, their beautiful shapes and colors, low maintenance and easy adaptability to small gardens have brought bromeliads into worldwide use as ornamental plants. While the ornamental bromeliad trade could make significant contributions to household economies in rural areas, the trade may represent a significant threat in some of the bromeliad biodiversity hotspot countries such as Brazil, Bolivia and Colombia. This paper presents an overview of production volumes, analysis of the Brazilian bromeliads trade chain – at the state, national and international levels – and recommendations to address development and conservation challenges.

  12. Optimisation Methods for Cam Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia–Mari Popa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the criteria which represent the base of optimizing the cam mechanisms and also we perform the calculations for several types of mechanisms. We study the influence of the constructive parameters in case of the simple machines with rotation cam and follower (flat or curve of translation on the curvature radius and that of the transmission angle. As it follows, we present the optimization calculations of the cam and flat rotation follower mechanisms, as well as the calculations for optimizing the cam mechanisms by circular groove followers’ help. For an easier interpretation of the results, we have visualized the obtained cam in AutoCAD according to the script files generated by a calculation program.

  13. Kazachstania rupicola sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from water tanks of a bromeliad in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Silvana Vilas Boas; Gomes, Fátima C O; Marques, Andréa R; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2013-03-01

    Two isolates of a novel yeast species were obtained from water tanks (phytotelmata) of the bromeliad Vriesea minarum collected in a tableland ('campo rupestre') ecosystem in Brazil. The sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene showed that this species is related to Kazachstania exigua and others, from which it differs by 8-10 nucleotide substitutions. The novel species Kazachstania rupicola sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain is UFMG-BRO-80(T) ( = CBS 12684(T)  = CBMAI 1466(T)).

  14. Decomposition of plant-sourced carbon compounds by heterotrophic betaproteobacteria isolated from a tropical Costa Rican bromeliad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Jane; McHenry, Alexandra; Montelongo, Carin; Goffredi, Shana K

    2016-06-01

    Betaproteobacteria were the most common isolates from the water-filled tank of a Costa Rican bromeliad. Isolates included eight species from the orders Neisseriales and Burkholderiales, with close relatives recovered previously from tropical soils, wetlands, freshwater, or in association with plants. Compared to close relatives, the isolates displayed high temperature and comparatively low pH optima, reflecting the tropical, acidic nature of the bromeliad tank. Bromeliad-associated bacteria most closely related to Chromobacterium, Herbaspirillum, and Aquitalea were all isolated exclusively at pH 6, while Ralstonia, Cupriavidus, and three species of Burkholderia were isolated mostly at pH 4. Activity profiles for the isolates suggest pervasive capabilities for the breakdown of plant-sourced organics, including d-galacturonic acid, mannitol, d-xylose, and l-phenylalanine, also reflecting a niche dominated by decomposition of leaves from the overlying canopy, which become entrained in the tanks. Metabolic activity profiles were overlapping between the Burkholderiales, isolated at pH 4, and the Neisseriales, isolated at pH 6, suggesting that plant material decomposition, which is presumably the underlying process sustaining the tank community and possibly the plant itself, occurs in the tanks at both pH extremes. These results suggest that bromeliad-associated betaproteobacteria may play an important role in the cycling of carbon in this unusual aquatic habitat. PMID:26918550

  15. Resources alter the structure and increase stochasticity in bromeliad microfauna communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana S Petermann

    Full Text Available Although stochastic and deterministic processes have been found to jointly shape structure of natural communities, the relative importance of both forces may vary across different environmental conditions and across levels of biological organization. We tested the effects of abiotic environmental conditions, altered trophic interactions and dispersal limitation on the structure of aquatic microfauna communities in Costa Rican tank bromeliads. Our approach combined natural gradients in environmental conditions with experimental manipulations of bottom-up interactions (resources, top-down interactions (predators and dispersal at two spatial scales in the field. We found that resource addition strongly increased the abundance and reduced the richness of microfauna communities. Community composition shifted in a predictable way towards assemblages dominated by flagellates and ciliates but with lower abundance and richness of algae and amoebae. While all functional groups responded strongly and predictably to resource addition, similarity among communities at the species level decreased, suggesting a role of stochasticity in species-level assembly processes. Dispersal limitation did not affect the communities. Since our design excluded potential priority effects we can attribute the differences in community similarity to increased demographic stochasticity of resource-enriched communities related to erratic changes in population sizes of some species. In contrast to resources, predators and environmental conditions had negligible effects on community structure. Our results demonstrate that bromeliad microfauna communities are strongly controlled by bottom-up forces. They further suggest that the relative importance of stochasticity may change with productivity and with the organizational level at which communities are examined.

  16. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Go Back Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Email Print + Share Crohn’s disease and ulcerative ... Energy Medicine, and Biologically-Based Practices. Mind-Body Medicine Mind-body medicine is a set of interventions ...

  17. The detection of EpCAM(+) and EpCAM(-) circulating tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Sanne; van Dalum, Guus; Lenferink, Aufried T. M.; Tibbe, Arjan G. J.; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.; Groen, Harry J. M.; van Rijn, Cees J. M.; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM(+) CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM(-) CTC discarded by CellSearch, after EpCAM based

  18. The Z CamPaign: Year Five

    CERN Document Server

    Simonsen, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Entering into the fifth year of the Z CamPaign, the author has developed a website summarizing our findings which will also act as a living catalog of bona fide Z Cam stars, suspected Z Cams and Z Cam impostors. In this paper we summarize the findings of the first four years of research, introduce the website and its contents to the public and discuss the way forward into year five and beyond.

  19. The detection of EpCAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, De Sanne; Dalum, Van Guus; Lenferink, Aufried T.M.; Tibbe, Arjan G.J.; Hiltermann, T.J.N.; Groen, Harry J.M.; Rijn, Van C.J.M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM+ CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM- CTC discarded by CellSear

  20. Transcriptomics in the tropics: Total RNA-based profiling of Costa Rican bromeliad-associated communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana K. Goffredi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA-Seq was used to examine the microbial, eukaryotic, and viral communities in water catchments (‘tanks’ formed by tropical bromeliads from Costa Rica. In total, transcripts with taxonomic affiliation to a wide array of bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, were observed, as well as RNA-viruses that appeared related to the specific presence of eukaryotes. Bacteria from 25 phyla appeared to comprise the majority of transcripts in one tank (Wg24, compared to only 14 phyla in the other (Wg25. Conversely, eukaryotes from only 16 classes comprised the majority of transcripts in Wg24, compared to 24 classes in the Wg25, revealing a greater eukaryote diversity in the latter. Given that these bromeliads had tanks of similar size (i.e. vertical oxygen gradient, and were neighboring with presumed similar light regime and acquisition of leaf litter through-fall, it is possible that pH was the factor governing these differences in bacterial and eukaryotic communities (Wg24 had a tank pH of 3.6 and Wg25 had a tank pH of 6.2. Archaeal diversity was similar in both tanks, represented by 7 orders, with the exception of Methanocellales transcripts uniquely recovered from Wg25. Based on measures of FPKG (fragments mapped per kilobase of gene length, genes involved in methanogenesis, in addition to a spirochaete flagellin gene, were among those most highly expressed in Wg25. Conversely, aldehyde dehydrogenase and monosaccharide-binding protein were among genes most highly expressed in Wg24. The ability to observe specific presence of insect, plant, and fungi-associated RNA-viruses was unexpected. As with other techniques, there are inherent biases in the use of RNA-Seq, however, these data suggest the possibility of understanding the entire community, including ecological interactions, via simultaneous analysis of microbial, eukaryotic, and viral transcripts.

  1. Transcriptomics in the tropics: Total RNA-based profiling of Costa Rican bromeliad-associated communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredi, Shana K; Jang, Gene E; Haroon, Mohamed F

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq was used to examine the microbial, eukaryotic, and viral communities in water catchments ('tanks') formed by tropical bromeliads from Costa Rica. In total, transcripts with taxonomic affiliation to a wide array of bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, were observed, as well as RNA-viruses that appeared related to the specific presence of eukaryotes. Bacteria from 25 phyla appeared to comprise the majority of transcripts in one tank (Wg24), compared to only 14 phyla in the other (Wg25). Conversely, eukaryotes from only 16 classes comprised the majority of transcripts in Wg24, compared to 24 classes in the Wg25, revealing a greater eukaryote diversity in the latter. Given that these bromeliads had tanks of similar size (i.e. vertical oxygen gradient), and were neighboring with presumed similar light regime and acquisition of leaf litter through-fall, it is possible that pH was the factor governing these differences in bacterial and eukaryotic communities (Wg24 had a tank pH of 3.6 and Wg25 had a tank pH of 6.2). Archaeal diversity was similar in both tanks, represented by 7 orders, with the exception of Methanocellales transcripts uniquely recovered from Wg25. Based on measures of FPKG (fragments mapped per kilobase of gene length), genes involved in methanogenesis, in addition to a spirochaete flagellin gene, were among those most highly expressed in Wg25. Conversely, aldehyde dehydrogenase and monosaccharide-binding protein were among genes most highly expressed in Wg24. The ability to observe specific presence of insect, plant, and fungi-associated RNA-viruses was unexpected. As with other techniques, there are inherent biases in the use of RNA-Seq, however, these data suggest the possibility of understanding the entire community, including ecological interactions, via simultaneous analysis of microbial, eukaryotic, and viral transcripts. PMID:25755850

  2. Leaf hydraulic conductance for a tank bromeliad: axial and radial pathways for moving and conserving water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen B. North

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata were investigated in a lowland tropical forest in Costa Rica and a shaded glasshouse in Los Angeles, CA, USA. Stomatal conductance to water vapor and leaf anatomy related to hydraulic conductance were measured for both groups. Tracheid diameters and number of veins were used with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation to calculate axial hydraulic conductance. Measurements of leaf hydraulic conductance using the evaporative flux method were also made for glasshouse plants. Values for axial conductance and leaf hydraulic conductance were used in a model based on leaky cable theory to estimate the conductance of the radial pathway from the vein to the leaf surface and to assess the relative contributions of both axial and radial pathways. In keeping with low stomatal conductance and density, low vein density, and narrow tracheid diameters, leaf hydraulic conductance for G. lingulata was quite low in comparison with most other angiosperms. Using the predicted axial conductance in the leaky cable model, the radial resistance across the leaf mesophyll was predicted to predominate; lower, more realistic values of axial conductance resulted in predicted radial resistances that were closer to axial resistance in their impact on total leaf resistance. Tracer dyes suggested that water uptake through the tank region of the leaf was not limiting. Both dye movement and the leaky cable model indicated that the leaf blade of G. lingulata was structurally and hydraulically well-suited to conserve

  3. Leaf hydraulic conductance for a tank bromeliad: axial and radial pathways for moving and conserving water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Gretchen B; Lynch, Frank H; Maharaj, Franklin D R; Phillips, Carly A; Woodside, Walter T

    2013-01-01

    Epiphytic plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata were investigated in a lowland tropical forest in Costa Rica and a shaded glasshouse in Los Angeles, CA, USA. Stomatal conductance to water vapor and leaf anatomical variables related to hydraulic conductance were measured for both groups. Tracheid diameters and numbers of vascular bundles (veins) were used with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation to calculate axial hydraulic conductance. Measurements of leaf hydraulic conductance using the evaporative flux method were also made for glasshouse plants. Values for axial conductance and leaf hydraulic conductance were used in a model based on leaky cable theory to estimate the conductance of the radial pathway from the vein to the leaf surface and to assess the relative contributions of both axial and radial pathways. In keeping with low stomatal conductance, low stomatal density, low vein density, and narrow tracheid diameters, leaf hydraulic conductance for G. lingulata was quite low in comparison with most other angiosperms. Using the predicted axial conductance in the leaky cable model, the radial resistance across the leaf mesophyll was predicted to predominate; lower, more realistic values of axial conductance resulted in predicted radial resistances that were closer to axial resistance in their impact on total leaf resistance. Tracer dyes suggested that water uptake through the tank region of the leaf was not limiting. Both dye movement and the leaky cable model indicated that the leaf blade of G. lingulata was structurally and

  4. Facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants: powerful tools for unravelling the functional elements of CAM photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2014-07-01

    Facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) describes the optional use of CAM photosynthesis, typically under conditions of drought stress, in plants that otherwise employ C3 or C4 photosynthesis. In its cleanest form, the upregulation of CAM is fully reversible upon removal of stress. Reversibility distinguishes facultative CAM from ontogenetically programmed unidirectional C3-to-CAM shifts inherent in constitutive CAM plants. Using mainly measurements of 24h CO2 exchange, defining features of facultative CAM are highlighted in five terrestrial species, Clusia pratensis, Calandrinia polyandra, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, Portulaca oleracea and Talinum triangulare. For these, we provide detailed chronologies of the shifts between photosynthetic modes and comment on their usefulness as experimental systems. Photosynthetic flexibility is also reviewed in an aquatic CAM plant, Isoetes howellii. Through comparisons of C3 and CAM states in facultative CAM species, many fundamental biochemical principles of the CAM pathway have been uncovered. Facultative CAM species will be of even greater relevance now that new sequencing technologies facilitate the mapping of genomes and tracking of the expression patterns of multiple genes. These technologies and facultative CAM systems, when joined, are expected to contribute in a major way towards our goal of understanding the essence of CAM. PMID:24642847

  5. Variação morfológica e reprodutiva de Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae Morphological and reproductive variation of Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Lenzi

    2006-06-01

    luminosity and on an understory of a "restinga arbórea" (low luminosity, in Florianópolis, SC, where the results indicate that the luminosity can influence the bromeliad's phenotype, nectar production, phenology and reproductive success. The shade tolerant plants are bigger and present a flowering period of around 120 days, while the heliophytic plants are smaller and blossom throughout all year. The species presents ornithophilous floral attributes, being the volume (16,7 µL ± 4 and concentration (27,25% of the nectar produced by the flowers characteristic of a hummingbird pollinated flower. The frequent visitation of Amazilia fimbriata, Thalurania glaucopis and Thalurania sp. (Trochilidae confirms this suggestion; however bees and butterflies can also be considered potential pollinators, suggesting co-evolution of secondary floral syndromes. Based on the results of manual pollination tests and on the development of the polinic tubes, can be concluded that the species does not present self-incompatibility, forming fruits with fertile seeds, with a germination rate higher than 80%, both in cross-pollination as well as in selfing tests. The heliophytic population presented a high rate of parthenocarpy (52, 95% and showed to be a safe and efficient method to evaluate the fertilization of the flowers, being possible to relate the frequency and abundance of parthenocarpy to the absence or inefficiency of the pollinators. The fruits and seeds were dispersed by birds of the families Thraupidae and Pipridae and predated by larva of the butterfly Tecla sp. (Lycaenidae.

  6. Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Young

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System and its application to emergency response involving chemical, biological or radiological contamination. The Idaho National Laboratory designed the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System to assist the National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction - Civil Support Teams during their mission of emergency response to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction. The lightweight, handheld camera transmits encrypted, real-time video from inside a contaminated area, or hot-zone, to a command post located a safe distance away. The system includes a small wireless video camera, a true-diversity receiver, viewing console, and an optional extension link that allows the command post to be placed up to five miles from danger. It can be fully deployed by one person in a standalone configuration in less than 10 minutes. The complete system is battery powered. Each rechargeable camera battery powers the camera for 3 hours with the receiver and video monitor battery lasting 22 hours on a single charge. The camera transmits encrypted, low frequency analog video signals to a true-diversity receiver with three antennas. This unique combination of encryption and transmission technologies delivers encrypted, interference-free images to the command post under conditions where other wireless systems fail. The lightweight camera is completely waterproof for quick and easy decontamination after use. The Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System is currently being used by several National Guard Teams, the US Army, and by fire fighters. The system has been proven to greatly enhance situational awareness during the crucial, initial phase of a hazardous response allowing commanders to make better, faster, safer decisions.

  7. CAD/CAM-prosessin kuvaus

    OpenAIRE

    Aho, Arto

    2014-01-01

    Työssä selvitettiin CAD/CAM-prosessin toiminta ja datan liikkuminen eri järjestelmien välillä. Teoriassa perehdyttiin tuotetietojen ja muutostenhallintaan sekä järjestelmien integrointiin. Siemens PLM -järjestelmästä esitellään valmistusprosessin suunnitteluun ja hallintaan tarkoitettuja sovelluksia. Työssä käsitellään muutoksenhallintaa järjestelmien välillä sekä nopeiden muutosten aikaansaamat hyödyt prosessissa ja integraation tuomat edut virheiden ja kustannusten vähentämisessä. Työssä...

  8. CAD/CAM-ohjelmiston valinta

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Sanna

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön toimeksianto tuli Helasteel Oy:ltä. Työn sisältö koostuu sopivan CAM-ohjelmiston etsimisestä Helasteelille sekä niiden perusteiden selvittämisestä, jotka vaikuttavat ohjelmiston valintaan. Kolmea eri ohjelmistotoimittajaa pyydettiin esittelemään tuotteitaan Helasteelille. Näistä ohjelmistoista valittiin sopivin yrityksen työstämät kappaleet ja tuotanto huomioon ottaen. Prosessin jälkeen päädyttiin Wincam-ohjelmistoon, joka vastasi parhaiten Helasteelin vaatimuksiin niin omina...

  9. From "forest malaria" to "bromeliad malaria": a case-study of scientific controversy and malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, P

    1994-08-01

    The article analyses the evolution of knowledge and rationale of control of a special case of malaria transmission based on Bromelia-Kerteszia complex. Since bromeliaceae function as a 'host of the carrier' and were previously associated with natural forests, the elucidation of bromeliad malaria historically elicited controversies concerning the imputation of Kertesziae as transmitters as well as over control strategies directed to bromelia eradication (manual removal, herbicides and deforestation), use of insecticides and chemoprophylaxis. Established authority, disciplinary traditions, conceptual premises and contemporary criteria for validating knowledge in the field partly explain the long time gap since Adolpho Lutz announced at the beginning of the century the existence of a new mosquito and breeding site as responsible for a 'forest malaria' epidemic occurring at a high altitude. The article brings attention to how economic, political and institutional determinants played an important role in redefining studies that led both in Trinidad and Brazil to the recognition of the importance of kerteszia transmission, including urban areas, and establishing new approaches to its study, most relevant of all the concurrence of broad ecological research. The article then describes the Brazilian campaign strategies which showed significant short-term results but had to wait four decades to achieve the goal of eradication due to the peculiar characteristics of this pathogenic complex. Finally, it brings attention to the importance of encompassing social values and discourses, in this case, environmental preservation, to understanding historical trends of malaria control programs.

  10. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Donate Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) WHAT IS A THYROID NODULE? The term ... type of evaluation. WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  11. A study on copper and zinc effects in the growth of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) L.B. Smith seedlings cultivated in vitro. Application of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metals are components of the biosphere, occurring naturally in soil and plants, but as a result of human actions, their levels have been greatly increased, depending on the region. Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are essential for the growth and development of plants, however if in excess become toxic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of plants to absorb Cu and Zn and what effects they cause in seedlings cultivated in vitro. The results of this study may contribute primarily in agricultural and environmental research. The plant investigated was the Aechmea blanchetiana species of the Bromeliaceae family. It is a terrestrial or epiphytic species used as an ornamental plant. The cultivation of seedlings for this study and their exposure to different concentrations of Cu and Zn were performed at the Institute of Botany (IBt) of Sao Paulo. After seed germination, the seedlings were transferred for growth in a culture media containing different concentrations of Cu or Zn. After this period of in vitro cultivation, the seedlings were analyzed for morphometry, anatomy and by neutron activation analysis. Quality control of the results from neutron activation analysis was carried out by the analysis of certified reference materials. The data obtained showed good precision and accuracy for several elements determined. The highest concentrations of Cu used in the exposure were those that caused major structural changes in morphometric and anatomical parameters, however for the Zn no significant differences were verified for most parameters. The A. blanchetiana proved to be a bioaccumulator species of Zn, absorbing high levels of this element in the aerial parts and roots. (author)

  12. RESEARCH ON STRAIGHTENING TECHNOLOGY CAM SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Automatic straightening process is a nonlinear process, and affected by many factors.The straightening technology CAM system has been designed and built up to straighten shafts, which mainly consists of the straightening technology's database and the model of stroke-controlled precise straightening calculation model.The operational test of the CAM system has been passed.

  13. Onzichtbare beugels dankzij CAD-CAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R. de Winter

    2011-01-01

    De introductie van de cad-cam-techniek in de tandheelkunde heeft in de orthodontie geleid tot het orthodontisch verplaatsen van gebitselementen met een serie opeenvolgende dieptrekplaten, ontworpen en gefabriceerd met behulp van cad-cam. Daarbij is iedere plaat een kleine stap in de richting van de

  14. CAM Photosynthesis in Submerged Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a CO2-concentrating mechanism selected in response to aridity in terrestrial habitats, and, in aquatic environments, to ambient limitations of carbon. Evidence is reviewed for its presence in five genera of aquatic vascular plants, including Isoe??tes, Sagittaria, Vallisneria, Crassula, and Littorella. Initially, aquatic CAM was considered by some to be an oxymoron, but some aquatic species have been studied in sufficient detail to say definitively that they possess CAM photosynthesis. CO2-concentrating mechanisms in photosynthetic organs require a barrier to leakage; e.g., terrestrial C4 plants have suberized bundle sheath cells and terrestrial CAM plants high stomatal resistance. In aquatic CAM plants the primary barrier to CO2 leakage is the extremely high diffusional resistance of water. This, coupled with the sink provided by extensive intercellular gas space, generates daytime CO2(Pi) comparable to terrestrial CAM plants. CAM contributes to the carbon budget by both net carbon gain and carbon recycling, and the magnitude of each is environmentally influenced. Aquatic CAM plants inhabit sites where photosynthesis is potentially limited by carbon. Many occupy moderately fertile shallow temporary pools that experience extreme diel fluctuations in carbon availability. CAM plants are able to take advantage of elevated nighttime CO2 levels in these habitats. This gives them a competitive advantage over non-CAM species that are carbon starved during the day and an advantage over species that expend energy in membrane transport of bicarbonate. Some aquatic CAM plants are distributed in highly infertile lakes, where extreme carbon limitation and light are important selective factors. Compilation of reports on diel changes in titratable acidity and malate show 69 out of 180 species have significant overnight accumulation, although evidence is presented discounting CAM in some. It is concluded that similar proportions of the aquatic

  15. Inflorescences of the Bromeliad Vriesea friburgensis as Nest Sites and Food Resources for Ants and Other Arthropods in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker S. Schmid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, the usage of bromeliad inflorescences as nesting sites for ants and other arthropods was studied. Frequencies of occurrence of nests were recorded from hollow stems of dried infructescences of the bromeliad Vriesea friburgensis on Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil. Three habitat types were studied: miconietum and two types of restinga, one with low (restinga-low and one with high vegetation cover (restinga-high. Additionally, flower visitation by ants was examined in restinga-low. Out of 619 infructescences, 33% contained nests. Ants were the most frequent occupants (82–96% of nests, followed by termites (3–18% and bees (0–0.6%. Species accumulation curves and diversity indices indicate that the diversity of stem-occupying ant species is highest in restinga-low (eight species observed, 18 predicted and lowest in restinga-high (four observed and predicted. Highest similarity of compositions of infructescence-inhabiting ant species was recorded between miconietum and restinga-high, lowest between restinga-low and restinga-high. Similarity between compositions of inflorescence-visiting and infructescence-inhabiting species in restinga-low was even higher (compared with the cases described in the previous sentence although 50% of the involved species were present in only one of the samples. Altogether, our results indicate that inflorescences are important resources for ants and other nest-building insects from flowering season to past-fruiting season.

  16. CAM Stochastic Volatility Model for Option Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupled additive and multiplicative (CAM noises model is a stochastic volatility model for derivative pricing. Unlike the other stochastic volatility models in the literature, the CAM model uses two Brownian motions, one multiplicative and one additive, to model the volatility process. We provide empirical evidence that suggests a nontrivial relationship between the kurtosis and skewness of asset prices and that the CAM model is able to capture this relationship, whereas the traditional stochastic volatility models cannot. We introduce a control variate method and Monte Carlo estimators for some of the sensitivities (Greeks of the model. We also derive an approximation for the characteristic function of the model.

  17. Cad/cam-tekniikan kannattavuus hammastekniikassa

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnunen, Vilho

    2012-01-01

    Hammaslaboratorioissa tehdään cad/cam-tekniikalla kiinteän protetiikan töitä. Opinnäytetyössäni tarkastelen, kuinka kannattavaa on valmistaa jyrsintekniikalla kiinteän protetiikan valmisteita. Selvitän millainen cad/cam-tekniikkaa käyttävä yritys pitää olla, jotta se on kannattava. Opinnäytetyöni aineiston keruun tein haastattelemalla cad/cam tekniikkaa ja perinteistä tekniikkaa käyttävien hammaslaboratorioiden omistajia. Haastattelun toteutin teemahaastatteluna. Kehitin laajuuskäsitteen,...

  18. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ceretti-Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be re­tained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for im­mature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects.Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 munici­pal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically.Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens and Cx. (Microculex imitator (444. The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. 

  19. A CAD/CAM interface for computer-aided design of cams

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Ashit R.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide a complete package for the design and three dimensional modeling display of cams. The software produced as a part of this work will operate as a module of CADAM to produce cam designs and enter the resulting cam as a CAD model and produce the graphical display of the cam. In addition to the introductory material, this thesis is divided into four sections. The section on the graphics packages used in this thesis includes a b...

  20. AFSC/FMA/CAMS Data Objects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CAMS system consists of a set of tables and packages that provide authentication services to all other North Pacific Groundfish and Halibut Observing Program...

  1. Model Documentation for the MiniCAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Smith, Steven J.; Kim, Son H.; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2003-07-17

    The MiniCAM, short for the Mini-Climate Assessment Model, is an integrated assessment model of moderate complexity focused on energy and agriculture sectors. The model produces emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) and other radiatively important substances such as sulfur dioxide. Through incorporation of the simple climate model MAGICC, the consequences of these emissions for climate change and sea-level rise can be examined. The MiniCAM is designed to be fast and flexible.

  2. Radiometric Calibration for AgCam

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Hildum; Lianbo Hu; Hojin Kim; Xiaodong Zhang; Changyong Dou; Doug Olsen

    2010-01-01

    The student-built Agricultural Camera (AgCam) now onboard the International Space Station observes the Earth surface through two linescan cameras with Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) arrays sensitive to visible and near-infrared wavelengths, respectively. The electro-optical components of the AgCam were characterized using precision calibration equipment; a method for modeling and applying these measurements was derived. Correction coefficients to minimize effects of optical vignetting, CCD non-u...

  3. Chiropractic and CAM Utilization: A Descriptive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeker William C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To conduct a descriptive review of the scientific literature examining use rates of modalities and procedures used by CAM clinicians to manage chronic LBP and other conditions Data Sources A literature of PubMed and MANTIS was performed using the key terms Chiropractic; Low Back Pain; Utilization Rate; Use Rate; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; and Health Services in various combinations. Data Selection A total of 137 papers were selected, based upon including information about chiropractic utilization, CAM utilization and low back pain and other conditions. Data Synthesis Information was extracted from each paper addressing use of chiropractic and CAM, and is summarized in tabular form. Results Thematic analysis of the paper topics indicated that there were 5 functional areas covered by the literature: back pain papers, general chiropractic papers, insurance-related papers, general CAM-related papers; and worker's compensation papers. Conclusion Studies looking at chiropractic utilization demonstrate that the rates vary, but generally fall into a range from around 6% to 12% of the population, most of whom seek chiropractic care for low back pain and not for organic disease or visceral dysfunction. CAM is itself used by people suffering from a variety of conditions, though it is often used not as a primary intervention, but rather as an additional form of care. CAM and chiropractic often offer lower costs for comparable results compared to conventional medicine.

  4. Statistical Shape Modeling of Cam Femoroacetabular Impingement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Michael D.; Dater, Manasi; Whitaker, Ross; Jurrus, Elizabeth R.; Peters, Christopher L.; Anderson, Andrew E.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, statistical shape modeling (SSM) was used to quantify three-dimensional (3D) variation and morphologic differences between femurs with and without cam femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). 3D surfaces were generated from CT scans of femurs from 41 controls and 30 cam FAI patients. SSM correspondence particles were optimally positioned on each surface using a gradient descent energy function. Mean shapes for control and patient groups were defined from the resulting particle configurations. Morphological differences between group mean shapes and between the control mean and individual patients were calculated. Principal component analysis was used to describe anatomical variation present in both groups. The first 6 modes (or principal components) captured statistically significant shape variations, which comprised 84% of cumulative variation among the femurs. Shape variation was greatest in femoral offset, greater trochanter height, and the head-neck junction. The mean cam femur shape protruded above the control mean by a maximum of 3.3 mm with sustained protrusions of 2.5-3.0 mm along the anterolateral head-neck junction and distally along the anterior neck, corresponding well with reported cam lesion locations and soft-tissue damage. This study provides initial evidence that SSM can describe variations in femoral morphology in both controls and cam FAI patients and may be useful for developing new measurements of pathological anatomy. SSM may also be applied to characterize cam FAI severity and provide templates to guide patient-specific surgical resection of bone.

  5. Light and temperature requirements for germination of seeds of Aechmea nudicaulis (l. Griesebach and Streptocalyx floribundus (Martius ex Shultes f. Mez (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro Fernanda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of A. nudicaulis and S. floribundus were collected in a restinga located at Presidente Kennedy (ES, Brazil. This sandy community is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation interspersed by open areas with a sparse plant covering. In order to evaluate the capacity of A. nudicaulis and S. floribundus to recruit individuals from seeds in the distinct microclimates generated by this heterogeneous plant covering, experiments were conducted in laboratory to test the effects of light and temperature on the germination for both species. Seeds of A. nudicaulis were unable to germinate in darkness but they achieved high germinability (≥90% from 15 to 40°C under red light. Seeds of S. floribundus germinated in darkness only at 40ºC (22.5%, whereas the germinability was high (≥90% from 15 to 30ºC under light. For both species, the germination rate was highest at 25ºC. For these bromeliads, alternating temperature (20/30ºC promoted high germinability (≥92.5% only under red light. The seeds at 20/30°C in darkness were later transferred to light and a high germinability (>89% was achieved for both species. No seed germinated at alternating temperatures of 20/50ºC and they were dead after 720h of incubation. The seeds showed to be photoblastic and did not tolerate high temperatures. The results suggest that under natural conditions the germination of seeds of A. nudicaulis and S. floribundus is restricted to microclimates where light and moderate temperatures are present. The microsites generated by the plant covering seem to provide these requirements.

  6. A study on copper and zinc effects in the growth of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) L.B. Smith seedlings cultivated in vitro. Application of neutron activation analysis; Estudo sobre os efeitos do cobre e zinco no crescimento da plantula de Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) L.B. Smith cultivada in vitro. Aplicacao da analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampieri, Maria Cristina Tessari

    2010-07-01

    Metals are components of the biosphere, occurring naturally in soil and plants, but as a result of human actions, their levels have been greatly increased, depending on the region. Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are essential for the growth and development of plants, however if in excess become toxic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of plants to absorb Cu and Zn and what effects they cause in seedlings cultivated in vitro. The results of this study may contribute primarily in agricultural and environmental research. The plant investigated was the Aechmea blanchetiana species of the Bromeliaceae family. It is a terrestrial or epiphytic species used as an ornamental plant. The cultivation of seedlings for this study and their exposure to different concentrations of Cu and Zn were performed at the Institute of Botany (IBt) of Sao Paulo. After seed germination, the seedlings were transferred for growth in a culture media containing different concentrations of Cu or Zn. After this period of in vitro cultivation, the seedlings were analyzed for morphometry, anatomy and by neutron activation analysis. Quality control of the results from neutron activation analysis was carried out by the analysis of certified reference materials. The data obtained showed good precision and accuracy for several elements determined. The highest concentrations of Cu used in the exposure were those that caused major structural changes in morphometric and anatomical parameters, however for the Zn no significant differences were verified for most parameters. The A. blanchetiana proved to be a bioaccumulator species of Zn, absorbing high levels of this element in the aerial parts and roots. (author)

  7. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Larry W.; Way, J. Douglas; Vlasse, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    The objective of CAM is to develop, test, and analyze thin film membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications that will operate in extraterrestrial environments and support future unmanned and human space missions. A primary application is the Sabatier Electrolysis process that uses Mars atmosphere CO2 as raw material for producing water, oxygen, and methane for rocket fuel and habitat support. Other applications include use as an inlet filter to collect and concentrate Mars atmospheric argon and nitrogen gases for habitat pressurization, and to remove CO2 from breathing gases in Closed Environment Life Support Systems (CELSS). CAM membrane materials include crystalline faujasite (FAU) zeolite and rubbery polymers such as silicone rubber (PDMS) that have been shown in the literature and via molecular simulation to favor adsorption and permeation of CO2 over nitrogen and argon. Pure gas permeation tests using commercial PDMS membranes have shown that both CO2 permeance and the separation factor relative to other gases increase as the temperature decreases, and low (Delta)P(Sub CO2) favors higher separation factors. The ideal CO2/N2 separation factor increases from 7.5 to 17.5 as temperature decreases from 22 C to -30 C. For gas mixtures containing CO2, N2, and Ar, plasticization decreased the separation factors from 4.5 to 6 over the same temperature range. We currently synthesize and test our own Na(+) FAU zeolite membranes using standard formulations and secondary growth methods on porous alumina. Preliminary tests with a Na(+) FAU membrane at 22 C show a He/SF6 ideal separation factor of 62, exceeding the Knudsen diffusion selectivity by an order of magnitude. This shows that the membrane is relatively free from large defects and associated non-selective (viscous flow) transport

  8. Transparency in Dutch CAM practices: a comparison between CAM and GP physicians.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.; Dulmen, S. van

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: CAM (Complementary and Alternative Medicine) is increasing worldwide because the demand is growing. Transparency is needed to provide more objective information about CAM services, to date largely unknown by a majority of care users and mainstream care providers. Despite the fact that

  9. Characterization of SynCAM surface trafficking using a SynCAM derived ligand with high homophilic binding affinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to better probe SynCAM function in neurons, we produced a fusion protein between the extracellular domain of SynCAM1 and the constant fragment of human IgG (SynCAM-Fc). Whether in soluble form or immobilized on latex microspheres, the chimera bound specifically to the surface of hippocampal neurons and recruited endogenous SynCAM molecules. SynCAM-Fc was also used in combination with Quantum Dots to follow the mobility of transfected SynCAM receptors at the neuronal surface. Both immobile and highly mobile SynCAM were found. Thus, SynCAM-Fc behaves as a high affinity ligand that can be used to study the function of SynCAM at the neuronal membrane

  10. Documentary analysis in CAM research: Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Kevin

    2005-12-01

    The analysis of documents can provide insights into important social and political issues related to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This paper identifies some important sources of documents and outlines some of the advantages and disadvantages of using documents in social research. A number of analytic strategies are illustrated with examples to demonstrate the potential for documentary analysis to answer particular CAM-related research questions. These strategies are described as quantitative content analysis, qualitative descriptive analysis, qualitative interpretive analysis and semiotic analysis. It is argued that documents are a convenient source of data and that their analysis can enrich our understanding of CAM. Part 1 covers quantitative and qualitative strategies and Part 2 focuses on semiotic analysis.

  11. Documentary analysis in CAM research: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Kevin

    2006-03-01

    The analysis of documents can provide insights into important social and political issues related to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This paper identifies some important sources of documents and outlines some of the advantages and disadvantages of using documents in social research. A number of analytic strategies are illustrated with examples to demonstrate the potential for documentary analysis to answer particular CAM-related research questions. These strategies are described as quantitative content analysis, qualitative descriptive analysis, qualitative interpretive analysis and semiotic analysis. It is argued that documents are a convenient source of data and that their analysis can enrich our understanding of CAM. Part 1 covered quantitative and qualitative strategies. Part 2 focuses on semiotic analysis and the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the different strategies.

  12. Patients’ views of CAM as spiritual practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This paper explores Danish cancer patients’ narratives on spiritual beliefs, practices and the relationship these practices may have to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design: Narrative inquiry was used to understand how spiritual beliefs and practices might be related...... to CAM. Thirty-two cancer patients, family, friends and alternative practitioners were followed up over a two year period by face to face interview, telephone and focus groups. Results: Although religious and spiritual issues were not manifestly expressed by many of the subjects, these issues were...... significantly elaborated upon in narratives by four female participants to warrant more detailed consideration and analysis. Conclusion: It is suggested that for some cancer patients CAM may function, not just as a treatment for cancer related symptoms and side effects, but also as a form of spiritual practice...

  13. CAM practitioners in the Australian health workforce: an underutilized resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Sandra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CAM practitioners are a valuable but underutilizes resource in Australian health care. Despite increasing public support for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM little is known about the CAM workforce. Apart from the registered professions of chiropractic, osteopathy and Chinese medicine, accurate information about the number of CAM practitioners in the workforce has been difficult to obtain. It appears that many non-registered CAM practitioners, although highly qualified, are not working to their full capacity. Discussion Increasing public endorsement of CAM stands in contrast to the negative attitude toward the CAM workforce by some members of the medical and other health professions and by government policy makers. The marginalisation of the CAM workforce is evident in prejudicial attitudes held by some members of the medical and other health professions and its exclusion from government policy making. Inconsistent educational standards has meant that non-registered CAM practitioners, including highly qualified and competent ones, are frequently overlooked. Legitimising their contribution to the health workforce could alleviate workforce shortages and provide opportunities for redesigned job roles and new multidisciplinary teams. Priorities for better utilisation of the CAM workforce include establishing a guaranteed minimum education standard for more CAM occupation groups through national registration, providing interprofessional education that includes CAM practitioners, developing courses to upgrade CAM practitioners' professional skills in areas of indentified need, and increasing support for CAM research. Summary Marginalisation of the CAM workforce has disadvantaged those qualified and competent CAM practitioners who practise evidence-informed medicine on the basis of many years of university training. Legitimising and expanding the important contribution of CAM practitioners could alleviate projected health

  14. Georeferencing CAMS data: Polynomial rectification and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghe

    The Calibrated Airborne Multispectral Scanner (CAMS) is a sensor used in the commercial remote sensing program at NASA Stennis Space Center. In geographic applications of the CAMS data, accurate geometric rectification is essential for the analysis of the remotely sensed data and for the integration of the data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The commonly used rectification techniques such as the polynomial transformation and ortho rectification have been very successful in the field of remote sensing and GIS for most remote sensing data such as Landsat imagery, SPOT imagery and aerial photos. However, due to the geometric nature of the airborne line scanner which has high spatial frequency distortions, the polynomial model and the ortho rectification technique in current commercial software packages such as Erdas Imagine are not adequate for obtaining sufficient geometric accuracy. In this research, the geometric nature, especially the major distortions, of the CAMS data has been described. An analytical step-by-step geometric preprocessing has been utilized to deal with the potential high frequency distortions of the CAMS data. A generic sensor-independent photogrammetric model has been developed for the ortho-rectification of the CAMS data. Three generalized kernel classes and directional elliptical basis have been formulated into a rectification model of summation of multisurface functions, which is a significant extension to the traditional radial basis functions. The preprocessing mechanism has been fully incorporated into the polynomial, the triangle-based finite element analysis as well as the summation of multisurface functions. While the multisurface functions and the finite element analysis have the characteristics of localization, piecewise logic has been applied to the polynomial and photogrammetric methods, which can produce significant accuracy improvement over the global approach. A software module has been implemented with full

  15. A Simulation Study on the Importance of Size‐related Changes in Leaf Morphology and Physiology for Carbon Gain in an Epiphytic Bromeliad

    OpenAIRE

    Zotz, Gerhard; REICHLING, PETER; Valladares, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    This study addresses the question of how size‐related changes in leaf morphology and physiology influence light absorption and carbon gain of the epiphytic bromeliad Vriesea sanguinolenta. A geometrically based computer model, Y‐plant, was used for the three‐dimensional reconstruction of entire plants and for calculation of whole plant light interception and carbon gain. Plants of different sizes were reconstructed, and morphological and physiological attributes of young and old leaves, and s...

  16. Artificial intelligence and CAD/CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, K.

    1983-10-01

    In recent years CAD/CAM technology has improved industrial productivity. It is a significant step towards the design of the factory of the future. CAD/CAM in conjunction with artificial intelligence will become paramount. Workers in this field are attempting to produce systems of ever-increasing intelligence and independence for everyday use in factories, schools and elsewhere. A computer system which could understand natural language in both spoken and handwritten form and communicate in natural language would have considerable advantage in practical situations over one of the present generation of computers and computer programs. 2 references.

  17. CAD/CAM at the design stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masur, W.

    1989-01-01

    The introduction of CAD/CAM requires a thorough analysis of the manufacturing process in order to be able to single out those operations and partial complexes which are found suited for CAD/CAM use and are also expected to bring about the streamlining effects desired. Further it has to be analysed what partial jobs can be done by existing and planned hardware and software as well as by the skilled labour available or to be made available yet. The organization of the relations between program developer and program user and the required training measures has to be fixed in time and clearly by the managerial staff.

  18. Integrated design of cam mechanisms and servo-control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚燕安[1; 颜鸿森[2; 张策[3; 邹慧君[4

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, in a cam mechanism, the cam is driven by an actuator at a constant speed. The motion characteristics of the follower are determined once the cam profile is designed. This paper presents a novel theory named "integrated design of cam mechanisms and servo-control systems" whose basic idea is varying the input speed trajectory of the cam by a microcomputer-controlled servomotor to improve kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the follower system. The philosophy of the theory is developing superior machines by taking advantage of the flexibility of servo-control systems to compensate for disadvantages of rigid cam mechanisms. The systematic design criteria of the cam-servo-integrated system are developed and an approach based on optimal-control theory is presented for to select suitable cam speed functions, hence the basis of the theory is formed.

  19. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  20. DFM/CAPP/CAM System in a Concurrent Engineering Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the importance of DFM/CAPP/CAM system in Concurrent Engineering (CE) is discussed. Based on the analyses of the character of concurrent product design and manufacturing process design, the workflow of DFM/CAPP/CAM system in CE is given. DFM/CAPP/CAM theories, methods and functions are investigated in a delicate and all-round way, and are implemented in the developed DFM/CAPP/CAM system.

  1. Therapeutic Uses of the WebCam in Child Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebowski, Susan; Fremont, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors provide examples for the use of the WebCam as a therapeutic tool in child psychiatry, discussing cases to demonstrate the application of the WebCam, which is most often used in psychiatry training programs during resident supervision and for case presentations. Method: Six cases illustrate the use of the WebCam in individual…

  2. CAD/CAM. High-Technology Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuleger, Robert

    This high technology training module is an advanced course on computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for grades 11 and 12. This unit, to be used with students in advanced drafting courses, introduces the concept of CAD/CAM. The content outline includes the following seven sections: (1) CAD/CAM software; (2) computer…

  3. The factors that influence CAD/CAM/CAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAD/CAM/CAE usage has grown and expanded significantly due to its many applications relating to the productivity of an organization. It is important for an organization to have planning and strategy in using CAD/CAM/CAE to ensure sustained efficiency. This paper will discuss the factors that can influence the implementation and success of CAD/CAM/CAE. (Author)

  4. DATA TRANSLATION BETWEEN PADS AND CAM350

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Romanova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the paper is the process of data translation between computer-aided design system for electronic devices PADS VX and system for technological preparation of production of printed circuit boards CAM350 10. The object of this study is two-way translation of data in these systems. Experimental researches are applied as research methods based on repeated playback of forward and reverse data translation process between PADS and CAM350 systems. The aim is to examine the challenges of data exchange between systems and to find out the ways of their solution. The basis of the work is functionality analysis of PADS and CAM350 systems while data translation, which was carried out in the course of operating experience of these systems. The paper presents advantages and disadvantages of translation methods and their comparison. Errors arising in the process are analyzed. Possible reasons of errors origination are described. The main results are recommendations for data exchange between PADS and CAM350 systems. The proposed recommendations give the possibility to optimize the exchange of data between these systems. Practical significance of the work lies in the implementation of results at LLC «Abeo». Recommendations have been used in the development of dozens of different electronic devices. The use of these results made it possible to reduce the production run-up time, to increase data transmission correctness, thereby improving the quality of products and reduction of their cost.

  5. Some Workplace Effects of CAD and CAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Karl-H.; Ulrich, Erhard

    1987-01-01

    Examines the impact of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) on employment, work organization, working conditions, job content, training, and industrial relations in several countries. Finds little evidence of negative employment effects since productivity gains are offset by various compensatory factors. (Author/CH)

  6. Patients’ views of CAM as spiritual practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    significantly elaborated upon in narratives by four female participants to warrant more detailed consideration and analysis. Conclusion: It is suggested that for some cancer patients CAM may function, not just as a treatment for cancer related symptoms and side effects, but also as a form of spiritual practice...

  7. CAD-CAM data exchange pilot project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintz, J.; Williams, D.

    1986-03-01

    CAD-CAM data were exchanged between dissimilar CAD systems and the information was used to fabricate three parts. Problems were identified and solutions were proposed or implemented in the area of translation methods, data verification, CAD drawing conventions, and data handling. Additional software needed for productive data exchange has been identified.

  8. Faint stars and OmegaCAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, K; Cristiani, S; Renzini, A; Williams, RE

    2001-01-01

    OmegaCAM will be the wide-field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope. In this contribution I present applications of this instrument to the study of faint stellar populations. Two projects are highlighted: a proper motion study to uncover the galactic halo population, and a microlensing study towards

  9. Extrativismo de bromélias no Estado do Paraná Bromeliads wild harvesting in State of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Visando a contribuir para o melhor entendimento da participação da atividade extrativista no âmbito da comercialização de bromélias no Brasil, apresentou-se resultado de pesquisa que buscou: a identificar e caracterizar os extrativistas de bromélias formalmente registrados e os informais no Estado do Paraná; b identificar e caracterizar as metodologias de coleta, o preparo e vias de comercialização das plantas coletadas; c levantar a opinião dos extrativistas sobre facilidades e dificuldades desta atividade. O extrativismo de bromélias no Paraná foi identificado em 12 municípios, englobando 31 famílias extratoras, predominantemente concentradas no litoral do Paraná (n=10 e Município de Ortigueira (n=7. Foram identificados dois tipos básicos de extrativistas: residente e oportunista, com diferenças marcantes entre estes, especialmente no que se refere a volume e forma de extração. Foram identificadas 21 espécies submetidas ao extrativismo, sendo as mais frequentemente coletadas: Vriesea incurvata Gaudich. comercializada por 90% dos entrevistados, Nidularium innocentii Lem. (77%, Vriesea platynema Gaudich. (67%, Tillandsia stricta Sol. ex Ker Gawl. (55% e Vriesea carinata Lem. (55%.Aiming to contribute to the better understanding of the wild harvesting participation in the context of the bromeliads trade, the results from a study focused on: a identifying and to characterizing the bromeliads wild harvesters (formally and not formally registered in the State of the Paraná; b identifying and characterizing the harvesting methodologies, preparation and trade routes, and c surveying the harvesters opinion on the facilities and difficulties of bromeliads wild harvesting are presented. The bromeliads wild harvesting was detected in 12 municipalities at Parana State, involving 31 harvester families, most of them concentrated at the coastal zone (n=10 and Ortigueira Mun. (7. Two basic harvester types were identified: resident and

  10. Complementary and alternative medicine use of women with breast cancer : Self-help CAM attracts other women than guided CAM therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo-Fo-Wong, Deborah N. N.; Ranchor, Adelita V.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Henselmans, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine stability of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) of breast cancer patients, reasons for CAM use, and sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological predictors of CAM use. Methods: CAM use was assessed after adjuvant therapy and six months later. Following the CAM He

  11. Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J J

    2013-01-01

    Modern design methods of Automotive Cam Design require the computation of a range of parameters. This book provides a logical sequence of steps for the derivation of the relevant equations from first principles, for the more widely used cam mechanisms. Although originally derived for use in high performance engines, this work is equally applicable to the design of mass produced automotive and other internal combustion engines.   Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms provides the equations necessary for the design of cam lift curves with an associated smooth acceleration curve. The equations are derived for the kinematics and kinetics of all the mechanisms considered, together with those for cam curvature and oil entrainment velocity. This permits the cam shape, all loads, and contact stresses to be evaluated, and the relevant tribology to be assessed. The effects of asymmetry on the manufacture of cams for finger follower and offset translating curved followers is ...

