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Sample records for cam bromeliad aechmea

  1. Differential usage of storage carbohydrates in the CAM bromeliad Aechmea 'Maya' during acclimation to drought and recovery from dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceusters, Johan; Borland, Anne M; Londers, Elsje; Verdoodt, Veerle; Godts, Christof; De Proft, Maurice P

    2009-02-01

    CAM requires a substantial investment of resources into storage carbohydrates to account for nocturnal CO(2) uptake, thereby restricting carbohydrate partitioning to other metabolic activities, including dark respiration, growth and acclimation to abiotic stress. Flexible modulation of carbon flow to the different competing sinks under changing environmental conditions is considered a key determinant for the growth, productivity and ecological success of the CAM pathway. The aim of the present study was to examine how shifts in carbohydrate partitioning could assure maintenance of photosynthetic integrity and a positive carbon balance under conditions of increasing water deprivation in CAM species. Measurements of gas exchange, leaf water relations, malate, starch and soluble sugar (glucose, fructose and sucrose) contents were made in leaves of the CAM bromeliad Aechmea 'Maya' over a 6-month period of drought and subsequently over a 2-month period of recovery from drought. Results indicated that short-term influences of water stress were minimized by elevating the level of respiratory recycling, and carbohydrate pools were maintained at the expense of export for growth while providing a comparable nocturnal carbon gain to that in well-watered control plants. Longer term drought resulted in a disproportionate depletion of key carbohydrate reserves. Sucrose, which was of minor importance for providing substrate for the dark reactions under well-watered conditions, became the major source of carbohydrate for nocturnal carboxylation as drought progressed. Flexibility in terms of the major carbohydrate source used to sustain dark CO(2) uptake is therefore considered a crucial factor in meeting the carbon and energy demands under limiting environmental conditions. Recovery from CAM-idling was found to be dependent on the restoration of the starch pool, which was used predominantly for provision of substrate for nocturnal carboxylation, while net carbon export was limited

  2. Seasonal influences on carbohydrate metabolism in the CAM bromeliad Aechmea ‘Maya’: consequences for carbohydrate partitioning and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceusters, Johan; Borland, Anne M.; Ceusters, Nathalie; Verdoodt, Veerle; Godts, Christof; De Proft, Maurice P.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Photosynthetic plasticity in response to a range of environmental factors that include [CO2], water availability, light intensity and temperature, is ubiquitous among plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). The present study examined how seasonal changes in light availability, as experienced by greenhouse CAM crops in northern latitude regions, influence diel carboxylation patterns and impact on carbon gain and seasonal accumulation of biomass. Methods In the CAM bromeliad Aechmea ‘Maya’ integrated measurements of leaf gas exchange, diel metabolite dynamics (e.g. malate, soluble sugars and starch) and biomass accumulation were made four times a year, i.e. in winter, spring, summer and autumn. Key Results During the brighter seasons (spring and summer) daytime Phases II and IV were dominated by C4 carboxylation, whilst the higher diurnal uptake in the autumn and winter was characterized by equal contributions of both Rubisco and PEPC. As a consequence, net CO2 uptake showed a significant depression at the end of the day in the darker months when supplementary illumination was turned off. Remarkable seasonal consistency was found in the amount of storage reserves available for nocturnal carboxylation, a consequence of predominantly daytime export of carbohydrate in spring and summer whilst nocturnal export was the major sink for carbohydrate in autumn and winter. Conclusions Throughout the different seasons Aechmea ‘Maya’ showed considerable plasticity in the timing and magnitude of C3 and C4 carboxylation processes over the diel cycle. Under low PPFD (i.e. winter and autumn) it appears that there was a constraint on the amount of carbohydrate exported during the day in order to maintain a consistent pool of transient carbohydrate reserves. This gave remarkable seasonal consistency in the amount of storage reserves available at night, thereby optimizing biomass gain throughout the year. The data have important practical

  3. Diel Shifts in Carboxylation Pathway and Metabolite Dynamics in the CAM Bromeliad Aechmea ‘Maya’ in Response to Elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceusters, J.; Borland, A. M.; Londers, E.; Verdoodt, V.; Godts, C.; De Proft, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The deployment of temporally separated carboxylation pathways for net CO2 uptake in CAM plants provides plasticity and thus uncertainty on how species with this photosynthetic pathway will respond to life in a higher-CO2 world. The present study examined how long-term exposure to elevated CO2 influences the relative contributions that C3 and C4 carboxylation make to net carbon gain and to establish how this impacts on the availability of carbohydrates for export and growth and on water use efficiency over the day/night cycle. Methods Integrated measurements of leaf gas exchange and diel metabolite dynamics (e.g. malate, soluble sugars, starch) were made in leaves of the CAM bromeliad Aechmea ‘Maya’ after exposure to 700 µmol mol−1 CO2 for 5 months. Key Results There was a 60 % increase in 24-h carbon gain under elevated CO2 due to a stimulation of daytime C3 and C4 carboxylation in phases II and IV where water use efficiency was comparable with that measured at night. The extra CO2 taken up under elevated CO2 was largely accumulated as hexose sugars during phase IV and net daytime export of carbohydrate was abolished. Under elevated CO2 there was no stimulation of dark carboxylation and nocturnal export and respiration appeared to be the stronger sinks for carbohydrate. Conclusions Despite the increased size of the soluble sugar storage pool under elevated CO2, there was no change in the net allocation of carbohydrates between provision of substrates for CAM and export/respiration in A. ‘Maya’. The data imply the existence of discrete pools of carbohydrate that provide substrate for CAM or sugars for export/respiration. The 2-fold increase in water-use efficiency could be a major physiological advantage to growth under elevated CO2 in this CAM bromeliad. PMID:18593689

  4. Micropropagation of the ornamental vulnerable bromeliads Aechmea blanchetiana and Aechmea distichantha Micropropagação das bromélias ornamentais vulneráveis Aechmea blanchetiana e Aechmea distichantha

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Santa-Rosa; Fernanda VD Souza; Ádila M Vidal; Carlos Alberto da S Ledo; José RF de Santana

    2013-01-01

    Aechmea blanchetiana and Aechmea distichantha are Brazilian native bromeliads with great ornamental value, although none of the species are produced commercially. Therefore, market demands are met through nature predatory exploitation. This study intended to (1) evaluate the in vitro seed germination of A. blanchetiana and A. distichantha and (2) establish micropropagation protocols for both species, aiming at producing plantlets for the market, as well as to germplasm in vitro conservation. ...

  5. Plasticity of CAM in Aechmea: possibilities and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Ceusters, Johan

    2008-01-01

    De opwarming van de aarde en het gerelateerde gevaar van een toenemende verwoestijning van semi-aride regio’s in de wereld zullen ongetwijfeld het ecologisch en agronomisch belang van CAM soorten in de toekomst doen toenemen. Een beter begrip van de unieke, flexibele relatie tussen deze groep van planten en hun omgeving is dan ook van essentieel belang. Om hieraan tegemoet te komen werden in deze studie de mogelijkheden en beperkingen van de fotosynthetische flexibiliteit in Aechmea, een typi...

  6. Leaf Damage in CAM bromeliads: a Hydrophysiological Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Londers, Elsje

    2006-01-01

    Bladschade in CAM-bromelia's: een hydrofysiologische studie Het voorkomen van necrotische vlekken op de bladeren van Aechmea planten is een vaak voorkomend probleem in de bromeliateelt. Bladvlekken situer en zich voornamelijk op de bladbocht met uitlopers naar de bladtop. Deze vorm van bladschade doet zich voor in verschillende stadia van de brome lia productieketen; zowel onder serrecondities als tijdens verpakking en transport. Het aantal Aechmea kwekers neemt hierdoor gestaag af, w at onve...

  7. Bimodal pollination system of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis involving hummingbirds and bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, S; Schmid, V S; Zillikens, A; Harter-Marques, B; Steiner, J

    2011-01-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of birds and insects as pollinators, we studied the floral biology of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Grisebach in the biome of the Atlantic rain forest, southern Brazil. On Santa Catarina Island, flowering extends from mid-September to the end of December, with diurnal anthesis. The reproductive system is obligatory xenogamy, thus pollinator-dependent. Flowers secrete 31.84 μl of nectar per day, with a mean sugar concentration of 23.2%. Highest nectar volume and sugar concentration occur at the beginning of anthesis. Most floral traits are characteristic for ornithophily, and nectar production appears to be adapted to the energy demand of hummingbirds. Continued secretion of the sucrose-dominated nectar attracts and binds visitors to inflorescences, strengthening trapline foraging behaviour. Experiments assessing seed set after single flower visits were performed with the most frequent visitors, revealing the hummingbird Thalurania glaucopis as the most effective pollen vector. In addition, bees are also functional pollinators, as substantiated by their high visitation frequency. We conclude that this pollination system is bimodal. Thus, there is redundancy in the pollination service provided by birds and bees, granting a high probability of successful reproduction in Ae. nudicaulis. PMID:21134086

  8. Micropropagation of the ornamental vulnerable bromeliads Aechmea blanchetiana and Aechmea distichantha Micropropagação das bromélias ornamentais vulneráveis Aechmea blanchetiana e Aechmea distichantha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Santa-Rosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aechmea blanchetiana and Aechmea distichantha are Brazilian native bromeliads with great ornamental value, although none of the species are produced commercially. Therefore, market demands are met through nature predatory exploitation. This study intended to (1 evaluate the in vitro seed germination of A. blanchetiana and A. distichantha and (2 establish micropropagation protocols for both species, aiming at producing plantlets for the market, as well as to germplasm in vitro conservation. Germination experiments were carried out in completely randomized designs with two treatments (presence and absence of light and seven and eight replications respectively for A. blanchetiana and A. distichantha. In vitro seedlings, produced under light conditions, were used as explants in the multiplication experiment (MS medium. The experimental design was again completely randomized, with treatments in factorial 2 (NAA concentrations; 0.05 and 0.5 μM x 2 (cytokines: BAP and KIN x 2 (cytokine levels: 2.2 and 4.4 μM + 1 (control with basal MS, without growth regulators, with ten replications per treatment. We evaluated fungal and bacterial contamination, total and cumulative seed germination and number of shoots per treatment in each subculture. We observed only fungal contamination and only in A. blanchetiana (14.0%. Light favored in vitro seed germination in both species (99 and 62% respectively for A. blanchetiana and A. distichantha. MS medium + 0.5 μM NAA + 2.2 μM BAP resulted in the highest multiplication rate for both species, with significant contrasts between this treatment and the control in both species (105.62 more shoots in A. blanchetiana; 223.80 in A. distichantha. BAP promoted the formation of rootless shoots, while kinetin favored the formation of roots rather than shoots. A. blanchetiana and A. distichantha showed 90 and 97% of survival respectively in plantlet acclimatization.Aechmea blanchetiana e Aechmea distichantha são brom

  9. Physiological characteristics of the Atlantic Forest native bromeliads: Nidularium campo-alegrense Leme and Aechmea ornata Baker - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v36i1.20215

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Paola Corredor Prado; Diana Marcela Morales Londonõ; Vivian Almeida; Gustavo Brunetto; Rosete Pescador

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological importance of bromeliads, the basic knowledge about the physiological aspects in some species is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to physiologically characterize the species Nidularium campo-alegrense Leme and Aechmea ornata Baker to contribute to a better understanding of their metabolic processes. From mature leaves of bromeliads N. campo-alegrense and A. ornata held at the Agricultural Sciences Center of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, it was qu...

  10. Oil road effects on the anuran community of a high canopy tank bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina) in the upper Amazon basin, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Shawn F; Forstner, Michael R J

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forest canopies are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats on earth and one of the remaining relatively unexplored biotic frontiers. Epiphytic bromeliads provide microhabitat for a high diversity of organisms in tropical forest canopies and are considered a keystone resource. A number of amphibians inhabit these phytotelmata, yet their ecological role and status in forest canopies remains unknown. For this study, anurans were collected from an upper canopy tank bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina) at ∼20-45 m (x¯ = 33 m) above the forest floor. Bromeliads were sampled from trees located near trails in undisturbed primary rainforest and oil access roads in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of Amazonian Ecuador. We collected 95 anurans representing 10 species from 160 bromeliads in 32 trees. We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the effects of disturbance and habitat factors on the occupancy and abundance of anurans collected. Bromeliads in forest along oil roads had a lower occupancy and abundance of anurans than those in undisturbed forest, a somewhat unexpected result due to the intactness and quality of forest adjacent to the roads. Recorded habitat variables had no relationship with occupancy or abundance of anurans, and did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings reveal that even the minimal footprint of natural resource extraction operations, primarily roads, in rainforest environments can have significant negative impacts on the unique upper canopy anuran community. Based on these results, we recommend that natural resource development treat rainforest habitat as an offshore system where roads are not used, employ industry best practice guidelines, and current access roads be protected from colonization and further deforestation. PMID:24416414

  11. Oil road effects on the anuran community of a high canopy tank bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina in the upper Amazon basin, Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn F McCracken

    Full Text Available Tropical forest canopies are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats on earth and one of the remaining relatively unexplored biotic frontiers. Epiphytic bromeliads provide microhabitat for a high diversity of organisms in tropical forest canopies and are considered a keystone resource. A number of amphibians inhabit these phytotelmata, yet their ecological role and status in forest canopies remains unknown. For this study, anurans were collected from an upper canopy tank bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina at ∼20-45 m (x¯ = 33 m above the forest floor. Bromeliads were sampled from trees located near trails in undisturbed primary rainforest and oil access roads in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of Amazonian Ecuador. We collected 95 anurans representing 10 species from 160 bromeliads in 32 trees. We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the effects of disturbance and habitat factors on the occupancy and abundance of anurans collected. Bromeliads in forest along oil roads had a lower occupancy and abundance of anurans than those in undisturbed forest, a somewhat unexpected result due to the intactness and quality of forest adjacent to the roads. Recorded habitat variables had no relationship with occupancy or abundance of anurans, and did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings reveal that even the minimal footprint of natural resource extraction operations, primarily roads, in rainforest environments can have significant negative impacts on the unique upper canopy anuran community. Based on these results, we recommend that natural resource development treat rainforest habitat as an offshore system where roads are not used, employ industry best practice guidelines, and current access roads be protected from colonization and further deforestation.