  12. The detection of EpCAM+ and EpCAM- circulating tumor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wit, de, J.; Dalum, van, G.; Lenferink, Aufried T. M.; Arjan G. J. Tibbe; Hiltermann, T.J.N.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Rijn, van, Michela; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM+ CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM- CTC discarded by CellSearch, after EpCAM based enrichment. EpCAM- CTC were identified by filtration and fluorescent labelling. This approach was validated using different cell lines spiked into blood and evaluated on blood samples of 27 metastatic...

  13. CAD/CAM-assisted breast reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchels, Ferry; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 60 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059 (Australia); Wiggenhauser, Paul Severin; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten [Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Warne, David; Barry, Mark [High Performance Computing and Research Support, Queensland University of Technology, Gardens Point Road, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Ong, Fook Rhu; Chong, Woon Shin, E-mail: Dietmar.Hutmacher@qut.edu.au, E-mail: jtschantz@lrz.tu-muenchen.de [Singapore Polytechnic, 500 Dover Road, 139651 Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-09-15

    The application of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the clinic is growing slowly but steadily. The ability to build patient-specific models based on medical imaging data offers major potential. In this work we report on the feasibility of employing laser scanning with CAD/CAM techniques to aid in breast reconstruction. A patient was imaged with laser scanning, an economical and facile method for creating an accurate digital representation of the breasts and surrounding tissues. The obtained model was used to fabricate a customized mould that was employed as an intra-operative aid for the surgeon performing autologous tissue reconstruction of the breast removed due to cancer. Furthermore, a solid breast model was derived from the imaged data and digitally processed for the fabrication of customized scaffolds for breast tissue engineering. To this end, a novel generic algorithm for creating porosity within a solid model was developed, using a finite element model as intermediate.

  14. Formal Management of CAD/CAM Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhase, Michael; Lemburg, Johannes; Schröder, Lutz; Schulz, Ewaryst

    Systematic engineering design processes have many aspects in common with software engineering, with CAD/CAM objects replacing program code as the implementation stage of the development. They are, however, currently considerably less formal. We propose to draw on the mentioned similarities and transfer methods from software engineering to engineering design in order to enhance in particular the reliability and reusability of engineering processes. We lay out a vision of a document-oriented design process that integrates CAD/CAM documents with requirement specifications; as a first step towards supporting such a process, we present a tool that interfaces a CAD system with program verification workflows, thus allowing for completely formalised development strands within a semi-formal methodology.

  15. CAD/CAM-assisted breast reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the clinic is growing slowly but steadily. The ability to build patient-specific models based on medical imaging data offers major potential. In this work we report on the feasibility of employing laser scanning with CAD/CAM techniques to aid in breast reconstruction. A patient was imaged with laser scanning, an economical and facile method for creating an accurate digital representation of the breasts and surrounding tissues. The obtained model was used to fabricate a customized mould that was employed as an intra-operative aid for the surgeon performing autologous tissue reconstruction of the breast removed due to cancer. Furthermore, a solid breast model was derived from the imaged data and digitally processed for the fabrication of customized scaffolds for breast tissue engineering. To this end, a novel generic algorithm for creating porosity within a solid model was developed, using a finite element model as intermediate.

  16. CAD/CAM at Gullick Dobson Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Gullick Dobson introduced computer-aided design systems more than four years ago, and those have improved the standard of technical presentation for tendering as well as saving time and the repetitive mundane work involved in incorporating standard plants onto several drawings. Computer-aided manufacture has also helped to reduce costs and in future interactive CAD/CAM will be developed where total engineering will result in the best product.

  17. CAD/CAM: influencing the skilled trades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    CAD/CAM is influencing many of the skilled trades. Computers are permitting an increase in productivity with a resulting need for people with greater mental rather than motor skills. Computers are used for the control of a wide variety of manufacturing operations and the trend is accelerating rapidly. The net result is a smaller need for semi-skilled jobs but an increasing demand for skilled craftsmen.

  18. Deterministic mathematical morphology for CAD/CAM

    OpenAIRE

    Sarabia Pérez, Rubén; Jimeno Morenilla, Antonio; Molina Carmona, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a new geometric model based on the mathematical morphology paradigm, specialized to provide determinism to the classic morphological operations. The determinism is needed to model dynamic processes that require an order of application, as is the case for designing and manufacturing objects in CAD/CAM environments. Design/methodology/approach – The basic trajectory-based operation is the basis of the proposed morphological specialization. This ...

  19. An investigation of cam-roller mechanism applied in sphere cam engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 潘存云; 徐小军; 徐海军; 张正洲

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative power source for hybrid electrical vehicle(HEV), electric generating system(EGS) driven by sphere cam engine(SCE) is said to own higher power density and integration. In this work, the structure and working principle of EGS were introduced, based on which the advantages of EGS were displayed. The profile of sphere cam was achieved after the desired motion of piston was given. After establishing the dynamic model of power transmission mechanism, the characteristics of cam-roller mechanism were studied. The results show that the optimal cam profile of SCE is a sinusoid curve which has two peaks and two valleys and a mean pressure angle of 47.19°. Because of the special cam shape, the trace of end surface center of piston is an eight-shape curve on a specific sphere surface. SCE running at speed of 3000 r/min can generate the power of 33.81 kW, which could satisfy the need of HEVs. However, the force between cylinder and piston skirt caused by Coriolis acceleration can reach up to 1182 N, which leads to serious wear between cylinder liner and piston skirt and may shorten the lifespan of SCE.

  20. Modeled hydraulic redistribution in tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations: the implications of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kailiang; Foster, Adrianna

    2016-04-01

    Past studies have largely focused on hydraulic redistribution (HR) in trees, shrubs, and grasses, and recognized its role in interspecies interactions. HR in plants that conduct crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), however, remains poorly investigated, as does the effect of HR on transpiration in different vegetation associations (i.e., tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations). We have developed a mechanistic model to investigate the net direction and magnitude of HR at the patch scale for tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations at the growing season to yearly timescale. The modeling results show that deep-rooted CAM plants in CAM-grass associations could perform hydraulic lift at a higher rate than trees in tree-grass associations in a relatively wet environment, as explained by a significant increase in grass transpiration rate in the shallow soil layer, balancing a lower transpiration rate by CAM plants. By comparison, trees in tree-CAM associations may perform hydraulic descent at a higher rate than those in tree-grass associations in a dry environment. Model simulations also show that hydraulic lift increases the transpiration of shallow-rooted plants, while hydraulic descent increases that of deep-rooted plants. CAM plants transpire during the night and thus perform HR during the day. Based on these model simulations, we suggest that the ability of CAM plants to perform HR at a higher rate may have different effects on the surrounding plant community than those of plants with C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathways (i.e., diurnal transpiration).

  1. The NectarCAM camera project

    CERN Document Server

    Glicenstein, J-F; Barrio, J-A; Blanch, O; Boix, J; Bolmont, J; Boutonnet, C; Cazaux, S; Chabanne, E; Champion, C; Chateau, F; Colonges, S; Corona, P; Couturier, S; Courty, B; Delagnes, E; Delgado, C; Ernenwein, J-P; Fegan, S; Ferreira, O; Fesquet, M; Fontaine, G; Fouque, N; Henault, F; Gascón, D; Herranz, D; Hermel, R; Hoffmann, D; Houles, J; Karkar, S; Khelifi, B; Knödlseder, J; Martinez, G; Lacombe, K; Lamanna, G; LeFlour, T; Lopez-Coto, R; Louis, F; Mathieu, A; Moulin, E; Nayman, P; Nunio, F; Olive, J-F; Panazol, J-L; Petrucci, P-O; Punch, M; Prast, J; Ramon, P; Riallot, M; Ribó, M; Rosier-Lees, S; Sanuy, A; Siero, J; Tavernet, J-P; Tejedor, L A; Toussenel, F; Vasileiadis, G; Voisin, V; Waegebert, V; Zurbach, C

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the next generation of Cherenkov telescopes, the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), NectarCAM is a camera designed for the medium size telescopes covering the central energy range of 100 GeV to 30 TeV. NectarCAM will be finely pixelated (~ 1800 pixels for a 8 degree field of view, FoV) in order to image atmospheric Cherenkov showers by measuring the charge deposited within a few nanoseconds time-window. It will have additional features like the capacity to record the full waveform with GHz sampling for every pixel and to measure event times with nanosecond accuracy. An array of a few tens of medium size telescopes, equipped with NectarCAMs, will achieve up to a factor of ten improvement in sensitivity over existing instruments in the energy range of 100 GeV to 10 TeV. The camera is made of roughly 250 independent read-out modules, each composed of seven photo-multipliers, with their associated high voltage base and control, a read-out board and a multi-service backplane board. The read-out b...

  2. Starch distribution in anthers, microspores and pollen grains in Aechmea recurvata (Klotzsch. L.B.Sm., Dyckia racinae L.B.Sm. and Tillandsia aeranthos (Loisel. L.B.Sm. (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Santos de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative description of the starch distribution in the anthers, microspores and pollen grains of Aechmea recurvata, Dyckia racinae and Tillandsia aeranthos. Flowers at different stages of development were processed according to plant microtechniques for observation by light microscope. Ten stages of embryological development were used as references for the comparative analysis of starch distribution and dynamics. The structural data showed a greater starch accumulation in the parietal layers and connective of D. racinae. It was observed that in the species studied, starch began to accumulate in microspore mother cell stage. The pollen grains in D. racinae and in T. aeranthos present two amylogenesis-amylolysis cycles, while A. recurvata presents only one. One amylogenesis-amylolysis cycle occurs in the parietal layers and/or connective tissue in all three species. The pollen grains in the three species are dispersed without starch and are characterized as the starchless type. Starch dynamics presents a close relation to the development of sporangia, microspores and pollen grains. It is believed that differences in the starch distribution and accumulation are related to the abiotic factors where the species are found.

  3. Development of the pipe machining CAD/CAM system; Kankako CAD/CAM system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taketomi, Y.; Teshima, H.; Suzuki, T.; Yoshida, A.

    1997-11-05

    The pipe machining CAD/CAM system was developed which can use previously prepared CAD input data for piping work diagrams. This system can automatically prepare diagrams and information necessary for machining, packaging, handling/lifting planning and assembly of pipes from previously inputted data. Output contents are as follows: parts machining diagram, piping work diagram, piping parts table, label, parts packaging/loading indication, transport program, assembly diagram (isometric diagram, plan). Since all data are transmitted to CAM system in automatic machining, these outputs are unnecessary. A reliable pipe machining system (automatic screwing/cutting machine) was prepared by improving recognized existing machines. The new mechanism (pipe automatic warehouse) which can certainly take out a desired pipe from randomly stacked pipes by an originally developed `rotation disk.` A precise measurement equipment was also developed by using a stopper arm and encoder. The CAD/CAM system achieved labor saving requiring only 1-2 operators. 3 figs.

  4. Design of Cam Mechanism with Negative Radius Roller-Follower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Jung-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cam mechanisms with a negative radius roller-follower allow the design of simple machines capable of exerting remarkably high forces. Furthermore, the concave-convex nature of the contact surface between the cam and the follower results in a low contact stress and the ready formation of a lubricating layer. This paper presents a simple method for the design and analysis of a cam mechanism with a negative radius roller-follower. In the proposed approach, conjugate surface theory is employed to derive a kinematic model of the cam mechanism. Analytical expressions for the pressure angle and principal curvatures of the cam profile are then derived. The validity of the proposed design methodology is demonstrated by machining a cam mechanism having a negative radius rollerfollower with a radius of 100 mm.

  5. Research in non-equalization machining method for spatial cam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-hua CHEN; Yi-jie WU

    2008-01-01

    Many kinds of devices with cam have been widely used in various mechanical equipments.However,non-equalization machining for spatial cam trough remains to be a difficult problem.This paper focuses on the analysis of ruaning conditions and machining processes of spatial cam with oscillating follower.We point out the common errors in the biased distance cutting.By analyzing the motion of oscillating follower of spatial cam,we present a new 3D curve expansion model of spatial cam trough-outline.Based on this model.we have proposed a machining method for trochoidal milling with non-equalization diameter cutter.This new method has led to a creative and effective Way for non.equalization diameter machining for spatial cam with oscillating follower.

  6. New Conception of Waving Machine CamEl Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílkovský, A.; Marek, O.; Jirásko, P.; Volanský, Z.

    New mechatronic conception of waving machine CamEl drive is realized by two electronic cams Yaskawa and planetary gears. The first servo motor is used to slay and shedding motion in position mode and the second servo motor is used in automatic weaving mode. Moment of inertia of kinematic chain was reduced that it was possible used a smaller servo motor of electronic cam Yaskawa.

  7. Treatment Preferences for CAM in Children with Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Marcia Meldrum; Kim, Su C.; Jacob, Margaret C.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2006-01-01

    CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls) (mean age = 14.5 years ± 2.4; range = 8–18 years) presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examin...

  8. Resin-composite Blocks for Dental CAD/CAM Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ruse, N.D.; Sadoun, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and ...

  9. CAD/CAM of braided preforms for advanced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gui; Pastore, Christopher; Tsai, Yung Jia; Soebroto, Heru; Ko, Frank

    A CAD/CAM system for braiding to produce preforms for advanced textile structural composites is presented in this paper. The CAD and CAM systems are illustrated in detail. The CAD system identifies the fiber placement and orientation needed to fabricate a braided structure over a mandrel, for subsequent composite formation. The CAM system uses the design parameters generated by the CAD system to control the braiding machine. Experimental evidence demonstrating the success of combining these two technologies to form a unified CAD/CAM system for the manufacture of braided fabric preforms with complex structural shapes is presented.

  10. Konepajan siirtyminen CAD-CAM-ohjelmointiin

    OpenAIRE

    Moisanen, Sari

    2011-01-01

    Sandvik Mining and Construction Köping AB Haparanda aloitti konepajauudistusprojektin kesällä 2008. Uudistuksen tavoitteena oli kasvattaa konepajan tuotantokapasiteettia ja muuttaa tuotantotapa funktionaalisesta solumuotoiseksi. Uudistuksen myötä konepajalle hankittiin keväällä 2009 kolme uutta NC-sorvia ja tietokoneavusteiseen ohjelmointiin soveltuva WinCAM-ohjelmisto. Osa konepajan tuotantohenkilöstöstä koulutettiin käyttämään NC-ohjelmointia ja tekemään NC-ohjelmia Fanucin käyttöjärjestelm...

  11. Compartilhando protocolos: maquina CMM / CAD / CAM

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro Beck, Joao Carlos; Lima da Silva, Isaac Newton; Baroni, Alexandre; Mazin Dias, Gilver

    2007-01-01

    A meta desta contribuição é a descrição da metodologia utilizada para compartilhar um software comercial de CAD/CAM, orientado à indústria mecânica, com um equipamento industrial de controle de qualidade tridimensional (CMM). As etapas necessárias a esta integração são apresentadas, passo a passo, para facilitar o entendimento e a visualização progressiva de cada uma das fases de estudo e análise. Tomando-se como referência este compartilhamento, efetuouse, como aplicação do proce...

  12. Development and validation of the CAM Health Belief Questionnaire (CHBQ and CAM use and attitudes amongst medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boker John

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM and holistic approaches in allopathic medical school curricula has been well articulated. Despite increased CAM instruction, feasible and validated instruments for measuring learner outcomes in this content area do not widely exist. In addition, baseline attitudes or beliefs of medical students towards CAM, and the factors that may have formed them, including use of CAM itself, remain unreported. Methods A 10-item measure (CHBQ – CAM Health Belief Questionnaire was constructed and administered to three successive classes of medical students simultaneously with the previously validated 29-item Integrative Medicine Attitude Questionnaire (IMAQ. Both measures were imbedded in a baseline needs assessment questionnaire. Demographic and other data were collected on students' use of CAM modalities and their awareness and use of primary CAM information resources. Analysis of CHBQ items was performed and its reliability and criterion-related validity were established. Results Response rate was 96.5% (272 of 282 students studied. The shorter CHBQ compared favorably with the longer IMAQ in internal consistency reliability. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was 0.75 and 0.83 for the CHBQ and IMAQ respectively. Students showed positive attitudes/beliefs towards CAM and high levels of self-reported CAM use. The majority (73.5% of students reported using at least one CAM modality, and 54% reported using at least two modalities. Eighty-one percent use the internet as a primary source of information for CAM. Conclusions The CHBQ is a practical, valid and reliable instrument for measuring medical student attitudes/beliefs and has potential utility for measuring the impact of CAM instruction. Medical students showed a high self-reported rate of CAM use and positive attitudes towards CAM. Short, didactic exposure to CAM instruction in the first year of medical school did not additionally

  13. Biochemical and anatomical responses related to the in vitro survival of the tropical bromeliad Nidularium minutum to low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Camila Pereira; Hayashi, Adriana Hissae; Braga, Marcia Regina; Nievola, Catarina Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Nidularium minutum is a tropical bromeliad that grows in natural environment with temperatures ranging from 2 to 30 °C. In the present work we cultivated this species in vitro at 5, 10, 15, and 25 °C for 3 and 6 months aiming at assessing biochemical and morphological responses that allow its survival under low temperatures. No survival was observed for plants cultured constantly at 5 °C and the lowest biometric parameters were found for those grown at 10 °C. A thick aquiferous parenchyma, accumulation of reducing sugars, and increased pectin content in the cell walls were observed in plants grown at 10 and 15 °C when compared to those maintained at 25 °C. In plants cultured at 10 °C, leaf bleaching correlated with low chlorophyll content and lower survival rate after 6 months when compared to those grown at 15 °C. The best in vitro culture condition for slow growth and plant acclimatization was found to be at 15 °C. This probably correlated with the immediate availability of carbon to restore growth during acclimatization and also with higher root initiation under this condition. This study brings information about the responses related to functional adaptation to low temperatures in N. minutum cultured in vitro that can also be implicated in its survival under natural conditions. Additionally, it suggests the best temperature to form a minimal growth collection to be used in restocking and conservation programs for endangered tropical bromeliads.

  14. CAD/CAM-assisted breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchels, Ferry; Wiggenhauser, Paul Severin; Warne, David; Barry, Mark; Ong, Fook Rhu; Chong, Woon Shin; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten

    2011-09-01

    The application of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the clinic is growing slowly but steadily. The ability to build patient-specific models based on medical imaging data offers major potential. In this work we report on the feasibility of employing laser scanning with CAD/CAM techniques to aid in breast reconstruction. A patient was imaged with laser scanning, an economical and facile method for creating an accurate digital representation of the breasts and surrounding tissues. The obtained model was used to fabricate a customized mould that was employed as an intra-operative aid for the surgeon performing autologous tissue reconstruction of the breast removed due to cancer. Furthermore, a solid breast model was derived from the imaged data and digitally processed for the fabrication of customized scaffolds for breast tissue engineering. To this end, a novel generic algorithm for creating porosity within a solid model was developed, using a finite element model as intermediate. PMID:21900731

  15. CAD/CAM: Practical and Persuasive in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willms, Ed

    2007-01-01

    Chances are that many high school students would not know how to use drafting instruments, but some might want to gain competence in computer-assisted design (CAD) and possibly computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM). These students are often attracted to tech courses by the availability of CAD/CAM instructions, and many go on to impress employers…

  16. Cam Drive Step Mechanism of a Quadruped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bionic quadruped robots received considerable worldwide research attention. For a quadruped robot walking with steady paces on a flat terrain, using a cam drive control mechanism instead of servomotors provides theoretical and practical benefits as it reduces the system weight, cost, and control complexities; thus it may be more cost beneficial for some recreational or household applications. This study explores the robot step mechanism including the leg and cam drive control systems based on studying the bone structure and the kinematic step sequences of dog. The design requirements for the cam drive robot legs have been raised, and the mechanical principles of the leg operating mechanism as well as the control parameters have been analyzed. A cam drive control system was constructed using three cams to control each leg. Finally, a four-leg demo robot was manufactured for experiments and it showed stable walking patterns on a flat floor.

  17. Knowledge and training needs among Danish nurses about CAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Background: The increased use of CAM among the Danish population is well documented as are patient’s requests to discuss CAM with a healthcare professional. It is suggested that among different groups of healthcare professionals nurses are the most “open minded” about CAM. This makes it important...... to explore nurses’ knowledge about CAM and their needs for training. Methods: Similar to international investigations a Danish “CAM-knowledge” questionnaire was developed that included multiple choice, yes/no and 5 points scale answers. Validity was established through initial pilot testing. Contacts...... to a randomized sample of 2500 nurses were established through the Danish Nurses Foundation. The questionnaires were mailed by post with the possibility of anonymous return. The data material was analyzed using non-parametic methods. Results: The response rate was 67 % and 1458 completed...

  18. UY Puppis A New Anomalous Z Cam Type Dwarf Nova

    CERN Document Server

    Stubbings, Rod

    2016-01-01

    The defining characteristic of Z Cam stars are standstills in their light curves. Some Z Cams exhibit atypical behaviour by going into outburst from a standstill. It has previously been suggested that UY Pup had been a Z Cam star, but it was ruled out due to its long-term light curve. However, in December 2015 UY Pup went into outburst and unexpectedly entered into a short standstill instead of returning to quiescence. Furthermore, UY Pup exhibited additional unusual behaviour with two outbursts detected during its standstill. After this standstill UY Pup made a brief excursion to a quiescence state and slowly rose to a longer and well-defined standstill, where it again went into another outburst. Through comparative analysis, researching and observational data of UY Pup it is evident and thus concluded that it is indeed a Z Cam star, in which renders it to be one of only four known anomalous Z Cam stars.

  19. Treatment Preferences for CAM in children with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jennie C I; Meldrum, Marcia; Kim, Su C; Jacob, Margaret C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2007-09-01

    CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls) (mean age = 14.5 years +/- 2.4; range = 8-18 years) presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between CAM treatment preferences and patient's sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their self-reported level of functioning. Over 60% of patients elected to try at least one CAM approach for pain. The most popular CAM therapies were biofeedback, yoga and hypnosis; the least popular were art therapy and energy healing, with craniosacral, acupuncture and massage being intermediate. Patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (80%) were the most likely to try CAM versus those with other pain diagnoses. In multivariate analyses, pain duration emerged as a significant predictor of CAM preferences. For mind-based approaches (i.e. hypnosis, biofeedback and art therapy), pain duration and limitations in family activities were both significant predictors. When given a choice of CAM therapies, this sample of children with chronic pain, irrespective of pain diagnosis, preferred non-invasive approaches that enhanced relaxation and increased somatic control. Longer duration of pain and greater impairment in functioning, particularly during family activities increased the likelihood that such patients agreed to engage in CAM treatments, especially those that were categorized as mind-based modalities. PMID:17965769

  20. Treatment Preferences for CAM in Children with Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. I. Tsao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls (mean age = 14.5 years ± 2.4; range = 8–18 years presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between CAM treatment preferences and patient's sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their self-reported level of functioning. Over 60% of patients elected to try at least one CAM approach for pain. The most popular CAM therapies were biofeedback, yoga and hypnosis; the least popular were art therapy and energy healing, with craniosacral, acupuncture and massage being intermediate. Patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (80% were the most likely to try CAM versus those with other pain diagnoses. In multivariate analyses, pain duration emerged as a significant predictor of CAM preferences. For mind-based approaches (i.e. hypnosis, biofeedback and art therapy, pain duration and limitations in family activities were both significant predictors. When given a choice of CAM therapies, this sample of children with chronic pain, irrespective of pain diagnosis, preferred non-invasive approaches that enhanced relaxation and increased somatic control. Longer duration of pain and greater impairment in functioning, particularly during family activities increased the likelihood that such patients agreed to engage in CAM treatments, especially those that were categorized as mind-based modalities.

  1. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM providers’ views of chronic low back pain patients’ expectations of CAM therapies: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schafer Lisa M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some researchers think that patients with higher expectations for CAM therapies experience better outcomes and that enthusiastic providers can enhance treatment outcomes. This is in contrast to evidence suggesting conventional medical providers often reorient patient expectations to better match what providers believe to be realistic. However, there is a paucity of research on CAM providers’ views of their patients’ expectations regarding CAM therapy and the role of these expectations in patient outcomes. Methods To better understand how CAM providers view and respond to their patients’ expectations of a particular therapy, we conducted 32 semi-structured, qualitative interviews with acupuncturists, chiropractors, massage therapists and yoga instructors identified through convenience sampling. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically using Atlas ti version 6.1. Results CAM providers reported that they attempt to ensure that their patients’ expectations are realistic. Providers indicated they manage their patients’ expectations in a number of domains— roles and responsibilities of providers and patients, treatment outcomes, timeframe for improvement, and treatment experience. Providers reported that patients’ expectations change over time and that they need to continually manage these expectations to enhance patient engagement and satisfaction with treatment. Conclusions Providers of four types of CAM therapies viewed patients’ expectations as an important component of their experiences with CAM therapy and indicated that they try to align patient expectations with reality. These findings suggest that CAM providers are similar in this respect to conventional medical providers.

  2. Immediate CAD/ CAM Custom Fabricated Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There will almost always be gaps between cylin-drical or screw shaped prefabricated implant surface and funnel-shaped tooth socket when an implant is placed immediately after tooth extraction. Hence expensive and difficult bone grafting is re-quired. A custom fabricated implant will be a pragmatic solution for this limitation.The hypothesis: First step following extraction of a tooth is data capture or scanning via a 3D scan method e.g. coordinate measuring machine or non-contact laser scanners such as triangulation range finder. Second step is reconstruction or modeling via editable CAD (computer-aided design model, allowing us to add retentive holes and correction of implant angle. Third step is fabrication via CAM (computer aided manufacturing followed by plasma cleaning process. Fourth step is insertion of the CAD/CAM custom fabricated one-stage implant in the fresh tooth socket. Optimal time for this step is 24-48 hours after extraction. The custom fabricated implant should not load 3-4 months. Usage of chlorhexidine mouth-rinse or chewing gum twice daily for 2 weeks and, in some cases oral antibiotic is recommended. Evaluation of the hypothesis: Contemporary dental implant system faced with several clinical and anatomical limitations such is low sinuses or nerve bundles. Complex and expensive surgical procedures such as nerve repositioning and sinus lift are frequently required. With custom fabricated implant we can overcome several of these limitations because insertion of custom fabricated implant will perform before alveolar bone recession.

  3. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Enolase Gene from Ornamental Bromeliads%观赏凤梨烯醇酶基因的克隆及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴吉林; 刘建新

    2012-01-01

    Enolase catalyze only one-step dehydration reaction in glycolytic pathway, and relate closely to plant stress resistance. Based on EST monoclones of enolase gene obtained from bromeliads full length cD-NA library of ornamental bromeliads,its full length cDNA sequence was obtained by Primer Walking sequencing. The gene,named for GoEnolasel (GenBank accession No. JN896863) .consisted of 1 703 bp cD-NA sequence, 1 335 bp ORF(open reading frame) which encoded a protem with 445 amino acids residues, and a putative protein which was 47. 9 kD at estimated molecular weight,5. 7 at isoelectric point and had a 'TIM-phosphate-binding superfamily' conservative domain. The secondary structure of the protein was composed of alpha helix (44. 49%), random coil (33. 71%), extend strand (13. 71%) and beta turn (8. 09%) by SPOMA analysis. Furthermore, its tertiary structure was also build based on A chain of 2PSN. Through phylogenetic tree analysis,GoEnolasel was gather to a same group with enolase protein in Oryza sativa ,Zea mays and Elaeis guineensis. The research was beneficial to breeding for stress resistance in ornamental bromeliads.%烯醇酶催化着糖酵解途径中的唯一一步脱水反应,与植物的抗逆性有着密切的联系.基于前期从擎天凤梨全长cDNA文库中获得的烯醇酶基因的EST单克隆,进行引物步移测序,获得其全长cDNA序列.序列长1703hp,编码445个氨基酸残基,命名为GoEnolasel(GenBank登录号JN896863),蛋白质理论分子质量为47.9kD,等电点为5.7,包含1个TIM磷酸结合超家族保守区,二级结构主要由α螺旋(44.49%)、随机卷曲(33.71%)、延伸链(13.71%)和β转角(8.09%)组成.系统进化树分析表明,GoEnolasel蛋白与水稻、玉米、油棕等的烯醇酶蛋白聚为一类,它们的亲缘关系最近.

  4. UVAJANJE PROGRAMSKIH ORODIJ CAD/CAM V PODJETJU

    OpenAIRE

    Gjerkeš, Srečko

    2010-01-01

    V diplomskem delu je prikazan postopek uvedbe CAD/CAM programskega orodja v podjetje. Cilj diplomskega dela je primerjava med ročnim programiranjem in programiranjem s pomočjo CAM sistema ter povečanje produktivnosti proizvodnje pri izdelavi serijskih izdelkov. Z uvedbo programskega orodja bi predvsem skrajšali obdelovalne čase izdelkov, ki se izdelujejo v različnih serijah. Diplomsko delo opisuje osnovne značilnosti CAD/CAM sistemov, podjetje Medicop d.o.o, programska orodja in njihovo p...

  5. SODOBNA RAČUNALNIŠKA TEHNOLOGIJA ZA CAD/CAM

    OpenAIRE

    Herženjak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Sodobna računalniška tehnologija CAD/CAM se čedalje pogosteje uporablja v naprednih podjetjih v tujini in tudi v Sloveniji. Pomembno je vedeti kakšna aparaturna oprema za CAD/CAM je danes na voljo, saj omogoča uspešno konstruiranje, modeliranje in simulacije. V prvem delu diplomske naloge sem zato preučil sodobno programsko in aparaturno opremo za CAD/CAM, ki je namenjena za konstruiranje, modeliranje in simulacije. Prav tako sem na kratko opisal najpomembnejše vidike dodajanih tehnologij, ki...

  6. CAD/CAM ceramic restorations in the operatory and laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasbinder, Dennis J

    2003-08-01

    Computer assisted design/computer assisted machining (CAD/CAM) technology has received considerable clinical and research interest from modern dental practices as a means of delivering all-ceramic restorations. The CEREC, System offers CAD/CAM dental technology designed for clinical use by dentists, as well as a separate system designed for dental laboratory technicians. The CEREC 3 system is indicated for dental operatory applications, and the CEREC inLab, system is indicated for dental laboratory applications. Although both systems rely on similar CAD/CAM technology, several significant differences exist in the processing techniques involved, restorative materials used, and types of restoration provided. PMID:14692164

  7. Cam Profile Grinding CNC System Based on Open Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies some key technologies of CNC system for cam grinding. Themathematical motion model for cam grinding is established according to the harmony of re-ciprocating motion of the grinding wheel and the rotating motion of the woorkpiece. Themethod of using the linear servomotor to accomplish the grinding wheel tracking is devel-oped and the dynamic model of the system is analyzed. Then the cross-coupled biaxial errorcompensation model is proposed. Finally,the hardware and software of the control systemare designed based on open architecture. Some algorithms, such as spline fitting and inter-polation for cam contour, velocity control and feed control, are presented to improvegrinding precision.

  8. Resin-composite blocks for dental CAD/CAM applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, N D; Sadoun, M J

    2014-12-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and resin composites. While glass-ceramics/ceramics have overall superior mechanical and esthetic properties, resin-composite materials may offer significant advantages related to their machinability and intra-oral reparability. This review summarizes recent developments in resin-composite materials for CAD/CAM applications, focusing on both commercial and experimental materials.

  9. Finding the Evidence in CAM: a Student's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Ghassemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This commentary offers a future health care provider's perspective on the role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in Western (namely, in US medical education and practice. As a student of both public health and medicine in the United States, Jeffrey Ghassemi is interested in CAM's contribution to improving medical practice and teaching. The commentary highlights the ambiguous definitions of CAM to Westerners despite the rising popularity of and expenditures for alternative modalities of care. It then argues for collaboration between alternative and established medical communities to ascertain the scientific merits of CAM. It concludes by calling for a new medical paradigm that embraces the philosophies of both communities to advance education and patient care.

  10. Surgical hip dislocation for treatment of cam femoroacetabular impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M Chaudhary

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Cam femoroacetabular Impingement causing pain and limitation of hip movements was treated by open osteochondroplasty after surgical hip dislocation. This reduced pain, improved hip motion and gave good to excellent results in the short term.

  11. Resin-composite Blocks for Dental CAD/CAM Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, N.D.; Sadoun, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and resin composites. While glass-ceramics/ceramics have overall superior mechanical and esthetic properties, resin-composite materials may offer significant advantages related to their machinability and intra-oral reparability. This review summarizes recent developments in resin-composite materials for CAD/CAM applications, focusing on both commercial and experimental materials. PMID:25344335

  12. IGES data exchange between dissimilar CAD-CAM systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theilen, D.F.

    1982-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Bendix Kansas City have successfully transferred geometrical model data by using a neutral graphics format, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). Data was exchanged between two dissimilar CAD-CAM systems without the need for special translators. The exchanged data was used to fabricate a mechanical part. Design information developed on a CAD-CAM system was translated to IGES with a commercial preprocessor at Sandia. A second vendor's postprocessor translated the design information from IGES to the CAD-CAM system at Bendix. The Bendix CAD-CAM system was used to generate the numerical control tape from the exchange data. The tape was used to fabricate the part. A production print from Sandia was used during final inspection to verify part accuracy. Project results indicated that both vendor-furnished translators correctly transferred the geometric model of points, lines and arcs.

  13. Selecting a CAD/CAM system for the first time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    A good percentage of manufacturing companies with gross sales exceeding $100 million already use some form of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM). More recently, however, a new, larger group with annual gross sales between $10 million and $100 million have entered the CAD/CAM marketplace. Interested because the technology has proven itself to be economical, beneficial, and relatively easy to implement without prior computer experience, these companies are actively investigating and applying CAD and CAD/CAM. Many are subcontractors to large companies with low design requirements. Others may design and/or manufacture a proprietary product line. Yet, while resembling one another, the needs of these companies vary widely. Applying the proper kind and level of CAD/CAM, therefore, requires a careful analysis of each user's needs.

  14. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Time to Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with your health care providers any complementary and alternative medicines you take or are thinking about starting. Photo: ... and older use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). But less than one-third who use ...

  15. Today's CAD/CAM: flexible digital technologies expanding workflow options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, Jonathan L

    2015-03-01

    CAD/CAM and digital scanning technologies have become essential components of dentistry. Digital impression scanning, restoration design, and manufacturing techniques yield greater treatment predictability, high-level esthetics, and functional accuracy using a variety of materials. PMID:25822749

  16. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies, and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability

  17. OmegaCAM at the VLT Survey Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappellaro, E.; Baruffolo, A.; Cascone, E.; Greggio, L.; Kuijken, K.; Bender, R.; Muschielok, B.; Iwert, O.; Mitsch, W.; Nicklas, H.; Valentijn, E. A.

    2003-01-01

    We present the status of the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) and OmegaCAM projects. VST is a 2.6m telescope which will be integrated in the ESO-VLT environment at Paranal and will be equipped with a 16k × 16k CCD camera (OmegaCAM) covering 1 square degree with a resolution of 0.21 arcsec/pix. The main sc

  18. CAD-CAM Implants in Esthetic and Reconstructive Craniofacial Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Jörg; Hemprich, Alexander; Schulze, Fritz Peter; Berti, Guntram; Schmidt, Jens-Georg; Scholz, Eckhard; Wollny, Gerd; Hierl, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In the reconstruction of complex craniofacial malformations CAD-CAM procedures could help generating alloplastic implants to achieve almost optimal esthetic results. Complementary to the existing CAD-CAM techniques in the cranial vault region or modeling procedures in unilateral defects, these techniques are introduced to bilaterally affected skulls in esthetic reconstructive surgery. Surgery could thus become less invasive and results more predictable. A tool chain is shown to generate such ...

  19. Geometric Distortion Analysis Using CAD/CAM Based Manufacturing Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Werke, Mats; Hedlind, Mikael; Nicolescu, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Machining of components may cause geometric distortions and thereby quality issues and increased costs. This paper presents an engineering approach of CAD/CAM based manufacturing simulation in order to be in control of geometric distortions after machining. The method utilises STEP AP209 for communication of CAD/CAM simulation data. The method improves the ability to optimise process parameters, geometry, and material, in order to fulfil the design requirements. The method supports concurrent...

  20. A systematic review of CAD/CAM fit restoration evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitelle, P; Mawussi, B; Tapie, L; Fromentin, O

    2014-11-01

    The evolution and development of CAD/CAM systems have led to the production of prosthetic reconstructions by going beyond the use of traditional techniques. Precision adjustment of prosthetic elements is considered essential to ensure sustainable restoration and dental preparation. The purpose of this article was to summarise the current literature on the fitting quality of fixed prostheses obtained by CAD/CAM technology. PMID:24952991

  1. CAD-CAM at Bendix Kansas city: the BICAM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, D.R.

    1983-04-01

    Bendix Kansas City Division (BEKC) has been involved in Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) technology since the late 1950's when the numerical control (N/C) analysts installed computers to aid in N/C tape preparation for numerically controlled machines. Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology was introduced in 1976, when a number of 2D turnkey drafting stations were procured for printed wiring board (PWB) drawing definition and maintenance. In June, 1980, CAD-CAM Operations was formed to incorporate an integrated CAD-CAM capability into Bendix operations. In March 1982, a ninth division was added to the existing eight divisions at Bendix. Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) is a small organization, reporting directly to the general manager, who has responsibility to coordinate the overall integration of computer aided systems at Bendix. As a long range plan, CIM has adopted a National Bureau of Standards (NBS) architecture titled Factory of the Future. Conceptually, the Bendix CAD-CAM system has a centrally located data base which can be accessed by both CAD and CAM tools, processes, and personnel thus forming an integrated Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) System. This is a key requirement of the Bendix CAD-CAM system that will be presented in more detail.

  2. Aquatic CAM photosynthesis: a brief history of its discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) photosynthesis was discovered while investigating an unrelated biochemical pathway concerned with anaerobic metabolism. George Bowes was a significant contributor to this project early in its infancy. Not only did he provide me with some valuable perspectives on peer review rejections, but by working with his gas exchange system I was able to take our initial observations of diel fluctuations in malic acid to the next level, showing this aquatic plant exhibited dark CO2 uptake. CAM is universal in all aquatic species of the worldwide Lycophyta genus Isoetes and non-existent in terrestrial Isoetes. Outside of this genus aquatic CAM has a limited occurrence in three other families, including the Crassulaceae. This discovery led to fascinating adventures in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes in search of Stylites, a terrestrial relative of Isoetes. Stylites is a plant that is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere and obtains all of its carbon from terrestrial sources and recycles carbon through CAM. Considering the Mesozoic origin of Isoetes in shallow pools, coupled with the fact that aquatic Isoetes universally possess CAM, suggests the earliest evolution of CAM photosynthesis was most likely not in terrestrial plants.

  3. Early selection of elite clones of an ornamental bromeliad in vitro Seleção precoce in vitro de clones elite de uma bromélia ornamental

    OpenAIRE

    Candida Elisa Manfio; Sérgio Yoshimitsu Motoike; Cláudio Coelho de Paula; Magno Sávio Valente; Cristiane Gamarano Melo

    2010-01-01

    Orthophytum grossiorum is a typical bromeliad from Atlantic forestry threatened of extinction. The objectives of this research were to select O. grossiorum clones with ornamental values easy to propagate in vitro, and establish in vitro propagation protocols for these clones. The project was developed in three steps: germination and in vitro selection of seedlings responsive to BAP (6-benzylaminopurine), selection of clones with ornamental values, and establishment of protocol for in vitro pr...

  4. AEGIS Automated Targeting for the MSL ChemCam Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estlin, T.; Anderson, R. C.; Blaney, D. L.; Bornstein, B.; Burl, M. C.; Castano, R.; Gaines, D.; Judd, M.; Thompson, D. R.; Wiens, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science (AEGIS) system enables automated science data collection by a planetary rover. AEGIS has been in use on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission Opportunity rover since 2010 to provide onboard targeting of the MER Panoramic Camera based on scientist-specified objectives. AEGIS is now being applied for use with the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission ChemCam spectrometer. ChemCam uses a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) to analyze the elemental composition of rocks and soil from up to seven meters away. ChemCam's tightly-focused laser beam (350-550 um) enables targeting of very fine-scale terrain features. AEGIS is being applied in two ways to help ChemCam collect valuable science data. The first application is to enable automated targeting of ChemCam during or after or in the middle of long drives. The majority of ChemCam measurements are collected by allowing the science team to select specific targets in rover images. However this requires the rover to stay in the same area while images are downlinked, analyzed for targets, and new commands uplinked. The only data that can be acquired without this communication cycle is via blind targeting, where measurements are often of soil patches vs. instead of more valuable targets such as rocks with specific properties. AEGIS is being applied to automatically analyze images onboard and select targets for ChemCam analysis. This approach allows the rover to autonomously select and sequence targeted measurements in an opportunistic fashion at different points along the rover's drive path. Rock targets can be prioritized for measurement based on various geologically relevant features, including size, shape and albedo. A second application is to enable intelligent pointing refinement of ChemCam when acquiring data of small targets, such as veins or concretions that are only a few millimeters wide. Due to backlash and other pointing challenges, it can often

  5. Bendix CAD-CAM site plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.L.

    1982-12-01

    The Bendix Site Plan for CAD-CAM encompasses the development and integration of interactive graphics systems, factory data management systems, robotics, direct numerical control, automated inspection, factory automation, and shared data bases to achieve significant plant-wide gains in productivity. This plan does not address all current or planned computerization projects within our facility. A summary of planning proposals and rationale is presented in the following paragraphs. Interactive Graphics System (IGS) capability presently consists of two Applicon CAD systems and the CD-2000 software program processing on a time-shared CYBER 174 computer and a dedicated CYBER 173. Proposed plans include phased procurment through FY85 of additional computers and sufficient graphics terminals to support projected needs in drafting, tool/gage design, N/C programming, and process engineering. Planned procurement of additional computer equipment in FY86 and FY87 will provide the capacity necessary for a comprehensive graphics data base management system, computer-aided process planning graphics, and special graphics requirements in facilities and test equipment design. The overall IGS plan, designated BICAM (Bendix Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing), will provide the capability and capacity to integrate manufacturing activities through a shared product data base and standardized data exchange format. Planned efforts in robotics will result in productive applications of low to medium technology robots beginning in FY82, and extending by FY85 to work cell capabilities utilizing higher technology robots with sensors such as vision and instrumented remote compliance devices. A number of robots are projected to be in service by 1990.

  6. Prevalence of Cam Morphology in Females with Femoroacetabular Impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Levy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cam and pincer are two common morphologies responsible for femoroacetabular impingement. Previous literature has reported that cam deformity is predominantly a male morphology, while being significantly less common in females. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cam morphology in female subjects diagnosed with symptomatic FAI. All females presenting to the senior author’s clinic diagnosed with symptomatic FAI between December 2006 and Cam and pincer are two common morphologies responsible for femoroacetabular impingement. Previous literature has reported that cam deformity is predominantly a male morphology, while being significantly less common in females. Cam morphology is commonly assessed with the alpha angle, measured on radiographs. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cam morphology utilizing the alpha angle in female subjects diagnosed with symptomatic FAI. All females presenting to the senior author’s clinic diagnosed with symptomatic FAI between December 2006 and January 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Alpha (α angles were measured on AP (anteroposterior and lateral (Dunn 90°, cross-table lateral, and/or frog-leg lateral plain radiographs by two blinded physicians, and the largest measured angle was used. Using Gosvig et al.’s classification, alpha angle was characterized as (pathologic > 57°, borderline (51-56°, subtle (46-50°, very subtle (43-45°, or normal (≤42°. Three hundred and ninety-one patients (438 hips were analyzed (age 36.2 ± 12.3 years. Among the hips included, 35.6% were normal, 14.6% pathologic, 15.1% borderline, 14.6% subtle, and 20.1% very subtle. There was no correlation between alpha angle and patient age (R = 0.17 or body mass index (BMI (R = 0.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for α-angle measurements was 0.84. Sixty-four percent of females in this cohort had an alpha angle > 42°. Subtle cam deformity plays a significant role in

  7. Bromeliad ornamental species: conservation issues and challenges related to commercialization=Espécies ornamentais de bromélias: conservação e desafios relacionados a sua comercialização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromeliads grow almost exclusively in the New World tropics and subtropics, mainly in South America in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (ca. 1200 species. Within the last few decades, their beautiful shapes and colors, low maintenance and easy adaptability to small gardens have brought bromeliads into worldwide use as ornamental plants. While the ornamental bromeliad trade could make significant contributions to household economies in rural areas, the trade may represent a significant threat in some of the bromeliad biodiversity hotspot countries such as Brazil, Bolivia and Colombia. This paper presents an overview of production volumes, analysis of the Brazilian bromeliads trade chain – at the state, national and international levels – and recommendations to address development and conservation challenges.Bromélias crescem quase que exclusivamente nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais do Novo Mundo, ocorrendo principalmente na Floresta Atlântica brasileira na América do Sul. (ca. 1200 espécies. Nas últimas décadas, pelas suas belas formas e cores, baixa demanda de manutenção e fácil adaptabilidade a pequenos jardins, as bromélias tem sido mundialmente utilizadas como plantas ornamentais. O comércio de bromélias ornamentais pode promover significante acréscimo de renda em áreas rurais, mas por outro lado pode também significar uma ameaça à manutenção da diversidade destes recursos biológicos, especialmente em países como Brasil, Bolívia e Colômbia. Este trabalho apresenta uma caracterização geral dos volumes de produção e da cadeia brasileira de comercialização de bromélias - em nível estadual, nacional e internacional assim como recomendações para promover o desenvolvimento deste setor e superar desafios relacionados ao uso sustentável deste recurso.

  8. PRODUCT DATA MANAGEMENT DALAM KAITAN DENGAN CAD/CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Nugroho Yahya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The future industry is the one who can manage the information system. Today, communication technology and distributed system computerization already have the ability to implement system that able to exchange and share information between different users. Product Data Management (PDM is an up-to-date and excellent method on managing the exchange and share of information. PDM is able to integrate and manage data analyzing process and documentation of the related product component physically. By adjusting the CAD/CAM on certain condition, the PDM will function maximally by using the information based on STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product Data model. This article will explain the relationship between PDM system and CAD/CAM on industry. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sistem informasi merupakan ujung tombak sebuah perusahaan yang unggul di masa depan. Komputerisasi dengan sistem yang terdistribusi dan teknologi komunikasi saat ini memiliki kemampuan untuk mengimplementasikan sistem yang dapat menukar dan men-share informasi antar user yang berbeda. Teknologi yang mendapat cukup perhatian luas dalam hal pertukaran dan sharing informasi ini adalah Product Data Management (PDM. PDM dapat mengintegrasikan dan mengatur proses pengolahan data dan dokumen teknik yang berhubungan dengan komponen fisik produk yang bersangkutan. PDM akan berfungsi maksimal apabila kesesuaian dengan CAD/CAM diatur sedemikian rupa, dihubungkan dengan informasi berbasiskan STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product Data model. Artikel ini akan menjelaskan hubungan antara sistem PDM dengan CAD/CAM dalam industri. Kata kunci: PDM, Manajemen Data, CAD/CAM, STEP.

  9. Exploring adolescent complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) use in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Chris; Arthur, Heather; Noesgaard, Charlotte; Caldwell, Patricia; Vohra, Julie; Francoeur, Chera; Swinton, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach investigated adolescents' perceptions about complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) use. Adolescents, attending a clinic at the Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine, were interviewed after receiving ethics approval. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. The decision of adolescents to use CAM was based within the context of their world and how it shaped influencing factors. Factors that influenced adolescents' decision to use CAM were identified as certain personality traits, culture, media, social contacts and the ability of CAM providers to develop therapeutic relationships. The barriers and benefits of CAM use influenced evaluation of choices. The importance of barriers in limiting freedom of choice in health care decisions should be investigated by practitioners as they provide care to adolescents. Health care planning for integrative models of care requires determining the "right" blend of expertise by knowing interprofessional boundaries, determining mixed skill sets to provide the essential services and ensuring appropriate regulation that allows practitioners to use their full scope of practice. PMID:18202985

  10. CamBAfx: Workflow Design, Implementation and Application for Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cinly; Bullmore, Edward T; Wink, Alle-Meije; Sendur, Levent; Barnes, Anna; Achard, Sophie; Aspden, John; Abbott, Sanja; Yue, Shigang; Kitzbichler, Manfred; Meunier, David; Maxim, Voichita; Salvador, Raymond; Henty, Julian; Tait, Roger; Subramaniam, Naresh; Suckling, John

    2009-01-01

    CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers) and those who design them (designers). It provides a front-end (user interface) optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platform application, CamBAfx's pipelines and functions can be bundled with the software or downloaded post-installation. The user interface contains all the workflow facilities expected by consumers. Using the Eclipse Extension Mechanism designers are encouraged to customize CamBAfx for their own pipelines. CamBAfx wraps a workflow facility around neuroinformatics software without modification. CamBAfx's design, licensing and Eclipse Branding Mechanism allow it to be used as the user interface for other software, facilitating exchange of innovative computational tools between originating labs.

  11. CamBAfx: workflow design, implementation and application for neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinly Ooi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers and those who design them (designers. It provides a front-end (user interface optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platform application, CamBAfx's pipelines and functions can be bundled with the software or downloaded post-installation. The user interface contains all the workflow facilities expected by consumers. Using the Eclipse Extension Mechanism designers are encouraged to customize CamBAfx for their own pipelines. CamBAfx wraps a workflow facility around neuroinformatics software without modification. CamBAfx's design, licensing and Eclipse Branding Mechanism allow it to be used as the user interface for other software, facilitating exchange of innovative computational tools between originating labs.

  12. Concerns of Hydrothermal Degradation in CAD/CAM Zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.-W.; Covel, N.S.; Guess, P.C.; Rekow, E.D.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia-based restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry; however, their susceptibility to hydrothermal degradation remains elusive. We hypothesized that CAD/CAM machining and subsequent surface treatments, i.e., grinding and/or grit-blasting, have marked effects on the hydrothermal degradation behavior of Y-TZP. CAD/CAM-machined Y-TZP plates (0.5 mm thick), both with and without subsequent grinding with various grit sizes or grit-blasting with airborne alumina particles, were subjected to accelerated aging tests in a steam autoclave. Results showed that the CAD/CAM-machined surfaces initially exhibited superior hydrothermal degradation resistance, but deteriorated at a faster rate upon prolonged autoclave treatment compared with ground and grit-blasted surfaces. The accelerated hydrothermal degradation of CAD/CAM surfaces is attributed to the CAD/CAM machining damage and the absence of surface compressive stresses in the fully sintered material. Clinical relevance for surface treatments of zirconia frameworks in terms of hydrothermal and structural stabilities is addressed. PMID:19966039

  13. Aedes albopictus em bromélias de solo em Ilhabela, litoral do Estado de São Paulo Aedes albopictus in soil bromeliads in Ilhabela, coastal area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela R A M Marques

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a presença de Aedes albopictus em bromélias de solo localizadas em ambientes ecologicamente distintos, em termos de positividade, densidade e volume de água. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado no município de Ilhabela, litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo. Realizaram-se coletas quinzenais, de março de 1998 a julho de 1999, em tanques de bromélias localizadas nos ambientes urbano, periurbano e mata; o conteúdo aquático das plantas foi medido e registrado. O tratamento dos dados baseou-se na análise da freqüência de bromélias com presença de Ae. albopictus (ANOVA, abundância (Kruskal-Wallis e volume de água das bromélias positivas (Teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: A presença e a densidade de Ae. albopictus em bromélias de solo variou com o tipo de ambiente. Os maiores percentuais de positividade (85% e abundância (81% foram observados nas plantas localizadas em ambiente urbano. Constatou-se ainda preferência dos mosquitos pelas bromélias com maiores volumes de água (média de 300 ml. CONCLUSÕES: As diferentes freqüências com que Ae. albopictus foi registrado nos ambientes e suas respectivas densidades mostraram sua capacidade de invasão a novos habitats. Recomenda-se intensificar a vigilância entomológica nessas plantas, dada a sua capacidade em traduzir-se em criadouros permanentes. A presença desse mosquito de importância médica em bromélias em área preservada da Mata Atlântica poderá resultar em agravo à saúde.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the presence of Aedes albopictus in soil bromeliads in ecologically distinct environments in terms of positivity, density and volume of water. METHODS: The study was carried out in the municipality of Ilhabela, North coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Collections were fortnightly performed between March 1998 and July 1999, in containers of bromeliads located in urban, peri-urban and forest environments. The water content in plants was measured and recorded

  14. GravityCam: Higher Resolution Visible Wide-Field Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Craig; Steele, Iain

    2016-01-01

    The limits to the angular resolution achievable with conventional ground-based telescopes are unchanged over 70 years. Atmospheric turbulence limits image quality to typically ~1 arcsec in practice. We have developed a new concept of ground-based imaging instrument called GravityCam capable of delivering significantly sharper images from the ground than is normally possible without adaptive optics. The acquisition of visible images at high speed without significant noise penalty has been made possible by advances in optical and near IR imaging technologies. Images are recorded at high speed and then aligned before combination and can yield a 3-5 fold improvement in image resolution. Very wide survey fields are possible with widefield telescope optics. We describe GravityCam and detail its application to accelerate greatly the rate of detection of Earth size planets by gravitational microlensing. GravityCam will also improve substantially the quality of weak shear studies of dark matter distribution in distant...

  15. IGES data exchange between dissimilar CAD-CAM systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theilen, D.F.; Jones, J.F.

    1982-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNLL), and Bendix Kansas City have successfully transferred geometric model data by using a neutral graphics format, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). Data was exchanged between two dissimilar CAD-CAM systems without the need for special translators. The exchanged data was used to fabricate a mechanical part. Design information developed on a CAD-CAM system was translated to IGES with a commercial preprocessor at Sandia. A second vendor's postprocessor translated the design information from IGES to the CAD-CAM system at Bendix. The Bendix system was used to generate the numerical control tape from the exchanged data. The tape was used to fabricate the part. A production print from Sandia was used during final inspection to verify part accuracy. Project results indicated that both vendor-furnished translators correctly transferred the three-dimensional geometric model of points, lines, and arcs.

  16. Illness narratives in cancer: CAM and spiritual practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    be related to CAM. The analysis is based on empirical findings from a recent PhD project. During a two-year period first author followed 32 cancer patients, family, friends and alternative practitioners through interviews, telephone conversations, treatments and in focus groups. Results: As a general pattern......Objectives: In this paper,we investigate Danish cancer patients’ narratives on spiritual beliefs and practices and the relationship these practices may have to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design: Narrative inquiry is used to uncover how spiritual beliefs and practices may......, religious and spiritual issues were not extensively unfolded in participants’ illness narratives. However, these issues were significantly elaborated on in narratives by four female participants. Conclusion: We propose that for some cancer patients CAM may function, not only or primarily as a treatment...

  17. Xi-CAM v1.2.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-06

    Xi-CAM aims to provide a community driven platform for multimodal analysis in synchrotron science. The platform core provides a robust plugin infrastructure for extensibility, allowing continuing development to simply add further functionality. Current modules include tools for characterization with (GI)SAXS, Tomography, and XAS. This will continue to serve as a development base as algorithms for multimodal analysis develop. Seamless remote data access, visualization and analysis are key elements of Xi-CAM, and will become critical to synchrotron data infrastructure as expectations for future data volume and acquisition rates rise with continuously increasing throughputs. The highly interactive design elements of Xi-cam will similarly support a generation of users which depend on immediate data quality feedback during high-throughput or burst acquisition modes.

  18. CAM Modalities Can Stimulate Advances in Theoretical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Alex

    2005-03-01

    Most complementary medicine is distinguished by not being supported by underlying theory accepted by Western science. However, for those who accept their validity, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities offer clues to understanding physiology and medicine more deeply. Ayurveda and vibrational medicine are stimulating new approaches to biological regulation. The new biophysics can be integrated to yield a single consistent theory, which may well underly much of CAM-a true 'physics of physick'. The resulting theory seems to be a new, fundamental theory of health and etiology. It suggests that many CAM approaches to health care are scientifically in advance of those based on current Western biology. Such theories may well constitute the next steps in our scientific understanding of biology itself. If successfully developed, these ideas could result in a major paradigm shift in both biology and medicine, which will benefit all interested parties-consumers, health professionals, scientists, institutions and governments. PMID:15841271

  19. Concerns of Hydrothermal Degradation in CAD/CAM Zirconia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J.-W.; Covel, N.S.; Guess, P.C.; Rekow, E.D.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia-based restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry; however, their susceptibility to hydrothermal degradation remains elusive. We hypothesized that CAD/CAM machining and subsequent surface treatments, i.e., grinding and/or grit-blasting, have marked effects on the hydrothermal degradation behavior of Y-TZP. CAD/CAM-machined Y-TZP plates (0.5 mm thick), both with and without subsequent grinding with various grit sizes or grit-blasting with airborne alumina particles, were subj...

  20. Update on CAD/CAM activities at Sandia Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, D.A.

    1977-09-01

    Development of systems for Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) has been underway at Sandia Laboratories for several years. These include systems for circuit design and analysis, systems for design and fabrication of printed circuit boards and hybrid microcircuits, and systems for mechanical applications, such as mass properties calculations and stress analysis. CAD/CAM operations have proved successful for electronic applications. Current emphasis is on development of mechanical support software, and with putting into production a machine-aided design and definition system (MADDS) utilizing Applicon Graphics Systems (AGS). 14 figures. (RWR)

  1. CAD/CAM system based upon the IAPX 432

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criscione, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Intel Corporation has developed a 32 bit microprocessor which provides hardware support for object oriented applications, accommodates concurrent processing in a manner invisible to the user, and allows easy interfacing to peripherals. These features, along with numerous others that have never been offered before in a microprocessor, makes the IAPX 432 an attractive base for CAD/CAM. The author outlines one possible implementation of a CAD/CAM system with the 432 at its heart. The advantages offered by the 432 are weighed against its limitations. 5 references.

  2. CAD/CAM: improved design quality, increased productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, D. E.; England, J.

    1980-01-01

    Maintaining productivity levels while assuring the quality of engineering products grows increasingly more difficult and costly for industries such as the energy industry which are heavily committed to product design. The man/machine interface made possible through the development of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology can be applied to the design process as a tool for increased control to assure the quality of the final engineering product. The quality-control aspects of CAD/CAM technology are addressed in this presentation.

  3. CAD/CAM in the Brazilian aeronautical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampi, L. H.; Embraer, S. A.

    Features, applications and progress in the usage of CAD/CAM since 1980 by an aircraft manufacturer in Brazil are described. The system comprises 34 graphics work stations dedicated to structural design, lofting, electrical cable routing, finite element modeling and quality control. Standardized work methods have been devised to enhance productivity. Programs have been defined for finite element stress analysis and generating wiring diagrams. The computerized design capabilities have increased productivity for hole boring accuracy through work on digitized controllers. Psychological testing has been initiated to identify users who can adapt more easily to CAD/CAM utilization.

  4. Marginal Integrity of CAD/CAM Fixed Partial Dentures

    OpenAIRE

    Rosentritt, Martin; Behr, Michael; Kolbeck, Carola; Handel, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM) allows the milling of high strength zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPD), however bonding to an inert ZrO2 ceramic surface may effect the marginal integrity of the FPDs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of zirconia FPDs at the interfaces between zirconia, cement, and tooth. Methods 32 3-unit FPDs were fabricated of the CAD/CAM Y-TZP zirconia (Lava, 3M Espe, Germany) according to the manufactur...

  5. CAM visual stimulation with conventional method of occlusion treatment in amblyopia: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Jafari

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Using of CAM visual stimulation along with conventional occlusion will further improve visual acuity and stereopsis in amblyopic children. These findings recommended the CAM visual stimulation as an accompanying and complementary method in amblyopia treatment.

  6. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... for low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

  7. Mitochondrial respiration in ME-CAM, PEPCK-CAM, and C₃ succulents: comparative operation of the cytochrome, alternative, and rotenone-resistant pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, Klaus; von Willert, Dieter J; Martin, Craig E; Herppich, Werner B

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondria are important in the function and control of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) during organic acid accumulation at night and acid decarboxylation in the day. In plants of the malic enzyme-(ME) type and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase- (PEPCK) type, mitochondria may exert their role in the control of the diurnal rhythm of malic and citric acids to a differential degree. In plants of both CAM types, the oxidative capacity of mitochondria, as well as the activity of CAM-linked mitochondrial enzymes, and of the alternative and the rotenone-resistant pathways of substrate oxidation were compared. Furthermore, a C₃ succulent was included, as well as both C₃ and CAM forms of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum during a salt-induced C₃-to-CAM shift. Mitochondria of PEPCK-type CAM plants exhibited a lower activity of malate oxidation, ratio of malate to succinate oxidation, and activity of mitochondrial NAD-ME. With the exception of Kalanchoë daigremontiana, leaf mitochondria of all other CAM species were highly sensitive to cyanide (80-100%), irrespective of the oxidant used. This indicates that the alternative oxidase is not of general importance in CAM. By contrast, rotenone-insensitive substrate oxidation was very high (50-90%) in all CAM species. This is the first comparison of the rotenone-insensitive pathway of respiration in plants with different CAM-types. The results of this study confirm that mitochondria are involved in the control of CAM to different degrees in the two CAM types, and they highlight the multiple roles of mitochondria in CAM.

  8. CAD-CAM experiences at Bendix Kansas City: the user perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentesana, C.

    1983-04-01

    The Bendix Kansas City Division manufactures a variety of precision mechanical, electrical and electronic components and assemblies for the Department of Energy. CAD-CAM has been in use at Bendix for about two years. Development of CAD-CAM is the responsibility of the CAD-CAM Operations group. This group works with users, in-house computer professionals and vendors to provide CAD-CAM products and services.

  9. The detection of EpCAM+ and EpCAM– circulating tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de Sanne; Dalum, van Guus; Lenferink, Aufried; Tibbe, Arjan G.J.; Hilterman, T. Jeroen N.; Groen, Harry J.M.; Rijn, van Cees J.M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM+ CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM– CTC discarded by CellSearch, after EpCAM based enr

  10. The development of cam-type deformity in adolescent and young male soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Agricola (Rintje); J.H.J.M. Bessems (Gert); A.Z. Ginai (Abida); M.P. Heijboer (Rien); R.A. van der Heijden (Rianne); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); H.H. Weinans (Harrie); J.H. Waarsing (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cam impingement is a well-recognized cause of hip pain and might cause osteoarthritis of the hip. Clinically, cam impingement is mostly observed in young, active male patients, but only a few studies have focused on the manifestation of cam-type deformities during skeletal de

  11. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Germany - a focus group study of GPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joos, S.; Musselmann, B.; Miksch, A.; Rosemann, T.J.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners), some general practitioners (GPs) provide CAM in their practices. This paper aim

  12. Strength influencing variables on CAD/CAM zirconia frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wang; M.N.M. Abou Shelib; A.J. Feilzer

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. Many studies in the dental literature look at the effect of different surface treatment methods on the flexure strength of zirconia where polished zirconia has been used as control. However, zirconia is subjected to different types of surface damage as a result of the CAD/CAM milling proced

  13. Footage: Action Cam Shorts as Cartographic Captures of Time.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, N.

    2015-01-01

    This short article reflects on short videos of action cam footage that are widely disseminated on online platforms. These first-person perspective shorts are compared to early cinema’s phantom rides in the use of point-of-view shots, and a dizzying effect of heightened mobility and versatility in ca

  14. An Updated and Upgraded L1CAM Mutation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Yvonne J.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.

    2010-01-01

    The L1 syndrome is an X-linked recessive disease caused by mutations in the L1CAM gene. To date more than 200 different mutations have been reported, scattered over the entire gene, about 35% being missense mutations. Although it is tempting to consider these missense mutations as being disease-caus

  15. Potential worker risk as a function of CAM airflow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, J.J.

    1994-03-21

    The goal of the continuous air monitor (CAM) system at the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Plutonium Facility (PF-4) is to have a flow rate of 1 cubic feet per minute (cfm) drawn through the CAMs. However, design limitations in the house vacuum result in many CAMs having less than 1 cfm being drawn through them. Reduced flow rates through CAMs present a compromise in worker protection. Laboratory Health and Safety personnel and DOE officials established a flow rate of 0.5 cfm or less as operationally unacceptable. This report quantitatively estimated the difference in risk to workers from a reduced flow rate of 0.5 cfm relative to the risk inherent with a flow rate of 1 cfm. I calculated risk in terms of Committed Effective Dose Equivalent (CEDE) and used units of rem. Estimates for the increase in risk for 0.5 cfm compared to 1 cfm ranged from 0.32 rem to 3.3 rem. The difference in the minimum alarm concentration between 0.5 cfm and I cfm was also compared and was estimated to range from 0.4 rem to 4 rem.

  16. Computer-aided engineering: the step beyond CAD/CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatfield, L.; Trost, S.R.; O' Brien, D.W.; Pomernacki, C.L.

    1981-11-06

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the need for increased engineering productivity, coupled with increasingly difficult engineering problems, presents a significant challenge. Advances in computer technology coupled with successful CAD/CAM experiences suggest that computer-aided engineering (CAE) will help meet this challenge. Requirements for a CAE system are developed, a CAE system plan is outlined, and some remaining problem areas are discussed.

  17. Making IGES work for CAD/CAM data exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, A.L.; Fletcher, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    This report outlines Sandia National Laboratories effort to integrate the CAE/CAD/CAM capabilities of three laboratories and six production plants in the DOE weapons complex with the Initial Graphics Exchange Specifications (IGES). The problems with IGES are addressed and solutions are explained. The implementation of the IGES concept is also outlined.

  18. Automated regression testing of CAD/CAM systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burd, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    A description of automated software quality assurance techniques is presented. These techniques detect regression in the ''unchanged'' functions of CAD/CAM software during new updates from a vendor. Interfaces for the test mechanisms, methods for automatic results analysis, test management requirements, and experience gained from a prototype automatic regression test system are included. 7 figs.

  19. Schools (Students) Exchanging CAD/CAM Files over the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Gary S.; Smallwood, James E.

    This document discusses how students and schools can benefit from exchanging computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) files over the Internet, explains how files are exchanged, and examines the problem of selected hardware/software incompatibility. Key terms associated with information search services are defined, and several…

  20. Doing Performance Appraisal the Right Way: The CAM Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsgard, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Explains the CAM (Clarity, Awareness, Merit Recognition) process for performance reviews in which supervisors declare personal values, expectations, and operational methods; select employee skills for enhancement and define results; provide feedback, recognition and reinforcement; and distribute merit rewards and build deeper mutual commitments to…

  1. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 ...

  2. Hagleromyces gen. nov., a yeast genus in the Saccharomycetaceae, and description of Hagleromyces aurorensis sp. nov., isolated from water tanks of bromeliads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Francisca M P; Morais, Paula B; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-08-01

    Three strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from water tanks (phytotelmata) of a bromeliad species collected in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analysis of sequences for the region spanning the SSU rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer, the 5.8S rRNA gene and the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene and RNA polymerase II gene showed that these novel yeasts belong to a species that is distinct from all recognized ascomycetous yeast species. Based on the results of gene sequence analyses, a novel species representing a new genus in the Saccharomycetaceae is proposed. The novel species is assigned to the genus Hagleromyces gen. nov. The three isolates of the novel yeast species failed to form sexual spores alone or in mixtures. The name Hagleromyces aurorensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain of H. aurorensis sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y311(T) ( = CBS 13264(T)).

  3. An approach towards fully integration of CAD and CAM technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tolouei-Rad

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An integrated CAD/CAM system for milling operations has been developed which helps designers tosolve machining problems at the design stage.Design/methodology/approach: A methodology has been employed which provides all necessary informationfor machining products automatically. Use of these system results in reduced machining leadtimes and costthrough designing machinable components; using available cutting tools; improving machining efficiency. Thesystem is menu driven with a user friendly interface.Findings: Different components for developing such a system have been identified and various problems thatarose in the development of this system have been dealt with The system developed leads to an adequate basisfor fully integration of CAD and CAM technologies in one system. It allows simultaneous generation of allinformation required to satisfy machining requirements of the design such as its machinability and availabilityof the required tooling resources.Research limitations/implications: Different components required for developing such systems have beenidentified and various problems that arose in the development of these systems have been dealt with, leadingto an adequate basis for complete integration of CAD and CAM technologies. Although much of the workdescribed here goes beyond the scope of published literature, however, it should be noted that the systemdeveloped couldn’t be considered as a complete solution to the CAD/CAM integration problem. Further workrequires including other manufacturing activities that are considered in concurrent engineering concept. In thisdirection, further integration of the system developed with systems such as MRP, MRP II and assembly sequenceplanning packages are highly desirable.Originality/value: CAD/CAM integration is regarded as a solution for bridging the gap between design andmanufacturing, one of the ultimate goals for concurrent engineering. Since the advent of CAD and CAMnumerous

  4. ChemCam analysis of Martian fine dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Mangold, Nicolas; Cousin, Agnes; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Wiens, Roger; Gasnault, Olivier; Rapin, William; Schroder, Susanne; Ollila, Ann; Fabre, Cécile; Berger, Gilles; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Dehouck, Erwin; Forni, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre; Anderson, Ryan; Bridges, Nathan; Clark, Benton; Clegg, Samuel; d'Uston, Claude; Goetz, Walter; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Lanza, Nina; Madsen, Morten; Melikechi, Noureddine; Newsom, Horton; Sautter, Violaine; Martin-Torres, Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we examine the chemical composition of dust observed by the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover at Gale Crater. The Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique analyses samples without preparation, which allows detection of the elemental composition of surface deposits. Mars aeolian fine dust (Mars target. It is reproducible over time and present a composition characteristic of the global martian fine dust, which covers the entire planet and contributes to the local geology analyzed by MSL. Its composition can also be retrieved on the ChemCam Calibration Targets (CCCT) by subtraction of the well characterized CCCT spectra. The CCCT include eight glasses and ceramics that have been generated to simulate Martian rocks of interest and two targets of a single element (graphite for carbon and an alloy of titanium). ChemCam passive spectroscopy also indicates varying deposition of the dust cover on the CCCT.Major elements are quantified and shown to be very similar to the fine soils encountered at Gale crater. The composition is also similar to the soils and fine dust measured by APXS for the elements common to both instruments. The minor elements quantified by ChemCam (Ba, Sr, Rb, Li, Mn, Cr) are within the range of soil surveys, but we see a higher concentration of Li than in other types of remotely characterized targets. Sulfur is possibly detected at the ChemCam limit of detection. Hydrogen is clearly identified, indicating that this fine dust is a contributor to the H content of the martian soils, as also detected by the SAM and CheMin instruments, and provides constraints as to which fraction of the Martian surface is hydrated and altered. In conclusion, the finest fraction of dust particles on the surface of Mars contains hydrated components mixed intimately within the fine aeolian dust fraction, suggesting that this dust likely originates from mechanical weathering of altered grains.

  5. CAMS newly detected meteor showers and the sporadic background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    The Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteoroid orbit survey adds 60 newly identified showers to the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers (numbers 427, 445-446, 506-507, and part of 643-750). 28 of these are also detected in the independent SonotaCo survey. In total, 230 meteor showers and shower components are identified in CAMS data, 177 of which are detected in at least two independent surveys. From the power-law size frequency distribution of detected showers, we extrapolate that 36% of all CAMS-observed meteors originated from ∼700 showers above the N = 1 per 110,000 shower limit. 71% of mass falling to Earth from streams arrives on Jupiter-family type orbits. The transient Geminids account for another 15%. All meteoroids not assigned to streams form a sporadic background with highest detected numbers from the apex source, but with 98% of mass falling in from the antihelion source. Even at large ∼7-mm sizes, a Poynting-Robertson drag evolved population is detected, which implies that the Grün et al. collisional lifetimes at these sizes are underestimated by about a factor of 10. While these large grains survive collisions, many fade on a 104-y timescale, possibly because they disintegrate into smaller particles by processes other than collisions, leaving a more resilient population to evolve. The meteors assigned to the various showers are identified in the CAMS Meteoroid Orbit Database 2.0 submitted to the IAU Meteor Data Center, and can be accessed also at cams.seti.org" xlink:type="simple"

  6. CAD/CAM-mathematical models and information processing. CAD/CAM-sugaku model to joho shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, F. (The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research center for advanced Science and Technology)

    1990-09-05

    Works concerning industrial product design and production design are comprehensive works and it is said that its technique has not been systematized and there are many aspects of relying on human creativity and experience in the past. On the other hand, technological theories are the works of analysis and have well been developed based upon scientific academic systems. In the field of designing, standardized design procedures, etc. have been enciphered and its computerized automation has been progressed, but in normal design works including new design to a certain extent, its design procedures cannot be made as mathematical models, consequently its automation is obliged to base on an information processing model. The models which can express comprehensively all technical information concerning products necessary for design and production of industrial products are called product models. In this article, product modelling is roughly explained and the features of numerical models in CAD/CAM (computer assisted automation of mechanical design and production) are discussed taking geometrical modelling as a subject for discussion. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Abnormal placental development and early embryonic lethality in EpCAM-null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nagao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: EpCAM (CD326 is encoded by the tacstd1 gene and expressed by a variety of normal and malignant epithelial cells and some leukocytes. Results of previous in vitro experiments suggested that EpCAM is an intercellular adhesion molecule. EpCAM has been extensively studied as a potential tumor marker and immunotherapy target, and more recent studies suggest that EpCAM expression may be characteristic of cancer stem cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain insights into EpCAM function in vivo, we generated EpCAM -/- mice utilizing an embryonic stem cell line with a tacstd1 allele that had been disrupted. Gene trapping resulted in a protein comprised of the N-terminus of EpCAM encoded by 2 exons of the tacstd1 gene fused in frame to betageo. EpCAM +/- mice were viable and fertile and exhibited no obvious abnormalities. Examination of EpCAM +/- embryos revealed that betageo was expressed in several epithelial structures including developing ears (otocysts, eyes, branchial arches, gut, apical ectodermal ridges, lungs, pancreas, hair follicles and others. All EpCAM -/- mice died in utero by E12.5, and were small, developmentally delayed, and displayed prominent placental abnormalities. In developing placentas, EpCAM was expressed throughout the labyrinthine layer and by spongiotrophoblasts as well. Placentas of EpCAM -/- embryos were compact, with thin labyrinthine layers lacking prominent vascularity. Parietal trophoblast giant cells were also dramatically reduced in EpCAM -/- placentas. CONCLUSION: EpCAM was required for differentiation or survival of parietal trophoblast giant cells, normal development of the placental labyrinth and establishment of a competent maternal-fetal circulation. The findings in EpCAM-reporter mice suggest involvement of this molecule in development of vital organs including the gut, kidneys, pancreas, lungs, eyes, and limbs.

  8. Trend of CAD/CAM system in steel structure. Kenchiku tekkotsu CAD/CAM system no genjo to tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, K.; Tayama, K.

    1994-06-01

    The present situation and the future trend of the CAD/CAM system in steel structure were explained. In Japan, the CAD/CAM system in steel structure was introduced in 1983 for responding to the shortage of operators, shortening the construction period, and cost reduction. The systems introduced by fabricators can be classified into two types, i.e., the single functional type and the consistent type. Most of the single functional type system employs personal computers as for the hardware. Though it can be easily operated, there is a certain limit to functionality and treatment capacity. The consistent type system can provide many information such as fabrication drawing, full size template, and management document, though it is expensive and complicated. When the function of the system is heightened, the system becomes complicated. The future trend was considered. The combination of CAD/CAM, NC machine, and welding robot is indispensable for the rationalization. The completion of software for making the three-dimensional data is expected, for it will make it possible to fabricate the steel structure promptly and accurately. The network linkage of different CAD/CAM systems will be also promoted. In the future, it will be developed into the computer-aided integrated production system (CIM). 1 ref., 6 figs.

  9. ST Chamaeleontis and BP Coronae Australis: Two Southern Dwarf Novae Confirmed as Z Cam Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Simonsen, Mike; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Stubbings, Rod

    2014-01-01

    Z Camelopardalis (Z Cam) stars are a subset of dwarf novae distinguished by the occurrence of standstills, periods of relative constant brightness one to one and a half magnitudes fainter than maximum brightness. As part of an ongoing observing campaign, the Z CamPaign, the authors focused attention on several Z Cam suspects in the southern hemisphere. Two stars, BP Coronae Australis and ST Chamaeleontis were found to exhibit standstill behavior in 2013, thus confirming them as Z Cam type systems. This adds two more bona fide members to the 19 confirmed Z Cams, bringing the total to 21.

  10. The detection of EpCAM+ and EpCAM– circulating tumor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sanne de Wit; Guus van Dalum; Lenferink, Aufried T. M.; Arjan G. J. Tibbe; T. Jeroen N. Hiltermann; Groen, Harry J. M.; van Rijn, Cees J. M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM(+) CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM(-) CTC discarded by CellSearch, after EpCAM based enrichment. EpCAM(-) CTC were identified by filtration and fluorescent labelling. This approach was validated using different cell lines spiked into blood and evaluated on blood samples of 27 meta...

  11. Life history and description of larva and pupa of Platyphileurus felscheanus Ohaus, 1910, a scarabaeid feeding on bromeliad tissues in Brazil, to be excluded from Phileurini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertoni, Fabiano F.; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Steiner, Josefina; Zillikens, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The third instar larvae and the pupae of Platyphileurus felscheanus Ohaus, 1910 (Phileurini), recently synonymized with Surutu jelineki Endrődi, 1975 (Cyclocephalini), are described and illustrated, and some life history information is given. The larvae were collected and reared in bromeliads in rain forests of Santa Catarina state in southern Brazil. The systematic position of this monotypic genus is reassessed at the tribe level by considering larval and adult morphological characters. Both character sets, being described and illustrated, suggest the placement of Platyphileurus in the tribe Oryctini. PMID:24715774

  12. The Unsuspecting CAM User: Cancer patients and the changing nature of holistic health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M. Kabel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of cancer patients using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in the United States is growing, yet little is known about the meaning these activities have for users. Current literature supports the assumption that stigma surrounding CAM and holistic health practices are responsible for the reluctance of many cancer patients to self-identify as CAM users. This study explored the frequency of use, and familiarity with CAM among 25 female patients at a Midwestern oncology clinic. Findings suggest that patients need to be asked about CAM use multiple times and in multiple formats to gain an accurate assessment. Also, the assumptions about stigma may no longer be the reason patients are less than forthcoming about CAM use. The rise of integrative medicine and shifting boundaries of the holistic health movement may be equally, or in some cases, more responsible for the reluctance for CAM users to self-identify.

  13. JunoCam: Science and Outreach Opportunities with Juno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C. J.; Orton, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    JunoCam is a visible imager on the Juno spacecraft en route to Jupiter. Although the primary role of the camera is for outreach, science objectives will be addressed too. JunoCam is a wide angle camera (58 deg field of view) with 4 color filters: red, green and blue (RGB) and methane at 889 nm. Juno's elliptical polar orbit will offer unique views of Jupiter's polar regions with a spatial scale of ~50 km/pixel. The polar vortex, polar cloud morphology, and winds will be investigated. RGB color mages of the aurora will be acquired. Stereo images and images taken with the methane filter will allow us to estimate cloudtop heights. Resolution exceeds that of Cassini about an hour from closest approach and at closest approach images will have a spatial scale of ~3 km/pixel. JunoCam is a push-frame imager on a rotating spacecraft. The use of time-delayed integration takes advantage of the spacecraft spin to build up signal. JunoCam will acquire limb-to-limb views of Jupiter during a spacecraft rotation, and has the possibility of acquiring images of the rings from in-between Jupiter and the inner edge of the rings. Galilean satellite views will be fairly distant but some images will be acquired. Small ring moons Metis and Adrastea will also be imaged. The theme of our outreach is "science in a fish bowl", with an invitation to the science community and the public to participate. Amateur astronomers will supply their ground-based images for planning, so that we can predict when prominent atmospheric features will be visible. With the aid of professional astronomers observing at infrared wavelengths, we'll predict when hot spots will be visible to JunoCam. Amateur image processing enthusiasts are prepared to create image products. Between the planning and products will be the decision-making on what images to take when and why. We invite our colleagues to propose science questions for JunoCam to address, and to be part of the participatory process of deciding how to use

  14. Different CAD/CAM-processing routes for zirconia restorations: influence on fitting accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohorst, Philipp; Junghanns, Janet; Dittmer, Marc P; Borchers, Lothar; Stiesch, Meike

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different processing routes on the fitting accuracy of four-unit zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) fabricated by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Three groups of zirconia frameworks with ten specimens each were fabricated. Frameworks of one group (CerconCAM) were produced by means of a laboratory CAM-only system. The other frameworks were made with different CAD/CAM systems; on the one hand by in-laboratory production (CerconCAD/CAM) and on the other hand by centralized production in a milling center (Compartis) after forwarding geometrical data. Frameworks were then veneered with the recommended ceramics, and marginal accuracy was determined using a replica technique. Horizontal marginal discrepancy, vertical marginal discrepancy, absolute marginal discrepancy, and marginal gap were evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with the level of significance chosen at 0.05. Mean horizontal discrepancies ranged between 22 μm (CerconCAM) and 58 μm (Compartis), vertical discrepancies ranged between 63 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 162 μm (CerconCAM), and absolute marginal discrepancies ranged between 94 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 181 μm (CerconCAM). The marginal gap varied between 72 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 112 μm (CerconCAM, Compartis). Statistical analysis revealed that, with all measurements, the marginal accuracy of the zirconia FDPs was significantly influenced by the processing route used (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, all restorations showed a clinically acceptable marginal accuracy; however, the results suggest that the CAD/CAM systems are more precise than the CAM-only system for the manufacture of four-unit FDPs. PMID:20495937

  15. Research of CamShift Algorithm to Track Motion Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available At present, objects detection, identification and tracking are the very popular research areas in computing vision. A real-time objects tracking system was proposed in this paper. This paper focuses on improve CamShift algorithm, which can track the motion objects with high a accuracy. An Adaptive Gaussian Background Model is proposed in the system , which was established in order to automatically update the background and detect the outline of moving objects. By analyzing different algorithms, this paper brings out approaches to promote the performance.The CamShift algorithm to complete motion detection and objects tracking, which applied for static background video sequences. And the experimental results show that this algorithm can detect all motion objects and track almost motion objects.  

  16. Tooth-colored CAD/CAM monolithic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, S

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic restoration (also known as a full contour restoration) is one that is manufactured from a single material for the fully anatomic replacement of lost tooth structure. Additional staining (followed by glaze firing if ceramic materials are used) may be performed to enhance the appearance of the restoration. For decades, monolithic restoration has been the standard for inlay and partial crown restorations manufactured by both pressing and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. A limited selection of monolithic materials is now available for dental crown and bridge restorations. The IDS (2015) provided an opportunity to learn about and evaluate current trends in this field. In addition to new developments, established materials are also mentioned in this article to complete the picture. In line with the strategic focus of the IJCD, the focus here is naturally on CAD/CAM materials. PMID:26110926

  17. GlastCam: A Telemetry-Driven Spacecraft Visualization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Eric T.; Tsai, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Developed for the GLAST project, which is now the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, GlastCam software ingests telemetry from the Integrated Test and Operations System (ITOS) and generates four graphical displays of geometric properties in real time, allowing visual assessment of the attitude, configuration, position, and various cross-checks. Four windows are displayed: a "cam" window shows a 3D view of the satellite; a second window shows the standard position plot of the satellite on a Mercator map of the Earth; a third window displays star tracker fields of view, showing which stars are visible from the spacecraft in order to verify star tracking; and the fourth window depicts

  18. The faulty statistics of complementary alternative medicine (CAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Maurizio; Carreras, Giulia

    2014-09-01

    The authors illustrate the difficulties involved in obtaining a valid statistical significance in clinical studies especially when the prior probability of the hypothesis under scrutiny is low. Since the prior probability of a research hypothesis is directly related to its scientific plausibility, the commonly used frequentist statistics, which does not take into account this probability, is particularly unsuitable for studies exploring matters in various degree disconnected from science such as complementary alternative medicine (CAM) interventions. Any statistical significance obtained in this field should be considered with great caution and may be better applied to more plausible hypotheses (like placebo effect) than that examined - which usually is the specific efficacy of the intervention. Since achieving meaningful statistical significance is an essential step in the validation of medical interventions, CAM practices, producing only outcomes inherently resistant to statistical validation, appear not to belong to modern evidence-based medicine.

  19. CAM Modalities Can Stimulate Advances in Theoretical Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hankey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most complementary medicine is distinguished by not being supported by underlying theory accepted by Western science. However, for those who accept their validity, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM modalities offer clues to understanding physiology and medicine more deeply. Ayurveda and vibrational medicine are stimulating new approaches to biological regulation. The new biophysics can be integrated to yield a single consistent theory, which may well underly much of CAM—a true ‘physics of physick’. The resulting theory seems to be a new, fundamental theory of health and etiology. It suggests that many CAM approaches to health care are scientifically in advance of those based on current Western biology. Such theories may well constitute the next steps in our scientific understanding of biology itself. If successfully developed, these ideas could result in a major paradigm shift in both biology and medicine, which will benefit all interested parties—consumers, health professionals, scientists, institutions and governments.

  20. Application of CAD/CAM at VEB Lufttechnische Anlagen Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsch, B.; Aschenbrenner, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    This contribution presents the concept for the introduction of CAD/CAM systems to an enterprise of Kombinat ILKA Luft- und Kaeltetechnik. This concept is based on the use of a local computer network with a K 1630 microcomputer as the central computer and multi-terminals in the special departments. Special reference is made to the problems of the structured or modular software development and the work with centralised data files.

  1. Oclusión y Cad-Cam

    OpenAIRE

    Llombart Jaques, Daniel; Cadafalch Cabaní, Juan; Sabrià, J.; Cortada Colomer, Miquel

    1994-01-01

    Las restauraciones construidas con sistema CAD-CAM, a pesar de sus ventajas, tienen el inconveniente de no dejar una superficie oclusal con las características morfológicas adecuadas. Describimos un sistema, que uniendo al diseño electrónico previo un tallado, que sigue aproximadamente los pasos del tallado selectivo nos permite conseguir una oclusión correcta.

  2. Complete denture fabrication supported by CAD/CAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Timea; Gallus, Korbinian; Eichberger, Marlis; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-05-01

    The inclusion of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology into complete denture fabrication facilitates the procedures. The presented workflow for complete denture fabrication combines conventional and digitally supported treatment steps for improving dental care. With the presented technique, the registration of the occlusal plane, the determination of the ideal lip support, and the verification of the maxillomandibular relationship record are considered. PMID:26774323

  3. Simulation tools for CAD/CAM robot programming

    OpenAIRE

    Zapletal, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor’s thesis is focused on simulation, off-line programming and familiarization with KUKA robot. It informs about the composition, coordinate systems and the possibilities of movement of the industrial robot. It introduces methods of on-line and off-line programming and analysis of software for off-line programming aimed on CAD / CAM machining. It describes the creation of specific robot movements and explains the generated code for the implementation of created movements. The result is ...

  4. An approach towards fully integration of CAD and CAM technologies

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tolouei-Rad

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: An integrated CAD/CAM system for milling operations has been developed which helps designers tosolve machining problems at the design stage.Design/methodology/approach: A methodology has been employed which provides all necessary informationfor machining products automatically. Use of these system results in reduced machining leadtimes and costthrough designing machinable components; using available cutting tools; improving machining efficiency. Thesystem is menu driven with a user f...

  5. CamBAfx: workflow design, implementation and application for neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Cinly Ooi; Bullmore, Edward T; Alle-Meije Wink; Levent Sendur; Anna Barnes; Sophie Achard; John Aspden; Sanja Abbott; Shigang Yue; Manfred Kitzbichler; David Meunier; Voichita Maxim; Raymond Salvador; Julian Henty; Roger Tait

    2009-01-01

    CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers) and those who design them (designers). It provides a front-end (user interface) optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platf...

  6. CamBAfx: Workflow Design, Implementation and Application for Neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Cinly; Bullmore, Edward T; Wink, Alle-Meije; Sendur, Levent; Barnes, Anna; Achard, Sophie; Aspden, John; Abbott, Sanja; Yue, Shigang; Kitzbichler, Manfred; Meunier, David; Maxim, Voichita; Salvador, Raymond; Henty, Julian; Tait, Roger

    2009-01-01

    CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers) and those who design them (designers). It provides a front-end (user interface) optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platf...

  7. Potentials for the Modified Cam-Clay model

    OpenAIRE

    Zouain, Nestor; Pontes, Ivaldo; Vaunat, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Energy and dissipation pseudo-potentials are employed to derive constitutive relationships, in the context of thermodynamic concepts, for the widely used Modified Cam-Clay (MCC) model for soil mechanics. A variational formulation of the MCC evolution equations is proposed in this paper. Since plastic collapse of MCC soils cannot be embedded in the classical limit analysis theory, finding the critical amplification of the load that produces plastic collapse is formulated in...

  8. CAM Modalities Can Stimulate Advances in Theoretical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Hankey

    2005-01-01

    Most complementary medicine is distinguished by not being supported by underlying theory accepted by Western science. However, for those who accept their validity, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities offer clues to understanding physiology and medicine more deeply. Ayurveda and vibrational medicine are stimulating new approaches to biological regulation. The new biophysics can be integrated to yield a single consistent theory, which may well underly much of CAM—a true ‘...

  9. Optical spectroscopy of RU Cam, a pulsating carbon star

    CERN Document Server

    Kipper, Tonu

    2007-01-01

    We analysed the high resolution spectra of a RU Cam, classified as W Vir type star. The atmospheric parameters of RU Cam were estimated Teff=5250K and log g=1.0. The hydrogen deficiency of RU Cam was not confirmed. The iron abundance, [Fe/H]=-0.37, is close to the solar one. Abundances of most other elements are also close to normal. We found considerable excesses of carbon and nitrogen: [C/Fe]=+0.98, [N/Fe]=+0.60. The carbon to oxygen ratio is C/O$\\ge$1. The carbon isotopic abundance ratio is equal to C^12/C^13=4.5. For sodium a moderate overabundance Na/Fe=+0.55 was obtained. For two moments of observations we found close heliocentric velocity values, Vr=-21.7+/-0.8 and -23.1+/-1.0 km/s. Both spectra contain a peculiar feature - an emission component of NaI doublet which location agrees with the radial velocity from the bulk of metallic lines. For our two observing moments we found no dependence of radial velocities on the formation depth or on excitation energy for metallic lines.

  10. Human Face Detection and Recognition using Web-Cam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcharat Pattanasethanon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The illuminance insensitivity that reflects the angle of human facial aspects occurs once the distance between the object and the camera is too different such as animated images. This has been a problem for facial recognition system for decades. Approach: For this reason, our study represents a novel technique for facial recognition through the implementation of Successes Mean Quantization Transform and Spare Network of Winnow with the assistance of Eigenface computation. After having limited the frame of the input image or images from Web-Cam, the image is cropped into an oval or eclipse shape. Then the image is transformed into greyscale color and is normalized in order to reduce color complexities. We also focus on the special characteristics of human facial aspects such as nostril areas and oral areas. After every essential aspectsarescrutinized, the input image goes through the recognition system for facial identification. In some cases where the input image from the Web-Cam does not exist in the database, the user will be notified for the error handled. However, in cases where the image exists in the database, that image will be computed for similarity measurement using Euclidean Distance measure from the input image. Results and Conclusion: The result of our experiment reveals that the recognition process of 150 images in the database and 10 images from the Web-Cam provides 100% accuracy in terms of recognition. The runtime in this case is at 0.04 sec.