  12. 76 FR 13890 - Importation of Bromeliad Plants in Growing Media From Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Aechmea, Cryptanthus, Guzmania, Hohenbergia, Neoregelia, Tillandsia, and Vriesea from Belgium, Denmark... established in growing media. Currently, Bromeliad plants of the genera Aechmea, Cryptanthus, Guzmania... INFORMATION CONTACT. In the pest risk analysis, titled ``Importation of Aechmea, Cryptanthus,...

  13. Aechmea pectinata: a Hummingbird‐dependent Bromeliad with Inconspicuous Flowers from the Rainforest in South‐eastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    CANELA, MARIA BERNADETE FERREIRA; SAZIMA, MARLIES

    2003-01-01

    The pollination biology of Aechmea pectinata (Bromeliaceae) was studied in a submontane rainforest in south‐eastern Brazil. This species has a mainly clumped distribution and its aggregated individuals are likely to be clones. From October to January, during the flowering period, the distal third of its leaves becomes red. The inflorescence produces 1–15 flowers per day over a period of 20–25 d. The flowers are inconspicuous, greenish‐white coloured, tubular shaped with a narrow opening, and ...

  14. Aechmea pectinata: a hummingbird-dependent bromeliad with inconspicuous flowers from the rainforest in south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Maria Bernadete Ferreira; Sazima, Marlies

    2003-11-01

    The pollination biology of Aechmea pectinata (Bromeliaceae) was studied in a submontane rainforest in south-eastern Brazil. This species has a mainly clumped distribution and its aggregated individuals are likely to be clones. From October to January, during the flowering period, the distal third of its leaves becomes red. The inflorescence produces 1-15 flowers per day over a period of 20-25 d. The flowers are inconspicuous, greenish-white coloured, tubular shaped with a narrow opening, and the stigma is situated just above the anthers. Anthesis begins at 0400 h and flowers last for about 13 h. The highest nectar volume and sugar concentration occur between 0600 and 1000 h, and decrease throughout the day. Aechmea pectinata is self-incompatible and therefore pollinator-dependent. Hummingbirds are its main pollinators (about 90 % of the visits), visiting flowers mainly in the morning. There is a positive correlation between the number of hummingbird visits per inflorescence and the production of nectar, suggesting that the availability of this resource is important in attracting and maintaining visitors. The arrangement of the floral structures favours pollen deposition on the bill of the hummingbirds. Flowers in clumps promote hummingbird territoriality, and a consequence is self-pollination in a broader sense (geitonogamy) as individuals in assemblages are genetically close. However, trap-lining and intruding hummingbirds promote cross-pollination. These observations suggest that successful fruit set of A. pectinata depends on both the spatial distribution of its individuals and the interactions among hummingbirds. PMID:14573525

  15. Aechmea pectinata: a Hummingbird‐dependent Bromeliad with Inconspicuous Flowers from the Rainforest in South‐eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    CANELA, MARIA BERNADETE FERREIRA; SAZIMA, MARLIES

    2003-01-01

    The pollination biology of Aechmea pectinata (Bromeliaceae) was studied in a submontane rainforest in south‐eastern Brazil. This species has a mainly clumped distribution and its aggregated individuals are likely to be clones. From October to January, during the flowering period, the distal third of its leaves becomes red. The inflorescence produces 1–15 flowers per day over a period of 20–25 d. The flowers are inconspicuous, greenish‐white coloured, tubular shaped with a narrow opening, and the stigma is situated just above the anthers. Anthesis begins at 0400 h and flowers last for about 13 h. The highest nectar volume and sugar concentration occur between 0600 and 1000 h, and decrease throughout the day. Aechmea pectinata is self‐incompatible and therefore pollinator‐dependent. Hummingbirds are its main pollinators (about 90 % of the visits), visiting flowers mainly in the morning. There is a positive correlation between the number of hummingbird visits per inflorescence and the production of nectar, suggesting that the availability of this resource is important in attracting and maintaining visitors. The arrangement of the floral structures favours pollen deposition on the bill of the hummingbirds. Flowers in clumps promote hummingbird territoriality, and a consequence is self‐pollination in a broader sense (geitonogamy) as individuals in assemblages are genetically close. However, trap‐lining and intruding hummingbirds promote cross‐pollination. These observations suggest that successful fruit set of A. pectinata depends on both the spatial distribution of its individuals and the interactions among hummingbirds. PMID:14573525

  16. Physiological characteristics of the Atlantic Forest native bromeliads: Nidularium campo-alegrense Leme and Aechmea ornata Baker - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v36i1.20215

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Paola Corredor Prado

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ecological importance of bromeliads, the basic knowledge about the physiological aspects in some species is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to physiologically characterize the species Nidularium campo-alegrense Leme and Aechmea ornata Baker to contribute to a better understanding of their metabolic processes. From mature leaves of bromeliads N. campo-alegrense and A. ornata held at the Agricultural Sciences Center of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, it was quantified photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrates and starch, and determined stomata and trichome density. The chlorophyll and carotenoids content did not differ significantly between species. However, the total carbohydrates content of A. ornata (3.2 mg g-1 FM was significantly higher than N. campo-alegrense, but with similar starch content (1.7 mg g-1 FM. Both species present hypostomatic leaves, with more trichomes in the species A. ornata. This information provides the groundwork for future studies on the biochemical mechanisms related to their photosynthetic process, contributing in establishing strategies for the conservation and propagation of these species.

  17. Physical variables influencing macro-invertebrate assemblages in epiphytic bromeliads in the rain forest of Belize

    OpenAIRE

    Urrutia, Jose Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Epiphytic bromeliads from the genus Aechmea are found on many different tree species in the tropics. These bromeliads have evolved water storage tanks where they are able to host many different macro-invertebrate species. The aim of the present study was to assess if six physical variables: i) tree height, ii) tree width, iii) bromeliad weight, iv) bromeliad longest leaf length, v) bromeliad temperature and vi) bromeliad position, have an effect on macro-invertebrate assemblage...

  18. Oil Road Effects on the Anuran Community of a High Canopy Tank Bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina) in the Upper Amazon Basin, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Shawn F. McCracken; Michael R. J. Forstner

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forest canopies are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats on earth and one of the remaining relatively unexplored biotic frontiers. Epiphytic bromeliads provide microhabitat for a high diversity of organisms in tropical forest canopies and are considered a keystone resource. A number of amphibians inhabit these phytotelmata, yet their ecological role and status in forest canopies remains unknown. For this study, anurans were collected from an upper canopy tank bromeliad (A...

  19. In vitro culture systems and acclimatization of Aechmea setigera Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Janaína Medeiros Vasconcelos; João Ricardo Avelino Leão; Andrea Raposo; Paulo Cesar Poeta Fermino Junior

    2015-01-01

    Aechmea setigera is an endemic bromeliad from Amazon with ornamental potential. Bromeliads have been propagated by tissue culture. The consistency of the culture medium in vitro multiplication influences the rate of propagation. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate different culture systems with the use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) on in vitro propagation and the effect of different substrates in acclimatization of plantlets Aechmea setigera. In vitro germinated seedling...

  20. Effects of leaf herbivory on the bromeliad Aechmea blanchetiana: a study of selective feeding by the scraper Acentroptera pulchella Efeito da herbivoria foliar na bromélia Aechmea blanchetiana: estudo sobre o padrão seletivo de forrageamento do inseto raspador Acentroptera pulchella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Magalhães

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The scraper Acentroptera pulchella (Chrysomelidae, Hispinae feeds on the leaves of Aechmea blanchetiana (Bromeliaceae, but not indiscriminately. This insect apparently concentrates its attack on the apical region of the intermediate leaves from the bromeliad tank. To characterise the potential influence of leaf defensive strategies on the intraspecific feeding pattern of A. pulchella on the leaves of the bromeliad A. blanchetiana, we quantified the apparent intraspecific preference of this feeding pattern; compared distinct leaves and portions in relation to morpho-physiological, mechanical, nutritional and chemical anti-herbivore strategies; and investigated whether some or all these defensive strategies help explain the observed feeding pattern. A. pulchella preferentially attacked the mid-upper portions of mature and adult leaves of A. blanchetiana, but not the mid-lower portions of the same leaves, which are more resistant to punch, are thicker and present less nitrogen content than the upper portions. However, soft young leaves were not attacked. Attacked portions also presented higher total phenol content than did non-attacked portions, indicating that phenols do not act defensively. Other morpho-physiological and chemical anti-herbivore strategies evaluated did not differ between portions and leaves. This herbivore feeds preferentially on leaf portions that have higher nitrogen levels, avoiding others that present increased punch resistance. The scraper A. pulchella exhibits a clearly selective feeding pattern that is driven by nutritional benefits rather than strictly mechanical or chemical anti-herbivore strategies.O raspador Acentroptera pulchella (Chrysomelidae, Hispinae foi observado se alimentando de folhas de Aechmea blanchetiana (Bromeliaceae, mas não de forma indiscriminada. Este inseto aparentemente concentra seu ataque na metade superior das folhas intermediárias do tanque da bromélia. A fim de caracterizar a potencial influ

  1. A Tank Bromeliad Favors Spider Presence in a Neotropical Inundated Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Hénaut, Yann; Corbara, Bruno; Pélozuelo, Laurent; Azémar, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis; Herault, Bruno; Dejean, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Tank bromeliads are good models for understanding how climate change may affect biotic associations. We studied the relationships between spiders, the epiphytic tank bromeliad, Aechmea bracteata, and its associated ants in an inundated forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico, during a drought period while, exceptionally, this forest was dry and then during the flooding that followed. We compared spider abundance and diversity between ‘Aechmea-areas’ and ‘control-areas’ of the same surface area. We rec...

  2. A Tank Bromeliad Favors Spider Presence in a Neotropical Inundated Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Yann Hénaut; Bruno Corbara; Laurent Pélozuelo; Frédéric Azémar; Régis Céréghino; Bruno Herault; Alain Dejean

    2014-01-01

    Tank bromeliads are good models for understanding how climate change may affect biotic associations. We studied the relationships between spiders, the epiphytic tank bromeliad, Aechmea bracteata, and its associated ants in an inundated forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico, during a drought period while, exceptionally, this forest was dry and then during the flooding that followed. We compared spider abundance and diversity between 'Aechmea-areas' and 'control-areas' of the same surface area. We rec...

  3. Strategies for the micropropagation of bromeliads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Miguel Pedro; Dal Vesco, Lirio Luiz

    2010-01-01

    Bromeliads are tropical plants that are native to the Americas with a wide distribution in the rain forests, deserts and coastal areas. They are mostly epiphytes and terrestrial, diverse and important from the ecological point of view, they are found in microhabitats in strong interactions with fauna. Most of the ecosystems where they naturally occur are now endangered. Bromeliads are also one of the bases of the ornamental industry worldwide, being commercialized according to the features and colour of the foliage and flowers. This industry relies also on breeding programmes generating new hybrid bromeliads with improved bloom and foliage. Thus, advanced propagation systems based on micropropagation are valuable tools for both bromeliad germplasm conservation and for the mass clonal propagation of a selected genotype. In this chapter, a series of in vitro regenerative protocols for bromeliad mass propagation are described in detail. Emphasis is placed on the Brazilian native species, mainly those from the Atlantic Forest biome. The morphogenetic pathway based on nodule cluster culture is stressed, as (a) it seems to be recurrent in bromeliads, (b) it results in high regenerative rates, and (c) it is easy to handle. Protocols based on somatic embryogenesis and encapsulated units using hydrogel are presented. Finally, the use of temporary immersion systems (TIS) for mass propagation is described in detail for two bromeliads: Aechmea fasciata, and Vriesea brusquensis. PMID:20099090

  4. The choice of bromeliads as a microhabitat by Scinax argyreornatus (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederassi, J; Lima, M S C S; Peixoto, O L; Souza, C A S

    2012-05-01

    The association of anurans to bromeliads presents different degrees of interaction such as: eventual, obligatory and bromeligen. The frog species Scinax argyreornatus shows a regular association with these plants. The goal of this study is to characterise the degree of association between the frog S. argyreornatus to different species of bromeliads. We identified which species of bromeliad is regularly associated with S. argyreornatus and recognised which factors interfere with this association preference. We analysed the Concentration of Relative Dominance of frogs per bromeliad species. As possible criteria for frog association preference to different bromeliads species we established the analysis of leaves number, length and width, number of leaf axils, stored water in the axils, pH and relative humidity, among other organographic components. Our observations were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. We also evaluated the preference for association by the constancy of Bodenheimer. The correlation matrix indicated that the relative humidity is the factor responsible for the frog-bromeliads association, except for Aechmea sp.. However Aechmea sp. was the species with greater constancy of occupation followed by Quesnelia arvensis and Neoregelia johannis. According to our statistical results, Aechmea sp. and Q. arvensis are not different regarding organographic parameters, but differ from N. johannis. Our observations suggest that the bromeliads organographic structure and the relative humidity are key conditions which influence the preferences of S. argyreornatus to bromeliad species, while the other features showed no correlation. PMID:22735128

  5. Potential sources of nitrogen in an ant-garden tank-bromeliad

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Céline; Corbara, Bruno; Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis

    2009-01-01

    Epiphytic plants in general and bromeliads in particular live in a water and nutrient-stressed environment often limited in nitrogen. Thus, these plants have developed different ways to survive in such an environment. We focused on Aechmea mertensii (Bromeliaceae), which is both a tank-bromeliad and an ant-garden (AG) epiphyte initiated by either the ants Camponotus femoratus or Pachycondyla goeldii. By combining a study of plant morphology and physiology associated with aquatic insect biolog...

  6. Reproductive biology and pollination of Aechmea distichantha Lem. (Bromeliaceae) Biologia reprodutiva e polinização em Aechmea distichantha Lem. (Bromeliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson João Scrok; Isabela Galarda Varassin

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive biology, including phenology, flower biology, pollination, and the reproductive system in the bromeliad Aechmea distichantha were studied in an Araucaria forest in the state of Paraná. Phenology and reproduction in terricolous plants were followed in October 2006 and May - October of 2007. Flowering peaked from June to September and fruiting was from June to October. Flower anthesis lasted one day. Flowers were pollinated the most by the hummingbird Stephanoxis lalandi and the mo...