  11. Evaluating rare amino acid substitutions (RGC_CAMs in a yeast model clade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Polzin

    Full Text Available When inferring phylogenetic relationships, not all sites in a sequence alignment are equally informative. One recently proposed approach that takes advantage of this inequality relies on sites that contain amino acids whose replacement requires multiple substitutions. Identifying these so-called RGC_CAM substitutions (after Rare Genomic Changes as Conserved Amino acids-Multiple substitutions requires that, first, at any given site in the amino acid sequence alignment, there must be a minimum of two different amino acids; second, each amino acid must be present in at least two taxa; and third, the amino acids must require a minimum of two nucleotide substitutions to replace each other. Although theory suggests that RGC_CAM substitutions are expected to be rare and less likely to be homoplastic, the informativeness of RGC_CAM substitutions has not been extensively evaluated in biological data sets. We investigated the quality of RGC_CAM substitutions by examining their degree of homoplasy and internode certainty in nearly 2.7 million aligned amino acid sites from 5,261 proteins from five species belonging to the yeast Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade whose phylogeny is well-established. We identified 2,647 sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions, a number that contrasts sharply with the 100,887 sites containing RGC_non-CAM substitutions (i.e., changes between amino acids that require only a single nucleotide substitution. We found that RGC_CAM substitutions had significantly lower homoplasy than RGC_non-CAM ones; specifically RGC_CAM substitutions showed a per-site average homoplasy index of 0.100, whereas RGC_non-CAM substitutions had a homoplasy index of 0.215. Internode certainty values were also higher for sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions than for RGC_non-CAM ones. These results suggest that RGC_CAM substitutions possess a strong phylogenetic signal and are useful markers for phylogenetic inference despite their rarity.

  12. EpCAM modulates NF-κB signaling and interleukin-8 expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankpal, Narendra V; Fleming, Timothy P; Gillanders, William E

    2013-04-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a 40-kD type I transmembrane protein that is overexpressed in human epithelial cancers and is currently the target of molecular therapy based on its overexpression at the cell surface. Recently, we and others have shown a role for EpCAM in cell signaling and carcinogenesis, and EpCAM expression seems to promote breast cancer invasion. Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL-8) is an inflammatory cytokine that has recently been shown to modulate breast cancer invasion and angiogenesis. In preliminary experiments, we identified a correlation between EpCAM and IL-8 expression in primary human breast cancers. Specific ablation of EpCAM in breast cancer cell lines results in decreased IL-8 expression, and IL-8 contributes to EpCAM-dependent breast cancer invasion. Specific ablation of EpCAM is also associated with decreased NF-κB transcription factor activity, decreased phosphorylation of the NF-κB family member RELA, and increased IκBα protein expression. EpCAM modulates IL-8 expression at baseline, and following IL-1β stimulation, which is known to be a potent inducer of NF-κB in breast cancer. In functional rescue experiments, specific ablation of RELA or forced expression of the NF-κB inhibitor protein IκBα prevented EpCAM-dependent rescue of IL-8 promoter activity. These studies show for the first time that EpCAM can modulate NF-κB transcription factor activity and IL-8 expression in breast cancer and confirm the role of EpCAM signaling in modulating breast cancer invasion. Further study is required to define the molecular mechanism(s) of EpCAM signaling in breast cancer and to direct the rational development of molecular therapies targeting EpCAM.

  13. ChemCam Passive Reflectance Spectroscopy at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Bell, J. F.; Cloutis, E.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D. L.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Gasnault, O.; Kinch, K. M.; Le Mouelic, S.; Rice, M. S.; Wiens, R. C.; DeFlores, L.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) portion of the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover uses 3 dispersive spectrometers to cover the ultraviolet (240-342 nm), visible (382-469 nm) and visible/near-infrared (474-906 nm) spectral regions at high spectral (spectra (acquired with the LIBS laser off) used to remove the background signal from the LIBS measurement. Similar 'passive' observations of the ChemCam calibration target holder can be made at similar times of day and at identical exposure times (to minimize variations from dark current). Because this target exhibits ~95% flat reflectance in the ~400-900 nm region, radiance spectra ratios (surface/calibration target) can be normalized to known calibration target lab spectra to produce relative reflectance spectra (400-900 nm) with an estimated accuracy of 10-20%. Initial results replicated the known spectral shape and overall reflectance values of the ChemCam calibration targets and green color chip on the Mastcam calibration target. Dust contamination was evident, although dust on the ChemCam calibration targets is minimized by their tilted placement on the rover deck. All ChemCam targets that were sunlit during LIBS acquisition (~80% of all measurements) provide 'dark' spectra for which relative reflectance spectra can be obtained. Owing to the dusty nature of the Gale landing sites, passive spectra observed to date exhibit spectral shapes indicative of ferric phases, similar to spectra of palagonitic soils. Most spectra are bracketed in reflectance by typical 'bright' and 'dark' spectra from the OMEGA and CRISM orbital spectrometers. Preliminary Mastcam reflectance spectra are similar, providing additional confidence regarding the first-order calibration of the ChemCam spectra. The spectral similarity to palagonitic soils is consistent with the results from the CheMin instrument for Rocknest sands. Changes in the 535 nm band depth are likely indicative of differences in

  14. Importância das bromélias epífitas na ciclagem de nutrientes da Floresta Atlântica The importance of epiphytic bromeliads on the turnover of nutrients at the Atlantic Rain Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O material epifítico pode ser considerado como importante fonte de nutrientes para florestas localizadas em solos pobres. O presente trabalho foi realizado em um trecho de Floresta Atlântica com características primárias localizado no Pico do Papagaio, Ilha Grande, RJ. Pelo período de um ano, a serapilheira total e a produzida por bromélias epífitas foram coletadas por meio de diferentes coletores (16 de 0,25m² para serapilheira total e 10 de 25m² para a de bromélias. Alíquotas completas do material coletado foram usadas para determinação dos teores de N, P, K, Na, Ca e Mg em espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Ao longo de um ano, a produção de serapilheira oriunda de bromélias foi de 327,8 kg/ha, o que representou 3,1% da serapilheira total produzida no mesmo período (10.690,9kg/ha. A contribuição da serapilheira de bromélias apresentou distribuição espacial irregular em relação à da serapilheira total. Em relação ao fluxo destes nutrientes, as maiores participações foram Na (4,4kg/ha/ano; K (7,6kg/ha/ano e Mg (7,0kg/ha/ano, o que correspondeu, respectivamente, a 27,5, 18,7 e 13,9% dos aportes feitos pela serapilheira em geral. Esta participação ocorreu em função da concentração relativamente elevada destes nutrientes na serapilheira de bromélias.Epiphytic material can be considered an important source of nutrients for forests found on poor soils. This work was done in a tract of a primary Atlantic Forest with located in the Pico do Papagaio, Ilha Grande, RJ, Brazil. Over a year, the total litter and that produced by epiphytic bromeliads were collected by different ways (16 of 0.25m² for total litter and 10 of 25m² for that of bromeliads. Complete aliquots of matter collected were used to determine the composition of N, P, K, Na, Ca and Mg with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. During one year, litter production of bromeliads was of 327.8kg/ha, which represented 3.1% of total litter produced in

  15. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--the digital workflow from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapie, L; Lebon, N; Mawussi, B; Fron Chabouis, H; Duret, F; Attal, J-P

    2015-01-01

    As digital technology infiltrates every area of daily life, including the field of medicine, so it is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Apart from chairside practice, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental solutions can be considered a chain of digital devices and software for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use the technology often do not have the time or knowledge to understand it. A basic knowledge of the CAD/CAM digital workflow for dental restorations can help dentists to grasp the technology and purchase a CAM/CAM system that meets the needs of their office. This article provides a computer-science and mechanical-engineering approach to the CAD/CAM digital workflow to help dentists understand the technology. PMID:25911827

  16. Demand for CAM Practice at Hospitals in Japan: A Population Survey in Mie Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    Toshihiro Togo; Shigeru Urata; Kenta Sawazaki; Hinata Sakuraba; Torao Ishida; Kazuhito Yokoyama

    2011-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies have been provided at hospitals along with conventional medicine in industrialized nations. Previous studies conducted in Japan revealed high proportion of Japanese had experience of using CAM, but failed to discuss how it should be provided. The present study aims to clarify the demand for CAM practice at hospitals in Japan. A questionnaire consisting of 41 questions was mailed to 10 000 adults randomly selected from the electoral roll o...

  17. Demand for CAM Practice at Hospitals in Japan: A Population Survey in Mie Prefecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Togo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies have been provided at hospitals along with conventional medicine in industrialized nations. Previous studies conducted in Japan revealed high proportion of Japanese had experience of using CAM, but failed to discuss how it should be provided. The present study aims to clarify the demand for CAM practice at hospitals in Japan. A questionnaire consisting of 41 questions was mailed to 10 000 adults randomly selected from the electoral roll of Mie prefecture, Japan in January 2007. The questionnaire asked the subjects about demand for CAM practice at hospitals, types of CAM therapy to be provided and associated reasons. Sociodemographic characteristics, perceived health status, experience and purpose of CAM use, and information resource for CAM were also surveyed. Completed answers were collected from 2824 (28.6% respondents. Two thousand and nineteen (71.5% of the respondents demanded CAM practice at hospitals with the most likely reason of “patients can receive treatment under the guidance of a physicians”. The three most popular CAM therapies were Kampo, acupressure/massage/Shiatsu and acupuncture/moxibustion. The demand was positively associated with gender, ages of 40–59 years, annual household incomes of 5–7 million yen, occupation of specialist and technical workers and sales workers and poor health status. Higher demand was observed among those who used both CAM and conventional medical therapies for curative purposes. In conclusion, Japanese show a high demand for CAM practice, hoping to use CAM for curative purposes with monitoring by physicians at hospitals.

  18. A Space Cam Mechanism for Power Transmission of an Opposite-cylinder Piston Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Haoyue; Xu Xiaojun; Zhang Lei; Zhou Faliang

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of improving the engine’s power density, we put forward a new type of power transmission mechanism which is used for opposed-cylinder engine. The gas pressure acts on the cam through the piston and push rod, and the spindle rotation of external is driven by the cam. The design of spatial cam work surface is completed by using the enveloping theory of a family of space curves, the force between roller and cam is analyzed using dynamic analysis software. Under the condition of e...

  19. The use of CAM by women suffering from nausea and vomiting during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Michael

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP affects two-thirds of pregnant women to varying degrees and over the years many modalities have been used to try to alleviate this often debilitating condition. There is a paucity of information in the literature about the use or efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM for the treatment of this condition that affects so many women. Our primary objective was to examine the prevalence of CAM usage by women suffering from NVP. Our secondary objective was to ascertain if women had any supervision in the use of these treatments. Methods Women who called The Motherisk NVP helpline, were asked after the counseling session to complete a questionnaire, which included demographic data as well as information about their CAM use. Results Seventy women completed the questionnaire. 61% reported using CAM therapies, of which the three most popular were: ginger, vitamin B6 and acupressure. 21% of those who reported using CAM, had consulted CAM practitioners, 8% their physicians or pharmacists and 71% discussed the usage with family, friends and other allied health professionals. Women who did not use CAM stated they would probably use these modalities if there was more information about the safety in pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnant women with NVP are mirroring the trend in the general population of the use of CAM. They are also using CAM therapies with little supervision from practitioners experienced in the use of these modalities.

  20. ON DESIGN METHOD OF THE PRECISION CAM PROFILE WITH RANDOM PROCESSING ERRORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on probability and statistic, a design method of precision cam profile concerning the influence of random processing errors is advanced. Combining the design with the process, which can be used to predict that cam profiles will be successfully processed or not in the design stage, design of the cam can be done by balancing the economization and reliability. In addition, an fuzzy deduction method based on Bayers formula is advanced to estimate processing reasonable of the designed precision cam profile, and it take few samples.

  1. Initiating a Reiki or CAM program in a healthcare organization--developing a business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) services, such as Reiki, continue to be offered to consumers in many hospitals and other health care organizations. There is growing interest among nurses, doctors, and other health care providers for the integration of CAM therapies into traditional settings. Health care organizations are responding to this need but may not know how to start CAM programs. Starting a Reiki program in a health care setting must be envisioned in a business model approach. This article introduces nurses and other health care providers to the basic concepts of business plan development and important steps to follow when starting a Reiki or CAM program. PMID:25314111

  2. Nucleic acid encoding DS-CAM proteins and products related thereto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenberg, Julie R.

    2005-11-01

    In accordance with the present invention, there are provided Down Syndrome-Cell Adhesion Molecule (DS-CAM) proteins. Nucleic acid sequences encoding such proteins and assays employing same are also disclosed. The invention DS-CAM proteins can be employed in a variety of ways, for example, for the production of anti-DS-CAM antibodies thereto, in therapeutic compositions and methods employing such proteins and/or antibodies. DS-CAM proteins are also useful in bioassays to identify agonists and antagonists thereto.

  3. Operability of the Ventilation Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock Analysis of Proposed Upgrade to the 241AW Farm Primary Exhauster CAM System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis (FSAR) assumes that a ventilation stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) interlock system detects high radiation in the exhaust stream and shuts off the associated ventilation system within 10 minutes of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter system failure (CHG, 2002). Previous analysis of the as-built CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster (stack 296-A-27) showed that this system potentially required significantly longer than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure and initiate shutdown of the ventilation system (Short, 2002). The purpose of this report is to determine the CAM interlock system response time for a proposed upgrade of the 296-A-27 CAM system. The approach to be used in this analysis is essentially the same as used in RPP-10799, Rev. 0 (Short, 2002), which is to conservatively estimate the time required by the proposed upgraded CAM sampling/monitoring system to detect a FSAR-defined HEPA filter failure and automatically shutdown the exhaust fan. For the HEPA filter failure over-temperature accident scenario in the FSAR, the upgraded CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster will require significantly less than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure, actuate the CAM Interlock, and shutdown the exhauster fan. Therefore, the analyzed system is adequate to meet the operability requirements specified in the FSAR and the Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements (CHG, 2001; CHG, 2002)

  4. Korištenje CAD/CAM tehnologije u praksi

    OpenAIRE

    Jolić, Robert; Kukec, Đuro; Pavlic, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    Ovaj rad opisuje korakeristike CNC tehnologije, njeno korištenje i prednosti korištenja u proizvodnji. Opisana je ideja, izrada 3D modela u CAD programskome alatu, zatim su u CAM programskome alatu definirani svi parametri glodanja i na kraju je sve glodano na stroju. Prikazano je koliko se brže ovom tehnologijom proizvod može koristiti i proizvoditi, u odnosu na način da se sve radi ručno. Sve je modelirano u programskome alatu SolidWorks, parametri glodanja su definirani u programskome alat...

  5. Creative WebCam Live最新摄像头

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Creative WebCam Live摄像头拥有高达1024×768的静态影像捕捉能力,进了步提供无与伦比的影像输出效果。另外.其更拥有灵活的固定方式,让你可以轻轻松松将它固定在PC,不同厚度的LCD屏幕甚至是Notebook上。不仅如此,

  6. CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, P.

    1984-01-01

    The history of CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault are presented. Emphasis is put on the targets of the now commercially available software CATIA. The links with scientific computations such as aerodynamics and structural analysis are presented. Comments are made on the principles followed within the company. The consequences of the approximative nature of scientific data are examined. Consequence of the new history function is mainly its protection against copy or alteration. Future plans at Dassault for scientific data appear to be in opposite directions compared to some general tendencies.

  7. FEAT-REP : representing features in CAD/CAM

    OpenAIRE

    Klauck, Christoph; Bernardi, Ansgar; Legleitner, Ralf

    1991-01-01

    When CAD/CAM experts view a workpiece, they perceive it in terms of their own expertise. These terms, called features, which are build upon a syntax (geometry) and a semantic (e.g. skeletal plans in manufacturing or functional relations in design), provide an abstraction mechanism to facilitate the creation, manufacturing and analysis of workpieces. Our goal is to enable experts to represent their own feature-language via a feature-grammar in the computer to build feature-based systems e.g. C...

  8. CAD/CAM from the graphic-design perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, A.

    1982-11-01

    CAD/CAM systems have evolved elaborate human-computer interfaces in order to facilitate the creation of highly detailed and specialized schematic diagrams and texts. Although these systems have powerful capacities in terms of graphics editing, data manipulation, and data storage, insufficient attention has been given to making the online interface (together with supporting documentation) user-friendly, i.e., understandable, memorable, and appealing to the general user. Graphic-design considerations in particular have been routinely overlooked. Graphic design concerns typography, symbol design, color, spatial layout, and temporal sequencing. Graphic design can assist computer science by providing insight and expertise in designing effective communication between human being and machine.

  9. Strong discontinuity with cam clay under large deformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katic, Natasa; Hededal, Ole

    2008-01-01

    and an enhanced part. The localized deformations are approximated by means of a discontinuous displacement field. The applied algorithm leads to a predictor/corrector procedure which is formally identical to the returnmapping algorithm of classical (local and continuous) Cam clay model.......The work shows simultaneous implementation of Strong discontinuity approach (SDA) by means of Enhanced Assumed Strain (EAS) and Critical State Soil Mechanics CSSM) in large strain regime. The numerical model is based on an additive decomposition of the displacement gradient into a conforming...

  10. Applying DER-CAM for IIT Microgrid Explansion Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Li, Zuyi [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Chen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-19

    The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is an economic and environmental model of customer DER adoption. This model has been in development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory since 2000. The objective of the model is to find optimal DER investments while minimizing total energy costs or carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, or achieving a weighted objective that simultaneously considers both criteria. The Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Microgrid project started in August 2008, and the majority of the project was completed in May 2013. IIT Microgrid, funded mostly by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy as well as State and philanthropic contributions, empowers the campus consumers with the objective of establishing a smart microgrid that is highly reliable, economically viable, environmentally friendly, fuel-efficient, and resilient in extreme circumstances with a self-healing capability. In this project, we apply DER-CAM to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid. First, the load data, environmental data, utility data, and technology data for the IIT Microgrid are gathered and organized to follow the DER-CAM input requirements. Then, DERCAM is applied to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid for different cases, where different objectives in DER-CAM and different utility conditions are tested. Case 1 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with fixed utility rates and 100% electric utility availability. Case 2 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with real-time utility rates and 4 emergency weeks when the IIT Microgrid does not have access to the electric utility grid and has to operate in island mode. In Case 3, the utility rates are restored to fixed values and 100% electric utility availability is assumed, but a weighted multi-objective (Obj: a × costs + b × CO2 emissions, where a and b are weights for cost minimization and CO2 emissions minimization) is utilized to

  11. Microhabitat selection and co-occurrence of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock (Araneae, Theraphosidae and Nothroctenus fuxico sp. nov. (Araneae, Ctenidae in tank bromeliads from Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidclay Calaça Dias

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Microhabitat selection and co-occurrence of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock (Theraphosidae and Nothroctenus fuxico sp. nov. (Ctenidae, in tank bromeliads were investigated. Thermal conditions, inside and outside the plants, were measured in order to verify if the temperature of the water that accumulates inside the plant affects the behavior of these species. Measurements of foliar parameters were taken in order to evaluate if and how plant structure affects spider abundance and microhabitat selection. Apparently, differences in plant structure do not affect either spider abundance or microhabitat selection. No microhabitat preference was observed and co-ocurrence of both species was a random event. In addition, notes on the distribution range of P. rufonigrum and the description of N. fuxico sp. nov. from State of Sergipe, Brazil are presented.Foram estudadas a seleção de microhabitat e co-ocorrência de Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock (Theraphosidae e Nothroctenus fuxico sp. nov. (Ctenidae em bromélias-tanque. A condição da temperatura dentro e fora das plantas foi medida para verificar se a temperatura da água acumulada dentro da bromélia afeta algum aspecto comportamental das aranhas que ali vivem. Medidas dos parâmetros foliares foram realizadas para avaliar se a estrutura das plantas chega a afetar a abundância ou a seleção de microhabitat dessas aranhas. Aparentemente, as diferenças na estrutura das duas espécies de bromélias estudadas não afetam nem a abundância, nem a seleção de microhabitat de P. rufonigrum e N. fuxico sp. nov. A preferência e co-ocorrência de ambas as espécies de aranhas parece ser um evento ao acaso. Adicionalmente, apresenta-se notas sobre os limites de distribuição de P. rufonigrum e descreve-se N. fuxico sp. nov. do Estado de Sergipe, Brasil.

  12. A Prospective, Multicenter Study of Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) Utilization During Definitive Radiation for Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, William W. Backus Hospital, Norwich, Connecticut (United States); Ma Shuangge [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [University of Michigan, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Yang, Tzu-I Jonathan [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Higgins, Susan A. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Shoreline Medical Center, Guilford, Connecticut (United States); Weidhaas, Joanne B. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Lawrence and Memorial Hospital, New London, Connecticut (United States); Lloyd, Shane [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Peschel, Richard [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Lawrence and Memorial Hospital, New London, Connecticut (United States); Gaudreau, Bryant [Department of Radiation Therapy, William W. Backus Hospital, Norwich, Connecticut (United States); Rockwell, Sara [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in breast cancer patients is reported to be high, there are few data on CAM practices in breast patients specifically during radiation. This prospective, multi-institutional study was conducted to define CAM utilization in breast cancer during definitive radiation. Materials/Methods: A validated CAM instrument with a self-skin assessment was administered to 360 Stage 0-III breast cancer patients from 5 centers during the last week of radiation. All data were analyzed to detect significant differences between users/nonusers. Results: CAM usage was reported in 54% of the study cohort (n=194/360). Of CAM users, 71% reported activity-based CAM (eg, Reiki, meditation), 26% topical CAM, and 45% oral CAM. Only 16% received advice/counseling from naturopathic/homeopathic/medical professionals before initiating CAM. CAM use significantly correlated with higher education level (P<.001), inversely correlated with concomitant hormone/radiation therapy use (P=.010), with a trend toward greater use in younger patients (P=.066). On multivariate analysis, level of education (OR: 6.821, 95% CI: 2.307-20.168, P<.001) and hormones/radiation therapy (OR: 0.573, 95% CI: 0.347-0.949, P=.031) independently predicted for CAM use. Significantly lower skin toxicity scores were reported in CAM users vs nonusers, respectively (mild: 34% vs 25%, severe: 17% vs 29%, P=.017). Conclusion: This is the first prospective study to assess CAM practices in breast patients during radiation, with definition of these practices as the first step for future investigation of CAM/radiation interactions. These results should alert radiation oncologists that a large percentage of breast cancer patients use CAM during radiation without disclosure or consideration for potential interactions, and should encourage increased awareness, communication, and documentation of CAM practices in patients undergoing radiation treatment for breast

  13. Preparation and Preliminary Application of MAdCAM-1 Polyclonal Antibody in Dairy Cows with Subclinical Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Chen, Yuanyuan; Chang, Qiaocheng; Xia, Cheng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Hongyou

    2015-08-01

    MAdCAM-1 plays an important role in mediating immune response and inflammation. This study aimed to express and purify a fusion protein of MAdCAM-1 in prokaryotic cells and to prepare rat anti-bovine MAdCAM-1 polyclonal antibodies. Prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1-MAdCAM-1 and pET-28a-MAdCAM-1 were constructed, respectively. The above plasmids were transformed into BL21 Escherichia coli strain. These recombinant strains were induced by IPTG and identified by Western blot analysis and SDS-PAGE. Wistar rats were immunized with recombinant protein (pET-28a-MAdCAM-1) emulsified with Freund's adjuvant, and antibody titers were measured by indirect ELISA. Antibody titers reached the highest value (1:128,000) after the third immunization. Western blot showed that rat anti-bovine MAdCAM-1 polyclonal antibody can not only recognize recombinant MAdCAM-1 protein expressed in E. coli but also recognizes natural MAdCAM-1 protein extracted from bovine tissues. However, commercial anti-mouse MAdCAM-1 monoclonal antibodies did not recognize the recombinant MAdCAM-1 protein or natural protein, which indicated no cross-reactivity between bovine MAdCAM-1 and mouse MAdCAM-1. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis showed that MAdCAM-1 expression was limited in mammary lymphoid nodes of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. We speculate that MAdCAM-1 expression is inconsistent in different periods of the dairy cows. The successful preparation of rat anti-bovine MAdCAM-1 polyclonal antibody and its preliminary application in dairy cows provide the foundation for further study of the mechanism of anti-inflammation of MAdCAM-1 in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis. PMID:26301930

  14. A Prospective, Multicenter Study of Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) Utilization During Definitive Radiation for Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in breast cancer patients is reported to be high, there are few data on CAM practices in breast patients specifically during radiation. This prospective, multi-institutional study was conducted to define CAM utilization in breast cancer during definitive radiation. Materials/Methods: A validated CAM instrument with a self-skin assessment was administered to 360 Stage 0-III breast cancer patients from 5 centers during the last week of radiation. All data were analyzed to detect significant differences between users/nonusers. Results: CAM usage was reported in 54% of the study cohort (n=194/360). Of CAM users, 71% reported activity-based CAM (eg, Reiki, meditation), 26% topical CAM, and 45% oral CAM. Only 16% received advice/counseling from naturopathic/homeopathic/medical professionals before initiating CAM. CAM use significantly correlated with higher education level (P<.001), inversely correlated with concomitant hormone/radiation therapy use (P=.010), with a trend toward greater use in younger patients (P=.066). On multivariate analysis, level of education (OR: 6.821, 95% CI: 2.307-20.168, P<.001) and hormones/radiation therapy (OR: 0.573, 95% CI: 0.347-0.949, P=.031) independently predicted for CAM use. Significantly lower skin toxicity scores were reported in CAM users vs nonusers, respectively (mild: 34% vs 25%, severe: 17% vs 29%, P=.017). Conclusion: This is the first prospective study to assess CAM practices in breast patients during radiation, with definition of these practices as the first step for future investigation of CAM/radiation interactions. These results should alert radiation oncologists that a large percentage of breast cancer patients use CAM during radiation without disclosure or consideration for potential interactions, and should encourage increased awareness, communication, and documentation of CAM practices in patients undergoing radiation treatment for breast

  15. CAD/CAM/HSM CAXAME of piston rods die%CAXAME-连杆模具的CAD/CAM/HSM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖

    2005-01-01

    针对传统连杆模具制造工艺的不足,提出CAD/CAM/HSM加工技术的完整解决方案.首先使用CAXAME2004的造型功能进行三维实体造型,然后用CAXAME2004的加工功能生成数控加工程序,最后在HSM一600型高速铣削加工中心上完成整个加工过程.

  16. Aplikace CAD/CAM softwaru EdgeCAM při obrábění

    OpenAIRE

    Trčka, Vojtěch

    2010-01-01

    Bakalářská práce obsahuje souhrn informací o CAD/CAM softwaru Edgecam, nastavení post procesoru pro použití na výrobní stroj ZPS VMC 1060 s řídicím systémem DynaPath Delta MU Control 50. Popis jednotlivých výrobních strategií, řezných nástrojů, experimentální ověření CNC kódu na výrobním zařízení.

  17. Status of the CAMS-BeNeLux network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggemans, P.; Johannink, C.; Breukers, M.

    2016-01-01

    An overview is being given of the further expansion of the CAMS@BeNeLux network since previous IMC, July 2015 until May 2016. The weather proved less favorable than in the year before, but thanks to a number of new cameras and extra observing stations, the overall performance of the network remained at the same level in spite of the often poor weather circumstances. This paper compares the Kappa-Cygnids performance of 2015 with the analyses made for the 2014 data, following the same methodology. In 2015 the Kappa Cygnids were remarkable absent which confirms the periodic nature of the abundant Kappa-Cygnids display in 2014. The CAMS@BeNeLux network was the first to draw attention to enhanced activity of the newly discovered Chi Cygnids meteor shower with 5 accurate orbits in the night of 14-15 September 2015. A search through a selection of all orbits of September 2015 yield 71 possible Chi Cygnid orbits of which 18 were selected to calculate the average orbital elements.

  18. Radiation transport analysis with the aid of CAD/CAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of radiation exposure to sensitive parts in spacecraft involves complex shielding configurations and multi-directional exposures. Ray tracing is commonly used to determine shielding along different directions for transport calculations and dose conversions. Ray tracing requires geometric modeling of the spacecraft, structures, equipment and enclosures. Modeling by manual procedures is inefficient and slow. Combinatorial geometry codes are a substantial improvement over manual procedures but modeling a spacecraft and its contents can take many man months; and still involves many approximations. The increasing use of CAD/CAM in engineering and design results in the convenient accessibility of geometric modeling data. A CAD/CAM system, CADAM, was used to develop an ancillary program which provides one-dimensional ray trace information from CADAM models. The resultant ray trace information is used in subsequent transport analysis on a DEC computer. The result is a timesavings of man-months, by utilizing an existing data base and an increase in accuracy by using up-to-date geometrical information

  19. Rational redesign of the biodegradative enzyme cytochrome P450 cam:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytochromes P450, a superfamily of monooxygenase enzymes present in all kingdoms of living organisms, are very versatile with respect to substrate range and catalytic functionality. Many recalcitrant halogenated hydrocarbons, on DOE sites and throughout the nation, result in serious environmental impact. Cytochromes P450 have been shown to be catalytically capable of, at least partial, dehalogenation of some such compounds. Clearly, however, their active site stereochemistry and related functional components are not well suited for this role because the rates of dehalogenation are generally rather modest. The evolution of modified active site and access channel structures may proceed very slowly if multiple genetic changes are simultaneously required for enzyme adaptation. Since each mutational event is by itself a rare event, a basic premise of our research is that designing multiple changes into an enzyme may be more timely than waiting for them to occur biologically either via natural selection or under laboratory-controlled conditions. Starting with available high-resolution x-ray crystal structures, molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations have been used to probe the basic structure/function principles and conformational fluctuations of the biodegradative enzyme, cytochrome P450cam (camphor hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida) and active site mutants, to provide the fundamental understanding necessary for rational engineering of the enzyme for modified substrate specificity. In the present paper, we review our progress to data, in the area of molecular dynamics simulations and active site redesign of P450cam. 36 refs., 2 figs

  20. The ExoMars PanCam Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Andrew; Coates, Andrew; Muller, Jan-Peter; Jaumann, Ralf; Josset, Jean-Luc; Paar, Gerhard; Barnes, David

    2010-05-01

    The ExoMars mission has evolved into a joint European-US mission to deliver a trace gas orbiter and a pair of rovers to Mars in 2016 and 2018 respectively. The European rover will carry the Pasteur exobiology payload including the 1.56 kg Panoramic Camera. PanCam will provide multispectral stereo images with 34 deg horizontal field-of-view (580 microrad/pixel) Wide-Angle Cameras (WAC) and (83 microrad/pixel) colour monoscopic "zoom" images with 5 deg horizontal field-of-view High Resolution Camera (HRC). The stereo Wide Angle Cameras (WAC) are based on Beagle 2 Stereo Camera System heritage [1]. Integrated with the WACs and HRC into the PanCam optical bench (which helps the instrument meet its planetary protection requirements) is the PanCam interface unit (PIU); which provides image storage, a Spacewire interface to the rover and DC-DC power conversion. The Panoramic Camera instrument is designed to fulfil the digital terrain mapping requirements of the mission [2] as well as providing multispectral geological imaging, colour and stereo panoramic images and solar images for water vapour abundance and dust optical depth measurements. The High Resolution Camera (HRC) can be used for high resolution imaging of interesting targets detected in the WAC panoramas and of inaccessible locations on crater or valley walls. Additionally HRC will be used to observe retrieved subsurface samples before ingestion into the rest of the Pasteur payload. In short, PanCam provides the overview and context for the ExoMars experiment locations, required to enable the exobiology aims of the mission. In addition to these baseline capabilities further enhancements are possible to PanCam to enhance it's effectiveness for astrobiology and planetary exploration: 1. Rover Inspection Mirror (RIM) 2. Organics Detection by Fluorescence Excitation (ODFE) LEDs [3-6] 3. UVIS broadband UV Flux and Opacity Determination (UVFOD) photodiode This paper will discuss the scientific objectives and resource

  1. Evolution of a CAM anatomy predates the origins of Crassulacean acid metabolism in the Agavoideae (Asparagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyduk, Karolina; McKain, Michael R; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, James

    2016-12-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a modified form of photosynthesis that has arisen independently at least 35 times in flowering plants. The occurrence of CAM is often correlated with shifts to arid, semiarid, or epiphytic habits, as well as transitions in leaf morphology (e.g. increased leaf thickness) and anatomy (e.g. increased cell size and packing). We assess shifts between C3 and CAM photosynthesis in the subfamily Agavoideae (Asparagaceae) through phylogenetic analysis of targeted loci captured from the nuclear and chloroplast genomes of over 60 species. Carbon isotope data was used as a proxy for mode of photosynthesis in extant species and ancestral states were estimated on the phylogeny. Ancestral character state mapping suggests three independent origins of CAM in the Agavoideae. CAM species differ from C3 species in climate space and are found to have thicker leaves with densely packed cells. C3 ancestors of CAM species show a predisposition toward CAM-like morphology. Leaf characteristics in the ancestral C3 species may have enabled the repeated evolution of CAM in the Agavoideae subfamily. Anatomical changes, including a tendency toward 3D venation, may have initially arisen in C3 ancestors in response to aridity as a way to increase leaf succulence for water storage. PMID:27591171

  2. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) sensitive phosphorylation of calmodulin (CAM) in A431 cell membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A431, a transformed cell line, is known to contain a high concentration of EGF receptors (EGFR). Exogenous CAM, when combined with purified membrane from A431 is strongly phosphorylated in the presence of EGF. The EGF-dependent phosphorylation of CAM did not alter the normal profile of the A431 EGFR autophosphorylation, as demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. In addition to its EGF dependency, the presence of divalent cations is also critical for CAM phosphorylation. The presence of a divalent cation chelator, such as EGTA, caused a complete inhibition of CAM phosphorylation, which can be reversed with cations in the following order of effectiveness: Mg++ > Mn++ > Ca++. Divalent cations also break up CAM into four co-migrating bands as indicated by Coomassie Blue stained gels and the corresponding autoradiograms. Double antibody precipitation followed by phospho-amino acid analysis revealed that the EGF-sensitive CAM phosphorylation occurs exclusively on the serine residue. Using radioimmunoassay, purified A431 membrane was shown to contain a significant amount of endogenous CAM. The implications of the EGF-sensitive CAM phosphorylation are currently under investigation

  3. A new radiological index for assessing asphericity of the femoral head in cam impingement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, K K; Jacobsen, S; Palm, H;

    2007-01-01

    Femoroacetabular cam impingement is thought to be a cause of premature osteoarthritis of the hip. The presence of cam malformation was determined in 2803 standardised anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs from the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study by measuring the alpha (alpha) angle and the...

  4. Cam deformity and hip degeneration are common after fixation of a slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Jakob; Gosvig, Kasper; Magnussen, Erland;

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose - Slipped capital femoral epiphysis is thought to result in cam deformity and femoroacetabular impingement. We examined: (1) cam-type deformity, (2) labral degeneration, chondrolabral damage, and osteoarthritic development, and (3) the clinical and patient-reported outcome...

  5. Numerical verification of similar Cam-clay model based on generalized potential theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟志辉; 杨光华; 傅旭东; 温勇; 张玉成

    2014-01-01

    From the mathematical principles, the generalized potential theory can be employed to create constitutive model of geomaterial directly. The similar Cam-clay model, which is created based on the generalized potential theory, has less assumptions, clearer mathematical basis, and better computational accuracy. Theoretically, it is more scientific than the traditional Cam-clay models. The particle flow code PFC3D was used to make numerical tests to verify the rationality and practicality of the similar Cam-clay model. The verification process was as follows: 1) creating the soil sample for numerical test in PFC3D, and then simulating the conventional triaxial compression test, isotropic compression test, and isotropic unloading test by PFC3D; 2) determining the parameters of the similar Cam-clay model from the results of above tests; 3) predicting the sample’s behavior in triaxial tests under different stress paths by the similar Cam-clay model, and comparing the predicting results with predictions by the Cam-clay model and the modified Cam-clay model. The analysis results show that the similar Cam-clay model has relatively high prediction accuracy, as well as good practical value.

  6. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. RESULTS The mean fracture strengths were as follows: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed a complete fracture of both the veneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. CONCLUSION The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain. PMID:23755332

  7. Bidirectional modulation of endogenous EpCAM expression to unravel its function in ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gun, B. T. F.; Huisman, C.; Stolzenburg, S.; Kazemier, H. G.; Ruiters, M. H. J.; Blancafort, P.; Rots, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is overexpressed on most carcinomas. Dependent on the tumour type, its overexpression is either associated with improved or worse patient survival. For ovarian cancer, however, the role of EpCAM remains unclear. Methods: Cell survival of ovar

  8. L1CAM whole gene deletion in a child with L1 syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidsey, Brandalyn A; Baldwin, Erin E; Toydemir, Reha; Ahles, Lauren; Hanson, Heather; Stevenson, David A

    2014-06-01

    L1 syndrome is a group of overlapping, X-linked disorders caused by mutations in L1CAM. Clinical phenotypes within L1 syndrome include X-linked hydrocephalus with stenosis of the aqueduct of sylvius (HSAS); mental retardation, adducted thumbs, shuffling gait, and aphasia (MASA) syndrome; spastic paraplegia type 1; and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Over 200 mutations in L1CAM have been reported; however, only a few large gene deletions have been observed. We report on a 4-month-old male with a de novo whole gene deletion of L1CAM presenting with congenital hydrocephalus, aqueductal stenosis, and adducted thumbs. Initial failure of L1CAM gene sequencing suggested the possibility of a whole gene deletion of L1CAM. Further investigation through chromosome microarray analysis showed a 62Kb deletion encompassing the first exon of the PDZD4 gene and the entire L1CAM gene. Investigations into genotype-phenotype correlations have suggested that mutations leading to truncated or absent L1 protein cause more severe forms of L1 syndrome. Based on the presentation of the proband and other reported patients with whole gene deletions, we provide further evidence that L1CAM whole gene deletions result in L1 syndrome with a severe phenotype, deletions of PDZD4 do not cause additional manifestations, and that X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus reported in a subset of patients with large L1CAM deletions results from the loss of AVPR2. PMID:24668863

  9. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments by Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, Lillian M.; Mackintosh, Virginia H.; Myers, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may elect to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments with their children in place of, or in addition to, conventional treatments. CAM treatments are controversial and understudied and, for most, the efficacy has not been established. The current study (n = 248) examined…

  10. A methodological framework for evaluating the evidence for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Robert; Johannesen, Helle

    2011-01-01

    In spite of lacking evidence for effects on cancer progression itself, an increasing number of cancer patients use various types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). There is disagreement between CAM practitioners, researchers and clinical oncologists, as to how evidence concerning...

  11. Australia lacks stem succulents but is it depauperate in plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtum, Joseph Am; Hancock, Lillian P; Edwards, Erika J; Crisp, Michael D; Crayn, Darren M; Sage, Rowan; Winter, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    In the flora of Australia, the driest vegetated continent, crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), the most water-use efficient form of photosynthesis, is documented in only 0.6% of native species. Most are epiphytes and only seven terrestrial. However, much of Australia is unsurveyed, and carbon isotope signature, commonly used to assess photosynthetic pathway diversity, does not distinguish between plants with low-levels of CAM and C3 plants. We provide the first census of CAM for the Australian flora and suggest that the real frequency of CAM in the flora is double that currently known, with the number of terrestrial CAM species probably 10-fold greater. Still unresolved is the question why the large stem-succulent life - form is absent from the native Australian flora even though exotic large cacti have successfully invaded and established in Australia. PMID:27088716

  12. Optimal Design of a Cam Mechanism with Translating Flat-Face Follower using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Tsiafis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimum design of a cam mechanism is a time consuming task, due to the numerous alternatives considerations. In the present work, the problem of design parameters optimization of a cam mechanism with translating flat - face follower is investigated from a multi - objective point of view. The design parameters, just like the cam base circle radius, the follower face width and the follower offset can be determined considering as the optimization criteria minimization of the cam size, of the input torque and of the contact stress. During the optimization procedure, a number of constraints regarding the pressure angle, the contact stress, etcare taken into account. The optimization approach, based on genetic algorithm, is applied to find the optimal solutions with respect to the a fore - mentioned objective function and to Ensure the kinematic requirements. Finally, the dynamic behavior of the designed cam mechanism is investigated considering the frictional forces.

  13. Analysis of 3D curve expansion of conical cam with oscillating tapered roller follower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of running conditions and machining processes of conical cam with oscillating follower. We point out the common errors existing in the design and machining of the widely used plane expansion method of conical cam trough-out line. We show that the motion can be divided into two parts, i.e. the oscillating motion of oscillating bar and the rotary motion of oscillating bar relative to the conical cam. By increasing the rotary motion of oscillating bar, the motion path of tapered roller on oscillating bar (i.e. contour surface of conical cam) can be expanded on the cylinder. Based on these analyses,we present a creative and effective designing and machining method for 3D curve expansion of conical cam with oscillating follower.

  14. Aplikace CAD/CAM softwaru FeatureCAM při obrábění

    OpenAIRE

    Foltán, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Diplomová práce obsahuje vypracovaný postup výroby části kokily pro gravitační lití pístů s využitím softwaru FeatureCAM. Zabývá se výběrem vhodného strojního a nástrojového vybavení, určením řezných podmínek a řešením výběru optimálních strategií obrábění v softwaru FeatureCAM. Celý proces obrábění je ověřen grafickou simulací a je doplněn výkresovou dokumentací součásti.

  15. A scoping review of research on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the mass media: Looking back, moving forward

    OpenAIRE

    Strudsholm Tina; Weeks Laura C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become more common in Western developed countries in recent years, as has media reporting on CAM and related issues. Correspondingly, media reports are a primary information source regarding decisions to use CAM. Research on CAM related media reports is becoming increasingly relevant and important; however, identifying key concepts to guide future research is problematic due to the dispersed nature of completed re...

  16. Cam Deformity and Hip Degeneration Presents 10 to 17 Years After Fixation of a Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Jakob; Gosvig, Kasper; Magnussen, Erland;

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is hypothesized to result in cam deformity and femoroacetabular impingement. We examined: (1)cam-type deformity, (2) labral degeneration, chondrolabral damage, and osteoarthritic development, (3) the clinical and patient-reported ou......Background and purpose: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is hypothesized to result in cam deformity and femoroacetabular impingement. We examined: (1)cam-type deformity, (2) labral degeneration, chondrolabral damage, and osteoarthritic development, (3) the clinical and patient...

  17. Bilgisayar destekli diş hekimliği ve güncel CAD/CAM sistemleri

    OpenAIRE

    Gözde Çelik; Tuğrul Sarı; Aslıhan Üşümez

    2013-01-01

    CAD/CAM systems (computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing) has been used in dentistry since 1987. In the past 25 years, development of various high quality chairside and laboratory CAD/CAM systems has been continued with the progress of technology. This article describes currently used CAD/CAM systems.

    Keywords: Dental, CAD/CAM systems.

     

    ÖZET

  18. CAM use in pediatric neurology: an exploration of concurrent use with conventional medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Galicia-Connolly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that up to 60% of children with neurologic conditions have tried complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of CAM among patients presenting to neurology clinics at two academic centers in Canada. METHODS: A survey instrument was developed to inquire about use of CAM products and therapies, including reasons for use, perceived helpfulness, and concurrent use with conventional medicine, and administered to patients or their parents/guardians at the Stollery Children's Hospital in Edmonton and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO in Ottawa. RESULTS: Overall CAM use at the Stollery was 78%, compared to 48% at CHEO. The most common CAM products used were multi-vitamins (84%, vitamin C (37%, homeopathic remedies (24%, and fish oil/omega 3 s (22%. The most common CAM practices used were massage (47%, chiropractic (37%, faith healing (18%, aromatherapy (16%, homeopathy (16%, and relaxation (16%. Many patients used CAM products at the same time as conventional medicine but just over half (57% discussed this concurrent use with their physician. CONCLUSION: CAM use is common in pediatric neurology patients and most respondents felt that it was helpful, with few or no harms associated. However, this use is often undisclosed, increasing possibility of interactions with conventional drugs. We urge clinicians to inquire about CAM use during routine history taking at every patient visit. Parents would clearly like more information about CAM from their specialty clinics; such information would be easier to share if more primary data were available about the safety and effectiveness of commonly used therapies.

  19. Effector Roles of Putidaredoxin on Cytochrome P450cam Conformational States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shu-Hao; Mahomed, Mavish; Lee, Young-Tae; Goodin, David B

    2016-08-17

    In this study, the effector role of Pdx (putidaredoxin) on cytochrome P450cam conformation is refined by attaching two different spin labels, MTSL or BSL (bifunctional spin-label) onto the F or G helices and using DEER (double electron-electron resonance) to measure the distance between labels. Recent EPR and crystallographic studies have observed that oxidized Pdx induces substrate-bound P450cam to change from the closed to the open state. However, this change was not observed by DEER in the reduced Pdx complex with carbon-monoxide-bound P450cam (Fe(2+)CO). In addition, recent NMR studies have failed to observe a change in P450cam conformation upon binding Pdx. Hence, resolving these issues is important for a full understanding the effector role of Pdx. Here we show that oxidized Pdx induces camphor-bound P450cam to shift from the closed to the open conformation when labeled on either the F or G helices with MTSL. BSL at these sites can either narrow the distance distribution widths dramatically or alter the extent of the conformational change. In addition, we report DEER spectra on a mixed oxidation state containing oxidized Pdx and ferrous CO-bound P450cam, showing that P450cam remains closed. This indicates that CO binding to the heme prevents P450cam from opening, overriding the influence exerted by Pdx binding. Finally, we report the open form P450cam crystal structure with substrate bound, which suggests that crystal packing effects may prevent conformational conversion. Using multiple labeling approaches, DEER provides a unique perspective to resolve how the conformation of P450cam depends on Pdx and ligand states. PMID:27452076

  20. Comparative survey of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM attitudes, use, and information-seeking behaviour among medical students, residents & faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boker John

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is significant and growing national interest for introducing Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM instruction into allopathic medical education. We measured CAM attitudes, use, and information-seeking behaviors as a baseline to evaluate future planned CAM instruction. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal survey data on CAM attitudes, modality use, and common information resources was collected for (a medical students (n = 355, (b interns entering residencies in medical and surgical disciplines (n = 258, and (c faculty from diverse health professions attending workshops on evidence-based CAM (n = 54. One student cohort was tracked longitudinally in their first, second and third years of training. Results Compared to medical students and interns, faculty who teach or intend to integrate CAM into their instruction had significantly (p p Conclusion Students, interns and a selected faculty group demonstrate positive attitudes toward CAM and frequently use various CAM modalities. CAM instruction should therefore be focused on acquiring knowledge of available CAM modalities and skills to appraise evidence to appropriately advise patients on best approaches to CAM use. Trainees may benefit from exposure to a wider array of CAM information resources.

  1. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM Use during Menopause in Sydney and Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne van der Sluijs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous surveys found CAM use during menopause to be popular. This paper compares the results from two surveys (Sydney and Bologna to examine factors that determine the extent and pattern of CAM use to alleviate menopausal symptoms. Methods. Women, aged 45–65 years, who were symptomatic when transitioning through menopause or asymptomatic but taking menopause-specific treatments, were recruited in Sydney (n=1,296 and Bologna (n=1,106 to complete the same voluntary, anonymous, and self-administered questionnaire. The results were reanalysed using stratified analyses to determine similarities and differences. Results. Demographics of the two cohorts differed significantly. CAM was more popular in Sydney. The most significant determinants of CAM use were the use of CAM for other conditions besides menopause and the severity of vasomotor symptoms. Occupational status was a determinant of CAM use amongst Bologna respondents only. In order to relieve symptoms, Australian and Italian women used different CAM modalities whose effectiveness was generally perceived as good. Conclusion. CAM use is popular amongst menopausal women from Sydney and Bologna. Differences in the patterns of CAM use seem to depend on CAM availability and on the educational level and professional status of users. The complex interaction between market, social, and cultural factors of CAM use seems to be more influential on women’s choice of CAM than the available evidence of their effectiveness.