  7. A Tank Bromeliad Favors Spider Presence in a Neotropical Inundated Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénaut, Yann; Corbara, Bruno; Pélozuelo, Laurent; Azémar, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis; Herault, Bruno; Dejean, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Tank bromeliads are good models for understanding how climate change may affect biotic associations. We studied the relationships between spiders, the epiphytic tank bromeliad, Aechmea bracteata, and its associated ants in an inundated forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico, during a drought period while, exceptionally, this forest was dry and then during the flooding that followed. We compared spider abundance and diversity between 'Aechmea-areas' and 'control-areas' of the same surface area. We recorded six spider families: the Dipluridae, Ctenidae, Salticidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae and Linyphiidae among which the funnel-web tarantula, Ischnothele caudata, the only Dipluridae noted, was the most abundant. During the drought period, the spiders were more numerous in the Aechmea-areas than in the control-areas, but they were not obligatorily associated with the Aechmea. During the subsequent flooding, the spiders were concentrated in the A. bracteata patches, particularly those sheltering an ant colony. Also, a kind of specificity existed between certain spider taxa and ant species, but varied between the drought period and subsequent flooding. We conclude that climatic events modulate the relationship between A. bracteata patches and their associated fauna. Tank bromeliads, previously considered only for their ecological importance in supplying food and water during drought, may also be considered refuges for spiders during flooding. More generally, tank bromeliads have an important role in preserving non-specialized fauna in inundated forests. PMID:25494055

  8. A Tank Bromeliad Favors Spider Presence in a Neotropical Inundated Forest.

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    Yann Hénaut

    Full Text Available Tank bromeliads are good models for understanding how climate change may affect biotic associations. We studied the relationships between spiders, the epiphytic tank bromeliad, Aechmea bracteata, and its associated ants in an inundated forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico, during a drought period while, exceptionally, this forest was dry and then during the flooding that followed. We compared spider abundance and diversity between 'Aechmea-areas' and 'control-areas' of the same surface area. We recorded six spider families: the Dipluridae, Ctenidae, Salticidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae and Linyphiidae among which the funnel-web tarantula, Ischnothele caudata, the only Dipluridae noted, was the most abundant. During the drought period, the spiders were more numerous in the Aechmea-areas than in the control-areas, but they were not obligatorily associated with the Aechmea. During the subsequent flooding, the spiders were concentrated in the A. bracteata patches, particularly those sheltering an ant colony. Also, a kind of specificity existed between certain spider taxa and ant species, but varied between the drought period and subsequent flooding. We conclude that climatic events modulate the relationship between A. bracteata patches and their associated fauna. Tank bromeliads, previously considered only for their ecological importance in supplying food and water during drought, may also be considered refuges for spiders during flooding. More generally, tank bromeliads have an important role in preserving non-specialized fauna in inundated forests.

  9. Micropropagation and in vitro conservation of Neoglaziovia variegata (Arr. Cam. mez, a fiber producing bromeliad from Brazil

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    Daniela Garcia Silveira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Neoglaziovia variegata (Arr. Cam. Mez is a Bromeliaceae native to the Caatinga, used for fiber extraction in the Northeast Region of Brazil. The antropic activity has place this species among the threatened ones. The objective of the work was to establish an in vitro propagation and conservation of caroá. Seeds were cultivated in MS medium in the presence or absence of light. In vitro germinated seedlings were multiplied in MS medium supplemented with the combinations 0.05 and 0.50 µM NAA and 2.2 and 4.4 µM BAP and KIN. The best percentages of germination were obtained with the seeds incubated in the presence of light. The highest multiplication ratio was obtained for the NAA (0,5 µM + BAP (4,4 µM treatment and the number of roots, with NAA (0.5 µM + KIN (2.2 µM. Plant acclimatization presented differentiated results regarding the substrates tested. The conservation was established.Neoglaziovia variegata é uma Bromeliaceae nativa da Caatinga, usada para extração de fibras na Região Nordeste do Brasil. A atividade antrópica coloca esta espécie entre as ameaçadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer uma propagação e conservação in vitro de caroá. Foram cultivadas sementes em meio MS na presença ou ausência de luz. Plântulas germinadas in vitro foram multiplicadas em meio MS suplementado com as combinações de 0,05 e 0.50 µM de NAA e 2.2 e 4.4 µM de BAP e KIN. Foram obtidas as melhores porcentagens de germinação com sementes incubadas na presença de luz. A taxa de multiplicação mais alta foi obtida no tratamento NAA (0,5 µM + BAP (4,4 µM e, o número de raízes, com NAA (0.5 µM + KIN (2.2 µM. Aclimatização das plantas apresentou resultados diferenciados em relação aos substratos testados. A conservação foi estabelecida.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Cultivated Bromeliad Accessions with Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR Markers

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    Yongming Yu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bromeliads are of great economic importance in flower production; however little information is available with respect to genetic characterization of cultivated bromeliads thus far. In the present study, a selection of cultivated bromeliads was characterized via inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers with an emphasis on genetic diversity and population structure. Twelve ISSR primers produced 342 bands, of which 287 (~84% were polymorphic, with polymorphic bands per primer ranging from 17 to 34. The Jaccard’s similarity ranged from 0.08 to 0.89 and averaged ~0.30 for the investigated bromeliads. The Bayesian-based approach, together with the un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA-based clustering and the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA, distinctly grouped the bromeliads from Neoregelia, Guzmania, and Vriesea into three separately clusters, well corresponding with their botanical classifications; whereas the bromeliads of Aechmea other than the recently selected hybrids were not well assigned to a cluster. Additionally, ISSR marker was proven efficient for the identification of hybrids and bud sports of cultivated bromeliads. The findings achieved herein will further our knowledge about the genetic variability within cultivated bromeliads and therefore facilitate breeding for new varieties of cultivated bromeliads in future as well.

  11. Molecular characterization of cultivated bromeliad accessions with Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Ge, Yaying; Wang, Weiyong; Yu, Xinying; Shen, Xiaolan; Liu, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaojing; Tian, Danqing; Shen, Fuquan; Yu, Yongming

    2012-01-01

    Bromeliads are of great economic importance in flower production; however little information is available with respect to genetic characterization of cultivated bromeliads thus far. In the present study, a selection of cultivated bromeliads was characterized via inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers with an emphasis on genetic diversity and population structure. Twelve ISSR primers produced 342 bands, of which 287 (~84%) were polymorphic, with polymorphic bands per primer ranging from 17 to 34. The Jaccard's similarity ranged from 0.08 to 0.89 and averaged ~0.30 for the investigated bromeliads. The Bayesian-based approach, together with the un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA)-based clustering and the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), distinctly grouped the bromeliads from Neoregelia, Guzmania, and Vriesea into three separately clusters, well corresponding with their botanical classifications; whereas the bromeliads of Aechmea other than the recently selected hybrids were not well assigned to a cluster. Additionally, ISSR marker was proven efficient for the identification of hybrids and bud sports of cultivated bromeliads. The findings achieved herein will further our knowledge about the genetic variability within cultivated bromeliads and therefore facilitate breeding for new varieties of cultivated bromeliads in future as well. PMID:22754348

  12. Seed germination conditions and implications for establishment of an epiphyte, Aechmea bracteata (Bromeliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Goode, Laurel K.; Allen, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    Aechmea bracteata is a common epiphytic bromeliad found in symbiosis with many other species throughout tropical forests of Mexico and south through Panama. Given its importance and distribution in these forests, we asked how may A. bracteata be restored to areas where they have thrived in the past? We first investigated seed viability and response of seed germination to temperature, humidity, vapour pressure deficit (VPD), and light, under controlled growth chamber conditions. We recorded th...

  13. Analysis of an alternative method for the study of bromeliad-associated fauna in plants with different foliar organization

    OpenAIRE

    Gerson A. Müller; Fernando T. Name; Frederico C.L. Pacheco; Carlos B. Marcondes

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of an alternative method of collection (by suction of water) for the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae (Diptera), Scirtidae (Coleoptera) and Coenagrionidae (Odonata) in bromeliads with different foliar architecture in a restinga at Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, was studied. The alternative method was less efficient to collect Culicidae and Chironomidae (Wilcoxon test p 0.05) from Aechmea lindenii. ...

  14. Bromeliads in Caatinga: an oasis for invertebrates

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    Priscila Islair

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bromeliaceae family exhibits several adaptations that allow the occurrence of its members in different physiognomies, including the Caatinga. The arrangement of leaves in rosette forms a cistern or tank, in which nutrient-rich water accumulates. This provides a microhabitat for reproduction, feeding, and larval development of many invertebrates. The aim of this study was to survey the bromeliad-associated invertebrate fauna to test the hypothesis of seasonal changes in community composition. We conducted two surveys in the rainy (February, 2011 and dry (August, 2012 seasons in the Floresta Nacional (Flona of Contendas do Sincorá, municipality of Contendas do Sincorá, Bahia state, Brazil. We delimited fifteen 5 m x 5 m sampling plots along a 355 m trail. Two terrestrial bromeliads (Aechmea bromeliifolia were collected per plot. Invertebrate fauna were identified and richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. The richness of taxa did not differ between seasons and was considered high for Caatinga. Abundance and composition differed between the rainy and dry seasons. The present study demonstrates the importance of bromeliads as available water resources for the local invertebrate community. Our findings also provide a framework for more in-depth studies on animal-plant interactions, and for the conservation of Caatinga animal and plant.

  15. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Lei; Zhi-Ying Li; Jia-Bin Wang; Yun-Liu Fu; Meng-Fei Ao; Li Xu

    2016-01-01

    The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions...

  16. Floral visitors of Aechmea constantinii (Mez) L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae) in a remnant of the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Petrúcio Alexandre Fonseca Rios J; uliana Braga da Silva; Flávia de Barros Prado Moura

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the floral visitors and potential pollinators of Aechmea constantinii (Mez) L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae), a bromeliad endemic to the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest. Reproductively-active individuals were observed systematically and their visitors were recorded and determined. The main recorded fl oral visitors were Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis ruber and Phaethornis pretrei (hummingbirds) which executed frontal functional floral visits in which they touched t...

  17. Aquatic microbial habitats within a neotropical rainforest: bromeliads and pH-associated trends in bacterial diversity and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredi, Shana K; Kantor, Adam H; Woodside, Walter T

    2011-04-01

    Tank-forming bromeliads, suspended in the rainforest canopy, possess foliage arranged in compact rosettes capable of long-term retention of rainwater. This large and unique aquatic habitat is inhabited by microorganisms involved in the important decomposition of impounded material. Moreover, these communities are likely influenced by environmental factors such as pH, oxygen, and light. Bacterial community composition and diversity was determined for the tanks of several bromeliad species (Aechmea and Werauhia) from northern Costa Rica, which span a range of parameters, including tank morphology and pH. These were compared with a nearby forest soil sample, an artificial tank (amber bottle), and a commercially available species (Aechmea). Bacterial community diversity, as measured by 16S rRNA analysis and tRFLP, showed a significant positive correlation with tank pH. A majority of 16S rRNA bacterial phylotypes found in association with acidic bromeliad tanks of pH  5.3, including the commercial bromeliad with the highest pH (6.7), were dominated by Betaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. To empirically determine the effect of pH on bacterial community, the tank pH of a specimen of Aechmea was depressed, in the field, from 6.5 to 4.5, for 62 days. The resulting community changed predictably with decreased abundance of Betaproteobacteria and Firmicutes and a concomitant increase in Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria. Collectively, these results suggest that bromeliad tanks provide important habitats for a diverse microbial community, distinct from the surrounding environment, which are influenced greatly by acid-base conditions. Additionally, total organic carbon (∼46%) and nitrogen (∼2%) of bromeliad-impounded sediment was elevated relative to soil and gene surveys confirmed the presence of both chitinases and nitrogenases, suggesting that bromeliad tanks may provide important habitats for microbes involved in the biological cycling of carbon and

  18. Tank bromeliads as natural microcosms : a facultative association with ants influences the aquatic invertebrate community structure

    OpenAIRE

    Talaga, S.; Dezerald, O.; Carteron, A; Petitclerc, F.; Leroy, Céline; Cereghino, R.; Dejean, A

    2015-01-01

    Many tank bromeliads have facultative relationships with ants as is the case in French Guiana between Aechmea aquilega (Salib.) Griseb. and the trap-jaw ant, Odontomachus haematodus Linnaeus. Using a redundancy analysis, we determined that the presence of O. haematodus colonies is accompanied by a greater quantity of fine particulate organic matter in the water likely due to their wastes. This increase in nutrient availability is significantly correlated with an increase in the abundance of s...

  19. Two coexisting tank bromeliads host distinct algal communities on a tropical inselberg

    OpenAIRE

    Carrias, J. F.; Cereghino, R.; Brouard, O.; Pelozuelo, L.; Dejean, A; Coute, A.; Corbara, B.; Leroy, Céline

    2014-01-01

    The tank bromeliads Aechmea aquilega (Salisb.) and Catopsis berteroniana (Schultes f.) coexist on a sun-exposed Neotropical inselberg in French Guiana, where they permit conspicuous freshwater pools to form that differ in size, complexity and detritus content. We sampled the algal communities (both eukaryotic and cyanobacterial taxa, including colourless forms) inhabiting either A. aquilega (n = 31) or C. berteroniana (n = 30) and examined differences in community composition and biomass patt...

  20. Are ontogenetic shifts in foliar structure and resource acquisition spatially conditioned in tank-bromeliads ?

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, M; Céréghino, R.; Carrias, J. F.; Corbara, B.; Dézerald, O.; Petitclerc, F.; Dejean, A; Leroy, Céline

    2014-01-01

    The phenotypic plasticity of plants has been explored as a function of either ontogeny (apparent plasticity) or environment (adaptive plasticity), although few studies have analyzed these factors together. In the present study, we take advantage of the dispersal of Aechmea mertensii bromeliads by Camponotus femoratus or Pachycondyla goeldii ants in shaded and sunny environments, respectively, to quantify ontogenetic changes in morphological, foliar, and functional traits, and to analyze ontog...

  1. A bromeliad species reveals invasive ant presence in urban areas of French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Talaga, S.; Delabie, J.H.C.; Dezerald, O.; Salas-Lopez, A.; Petitclerca, F.; Leroy, Céline; Heraultd, B.; Cereghino, R.; Dejean, A

    2015-01-01

    Tank bromeliads, frequently associated with ants, are considered tiodiversity amplifiers' for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and thus have a high ecological value. The focal species of this study, Aechmea aquilega, sheltered the colonies of 12 ant species in a Guianese rural habitat where Odontomachus haematodus, associated with 60% of these plants, was the most frequent. Unexpectedly, the ant species richness was higher in a compared urban habitat with 21 species, but two synanthrop...

  2. Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in bromeliad species from the tropical Atlantic forest biome in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippa, Carlos Roberto; Hoeltgebaum, Marcia Patricia; Stürmer, Sidney Luiz

    2007-05-01

    The mycorrhizal status of epiphytic, rupicolous, and terrestrial bromeliad species from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest has been examined. Roots of 13 species of bromeliads were analyzed for the presence of mycorrhizal structures such as arbuscules, hyphae, and vesicles as well as other fungal structures. Rhizosphere soil was sampled to identify arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) species associated only with terrestrial bromeliad species. Most specimens collected were epiphytic bromeliads in the genera Aechmea, Bilbergia, Nidularium, Tillandsia, and Vriesea. Differentiating structures of AMF were found in only three species of bromeliads. The pattern of mycorrhizal colonization was mainly internal, and external mycelium and arbuscules were observed only in the terrestrial Nidularium procerum. Root endophytes with dark brown septate mycelium, thin external hyphae, and Rhizoctonia-like sclerotia were also detected in some root segments. A total of ten spore morphotypes were recovered from the rhizosphere of N. procerum, with Acaulospora mellea, A. foveata, and Glomus sp. being the most common species recovered. Our study demonstrated that most of the epiphytic species are not associated with AMF. We attribute this mainly to the exposed bare root conditions found in epiphytic bromeliads. PMID:17151876

  3. Two coexisting tank bromeliads host distinct algal communities on a tropical inselberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrias, J-F; Céréghino, R; Brouard, O; Pélozuelo, L; Dejean, A; Couté, A; Corbara, B; Leroy, C

    2014-09-01

    The tank bromeliads Aechmea aquilega (Salisb.) and Catopsis berteroniana (Schultes f.) coexist on a sun-exposed Neotropical inselberg in French Guiana, where they permit conspicuous freshwater pools to form that differ in size, complexity and detritus content. We sampled the algal communities (both eukaryotic and cyanobacterial taxa, including colourless forms) inhabiting either A. aquilega (n = 31) or C. berteroniana (n = 30) and examined differences in community composition and biomass patterns in relation to several biotic and abiotic variables. Chlorella sp. and Bumilleriopsis sp. were the most common taxa and dominated the algal biomass in A. aquilega and C. berteroniana, respectively. Using a redundancy analysis, we found that water volume, habitat complexity and the density of phagotrophic protozoa and collector-gatherer invertebrates were the main factors explaining the distribution of the algal taxa among the samples. Hierarchical clustering procedures based on abundance and presence/absence data clearly segregated the samples according to bromeliad species, revealing that the algal communities in the smaller bromeliad species were not a subset of the communities found in the larger bromeliad species. We conclude that, even though two coexisting tank bromeliad populations create adjacent aquatic habitats, each population hosts a distinct algal community. Hence, bromeliad diversity is thought to promote the local diversity of freshwater algae in the Neotropics. PMID:24400863

  4. Heterogeneity of terrestrial bromeliad colonies and regeneration of Acacia praecox (Fabaceae) in a humid-subtropical-Chaco forest, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, Ignacio M; Lewis, Juan Pablo

    2005-01-01

    In several tropical and subtropical forests, plants of the understorey act as an ecological filter that differentially affects woody species regeneration. In convex sectors of the Schinopsis balansae (Anacardiaceae) forests of the Southeastern Chaco there are dense colonies of terrestrial bromeliads. These may influence forest regeneration by intercepting rain water and propagules in their tanks. Within colonies, the spatial distribution of bromeliads is clumped because their clonal growth leaves numerous internal gaps. In this study we describe the internal heterogeneity of three bromeliad colonies (plots) and analyze how this heterogeneity affects Acacia praecox regeneration (i.e. seedling recruitment and survival). In January 1996, we randomly placed three transects with 150 contiguous quadrats of 100 cm(2) in each plot. For each quadrat we recorded the type of floor cover (i.e. bromeliads, herbs, litter, or bare soil) and the presence of A. praecox seeds or seedlings. In July 1996 we relocated the transects and recorded seedling survival. Bromeliad colonies showed a high internal heterogeneity. Almost half of the 450 quadrats were covered by two terrestrial bromeliads. Aechmea distichantha was recorded in 81% of all quadrats with bromeliads, and Bromelia serra in the others. All quadrats with bromeliads were covered by litter. Half of them were occupied by the bases of bromeliads and the others were covered by their leaves. In contrast, where bromeliads were not present, soil surface was covered by litter in 83% and by herbaceous vegetation in 11% of the quadrats; very few quadrats were covered by bare soil. In January 1996, we recorded 127 seeds and 176 seedlings of A. praecox. Seed and seedling densities of A. praecox were similar in quadrats with and without bromeliads, but variability in seedling density of A. praecox was higher within than among plots. Seed density was higher in quadrats covered by bromeliad leaves than inside the tanks. Seedling survival

  5. An ant-plant mutualism induces shifts in the protist community structure of a tank-bromeliad

    OpenAIRE

    Carrias, Jean-François; Brouard, Olivier; Leroy, Céline; Céréghino, Régis; Pelozuelo, Laurent; Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Although ants may induce community-wide effects via changes in physical habitats in terrestrial environments, their influence on aquatic communities living in plant-held waters remains largely underexplored. The neotropical tank-bromeliad Aechmea mertensii (Bromeliaceae) occurs along forest edges in ant-gardens initiated by Camponotus femoratus or by Pachycondyla goeldii. Its leaves form wells that hold rainwater and provide suitable habitats for many aquatic organisms. We postulated that the...

  6. In vitro culture systems and acclimatization of Aechmea setigera Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae

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    Janaína Medeiros Vasconcelos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aechmea setigera is an endemic bromeliad from Amazon with ornamental potential. Bromeliads have been propagated by tissue culture. The consistency of the culture medium in vitro multiplication influences the rate of propagation. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate different culture systems with the use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP on in vitro propagation and the effect of different substrates in acclimatization of plantlets Aechmea setigera. In vitro germinated seedlings were inoculated in MS medium in liquid stationary, semisolid, double-phase systems, plus 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP in different concentrations (0, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8 and 17.7 μM. The ex vitro rooting and acclimatization were performed on substrate Plantmax Forest ®, vermiculite and sawdust eucalyptus. After three successive subcultures, the double-phase system showed a higher number of regenerated shoots in comparison to other systems. Acclimatization using the combination of commercial substrate Plantmax Forest ® and vermiculite favored the growth of micropropagated plants. The use of a culture medium double-phase without growth regulator, and the rooting in acclimatization are feasible strategy for the micropropagation of A. setigera. Indexação

  7. Ants mediate foliar structure and nitrogen acquisition in a tank-bromeliad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Céline; Corbara, Bruno; Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis

    2009-01-01

    Aechmea mertensii is a tank-bromeliad that roots on ant-gardens initiated by the ants Camponotus femoratus and Pachycondyla goeldii. Its leaves form compartments acting as phytotelmata that hold rainwater and provide habitats for invertebrates. In this article, we aimed to determine whether the association with either C. femoratus or P. goeldii influenced the vegetative traits of A. mertensii, invertebrate diversity and nutrient assimilation by the leaves. Transmitted light, vegetative traits and phytotelmata contents were compared between the two A. mertensii ant-gardens. Camponotus femoratus colonized partially shaded areas, whereas P. goeldii colonized exposed areas. The bromeliads' rosettes had a large canopy (C. femoratus ant-gardens), or were smaller and amphora shaped (P. goeldii ant-gardens). There were significant differences in leaf anatomy, as shaded leaves were thicker than exposed leaves. The mean volumes of water, fine particulate organic matter and detritus in C. femoratus-associated bromeliads were three to five times higher than in P. goeldii-associated bromeliads. Moreover, the highest invertebrate diversity and leaf delta(15)N values were found in C. femoratus-associated bromeliads. This study enhances our understanding of the dynamics of biodiversity, and shows how ant-plant interactions can have trophic consequences and thus influence the architecture of the interacting plant via a complex feedback loop. PMID:19500265

  8. Reproductive biology and pollination of Aechmea distichantha Lem. (Bromeliaceae Biologia reprodutiva e polinização em Aechmea distichantha Lem. (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson João Scrok

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive biology, including phenology, flower biology, pollination, and the reproductive system in the bromeliad Aechmea distichantha were studied in an Araucaria forest in the state of Paraná. Phenology and reproduction in terricolous plants were followed in October 2006 and May - October of 2007. Flowering peaked from June to September and fruiting was from June to October. Flower anthesis lasted one day. Flowers were pollinated the most by the hummingbird Stephanoxis lalandi and the most common butterfly visitor was Lychnuchoides ozias ozias. Nectar concentration declined during anthesis, while nectar volume was constant. Aechmea distichantha is self-compatible with 30-45% fruit formation in self-pollination tests. Sunlight influences reproduction: when controlling for bromeliad and inflorescence size, plants in sunlight produced more seeds per fruit than plants in the shade. Reproduction was also associated with inflorescence size when controlling for bromeliad size. That is, larger inflorescences in similar sized plants produced more flowers and more seeds per fruit.A biologia reprodutiva, incluindo fenologia, biologia floral, polinização e sistemas reprodutivos foram estudados em Floresta com Araucária no Paraná. A fenologia e reprodução de plantas terrícolas foram acompanhadas em outubro 2006 e de maio a outubro de 2007. O pico de floração ocorreu de junho a setembro e a frutificação de junho a outubro. A antese durou um dia. As flores foram polinizadas principalmente por Stephanoxis lalandi e a borboleta mais freqüente foi Lychnuchoides ozias ozias. A concetração de nectar declinou durante a antese, enquanto que o volume de néctar permaneceu constante. Aechmea distichantha é auto-compatível com 30-45% de frutificação nos testes de autopolinização. A luz solar influenciou a reprodução: quando controlados o tamanho das bromélias e das inflorescências, plantas no sol produziram mais sementes por frutos que

  9. Flagellate protist abundance in phytotelmata of Aechmea distichantha Lem. (Bromeliaceae) in the upper Paraná river basin - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.17134

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Silva Costa Duarte; Geziele Mucio Alves; Fernando Miranda Lansac-Tôha; Luiz Felipe Machado Velho; Fábio Amodêo Lansac-Tôha

    2013-01-01

    In some Bromeliaceae species the leaf sheaths form a tank or phytotelma, accumulating water and organic detritus, conditions that allow the establishment of different communities. Thus, this study evaluated the relationship between diameter and volume of water in the tank of the bromeliad Aechmea distichantha Lem. and density of flagellates found in the phytotelmata, as well as the influence of the hydrological periods and proximity of sampled strata on the phytotelma patterns of abundance di...

  10. Floral visitors of Aechmea constantinii (Mez L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae in a remnant of the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrúcio Alexandre Fonseca Rios J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the floral visitors and potential pollinators of Aechmea constantinii (Mez L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae, a bromeliad endemic to the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest. Reproductively-active individuals were observed systematically and their visitors were recorded and determined. The main recorded fl oral visitors were Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis ruber and Phaethornis pretrei (hummingbirds which executed frontal functional floral visits in which they touched the parts of the fl owers. Visits of Plebeia flavocincta, Plebeia sp., Trigona spinipes and Euglossa cordata (bees and Talides sergestu and Strymon ziba (butterflies were also recorded. In addition, two ants (Hymenoptera, Insecta, Formicidae were identifi ed in activity on the fl oral scapes and flowers of the studied bromeliad. The suggestion is made in the study that the A. constantinii is pollinated by hummingbirds since these birds executed direct frontal visits to the fl owers, touching reproductive structures. The identification of pollen on the bodies of bees and butterflies, as well as the contact executed by visitors, with the stigma of the visited flowers, offered an indication that these species may exert an influence as secondary pollinators of Aechmea constantinii.

  11. Relacionamento entre anfíbios anuros e bromélias da restinga de Regência, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brasil Relationship between anuran amphibians and bromeliads of the sandy coastal plain of Regência, linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    José Alberto P. Schineider

    Full Text Available Some anuran amphibians use the bromeliads during the entire life cycle and others only as diurnal shelter. At the sandy coastal plain of Linhares, State of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, 676 bromeliads were examined, of which 303 of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker L. B. Smith., 1955, 287 of Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb., 1864, and 86 of Vrisea procera (Mart. Ex Schult. f. Wittm, 1891. The morphometric and physical-chemical analysis of different bromeliads evidenced variations among plants. During the period sampled, six anuran species were found inside the plant axils. The hylid frog Phyllodytes luteolus (Wied, 1824 was the most abundant species (260 specimens. Its abundance was higher in the epiphyte bromeliad Vrisea procera. Phyllodytes luteolus had higher occurrences in bromeliads located at a transitional area between open and under the shrub vegetation. Specimens of Scinax alterus (Lutz, B., 1973 and Aparasphenodon brunoi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920, were more frequent mainly in transitional areas; Bufo granulosus Spix, 1824 occurred in open and transitional areas, whereas Gastrotheca fissipis (Boulenger, 1888 and Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 were found only in bromeliads located in open areas.

  12. Morphological variation of Aechmea distichantha (Bromeliaceae) in a Chaco forest: habitat and size-related effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallero, L; López, D; Barberis, I M

    2009-05-01

    Plants show different morphologies when growing in different habitats, but they also vary in their morphology with plant size. We examined differences in sun- and shade-grown plants of the bromeliad Aechmea distichantha with respect to relationships between plant size and variables related to plant architecture, biomass allocation and tank water dynamics. We selected vegetative plants from the understorey and from forest edges of a Chaco forest, encompassing the whole size range of this bromeliad. Plant biomass was positively correlated with most architectural variables and negatively correlated with most biomass allocation variables. Understorey plants were taller and had larger diameters, whereas sun plants had more leaves, larger sheath area, sheath biomass and sheath mass fraction. All tank water-related variables were positively correlated with plant biomass. Understorey plants had a greater projected leaf area, whereas sun plants had higher water content and evaporative area. Plasticity indices were higher for water-related than for allocation variables. In conclusion, there were architectural and biomass allocation differences between sun- and shade-grown plants along a size gradient, which, in turn, affected tank water-related variables. PMID:19470109

  13. SEED MORPHOMETRY AND GERMINATION OF Aechmea costantinii (Mez L. B. Sm. (BROMELIACEAE

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    PETRÚCIO ALEXANDRE FONSECA RIOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential economic and environmental benefits brought by bromeliads production are significant. It is noteworthy that the high degree of degradation of some ecosystems as the Atlantic forest involve reduction of these species. This factor has been worsened by the elevated degree of endemism of these plants, e.g. Aechmea costantinii (Mez L. B. Sm., which is a high ornamental potential bromeliad but understudied. Thus, the present research aimed to characterize physical and morphological features of A. costantinii fruit and seeds, describing the different stages of post - seminal development, as well as evaluating seed germination behavior with respect to temperature and light. For this purpose, we used fruit and seeds freshly harvested from an Atlantic Forest fragment, located in the city of Maceió, Alagoas State, Brazil. Tests were carried out under a completely randomized design, in a 6x4 factorial scheme (temperature x light with four replications of 25 seeds. The polyspermic fruit are of tricarpellate/triloculate type and originated from inferior ovary, containing an average of 73 elliptical and mucilaginous seeds with basal embryo. The germination is epigeal - type and occurs in a great intensity and high speed at 35 °C, regardless light presence or quality.