  2. Chemical composition of umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Vilela Borges

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The umbu tree (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam is an important fruit tree the economy of the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil. With the objective of finding use for the seeds, physical and chemical characterizations of the seeds from 2 cultivars in 2 maturation stages were carried out and their fatty acid and mineral profiles determined. The results showed no differences between the seeds analyzed. The yield was about 10% and the dimensions as follows: length from 1.48 to 2.11 cm and width from 0.76 to 1.16 cm. The average lipid content was 55% of which 69% was unsaturated and the average protein content was 24%. The seeds were a good source of the following minerals: P, K, Mg, Fe and Cu. The overall results indicated that the oil or the seeds could be used for food stuffs if no toxic agents were found.

  3. Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing CAD/CAM Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    than a single computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system. The Inteznet was a technology that all companies were considering to either transport information more easily throughout the corporation or as a conduit for business, as the small firm was doing Successfully. Because PrdEngineer is the de facto CAD standard fbr the NWC, the Benchmark Team targeted companies using Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) software tools. Most of the companies used Pm'Engineer for design to some degree, but found the PTC CAM product, PdManufacture lacking as compared to alternate CAM solutions. All of the companies visited found the data exchange between CAD/CAM systems problematic. It was apparent that these companies were trying to consolidate their software tools to reduce translation but had not been able to do so because no single solution had all the needed capabilities. In regard to organizational structure and human resources, two companies were found to be using product or program teams. These teams consisted of the technical staff capable of completing the entire task and were xmintained throughout the project. This same strategy was evident at another of the companies but with more mobility of members. For all companies visited except the small work structure breakdown and responsibility were essentially the same as Y-12's at this time. The functions of numerical control (NC), desi and process planning were separate and distinct. The team made numerous recommendations that are detailed in the report

  4. Compact Atomic Magnetometer for Global Navigation (NAV-CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Larsen, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Northrop Grumman Navigation Systems Division is developing an atom-based magnetometer technology that has the potential for providing a global position reference independent of GPS. The NAV-CAM sensor is a direct outgrowth of the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyro under development by the same technical team. It will be the only known magnetic field sensor capable of providing all 3 axes of magnetic vector direction and magnitude simultaneously with a whole-field scalar measurement, all within a single multi-axis sensing element measuring 4mm cube or smaller, essentially eliminating many of the problems encountered when using physically separate sensors or sensing elements. According to information presented by Ariyur et al. at the 2010 American Control Conference [1], the anticipated accuracy of 10 pico-Tesla (pT) and precision of sensor will enable magnetic determination of position with 20 meter accuracy and 1 meter resolution.

  5. Paper-Less CAD/CAM For Accelerator Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, R M; Alford, O; Bertolini, L R

    2001-01-12

    Computer-aided design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) have enabled advances in the design and manufacture of many accelerator components, though government procurement rules tend to inhibit its use. We developed and executed a method that provides adequate documentation for the procurement process, industrial vendor manufacturing processes, and laboratory installation activities. We detail our experiences in the design and manufacture of 60 separate and unique PEP-II Low Energy Ring Interaction Region vacuum chambers totaling {approx} 140m in length as an example of how we used this technique, reducing design effort and manufacturing risk while streamlining the production process. We provide ''lessons learned'' to better implement and execute the process in subsequent iterations. We present our study to determine the estimated savings in the design and production of the Spallation Neutron Source room temperature linac if this process were utilized.

  6. Intelligent gateway processors as integrators of CAD/CAM networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, V.E.; Garner, B.L.; Matthews, J.R.

    1985-07-01

    The integration of dissimilar CAD/CAM hardware and software on local and geographically distributed networks is the major problem faced by large organizations today. We begin by examining the existing system for storage, retrieval, control, and distribution of design information at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and describe a new prototype Engineering Information System (EIS). We then discuss the Department of Energy neutral Data Exchange Format (DOE/DEF) for the sharing of mechanical drawings among DOE installations. Finally, we describe the potential role of the Intelligent Gateway Processor (IGP) as a transaction controller for engineering resources among contractors of the Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC). IGP capabilities include a unique interpreter-driven user interface which permits the installation and modification of resources and the translation of dissimilar data formats, commands, and protocols, in a unified manner while running non-stop.

  7. Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing CAD/CAM Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domm, T.D.; Underwood, R.S.

    1999-04-26

    than a single computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system. The Inteznet was a technology that all companies were considering to either transport information more easily throughout the corporation or as a conduit for business, as the small firm was doing Successfully. Because PrdEngineer is the de facto CAD standard fbr the NWC, the Benchmark Team targeted companies using Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) software tools. Most of the companies used Pm'Engineer for design to some degree, but found the PTC CAM product, PdManufacture lacking as compared to alternate CAM solutions. All of the companies visited fOund the data exchange between CAD/CAM systems problematic. It was apparent that these companies were trying to consolidate their software tools to reduce translation but had not been able to do so because no single solution had all the needed capabilities. In regard to organizational slructure and human resoukes, two companies were found to be using product or program teams. These teams consisted of the technical staff capable of completing the entire task and were xmintained throughout the project. This same strategy was evident at another of the companies but with more mobility of members. For all eornpanies visited except the small ~ work structure breakdown and responsibility were essentially the same as Y-12's at this time. The functions of numerical control (NC), desi~ and process planning were separate and distinct. The team made numerous recommendations that are detailed in the report.

  8. A CAD/CAM system for operating overburden conveyor bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pause, M.; Nadeborn, H.; Klus, R.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews introduction of computer systems for control of conveyor bridges for overburden removal in GDR brown coal surface mines. Three F 60 high capacity bridges at Welzow, Nochten and Jaenschwalde have been automated since 1978, achieving a 10% increase in annual production. A pilot project of complex automation of a F 45 brige at the Meuro mine was started to fully automate bridge movement according to continuous mine geometrical digital survey data. Hardware employed is the U 5000 control system with various peripheral equipment, the A 5120 office computer and the EC 1040 data processing unit. Automation of the Meuro bridge resulted in an annual economic benefit of 2.8 million Marks. A new, fourth F 60 bridge for which a CAD/CAM system based on the U 5000 and K 1520 computer systems is being developed will begin operation at the Reichwalde mine.

  9. Paper-Less CAD/CAM For Accelerator Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer-aided design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) have enabled advances in the design and manufacture of many accelerator components, though government procurement rules tend to inhibit its use. We developed and executed a method that provides adequate documentation for the procurement process, industrial vendor manufacturing processes, and laboratory installation activities. We detail our experiences in the design and manufacture of 60 separate and unique PEP-II Low Energy Ring Interaction Region vacuum chambers totaling ∼ 140m in length as an example of how we used this technique, reducing design effort and manufacturing risk while streamlining the production process. We provide ''lessons learned'' to better implement and execute the process in subsequent iterations. We present our study to determine the estimated savings in the design and production of the Spallation Neutron Source room temperature linac if this process were utilized

  10. Off-line programming: key to CAD/CAM (robots)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, T.

    1983-06-23

    Off-line programming is essential if robots are to be fully integrated into the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) process. It is also fundamental to the use of robots with touch and vision sensors, since the movements of such a robot depend on real-world data and cannot be taught in advance. Edinburgh (UK) University's Department of Artificial Intelligence is developing a high-level language called Rapt, for the programming of assembly robots. Rapt is described as an object-level language. Its statements refer to material objects and their physical relationships and motions. It uses higher level descriptions than those of commercially available robot languages such as unimation's val. The developments in off-line programming which are crucial to the successful integration of industrial robots into computer-aided design and manufacturing processes are discussed.

  11. Standardizing PhenoCam Image Processing and Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliman, T. E.; Richardson, A. D.; Klosterman, S.; Gray, J. M.; Hufkens, K.; Aubrecht, D.; Chen, M.; Friedl, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The PhenoCam Network (http://phenocam.unh.edu) contains an archive of imagery from digital webcams to be used for scientific studies of phenological processes of vegetation. The image archive continues to grow and currently has over 4.8 million images representing 850 site-years of data. Time series of broadband reflectance (e.g., red, green, blue, infrared bands) and derivative vegetation indices (e.g. green chromatic coordinate or GCC) are calculated for regions of interest (ROI) within each image series. These time series form the basis for subsequent analysis, such as spring and autumn transition date extraction (using curvature analysis techniques) and modeling the climate-phenology relationship. Processing is relatively straightforward but time consuming, with some sites having more than 100,000 images available. While the PhenoCam Network distributes the original image data, it is our goal to provide higher-level vegetation phenology products, generated in a standardized way, to encourage use of the data without the need to download and analyze individual images. We describe here the details of the standard image processing procedures, and also provide a description of the products that will be available for download. Products currently in development include an "all-image" file, which contains a statistical summary of the red, green and blue bands over the pixels in predefined ROI's for each image from a site. This product is used to generate 1-day and 3-day temporal aggregates with 90th percentile values of GCC for the specified time-periodwith standard image selection/filtering criteria applied. Sample software (in python, R, MATLAB) that can be used to read in and plot these products will also be described.

  12. Marginal Integrity of CAD/CAM Fixed Partial Dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentritt, Martin; Behr, Michael; Kolbeck, Carola; Handel, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM) allows the milling of high strength zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPD), however bonding to an inert ZrO2 ceramic surface may effect the marginal integrity of the FPDs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of zirconia FPDs at the interfaces between zirconia, cement, and tooth. Methods 32 3-unit FPDs were fabricated of the CAD/CAM Y-TZP zirconia (Lava, 3M Espe, Germany) according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Resin cements with corresponding primer and bonding systems were used to lute the FPDs: Compolute/EBS multi (3M Espe, Germany), Panavia F/ED (Kuraray, Japan), Variolink 2/Syntac classic (Ivoclar-Vivadent, FL) and RelyX Unicem/without treatment (3M Espe, Germany). Aualloy FPDs (BioPontostar, Bego, Germany) were cemented with RelyX Unicem and Harvard (Harvard, Germany) as the control. Marginal adaptation was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy using replica specimen before and after artificial aging. After aging, microleakage tests were performed with fuchsine solution. The interfaces between cement-tooth and cement-FPD were examined. Results At the interfaces (cement-tooth and cement-FPD), the systems showed a 95% or higher perfect margin before and after aging. Only Variolink2/Syntac had a marginal adaptation, lower than a 70% perfect margin. Generally, the fuchsine penetration was below 20%, only BioPontstar/Harvard andLava/Variolink2 showed penetration results between 80% and 100%. Conclusion The success of the adhesive cementation of zirconia FPDs depends on the cement system. Under the conditions of this study, zirconia FPDs showed good to sufficient marginal integrity in combination with Panavia/ED, Compolute/EBS and RelyX Unicem. PMID:19212494

  13. Design of Cylindrical Cam with Oscillating Follower Based on 3D Expansion of Planar Profile Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Junhua; LIN Zuan; WU Yijie

    2009-01-01

    Cylindrical cam with oscillating follower is widely applicable and used in many mechanical devices and machines. However, a common error exists in the methods of designing planar profile for oscillating follower cylinder cam. In this study, we propose a new hypothesis to solve this design problem with the inclusion of deviation angle. On the basis of this new concept, equations for planar profile expansion and methods of calculating pressure angle are deduced by applying 3D expansion formula of the follower's motion orbit. When the pressure angle is less than allowable value, the minimum base radius can be determined by using MATLAB software. Accordingly, the planar profile of oscillating follower cylinder cam is generated by CAD software. This new method is practical and can be easily adopted for the design of oscillating follower cylindrical cam with desirable accuracy. We applied the method in the design of cylindrical cam for paper feeding mechanism used in high-speed printers. We calculated the planar profile and used it to direct the NC machine for the manufacture of the groove of cylindrical cam. The improved cylindrical cam met all of the requirements of speed and accuracy demanded by high-speed printers. Therefore, our new method has been validated by practical application.

  14. Effect of degradative plasmid CAM-OCT on responses of Pseudomonas bacteria to UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of plasmid CAM-OCT on responses to UV irradiation was compared in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in Pseudomonas putida, and in Pseudomonas putida mutants carrying mutations in UV response genes. CAM-OCT substantially increased both survival and mutagenesis in the two species. P. aeruginosa strains without CAM-OCT exhibited much higher UV sensitivity than did P. putida strains. UV-induced mutagenesis of plasmid-free P. putida was easily detected in three different assays (two reversion assays and one forward mutation assay), whereas UV mutagenesis of P. aeruginosa without CAM-OCT was seen only in the forward mutation assay. These results suggest major differences in DNA repair between the two species and highlight the presence of error-prone repair functions on CAM-OCT. A number of P. putida mutants carrying chromosomal mutations affecting either survival or mutagenesis after UV irradiation were isolated, and the effect of CAM-OCT on these mutants was determined. All mutations producing a UV-sensitive phenotype in P. putida were fully suppressed by the plasmid, whereas the plasmid had a more variable effect on mutagenesis mutations, suppressing some and producing no suppression of others. On the basis of the results reported here and results obtained by others with plasmids carrying UV response genes, it appears that CAM-OCT may differ either in regulation or in the number and functions of UV response genes encoded

  15. COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM THERAPIES FOR MANAGEMENT OF PAIN RELATED TO ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda Roshni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a gynaecological disease with a complex etiology. It is associated with severe pelvic pain, sub fertility and reduced quality of life. Endometriosis has a multifactorial etiology and therefore its management is also multidimensional. The main targets of therapy are controlling of the pain symptoms and increasing fertility where it is desired. Hormonal and surgical therapies are the two major treatment modalities available currently. But they are not without their side effects. Therefore many women explore Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM forms of treatment for symptomatic relief from pain. These CAM therapies have been used as an adjuvant to conventional therapy or as an independent form of treatment. CAM therapies are purported to have lesser side effects as compared to conventional medical formulations. Ancient Chinese and Indian medicine system have laid the foundation of several of the prevalent Cam practices. The following CAM practices have been discussed in the article-Acupuncture, Herbal therapy, Meditation and Hypnotherapy, Yoga, Exercise, Dietary therapy Aromatherapy and Massage, Reiki, Magnet therapy and Chiropractice. Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT have been conducted for some of the CAM therapies in Endometriosis and Acupuncture and Herbal and Dietary therapies have been found to have some positive effect on the patients. The efficacy of CAM therapies still needs substantial evidence to be integrated into general healthcare practices.

  16. Comparative evaluation of RetCam vs. gonioscopy images in congenital glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj V Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare clarity, exposure and quality of anterior chamber angle visualization in congenital glaucoma patients, using RetCam and indirect gonioscopy images. Design: Cross-sectional study Participants. Congenital glaucoma patients over age of 5 years. Materials and Methods: A prospective consecutive pilot study was done in congenital glaucoma patients who were older than 5 years. Methods used are indirect gonioscopy and RetCam imaging. Clarity of the image, extent of angle visible and details of angle structures seen were graded for both methods, on digitally recorded images, in each eye, by two masked observers. Outcome Measures: Image clarity, interobserver agreement. Results: 40 eyes of 25 congenital glaucoma patients were studied. RetCam image had excellent clarity in 77.5% of patients versus 47.5% by gonioscopy. The extent of angle seen was similar by both methods. Agreement between RetCam and gonioscopy images regarding details of angle structures was 72.50% by observer 1 and 65.00% by observer 2. Conclusions: There was good agreement between RetCam and indirect gonioscopy images in detecting angle structures of congenital glaucoma patients. However, RetCam provided greater clarity, with better quality, and higher magnification images. RetCam can be a useful alternative to gonioscopy in infants and small children without the need for general anesthesia.

  17. Role of L1CAM in the Regulation of the Canonical Wnt Pathway and Class I MAGE Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkurnikov, M Yu; Knyazev, E N; Wicklein, D; Schumacher, U; Samatov, T R; Tonevitskii, A G

    2016-04-01

    Molecule L1CAM is specific for nerve cells and tumors of various localizations. The expression of L1CAM is significantly higher in melanoma in comparison with benign nevi and correlates with the progress of melanoma and transition from radial to vertical growth. Monoclonal antibodies to L1CAM effectively and specifically attenuate melanoma growth, though stimulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. shRNA-mediated knock-down of L1CAM showed the involvement of L1CAM in regulation of activity of the canonical Wnt pathway and expression of genes of class I melanoma-associated antigens (MAGE). PMID:27165065

  18. Initial activation of EpCAM cleavage via cell-to-cell contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epithelial cell adhesion molecule EpCAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is frequently over-expressed in simple epithelia, progenitors, embryonic and tissue stem cells, carcinoma and cancer-initiating cells. Besides functioning as a homophilic adhesion protein, EpCAM is an oncogenic receptor that requires regulated intramembrane proteolysis for activation of its signal transduction capacity. Upon cleavage, the extracellular domain EpEX is released as a soluble ligand while the intracellular domain EpICD translocates into the cytoplasm and eventually into the nucleus in combination with four-and-a-half LIM domains protein 2 (FHL2) and β-catenin, and drives cell proliferation. EpCAM cleavage, induction of the target genes, and transmission of proliferation signals were investigated under varying density conditions using confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunoblotting, cell counting, and conditional cell systems. EpCAM cleavage, induction of the target genes, and transmission of proliferation signals were dependent on adequate cell-to-cell contact. If cell-to-cell contact was prohibited EpCAM did not provide growth advantages. If cells were allowed to undergo contact to each other, EpCAM transmitted proliferation signals based on signal transduction-related cleavage processes. Accordingly, the pre-cleaved version EpICD was not dependent on cell-to-cell contact in order to induce c-myc and cell proliferation, but necessitated nuclear translocation. For the case of contact-inhibited cells, although cleavage of EpCAM occurred, nuclear translocation of EpICD was reduced, as were EpCAM effects. Activation of EpCAM's cleavage and oncogenic capacity is dependent on cellular interaction (juxtacrine) to provide for initial signals of regulated intramembrane proteolysis, which then support signalling via soluble EpEX (paracrine)

  19. Process Chain in Automotive Industry - Present Day Demands versus Long Term Open CAD/CAM Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Dankwort, C. Werner

    1997-01-01

    The automotive industry was a pioneer in using CAD/CAM technology. Now the car manufacturers development process is almost completely done with this technology. Substantial initiative for the standardisation of CAD/CAM technics comes from the automotive industry, as e.g. for neutral CAD data interfaces. The R&D departments of German car manufacturers have founded a working group ii with the aim to develop a common long term CAD/CAM strategy. One important result is the concept of a future CAx...

  20. Marginal and internal fit of nano-composite CAD/CAM restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Park, So-Hyun; Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Shin, Yoo-Jin; Cho, Byeong-Hoon; Baek, Seung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal and internal fit of nano-composite CAD-CAM restorations. Materials and Methods A full veneer crown and an mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) inlay cavity, which were prepared on extracted human molars, were used as templates of epoxy resin replicas. The prepared teeth were scanned and CAD-CAM restorations were milled using Lava Ultimate (LU) and experimental nano-composite CAD/CAM blocks (EB) under the same milling parameters. To assess...

  1. Strength of CAD/CAM-generated esthetic ceramic molar implant crowns

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, D; Bindl, A; Schmidlin, P R; Lüthy, H; Mörmann, W H

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: One-visit in-office CAD/CAM fabrication of esthetic ceramic crowns as a superstructure for posterior implants is quite new. The aim of the study was to evaluate the strength of esthetic ceramic CAD/CAM crowns with varied occlusal thickness and seated with adhesive and nonadhesive cements on titanium and zirconia abutments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Esthetic ceramic CAD/CAM-generated molar crowns (n = 15 per group) with occlusal thicknesses of 0.5 mm and 1.5 mm were seated on titanium (1...

  2. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Yang, Jae-Ho; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun; Yeo, In-Sung

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also ...

  3. Spatial data software integration - Merging CAD/CAM/mapping with GIS and image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Thomas L.; Bryant, Nevin A.

    1987-01-01

    The integration of CAD/CAM/mapping with image processing using geographic information systems (GISs) as the interface is examined. Particular emphasis is given to the development of software interfaces between JPL's Video Image Communication and Retrieval (VICAR)/Imaged Based Information System (IBIS) raster-based GIS and the CAD/CAM/mapping system. The design and functions of the VICAR and IBIS are described. Vector data capture and editing are studied. Various software programs for interfacing between the VICAR/IBIS and CAD/CAM/mapping are presented and analyzed.

  4. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRIMPING DEVICE WITH MULTIPLE CAMS USING MSC ADAMS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Through the present paper, the author presents the results of the dynamic analysis with MSC ADAMS of the mechanism with a crimping device with 12 tightening cams, designed and used in the technological process of assembly of the indigenous electrical detonators. In this sense, the mechanism with multiple cams is considered a mechanical system and is treated as an assembly of rigid bodies connected by mechanical connections and elastic elements. For shaping and simulation of the mechanism with multiple cams using ADAMS program, the author got through the following stages: construction of the pattern, its testing and simulation, validation, finishing, parametrization, optimization of the pattern.

  5. CAM operated tool for proximate or remote holding of an object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrum, P.B.; Gajdzik, G.P. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    A tool for releasably holding an object includes a receptacle having an outer sleeve and a rotatable inner sleeve. The inner sleeve is coaxially positioned within the outer sleeve and includes a locking member. An insert which is adapted to be operably associated with the receptacle includes a cam. The cam includes a guide and a slot so that when the cam is inserted into the inner sleeve, the guide aligns the locking member with the slot allowing the locking member to engage the slot thereby holding the receptacle and the insert together.

  6. Coupling the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) with the Statistical Spectral Interpolation (SSI) System under ESMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    daSilva, Arlindo

    2004-01-01

    The first set of interoperability experiments illustrates the role ESMF can play in integrating the national Earth science resources. Using existing data assimilation technology from NCEP and the National Weather Service, the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) was able to ingest conventional and remotely sensed observations, a capability that could open the door to using CAM for weather as well as climate prediction. CAM, which includes land surface capabilities, was developed by NCAR, with key components from GSFC. In this talk we will describe the steps necessary for achieving the coupling of these two systems.

  7. Expression of EpCAM Increases in the Hepatitis B Related and the Treatment-Resistant Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Kimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports the important role of cancer stem cells (CSCs. Many reports suggest that epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM is a useful marker for cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. To elucidate the mechanisms of cancer stem cells, the development of specific molecular targeted drugs has become very important. In the present study, we examined the EpCAM expression pattern and its characteristic expression in resected HCC. We studied the drug resistance of EpCAM expression cells. EpCAM expression was detected significantly more frequently with hepatitis B virus (HBV than with other etiologies. In HCC resection patients who had received prior treatment (transcatheter arterial embolization or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, EpCAM was strongly expressed. In particular, very strong expression was observed after hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. The PLC/PRF/5 human HCC cell line expressed bimodal EpCAM, and EpCAM-positive cells had CSC cell potency. The EpCAM expression in EpCAM-positive cells increased significantly by treatment with cisplatin. EpCAM-positive cells showed better viability than EpCAM-negative cells when treated with ciplatin. Collectively, our results suggest that cancer stem cells are highly expressed in hepatitis B and have potential anticancer drug resistance.

  8. 基于广义塑性力学的Cam-clay模型的改进%Improvement of Cam-clay Model Based on Generalized Plastic Mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林德; 张向霞

    2005-01-01

    针对Cam-clay模型计算中存在没有充分考虑剪切变形的缺点,首先采用理论分析的手段,指出产生此现象的原因,同时提出由剪应力和体应力引起的应变分量分别采用不同的分配比例系数的思想.在此基础上采用南京水利科学院的剪切试验对Cam-clay模型进行改进,给出了基于不同分配比例系数的、改进后的Cam-clay模型的应力与应变关系的计算式,最终得到改进了的Cam-clay模型含有4个独立的试验参数.通过算例对改进后的模型与Cam-clay模型进行比较,揭示了改进后的模型能够有效地考虑剪切变形.

  9. L1CAM protein expression is associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weder Walter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM is potentially involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. EMT marker expression is of prognostic significance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The relevance of L1CAM for NSCLC is unclear. We investigated the protein expression of L1CAM in a cohort of NSCLC patients. L1CAM protein expression was correlated with clinico-pathological parameters including survival and markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Results L1CAM protein expression was found in 25% of squamous cell carcinomas and 24% of adenocarcinomas and correlated with blood vessel invasion and metastasis (p Conclusions A subset of NSCLCs with vessel tropism and increased metastasis aberrantly expresses L1CAM. L1CAM is a novel prognostic marker for NSCLCs that is upregulated by EMT induction and appears to be instrumental for enhanced cell invasion.

  10. A Space Cam Mechanism for Power Transmission of an Opposite-cylinder Piston Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Haoyue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of improving the engine’s power density, we put forward a new type of power transmission mechanism which is used for opposed-cylinder engine. The gas pressure acts on the cam through the piston and push rod, and the spindle rotation of external is driven by the cam. The design of spatial cam work surface is completed by using the enveloping theory of a family of space curves, the force between roller and cam is analyzed using dynamic analysis software. Under the condition of equal number, size and stroke of piston, the new one with larger power density is more compact in structure than the traditional power transmission mechanism, and the reaction force on either side of the main shaft and the acting force between pistons and cylinders are smaller than those in traditional one, which prolongs the service life of the pistons.

  11. Health psychology as a context for massage therapy: a conceptual model with CAM as mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymel, Glenn M; Rich, Grant J

    2014-04-01

    Health psychology represents a context within which massage therapy research, education, and practice can be positioned for the mutual benefit of both. Furthermore, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) more often than not plays a mediating role in relating massage therapy to health psychology. On occasion, though, the linkage between health psychology and massage therapy can be quite direct without the mediating influence of CAM. This paper, accordingly, advances a conceptual model via both flowchart and Venn diagram displays for viewing the health psychology context for massage therapy with the possibility of CAM as a mediating factor. Attention is also given to the broad range of issues constituting contemporary health psychology as well as its correspondence to an equally diverse array of client populations and health conditions addressed in massage therapy research. Future directions in the areas of health psychology, CAM, and massage therapy are proposed with a view toward a mutual and reciprocal benefit accruing to these behavioral and health science arenas.

  12. Commissioning and First Observations with Wide FastCam at the Telescopio Carlos S\\'anchez

    CERN Document Server

    Velasco, Sergio; Oscoz, Alejandro; López, Roberto L; Puga, Marta; Murga, Gaizka; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio; Pallé, Enric; Ricci, Davide; Ayuso, Ismael; Hernández-Sánchez, Mónica; Truant, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The FastCam instrument platform, jointly developed by the IAC and the UPCT, allows, in real-time, acquisition, selection and storage of images with a resolution that reaches the diffraction limit of medium-sized telescopes. FastCam incorporates a specially designed software package to analyse series of tens of thousands of images in parallel with the data acquisition at the telescope. Wide FastCam is a new instrument that, using the same software for data acquisition, does not look for lucky imaging but fast observations in a much larger field of view. Here we describe the commissioning process and first observations with Wide FastCam at the Telescopio Carlos S\\'anchez (TCS) in the Observatorio del Teide.

  13. CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Postnov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CAD/CAM/CAI application solutions for internal combustion engine pistons machining was analyzed. Low-volume technology of internal combustion engine pistons production was proposed. Fixture for CNC turning center was designed.

  14. Cam Femoroacetabular Impingement as a Possible Explanation of Recalcitrant Anterior Knee Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sanchis-Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a patient with chronic anterior knee pain (AKP recalcitrant to conservative treatment who returned to our office for severe hip pain secondary to Cam femoroacetabular impingement (Cam FAI at 10 months after the onset of knee pain. This case highlights the fact that the main problem is not in the patella but in the hip in some patients with AKP. We hypothesize that there is an external femoral rotation in order to avoid the impingement and therefore the hip pain in patients with Cam FAI. This functional femoral rotation could provoke a patellofemoral imbalance that may be, in theory, responsible for patellofemoral pain in this particular patient. In our case, Cam FAI resolution was related to the resolution of AKP.

  15. Mathematical Modeling of the Numerical Control Cam Grinder Wheel Center Displacement and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaojun; LIU Zhaohui

    2006-01-01

    Considering grinding a cam with numerical control (NC) cam grinder, a mathematical model should be established with the unified parameter based on the original cam-lobe lift data to describe the movement of wheel and establish the relation between the wheel center coordinate, the measuring angle and workpiece's spindle rotation angle. By analyzing, the grinding wheel can be regarded as different followers. To the planar and roller followers, different mathematical models are established, but they can be unified in Eqs.(17) of this paper with the different value of the roller radius r1. And also the model is suit for the edged follower when assuming the roller radius r1=0. Experimental verification was done with TKM120 CNC/CBN grinder with NC sets' interpolation according to the model, which shows that high precision parts can be manufactured and this mathematical model can be practically applied for NC cam grinder.

  16. Development of CAD/CAM System for Cross Section’s Changing Hole Electrical Discharge Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Tohru; Ishiguro, Eiki; Kita, Masahiko; Nakamoto, Keiichi; Takeuchi, Yoshimi

    This study deals with the development of a new CAD/CAM system for fabricating holes whose cross sections change variously. The cross sections of machined holes are generally constant. The limitations in the shapes of holes that can be machined make obstacles in the design stage of industrial products. A new device that utilizes electrical discharge machining has been developed that can create holes with various cross sections to solve this problem. However, it has been impossible to put the device into practical use since there has been no software that has enabled the designed shapes to be easily machined. Therefore, we aimed at developing a new CAD/CAM system for machining the beforehand designed holes with changing cross sections by using the device. As the first step in developing the CAD/CAM system, the post processor in the CAM system is formulated in this paper.

  17. Involvement of Ca2+/CaM in the signal transduction of acetylcholine regulating stomatal movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    It has been known that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) also exists in plants and is able to regulate the movement of stomata. In another aspect, Ca2+/CaM as the second messengers have a critical role of signal transduction in stomatal guard-cell. Here we showed that Ca2+/CaM were also involved in theACh regulated stomatal movement. In the medium containing Ca2+, the Ca2+ channel blockers (NIF and Ver) and CaM inhibitors (TFP and W7) could neutralize the ACh induced stomatal opening, however, they are ineffective in the medium containing K+. Those results indicated that Ca2+/CaM were involved in the signal transduction pathway of ACh regulating stomatal movement.

  18. CamOn: A Real-Time Autonomous Camera Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Jhala, Arnav Harish

    2009-01-01

    This demonstration presents CamOn, an autonomous cam- era control system for real-time 3D games. CamOn employs multiple Artificial Potential Fields (APFs), a robot motion planning technique, to control both the location and orienta- tion of the camera. Scene geometry from the 3D environment...... on real-time motion planning of the camera. Moreover, the recasting of camera constraints into potential fields is visually more accessible to game designers and has the potential to be implemented as a plug-in to 3D level design and editing tools currently avail- able with games. Introduction...... contributes to the potential field that is used to determine po- sition and movement of the camera. Composition constraints for the camera are modelled as potential fields for controlling the view target of the camera. CamOn combines the compositional benefits of constraint- based camera systems, and improves...

  19. ROLLING CONDITION FOR ROLLERS ALONG CAMS IN COLD DOUBLE-SET MULTI-ROLLER TUBE ROLLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The necessary condition of pure rolling for the rollers moving along its individual cams are obtained by the analysis of the loading status of the rollers and it provides a theoretical basis for adjustment of rolling stand.

  20. A Unique Opportunity for an Intercultural Discussion on CAM and Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marotta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The meeting of the APASL, Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver, was held in December 2004, in New Delhi, India. The meeting was held under the patronage of the APASL Committee and Board of Presidents of the National Liver Association and in conjunction with the annual conference of the Indian Association for the Study of Liver (INASL. The congress was designed to have a core meeting with three parallel sessions running throughout, dedicated research workshops and intensive breakfast sessions. This report concentrates on the two sessions devoted to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM and shows the latest research in CAM for liver disease and the concerns of doctors about integrating CAM with more traditional treatments. With researchers and practitioners gathering from all over the world, it was a unique opportunity for an intercultural discussion on CAM and liver disease.

  1. Study on glass infiltrated alumina(GIA) ceramic for CAD/CAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mingzhe; LI Hong; WANG Wei; Zhao Yunfeng

    2001-01-01

    @@ With the rapid development of computer technique , Computer aided design(CAD) and computer aided manufacturing(CAM) or computer integrated manufacturing(CIM) has became an alternative to the conventional technique for producingdental restorations.

  2. Genome sequence of a new Streptomyces coelicolor generalized transducing bacteriophage, ΦCAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Rita; Salmond, George P C

    2012-12-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor is a model system for the study of Streptomyces, a genus of bacteria responsible for the production of many clinically important antibiotics. Here we report the genome sequence of ΦCAM, a new S. coelicolor generalized transducing bacteriophage, isolated from a soil sample originating from Lincolnshire, United Kingdom. Many open reading frames within ΦCAM shared high levels of similarity to a prophage from Salinispora tropica and a putative prophage in Streptomyces sp. strain C.

  3. CAM within a field force of countervailing powers: The case of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joana; Gabe, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the position of the medical profession and the state towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners has changed since the late 1990s, taking Portugal as a case study. Using Light's concept of countervailing powers, we consider the alliances, interests, rhetoric and degrees of control between these three actors over time, focussing particularly on the extent to which CAM practitioners have acted as a countervailing force in their relationship with the medical profession and the state. It also brings to the fore the position of supra-state agencies concerning CAM regulation. A critical discourse analysis was conducted on data derived from a systematic search of information dating from the late 1990s up to 2015. Our analysis suggests that CAM has emerged as an active player and a countervailing power in that it has had significant influence on the process of state policy-making. The medical profession, in turn, has moved from rejecting to 'incorporating' CAM, while the state has acted as a 'broker', trying to accommodate the demands and preferences of both actors while simultaneously demonstrating its power and autonomy in shaping health policy. In sum, the history of countermoves of CAM, the medical profession and the state in recasting power relations regarding CAM regulation in Portugal has highlighted the explanatory value of Light's countervailing power theory and the need to move away from a professional dominance and corporatist approach, in which CAM has simply been seen as subjugated to the power of the medical profession and the state.

  4. The Systemic Theory of Living Systems and Relevance to CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Olalde Rangel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Systemic Theory of Living Systems is being published in several parts in eCAM. The theory is axiomatic. It originates from the phenomenological idea that physiological health is based on three factors: integrity of its structure or organization, O, functional organic energy reserve, E, and level of active biological intelligence, I. From the theory is derived a treatment strategy called Systemic Medicine (SM. This is based on identifying and prescribing phytomedicines and/or other medications that strengthen each factor. Energy-stimulating phytomedicines increase available energy and decrease total entropy of an open biological system by providing negative entropy. The same occurs with phytomedicines that act as biological intelligence modulators. They should be used as the first line of treatment in all ailments, since all pathologies, by definition, imply a higher than normal organic entropy. SM postulates that the state of health, H, of an individual, is effectively equal to the product of the strength of each factor H = O × E × I. SM observes that when all three factors are brought back to ideal levels, patients' conditions begin the recovery to normal health.

  5. Novel Diagnosis of Lyme Disease: Potential for CAM Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristo Vojdani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease (LD is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere, producing a wide range of disabling effects on multiple human targets, including the skin, the nervous system, the joints and the heart. Insufficient clinical diagnostic methods, the necessity for prompt antibiotic treatment along with the pervasive nature of infection impel the development and establishment of new clinical diagnostic tools with increased accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The goal of this article is 4-fold: (i to detail LD infection and pathology, (ii to review prevalent diagnostic methods, emphasizing inherent problems, (iii to introduce the usage of in vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT in clinical diagnostics and (iv to underscore the relevance of a novel comprehensive LD diagnostic approach to practitioners of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM. Utilization of this analytical method will increase the accuracy of the diagnostic process and abridge the time to treatment, with antibiotics, herbal medicines and nutritional supplements, resulting in improved quality of care and disease prognosis.

  6. CAD-CAM database management at Bendix Kansas City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    The Bendix Kansas City Division of Allied Corporation began integrating mechanical CAD-CAM capabilities into its operations in June 1980. The primary capabilities include a wireframe modeling application, a solid modeling application, and the Bendix Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (BICAM) System application, a set of software programs and procedures which provides user-friendly access to graphic applications and data, and user-friendly sharing of data between applications and users. BICAM also provides for enforcement of corporate/enterprise policies. Three access categories, private, local, and global, are realized through the implementation of data-management metaphors: the desk, reading rack, file cabinet, and library are for the storage, retrieval, and sharing of drawings and models. Access is provided through menu selections; searching for designs is done by a paging method or a search-by-attribute-value method. The sharing of designs between all users of Part Data is key. The BICAM System supports 375 unique users per quarter and manages over 7500 drawings and models. The BICAM System demonstrates the need for generalized models, a high-level system framework, prototyping, information-modeling methods, and an understanding of the entire enterprise. Future BICAM System implementations are planned to take advantage of this knowledge.

  7. Optical properties of manually and CAD/CAM-fabricated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güth, Jan-Frederik; Zuch, Timo; Zwinge, Sebastian; Engels, Jörg; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Edelhoff, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the light translucency and fluorescence 5 manually and 11 CAD/CAM polymer materials to a glass-ceramic material. Light-transmission was measured using a spectrophotometer. Overall light transmission (n=40) was calculated as the integration (tc (λ) dλ [10(-5)]) of all tc values for the wavelengths from 400 to 700 nm. One-Way-ANOVA, (Scheffe's post hoc) revealed following light transmission values: Artbloc Temp (33.1%; A), Polycon ae (33.6%; A), Cercon base PMMA (38.3%; B), Luxatemp Fluorescence (40.7%; C), Protemp 4 (41.6%; C), Structur 2 SC (43.1%; D), CAD Temp (45.0%; E), Paradigm MZ 100 (45.4%; E), New Outline (45.6%,E), Ambarino High-Class (45.9%; E, F), Fixtemp C&B (46.1%; E, F, G), Lava Ultimate (47.1%; F, G), Telio-CAD (47.3%; G), glass-ceramic Vita Mark II (50.8%; H), New Outline CAD (52.1%; H, I), QUATTRO DISC Eco PMMA (53.0%; I) and Zenotec PMMA (54.5%, J). Polymers from conventional and industrial polymerization show widely varying translucent and fluorescent properties when compared with glass-ceramics of the same color. PMID:24240888

  8. FastCam optomechanical system design and manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga, Gaizka; Sanquirce, Rubén; Campo, Ramón; Oscoz, Alex; López, Roberto; Rebolo, Rafael

    2010-07-01

    FastCam is an instrument jointly developed by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UPCT), designed to obtain high spatial resolution images in the optical wavelength range from ground-based telescopes (http://www.iac.es/proyecto/fastcam and http://www.iac.es/telescopes/Manuales/manualfastcam.pdf). The instrument is equipped with a very low noise and very fast readout speed EMCCD camera which provides short exposure images to an FPGA-based processor which performs the selection, recenterg and combination of images in real-time (applying Lucky Imaging techniques) to provide diffraction limited resolution images in 1-4 m class telescopes from 500 to 1100 nm. IDOM has contributed to this new state-of-the-art instrument with the design of an optomechanical system conceived to maximize the image scale stability of the system for astrometry. The combination of aluminum plates, carbon fiber (CFRP) rods and stainless steel mounts in the optical bench defines an athermalized and stiff design to meet the requirements of thermal and mechanical stability. This work has been done with the support of the Aerospace Subprogramme of the Spanish Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI) and the INTEK programme of the Basque Development Agency (SPRI).

  9. SuprimeCam Observation of Sporadic Meteors during Perseids 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Iye, M; Yanagisawa, M; Ebizuka, N; Ohnishi, K; Hirose, C; Asami, N; Komiyama, Yu; Furusawa, H

    2007-01-01

    We report the serendipitous findings of 13 faint meteors and 44 artificial space objects by Subaru SuprimeCam imaging observations during 11-16 August 2004. The meteors, at about 100km altitude, and artificial satellites/debris in orbit, at 500km altitude or higher, were clearly discriminated by their apparent defocused image sizes. CCD photometry of the 13 meteors, including 1 Perseid, 1 Aquarid, and 11 sporadic meteors, was performed. We defined a peak video-rate magnitude by comparing the integrated photon counts from the brightest portion of the track traversed within 33ms to those from a 0-mag star during the same time duration. This definition gives magnitudes in the range 4.0< V_{vr} <6.4 and 4.1< I_{vr}<5.9 for these 13 meteors. The corresponding magnitude for virtual naked-eye observers could be somewhat fainter especially for the V-band observation, in which the [OI] 5577 line lasting about 1 sec as an afterglow could contribute to the integrated flux of the present 5-10 min CCD exposure...

  10. CanariCam/GTC observations of (99942) Apophis

    CERN Document Server

    Licandro, J; Alvarez, C; Alí-Lagoa, V; Delbò, M

    2015-01-01

    The potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) (99942) Apophis is one of the most remarkable near-Earth asteroids (NEA) in terms of impact hazard. A good determination of its surface thermal inertia is very important in order to evaluate the Yarkovsky effect on its orbital evolution. We present thermal infrared observations obtained on January 29, 2013, with CanariCam mid-infrared camera/spectrograph attached to the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma, Spain) using the Si2-8.7, Si6-12.5, and Q1-17.65 filters with the aim of deriving Apophis' diameter ($D$), geometric albedo ($p_V$), and thermal inertia ($\\Gamma$). We performed a detailed thermophysical model analysis of the GTC data combined with previously published thermal data obtained using Herschel Space Observatory PACS instrument at 70, 100, and 160 $\\mu$m.The thermophysical model fit of the data favors low surface roughness solutions (within a range of roughness slope angles $rms$ between 0.1 and 0.5), and constrains ...

  11. Mutation in the sixth immunoglobulin domain of L1CAM is associated with migrational brain anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Christine; Moser, Franklin; Graham, John M.; Watiker, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the phenotype of a patient with classical features of X-linked L1 syndrome associated with novel brain malformations. Methods: Diagnostic analysis included physical and dysmorphology examinations, MRI of the brain, and exome sequencing of the family trio. Results: We report a 2.5-year-old boy with developmental delay, dysmorphic facies, and adducted thumbs. MRI of the brain showed a truncated corpus callosum and periventricular heterotopias associated with polymicrogyria (PMG). Variant segregation analysis with exome sequencing discovered a novel maternally derived hemizygous variant in exon 14 of the L1CAM gene (c.1759 G>C; p.G587R). Conclusions: This novel L1CAM mutation was located in the protein's sixth immunoglobin domain and involved glycine-587, a key residue in the structure of L1CAM because of its interactions with lysine-606, which indicates that any mutation at this site would likely affect the secondary structure and function of the protein. The replacement of the small nonpolar glycine residue with a large basic arginine would have an even more dramatic result. The presentation of periventricular nodular heterotopias with overlying PMG is very uncommon, and its association with L1CAM may provide insight into other similar cases. Furthermore, this presentation indicates the important role that L1CAM plays in neuronal migration and brain development and extends the phenotype associated with L1CAM-associated disorders. PMID:27066571

  12. Rationale for the Use of CAD/CAM Technology in Implant Prosthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar; Lyons, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Despite the predictable longevity of implant prosthesis, there is an ongoing interest to continue to improve implant prosthodontic treatment and outcomes. One of the developments is the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to produce implant abutments and frameworks from metal or ceramic materials. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate the rationale of CAD/CAM utilization for implant prosthodontics. To date, CAD/CAM allows simplified production of precise and durable implant components. The precision of fit has been proven in several laboratory experiments and has been attributed to the design of implants. Milling also facilitates component fabrication from durable and aesthetic materials. With further development, it is expected that the CAD/CAM protocol will be further simplified. Although compelling clinical evidence supporting the superiority of CAD/CAM implant restorations is still lacking, it is envisioned that CAD/CAM may become the main stream for implant component fabrication. PMID:23690778

  13. Integration of CAM and CNC operation through code editing and manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IT technology for engineering design and manufacturing has gone through significant advancement for the last 30 years. It is widely acknowledged that IT would provide competitive advantage for engineering company in term of production cycle, productivity and efficiency. The recent development in this area is on the total system integration. While standard off-shelf CAD/CAM/CNC software and hardware packages would provide solution for system integration, more often than not users will stumble upon compatibility problems. Moreover, most of the integration deals with CAD and CAM systems. CNC integration has not been fully developed. Users always found problems in the integration of CAM and CNC machine due to the different level of technological development. CNC codes have not fundamentally progressed in the last 50 years, while CAD/CAM software packages have undergone massive evolution and improvement. This paper discusses a practical solution of CAM and CNC integration through code editing and manipulation within the CAM system in order to comply with the CNC machine requirements. (Author)

  14. Rationale for the Use of CAD/CAM Technology in Implant Prosthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Abduo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the predictable longevity of implant prosthesis, there is an ongoing interest to continue to improve implant prosthodontic treatment and outcomes. One of the developments is the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM to produce implant abutments and frameworks from metal or ceramic materials. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate the rationale of CAD/CAM utilization for implant prosthodontics. To date, CAD/CAM allows simplified production of precise and durable implant components. The precision of fit has been proven in several laboratory experiments and has been attributed to the design of implants. Milling also facilitates component fabrication from durable and aesthetic materials. With further development, it is expected that the CAD/CAM protocol will be further simplified. Although compelling clinical evidence supporting the superiority of CAD/CAM implant restorations is still lacking, it is envisioned that CAD/CAM may become the main stream for implant component fabrication.

  15. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--accuracy from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapie, Laurent; Lebon, Nicolas; Mawussi, Bernardin; Fron-Chabouis, Hélène; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    As is the case in the field of medicine, as well as in most areas of daily life, digital technology is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available not only for chairside practice but also for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental practice can be considered as the handling of devices and software processing for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use dental CAD/CAM systems often do not have enough information to understand the variations offered by such technology practice. Knowledge of the random and systematic errors in accuracy with CAD/CAM systems can help to achieve successful restorations with this technology, and help with the purchasing of a CAD/CAM system that meets the clinical needs of restoration. This article provides a mechanical engineering viewpoint of the accuracy of CAD/ CAM systems, to help dentists understand the impact of this technology on restoration accuracy.