  14. Potential sources of nitrogen in an ant-garden tank-bromeliad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Céline; Corbara, Bruno; Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis

    2009-09-01

    Epiphytic plants in general and bromeliads in particular live in a water and nutrient-stressed environment often limited in nitrogen. Thus, these plants have developed different ways to survive in such an environment. We focused on Aechmea mertensii (Bromeliaceae), which is both a tank-bromeliad and an ant-garden (AG) epiphyte initiated by either the ants Camponotus femoratus or Pachycondyla goeldii. By combining a study of plant morphology and physiology associated with aquatic insect biology, we demonstrate that the ant species influences the leaf structure of the bromeliad, the structure of the aquatic community in its tank, and nutrient assimilation by the leaves. Based on nitrogen and nitrogen stable isotope measurements of the A. mertensii leaves, the leaf litter inside of the tank and the root-embedded carton nest, we discuss the potential sources of available nitrogen for the plant based on the ant partner. We demonstrate the existence of a complex ant-plant interaction that subsequently affects the biodiversity of a broader range of organisms that are themselves likely to influence nutrient assimilation by the A. mertensii leaves in a kind of plant-invertebrate-plant feedback loop. PMID:19847109

  15. Ramet demography of a nurse bromeliad in Brazilian restingas.

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    Sampaio, Michelle C; Picó, F Xavier; Scarano, Fabio R

    2005-04-01

    Restingas are sandy coastal plains that stand between the sea and the Brazilian Atlantic forest mountains. The predominant restinga vegetation type in northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is characterized by the formation of islands that begins with colonization by some pioneer herbs and/or woody plants. Pioneer plants are stress-resistant and nurse many other less-resistant plant species. Determining the spatiotemporal variation in the dynamics of nurse plants is essential to understand the ecological functioning of restingas as a whole. The goal of this study was to analyze the spatiotemporal variation in population dynamics of the nurse bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis. We monitored A. nudicaulis ramets in different habitats, microhabitats, and years. We analyzed the spatiotemporal variation in demographic traits and in population growth rate. Results showed young ramet traits were more variable at the microhabitat level, and when variable, vegetative ramet traits varied at all spatiotemporal scales. Overall, λ values indicated that A. nudicaulis basically remained spatiotemporally stable as most of the λ values did not significantly differ from unity. Hence, the stability of A. nudicaulis in different microhabitats and habitats in the restinga may create several settlement opportunities for many other less-resistant species. PMID:21652445

  16. Tank bromeliads as natural microcosms: a facultative association with ants influences the aquatic invertebrate community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Stanislas; Dézerald, Olivier; Carteron, Alexis; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Leroy, Céline; Céréghino, Régis; Dejean, Alain

    2015-10-01

    Many tank bromeliads have facultative relationships with ants as is the case in French Guiana between Aechmea aquilega (Salib.) Griseb. and the trap-jaw ant, Odontomachus haematodus Linnaeus. Using a redundancy analysis, we determined that the presence of O. haematodus colonies is accompanied by a greater quantity of fine particulate organic matter in the water likely due to their wastes. This increase in nutrient availability is significantly correlated with an increase in the abundance of some detritivorous taxa, suggesting a positive bottom-up influence on the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities living in the A. aquilega wells. On the other hand, the abundance of top predators is negatively affected by a lower number of available wells due to ant constructions for nesting, releasing a top-down pressure that could also favor lower trophic levels. PMID:26302833

  17. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Li, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Jia-Bin; Fu, Yun-Liu; Ao, Meng-Fei; Xu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions as a transcriptional activator, and the activation domain is located in the C-terminal region. The expression level of AfAP2-1 is higher in juvenile plants than in adult plants, and the AfAP2-1 transcript level was rapidly and transiently reduced in plants treated with exogenous ethylene. Overexpression of AfAP2-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in an extremely delayed flowering phenotype. These results suggested that AfAP2-1 responds to ethylene and is a putative age-dependent flowering regulator in A. fasciata. PMID:26927090

  18. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment

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    Ming Lei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions as a transcriptional activator, and the activation domain is located in the C-terminal region. The expression level of AfAP2-1 is higher in juvenile plants than in adult plants, and the AfAP2-1 transcript level was rapidly and transiently reduced in plants treated with exogenous ethylene. Overexpression of AfAP2-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in an extremely delayed flowering phenotype. These results suggested that AfAP2-1 responds to ethylene and is a putative age-dependent flowering regulator in A. fasciata.

  19. Assessing genetic divergence in interspecific hybrids of Aechmea gomosepala and A. recurvata var. recurvata using inflorescence characteristics and sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Ge, Y Y; Wang, W Y; Shen, X L; Yu, X Y

    2012-01-01

    Conventional hybridization and selection techniques have aided the development of new ornamental crop cultivars. However, little information is available on the genetic divergence of bromeliad hybrids. In the present study, we investigated the genetic variability in interspecific hybrids of Aechmea gomosepala and A. recurvata var. recurvata using inflorescence characteristics and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. The morphological analysis showed that the putative hybrids were intermediate between both parental species with respect to inflorescence characteristics. The 16 SRAP primer combinations yield 265 bands, among which 154 (57.72%) were polymorphic. The genetic similarity was an average of 0.59 and ranged from 0.21 to 0.87, indicating moderate genetic divergence among the hybrids. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA)-based cluster analysis distinguished the hybrids from their parents with a genetic distance coefficient of 0.54. The cophenetic correlation was 0.93, indicating a good fit between the dendrogram and the original distance matrix. The two-dimensional plot from the principal coordinate analysis showed that the hybrids were intermediately dispersed between both parents, corresponding to the results of the UPGMA cluster and the morphological analysis. These results suggest that SRAP markers could help to identify breeders, characterize F(1) hybrids of bromeliads at an early stage, and expedite genetic improvement of bromeliad cultivars. PMID:23079994

  20. Genetic effects of tank-forming bromeliads on the associated invertebrate community in a tropical forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytynska, Sharon E; Khudr, Mouhammad Shadi; Harris, Edwin; Preziosi, Richard F

    2012-10-01

    Within the area of community genetics there is an expanding volume of literature demonstrating how within-species genetic variation in temperate trees can have important effects on structuring animal and plant communities. The influence of intraspecific genetic variation on associated communities in relatively more complex ecosystems is only starting to be appreciated. Within tropical forests, epiphytic bromeliad plants often grow high in the canopy and create unique nutrient-rich microhabitats on which many invertebrate and vertebrate species depend. We investigated the influence of within-species genetic variation in the bromeliad Aechmea bracteata on the invertebrate microhabitat community. We found that more genetically similar bromeliad plants were host to more similar communities of juvenile-stage invertebrates, but not adult invertebrates. We discuss possible mechanisms for this, including differential survival and active female oviposition choice. Our work shows that the impact of within-species genetic variation on associated ecological communities may be more general than previously considered. These results agree with recent research suggesting that within-species genetic variation may perform a supporting ecosystem service for maintaining community and ecological processes. PMID:22466862

  1. Analysis of an alternative method for the study of bromeliad-associated fauna in plants with different foliar organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Gerson A; Name, Fernando T; Pacheco, Frederico C L; Marcondes, Carlos B

    2010-12-01

    The efficiency of an alternative method of collection (by suction of water) for the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae (Diptera), Scirtidae (Coleoptera) and Coenagrionidae (Odonata) in bromeliads with different foliar architecture in a restinga at Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, was studied. The alternative method was less efficient to collect Culicidae and Chironomidae (Wilcoxon test p 0.05) from Aechmea lindenii. This method was less efficient to collect insects of all groups from Vriesea friburgensis (Wilcoxon test p < 0.05). The alternative method was efficient to estimate the diversity of these insects in both species of bromeliads. The higher mobility of immature forms of beetles and dragonflies, and the availability of only one tank in Aechea lindenii, contrasting to several tanks in Vriesea friburgensis that help the suction of these immature, probably influenced the results, which indicated that the suction method should not replace the dismantling in the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae. This method can be useful to get immature forms of Scirtidae and Coenagrionidae in one-tank bromeliads. PMID:21152764

  2. Chironomid larvae inhabiting bromeliad phytotelmata in a fragment of the Atlantic Rainforest in Rio de Janeiro State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodré, V M; Rocha, O; Messias, M C

    2010-08-01

    A study of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae) occurring in phytotelmata of Bromeliaceae was carried out in a fragment of the Atlantic Rain Forest in an area of the city of Magé, Pau Grande, one of the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro City, during a period of 13 months between September 2006 and September 2007. Eight samplings were performed at intervals of 1 (1/2) months and the content of the phytotelmata of the bromeliad species Neoregelia concentrica (Vellozo) L.B. Smith, 1934 and Aechmea nudicaulis (Linnaeus) Grisebach, 1864, were examined. A taxonomical inventory and evaluation of the numerical abundance of Chironomidae larvae were performed in 50 specimens of the bromeliads, being 13 individuals of N. concentrica and 37 of A. nudicaulis. Three taxa of Chironomidae belonging to three distinct subfamilies were recorded: Polypedilum sp., Orthocladiinae genus A and Monopelopia sp. A total of 293 individuals of Chironomidae, were recorded, being 9 Polypedilum sp., 233 Orthocladiinae genus A, and 51 Monopelopia sp., the latter representing the first record of Monopelopia in phytotelmata in Rio de Janeiro State. Considering all samples, a mean density of 3.32 +/- 2.62 chironomid larvae per phytotelmata was recorded. There was a positive relationship between the chironomid abundance and both precipitation and the volume of water in the phytotelmata. Apparently there is no preference by the chironomids regarding the colonistion of the bromeliad species. PMID:20730345

  3. Natural history and morphology of the hoverfly Pseudomicrodon biluminiferus and its parasitic relationship with ants nesting in bromeliads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Volker S; Morales, Mírian N; Marinoni, Luciane; Kamke, Rafael; Steiner, Josefina; Zillikens, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The syrphid subfamily Microdontinae is characterized by myrmecophily of their immature stages, i.e., they develop in ant nests. Data on natural history of microdontines are scarce, especially in the Neotropics. Based on fieldwork in southern Brazil, this study provided new data on development and ecology of the hoverfly Pseudomicrodon biluminiferus (Hull) (Diptera: Syrphidae) as well as the first morphological descriptions of male genitalia, larvae, and pupa. Immature specimens were specifically found in colonies of the ant species Crematogaster limata Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) found in rosettes of the bromeliad species Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren) Baker (Poales: Bromeliaceae) and A. nudicaulis (L.) Grisebach. Third instar larvae were observed preying on ant larvae, revealing the parasitic nature of P. biluminiferus. In this and several other aspects, the natural history of P. biluminiferus is similar to that of Holarctic microdontine species. Exceptions include: (i) indications that adults of P. biluminiferus outlast the winter months (in contrast to 3(rd)instar larvae in Holarctic species) and (ii) P. biluminiferus' relationship with bromeliads. The importance of bromeliads for this host-parasite system is evaluated in this paper. The single occurrence of another, unidentified microdontine species' pupae in a nest of the ant species Camponotus melanoticus Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is reported. PMID:25373185

  4. Ants mediate the structure of phytotelm communities in an ant-garden bromeliad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céréghino, Régis; Leroy, Céline; Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    The main theories explaining the biological diversity of rain forests often confer a limited understanding of the contribution of interspecific interactions to the observed patterns. We show how two-species mutualisms can affect much larger segments of the invertebrate community in tropical rain forests. Aechmea mertensii (Bromeliaceae) is both a phytotelm (plant-held water) and an ant-garden epiphyte. We studied the influence of its associated ant species (Pachycondyla goeldii and Camponotus femoratus) on the physical characteristics of the plants, and, subsequently, on the diversity of the invertebrate communities that inhabit their tanks. As dispersal agents for the bromeliads, P. goeldii and C. femoratus influence the shape and size of the bromeliad by determining the location of the seedling, from exposed to partially shaded areas. By coexisting on a local scale, the two ant species generate a gradient of habitat conditions in terms of available resources (space and food) for aquatic invertebrates, the diversity of the invertebrate communities increasing with greater volumes of water and fine detritus. Two-species mutualisms are widespread in nature, but their influence on the diversity of entire communities remains largely unexplored. Because macroinvertebrates constitute an important part of animal production in all ecosystem types, further investigations should address the functional implications of such indirect effects. PMID:20503886

  5. Suitability of Tillandsia usneoides and Aechmea fasciata for biomonitoring toxic elements under tropical seasonal climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaoli, Patricia; Wannaz, Eduardo D; Tavares, Armando R; Domingos, Marisa

    2016-04-01

    Aechmea fasciata was evaluated for the first time as a biomonitor of toxic elements, in comparison to the biomonitoring capacity of Tillandsia usneoides, a well-established biomonitor bromeliad species. Plants of both species were exposed to air pollutants from industrial, urban, and agricultural sources, under the tropical seasonal climate, from June/2011 to April/2013, in five sites of São Paulo State, Brazil, for 8 consecutive exposure periods of 12 weeks each. The levels of essential and non-essential elements, including trace metals, were quantified at the end of each exposure. T. usneoides and A. fasciata indicated N, Fe, Zn, Co, Cr, and V as air contaminants in the studied sites, during wet and dry seasons and both species were recommended for qualitative biomonitoring. Concentration levels of N, Ca, S, Fe, Zn, Cu, B, Co, and Ni were significantly higher in T. usneoides than in A. fasciata. However, A. fasciata showed a higher effective retention capacity of Ni, Pb, V, Cu, Fe, Cr, and Co during field exposure, as indicated by the estimate of enrichment factor relative to basal concentrations. This species is more suitable for detecting the atmospheric pollution level of those metals than the T. usneoides. Both species indicated adequately the seasonal differences in the pollution levels of several elements, but T. usneoides presented higher ability for biomonitoring the spatial variations and for indicating more properly the sources of each element in the studied region than the A. fasciata. PMID:26844661

  6. Glucuronoarabinoxylan structure in the walls of Aechmea leaf chlorenchyma cells is related to wall strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceusters, Johan; Londers, Elsje; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A; De Proft, Maurice P

    2008-09-01

    In CAM-plants rising levels of malic acid in the early morning cause elevated turgor pressures in leaf chlorenchyma cells. Under specific conditions this process is lethal for sensitive plants resulting in chlorenchyma cell burst while other species can cope with these high pressures and do not show cell burst under comparable conditions. The non-cellulosic polysaccharide composition of chlorenchyma cell walls was investigated and compared in three cultivars of Aechmea with high sensitivity for chlorenchyma cell burst and three cultivars with low sensitivity. Chlorenchyma layers were cut from the leaf and the non-cellulosic carbohydrate fraction of the cell wall fraction was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Glucuronoarabinoxylans (GAXs) were the major non-cellulosic polysaccharides in Aechmea. The fine structure of these GAXs was strongly related to chlorenchyma wall strength. Chlorenchyma cell walls from cultivars with low sensitivity to cell burst were characterized by an A/X ratio of ca. 0.13 while those from cultivars with high sensitivity showed an A/X ratio of ca. 0.23. Xylose chains from cultivars with high cell burst sensitivity were ca. 40% more substituted with arabinose compared to cultivars with low sensitivity for cell burst. The results indicate a relationship in vivo between glucuronoarabinoxylan fine structure and chlorenchyma cell wall strength in Aechmea. The evidence obtained supports the hypothesis that GAXs with low degrees of substitution cross-link cellulose microfibrils, while GAXs with high degrees of substitution do not. A lower degree of arabinose substitution on the xylose backbone implies stronger cell walls and the possibility of withstanding higher internal turgor pressures without cell bursting. PMID:18632122

  7. Effects of Seasonality and Dispersal on the Ciliate Community Inhabiting Bromeliad Phytotelmata in Riparian Vegetation of a Large Tropical River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buosi, Paulo R B; Cabral, Adalgisa F; Utz, Laura R P; Vieira, Ludgero C G; Velho, Luiz F M

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of rainfall amount on the abundance, species richness, and species occurrence and abundance distribution of the ciliate community associated with the bromeliad Aechmea distichantha. The plants were collected from a rock wall of about 10-km long at the left bank of Paraná River. We assessed the effects of both spatial and temporal variables on the community attributes, as well as whether plants geographically closer have a similar abundance distribution and species composition. The ciliate community was substantially distinct between both hydrological periods, with greater values of species richness and abundance in the rainy period. No spatial structuring (differences in the species occurrence and abundance distribution among strata) or geographical similarity (similarity in ciliate species composition among the plants) was found. Multiple regression analysis showed a positive relationship only between the ciliate abundances and water volumes for both periods. Although few of the formulated predictions were confirmed, our study provides valuable information on the ecological aspects of the ciliate community inhabiting bromeliad phytotelmata. PMID:25963550

  8. Sinopsis del género aechmea (bromeliaceae) para colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Se presenta la sinopsis de Aechmea (Bromeliaceae: Bromelioideae) para Colombia, la cual incluye la descripción del género, una clave para la identificación de las especies y la lista anotada de las mismas. Además, para cada especie se incluyen comentarios sobre el hábito de crecimiento, la categoría de amenaza y la distribución geográfica y altitudinal. Se registran 44 especies de Aechmea para Colombia, de las cuales nueve son endémicas: A. anomala, A. nivea, A. stenosepala, A. subpetiolata y...

  9. Volume de água armazenado no tanque de bromélias, em restingas da costa brasileira Water volume stored in bromeliad tanks in Brazilian restinga habitats

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    Luciana Cogliatti-Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Muitas espécies de bromélias armazenam água da chuva em seu interior, sendo esta característica resultado da distribuição espiralada de suas folhas, que formam pequenos tanques. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e comparar o volume de água efetivamente armazenado e o volume máximo que pode ser armazenado no tanque de diferentes espécies de bromélias de 13 restingas brasileiras. Em cada restinga, em 100 plots de 100 m² cada, registramos as espécies de bromélias-tanque, os parâmetros morfométricos e o volume efetivo e máximo em 20 indivíduos de cada espécie. Encontramos 32 espécies de bromélias-tanque, para as quais medimos o volume máximo e o volume efetivo de água armazenado. Em 59.007 rosetas, estimamos o volume máximo em 44.388 litros e medimos 17.000 litros de água efetivamente armazenados. Encontramos diferenças interespecíficas nos volumes máximo e efetivamente reservado de água, na biomassa, no número de folhas e no volume do cone da planta. Aechmea aquilega, A. blanchetiana e Hohenbergia castelanosii tiveram os maiores volumes efetivos. Somente A. nudicaulis e Billbergia amoena diferiram entre suas populações em todos os parâmetros analisados. As restingas de Maricá, Prado, Trancoso e Jurubatiba tiveram os maiores volumes de água.ha-1 armazenada nas bromélias-tanque. O volume máximo de água estimado para as bromélias-tanque variou entre espécies devido a diferenças na forma e no tamanho das bromélias.Many bromeliad species store rain water in tanks, as a result of the spiraled distribution of their leaves. The aim of this study was to evaluate how much water is stored and what is the maximum volume of water possible to be stored in different tank-bromeliad species in 13 different Brazilian restingas. The species were recorded in 100 plots of 100 m2, in each restinga habitat. For each bromeliad species, the effective and the maximum water stored in the tanks were measured. We found 32 tank-bromeliad

  10. Flagellate protist abundance in phytotelmata of Aechmea distichantha Lem. (Bromeliaceae in the upper Paraná river basin - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.17134

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    Gisele Silva Costa Duarte

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In some Bromeliaceae species the leaf sheaths form a tank or phytotelma, accumulating water and organic detritus, conditions that allow the establishment of different communities. Thus, this study evaluated the relationship between diameter and volume of water in the tank of the bromeliad Aechmea distichantha Lem. and density of flagellates found in the phytotelmata, as well as the influence of the hydrological periods and proximity of sampled strata on the phytotelma patterns of abundance distribution. Samplings were conducted in two hydrological periods in 2010. In each sampling, four plants were collected from three different strata, classified according to the distance from the river level. A one-way ANOVA identified significant differences in flagellate density between hydrological periods. The influence of the water volume in the phytotelmata on the flagellate density was evidenced by regression analyses, as well as the lack of relationship between the density and perimeter of the tank. Moreover, the distance of the strata from the river level did not influence the pattern of flagellate abundance. Thus, our results suggested that the hydrological period and the volume of water in the tanks of Aechmea distichantha are determinant on the abundance of heterotrophic flagellate in the phytotelmata.

  11. Analysis of an alternative method for the study of bromeliad-associated fauna in plants with different foliar organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson A. Müller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of an alternative method of collection (by suction of water for the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae (Diptera, Scirtidae (Coleoptera and Coenagrionidae (Odonata in bromeliads with different foliar architecture in a restinga at Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, was studied. The alternative method was less efficient to collect Culicidae and Chironomidae (Wilcoxon test p 0.05 from Aechmea lindenii. This method was less efficient to collect insects of all groups from Vriesea friburgensis (Wilcoxon test p A eficiência do método alternativo de coleta (por sucção da água para o estudo de Culicidae e Chironomidae (Diptera, Scirtidae (Coleoptera e Coenagrionidae (Odonata em bromélias com diferentes estruturas foliares de restinga em Florianópolis, SC, Brasil, foi estudada. O método alternativo foi menos eficiente para coletar Culicidae e Chironomidae (teste de Wilcoxon p 0, 05 a partir de Aechmea lindenii. Esse foi menos eficiente para coletar insetos de todos os grupos a partir de Vriesea friburgensis (teste de Wilcoxon p < 0,05. O método alternativo se mostrou eficiente em estimar a diversidade desses insetos nas duas espécies de bromélias. A alta mobilidade das formas imaturas dos coleópteros e libélulas e a disponibilidade de apenas um tanque em Aechea lindenii, em contraste com as várias axilas e Vriesea friburgensis, facilitando a sucção destas formas imaturas provavelmente influenciaram os resultados. Os resultados indicam que o método de sucção não deve substituir o desmanche no estudo de Culicidae e Chironomidae; ele pode ser útil para a obtenção de formas imaturas de Scirtidae e Coenagrionidae em bromélias de um só tanque.

  12. Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae from Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardene Maria de Sousa

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram registradas dez espécies do gênero Aechmea no Estado de Pernambuco: A. aquilega (Salisb. Griseb., A. eurycorymbus Harms, A. fulgensBrongn., A. lingulata (L. Baker, A. mertensü(G. Mey. Schult. f., A. mulfordii L. B. Sm., A. murícata(Arruda L. B. Sm., A. stelligera L. B. Sm., A. tomentosa M&z e A. werdermannii Harms. Duas espécies são endêmicas (A. murícata e A. werdermannii e uma nova ocorrência (A. stelligerd foi referida para Pernambuco. São apresentados chave, descrições, ilustrações e comentários das espécies estudadas.A taxonomic study of the genus Aechmea ofPernambuco, Brazil was done. Ten species were found: A. aquilega (Salisb. Griseb., A. euryccrymhusHarms, A.fulgensBrongn., A. lingulataXL. Baker, A. mertensii(G. Mey. Schult. f., A. mulfordiih. B. Sm., A. murícata (Arruda L. B. Sm., A. stelligera L. B. Sm., A. tomentosa Mez and A werdermannii Harms. Aechmea murícata and A. werdermannii are endemic, and A. stelligera is a new records for Pernambuco State. Key, descriptions, comments and illustrations of the species are included.

  13. Bromeliads in Caatinga: an oasis for invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Islair; Karine Santana Carvalho; Fabio Cop Ferreira; Juliana Zina

    2015-01-01

    The Bromeliaceae family exhibits several adaptations that allow the occurrence of its members in different physiognomies, including the Caatinga. The arrangement of leaves in rosette forms a cistern or tank, in which nutrient-rich water accumulates. This provides a microhabitat for reproduction, feeding, and larval development of many invertebrates. The aim of this study was to survey the bromeliad-associated invertebrate fauna to test the hypothesis of seasonal changes in community compositi...

  14. The occurrence of amphibians in bromeliads from a southeastern Brazilian restinga habitat, with special reference to Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, R L; Schineider, J A P; Almeida, G I

    2002-05-01

    Five species of anuran amphibians, all belonging to the family Hylidae, were collected at Praia das Neves, municipality of President Kennedy, southeastern Brazil. The species were represented by four genera: Scinax, Hyla, Aparasphenodon, and Trachycephalus. Four species (A. brunoi, Hyla albomarginata, Scinax altera, and S. cuspidatus) were found during the dry season (August 1999), and two (A. brunoi and Trachycephalus nigromaculatus) in the rainy season (February 2000). Aparasphenodon brunoi was the most abundant species in Praia das Neves. Some reproductive aspects and feeding habits of this hylid were investigated. Aparasphenodon brunoi was found mainly inside the bromeliad Aechmea lingulata, the largest plant analyzed. Fifteen specimens were collected during the dry season (August 1999) (11 males and 4 females). During the rainy season (February 2000), we collected 14 specimens (3 males, 10 females, and 1 juvenile). Sex-ratio was 1:1. Frogs ranged in snout-vent length from 31.2 to 69.3 mm. Females were larger than males. One female had 1,451 fully developed oocytes in her ovaries. The major groups of prey found in the stomachs were: Insecta, Myriapoda, and Arachnida. Blattodea, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera (only ants) were the main food types in frequency, number, and weight. Aparasphenodon brunoi is a threatened species in many habitats of southeastern Brazil. Only natural vegetation protection may guarantee its survival during the immediate future. PMID:12489399

  15. Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae) do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae) from Pernambuco State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gardene Maria de Sousa; Maria das Graças Lapa Wanderley

    2000-01-01

    Foram registradas dez espécies do gênero Aechmea no Estado de Pernambuco: A. aquilega (Salisb.) Griseb., A. eurycorymbus Harms, A. fulgensBrongn., A. lingulata (L.) Baker, A. mertensü(G. Mey.) Schult. f., A. mulfordii L. B. Sm., A. murícata(Arruda) L. B. Sm., A. stelligera L. B. Sm., A. tomentosa M&z e A. werdermannii Harms. Duas espécies são endêmicas (A. murícata e A. werdermannii) e uma nova ocorrência (A. stelligerd) foi referida para Pernambuco. São apresentados chave, descrições, ilustr...

  16. Species-Specific Effects of Ant Inhabitants on Bromeliad Nutrition.

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    Ana Z Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Predator activities may lead to the accumulation of nutrients in specific areas of terrestrial habitats where they dispose of prey carcasses. In their feeding sites, predators may increase nutrient availability in the soil and favor plant nutrition and growth. However, the translocation of nutrients from one habitat to another may depend on predator identity and diet, as well as on the amount of prey intake. Here we used isotopic (15N and physiological methods in greenhouse experiments to evaluate the effects of the identity of predatory ants (i.e., the consumption of prey and nest sites on the nutrition and growth of the bromeliad Quesnelia arvensis. We showed that predatory ants with protein-based nutrition (i.e., Odontomachus hastatus, Gnamptogenys moelleri improved the performance of their host bromeliads (i.e., increased foliar N, production of soluble proteins and growth. On the other hand, the contribution of Camponotus crassus for the nutritional status of bromeliads did not differ from bromeliads without ants, possibly because this ant does not have arthropod prey as a preferred food source. Our results show, for the first time, that predatory ants can translocate nutrients from one habitat to another within forests, accumulating nutrients in their feeding sites that become available to bromeliads. Additionally, we highlight that ant contribution to plant nutrition may depend on predator identity and its dietary requirements. Nest debris may be especially important for epiphytic and terrestrial bromeliads in nutrient-poor environments.

  17. Fauna fitotelmata en las bromelias Aechmea fendleri André y Aechmea fendleri y Aechmea fendler del Parque Nacional San Esteban, Venezuela stellata S c h u l t d e l P a r q u e N a c i o n a l S a n E s t e b a n , V

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Liria

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo caracteriza la asociación de mosquitos y otros invertebrados sobre bromelias del Parque Nacional San Esteban del Estado Carabobo, Venezuela. Se estudiaron 18 plantas de Aechmea fendleri (11) Aechmea fendleri (1 1) Aechmea fendleri y Hohenbergia stellata (7) durante las épocas lluvia (Septiembre 2004) y sequía (Marzo 2005). Fueron colectados un total de 2020 macroinvertebrados. Los taxa más importantes fueron las Familias Chironomidae (43%), Culicidae (25%) y Chaoboridae (6...