  16. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--accuracy from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapie, Laurent; Lebon, Nicolas; Mawussi, Bernardin; Fron-Chabouis, Hélène; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    As is the case in the field of medicine, as well as in most areas of daily life, digital technology is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available not only for chairside practice but also for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental practice can be considered as the handling of devices and software processing for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use dental CAD/CAM systems often do not have enough information to understand the variations offered by such technology practice. Knowledge of the random and systematic errors in accuracy with CAD/CAM systems can help to achieve successful restorations with this technology, and help with the purchasing of a CAD/CAM system that meets the clinical needs of restoration. This article provides a mechanical engineering viewpoint of the accuracy of CAD/ CAM systems, to help dentists understand the impact of this technology on restoration accuracy. PMID:26734668

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in an Italian cohort of pediatric headache patients: the tip of the iceberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Libera, D; Colombo, B; Pavan, G; Comi, G

    2014-05-01

    The use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) in paediatric populations is considerably increased, especially for pain and chronic conditions, as demonstrated by epidemiological surveys both in Europe and in the USA. In our study, CAM was used in 76 % patients of a cohort of 124 children affected by headache (age 4-16 years; 67 % female; 70 % migraine without aura, 12 % migraine with aura, 18 % tensive headache according to IHS criteria) consecutively recruited at a Pediatric Headache University Center. CAM was used as preventive treatment in 80 % cases. The main reasons for seeking CAM were: the wish of avoiding chronic use of drugs with their related side effects, the desire of an integrated approach, the reported inefficacy of conventional medicine, and a more suitable children disposition to CAM than to pharmacological compound. Female gender, younger age, migraine without aura, parents' higher educational status, maternal use of CAM and other associated chronic conditions, correlated with CAM use (p minerals supplements (40 %) with magnesium, 5-Hydroxytryptophan, vitamin B6 or B12, Multivitamin compounds; Homeopathy (47 %) with Silicea, Ignatia Amara, Pulsatilla, Aconitum, Nux Vomica, Calcarea phosphorica; physical treatment (45 %) such as Ayurvedic massage, shiatsu, osteopathy; yoga (33 %); acupuncture (11 %). CAM-often integrated with conventional care-was auto-prescribed in 30 % of the cases, suggested by non-physician in 22 %, by the General Practitioner in 24 % and by paediatrician in 24 %. Both general practitioners and neurologists were mostly unaware of their patients' CAM use. In conclusion, neurologists should inquire for CAM use and be prepared to learn about CAM therapies or to directly interact with CAM trained experts, in order to coordinate an integrative approach to health, as especially required in paediatric headache patients and their parents. Further studies are required to investigate safety and efficacy of CAM in pediatric headache

  18. PillCam(TradeMark), a Noninvasive Endoscopic Device for the Measurement of Gastrointestinal Motility Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaksman, Zahman; Crady, Camille; Raju, G. S.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Bioavailability and effectiveness of drugs given by mouth are governed in part by gastrointestinal (GI) motility and function. Microgravity has been shown to decrease GI motility as indicated by a 3 fold increase in gastrointestinal transit time (GITT). The PillCam(TradeMark), an endoscopic camera embedded in a capsule, is a novel noninvasive and unobtrusive device that is used for the diagnosis of GI pathology. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of PillCam(TradeMark) as an alternative to the Lactulose Breath Hydrogen Test (LBHT) for estimating GI motility. The sensitivity and applicability of this device for detection and estimation of the effect of promethazine, a deterrent, and caffeine, a prokinetic, on GI motility were also examined. Method: In this semi-randomized cross-over design study, six male and six female subjects were administered the following 4 treatments: PillCam(TradeMark) alone, PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose (10g), PillCam(TradeMark)+caffeine (200mg), and PillCam(TradeMark)+Promethazine (50mg). Results: GITT ranged between 1:24 and 7:52 hr:min. Lactulose did not alter GITT. A significant increase in GITT was noticed after administration of PMZ when compared to values from PillCam(TradeMark) treatment alone or PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose treatment. No difference in GITT after caffeine treatment was noticed. While there were no gender related differences in GITT after administration of PillCam(TradeMark) or with lactulose, a significant difference (pgenders was observed after promethazine administration with mean GITT higher in males (5:50 hr:min) than females (4:15 hr:min). Conclusion: The PillCam(TradeMark) capsule is applicable for the determination of GITT using time stamped GI images. It can be successfully used for the assessment of drug induced changes in GI motility and therefore, may be applicable for microgravity and analog environment studies on GI motility and function.

  19. Epigenetic regulation of L1CAM in endometrial carcinoma: comparison to cancer–testis (CT-X) antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L1CAM was originally identified as an adhesion molecule involved in neural development. In many human carcinomas L1CAM is over-expressed and is associated with a bad prognosis. We previously reported that L1CAM was absent in the vast majority of endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (ECs) (type 1) but was strongly expressed in the more aggressive serous and clear-cell ECs (termed type 2). The differential regulation of L1CAM in ECs is not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that it can be regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. Here we investigated the role of DNA-methylation of the L1CAM promoter for expression. We also studied the relationship to cancer testis (CT-X) antigens that co-localize with L1CAM on chromosome Xq28, a region that is often activated in human tumors. We used EC cell lines and primary tumor tissues for our analysis. For expression analysis we employed RT-PCR and Western blotting. DNA-Methylation of the L1CAM promoter was determined after bisulfite conversation and DNA sequencing. Tumor tissues were examined by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. We demonstrate that the treatment of L1CAM low/negative expressing EC cell lines with 5′-Azacytidine (5-AzaC) or knock-down of DNMT1 (DNA methyltransferase 1) as well as the HDAC (histone deacetylase) inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) up-regulated L1CAM at the mRNA and protein level. The L1CAM gene has two promoter regions with two distinct CpG islands. We observed that the expression of L1CAM correlated with hypermethylation in promoter 1 and 5-AzaC treatment affected the DNA-methylation pattern in this region. The CT-X antigens NY-ESO-1, MAGE-A3 and MAGE-A4 were also strongly up-regulated by 5-AzaC or knock-down of DNMT1 but did not respond to treatment with TSA. Primary EC tumor tissues showed a variable methylation pattern of the L1CAM promoter. No striking differences in promoter methylation were observed between tumor areas with L1CAM expression and those without expression. L1CAM expression

  20. Advances in computer-aided engineering: CAD/CAM-research at Delft University of Technology. Report of the VF-project CAD/CAM 1989-1994

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1994-01-01

    This book contains a collection of articles describing on-going CAD/CAM-research at several engineering faculties at Delft University of Technology. Two main themes covered in this book are 'Conceptual design of complex products' and 'Product modelling and product data exchange'.

  1. Porting of ship hull structure CAD/CAM system to distributed processing. Senkaku CAD/CAM system no bunsan shori eno iko ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, H.; Okazaki, M. (Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-09-04

    This paper introduces advantages of executing distributed processing in a ship hull structure CAD/CAM system, and summarizes its data base management system. A CAD/CAM system can cause a problem of aggravation in response speed in association with expanded application, attributable to a central processing system. To solve this problem, the CAD/CAM system was transplanted to an engineering workstation (EWS) and transferred to distributed processing by means of a network system. As a result, the processing speed in one EWS was improved to 2.6 times to 1.5 times as fast as in one super minicomputer. A ship hull structure CAD/CAM system comprising two data servers and 26 EWS has increased its processing amount to about 45 times. In this system, the communications between the data servers and clients have a close relation with the data base management. It is important for operation efficiency to reduce the number of communications to a minimum necessity for consideration of the response speed. Local buffering is adopted at SCON. 7 figs.

  2. Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing CAD/CAM Benchmark.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domm, T.C.; Underwood, R.S.

    1999-10-13

    The Benchmark Project was created from a desire to identify best practices and improve the overall efficiency and performance of the Y-12 Plant's systems and personnel supporting the manufacturing mission. The mission of the benchmark team was to search out industry leaders in manufacturing and evaluate their engineering practices and processes to determine direction and focus for Y-12 modernization efforts. The companies visited included several large established companies and a new, small, high-tech machining firm. As a result of this effort, changes are recommended that will enable Y-12 to become a more modern, responsive, cost-effective manufacturing facility capable of supporting the needs of the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) into the 21st century. The benchmark team identified key areas of interest, both focused and general. The focus areas included Human Resources, Information Management, Manufacturing Software Tools, and Standards/Policies and Practices. Areas of general interest included Infrastructure, Computer Platforms and Networking, and Organizational Structure. The results of this benchmark showed that all companies are moving in the direction of model-based engineering and manufacturing. There was evidence that many companies are trying to grasp how to manage current and legacy data. In terms of engineering design software tools, the companies contacted were somewhere between 3-D solid modeling and surfaced wire-frame models. The manufacturing computer tools were varied, with most companies using more than one software product to generate machining data and none currently performing model-based manufacturing (MBM) from a common model. The majority of companies were closer to identifying or using a single computer-aided design (CAD) system than a single computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system. The Internet was a technology that all companies were looking to either transport information more easily throughout the corporation or as a conduit for

  3. Additive CAD/CAM process for dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nelson R F A; Witek, Lukasz; Coelho, Paulo G; Thompson, Van P; Rekow, Elizabeth D; Smay, Jim

    2011-02-01

    This article describes the evolution of a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) process where ceramic paste is deposited in a layer-by-layer sequence using a computer numerical control machine to build up core and fixed partial denture (FPD) structures (robocasting). Al(2)O(3) (alumina) or ZrO(2) (Y-TZP) are blended into a 0.8% aqueous solution of ammonium polyacrylate in a ratio of approximately 1:1 solid:liquid. A viscosifying agent, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, is added to a concentration of 1% in the liquid phase, and then a counter polyelectrolyte is added to gel the slurry. There are two methods for robocasting crown structures (cores or FPD framework). One is for the core to be printed using zirconia ink without support materials, in which the stereolithography (STL) file is inverted (occlusal surface resting on a flat substrate) and built. The second method uses a fugitive material composed of carbon black codeposited with the ceramic material. During the sintering process, the carbon black is removed. There are two key challenges to successful printing of ceramic crowns by the robocasting technique. First is the development of suitable materials for printing, and second is the design of printing patterns for assembly of the complex geometry required for a dental restoration. Robocasting has room for improvement. Current development involves enhancing the automation of nozzle alignment for accurate support material deposition and better fidelity of the occlusal surface. An accompanying effort involves calculation of optimal support structures to yield the best geometric results and minimal material usage.

  4. Dental scanning in CAD/CAM technologies: laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda; Faur, Nicolae; Negru, Radu; Romînu, Mihai; Cozarov, Dalibor

    2008-02-01

    Scanning, also called digitizing, is the process of gathering the requisite data from an object. Many different technologies are used to collect three dimensional data. They range from mechanical and very slow, to radiation-based and highly-automated. Each technology has its advantages and disadvantages, and their applications and specifications overlap. The aims of this study are represented by establishing a viable method of digitally representing artifacts of dental casts, proposing a suitable scanner and post-processing software and obtaining 3D Models for the dental applications. The method is represented by the scanning procedure made by different scanners as the implicated materials. Scanners are the medium of data capture. 3D scanners aim to measure and record the relative distance between the object's surface and a known point in space. This geometric data is represented in the form of point cloud data. The contact and no contact scanners were presented. The results show that contact scanning procedures uses a touch probe to record the relative position of points on the objects' surface. This procedure is commonly used in Reverse engineering applications. Its merits are represented by efficiency for objects with low geometric surface detail. Disadvantages are represented by time consuming, this procedure being impractical for artifacts digitization. The non contact scanning procedure implies laser scanning (laser triangulation technology) and photogrammetry. As a conclusion it can be drawn that different types of dental structure needs different types of scanning procedures in order to obtain a competitive complex 3D virtual model that can be used in CAD/CAM technologies.

  5. From Artisanal to CAD-CAM Blocks: State of the Art of Indirect Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, A K; Dupont, N M; Oudkerk, J C; Dewael, T Y; Sadoun, M J

    2016-05-01

    Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites. Indeed, new polymerization modes used for CAD-CAM blocks-especially high temperature (HT) and, most of all, high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP)-are shown to significantly increase the degree of conversion in comparison with light-cured composites. Industrial processes also allow for the augmentation of the filler content and for the realization of more homogeneous structures with fewer flaws. In addition, due to their increased degree of conversion and their different monomer composition, some CAD-CAM blocks are more advantageous in terms of toxicity and monomer release. Finally, materials with a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) microstructure exhibit higher flexural strength and a more favorable elasticity modulus than materials with a dispersed filler microstructure. Consequently, some high-performance composite CAD-CAM blocks-particularly experimental PICNs-can now rival glass-ceramics, such as lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics, for use as bonded partial restorations and crowns on natural teeth and implants. Being able to be manufactured in very low thicknesses, they offer the possibility of developing innovative minimally invasive treatment strategies, such as "no prep" treatment of worn dentition. Current issues are related to the study of bonding and wear properties of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composites. There is also a crucial

  6. Measuring and modelling ecosystem productivity: a PhenoCam-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufkens, K.; Keenan, T. F.; Flanagan, L. B.; Richardson, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Phenology controls feedbacks to the climate system through abiotic and biotic forces such as albedo or fluxes of water, energy and CO2. Understanding and modelling these vegetation-climate feedbacks is key to accurately predicting a future climate. For the past 6 years the PhenoCam network, a network of near-surface remote sensing cameras, has consistently monitored vegetation phenology in a wide range of ecoregions, climate zones, and plant functional types. Here we explore the tight coupling between canopy greenness and rates of photosynthesis using two studies. A first study highlights how PhenoCam data can be used to quantify the effect of a late spring frost event on ecosystem productivity, introducing a 7-14% loss in annual gross productivity across 8753 km2 in the northeastern United States. This case study emphasizes the use of the PhenoCam data in estimating productivity loss / the opportunity cost of ecosystem disturbance in areas not covered by ecosystem flux measurement equipment. In a more recent, second, study we developed a PhenoCam data-informed pulse-response model of grassland growth to explore potential responses of grasslands to future climate change across North America. Our findings projected widespread and consistent increase in grassland productivity (for the current range of grassland ecosystems of North American) over the coming century, despite a general increase in aridity projected across most of our study area. Once more PhenoCam data allowed us to inform our modelling efforts with data of a high temporal and spatial resolution. In conclusion, both studies illustrate direct applications of the ever growing PhenoCam network (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu/webcam/) in scaling the effects of ecosystem disturbances, predicting future ecosystem productivity and underscore the complementary nature of PhenoCam data with ecosystem exchange measurements.

  7. Malattransport am Tonoplasten der halophytischen und C3 – CAM-intermediären Pflanze Mesembryanthemum crystallinum

    OpenAIRE

    Epimashko, Svetlana

    2004-01-01

    In photosynthetisch aktivem Blattgewebe der halophytischen und C3-CAM-intermediären Pflanze Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. konnten erstmals Vakuolen unterschiedlicher Charakteristika, vor allem bezüglich der Azidität (saure und neutrale Vakuolen), identifiziert werden. Der Vergleich der Anteile beider Vakuolentypen in Pflanzen, in denen der CAM-Photosynthesemodus durch Salz- oder Hochlichtstress induziert wurde, zeigte, dass die CAM-bedingte Malatakkumulation in sauren Vakuolen und die NaCl...

  8. Design and research of cam linked ATC%凸轮联动ATC的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂应新

    2001-01-01

    Based on the analysis made on motions of linked cam action, design of cam curve and driving calculation are explained and the technical problems related to design of cam linked ATC are approached.%通过对凸轮联动的动作分析,对凸轮曲线的设计及驱动计算做了说明,探讨了凸轮联动ATC设计中的有关技术问题。

  9. The use of sensitive chemical antibodies for diagnosis: detection of low levels of EpCAM in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Shigdar

    Full Text Available EpCAM is expressed at low levels in a variety of normal human epithelial tissues, but is overexpressed in 70-90% of carcinomas. From a clinico-pathological point of view, this has both prognostic and therapeutic significance. EpCAM was first suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of epithelial cancers in the 1990s. However, following several immunotherapy trials, the results have been mixed. It has been suggested that this is due, at least in part, to an unknown level of EpCAM expression in the tumors being targeted. Thus, selection of patients who would benefit from EpCAM immunotherapy by determining EpCAM status in the tumor biopsies is currently undergoing vigorous evaluation. However, current EpCAM antibodies are not robust enough to be able to detect EpCAM expression in all pathological tissues. Here we report a newly developed EpCAM RNA aptamer, also known as a chemical antibody, which is not only specific but also more sensitive than current antibodies for the detection of EpCAM in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary breast cancers. This new aptamer, together with our previously described aptamer, showed no non-specific staining or cross-reactivity with tissues that do not express EpCAM. They were able to reliably detect target proteins in breast cancer xenograft where an anti-EpCAM antibody (323/A3 showed limited or no reactivity. Our results demonstrated a more robust detection of EpCAM using RNA aptamers over antibodies in clinical samples with chromogenic staining. This shows the potential of aptamers in the future of histopathological diagnosis and as a tool to guide targeted immunotherapy.

  10. Cell surface localization and tissue distribution of a hepatocyte cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein (cell-CAM 105)

    OpenAIRE

    Ocklind, C; Forsum, U; Obrink, B

    1983-01-01

    We recently identified a 105,000-dalton plasma membrane glycoprotein, denoted cell-CAM 105 (CAM, cell adhesion molecule), that is involved in intercellular adhesion of reaggregating rat hepatocytes (Ocklind, C., and B. Obrink, 1982, J. Biol. Chem., 257:6788-6795). In this communication we used a monospecific rabbit antiserum against cell-CAM 105 to localize the antigen by indirect immunofluorescence on isolated rat cells and on frozen rat tissue sections. This antiserum stained the surface of...

  11. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in Germany – A focus group study of GPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners, some general practitioners (GPs provide CAM in their practices. This paper aims to explore the attitudes of GPs about the role of CAM in Germany, in relation to the healthcare system, quality of care, medical education and research. Furthermore, experiences of GPs integrating CAM in their daily practice were explored. Methods Using a qualitative methodological approach 3 focus groups with a convenience sample of 17 GPs were conducted. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The majority of the participating GPs had integrated one or more CAM therapies into their every-day practice. Four key themes were identified based on the topics covered in the focus groups: the role of CAM within the German healthcare system, quality of care, education and research. Within the theme 'role of CAM within the healthcare system' there were five categories: integration of CAM, CAM in the Statutory Health Insurance, modernisation of the Statutory Health Insurance Act, individual healthcare services and 'Heilpraktiker'. Regarding quality of care there were two broad groups of GPs: those who thought patients would benefit from standardizing CAM and those who feared that quality control would interfere with the individual approach of CAM. The main issues identified relating to research and education were the need for the development of alternative research strategies and the low quality of existing CAM education respectively. Conclusion The majority of the participating GPs considered CAM as a reasonable complementary approach within primary care. The study increased our understanding of GPs attitudes about the role of CAM within the German healthcare system and the use of

  12. Is complementary and alternative medicine (CAM cost-effective? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspi Opher

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-pocket expenditures of over $34 billion per year in the US are an apparent testament to a widely held belief that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies have benefits that outweigh their costs. However, regardless of public opinion, there is often little more than anecdotal evidence on the health and economic implications of CAM therapies. The objectives of this study are to present an overview of economic evaluation and to expand upon a previous review to examine the current scope and quality of CAM economic evaluations. Methods The data sources used were Medline, AMED, Alt-HealthWatch, and the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Citation Index; January 1999 to October 2004. Papers that reported original data on specific CAM therapies from any form of standard economic analysis were included. Full economic evaluations were subjected to two types of quality review. The first was a 35-item checklist for reporting quality, and the second was a set of four criteria for study quality (randomization, prospective collection of economic data, comparison to usual care, and no blinding. Results A total of 56 economic evaluations (39 full evaluations of CAM were found covering a range of therapies applied to a variety of conditions. The reporting quality of the full evaluations was poor for certain items, but was comparable to the quality found by systematic reviews of economic evaluations in conventional medicine. Regarding study quality, 14 (36% studies were found to meet all four criteria. These exemplary studies indicate CAM therapies that may be considered cost-effective compared to usual care for various conditions: acupuncture for migraine, manual therapy for neck pain, spa therapy for Parkinson's, self-administered stress management for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, pre- and post-operative oral nutritional supplementation for lower gastrointestinal tract surgery, biofeedback for patients with

  13. Extensive photometry of the intermediate polar MU Cam: detection of a spin period change

    CERN Document Server

    Kozhevnikov, V P

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate polars with known rates of spin period changes are not numerous because such tasks require measurements performed for a long time. To measure a spin period change, MU Cam is a good candidate because it has a spin oscillation with a large amplitude enabling measurements with high precision. Fortunately, in the past the spin period of MU Cam was measured with high precision. To measure the spin period anew, in 2014-2015 we performed extensive photometric observations of MU Cam, spanning a total duration of 208 h within 46 nights. We found that the spin, sideband and orbital periods are equal to 1187.16245+/-0.00047 s, 1276.3424+/-0.0022 s and 4.71942+/-0.00016 h, respectively. Comparing the measured spin period with the spin period of MU Cam in the past, we detected the spin period change with dP/dt=-(2.17+/-0.10) X 10^(-10). This rate of the spin period change was not stable and varied in a time scale of years. During four nights in 2014 April-May MU Cam was fainter than usual by 0.8 mag, and the ...

  14. Detection of EpCAM-Negative and Cytokeratin-Negative Circulating Tumor Cells in Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. Mikolajczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enrichment of rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs in blood is typically achieved using antibodies to epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM, with detection using cytokeratin (CK antibodies. However, EpCAM and CK are not expressed in some tumors and can be downregulated during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. A micro-fluidic system, not limited to EpCAM or CK, was developed to use multiple antibodies for capture followed by detection using CEE-Enhanced (CE, a novel in situ staining method that fluorescently labels the capture antibodies bound to CTCs. Higher recovery of CTCs was demonstrated using antibody mixtures compared to anti-EpCAM. In addition, CK-positive breast cancer cells were found in 15 of 24 samples (63%; range 1–60 CTCs, while all samples contained additional CE-positive cells (range 1–41; median = 11; =.02. Thus, antibody mixtures against a range of cell surface antigens enables capture of more CTCs than anti-EpCAM alone and CE staining enables the detection of CK-negative CTCs.

  15. ANATOMIC STUDY OF THE PROXIMAL THIRD OF THE FEMUR: FEMOROACETABULAR IMPACT AND THE CAM EFFECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labronici, Pedro José; Alves, Sergio Delmonte; da Silva, Anselmo Fernandes; Giuberti, Gilberto Ribeiro; de Azevedo Neto, Justino Nóbrega; Mezzalira Penedo, Jorge Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To analyze anatomical variations of the proximal end of femur that could cause a femoroacetabular impact. Methods: 199 skeletically mature anatomical specimens of femurs were used. The femurs were measured in order to determine the anteversion angle of the femoral neck, neckshaft angle, sphericity of the femoral head at anteroposterior and superoinferior, angle between epiphysis and the anterior femoral neck, angle between epiphysis and the neck at lateral plane, anteroposterior distance at 5mm of the head and neck junction and anteroposterior distance of the neck base. Results: we found that the impact subgroup presented a significantly larger junction diameter of 5mm (p = 0.0001) and cam-head (%) (p= 0.0001), while base-cam (%) (p = 0.0001) showed a significantly smaller diameter than the subgroup without impact. It was identified that cam-head (%) ≤ 80 e base-cam (%) ≤ 73 were identified as the optimal impact points. Conclusion: our study showed that the effect cam, caused by anatomical variations of the proximal femoral end focused the head-neck junction and base of the neck-junction head-neck. These rates can be predictive factors of the impact. PMID:26998462

  16. Benign synthesis of 2-ethylhexanoic acid by cytochrome P450cam: enzymatic, crystallographic, and theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, K J; Strickler, M D; Rock, D A; Rock, D A; Bennett, G A; Wahlstrom, J L; Goldstein, B M; Jones, J P

    2001-08-14

    This study examines the ability of P450cam to catalyze the formation of 2-ethylhexanoic acid from 2-ethylhexanol relative to its activity on the natural substrate camphor. As is the case for camphor, the P450cam exhibits stereoselectivity for binding (R)- and (S)-2-ethylhexanol. Kinetic studies indicate (R)-2-ethylhexanoic acid is produced 3.5 times as fast as the (S)-enantiomer. In a racemic mixture of 2-ethylhexanol, P450cam produces 50% more (R)-2-ethylhexanoic acid than (S)-2-ethylhexanoic acid. The reason for stereoselective 2-ethylhexanoic acid production is seen in regioselectivity assays, where (R)-2-ethylhexanoic acid comprises 50% of total products while (S)-2-ethylhexanoic acid comprises only 13%. (R)- and (S)-2-ethylhexanol exhibit similar characteristics with respect to the amount of oxygen and reducing equivalents consumed, however, with (S)-2-ethylhexanol turnover producing more water than the (R)-enantiomer. Crystallographic studies of P450cam with (R)- or (S)-2-ethylhexanoic acid suggest that the (R)-enantiomer binds in a more ordered state. These results indicate that wild-type P450cam displays stereoselectivity toward 2-ethylhexanoic acid synthesis, providing a platform for rational active site design. PMID:11583152

  17. Treatment Expectations for CAM Interventions in Pediatric Chronic Pain Patients and their Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. I. Tsao

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient expectations regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM interventions have important implications for treatment adherence, attrition and clinical outcome. Little is known, however, about parent and child treatment expectations regarding CAM approaches for pediatric chronic pain problems. The present study examined ratings of the expected benefits of CAM (i.e. hypnosis, massage, acupuncture, yoga and relaxation and conventional medicine (i.e. medications, surgery interventions in 45 children (32 girls; mean age = 13.8 years ± 2.5 and parents (39 mothers presenting for treatment at a specialty clinic for chronic pediatric pain. Among children, medications and relaxation were expected to be significantly more helpful than the remaining approaches (P < 0.01. However, children expected the three lowest rated interventions, acupuncture, surgery and hypnosis, to be of equal benefit. Results among parents were similar to those found in children but there were fewer significant differences between ratings of the various interventions. Only surgery was expected by parents to be significantly less helpful than the other approaches (P < 0.01. When parent and child perceptions were compared, parents expected hypnosis, acupuncture and yoga, to be more beneficial than did children, whereas children expected surgery to be more helpful than did parents (P < 0.01. Overall, children expected the benefits of CAM to be fairly low with parents' expectations only somewhat more positive. The current findings suggest that educational efforts directed at enhancing treatment expectations regarding CAM, particularly among children with chronic pain, are warranted.

  18. Soil diversity and hydration as observed by ChemCam at Gale crater, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslin, P-Y; Gasnault, O; Forni, O; Schröder, S; Cousin, A; Berger, G; Clegg, S M; Lasue, J; Maurice, S; Sautter, V; Le Mouélic, S; Wiens, R C; Fabre, C; Goetz, W; Bish, D; Mangold, N; Ehlmann, B; Lanza, N; Harri, A-M; Anderson, R; Rampe, E; McConnochie, T H; Pinet, P; Blaney, D; Léveillé, R; Archer, D; Barraclough, B; Bender, S; Blake, D; Blank, J G; Bridges, N; Clark, B C; DeFlores, L; Delapp, D; Dromart, G; Dyar, M D; Fisk, M; Gondet, B; Grotzinger, J; Herkenhoff, K; Johnson, J; Lacour, J-L; Langevin, Y; Leshin, L; Lewin, E; Madsen, M B; Melikechi, N; Mezzacappa, A; Mischna, M A; Moores, J E; Newsom, H; Ollila, A; Perez, R; Renno, N; Sirven, J-B; Tokar, R; de la Torre, M; d'Uston, L; Vaniman, D; Yingst, A

    2013-09-27

    The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of widespread martian soils and is similar in composition to the martian dust. It possesses a ubiquitous hydrogen signature in ChemCam spectra, corresponding to the hydration of the amorphous phases found in the soil by the CheMin instrument. This hydration likely accounts for an important fraction of the global hydration of the surface seen by previous orbital measurements. ChemCam analyses did not reveal any significant exchange of water vapor between the regolith and the atmosphere. These observations provide constraints on the nature of the amorphous phases and their hydration.

  19. Seguiment de la diagnosi socioambiental del Camí de Cavalls : sector nord-est

    OpenAIRE

    Minguell Manero, Laia; Montero de Amezaga, Kattalin; Rossell Suma, Carolina; Ruiz Rosillo, Mª Belén

    2014-01-01

    El Camí de Cavalls és un element característic amb una importància històrica, cultural i recreativa considerable a Menorca. Aquesta illa va ser declarada Reserva de la Biosfera per l UNESCO l'any 1993; com a conseqüència, a l'any 2000 es va implantar el Pla Especial del Camí de Cavalls amb diversos objectius: definir les característiques del Camí i els seus instruments de gestió i aplicació; implantar mecanismes i normes que permetin l'ús públic que garanteixin la seva protecció i conservació...

  20. Design, Optimization and Development of Assemblies for Continuous Casting Facility using Techniques CAD, CAM and CAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Tufoi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents design methods, optimization and realization of mechanical for continuous casting plants using modern techniques: CAD,CAM and CAE. These current techniques refer to techniques CAD (Computer-Aided Design, CAE (Computer-Aided Engineering and CAM (Computer-Aided Manufacturing. Techniques mentioned above are areas of information technology aimed at helping engineering a variety of areas to be faster, more efficient and creative. A synthesis of the works published in the last 15 years shows that computer aided design and manufacturing are two areas which have developed simultaneously being treated in a common vision based on the natural links that exist between the activities of design and production or manufacturing. The paper will present a practical case application of techniques CAD, CAE and CAM.

  1. Developing a STEP-Compliant Multiagent on an Interoperable and Integrated CAD/CAM Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mokhtar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Practical implementation of a STEP-based architecture to provide a fully integrated and interoperable platform of data exchange has always been an intriguing issue. A variety of CAD/CAM environments are struggling to embed and support STEP standard and its protocols in order to seamlessly operate within global data exchange. However, apparent paucity of efficient and reliable structure for data communication, manipulation, and restoration has remarkably hindered the desired progress. In this paper, taking these shortcomings into account, a practical architecture is introduced and STEP-based agents are implemented and installed on the platform. Moreover, feature recognition, interaction, and machining precedence as crucial issues of CAD/CAM research have been considered in developing the interoperable platform. Seamless integration and interaction of CAD/CAM modules are provided in the proposed system. The prototype is finally verified and discussed through a case study.

  2. Design Alteration of Motor-Cycle Engine Cam for Pneumatic Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimil M. Shah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Power produced by pressurized gases/air has been used in many applications since decades. The power produced by that means is pollution free too. Hence substitution of petrol/diesel in engines with compressed air will be a step towards pollution free engine. The 4-stroke IC engine is to be converted into a 2-stroke pneumatic engine. Various design changes in camshaft design were carried out. The valve timing diagram was derived for the same. The cam profile of a double lobed cam as required in the valve timing diagram was designed in Pro-e software and was cut on a wire cut machine. The cam and camshaft were manufactured separately and then assembled.

  3. Cooling Tests of the NectarCAM camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Moulin, E; Durand, D; Feirreira, O; Fesquet, M; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J -F; Loiseau, D; Louis, F; Nunio, F; Rateau, S; consortia, CTA

    2015-01-01

    The NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the next-generation observatory for very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. The cameras are designed to operate in an open environment and their mechanics must provide protection for all their components under the conditions defined for the CTA observatory. In order to operate in a stable environment and ensure the best physics performance, each NectarCAM will be enclosed in a slightly overpressurized, nearly air-tight, camera body, to prevent dust and water from entering. The total power dissipation will be ~7.7 kW for a 1855-pixel camera. The largest fraction is dissipated by the readout electronics in the modules. We present the design and implementation of the cooling system together with the test bench results obtained on the NectarCAM thermal demonstrator.

  4. Application of CAD/CAE/CAM in forging process: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forging can be described as the process in which metal is plastically deformed with application of huge pressure. The process not only changes the shape but also improves the properties of the forged parts due to grain size refinement. Conventionally, the empirical trial and error method has been applied, but recently there are various tools are employed to improved product quality and economic of the process. For example, Computer Aided Design (CAD) is widely used in modeling of the process, while Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools have been utilized in analyzing the process. To physically demonstrate the process, Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) such as CNC machine has been exploited. In order to improve forging process efficiency, an integrated system that combines all advantages of CAD, CAM and CAE need to be developed. This paper presents an overview of computer aided simulation such as CAD, CAE and CAM application in forging process. (Author)

  5. CAM and cell fate targeting: molecular and energetic insights into cell growth and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Carlo

    2005-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine is switching from the analysis of single diseases at a time toward an integrated assessment of a diseased person. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) offers multiple holistic approaches, including osteopathy, homeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, herbal and energy medicine and meditation, all potentially impacting on major human diseases. It is now becoming evident that acupuncture can modify the expression of different endorphin genes and the expression of genes encoding for crucial transcription factors in cellular homeostasis. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields have been found to prime the commitment to a myocardial lineage in mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that magnetic energy may direct stem cell differentiation into specific cellular phenotypes without the aid of gene transfer technologies. This finding may pave the way to novel approaches in tissue engineering and regeneration. Different ginseng extracts have been shown to modulate growth and differentiation in pluripotent cells and to exert wound-healing and antitumor effects through opposing activities on the vascular system, prompting the hypothesis that ancient compounds may be the target for new logics in cell therapy. These observations and the subtle entanglement among different CAM systems suggest that CAM modalities may deeply affect both the signaling and transcriptional level of cellular homeostasis. Such a perception holds promises for a new era in CAM, prompting reproducible documentation of biological responses to CAM-related strategies and compounds. To this end, functional genomics and proteomics and the comprehension of the cell signaling networks may substantially contribute to the development of a molecular evidence-based CAM. PMID:16136206

  6. CAM and Cell Fate Targeting: Molecular and Energetic Insights into Cell Growth and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ventura

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based medicine is switching from the analysis of single diseases at a time toward an integrated assessment of a diseased person. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM offers multiple holistic approaches, including osteopathy, homeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, herbal and energy medicine and meditation, all potentially impacting on major human diseases. It is now becoming evident that acupuncture can modify the expression of different endorphin genes and the expression of genes encoding for crucial transcription factors in cellular homeostasis. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields have been found to prime the commitment to a myocardial lineage in mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that magnetic energy may direct stem cell differentiation into specific cellular phenotypes without the aid of gene transfer technologies. This finding may pave the way to novel approaches in tissue engineering and regeneration. Different ginseng extracts have been shown to modulate growth and differentiation in pluripotent cells and to exert wound-healing and antitumor effects through opposing activities on the vascular system, prompting the hypothesis that ancient compounds may be the target for new logics in cell therapy. These observations and the subtle entanglement among different CAM systems suggest that CAM modalities may deeply affect both the signaling and transcriptional level of cellular homeostasis. Such a perception holds promises for a new era in CAM, prompting reproducible documentation of biological responses to CAM-related strategies and compounds. To this end, functional genomics and proteomics and the comprehension of the cell signaling networks may substantially contribute to the development of a molecular evidence–based CAM.

  7. Research on A Parallel CAM-based Hardware System for Parallel Information Detection and Its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Van Le, Duc

    2013-01-01

    Information Detection Hardware System plays an important role in search engines or matching systems such as text search, pattern match-ing, image matching, face detection and many others. The objective of this dissertation is to design an ultra-fast parallel information de-tector for search systems employing CAM and SHIFT circuits to en-hance search performance of the systems. This structure has not been proposed by other research works. CAM is designed basing on 2-port RAM blocks on FPGA. Th...

  8. Calibrating the ChemCam LIBS for Carbonate Minerals on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Ollila, Ann M.; Barefield, James E.; Lanza, Nina; Newsom, Horton E.

    2009-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover includes the first LIBS instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment using the LIDS technique in order to better understand the in situ signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Our initial results suggest that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between carbonate materials on Mars.

  9. 28th International Conference on CAD/CAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future

    CERN Document Server

    Syan, Chanan

    2016-01-01

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the 28th International Conference on CAD/CAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future. This book specially focuses on the positive changes made in the field of robotics, CAD/CAM and future outlook for emerging manufacturing units. Some of the important topics discussed in the conference are product development and sustainability, modeling and simulation, automation, robotics and handling systems, supply chain management and logistics, advanced manufacturing processes, human aspects in engineering activities, emerging scenarios in engineering education and training. The contents of this set of proceedings will prove useful to both researchers and practitioners.

  10. Proposal for providing integrated CAD/CAM in the DOE/NWC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, R.A.; Elliott, R.L.; Jones, J.F.; Kelly, J.C.

    1982-08-01

    This is a proposal for providing integrated Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the Department of Energy/Nuclear Weapons Complex (DOE/NWC). This plan was developed under the premise that commitment to this CAD/CAM Integration Plan will lead to improved use of DOE/NWC's limited resources. The Integration Plan consists of the development of a Design with recommended action, followed by implementation and maintenance plans. This report proposes a methodology for the development of the design.

  11. Similarity measure for quality control of dental CAD/CAM-applications

    OpenAIRE

    Probst, F A; Litzenburger, A P; Richter, M. J.; Mehl, A C

    2012-01-01

    There is no measure for morphometric quality control of dental CAD/CAM-restorations as well as for evaluation of newly developed CAD/CAM-applications. The aim of this study was to (a) establish a 3D-measure for morphological comparisons, (b) to proof its metrical and subjective-visual validity and (c) to explore morphological features which have relevant impact on visual perception. 125 maxillary anterior teeth were chosen from a digital library of 3D data sets and compared by automatic super...

  12. Marginal fit of anterior 3-unit fixed partial zirconia restorations using different CAD/CAM systems

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Tae-Jin; Kwon, Taek-Ka; Yang, Jae-Ho; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun; Yeo, In-Sung

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Few studies have investigated the marginal accuracy of 3-unit zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPDs) fabricated by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal fit of zirconia FPDs made using two CAD/CAM systems with that of metal-ceramic FPDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS Artificial resin maxillary central and lateral incisors were prepared for 3-unit FPDs and fixed in yellow stone. This model was duplicated to ep...

  13. Comparative characterization of a novel cad-cam polymer-infiltrated-ceramic-network

    OpenAIRE

    Albero, Alberto; Pascual Moscardó, Agustín; Camps Alemany, Isabel; Grau Benitez, María

    2015-01-01

    Background The field of dental ceramics for CAD-CAM is enriched with a new innovative material composition having a porous three-dimensional structure of feldspathic ceramic infiltrated with acrylic resins.The aim of this study is to determine the mechanical properties of Polymer-Infiltrated-Ceramic-Network (PICN) and compare its performance with other ceramics and a nano-ceramic resin available for CAD-CAM systems. Material and Methods In this study a total of five different materials for CA...

  14. Calcium Sulfate Characterized by ChemCam/Curiosity at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachon, M.; Clegg, S. N.; Mangold, N.; Schroeder, S.; Kah, L. C.; Dromart, G.; Ollila, A.; Johnson, J. R.; Oehler, D. Z.; Bridges, J. C.; LeMouelic, S.; Forni, O.; Wiens, R. C.; Rapin, W.; Anderson, R. B.; Blaney, D. L.; Bell, J. F. , III; Clark, B.; Cousin, A.; Dyar, M. D.; Ehlmann, B.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Grotzinger, J.; Lasue, J.; Lewin, E.; Leveille, R.; McLennan, S.; Maurice, S.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Rice, M.; Squyres, S. W.; Stack, K.; Sumner, D. Y.; Vaniman, D.; Wellington, D.

    2014-01-01

    Onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, the ChemCam instrument consists of :(1) a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) for elemental analysis of the targets [1;2] and (2) a Remote Micro Imager (RMI), for the imaging context of laser analysis [3]. Within the Gale crater, Curiosity traveled from Bradbury Landing through the Rocknest region and into Yellowknife Bay (YB). In the latter, abundant light-toned fracture-fill material were seen [4;5]. ChemCam analysis demonstrate that those fracture fills consist of calcium sulfates [6].

  15. Bro-cam: Improving game experience with empathic feedback using posture tracking

    OpenAIRE

    TAN, Chiew Seng Sean; Schöning, Johannes; Schneider Barnes, Jan; LUYTEN, Kris; Coninx, Karin

    2013-01-01

    In todays videogames user feedback is often provided through raw sta-tistics and scoreboards. We envision that incorporating empathic feedback matching the player’s current mood will improve the overall gaming experience. In this paper we present Bro-cam, a novel system that provides empathic feedback to the player based on their body postures. Different body postures of the players are used as an indicator for their openness. From their level of openness, Bro-cam profiles the play-ers into d...

  16. Calibrating the ChemCam LIBS for carbonate minerals on Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ollila, Ann M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lanza, Nina [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Newsom, Horton E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover includes the first LIBS instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment using the LIDS technique in order to better understand the in situ signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Our initial results suggest that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between carbonate materials on Mars.

  17. Design Alteration of Motor-Cycle Engine Cam for Pneumatic Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Jimil M. Shah; Akash B. Pandey; Ujjwell Y. Trivedi

    2013-01-01

    Power produced by pressurized gases/air has been used in many applications since decades. The power produced by that means is pollution free too. Hence substitution of petrol/diesel in engines with compressed air will be a step towards pollution free engine. The 4-stroke IC engine is to be converted into a 2-stroke pneumatic engine. Various design changes in camshaft design were carried out. The valve timing diagram was derived for the same. The cam profile of a double lobed cam as required i...

  18. Development and some applications of general purpose CAD/CAM/CAE system -IMAGE-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General purpose CAD/CAM/CAE system, named IMAGE (Interactive Modeling Aids for Graphics in Engineering), has been developed. This system is composed of several subsystems. Two modeling types are available, one is a wire frame model and the other is a surface model. CAD subsystems for drawings, piping and preliminary design, CAM subsystems for NC programming/nesting and CAE subsystems for FEM preprocessing are described. Three applications are described. The first application field is the boiler plant design, the second one the nuclear equipment engineering design and the third one the industrial machinery design. (author)

  19. Utilization of CAM, CAF, MAX, and FAX for space radiation analyses using HZETRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaba, T. C.; Qualls, G. D.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Blattnig, S. R.; Walker, S. A.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2010-04-01

    To estimate astronaut health risk due to space radiation, one must have the ability to calculate various exposure-related quantities that are averaged over specific organs and tissue types. Such calculations require computational models of the ambient space radiation environment, particle transport, nuclear and atomic physics, and the human body. While significant efforts have been made to verify, validate, and quantify the uncertainties associated with many of these models and tools, relatively little work has focused on the uncertainties associated with the representation and utilization of the human phantoms. In this study, we first examine the anatomical properties of the Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM), Computerized Anatomical Female (CAF), Male Adult voXel (MAX), and Female Adult voXel (FAX) models by comparing the masses of various model tissues used to calculate effective dose to the reference values specified by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The MAX and FAX tissue masses are found to be in good agreement with the reference data, while major discrepancies are found between the CAM and CAF tissue masses and the reference data for almost all of the effective dose tissues. We next examine the distribution of target points used with the deterministic transport code HZETRN (High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) to compute mass averaged exposure quantities. A numerical algorithm is presented and used to generate multiple point distributions of varying fidelity for many of the effective dose tissues identified in CAM, CAF, MAX, and FAX. The point distributions are used to compute mass averaged dose equivalent values under both a galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar particle event (SPE) environment impinging isotropically on three spherical aluminum shells with areal densities of 0.4 g/cm2, 2.0 g/cm2, and 10.0 g/cm2. The dose equivalent values are examined to identify a recommended set of target points for each of the tissues and

  20. Latest systemization technology. CAD/CAM system for weding robot; Saishin no system ka gijutsu. Yosetsu robotto no CAD/CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanjo, Y. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Engineering Research Center

    1995-09-05

    The level of welding automotion has been developed from the automation of a single process to the automation of the production line combining plural processes, and further to the integrated system named Computer Integrated Management (CIM) including related processes such as the front process and the follow-up process. As far as the robot teaching method is concerned, instead of the on-line teaching, off-line teaching which produces NC data (robot program) by computers for controlling the robot is developed. However, basically it still needs the teaching of the operator. In this paper, the teachingless robot program automotive production system linking with CAD and corresponding to multi-robots was defined as CAD/CAM system. The status and technical problems of the CAD/CAM system of the welding system were described. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Three-dimensional CAE/CAD/CAM system, ANVIL-5000, and examples of application. Sanjigen CAE/CAD/CAM system ANVIL-5000 to tekiyo jirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, M.; Miyata, M. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    Several functions of the three-dimensional CAE/CAD/CAM system (ANVIL-5000) are outlined and some applications are also illustrated. The system is composed of four main functions, the CAD function for three-dimensional design/drafting, CAM function to generate NC data for 2-5 axis machining, OMNISOLIDS function to generate solid models, and OMNIFEM function to generate FEM meshes from solid models. The following new functions have been added to the system recently: (1) the dynamic rotation function to rotate solid models around every axis along with their shading, (2) the draft line function for drafting using draft lines erasable after completion of drawings, and (3) the multi-part access function to copy needed graphic forms from a reference drawing to a drawing under working. Its applications to the design and manufacturing are illustrated of IC lead frame dies in a semiconductor factory and molds in an AV appliance factory. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  2. 75 FR 36455 - SSE Telecom, Inc., Strategic Alliance Group, Inc., (n/k/a CruiseCam International, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION SSE Telecom, Inc., Strategic Alliance Group, Inc., (n/k/a CruiseCam International, Inc... concerning the securities of Strategic Alliance Group, Inc. (n/k/a CruiseCam International, Inc.) because...

  3. The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) as a morphoregulatory molecule is a tool in surgical pathology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, M.J.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Litvinov, S.V.

    2003-01-01

    Cell adhesion receptors (CAMs) are actively involved in regulating various cell processes, including growth, differentiation, and cell death. Therefore, CAMs represent a large group of morphoregulating molecules, mediating cross-talk between cells and of cells with their environment. From this persp

  4. OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, K.; Bender, R.; Cappellaro, E.; Muschielok, B.; Baruffolo, A.; Cascone, E.; Iwert, O.; Mitsch, W.; Nicklas, H.; Valentijn, E. A.; Baade, D.; Begeman, K. G.; Bortolussi, A.; Boxhoorn, D.; Christen, F.; Deul, E. R.; Geimer, C.; Greggio, L.; Harke, R.; Häfner, R.; Hess, G.; Hess, H.-J.; Hopp, U.; Ilijevski, I.; Klink, G.; Kravcar, H.; Lizon, J. L.; Magagna, C. E.; Müller, Ph.; Niemeczek, R.; de Pizzol, L.; Poschmann, H.; Reif, K.; Rengelink, R.; Reyes, J.; Silber, A.; Wellem, W.

    2002-01-01

    In 2004, OmegaCAM will start operations on Paranal as the sole instrument on the 2.6-m VLT Survey Telescope. OmegaCAM is a huge optical CCD imaging camera: its 16k × 16k CCD pixels cover the square degree field of view of the VST almost entirely. The primary function of the VST and its instrument is

  5. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Comparison of Chinese and Western Culture (Part A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, V. C. N.