  18. Substratos alternativos ao xaxim na produção de bromélia ornamental Alternative substrates to fern tree fiber in the production of ornamental bromeliad

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    Shoey Kanashiro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar substratos alternativos para o cultivo da bromélia Aechmea fasciata (Lindley Baker, para substituir com eficiência as misturas formuladas com o xaxim Dicksonia sellowiana (Presl. Hook. Foram testados os substratos: casca de Pinus, casca de Eucalyptus, coxim, fibra de coco e xaxim, misturados com turfa e perlita, nas proporções 2:7:1, 5:4:1 e 8:1:1. O experimento foi realizado em condições de estufa com cobertura de polietileno, sombreada com tela a 70%. As bromélias foram cultivadas durante 435 dias, até o início do florescimento - estádio de comercialização. As variáveis analisadas foram as massas de matéria seca de: folhas, raiz, inflorescência, escapo floral e caule; além da massa de matéria seca total e a qualidade comercial. Os substratos formulados com xaxim ou casca de Pinus, nas proporções 2:7:1, 5:4:1 e 8:1:1, e com casca de Eucalyptus, fibra de coco ou coxim, na proporção 2:7:1, foram as misturas que apresentaram os melhores resultados. Os substratos formulados com casca de Eucalyptus, fibra de coco ou coxim, com 10% de turfa e 10% de perlita, na proporção 8:1:1, apresentaram os piores resultados.The objective of this study was to evaluate alternative substrates for the cultivation of the bromeliad Aechmea fasciata (Lindley Baker, to substitute the formulated mixtures with fern tree fiber from Dicksonia sellowiana (Presl. Hook. Tested substrates were: Pinus bark, Eucalyptus bark, coxim (made of coconut fiber, coir or fern tree fiber, mixed with peat and perlite, in the proportions 2:7:1, 5:4:1 and 8:1:1. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse covered with polyethylene and shaded with shade cloth 70%. The bromeliads were cultivated during 435 days, until the beginning of the flowering, when they were suitable for commercialization. The evaluated parameters were dry masses of leaf, root, inflorescence, floral scape, and stem, besides total dry mass and the commercial

  19. Phylogenetic estimation of the core Bromelioids with an emphasis on the genus Aechmea (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Chodon; Specht, Chelsea D

    2010-05-01

    We developed a phylogeny of the core Bromelioideae including Aechmea and related genera, with the specific goals of investigating the monophyly of Aechmea and its allied genera, redefining monophyletic lineages for taxonomic revision, and investigating the biogeographic history of the group. Chloroplast, nuclear ribosomal, and low copy nuclear DNA sequences from 150 species within the Bromelioideae were used to develop the phylogeny. Phylogenies constructed with the combined four gene dataset provided sufficient resolution for investigating evolutionary relationships among species. Many genera are nested within Aechmea, or are rendered para- or polyphyletic by inclusion of Aechmea species. Several genera and subgenera of Aechmea with species in disjunct geographic locations are found to be polyphyletic, divided into separate clades that reflect geographic distribution rather than morphological similarity. This suggests that certain morphological characteristics thought to be indicative of common ancestry have instead evolved multiple times in parallel (i.e. ecological conservatism), possibly indicative of local adaptations to an epiphytic habit across the range of the Bromelioideae. These apparently homoplastic morphological characters used to assign species to genera or subgenera may be useful taxonomically when geography is also taken into account. PMID:20064621

  20. Bromeliad-living spiders improve host plant nutrition and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Mazzafera, Paulo; Vasconcellos-Neto, Joao; Trivelin, Paulo C O

    2006-04-01

    Although bromeliads are believed to obtain nutrients from debris deposited by animals in their rosettes, there is little evidence to support this assumption. Using stable isotope methods, we found that the Neotropical jumping spider Psecas chapoda (Salticidae), which lives strictly associated with the terrestrial bromeliad Bromelia balansae, contributed 18% of the total nitrogen of its host plant in a greenhouse experiment. In a one-year field experiment, plants with spiders produced leaves 15% longer than plants from which the spiders were excluded. This is the first study to show nutrient provisioning in a spider-plant system. Because several animal species live strictly associated with bromeliad rosettes, this type of facultative mutualism involving the Bromeliaceae may be more common than previously thought. PMID:16676522

  1. Bromeliad catchments as habitats for methanogenesis in tropical rainforest canopies

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    Shana K. Goffredi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical epiphytic plants within the family Bromeliaceae are unusual in that they possess foliage capable of retaining water and impounded material. This creates an acidic (pH 3.5-6.5 and anaerobic (< 1 ppm O2 environment suspended in the canopy. Results from a Costa Rican rainforest show that most bromeliads (n = 75/86 greater than ~20 cm in plant height or ~4-5 cm tank depth, showed presence of methanogens within the lower anoxic horizon of the tank. Archaea were dominated by methanogens (77-90% of recovered ribotypes and community structure, although variable, was generally comprised of a single type, closely related to either hydrogenotrophic Methanoregula or Methanocella, a specific clade of aceticlastic Methanosaeta, or Methanosarcina. Juvenile bromeliads, or those species, such as Guzmania, with shallow tanks, generally did not possess methanogens, as assayed by PCR specific for methanogen 16S rRNA genes, nor did artificial catchments (~ 100 ml volume, in place 6-12 months prior to sample collection. Methanogens were not detected in soil (n = 20, except in one case, in which the dominant ribotype was different from nearby bromeliads. Recovery of methyl coenzyme M reductase genes supported the occurrence of hydrogenotrophic and aceticlastic methanogens within bromeliad tanks, as well as the trend, via QPCR analysis of mcrA, of increased methanogenic capacity with increased plant height. Methane production rates of up to 300 nmol CH4 ml tank water -1 day-1 were measured in microcosm experiments. These results suggest that bromeliad-associated archaeal communities may play an important role in the cycling of carbon in neotropical forests.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Cultivated Bromeliad Accessions with Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Yongming Yu; Xiaojing Liu; Fuquan Shen; Danqing Tian; Jianxin Liu; Xiaolan Shen; Weiyong Wang; Fei Zhang; Xinying Yu; Yaying Ge

    2012-01-01

    Bromeliads are of great economic importance in flower production; however little information is available with respect to genetic characterization of cultivated bromeliads thus far. In the present study, a selection of cultivated bromeliads was characterized via inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers with an emphasis on genetic diversity and population structure. Twelve ISSR primers produced 342 bands, of which 287 (~84%) were polymorphic, with polymorphic bands per primer ranging from 1...

  3. Diversification of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest: A case study in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetze, Márcia; Schulte, Katharina; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Zanella, Camila M; Büttow, Miriam V; Capra, Fernanda; Bered, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia comprises ca. 20 species distributed in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, with a center of diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We examined interspecific relationships of Ortgiesia based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP). Ninety-six accessions belonging to 14 species of Ortgiesia were sampled, and genotyped with 11 AFLP primer combinations. The neighbor joining (NJ) tree depicted two main genetic groups within Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia, and four subgroups. The NJ tree showed short internal branches, indicating an overall shallow genetic divergence among Ortgiesia species as expected for the recently radiated subfamily Bromelioideae. Our results suggest that hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting may have hampered the reconstruction of interspecific relationships in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia. The mapping of petal color (yellow, blue, pink, or white), inflorescence type (simple or compound), and inflorescence shape (ellipsoid, subcylindric, cylindric, or pyramidal) against the NJ tree indicated that these characters are of limited taxonomic use in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia due to homoplasy. An analysis of the current distribution of Ortgiesia identified the southern region of the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, between latitudes of 26° and 27°S, as the center of diversity for the subgenus. PMID:26957015

  4. Host trait combinations drive abundance and canopy distribution of atmospheric bromeliad assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Cleber Juliano Neves; Dyonisio, Júlio César; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Epiphytes are strongly dependent on the conditions created by their host's traits and a certain degree of specificity is expected between them, even if these species are largely abundant in a series of tree hosts of a given environment, as in the case of atmospheric bromeliads. Despite their considerable abundance in these environments, we hypothesize that stochasticity alone cannot explain the presence and abundance of atmospheric bromeliads on host trees, since host traits could have a greater influence on the establishment of these bromeliads. We used secondary and reforested seasonal forests and three distinct silvicultures to test whether species richness, phylogenetic diversity and functional diversity of trees can predict the differential presence, abundance and distribution of atmospheric bromeliads on hosts. We compared the observed parameters of their assemblage with null models and performed successive variance hierarchic partitions of abundance and distribution of the assemblage to detect the influence of multiple traits of the tree hosts. Our results do not indicate direct relationships between the abundance of atmospheric bromeliads and phylogenetic or functional diversity of trees, but instead indicate that bromeliads occurred on fewer tree species than expected by chance. We distinguished functional tree patterns that can improve or reduce the abundance of atmospheric bromeliads, and change their distribution on branches and trunk. While individual tree traits are related to increased abundance, species traits are related to the canopy distribution of atmospheric bromeliad assemblages. A balance among these tree functional patterns drives the atmospheric bromeliad assemblage of the forest patches. PMID:26888951

  5. Macroinvertebrate fauna associated to the bromeliad Vriesea inflata of the Atlantic Forest (Paraná State, southern Brazil

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    Mestre Luiz Augusto M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulated water inside the bromeliad leaf rosette is a microhabitat for several animal and plant species. In this study, the associated fauna of bromeliad Vriesea inflata was analyzed related to seasons, bromeliad height in relation to the ground and environmental factors. The samples were seasonally collected in Quatro Barras (a municipality of Paraná State, southern Brazil between March 1996 and March 1997. The associated fauna was very rich and it was grouped in 23 taxonomic groups, with a dominance of Coleoptera Scirtidae, Diptera and Hymenoptera Formicidae. We found higher abundance of macroinvertebrates in terrestrial bromeliads during the spring/1996 and in epiphyte bromeliads in the autumn/1997.

  6. Leaf anatomy and its contribution to the systematics of Aechmea subgenus Macrochordion (de Vriese) Baker (Bromeliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula G. de Faria; Ana Claudia M. Vieira; Tânia Wendt

    2012-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of the species Aechmea subgenus Macrochordion was analyzed to obtain valuable data on their taxonomic delimitation and to identify anatomical adaptations to their respective habitats and habits. All leaves of these species are hypostomatic, and present: peltate trichomes on both surfaces; stomata sunk in epidermal depressions; small epidermal cells with thick walls and inclusions of silica bodies; a mechanical hypodermis; an aquiferous parenchyma; chlorenchyma with fibrous cl...

  7. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro - Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

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    Márcio Goulart Mocellin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07% and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18% were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.

  8. Native bromeliads as biomonitors of airborne chemical elements in a Brazilian restinga forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epiphytic bromeliads have been used as biomonitors of air pollution since they have specialized structures in leaves for absorbing humidity and nutrients available in the atmosphere. Leaves of five bromeliad species were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and analyzed by INAA. Vriesea carinata was the species showing most accumulation, with the highest mass fractions of K, Na, Rb and Zn. Similar results were previously found for the same species collected in the dense ombrophilous forest. Chemical composition of bromeliads provided an indication of the atmosphere status in the conservation unit. (author)

  9. VARIABLE-THROW CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsil, E.C.; Robinson, E.Y.

    1963-07-16

    A variable-throw cam comprising inner and outer eccentric sleeves which are adjustably locked together is described. The cam throw is varied by unlocking the inner and outer sleeves, rotating the outer sleeve relative to the inner one until the desired throw is obtained, and locking the sleeves together again. The cam is useful in applications wherein a continuously-variable throw is required, e.g., ram-and-die pressing operations, cyclic fatigue testing of materials, etc. (AEC)

  10. Microhabitat use and spatial distribution in Picado’s Bromeliad Treefrog, Isthmohyla picadoi (Anura, Hylidae

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    Adam M. M. Stuckert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Isthmohyla picadoi is a Neotropical hylid frog found in upper humid montane forests of Costa Rica and Panama. The species is of particular interest because it continues to persist in an area in which the amphibian community has otherwise been decimated by the pathogenic fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Ground search, ladder climbing, and tree climbing techniques were used to locate 32 individuals; including adult males and females, juveniles, andmetamorphosing frogs. The majority of frogs were found in bromeliads, although some individuals were found on plants of the Euphorbiaceae, Musaceae, and Heliconiaceae families. Most frogs were found in larger bromeliads (45 cm or wider. There was a positive correlation between SUL and bromeliad width within the population but not within maturity classes (adult males, adult females, all adults, nonmetamorphosingjuveniles, suggesting that juvenile and adult frogs differ in bromeliad usage. Ranges of SUL and body weight in this particular population are much greater than those reported in previous species accounts.

  11. Aquatic invertebrate communities in tank bromeliads: how well do classic ecological patterns apply?

    OpenAIRE

    Jocque, Merlijn; Field, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) often occur in high densities in the Neotropics and represent a key freshwater habitat in montane forests, housing quite complex invertebrate communities. We tested the extent to which there are species richness–altitude, richness–environment, richness–size, richness–habitat complexity and richness–isolation relationships for the aquatic invertebrate communities from 157 bromeliads in Cusuco National Park, Honduras. We found that invertebrate species richness an...

  12. Revisión del género Aechmea (Bromeliaceae) para Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Betancur Betancur Julio César; Aguirre Santoro Julián Andrés

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta la lista de las especies de Aechmea (Bromeliaceae: Bromelioideae) para Colombia, en la que se incluyen algunos comentarios taxonómicos y sobre su distribución geográfica y altitudinal. Se registran 42 especies para Colombia, de las cuales tres son nuevas para la ciencia, siete son endémicas (A. anomala, A. nivea, A. stenosepala, A. subpetiolata y las tres especies nuevas) y tres son nuevos registros para el país (A. politii, A. retusa y A. tocantina). La mayor parte de las especie...

  13. CAM and NK Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Takeda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that tumor development, outgrowth and metastasis are under the surveillance of the immune system. Although both innate and acquired immune systems play roles, innate immunity is the spearhead against tumors. Recent studies have revealed the critical role of natural killer (NK cells in immune surveillance and that NK cell activity is considerably influenced by various agents, such as environmental factors, stress, foods and drugs. Some of these NK cell stimulants have been used in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM since ancient times. Therefore, the value of CAM should be re-evaluated from this point of view. In this review, we overview the intimate correlation between NK cell functions and CAM agents, and discuss possible underlying mechanisms mediating this. In particular, neuro-immune crosstalk and receptors for CAM agents are the most important and interesting candidates for such mechanisms.