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of the use of CAM by children was undertaken in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital in Hong Kong (March-December 2006). A questionnaire survey concerning the use of CAM was administered to chief caretakers (only the mothers) who accompanied children with neurodevelopmental disabilities followed up in our…

  6. Criterios para Seleccionar Sistemas de Diseño y Manufactura Asistidos por Computadora (CAD/CAM Criteria for the Selection of Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing Systems (CAD/CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Martínez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo presentar en forma clara los principios fundamentales que se requieren para tener un criterio sobre las bondades e inconvenientes de los sistemas Diseño y Manufactura Asistidos por Computadora (CAD/CAM. La inquietud nació por algunos problemas presentados en la primera adquisición de un sistema de CAD/CAM. Se adaptó a una máquina de Control Numérico por Computadora (CNC las dos modalidades de CAM, el primero con el sistema de CAD integrado y la otra con interacción en AutoCAD. Del análisis se determinó la indiferencia de usar un software de CAD desarrollado por la misma compañía del CAM. El resultado de estos experimentos y observaciones proporciona una herramienta fundamental para seleccionar un sistema de CAD/CAM eficienteThe objective of this study was to present in clear form the fundamental principles required to obtain a criterion of the advantages and disadvantages of computer aided design and manufacturing systems (CAD/CAM. The idea for setting these selection criteria were obtained during the initial acquisition of a CAD/CAM system. A Numerical Control by Computer (CNC machine was adapted to two modalities of CAM, the first with an integrated CAD system and another with AutoCAD interaction. From the analysis it was determined that it was immaterial whether or not the use of CAD software was from the same company that produced the CAM software. The results of these experiments and observations provide a fundamental tool for selecting an efficient CAD/CAM system

  7. CAD/CAM tölvutækni í tannlækningum. Notkun og útbreiðsla CAD/CAM á Íslandi

    OpenAIRE

    Mateev, Alexander, 1990-

    2013-01-01

    Tilgangur: Ritgerðin er lokaverkefni til BS gráðu í tannsmíði við Heilbrigðisvísindasvið Háskóla Íslands, Tannlæknadeild vorið 2013. Leitað var svara við rannsóknarspurningunni: Hversu útbreidd og víðtæk er CAD/CAM tækni á Íslandi? Meginmarkmið þessarar ritgerðar var þríþætt; í fyrsta lagi að draga saman upplýsingar um CAD/CAM tölvutækni, í öðru lagi að komast að því hversu víðtæk og útbreidd notkunin er á Íslandi og í þriðja lagi að útbúa myndrænt efni um notkun á CAD/CAM tölvutækni. Aðfe...

  8. Use of selected complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments in veterans with cancer or chronic pain: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Liebschutz Jane M; McEachrane-Gross F; Berlowitz Dan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is emerging as an important form of care in the United States. We sought to measure the prevalence of selected CAM use among veterans attending oncology and chronic pain clinics and to describe the characteristics of CAM use in this population. Methods The self-administered, mail-in survey included questions on demographics, health beliefs, medical problems and 6 common CAM treatments (herbs, dietary supplements, chiropractic ca...

  9. Thermography of semi-transparent materials by a FLIR ThermaCAM SC3000 infrared camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Tempel, L.

    2011-01-01

    An acceptance test for thermography of semi-transparent materials by a FLIR ThermaCAM SC3000 infrared camera with 8.0 µm low-wavelength-pass filter has been developed and performed on polycarbonate, PEN, quartz, Corning 1737 glass, G427 cone glas, G443 screen glass, Schott Zerodur, silicon and a bl

  10. Development of Integrated ASR Model Forcing Data and Their Applications to Improve CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Minghua [Research Foundation of the State University of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this project, we have (1) improved the constrained variational analysis algorithm of ARM model forcing data, and (2) used the ARM forcing data to identify systematic biases in clouds and radiation in the CAM5 and design new physical parameterizations to improve it.

  11. Soil diversity and hydration as observed by ChemCam at Gale Crater, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meslin, P.-Y.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Schröder, S.; Cousin, A.; Berger, G.; Clegg, S.M.; Lasue, J.; Maurice, S.; Sautter, V.; Le Mouélic, S.; Wiens, R.C.; Fabre, C.; Goetz, W.; Bish, D.; Mangold, N.; Ehlmann, B.; Lanza, N.; Harri, A.-M.; Anderson, R.; Rampe, E.; McConnochie, T.H.; Pinet, P.; Blaney, D.; Léveillé, R.; Archer, D.; Barraclough, B.; Bender, S.; Blake, D.; Blank, J.G.; Bridges, N.; Clark, B.C.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dromart, G.; Dyar, M.D.; Fisk, M.; Gondet, B.; Grotzinger, J.; Herkenhoff, K.; Johnson, J.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Leshin, L.; Lewin, E.; Madsen, M.B.; Melikechi, N.; Mezzacappa, A.; Mischna, M.A.; Moores, J.E.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; Perez, R.; Renno, N.; Sirven, J.-B.; Tokar, R.; De La Torre, M.; D'Uston, L.; Vaniman, D.; Yingst, A.; MSL Science Team, the

    2013-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of wi

  12. THE FOURIER SERIES USED IN ANALYSE OF THE CAM MECHANISMS FOR THE SHOEMAKING MACHINES (PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOVAN-DRAGOMIR Alina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A computer assisted procedure for the cinematic analysis of the mechanism of a cam is essential in making a certain type of research operations. They mainly refer to the optimization of operations running on specific machinery, or to the re-design of the mechanism, in order to make the mechanism digital. This analysis seems even more important, when we consider the fact that most of the machines used in shoe industry nowadays use a cam mechanism. The paper is devided in two parts. In first part, it is elaborated a method of finding of a function G(x, belonging to a Fourier series, which approximates the numerical values {xi, yi}, with the biggest accuracy. Finding the function that approximates the most accurately the data set, for the position parameters of the follower S(ω, ( will lead to a complete kinematic and dynamic analysis of the cam mechanism. These values repeat with T = 2π period. In second part, the method is tasted using MatCAD work sessions which allow a numerical and graphical analysis of the mathematical relations involved, in order to test the reability of the method. The set of experimental data are resulted after measuring a cam mechanism of a machine used in shoemaking.

  13. EpCAM (CD326) is differentially expressed in craniopharyngioma subtypes and Rathke's cleft cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimsen, Vivian; Hölsken, Annett; Buchfelder, Michael; Flitsch, Jörg; Fahlbusch, Rudolf; Stefanits, Harald; Losa, Marco; Jones, David T W; Buslei, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a type I glycoprotein located on the surface of epithelial cells. It is strongly expressed in many neoplasms and already used in the diagnosis and distinction of various tumour subtypes. Comparative studies about EpCAM expression in cystic sellar lesions are lacking. Therefore, we analysed its distribution pattern in adamantinomatous (aCP) and papillary (pCP) craniopharyngiomas (CP) and Rathke's Cleft Cysts (RCC) using immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling. Whereas the protein was not detectable in pCP (n = 10), all aCP (n = 64) showed distinct staining patterns. The vast majority of RCC (n = 10) also appeared positive, but these displayed notably lower labeling scores. Additionally, significantly higher mRNA levels were detectable in aCP (n = 19) when compared to pCP (n = 10) (p = 9.985(-8)). Furthermore, pediatric aCP cases, in general, exhibited stronger EpCAM staining levels compared to adult ones (p = 0.015). However, we were not able to verify this result on mRNA level. In summary, our findings demonstrate that EpCAM can be used as an additional distinction-marker for cystic lesions of the sellar region. Its unknown function in aCP and the presence of an approved monoclonal bispecific trifunctional antibody for cancer therapy are interesting starting points for further studies. PMID:27431859

  14. ESA ExoMars: Pre-launch PanCam Geometric Modeling and Accuracy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Li, R.; Yilmaz, A.

    2014-08-01

    ExoMars is the flagship mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) Aurora Programme. The mobile scientific platform, or rover, will carry a drill and a suite of instruments dedicated to exobiology and geochemistry research. As the ExoMars rover is designed to travel kilometres over the Martian surface, high-precision rover localization and topographic mapping will be critical for traverse path planning and safe planetary surface operations. For such purposes, the ExoMars rover Panoramic Camera system (PanCam) will acquire images that are processed into an imagery network providing vision information for photogrammetric algorithms to localize the rover and generate 3-D mapping products. Since the design of the ExoMars PanCam will influence localization and mapping accuracy, quantitative error analysis of the PanCam design will improve scientists' awareness of the achievable level of accuracy, and enable the PanCam design team to optimize its design to achieve the highest possible level of localization and mapping accuracy. Based on photogrammetric principles and uncertainty propagation theory, we have developed a method to theoretically analyze how mapping and localization accuracy would be affected by various factors, such as length of stereo hard-baseline, focal length, and pixel size, etc.

  15. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Section CAM Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Adeline Ge, M.D., O.M.D. Senior Chinese Medicine Acupuncture Consultant NIH Photo: NCCAM Acupuncture intrigued Charles ...

  16. Biotransformation of the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene by cytochrome P450cam and P450BM-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowden, Rebecca J; Yasmin, Samina; Rees, Nicholas H; Bell, Stephen G; Wong, Luet-Lok

    2005-01-01

    The sesquiterpenoids are a large class of naturally occurring compounds with biological functions and desirable properties. Oxidation of the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene by wild type and mutants of P450cam from Pseudomonas putida, and of P450BM-3 from Bacillus megaterium, have been investigated as a potential route to (+)-nootkatone, a fine fragrance. Wild type P450cam did not oxidise (+)-valencene but the mutants showed activities up to 9.8 nmol (nmol P450)(-1) min(-1), with (+)-trans-nootkatol and (+)-nootkatone constituting >85% of the products. Wild type P450BM-3 and mutants had higher activities (up to 43 min(-1)) than P450cam but were much less selective. Of the many products, cis- and trans-(+)-nootkatol, (+)-nootkatone, cis-(+)-valencene-1,10-epoxide, trans-(+)-nootkaton-9-ol, and (+)-nootkatone-13S,14-epoxide were isolated from whole-cell reactions and characterised. The selectivity patterns suggest that (+)-valencene has one binding orientation in P450cam but multiple orientations in P450BM-3. PMID:15602599

  17. The Cyborg Astrobiologist: porting from a wearable computer to the Astrobiology Phone-cam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Alexandra; McGuire, Patrick C.; Camilleri, Kenneth P.; Spiteri, Christopher; Borg, Jonathan C.; Farrugia, Philip J.; Ormö, Jens; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Rodriguez-Manfredi, José Antonio; Díaz-Martínez, Enrique; Ritter, Helge; Haschke, Robert; Oesker, Markus; Ontrup, Jörg

    2007-08-01

    We have used a simple camera phone to significantly improve an `exploration system' for astrobiology and geology. This camera phone will make it much easier to develop and test computer-vision algorithms for future planetary exploration. We envision that the `Astrobiology Phone-cam' exploration system can be fruitfully used in other problem domains as well.

  18. Utilizing CAD/CAM to Measure Total Occlusal Convergence of Preclinical Dental Students' Crown Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Keith A; Crisp, H Alex; Vos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, faculty assessment of preclinical crown preparations occurs by visualizing preparation features. However, contemporary CAD/CAM tools have the ability to more precisely evaluate preparation features, which is beneficial for psychomotor development. Taper is one of the most challenging features to objectively assess. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to validate the software's ability to distinguish differences in taper, and second, to compare traditional faculty assessment with digital assessment of taper. In the study, 30 all-metal crown preparations were created on typodont teeth with varying degrees of axial reduction and placed into three groups based on amount of taper (minimum, moderate, or excessive). Each tooth was scanned with the D4D scanner, and the taper was analyzed using E4D Compare. A second experiment used 50 crown preparations of tooth #19, which were done as a formative exercise. A comparison faculty assessment with CAD/CAM assessments of taper was performed. The results showed that when the taper was varied, E4D Compare was able to distinguish those differences; the Tukey post-hoc test revealed a significant difference (p=0.001). The qualitative analysis comparing faculty grading to CAD/CAM grading demonstrated a trend for CAD/CAM to be more precise. These results suggest that E4D Compare is an effective means of quantitatively measuring the amount of total occlusal convergence or taper on a crown preparation and that digital assessment may be more precise than faculty visual grading. PMID:26729690

  19. MASA syndrome is caused by mutations in the neural cell adhesion gene, L1CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, C.E.; Wang, Y.; Schroer, R.J.; Stevenson, R.E. [Greenwood Genetic Center, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The MASA syndrome is a recessive X-linked disorder characterized by Mental retardation, Adducted thumbs, Shuffling gait and Aphasia. Recently we found that MASA in one family was likely caused by a point mutation in exon 6 of the L1CAM gene. This gene has also been shown to be involved in X-linked hydrocephalus (HSAS). We have screened 60 patients with either sporadic HSAS or MASA as well as two additional families with MASA. For the screening, we initially utilized 3 cDNA probes for the L1CAM gene. In one of the MASA families, K8310, two affected males were found to have an altered BglII band. The band was present in their carrier mother but not in their normal brothers. This band was detected by the entire cDNA probe as well as the cDNA probe for 3{prime} end of the gene. Analysis of the L1CAM sequence indicated the altered BglII site is distal to the exon 28 but proximal to the punative poly A signal site. It is hypothesized that this point mutation alters the stability of the L1CAM mRNA. This is being tested using cell lines established from the two affected males.

  20. Comparison of CAD-CAM and hand made sockets for PTB prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, P; Lindh, L; Netz, P

    1989-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare sockets for below-knee (BK) prostheses made by Computer Aided Design-Computer Aided Manufacture (CAD-CAM) to those made by hand. The patients in the study were provided with two prostheses each, which apart from the sockets, were identical. One socket was made by the CAD-CAM technique developed at the Bioengineering Centre, Roehampton, University College London and one was made by hand at the OT-Centre, Stockholm, Sweden. The results were based on investigation of eight unilateral below-knee amputees evaluating their own sockets by Visual Analogous Scale with respect to comfort, pressure, and pain. The sockets were evaluated on seven occasions, at two tests, on delivery, after use every second day for six days and every second week for two weeks. All CAD-CAM sockets except one had to be changed once as compared to the hand made of which only two had to be changed. As to comfort it could not be demonstrated that there was any significant difference between the two types of sockets and both types were well accepted by all patients. Differences in pressure and pain were rarely reported. There were obvious differences between the two types of socket with respect to height, width, and inner surface configuration. The authors feel that CAD-CAM will in the near future be an excellent tool for design and manufacture of prosthetic sockets.

  1. Effects of Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) on the Metabolism and Transport of Anticancer Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooiman, K.D.

    2013-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM), such as herbs and dietary supplements, has become more popular among cancer patients. Cancer patients use these supplements for different reasons such as reduction of side effects and improvement of their quality of life. In general, the use

  2. Perapation of mica-based glassceramics for denta CAD/CAM system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong; RAN Junguo; GOU Li; ZHAO Yunfeng

    2001-01-01

    @@ Ceramic materials have received considerable application in biomedical and dental restoration because of their relative higher mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and good natural aesthetics. Development of machinable glass-ceramicsin dental CAD/CAM maching system have provided a new impetus for fabrication ofceramic restorations.

  3. Education & Training for CAD/CAM: Results of a National Probability Survey. Krannert Institute Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Ann

    A study was conducted of the training programs used by plants with Computer Automated Design/Computer Automated Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to help their employees adapt to automated manufacturing. The study sought to determine the relative priorities of manufacturing establishments for training certain workers in certain skills; the status of…

  4. Integrating conventional and CAD/CAM digital techniques for establishing canine protected articulation: A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kerdani, Tarek; Nimmo, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Canine protected articulation is widely accepted for patients requiring extensive oral rehabilitation. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restorations have been primarily designed in occlusion at the maximum intercuspal position. Designing a virtual articulator that is capable of accepting excursive occlusal records and duplicating the mandibular movements is a challenge for CAD/CAM technology. Modifying tooth shape using composite resin trial restorations to produce esthetic results and later scanning the modified teeth to create milled crowns is becoming a popular use of the CAD/CAM technology. This report describes a technique that combines conventional and CAD/CAM prosthodontic techniques for milling crowns for canine teeth that are designed to establish or improve canine protected articulation. This technique involves designing and fabricating interim restorations based on diagnostic waxing, scanning the designs intraorally, and storing them in software as pretreatment digital records. The scanned designs are then applied to the digital representation of the prepared teeth to fabricate the definitive restorations. PMID:26774319

  5. Expert systems and CAD/CAM technology in nuclear research and nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of expert systems for the peaceful uses of atomic energy, especially nuclear energetics, isotope technique and radiation technology, as well as the interrelation between expert systems used in nuclear research and engineering, and CAD/CAM technology are dealt with. (orig.)

  6. Implementation and operating experience with a centralized multi-disciplinary CAD CAM System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.S.; Steffani, J.P.

    1985-09-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has installed a centralized CAD CAM System to support Electronics, Mechanical, Mechanical Fabrication and Architectural Engineering and Design. The various phases of implementing this system are described, including problems of selection, system software support, maintenance, training, performance evaluation, and future expansion. Some emphasis will be given to the experience with the Electronics disciplines.

  7. Development of CAD/CAM software used in laser direct manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-shan; Yang, Xi-chen; Wang, Jian-jun; Jin, Xiao-shu

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a special CAD/CAM software for rapid manufacturing thin wall metal parts by laser cladding, which is based on the developing of AutoCAD. It mainly consists of solid modeling, layering and section data processing, NC code generation module, processing path simulating and data transferring module.

  8. THE FOURIER SERIES USED IN ANALYSE OF THE CAM MECHANISMS FOR THE SHOEMAKING MACHINES (PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOVAN-DRAGOMIR Alina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A computer assisted procedure for the cinematic analysis of the mechanism of a cam is essential in making a certain type of research operations. They mainly refer to the optimization of operations running on specific machinery, or to the re-design of the mechanism, in order to make the mechanism digital. This analysis seems even more important, when we consider the fact that most of the machines used in shoe industry nowadays use a cam mechanism. The paper is devided in two parts. In first part, it is elaborated a method of finding of a function G(x, belonging to a Fourier series, which approximates the numerical values {xi, yi}, with the biggest accuracy. Finding the function that approximates the most accurately the data set, for the position parameters of the follower S(ω, ( will lead to a complete kinematic and dynamic analysis of the cam mechanism. These values repeat with T = 2π period. In second part, the method is tasted using MatCAD work sessions which allow a numerical and graphical analysis of the mathematical relations involved, in order to test the reability of the method. The set of experimental data are resulted after measuring a cam mechanism of a machine used in shoemaking.

  9. The Cyborg Astrobiologist: Porting from a wearable computer to the Astrobiology Phone-cam

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolo, Alexandra; McGuire, Patrick C.; Camilleri, Kenneth P; Spiteri, Christopher; Borg, Jonathan C.; Farrugia, Philip J.; Ormo, Jens; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Diaz-Martinez, Enrique; Ritter, Helge; Haschke, Robert; Oesker, Markus; Ontrup, Joerg

    2007-01-01

    We have used a simple camera phone to significantly improve an `exploration system' for astrobiology and geology. This camera phone will make it much easier to develop and test computer-vision algorithms for future planetary exploration. We envision that the `Astrobiology Phone-cam' exploration system can be fruitfully used in other problem domains as well.

  10. CLIC main beam quadrupole active pre-alignment based on cam movers

    CERN Document Server

    Kemppinen, J; Leuxe, R; Mainaud Durand, H; Sandomierski, J; Sosin, M

    2012-01-01

    Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a study for a future 48 km long linear electron-positron collider in the multi TeV range. Its target luminosity can only be reached if the main beam quadrupoles (MB quads) are actively pre-aligned within 17 µm in sliding windows of 200 m with respect to a straight reference line. In addition to the positioning requirement, the pre-alignment system has to provide a rigid support for the nano-stabilization system to ensure that the first eigenfrequency is above 100 Hz. Re-adjustment based on cam movers was chosen for detailed studies to meet the stringent pre-alignment requirements. There are four different types of MB quads in CLIC. Their lengths and masses vary so that at least two types of cam movers have to be developed. The validation of the cams with less stringent space restrictions has proceeded to a test setup in 5 degrees of freedom (DOF). Prototypes of the more demanding, smaller cams have been manufactured and they are under tests in 1 DOF. This paper describes the...

  11. Force Analysis of Geneva Wheel and Face Cam Used In Automat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhoo G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Glazerol Automat is a dedicated machine used in the Insulator pre assembly line. This automat is driven using single motor for different operations. Here the focus is on two main parts they are Geneva wheel and Face cam which are used for their respective operations. Geneva Wheel is used to index the drum which consists of 96 spindles. Due to this Geneva mechanism each of the spindles will hold the ceramic body when the drum is being indexed. Due to which there is a force which is generated in the Geneva wheel in maximum and minimum position. Face cam which is used while indexing the work piece carrier There are 2 tangential forces which are acting, one at the indexing side and the other at the driving side /cam side. The effective resultant force which is acting on the face cam while indexing work piece carrier is calculated. And these forces are analyzed using ansys and their respective Von Mises stresses and displacement plots are obtained for both the conditions based on boundary and loading conditions.

  12. CAMS as a tool for identifying and predicting abnormal plant states using real-time simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMS (Computerised Accident Management Support) is a system that provides assistance to the staff in a nuclear power plant control room, in the technical support centre and in the national safety centre. Support is offered in identification of the current plant state, in assessment of the future development of the accident and in planning mitigation strategies. CAMS is a modular system, where several modules perform different tasks under the control and supervision of a central knowledge based system, which is responsible of the syncronisation and the flow of information through the activated modules. A CAMS prototype has been tested by the Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate during a safety exercise in Sweden in 1995, with satisfactory results. Future developments include automatic control of the Predictive Simulator by the State Identification, for the generation of possible mitigation strategies, and the development of an improved user interface which considers the integration of the system in an advanced control room. CAMS is a system developed as a joint research activity at the Halden Reactor Project in close cooperation with member organisations. The project, started in 1993, has now arrived to the second prototype version, which has been presented and demonstrated at several seminars and workshops around the world. (author)

  13. 21 CFR 872.3661 - Optical Impression Systems for CAD/CAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3661 Optical Impression Systems for CAD... (CAD/CAM) is a device used to record the topographical characteristics of teeth, dental impressions, or stone models by analog or digital methods for use in the computer-assisted design and manufacturing...

  14. An accelerated technique for a ceramic-pressed-to-metal restoration with CAD/CAM technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Hyoung

    2014-11-01

    The conventional fabrication of metal ceramic restorations depends on an experienced dental technician and requires a long processing time. However, complete-contour digital waxing and digital cutback with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology can overcome these disadvantages and provide a correct metal framework design and space for the ceramic material. PMID:24952883

  15. The prevalence, patterns of usage and people's attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM among the Indian community in Chatsworth, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raidoo Deshandra M

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine, among the Indian community of Chatsworth, South Africa, the prevalence and utilisation patterns of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, attitudes associated with CAM use and communication patterns of CAM users with their primary care doctors. Methods Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted in Chatsworth, a suburb of Durban in which South Africans of Indian origin predominantly reside. Participants were 200 randomly selected adult English-speaking Indian residents. Results The prevalence of CAM usage for period 2000/2001 was 38.5% (95% confidence interval 31.7% to 45.6%. Spiritual healing and herbal/natural medicines, including vitamins were the most common types of CAM used, accounting for 42.8% and 48.1% respectively of overall CAM usage. People used CAM to treat conditions including diabetes mellitus, headaches, arthritis and joint pains, stress, skin disorders, backaches, hypertension and nasal disorders. Half of the CAM users used allopathic medicines concurrently. The cost of CAM utilization over this 1-year period, incurred by 80.5% of users for the duration of therapy for their most troublesome condition was below R500 (approximately US$50. Age, sex, marital status, religion, level of education and income were shown not to influence the use of CAM. Greater than half (51.9% of CAM users did so either upon the advice of someone they knew, or after noticing a CAM advertisement in the local press. Seventy-nine percent of CAM users indicated that they had positive outcomes with their treatments. Fifty four percent of CAM users (excluding those using spiritual healing only failed to inform their doctors that they used CAM. The main reason given by half of this group was that informing their doctors did not seem necessary. Conclusion The prevalence of CAM in Chatsworth is similar to findings in other parts of the world. Although CAM was used to treat many different

  16. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS: rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waslick Bruce D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To present the design, methods, and rationale of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS, a recently completed federally-funded, multi-site, randomized placebo-controlled trial that examined the relative efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT, sertraline (SRT, and their combination (COMB against pill placebo (PBO for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and social phobia (SoP in children and adolescents. Methods Following a brief review of the acute outcomes of the CAMS trial, as well as the psychosocial and pharmacologic treatment literature for pediatric anxiety disorders, the design and methods of the CAMS trial are described. Results CAMS was a six-year, six-site, randomized controlled trial. Four hundred eighty-eight (N = 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of SAD, GAD, or SoP were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: CBT, SRT, COMB, or PBO. Assessments of anxiety symptoms, safety, and functional outcomes, as well as putative mediators and moderators of treatment response were completed in a multi-measure, multi-informant fashion. Manual-based therapies, trained clinicians and independent evaluators were used to ensure treatment and assessment fidelity. A multi-layered administrative structure with representation from all sites facilitated cross-site coordination of the entire trial, study protocols and quality assurance. Conclusions CAMS offers a model for clinical trials methods applicable to psychosocial and psychopharmacological comparative treatment trials by using state-of-the-art methods and rigorous cross-site quality controls. CAMS also provided a large-scale examination of the relative and combined efficacy and safety of the best evidenced-based psychosocial (CBT and pharmacologic (SSRI treatments to date for the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety disorders. Primary and secondary results

  17. From Artisanal to CAD-CAM Blocks: State of the Art of Indirect Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, A K; Dupont, N M; Oudkerk, J C; Dewael, T Y; Sadoun, M J

    2016-05-01

    Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites. Indeed, new polymerization modes used for CAD-CAM blocks-especially high temperature (HT) and, most of all, high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP)-are shown to significantly increase the degree of conversion in comparison with light-cured composites. Industrial processes also allow for the augmentation of the filler content and for the realization of more homogeneous structures with fewer flaws. In addition, due to their increased degree of conversion and their different monomer composition, some CAD-CAM blocks are more advantageous in terms of toxicity and monomer release. Finally, materials with a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) microstructure exhibit higher flexural strength and a more favorable elasticity modulus than materials with a dispersed filler microstructure. Consequently, some high-performance composite CAD-CAM blocks-particularly experimental PICNs-can now rival glass-ceramics, such as lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics, for use as bonded partial restorations and crowns on natural teeth and implants. Being able to be manufactured in very low thicknesses, they offer the possibility of developing innovative minimally invasive treatment strategies, such as "no prep" treatment of worn dentition. Current issues are related to the study of bonding and wear properties of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composites. There is also a crucial

  18. Status of the photomultiplier-based FlashCam camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pühlhofer, G.; Bauer, C.; Eisenkolb, F.; Florin, D.; Föhr, C.; Gadola, A.; Garrecht, F.; Hermann, G.; Jung, I.; Kalekin, O.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kasperek, J.; Kihm, T.; Koziol, J.; Lahmann, R.; Manalaysay, A.; Marszalek, A.; Rajda, P. J.; Reimer, O.; Romaszkan, W.; Rupinski, M.; Schanz, T.; Schwab, T.; Steiner, S.; Straumann, U.; Tenzer, C.; Vollhardt, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Winiarski, K.; Zietara, K.

    2014-07-01

    The FlashCam project is preparing a camera prototype around a fully digital FADC-based readout system, for the medium sized telescopes (MST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The FlashCam design is the first fully digital readout system for Cherenkov cameras, based on commercial FADCs and FPGAs as key components for digitization and triggering, and a high performance camera server as back end. It provides the option to easily implement different types of trigger algorithms as well as digitization and readout scenarios using identical hardware, by simply changing the firmware on the FPGAs. The readout of the front end modules into the camera server is Ethernet-based using standard Ethernet switches and a custom, raw Ethernet protocol. In the current implementation of the system, data transfer and back end processing rates of 3.8 GB/s and 2.4 GB/s have been achieved, respectively. Together with the dead-time-free front end event buffering on the FPGAs, this permits the cameras to operate at trigger rates of up to several ten kHz. In the horizontal architecture of FlashCam, the photon detector plane (PDP), consisting of photon detectors, preamplifiers, high voltage-, control-, and monitoring systems, is a self-contained unit, mechanically detached from the front end modules. It interfaces to the digital readout system via analogue signal transmission. The horizontal integration of FlashCam is expected not only to be more cost efficient, it also allows PDPs with different types of photon detectors to be adapted to the FlashCam readout system. By now, a 144-pixel mini-camera" setup, fully equipped with photomultipliers, PDP electronics, and digitization/ trigger electronics, has been realized and extensively tested. Preparations for a full-scale, 1764 pixel camera mechanics and a cooling system are ongoing. The paper describes the status of the project.

  19. Marginal and Internal Fit of CAD/CAM and Slip-Cast Made Zirconia Copings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi Ardekani, Kianoosh; Ahangari, Ahmad Hassan; Farahi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims CAD/CAM systems facilitate the use of zirconia substructure materials for all-ceramic copings. This in vitro study investigated the marginal and internal fit of zirconia copings made with CAD/CAM system and slip-casting method. Materials and methods Sixteen CAD/CAM made zirconia copings and 16 slip-cast made zirconia copings were fabri-cated and cemented with glass-ionomer cement to their respective master abutment models, and thickness of the cement layer was measured at specific measuring points with stereomicroscope. Results In the left wall, the mean axial internal gap was greater in group one than group two (62.49 vs. 48.14) (P =0.007), in the right wall the mean axial internal gap was greater in group one than group two (44.87 vs. 40.91) (P = 0.465). The oc-clusal internal gap was greater in group one than group two (118.81 vs. 102.11) (P =0.423). The mean marginal gap also was greater in group one than group two (46.67 vs. 44.29) (P = 0.863). The differences in marginal fit between these two methods were not statistically significant, except for left axial internal gap that was significantly greater in the CAD/CAM system than conventional slip-cast technique (P =0.007). Conclusion It was concluded that this CAD/CAM system can compete well with conventional systems for clinical fit, and can achieve good in vitro marginal fit. PMID:22991635

  20. Comparative characterization of a novel cad-cam polymer-infiltrated-ceramic-network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Agustín; Camps, Isabel; Grau-Benitez, María

    2015-01-01

    Background The field of dental ceramics for CAD-CAM is enriched with a new innovative material composition having a porous three-dimensional structure of feldspathic ceramic infiltrated with acrylic resins.The aim of this study is to determine the mechanical properties of Polymer-Infiltrated-Ceramic-Network (PICN) and compare its performance with other ceramics and a nano-ceramic resin available for CAD-CAM systems. Material and Methods In this study a total of five different materials for CAD-CAM were investigated. A polymer-infiltrated ceramic (Vita Enamic), a nano-ceramic resin (Lava Ultimate), a feldspathic ceramic (Mark II), a lithium disilicate ceramic (IPS-e max CAD) and finally a Leucite based ceramic (Empress - CAD). From CAD-CAM blocks, 120 bars (30 for each material cited above) were cut to measure the flexural strength with a three-point-bending test. Strain at failure, fracture stress and Weibull modulus was calculated. Vickers hardness of each material was also measured. Results IPS-EMAX presents mechanical properties significantly better from the other materials studied. Its strain at failure, flexural strength and hardness exhibited significantly higher values in comparison with the others. VITA ENAMIC and LAVA ULTIMATE stand out as the next most resistant materials. Conclusions The flexural strength, elastic modulus similar to a tooth as well as having less hardness than ceramics make PICN materials an option to consider as a restorative material. Key words:Ceramic infiltrated with resin, CAD-CAM, Weibull modulus, flexural strength, micro hardness. PMID:26535096

  1. A focus Group Study of Medical Students’ Views of an Integrated Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM Curriculum: Students Teaching Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Lie, M.D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Student views of new curricula can shape training outcomes. This qualitative study elicited student opinions of CAM instruction to examine and distill best strategies.Methods: 49 second, third and fourth year students participated in focus groups using a predefined question route. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed.Results: Students successfully differentiated CAM curricula from other academic content and were supportive of a longitudinal integrated approach. They had positive disposition toward CAM use for themselves but this did not necessarily translate into patient recommendations. They agreed that goals of the CAM curriculum should center on awareness of patient use and evidence and information relevant to clinical practice. They advocated a case-based, hands-on, experiential strategy vs lectures. Students proposed greater institutional commitment to strengthen curricular effectiveness. The majority did not intend to practice CAM modalities but valued skills to assess them. Patient-centeredness was recognized. As training progressed, students exhibited a growing tendency to evaluate CAM efficacy, and therefore value, exclusively according to evidence.Conclusions: In-depth student input allowed examination of the effectiveness of a CAM curriculum,permitting improvement and assessment of program effectiveness.

  2. Concurrent Complementary and Alternative Medicine CAM and Conventional Rehabilitation Therapy in the Management of Children with Developmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Yeon Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the concurrent use of conventional rehabilitations and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies for the long-term management of children with developmental disorders (DDs. Methods. The parents or caregivers of 533 children with DDs (age range, 1–19 years who visited the rehabilitation centers were surveyed using in depth face-to-face interviews. Results. Of the 533 patients enrolled, 520 completed the questionnaire (97% response rate. A total of 292 (56% children were receiving multiple therapies, more than two conventional rehabilitations and CAM, at the time of the interview. A total of 249 (48% children reported lifetime CAM use, 23% used CAM at the time of the interview, and 62% of the patients planned to use CAM therapy in the future. Conventional rehabilitation therapies used at the time of the interview included physical therapy (30%, speech therapy (28%, and occupational therapy (19%, and the CAM therapies included herbal medicine (5% and acupuncture or moxibustion (3%. The respondents indicated that in the future they planned to use acupuncture or moxibustion (57%, occupational therapy (18%, cognitive behavioral therapy (16%, speech therapy (10%, and physical therapy (8%. Conclusion. Concurrent management as conventional rehabilitations and CAM therapies is widely used by children with DDs.

  3. Bilgisayar destekli diş hekimliği ve güncel CAD/CAM sistemleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Çelik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available

    CAD/CAM systems (computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing has been used in dentistry since 1987. In the past 25 years, development of various high quality chairside and laboratory CAD/CAM systems has been continued with the progress of technology. This article describes currently used CAD/CAM systems.

    Keywords: Dental, CAD/CAM systems.

     

    ÖZET

    CAD/CAM sistemleri (bilgisayar destekli tasarım/bilgisayar destekli üretim diş hekimliğinde 1987 yılından beri kullanılmaktadır. Son 25 yılda teknolojinin de ilerlemesiyle üstün özellikte çeşitli klinik ve laboratuvar CAD/CAM sistemleri geliştirilmeye devam etmektedir. Bu makalede günümüzde kullanılan CAD/CAM sistemleri anlatılmaktadır.

  4. Enhanced in vitro antiproliferative effects of EpCAM antibody-functionalized paclitaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles in retinoblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Moutushy; Misra, Ranjita; Harilal, Anju; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2011-01-01

    Background To specifically deliver paclitaxel (PTX) to retinoblastoma (RB) cells, the anionic surface-charged poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs loaded with paclitaxel were conjugated with epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibody for enhancing site-specific intracellular delivery of paclitaxel against EpCAM overexpressing RB cells. Methods PTX-loaded PLGA NPs were prepared by the oil-in-water single emulsion solvent evaporation method, and the PTX content in NPs was estimated by the reverse phase isocratic mode of high performance liquid chromatography. Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry was employed for the covalent attachment of monoclonal EpCAM antibody onto the NP surface. In vitro cytotoxicity of native PTX, unconjugated PTX-loaded NPs (PTX-NPs), and EpCAM antibody-conjugated PTX-loaded nanoparticles (PTX-NP-EpCAM) were evaluated on a Y79 RB cell line by a dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, while cellular apoptosis, cysteinyl-aspartic acid protease (caspase)-3 activation, Poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and cell-cycle arrest were quantified by flow cytometry. By employing flow cytometry and fluorescence image analyses, the extent of cellular uptake was comparatively evaluated. Results PTX-NP-EpCAM had superior antiproliferation activity, increased arrested cell population at the G2-M phase, and increased activation of caspase-3, followed by PARP cleavage in parallel with the induction of apoptosis. Increased uptake of PTX-Np-EpCAM by the cells suggests that they were mainly taken up through EpCAM mediated endocytosis. Conclusions EpCAM antibody-functionalized biodegradable NPs for tumor-selective drug delivery and overcoming drug resistance could be an efficient therapeutic strategy for retinoblastoma treatment. PMID:22065926

  5. Differential effects of human L1CAM mutations on complementing guidance and synaptic defects in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirisha Kudumala

    Full Text Available A large number of different pathological L1CAM mutations have been identified that result in a broad spectrum of neurological and non-neurological phenotypes. While many of these mutations have been characterized for their effects on homophilic and heterophilic interactions, as well as expression levels in vitro, there are only few studies on their biological consequences in vivo. The single L1-type CAM gene in Drosophila, neuroglian (nrg, has distinct functions during axon guidance and synapse formation and the phenotypes of nrg mutants can be rescued by the expression of human L1CAM. We previously showed that the highly conserved intracellular FIGQY Ankyrin-binding motif is required for L1CAM-mediated synapse formation, but not for neurite outgrowth or axon guidance of the Drosophila giant fiber (GF neuron. Here, we use the GF as a model neuron to characterize the pathogenic L120V, Y1070C, C264Y, H210Q, E309K and R184Q extracellular L1CAM missense mutations and a L1CAM protein with a disrupted ezrin-moesin-radixin (ERM binding site to investigate the signaling requirements for neuronal development. We report that different L1CAM mutations have distinct effects on axon guidance and synapse formation. Furthermore, L1CAM homophilic binding and signaling via the ERM motif is essential for axon guidance in Drosophila. In addition, the human pathological H210Q, R184Q and Y1070C, but not the E309K and L120V L1CAM mutations affect outside-in signaling via the FIGQY Ankyrin binding domain which is required for synapse formation. Thus, the pathological phenotypes observed in humans are likely to be caused by the disruption of signaling required for both, guidance and synaptogenesis.

  6. Using CAD/CAM-systems for process optimization during laser beam cutting and surface treatment. CAD/CAM-gestuetzte Prozessauslegung beim Laserstrahlschneiden und -oberflaechenveredeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, W.; Trasser, F.J.; Wetzels, W. (Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Produktionstechnologie, IPT, Aachen (Germany))

    1991-02-01

    Using technological modules in modern CAD/CAM-systems provides an efficient use of the available know-how. On the one hand, companies can save their know-how, on the other hand they can improve manufacturing quality as well as increase the productivity. Especially laser beam cutting allows an automatic process control - orientated on geometry aspects. Similar results can be shown for laser surface treatment as well, although up to now reducing of the programming time is the main task of technological modules for this application, including special algorithms for CNC-controlled rotation/swiveling of powder-nozzles and adjustment of the powder flow rate.

  7. The SuperCam Remote-Sensing Instrument Suite for the Mars 2020 Rover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Clegg, S. M.; Rull, F.; Sharma, S. K.; Anderson, R. B.; Beyssac, O.; Bonal, L.; DeFlores, L. P.; Dromart, G.; Fischer, W. W.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Johnson, J. R.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Mangold, N.; McLennan, S. M.; Montmessin, F.

    2015-12-01

    The SuperCam remote-sensing instrument suite in development for the Mars 2020 rover represents a significant advance from its precursor, ChemCam, by adding Raman spectroscopy (to 12 m distance) and visible and near-infrared (VISIR) reflectance spectroscopy. For Raman spectroscopy the LIBS Nd:YAG laser is frequency-doubled to 532 nm (green Raman). A transmission spectrometer with an intensified CCD covers 150-4400 cm-1 spectral range at a resolution of 10 cm-1. The system is adjustably time-gated, removing much of the mineral fluorescence from the Raman spectra and also facilitating time-resolved fluorescence studies. The infrared range covers 1.3-2.6 microns in addition to the existing 400-840 nm range on ChemCam. Additional upgrades include doubling the LIBS resolution in the 535-860 nm range and adding color to the Remote Micro-Imager (RMI), which is the highest resolution remote imager on the rover. A large-scale effort is being applied to the on-board standards, being led by U. Valladolid in Spain, with targets contributed by many institutions. The number of geological targets will be increased from 8 (on ChemCam) to 22, planned to include end-member plagioclase feldspars, hi- and low-Ca pyroxene, olivines, several fine-grained basalts, hematite, jarosite, carbonates, apatite, and several synthetic targets doped with trace elements. Three Spectralon targets are planned for IR calibration and several color bands for the RMI. All but the Spectralon and color bands should be available for LIBS calibration, and many are also being designed for Raman and VISIR calibration. For LIBS this collection of standards will significantly improve the accuracy relative to ChemCam; other precision improvements are anticipated to come from correcting for variable plasma temperature. The presentation will illustrate how Mars datasets will be significantly improved via this multi-technique approach and will give a first look at prototype SuperCam spectra.

  8. FlashCam: a fully-digital camera for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Pühlhofer, G; Bernhard, S; Capasso, M; Diebold, S; Eisenkolb, F; Florin, D; Föhr, C; Funk, S; Gadola, A; Garrecht, F; Hermann, G; Jung, I; Kalekin, O; Kalkuhl, C; Kasperek, J; Kihm, T; Lahmann, R; Manalaysay, A; Marszalek, A; Pfeifer, M; Rajda, P J; Reimer, O; Santangelo, A; Schanz, T; Schwab, T; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Tenzer, C; Vollhardt, A; Weitzel, Q; Werner, F; Wolf, D; Zietara, K

    2015-01-01

    The FlashCam group is currently preparing photomultiplier-tube based cameras proposed for the medium-sized telescopes (MST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The cameras are designed around the FlashCam readout concept which is the first fully-digital readout system for Cherenkov cameras, based on commercial FADCs and FPGAs as key components for the front-end electronics modules and a high performance camera server as back-end. This contribution describes the progress of the full-scale FlashCam camera prototype currently under construction, as well as performance results also obtained with earlier demonstrator setups. Plans towards the production and implementation of FlashCams on site are also briefly presented.

  9. Chipping fracture resistance of dental CAD/CAM restorative materials: Part 2. Phenomenological model and the effect of indenter type

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, G. D.; Giuseppetti, A. A.; Hoffman, K. H.

    2014-01-01

    The edge chipping resistances of six CAD/CAM dental restoration materials are analyzed and correlated to other mechanical properties. A new quadratic relationship that is based on a phenomenological model is presented.

  10. NectarCAM, a camera for the medium sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Glicenstein, J-F

    2016-01-01

    NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) which covers the core energy range of ~100 GeV to ~30 TeV. It has a modular design and is based on the NECTAr chip, at the heart of which is a GHz sampling Switched Capacitor Array and 12-bit Analog to Digital converter. The camera will be equipped with 265 7-photomultiplier modules, covering a field of view of 8 degrees. Each module includes photomultiplier bases, high voltage supply, pre-amplifier, trigger, readout and Ethernet transceiver. The recorded events last between a few nanoseconds and tens of nanoseconds. The expected performance of the camera are discussed. Prototypes of NectarCAM components have been built to validate the design. Preliminary results of a 19-module mini-camera are presented, as well as future plans for building and testing a full size camera.

  11. Modeling the corrosion of high-level waste containers: CAM-CRM interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; Bedrossian, P.J.; McCright, R.D.

    1998-06-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological respository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 825, 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as A516 or Monel 400. At the present time, Alloy C-22 and A516 are favored. This publication addresses the development of models to account for corrosion of Alloy C-22 surfaces exposed directly to the Near Field Environmental (NFE), as well as to the exacerbated conditions in the CAM-CRM crevice.

  12. The Multiperiodic Pulsating Star Y Cam A as a Musical Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Ulas, Burak

    2015-01-01

    In this study we generate musical chords from the oscillation frequencies of the primary component of oscillating eclipsing Algol system Y Cam. The parameters and the procedure of the musical chord generation process from the stellar oscillations are described in detail. A musical piece is also composed in appropriate scale for Y Cam A by using the generated chords from the results of the asteroseismic analysis of the stellar data. The music scores and the digital sound files are provided for both the generated chords and the musical composition. Our study shows that the further orchestral compositions can be made from the frequency analysis results of several pulsating stars by using the procedure stated in present study.

  13. El pastor Quijótiz by Camón Aznar and Unamuno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Fernández Rivera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In El pastor Quijótiz (1969, Camón Aznar resorted to the antagonism ideal vs. reality, characteristic of many recreations of Cervantes’ masterpiece, to explore the problem he had in combining the ideas of his freethinking youth with his later role as an active intellectual under Franco.  El pastor Quijótiz is an attempt at saving the liberal intellectuals’ utopianism of the early 20th century by transforming it into a form of private spirituality that serves as a comforter in the face of the surrounding social injustice. Camón Aznar builds upon the figure of the rebellious Don Quixote created by Unamuno, who he had admired in his youth. However, he changes the figure by adding a resigned victimization of Stoic- Christian origin.

  14. CAM use in dermatology. Is there a potential role for honey, green tea, and vitamin C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Naiara S; Kalaaji, Amer N

    2014-02-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a group of non-traditional medical practices that includes natural products, manipulations, and mind and body medicine. CAM use has grown and become popular among patients. In dermatology, honey, green tea, and vitamin C have been used as topical treatments for a variety of diseases. We performed a systematic review to explore the cutaneous effects of each of these three products. Honey's unique antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties were shown to contribute to wound healing, especially in ulcers and burns. Green tea, among many health benefits, demonstrated protection from ultraviolet-induced events, such as photoimmunosuppression and skin cancer growth. Vitamin C, known for its antioxidant properties and key role in collagen production, has been shown to produce positive effects on skin hyperpigmentation and aging. Future large well-designed clinical trials are needed in order to further investigate the potential of these agents as dermatological therapies.

  15. Recommended practices for spline usage in CAD/CAM systems: CADCAM-007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, S.K.

    1984-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been assigned Lead Lab responsibility for integrating CAD/CAM activities throughout the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) and automating exchange of product definition. Transfer of splines between CAD/CAM systems presents a special problem due to the use of different spline interpolation schemes in these systems. Automated exchange via IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification, ANSI Y14.26M-1981) shows promise but does not yet provide a usable data path for NWC spline needs. Data exchange today is primarily via hard copy drawings with manual data reentry and spline recomputation. In this environment, spline problems can be minimized by following the recommended practices set forth in this report.

  16. CAD/CAM fabricated single-unit all-ceramic post-core-crown restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilla Sekar Vinothkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report explains about an innovative treatment strategy for the management of damaged anterior teeth with reduced incisal clearance by means of a single-unit all-ceramic post-core-crown zirconia ceramic restoration fabricated by Computer-aided designing and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM technology. The reinforced zirconia ceramics allow fabrication of durable esthetic restorations in cases with high functional loading and the unification of the post, core, and crown in a single unit decreases the frequency of failure by creating a monobloc effect. In addition, the use of CAD/CAM technology for designing and fabricating ceramic restorations offers the option of expeditiously preparing these high-strength all-ceramic restorations.

  17. Technical engineering in mines on the basis of an integrated CAD/CAM/CAE system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritsko, G.J.; Vylegzhanin, V.N.; Vitovsky, E.J.; Potapov, V.P.; Zvikina, L.S. (Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Kemerevo (USSR))

    1990-01-01

    A concept of an integrated technical engineering system for the design, planning and managment phases is decribed. The system's structure includes international CAD/CAM/CAE system standards and is based on a mathematical hybrid model of a coal mining technology system, including safety of mining work regarding geomechanical aspects. Basic relations of mining parameters are discussed by means of models. The system operates on the basis of logic-linguistic programs, verbal and graphic analysis models for mining situation, organization of frame models to describe properties and structures of objects in the geological system, and developing technological algorithms. The technology decision structure of the CAD/CAM/CAE system is compatible with expert systems. (orig.).

  18. CAD/CAM method application for ear shell auto-manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarng, Soon Suck; Ting, Gao

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the engineering technique of the rapid hearing aid production with a rapid shell modelling (RSM) Computer Aided Design/Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). It will be worthwhile to describe how the virtual ear shell designed with RSM from an ear impression. And the virtual ear shell model is then used as the template to manufacture the actual ear shell by a Rapid Production (RP) machine. Some detailed description of the whole processing will be given in this thesis. The CAD/CAM method processing will enhance and provide outstanding, high-quality hearing aid shell production capabilities to customers. It reduces the time and the cost of designing products and facilitates direct and indirect manufacturing by creating actual parts directly from digital input. It determines that this technique has made a large impact on hearing aid processing and fitting.

  19. CAD/CAM fabricated single-unit all-ceramic post–core–crown restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinothkumar, Thilla Sekar; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Chanana, Pallavi

    2011-01-01

    This case report explains about an innovative treatment strategy for the management of damaged anterior teeth with reduced incisal clearance by means of a single-unit all-ceramic post–core–crown zirconia ceramic restoration fabricated by Computer-aided designing and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. The reinforced zirconia ceramics allow fabrication of durable esthetic restorations in cases with high functional loading and the unification of the post, core, and crown in a single unit decreases the frequency of failure by creating a monobloc effect. In addition, the use of CAD/CAM technology for designing and fabricating ceramic restorations offers the option of expeditiously preparing these high-strength all-ceramic restorations. PMID:21691515

  20. Benefits of using CAD/CAM for design, draughting and prototype production of automotive instrumentation parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper will describe the work untertaken in the company over the last five years. This work now enables us to take a design concept through to volume production in about 12 months and delivery of prototypes 3-4 months from the start of design. This was not possible prior to the introduction of the CAD/CAM equipment. The C.A.D. graphics system will be described in terms of its method of use by designers, draughtsmen and part programmers. All these people use a common database to ensure validity of design. The C.A.M. operation on C.N.C.Milling machines will be described also, and indications given of future areas of work on this project. These will relate to tool manufacture using the same database.

  1. Surface roughness and gloss of current CAD/CAM resin composites before and after toothbrush abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Saiki, Osamu; Nogawa, Hiroshi; Hiraba, Haruto; Okazaki, Tomoyo; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gloss and surface roughness behaviors of newly developed CAD/CAM composite blocks with different filler contents and characteristics. The gloss and surface roughness were quantified before and after a toothbrush dentifrice abrasion test; the results were compared to the gloss and surface roughness of a ceramic CAD/CAM block. Knoop hardness was determined before abrasion test. The results were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey HSD, and Dunnett t test (pVita Enamic>Gradia block>Shofu Block HC, Lava Ultimate≥Katana Avencia block≥Cerasmart. After toothbrush abrasion, a significant difference in the gloss unit was detected between the Shofu Block HC material and the ceramic block. The Ra and Rz of the Cerasmart and Shofu Block HC materials were significantly larger than those of the ceramic block after toothbrush abrasion. PMID:26632238

  2. Marginal-internal adaptation and fracture resistance of CAD/CAM crown restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Coşkun; Vanlioğlu, Burçin Akoglu; Evren, Buket; Uludamar, Altay; Ozkan, Yasemin Kulak

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the marginal adaptation and fracture resistance of CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia crowns luted using different luting agents. Twenty crown restorations were produced using IPS ZirCAD zirconium oxide blocks (IZC), and another 20 using Lava zirconium oxide blocks (L). Ten teeth were used as control. Luting agents used were an etch-and-rinse adhesive (Variolink II) and a self-etch adhesive (Multilink Automix). Internal and marginal adaptation was evaluated using silicone replica technique. Fracture resistance was evaluated using a compression test. Marginal discrepancy was 89.26 μm for L crowns and 88.84 μm for IZC crowns, and difference was statistically insignificant. However, L crowns showed significantly larger axial and occlusal gaps than IZC crowns (pCAD/CAM-fabricated crowns showed acceptable in vitro marginal discrepancies and fracture strengths. PMID:23370869

  3. CAD/CAM Solutions for Minimally Invasive All-Ceramic Rehabilitation of Extended Erosive Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess Gierthmuehlen, Petra C; Steger, Enrico

    2016-05-01

    Dental erosion is a global oral health problem that can lead to significant functional and esthetic impairments of the affected patients. Treatment of severe cases with augmented loss of the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) represents a challenge for both the dental team and the patient. CAD/CAM technology was used in the presented case to analyze the interocclusal space. Based on a virtual wax-up of the final restorations, CAD/CAM-fabricated preparation splints served as a guide and ensured a most minimally invasive preparation design. Milled polymer provisionals enabled the patient to visualize the final treatment outcome and served as a fracture-resistant temporary restoration to test the increased VDO. Monolithic lithium-disilicate ceramic, defect-oriented restorations with reduced ceramic thickness enabled a functional and reliable reconstruction of the severely compromised dentition. This case report documents a practical, digital approach and discusses the advantages related to treatment time, ease of treatment, and predictability. PMID:27419357

  4. Utilizing optical coherence tomography for CAD/CAM of indirect dental restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chityala, Ravishankar; Vidal, Carola; Jones, Robert

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has seen broad application in dentistry including early carious lesion detection and imaging defects in resin composite restorations. This study investigates expanding the clinical usefulness by investigating methods to use OCT for obtaining three-dimensional (3D) digital impressions, which can be integrated to CAD/CAM manufacturing of indirect restorations. 3D surface topography `before' and `after' a cavity preparation was acquired by an intraoral cross polarization swept source OCT (CP-OCT) system with a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) scanning mirror. Image registration and segmentation methods were used to digitally construct a replacement restoration that modeled the original surface morphology of a hydroxyapatite sample. After high resolution additive manufacturing (e.g. polymer 3D printing) of the replacement restoration, micro-CT imaging was performed to examine the marginal adaptation. This study establishes the protocol for further investigation of integrating OCT with CAD/CAM of indirect dental restorations.

  5. IPAD 2: Advances in Distributed Data Base Management for CAD/CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, S. W. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) Project objective is to improve engineering productivity through better use of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. The focus is on development of technology and associated software for integrated company-wide management of engineering information. The objectives of this conference are as follows: to provide a greater awareness of the critical need by U.S. industry for advancements in distributed CAD/CAM data management capability; to present industry experiences and current and planned research in distributed data base management; and to summarize IPAD data management contributions and their impact on U.S. industry and computer hardware and software vendors.

  6. CIM's bridge from CADD to CAM: Data management requirements for manufacturing engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    Manufacturing engineering represents the crossroads of technical data management in a Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) environment. Process planning, numerical control programming and tool design are the key functions which translate information from as engineered to as assembled. In order to transition data from engineering to manufacturing, it is necessary to introduce a series of product interpretations which contain an interim introduction of technical parameters. The current automation of the product definition and the production process places manufacturing engineering in the center of CAD/CAM with the responsibility of communicating design data to the factory floor via a manufacturing model of the data. A close look at data management requirements for manufacturing engineering is necessary in order to establish the overall specifications for CADD output, CAM input, and CIM integration. The functions and issues associated with the orderly evolution of computer aided engineering and manufacturing are examined.

  7. An Efficient Test Facility For The Cherenkov Telescope Array FlashCam Readout Electronics Production

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenkolb, F; Kalkuhl, C; Pühlhofer, G; Santangelo, A; Schanz, T; Tenzer, C

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the planned next-generation instrument for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy, currently under preparation by a world-wide consortium. The FlashCam group is preparing a photomultiplier-based camera for the Medium Size Telescopes of CTA, with a fully digital Readout System (ROS). For the forthcoming mass production of a substantial number of cameras, efficient test routines for all components are currently under development. We report here on a test facility for the ROS components. A test setup and routines have been developed and an early version of that setup has successfully been used to test a significant fraction of the ROS for the FlashCam camera prototype in January 2016. The test setup with its components and interface, as well as first results, are presented here.

  8. Tool application CAD / CAM for design and construction of a prototype of plastic injection mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Miyer Suárez Castrillón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study, development and production of injection molds comes with the implementation of CAD and CAM tools available on the market; using these tools, a prototype injection mold for thermoplastic materials was designed and built, based on a mold is injection in the laboratory of the University of Pamplona, in which a couple of modifications were made in order to experiment with its design. The prototype was manufactured through a 3D scan of the original mold to provide the CAD / CAM files with the simulated 3D printing technique for performing an experimental study with the prototype for adjusting temperature and pressure sensors and for coatings metallic materials for use in the injection molding process.

  9. Clinical and Laboratory Steps for Fabricating a Complete-Arch Fixed Prosthesis Using CAD/CAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthi, Senthil; Proussaefs, Periklis; Lozada, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of a full-arch maxillary prosthesis has been associated with several prosthetic complications and difficulties. Even though it has been reported that phonetics, esthetics, and proper lip support are difficult to achieve, there is a scarcity in the literature regarding the clinical and laboratory procedures necessary to minimize these complications. This article provides clinical and laboratory steps that may enable the clinician to achieve more predictable restorative results when using computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) to fabricate a full-arch maxillary implant-supported prosthesis. The technique presented here describes the use of an implant-retained diagnostic wax-up that is subsequently duplicated to an interim polymethylmethacrylate prosthesis using CAD/CAM before fabricating the definitive restoration. PMID:26133136

  10. MasterCAM in the text processing application%MasterCAM 在文字加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽; 毛洪辉

    2013-01-01

      MasterCAMA软件可以加工不同式样的文字,首先根据零件的工艺流程设置刀具和加工参数,检查刀具路径以及模拟加工过程,最后进行后置处理,生成有效的数控程序文件。以文字的建模和加工过程为例,就如何灵活运用MasterCAMA进行文字设计和加工文字进行了初步探讨。%The MasterCAM software may process different model the writing,first acts according to the components the technical processies-tablishment cutting tool and the processing parameter,inspects the cutting tool way as well as the simulation processing process,finally carries on the post-processing,produces the effective numerical control procedure document.Take the writing modelling and the processing process as exam-ples,how nimbly carried on the writing design and the processing writing using MasterCAM has carried on the preliminary discussion.

  11. ''VaneCAM'' - the third generation of camshaft adjustment systems; ''VaneCAM'' - Nockenwellenversteller der dritten Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, A. [Hydraulik-Ring GmbH, Nuertingen (Germany). Entwicklung Motorentechnik; Stephan, W. [Hydraulik-Ring GmbH, Nuertingen (Germany); Hannibal, W. [Fachhochschule Suedwestfalen, Iserlohn (Germany). Labor fuer Konstruktion und CAE-Anwendungen

    2002-04-01

    Continuously variable camphasers are now well established for modern spark-ignition engines in high-volume production. With the latest generation of camshaft adjustment systems using the vane-type actuator principle, it is possible to move rapidly and reliably through a large adjustment angle. The layout of these adjusting systems is very simple. The production costs are low in comparison to the first generation of camphasers using spur/helical gears to vary the valve timing. The new-generation systems are mechatronic, with the function depending on the coordination and tuning of hydraulic actuation and engine electronics. The term 'VaneCAM' is used for the continuously variable systems of this new generation supplied by Hydraulik-Ring in Nuertingen, Germany. (orig.) [German] Stufenlos wirkende Nockenwellenversteller haben sich an modernen Ottomotoren in den letzten Jahren in der Grossserie etabliert. Mit der neuesten Generation von Nockenwellenverstellern, die nach dem Schwenkmotor-Prinzip aufgebaut sind, lassen sich grosse Verdrehwinkel sehr schnell und betriebssicher verstellen. Der Aufbau dieser Versteller ist einfach, und die Herstellkosten sind gering im Vergleich zur ersten Generation von Verstellern. Bei den Systemen der neuen Generation handelt es sich um mechatronische Systeme, deren Funktion von dem Zusammenspiel und der Abstimmung von hydraulischer Ansteuerung und Motorelektronik abhaengt. Mit dem Begriff 'VaneCAM' werden die stufenlos wirkenden Systeme dieser neuen Generation von Hydraulik-Ring aus Nuertingen bezeichnet. (orig.)

  12. Multi-robot CAD/CAM welding system in heavy industries; Jukogyo ni okeru multi robot CAD/CAM yosetsu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y.; Kanjo, Y. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    Described herein are activities in NKK Corp. for elementary techniques necessary for welding robots and systems, and the multi-robot CAD/CAM systems in which these techniques are integrated and commercialized. A high-speed, rotary arc welding method has been developed as the proprietary process that gives smooth, defect-free beads even at a high current and welding speed. It rotates arc over a molten pool by mechanical rotation of the electrode end. A multi-sensor system for coordinate transformation, and sensing work ends and bead joints has been also developed to correct position deviations, which are problems involved in a teaching play-back robot system. The multi-robot system is characterized by two or more multi-joint robots integrated in the system by the computer-aided CAD/CAM system to handle one work. A total of 36 systems have been already used for various industrial purposes, such as construction of bridges and production of ship panels. 8 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. SOD activity in cam plant kalanchoe daigremontiana exposed to S02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Miszalski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Kalanchoe daigremontiana CAM plants exhibit very low sensitivity to the action of sulphite dioxide. Fumigation for a week with 3 ppm SO2 leads to an increase in the dismutation rate of the oxygen radical expressed in units of SOD activity and an increase in SOD activity itself. This strong increase disappears 100 h after fumigation. A transient increase in SOD activity represents an adaptation mechanism to oxidative stress caused by SO2.

  14. SOD activity in cam plant kalanchoe daigremontiana exposed to S02

    OpenAIRE

    Zbigniew Miszalski

    2014-01-01

    The Kalanchoe daigremontiana CAM plants exhibit very low sensitivity to the action of sulphite dioxide. Fumigation for a week with 3 ppm SO2 leads to an increase in the dismutation rate of the oxygen radical expressed in units of SOD activity and an increase in SOD activity itself. This strong increase disappears 100 h after fumigation. A transient increase in SOD activity represents an adaptation mechanism to oxidative stress caused by SO2.

  15. Methodology for benefit analysis of CAD/CAM in USN shipyards.

    OpenAIRE

    Grahlman, Richard B.

    1984-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis expands the concept of Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in naval shipbuilding to include maintenance. This inclusion is coupled with the integration of the design and manufacturing processes in the acronym CIDMM, which stands for Computer-Integrated Design, Manufacture and Maintenance. http://archive.org/details/methodologyforbe00grah Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy

  16. CAM and Cell Fate Targeting: Molecular and Energetic Insights into Cell Growth and Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Ventura

    2005-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is switching from the analysis of single diseases at a time toward an integrated assessment of a diseased person. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) offers multiple holistic approaches, including osteopathy, homeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, herbal and energy medicine and meditation, all potentially impacting on major human diseases. It is now becoming evident that acupuncture can modify the expression of different endorphin genes and the expression of...

  17. Esthetic Rehabilitation through Crown Lengthening Surgery and Conservative CAD/CAM Veneers: A Multidisciplinary Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Leandro; Soares, Fernando Peixoto; Gallo, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a successful multidisciplinary approach used to improve the smile esthetics of a patient presenting with excessive gingival display, asymmetric gingival margins, and small upper anterior teeth and lower anterior teeth. The treatment combined esthetic crown lengthening, dental bleaching, and restorative dentistry using CAD/CAM veneer. The 6-month follow-up examination confirmed the stability of the modification and absence of adverse effects.

  18. Esthetic Rehabilitation through Crown Lengthening Surgery and Conservative CAD/CAM Veneers: A Multidisciplinary Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Passos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes a successful multidisciplinary approach used to improve the smile esthetics of a patient presenting with excessive gingival display, asymmetric gingival margins, and small upper anterior teeth and lower anterior teeth. The treatment combined esthetic crown lengthening, dental bleaching, and restorative dentistry using CAD/CAM veneer. The 6-month follow-up examination confirmed the stability of the modification and absence of adverse effects.

  19. Multi Model Technology and Its Application in the Integration of CAD/CAM/CAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The globalization and the intensive competition of th e automotive market require shortening the product development cycle, improving the quality and reducing the cost. Optimizing the product development process, b uilding product's consistent defining model for life cycle, and realizing the in tegration of CAD/CAM/CAE and Concurrent Engineering (CE) become the means to acc ept the challenge. A new product modeling technology, Multi Model Technology (MM T), is provided in this paper to meet the needs of t...

  20. Esthetic Rehabilitation through Crown Lengthening Surgery and Conservative CAD/CAM Veneers: A Multidisciplinary Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Leandro; Soares, Fernando Peixoto; Gallo, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a successful multidisciplinary approach used to improve the smile esthetics of a patient presenting with excessive gingival display, asymmetric gingival margins, and small upper anterior teeth and lower anterior teeth. The treatment combined esthetic crown lengthening, dental bleaching, and restorative dentistry using CAD/CAM veneer. The 6-month follow-up examination confirmed the stability of the modification and absence of adverse effects. PMID:27668099

  1. Adult Lifespan Cognitive Variability in the Cross-Sectional Cam-CAN Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Green; Shafto, Meredith A.; Fiona E Matthews; Cam-CAN,; White, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines variability across the age span in cognitive performance in a cross-sectional, population-based, adult lifespan cohort from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) study (n = 2680). A key question we highlight is whether using measures that are designed to detect age-related cognitive pathology may not be sensitive to, or reflective of, individual variability among younger adults. We present three issues that contribute to the debate for and against age-...

  2. 闪电眼:创新WebCam Live!摄像头

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Creative WebCam Live!拥有全新的造型并配备解析度高达1024×768像素的静态影像捕捉能力,拥有灵活的固定方式,你还可以通过内附的高品质领夹式麦克风加入优异的音效至你的影像之中。

  3. The history and clinical application of a chairside CAD/CAM dental restoration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutes, Richard D

    2006-10-01

    Since its introduction by Sirona Dental Systems (Charlotte, North Carolina, USA and Bensheim, Germany) in 1985, the CEREC Chairside CAD/CAM restoration system has steadily earned a loyal following among dentists. This article describes the history and evolution of the CEREC System, its clinical application and treatment modality, the restorative materials used to fabricate the restorations and an overview of clinical findings regarding the in vivo performance of the materials.

  4. SynthCam3D: Semantic Understanding With Synthetic Indoor Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Handa, Ankur; Patraucean, Viorica; Badrinarayanan, Vijay; Stent, Simon; Cipolla, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We are interested in automatic scene understanding from geometric cues. To this end, we aim to bring semantic segmentation in the loop of real-time reconstruction. Our semantic segmentation is built on a deep autoencoder stack trained exclusively on synthetic depth data generated from our novel 3D scene library, SynthCam3D. Importantly, our network is able to segment real world scenes without any noise modelling. We present encouraging preliminary results.

  5. Bruchlast konventionell oder mittels CAD/CAM hergestellter Brücken-Provisorien

    OpenAIRE

    Stawarczyk, B; Trottmann, A; Fischer, J.

    2008-01-01

    Die CAD/CAM Technologie bietet die Möglichkeit zur Konstruktion einer Restauration am Computer und die Fertigung der Restauration auf präzise gesteuerten vollautomatischen Fräs-/Schleifmaschinen. Die Technologie hat sich bei Keramiken mittlerweile durchgesetzt. Nun kommen weitere Werkstoffe auf den Markt, die mit geringerem Zeit- und Kostenaufwand mit dieser Technologie verarbeitet werden können. In einer vergleichenden Untersuchung wird die Bruchlast von maschinell hergestellten provisori...

  6. Surface Roughness and Microhardness of Two Recent CAD/CAM-Materials After Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Flury, Simon; Diebold, Elisabeth; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate surface roughness and microhardness of two recent resin-ceramic materials for computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) after polishing with three polishing systems. Surface roughness and microhardness were measured immediately after polishing and after six months storage including monthly artificial toothbrushing. Methods: Sixty specimens of Lava Ultimate (3M ESPE) and 60 specimens of VITA ENAMIC (VITA Zahnfabrik) were roughened in a standardi...

  7. The SuperCam Remote Sensing Instrument Suite for Mars 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Wiens, Roger C.; Maurice, Sylvestre; McCabe, K.; Cais, Ph.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Beyssac, Olivier; Bonal, Lydie; Clegg, S.; Deflores, Lauren; Dromart, Gilles; Fischer, W. W.; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Grotzinger, John P.; J. R. Johnson

    2016-01-01

    International audience The Mars 2020 rover, essentially a structural twin of MSL, is being built to a) characterize the geology and history of a new landing site on Mars, b) find and characterize ancient habitable environments, c) cache samples for eventual return to Earth, and d) demonstrate in-situ production of oxygen needed for human exploration. Remote-sensing instrumentation is needed to support the first three of these goals [1]. The SuperCam instrument meets these needs with a rang...

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of Drought-Tolerant CAM plants Agave deserti and Agave tequilana

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Agaves are succulent monocotyledonous plants native to hot and arid environments of North America. Because of their adaptations to their environment, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM, a water-efficient form of photosynthesis) and existing technologies for ethanol production, agaves have gained attention both as potential lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstocks and models for exploring plant responses to abiotic stress. However, the lack of comprehensive Agave sequence datasets limits ...

  9. De novo transcriptome assembly of drought tolerant CAM plants, Agave deserti and Agave tequilana

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Stephen M.; Martin, Jeffrey A.; Simpson, June; Abraham-Juarez, María Jazmín; Wang, Zhong; Visel, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Background Agaves are succulent monocotyledonous plants native to xeric environments of North America. Because of their adaptations to their environment, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM, a water-efficient form of photosynthesis), and existing technologies for ethanol production, agaves have gained attention both as potential lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstocks and models for exploring plant responses to abiotic stress. However, the lack of comprehensive Agave sequence datasets li...

  10. THE CAM SYNTHESIS AND DIMENSIONALLY OPTIMISATION OF A VALVE TIMING MECHANISM WITH CONTINUOUS VALVE LIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian MIHALCEA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An innovating solution for throttle-free load control for spark-ignition engines is variable valve timing system. In this paper is presented a cam synthesis and optimization, using the analytic method, of the valve timing mechanism with three elements and continuous valve lift variation. It is also presented the numerical algorithm for the mechanism’s synthesis and dimensionally optimization.

  11. Machining variability impacts on the strength of a 'chair-side' CAD-CAM ceramic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Addison, Owen

    2012-08-01

    To develop a novel methodology to generate specimens for bi-axial flexure strength (BFS) determination from a \\'chair-side\\' CAD-CAM feldspathic ceramic with surface defect integrals analogous to the clinical state. The hypotheses tested were: BFS and surface roughness (R(a)) are independent of machining variability introduced by the renewal or deterioration of form-grinding tools and that a post-machining annealing cycle would significantly modify BFS.

  12. The CAD/CAM Solution and Realization for Machining Large Scale Steel-concrete Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    First the architecture of the integrated CAD/CAM system developed for machining large scale steel-concrete girders using I-DEAS and other developing tools are introduced; then the involved technologies in the development of the system are presented, which include the method for determining the position and orientation of the manufacturing features, the method for geometrical modeling of the girders, the techniques for generating the toolpaths for the 5-axis machining centers, the generative process planning...

  13. Global Simulations from CAM with a Unified Convection Parameterization using CLUBB and Subcolumns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer-Calder, K.; Gettelman, A.; Craig, C.; Goldhaber, S.; Bogenschutz, P.; Chen, C. C.; Morrison, H.; Hoft, J.; Raut, E.; Griffin, B. M.; Weber, J. K.; Larson, V. E.; Wyant, M. C.; Wang, M.; Ghan, S.; Guo, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The newest version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) will support subcolumns as a method to better couple sub-grid-scale convective and microphysical processes. We utilize this feature and samples from a PDF-based moist turbulence parameterization to produce a version of CAM where all convection (shallow, stratiform, and deep) is simulated with a single set of dynamic and microphysical equations. We call this version of the model CAM-CLUBB-SILHS, where CLUBB (Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals) is our higher-order closure convection and turbulence parameterization and SILHS (Subgrid Importance Latin Hypercube Sampler) is our sampler and the basis for our subcolumn generation. Each physics timestep in this model, the CLUBB parameterization runs to calculate convective tendencies. In order to close the higher order moments, CLUBB calculates a new multi-variate PDF describing the subgrid distribution of moisture and temperature at each level. SILHS samples from that PDF and creates profiles of vapor, temperature, vertical velocity, cloud water and ice, and cloud water and ice number concentration. The microphysics scheme runs on each subcolumn seperately. The resulting tendencies are averaged together and returned to the model as a grid mean tendency. This use of subcolumns allows us to explicitly represent subgrid scale clouds and moisture distributions for microphysical calculations. Using this framework and no other convective parameterizations, we are able to produce stable, realistic, global atmospheric simulations in CAM. This study will present results from long-term atmospheric simulations, discuss the impact of subcolumns on the model, and show improvements in the model's tropical wave simulation.

  14. Synthetic biology as it relates to CAM photosynthesis: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaoli, Henrique C; Borland, Anne M; Tuskan, Gerald A; Cushman, John C; Yang, Xiaohan

    2014-07-01

    To meet future food and energy security needs, which are amplified by increasing population growth and reduced natural resource availability, metabolic engineering efforts have moved from manipulating single genes/proteins to introducing multiple genes and novel pathways to improve photosynthetic efficiency in a more comprehensive manner. Biochemical carbon-concentrating mechanisms such as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), which improves photosynthetic, water-use, and possibly nutrient-use efficiency, represent a strategic target for synthetic biology to engineer more productive C3 crops for a warmer and drier world. One key challenge for introducing multigene traits like CAM onto a background of C3 photosynthesis is to gain a better understanding of the dynamic spatial and temporal regulatory events that underpin photosynthetic metabolism. With the aid of systems and computational biology, vast amounts of experimental data encompassing transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics can be related in a network to create dynamic models. Such models can undergo simulations to discover key regulatory elements in metabolism and suggest strategic substitution or augmentation by synthetic components to improve photosynthetic performance and water-use efficiency in C3 crops. Another key challenge in the application of synthetic biology to photosynthesis research is to develop efficient systems for multigene assembly and stacking. Here, we review recent progress in computational modelling as applied to plant photosynthesis, with attention to the requirements for CAM, and recent advances in synthetic biology tool development. Lastly, we discuss possible options for multigene pathway construction in plants with an emphasis on CAM-into-C3 engineering.

  15. Esthetic Rehabilitation through Crown Lengthening Surgery and Conservative CAD/CAM Veneers: A Multidisciplinary Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Fernando Peixoto; Gallo, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a successful multidisciplinary approach used to improve the smile esthetics of a patient presenting with excessive gingival display, asymmetric gingival margins, and small upper anterior teeth and lower anterior teeth. The treatment combined esthetic crown lengthening, dental bleaching, and restorative dentistry using CAD/CAM veneer. The 6-month follow-up examination confirmed the stability of the modification and absence of adverse effects.

  16. Comparison of organ dose and dose equivalent for human phantoms of CAM vs. MAX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Qualls, Garry D.; Slaba, Tony C.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-04-01

    For the evaluation of organ dose and dose equivalent of astronauts on space shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) missions, the CAMERA models of CAM (Computerized Anatomical Male) and CAF (Computerized Anatomical Female) of human tissue shielding have been implemented and used in radiation transport model calculations at NASA. One of new human geometry models to meet the “reference person” of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is based on detailed Voxel (volumetric and pixel) phantom models denoted for male and female as MAX (Male Adult voXel) and FAX (Female Adult voXel), respectively. We compared the CAM model predictions of organ doses to those of MAX model, since the MAX model represents the male adult body with much higher fidelity than the CAM model currently used at NASA. Directional body-shielding mass was evaluated for over 1500 target points of MAX for specified organs considered to be sensitive to the induction of stochastic effects. Radiation exposures to solar particle event (SPE), trapped protons, and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) were assessed at the specific sites in the MAX phantom by coupling space radiation transport models with the relevant body-shielding mass. The development of multiple-point body-shielding distributions at each organ made it possible to estimate the mean and variance of organ doses at the specific organ. For the estimate of doses to the blood forming organs (BFOs), data on active marrow distributions in adult were used to weight the bone marrow sites over the human body. The discrete number of target points of MAX organs resulted in a reduced organ dose and dose equivalent compared to the results of CAM organs especially for SPE, and should be further investigated. Differences of effective doses between the two approaches were found to be small (<5%) for GCR.

  17. CAD/CAM fabricated single-unit all-ceramic post–core–crown restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Thilla Sekar Vinothkumar; Deivanayagam Kandaswamy; Pallavi Chanana

    2011-01-01

    This case report explains about an innovative treatment strategy for the management of damaged anterior teeth with reduced incisal clearance by means of a single-unit all-ceramic post-core-crown zirconia ceramic restoration fabricated by Computer-aided designing and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. The reinforced zirconia ceramics allow fabrication of durable esthetic restorations in cases with high functional loading and the unification of the post, core, and crown in a sin...

  18. A 3-dimensional accuracy analysis of chairside CAD/CAM milling processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Gabriel; Ender, Andreas; Mehl, Albert

    2014-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Milling is a central and important aspect of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. High milling accuracy reduces the time needed to adapt the workpiece and provides restorations with better longevity and esthetic appeal. The influence of different milling processes on the accuracy of milled restorations has not yet been reviewed. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different milling processes on t...

  19. Developing a STEP-Compliant Multiagent on an Interoperable and Integrated CAD/CAM Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Mokhtar; Omid Fatahi Valilai

    2013-01-01

    Practical implementation of a STEP-based architecture to provide a fully integrated and interoperable platform of data exchange has always been an intriguing issue. A variety of CAD/CAM environments are struggling to embed and support STEP standard and its protocols in order to seamlessly operate within global data exchange. However, apparent paucity of efficient and reliable structure for data communication, manipulation, and restoration has remarkably hindered the desired progress. In this ...

  20. Use of CAD/CAM in Esthetic Restoration of Badly Decayed Tooth

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Hassan Al-Faifi; Haralur, Satheesh B.

    2012-01-01

    Proper, intelligent use of materials and technology should be utilized for the benefit of the patient. This case report presents a patient with a badly broken premolar tooth demanding high esthetic all-ceramic restoration. Following multiple procedure tooth was restored with zirconia all ceramic restoration. Multiple procedures to save a tooth are a really worthy, in the interest of patients. Use of zirconia and CAD-CAM will help in saving many compromised tooth even in high-stress regions. T...

  1. Teachers’ Attitude towards Integration of Computer Assisted Instructions in Teaching and Learning Process in CAD/CAM/CNC Module

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrasool, Salah Mahdi; Mishra, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of teachers’ attitudes, effectiveness of various teaching methods employed as well as teachers’ perceptions of the teaching experience on effectiveness of teaching-learning processes in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing and computer numerical control (CAD/CAM/CNC) module used in vocational education department in Bahrain. Previous studies suggested that a part of the problem in CAD/CAM/CNC subject area is the use of inap...

  2. Possibility of a white dwarf as the accreting compact Star in ci cam (xte j0421+560

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Ishida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque CI Cam, la cual present o una explosi on en abril de 1998, ha sido considerada como una fuente transitoria de rayos X suaves (SXT que alberga un agujero negro, posee a la vez ciertas caracter sticas que dif cilmente pueden hacerla encajar dentro del grupo de SXT. En este art culo proponemos una enana blanca como la estrella central acreciente en CI Cam.

  3. Comparison of the marginal gap of zirconia-fabricated copings generated by CAD/CAM and Copy-Milling methods

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolhamid Alhavaz; Ladan Jamshidy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study was conducted to compare the marginal fit of single-tooth zirconia-based copings fabricated by CAD/CAM process (Cercon; Degudent) and Copy Milling (Dentium). Materials and Methods: One in vitro prepared abutment from one mandibular molar model served as a template for replication of 40 epoxy resin (highly filled) dies, which had been taken by polyvinyl siloxane impression material. Copings were manufactured on epoxy replicas by two processes: the CAD/CAM (Cercon; Degu...

  4. Gender differences in autobiographical memory for everyday events: Retrieval elicited by SenseCam Images vs. Verbal Cues

    OpenAIRE

    St Jacques, Peggy L; Conway, Martin A; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences are frequently observed in autobiographical memory (AM). Few studies, however, have investigated the neural basis of potential gender differences in AM. In the present functional MRI (fMRI) study we investigated gender differences in AMs elicited using dynamic visual images vs. verbal cues. We used a novel technology called a SenseCam, a wearable device that automatically takes thousands of photographs. SenseCam differs considerably from other prospective methods of generat...

  5. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity-a comparison between binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and RetCam 120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Parag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the photographic screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP using RetCam 120 with binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO, which is the current gold standard. Setting and Design: Prospective, comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 RetCam examinations were performed on 27 premature babies. They were stored in a separate file after deleting the identifying information. At the same visit using the BIO with scleral depression, an experienced vitreoretinal surgeon evaluated the fundus in detail. A masked examiner then evaluated the RetCam photographs for presence or absence of ROP, the stage and zone of the disease, and the presence or absence of plus disease. These data were then compared with the BIO findings to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values of the method. Results: ROP was detected in 63 of 87 examinations by BIO and in 56 of 87 RetCam examinations. Nine RetCam examinations were false-negative and two were false-positive. Sensitivity of RetCam was 85.71% (54/63 and specificity was 91.66% (22/24. The positive and negative predictive values were 96.43% and 70.97% respectively. Conclusion: Nine cases having ROP were missed by the RetCam. All these cases were either in zone 3 or the outer part of zone 2, which later regressed. These were missed mostly because of the restricted mobility of the camera head caused by its size and the barrier caused by the lid speculum arms. No case of threshold ROP was missed. RetCam may replace BIO for screening of ROP.

  6. Effect of glycine pretreatment on the shear bond strength of a CAD/CAM resin nano ceramic material to dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Ceci, Matteo; Pigozzo, Marco; Scribante, Andrea; Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of glycine pretreatment on the shear bond strength between dentin and a CAD/CAM resin nano ceramic material (LavaTM Ultimate Restorative), bonded together with adhesive cements using three different luting protocols (total-etch; self-etch; self-adhesive). Material and Methods Thirty cylinders were milled from resin nano ceramic blocks with CAD/CAM technology. The cylinders were subsequently cemented to the exposed dentin of 30 bo...

  7. Effect of glycine pretreatment on the shear bond strength of a CAD/CAM resin nano ceramic material to dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Ceci, Matteo; Pigozzo, Marco; Scribante, Andrea; Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of glycine pretreatment on the shear bond strength between dentin and a CAD/CAM resin nano ceramic material (LavaTM Ultimate Restorative), bonded together with adhesive cements using three different luting protocols (total-etch; self-etch; self-adhesive). Material and Methods: Thirty cylinders were milled from resin nano ceramic blocks with CAD/CAM technology. The cylinders were subsequently cemented...

  8. Remote Geochemical and Mineralogical Analysis with SuperCam on the Mars 2020 Rover and on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S. M.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Sharma, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Rull, F.; Johnson, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The SuperCam instrument selected for the Mars 2020 rover is the integration of remote Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Raman spectroscopy, Time-Resolved Fluorescence, Visible and Infrared (VISIR) Reflectance Spectroscopy, and a color Remote Micro-Imager (RMI). The SuperCam instrument is based on the ChemCam architecture that includes a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser and telescope in the mast and a suite of three spectrometers in the body connected by an optical fiber. The telescope on the mast will be used to focus the 1064 nm laser and generate a LIBS plasma from which the elemental composition will be determined up to a 7 m standoff distance. Some of the 1064 nm laser will be directed through a doubling crystal to produce 532 nm light for Raman mineralogical analysis out to 12 m from the mast. The ChemCam visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectrometer will be replaced with a transmission spectrometer and intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) that is designed to maximize the Raman mineralogical sensitivity. This transmission spectrometer and ICCD was also designed to collect time-resolved fluorescence spectra that can distinguish short lived organic fluorescence from long lived inorganic signatures. The SuperCam instrument also includes a Visible and Infrared (VISIR) Reflectance Spectrometer (400 - 900 nm, 1.3 - 2.6 µm) designed to remotely detect minerals. Finally, the ChemCam black and white RMI that is integrated into the telescope will be replaced with a color RMI with the same spatial resolution to provide context images of the samples probed with the SuperCam spectrometers. In this paper, some of the geochemical and mineralogical laboratory tests will be presented to highlight the SuperCam capabilities under both terrestrial and Mars conditions.

  9. Study on Approach for Computer-Aided Design and Machining of General Cylindrical Cam Using Relative Velocity and Inverse Kinematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Se-Hwan; Park; Byong-Kook; Gu; Joong-Ho; Shin; Geun-Jong; Yoo

    2002-01-01

    Cylindrical Cam Mechanism which is one of the best eq uipments to accomplish an accurate motion transmission is widely used in the fie lds of industries, such as machine tool exchangers, textile machinery and automa tic transfer equipments. This paper proposes a new approach for the shape design and manufacturing of the cylindrical cam. The design approach uses the relative velocity concept and the manufacturing approach uses the inverse kinematics concept. For the shape desig n, the contact points betw...

  10. Evaluation of marginal fit and internal adaptation of zirconia copings fabricated by two CAD - CAM systems: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Balaji N; Jayaraman, Srinivasan; Kandhasamy, Baburajan; Rajakumaran, Ilangkumaran

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Three main factors which determine the success of an All-ceramic restoration are esthetic value, resistance to fracture and third being the marginal fit. Marginal fit and internal adaptation are crucial factors in increasing the longevity of the restoration. Newer and economical CAD CAM systems have been introduced claiming better marginal fit and adaptation of All ceramic crowns. CAD CAM systems involves scanning of the die or the tooth preparation and milling of the re...

  11. Forced orthodontic extrusion and use of CAD/CAM for reconstruction of grossly destructed crown: A multidisciplinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Kumar; Suvarna Patil

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a report of a case where forced orthodontic extrusion and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique was used for reconstruction of right maxillary central incisor with grossly destructed crown. Aesthetic rehabilitation of a fractured maxillary right central incisor was performed employing a multidisciplinary approach i.e. conventional endodontic treatment followed by orthodontic extrusion and final restoration using CAD-CAM ...

  12. Flexural strength and microstructure of two lithium disilicate glass ceramics for CAD/CAM restoration in the dental clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Suk-Ho; Chang, Juhea; Son, Ho-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives There has been a growing interest in glass ceramic systems with good esthetics, high fracture resistance and bonding durability, and simplified fabrication techniques using CAD/CAM. The aim of this study is to compare flexural strength before and after heat treatment of two lithium disilicate CAD/CAM blocks, IPS e.max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) and Rosetta SM (Hass), and to observe their crystalline structures. Materials and Methods Biaxial flexural strength was tested according to ISO...

  13. Usability of Calibrating Monitor for Soft Proof According to cie cam02 Colour Appearance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Tomić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Colour appearance models describe viewing conditions and enable simulating appearance of colours under different illuminants and illumination levels according to human perception. Since it is possible to predict how colour would look like when different illuminants are used, colour appearance models are incorporated in some monitor profiling software. Owing to these software, tone reproduction curve can be defined by taking into consideration viewing condition in which display is observed. In this work assessment of cie cam02 colour appearance model usage at calibrating lcd monitor for soft proof was tested in order to determine which tone reproduction curve enables better reproduction of colour. Luminance level was kept constant, whereas tone reproduction curves determined by gamma values and by parameters of cie cam02 model were varied. Testing was conducted in case where physical print reference is observed under illuminant which has colour temperature according to iso standard for soft-proofing (d50 and also for illuminants d65. Based on the results of calibrations assessment, subjective and objective assessment of created profiles, as well as on the perceptual test carried out on human observers, differences in image display were defined and conclusions of the adequacy of cam02 usage at monitor calibration for each of the viewing conditions reached.

  14. Relationship Between Ca2+-CaM and Ethylene-Induced PG Activity in Tomato Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Cai-qin; XI Yu-fang; GUAN Jun-feng; LI Guang-min

    2003-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG) was studied during ripening and senescence of postharvest tomatofruit at pink stage at low and normal temperature. The results showed that the PG activity increased, thendecreased during ripening and senescence of tomato. Low temperature inhibited but ethylene enhanced PGactivity. Ethylene also enhanced caimodulin content, which was dependent on Ca2+ concentration in cell.When EGTA(Ca2+ chelator), verapamil (Vp) and LaCl3 (Ca2+ channel blockers), trifluoperazine and chloro-promaize (two CaM antagonisms) were used to treat tomato fruit at green mature stage with ethylene, theycould reverse ethylene-induced increase in PG activity, but Vp, chloropromaize (CPZ), trifluoperazine(TFP) could not directly influence PG activity, which indirectly indicated that influx of Ca2+ from the ex-tracellular space including the cell wall via the Ca2+ channel localized in plasma membrane and CaM were re-quired for ethylene-induced PG activity increase and that ethylene signal transduction may be related to Ca2+- CaM messenger system.

  15. Development of collateral vessels: A new paradigm in CAM angiogenesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatne, Dipti P; Mungekar, Snehal; Addepalli, Veeranjaneyulu; Mohanraj, Krishnapriya; Ghone, Sanjeevani A; Rege, Nirmala N

    2016-01-01

    The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is one of the most widely used models to study angiogenesis. In this study, collateral vessel development is reported in CAM assay useful in analysis of angiogenesis. Four days old white Leghorn fertilized chicken eggs were inoculated with vehicle, standard or test angiogenesis inhibitor using standard protocol. Central vessel growth was seen tapering down and collateral vessels were developed from the lower side of the chorioallantoic membrane moving upward in 12 days old standard or test treated CAMs. In the absence of the central vessel, collateral blood supply helped in survival of embryos. Hence, development of collateral vessels was used for ranking of blood vessels and angiogenesis in addition to well-known standard parameters related to central vessel. The finding could differentiate molecules inhibiting angiogenesis with or without collateralization which is crucial in anti-angiogenic therapy used for cardiovascular diseases and cancer. This study proposes a new avenue to distinguish pro-angiogenic molecules from anti-angiogenic ones as well as anti-angiogenic molecules which may or may not support alternative vascularization pathway that would have great impact on future angiogenic and anti-angiogenic therapy. PMID:26390964

  16. Photounbinding of calmodulin from a family of CaM binding peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus G Neumüller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that fluorescently labeled antibodies can be dissociated from their antigen by illumination with laser light. The mechanism responsible for the photounbinding effect, however, remains elusive. Here, we give important insights into the mechanism of photounbinding and show that the effect is not restricted to antibody/antigen binding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present studies of the photounbinding of labeled calmodulin (CaM from a set of CaM-binding peptides with different affinities to CaM after one- and two-photon excitation. We found that the photounbinding effect becomes stronger with increasing binding affinity. Our observation that photounbinding can be influenced by using free radical scavengers, that it does not occur with either unlabeled protein or non-fluorescent quencher dyes, and that it becomes evident shortly after or with photobleaching suggest that photounbinding and photobleaching are closely linked. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The experimental results exclude surface effects, or heating by laser irradiation as potential causes of photounbinding. Our data suggest that free radicals formed through photobleaching may cause a conformational change of the CaM which lowers their binding affinity with the peptide or its respective binding partner.

  17. Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare/BugCam: An aid for research and teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, S.W.; Olney, M.; Covington, J.M.; Egerton, V.M.; Jiang, S.; Ramdeen, D.K.; ,; Schrader, H.; Sims, P.A.; Wood, A.S.; Davis, A.; Davenport, D.R.; Doepler, N.; Falcon, W.; Lopez, C.; Pressley, T.; Swedberg, O.L.; Harwood, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare/BugCam© is an interactive, icon-driven digital-image database/software package that displays over 500 illustrated Cenozoic Antarctic diatom taxa along with original descriptions (including over 100 generic and 20 family-group descriptions). This digital catalog is designed primarily for use by micropaleontologists working in the field (at sea or on the Antarctic continent) where hard-copy literature resources are limited. This new package will also be useful for classroom/lab teaching as well as for any paleontologists making or refining taxonomic identifications at the microscope. The database (Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare) is displayed via a custom software program (BugCam) written in Visual Basic for use on PCs running Windows 95 or later operating systems. BugCam is a flexible image display program that utilizes an intuitive thumbnail “tree” structure for navigation through the database. The data are stored on Micrsosoft EXCEL spread sheets, hence no separate relational database program is necessary to run the package

  18. Integration of solid modeling and database management for CAD/CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.C.

    1984-01-01

    Focusing on geometric completeness and data independence respectively, solid modeling and database management could be bridged together so as to provide a CAD/CAM environment with a unified geometric database for multiple application uses. The proposed approach is based on the CSG (Constructive Solid Geometry) scheme for solid modeling and the generic relational model for database management, primarily for the purpose of data conciseness while obeying a rigorous database design discipline. To facilitate data scheme definition, a systematic procedure was devised to convert a set of grammar rules into a generic scheme. A relational query language, SEQUEL, was modified to define, control, and manipulate the flat relations that represent the highly structural generic relational model. To further justify the usefulness of the proposed geometric database management system as well as its supporting query language, two application issues, namely, a solid modeler for CAD and a preprocessor for CAM, were also investigated. The solid modeler implemented not only acts as an application to be interfaced by the query language but also serves as a tool to visually verify the geometric data. Research efforts on CAM issues have also resulted in an algorithm capable of extracting and unifying certain manufacturing features that are embedded in CSG trees.

  19. CAD/CAM interface design of excimer laser micro-processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Liang; Chen, Tao; Zuo, Tiechuan

    2005-12-01

    Recently CAD/CAM technology has been gradually used in the field of laser processing. The excimer laser micro-processing system just identified G instruction before CAD/CAM interface was designed. However the course of designing a part with G instruction for users is too hard. The efficiency is low and probability of making errors is high. By secondary development technology of AutoCAD with Visual Basic, an application was developed to pick-up each entity's information in graph and convert them to each entity's processing parameters. Also an additional function was added into former controlling software to identify these processing parameters of each entity and realize continue processing of graphic. Based on the above CAD/CAM interface, Users can design a part in AutoCAD instead of using G instruction. The period of designing a part is sharply shortened. This new way of design greatly guarantees the processing parameters of the part is right and exclusive. The processing of complex novel bio-chip has been realized by this new function.

  20. Stochastic convective parameterization improving the simulation of tropical precipitation variability in the NCAR CAM5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhang, Guang J.; Craig, George C.

    2016-06-01

    The Plant-Craig (PC) stochastic convective parameterization scheme is implemented into the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) to couple with the Zhang-McFarlane deterministic convection scheme. To evaluate its impact on tropical precipitation simulation, two experiments are conducted: one with the standard CAM5 and the other with the stochastic scheme incorporated. Results show that the PC stochastic parameterization decreases the frequency of weak precipitation and increases the frequency of strong precipitation, resulting in better agreement with observations. The most striking improvement is in the probability distribution function (PDF) of precipitation intensity, with the well-known too-much-drizzle problem in CAM5 largely eliminated. In the global tropical belt, the precipitation intensity PDF from the simulation agrees remarkably well with that of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission observations. The stochastic scheme also yields a similar magnitude of intraseasonal variability of precipitation to observations and improves the simulation of the eastward propagating intraseasonal signals of precipitation and zonal wind.