  14. Spatial heterogeneity and the distribution of bromeliad pollinators in the Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varassin, Isabela Galarda; Sazima, Marlies

    2012-08-01

    Interactions between plants and their pollinators are influenced by environmental heterogeneity, resulting in small-scale variations in interactions. This may influence pollinator co-existence and plant reproductive success. This study, conducted at the Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia (EBSL), a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, investigated the effect of small-scale spatial variations on the interactions between bromeliads and their pollinators. Overall, hummingbirds pollinated 19 of 23 bromeliad species, of which 11 were also pollinated by bees and/or butterflies. However, spatial heterogeneity unrelated to the spatial location of plots or bromeliad species abundance influenced the presence of pollinators. Hummingbirds were the most ubiquitous pollinators at the high-elevation transect, with insect participation clearly declining as transect elevation increased. In the redundancy analysis, the presence of the hummingbird species Phaethornis eurynome, Phaethornis squalidus, Ramphodon naevius, and Thalurania glaucopis, and the butterfly species Heliconius erato and Heliconius nattereri in each plot was correlated with environmental factors such as bromeliad and tree abundance, and was also correlated with horizontal diversity. Since plant-pollinator interactions varied within the environmental mosaics at the study site, this small-scale environmental heterogeneity may relax competition among pollinators, and may explain the high diversity of bromeliads and pollinators generally found in the Atlantic Forest.

  15. Tank bromeliad water: similar or distinct environments for research of bacterial bioactives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, F L; Santos, H F; Peixoto, R S; Rosado, A S; Araujo, F V

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Rainforest does not have a uniform physiognomy, its relief determines different environmental conditions that define the composition of its flora and fauna. Within this ecosystem, bromeliads that form tanks with their leaves hold water reservoirs throughout the year, maintaining complex food chains, based mainly on autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. Some works concluded that the water held by tank bromeliads concentrate the microbial diversity of their ecosystem. To investigate the bacterial diversity and the potential biotechnology of these ecosystems, tank bromeliads of the Neoregelia cruenta species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil were used as models for this research. Bacteria isolated from these models were tested for production of bioactive compounds. DGGE of the water held by tank bromeliads was performed in different seasons, locations and sun exposure to verify whether these environmental factors affect bacterial communities. The DGGE bands profile showed no grouping of bacterial community by the environmental factors tested. Most of the isolates demonstrated promising activities in the tests performed. Collectively, these results suggest that tank bromeliads of the N. cruenta species provide important habitats for a diverse microbial community, suggesting that each tank forms a distinct micro-habitat. These tanks can be considered excellent sources for the search for new enzymes and/or new bioactive composites of microbial origin. PMID:24948929

  16. Tank bromeliad water: similar or distinct environments for research of bacterial bioactives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Carmo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Rainforest does not have a uniform physiognomy, its relief determines different environmental conditions that define the composition of its flora and fauna. Within this ecosystem, bromeliads that form tanks with their leaves hold water reservoirs throughout the year, maintaining complex food chains, based mainly on autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. Some works concluded that the water held by tank bromeliads concentrate the microbial diversity of their ecosystem. To investigate the bacterial diversity and the potential biotechnology of these ecosystems, tank bromeliads of the Neoregelia cruenta species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil were used as models for this research. Bacteria isolated from these models were tested for production of bioactive compounds. DGGE of the water held by tank bromeliads was performed in different seasons, locations and sun exposure to verify whether these environmental factors affect bacterial communities. The DGGE bands profile showed no grouping of bacterial community by the environmental factors tested. Most of the isolates demonstrated promising activities in the tests performed. Collectively, these results suggest that tank bromeliads of the N. cruenta species provide important habitats for a diverse microbial community, suggesting that each tank forms a distinct micro-habitat. These tanks can be considered excellent sources for the search for new enzymes and/or new bioactive composites of microbial origin.

  17. Efeito da adubação foliar com KNO3 na aclimatização de bromélia cultivada in vitro Effect of foliar KNO3 fertilization in the acclimatization of bromeliads grown in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Reis Tavares

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação foliar nitrogenada na aclimatização de bromélia cultivada in vitro, utilizaram-se mudas de Aechmea blanchetiana, que, após o processo de cultivo in vitro, foram transferidas para substrato constituído de areia e adubadas por pulverização de 3,0 mL, a cada 30 dias, com solução de KNO3 nas concentrações de 0,0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 g L-1. Foram avaliadas as variáveis comprimento da maior folha e raiz, número de folhas, fitomassa fresca e seca das plantas e a porcentagem de plantas mortas no estágio inicial e após dois períodos de aclimatização (0; 60 e 120 dias. Concentrações maiores de KNO3 foram eficientes, amenizando os efeitos do estresse durante o período da aclimatização de 60 dias. Entretanto, ao final do experimento (120 dias, as plantas submetidas à adubação foliar com KNO3 apresentaram menor crescimento que o controle.The effect of foliar nitrogen fertilization, for an efficient acclimatization of in vitro propagation bromeliads was evaluated, using Aechmea blanchetiana plantlets which, after the in vitro propagation, were transferred to a sandy substratum and fertilized with 3.0 mL sprinkler irrigation of 0.0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 g L-1 nitrates concentrations using KNO3 as N source. Foliar length, the size of the larger root, leaves number, dry and fresh fitomass quantity and dead plants percentage after three times of acclimatization (0, 60 and 120 days were evaluated. The results showed that higher KNO3 concentrations were efficient to brighten up the stress effects. However, at the end of the experiment (120 days, only lower KNO3 concentrations to an efficient acclimatization to this specific specie were necessary.

  18. Leaf anatomy and its contribution to the systematics of Aechmea subgenus Macrochordion (de Vriese) Baker (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Ana Paula G de; Vieira, Ana Claudia M; Wendt, Tânia

    2012-12-01

    The leaf anatomy of the species Aechmea subgenus Macrochordion was analyzed to obtain valuable data on their taxonomic delimitation and to identify anatomical adaptations to their respective habitats and habits. All leaves of these species are hypostomatic, and present: peltate trichomes on both surfaces; stomata sunk in epidermal depressions; small epidermal cells with thick walls and inclusions of silica bodies; a mechanical hypodermis; an aquiferous parenchyma; chlorenchyma with fibrous clusters and air channels; and vascular bundles surrounded by a parenchymatic sheath and a cap of fibers. The results are evaluated within an adaptive and taxonomic context. Variations in hypodermic thickening, amount of water parenchyma, position of the air channels and shape of the cells filling the air channels are useful for delimiting groups of species, strengthening the relationships suggested by their external morphology. PMID:22935923

  19. Revisión del género Aechmea (Bromeliaceae para Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancur Betancur Julio César

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la lista de las especies de Aechmea (Bromeliaceae: Bromelioideae para Colombia, en la que se incluyen algunos comentarios taxonómicos y sobre su distribución geográfica y altitudinal. Se registran 42 especies para Colombia, de las cuales tres son nuevas para la ciencia, siete son endémicas (A. anomala, A. nivea, A. stenosepala, A. subpetiolata y las tres especies nuevas y tres son nuevos registros para el país (A. politii, A. retusa y A. tocantina. La mayor parte de las especies se concentran en la región amazónica (con el 61 % de las
    especies y andina (54 %, así como en las subregiones llanura amazónica (54 %, vertiente magdalenense (34
    %, otras serranías de la Amazonía (32 % y la vertiente oriental andina (29 %. Por otra parte, las especies se
    distribuyen entre 0 y 2.400 m de altitud, pero la mayor riqueza se encontró entre 0 y 600 m, punto a partir
    del cual se presenta una disminución gradual en el número de especies con respecto a la altitud. Así, Colombia
    se convierte en el segundo país del mundo con más especies de Aechmea, después de Brasil, la mayor parte
    de las cuales prefieren los bosques húmedos de tierras bajas.

  20. PreCam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allam, Sahar S. [Fermilab; Tucker, Douglas L. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) will be taking the next step in probing the properties of Dark Energy and in understanding the physics of cosmic acceleration. A step towards the photometric calibration of DES is to have a quick, bright survey in the DES footprint (PreCam), using a pre-production set of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) CCDs and a set of 100 mm×100 mm DES filters. The objective of the PreCam Survey is to create a network of calibrated DES grizY standard stars that will be used for DES nightly calibrations and to improve the DES global relative calibrations. Here, we describe the first year of PreCam observation, results, and photometric calibrations.

  1. CAMS achievements in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMS (Computerized Accident Management Support) is a system being developed as a joint research activity at the Halden Reactor Project with additional financing from the Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) and the Nordic NKS/RAK-2 project. Three types of users are envisaged: the staff in the control room, the staff in the technical support centre and the staff at a national emergency centre. It is still an experimental system. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate kindly accepted to test CAMS at a safety exercise on the 4th of May, 1995. CAMS is designed assuming automatic data transfer from the plant. Missing the data link, a simulator running in the next room was updated now and then with data received by phone. As seen from CAMS, it did not matter if the data came from a fake plant or from a real plant, except that the data were delayed. Overall, it seemed that CAMS can be a very important tool for a national authority. A data link from the plant would increase its usefulness. Several comments on design features were collected and will be used to improve the system. The model needs more inputs to control the main parameters, and a larger repertoire of fault conditions should be put into the model. In the second half of 1995 the work on CAMS has concentrated upon designing new modules for signal validation, tracking simulation and state identification. This will provide better capabilities for on-line monitoring and assessment of the plant state. Further, it has been proposed to introduce Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) to assist in risk monitoring. A first prototype has been made on a personal computer showing the main features of such a PSA module. (au)

  2. Diversification of the Core Bromelioids with a focus on the genus Aechmea: phylogeny, morphology, and climate tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Sass, Chodon

    2011-01-01

    Understanding patterns of speciation is of fundamental importance to evolutionary biologists. Species diversity can be maintained and generated through processes originating from interactions with climate, biota, and geography. In order to investigate the role of these factors on diversity in a species-rich group of plants, we developed a phylogeny of the core Bromelioideae including Aechmea and related genera with the specific goals of investigating monophyly of genera, biogeographic histo...

  3. Fauna fitotelmata en las bromelias Aechmea fendleri André y Aechmea fendleri y Aechmea fendler del Parque Nacional San Esteban, Venezuela stellata S c h u l t d e l P a r q u e N a c i o n a l S a n E s t e b a n , V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Liria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo caracteriza la asociación de mosquitos y otros invertebrados sobre bromelias del Parque Nacional San Esteban del Estado Carabobo, Venezuela. Se estudiaron 18 plantas de Aechmea fendleri (11 Aechmea fendleri (1 1 Aechmea fendleri y Hohenbergia stellata (7 durante las épocas lluvia (Septiembre 2004 y sequía (Marzo 2005. Fueron colectados un total de 2020 macroinvertebrados. Los taxa más importantes fueron las Familias Chironomidae (43%, Culicidae (25% y Chaoboridae (6% del Orden Diptera, y Scyrtidae (5% del Orden Coleoptera. En Culicidae las especies más abundan- tes fueron: Culex consolador (31%, Cx. neglectus (27% y Wyeomyia celaenocephala (17%. La mayor abundancia y riqueza se encontró en la época de sequía, con el aumento de diversidad en Culicidae. La diversidad y equitabilidad de macroinvertebrados fue mayor H. stellata , pero similares entre estaciones para las comunidades de A. fendleri y A. fendleri y A. fendleri H. stellata .

  4. Leaf anatomy and its contribution to the systematics of Aechmea subgenus Macrochordion (de Vriese Baker (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula G. de Faria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The leaf anatomy of the species Aechmea subgenus Macrochordion was analyzed to obtain valuable data on their taxonomic delimitation and to identify anatomical adaptations to their respective habitats and habits. All leaves of these species are hypostomatic, and present: peltate trichomes on both surfaces; stomata sunk in epidermal depressions; small epidermal cells with thick walls and inclusions of silica bodies; a mechanical hypodermis; an aquiferous parenchyma; chlorenchyma with fibrous clusters and air channels; and vascular bundles surrounded by a parenchymatic sheath and a cap of fibers. The results are evaluated within an adaptive and taxonomic context. Variations in hypodermic thickening, amount of water parenchyma, position of the air channels and shape of the cells filling the air channels are useful for delimiting groups of species, strengthening the relationships suggested by their external morphology.A anatomia foliar de espécies de Aechmea subgênero Macrochordion foi analisada visando obter caracteres úteis para sua delimitação taxonômica e identificar adaptações anatômicas aos seus respectivos habitats e hábitos. Todas as folhas são hipoestomáticas e apresentam: tricomas peltados nas duas superfícies; estômatos inseridos em depressões da epiderme; células epidérmicas pequenas, com paredes espessadas e inclusões de corpos de sílica; hipoderme mecânica; parênquima aquífero; clorênquima com feixes de fibras e canais de aeração; feixes vasculares envolvidos por bainha parenquimática e calotas de fibras. Os resultados são avaliados dentro de um contexto adaptativo e taxonômico. Variações no espessamento da hipoderme, na quantidade de parênquima aquífero, na posição dos canais de aeração e na forma das células que preenchem os canais de aeração mostraram-se úteis para separar grupos de espécies, corroborando relações de similaridade apontadas pela morfologia externa.

  5. Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes from Atlantic forest in Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil (Diptera, Culicidae, with new records for the State of Santa Catarina Mosquitos associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil (Diptera, Culicidae, com novos registros para o Estado de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Azulim Müller

    Full Text Available Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Atlantic Forest in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, were studied, examining plants of Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra and Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii at secondary Atlantic rain forest, and A. lindenii and Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith at "restinga" per month, during 12 months. No immature forms of mosquitoes were collected from A. lindenii in the secondary forest. Collections obtained 368 immature mosquitoes, none of them from A. lindenii from rain forest. Culex (Microculex spp. constituted 79.8% of the total, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia spp. 17.93%, and Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii (Dyar & Knab, 1908 only 1.36%. The study shows the great predominance of species of medical importance not yet proved, and the small number of immature stages of anopheline mosquitoes. The rainfall, but not the mean temperatures, significantly influenced the quantity of mosquitoes from V. philippocoburgi. Significant differences between the quantities of immature forms of all the bromeliad species were found, and the shape of the plants could be important to the abundance of mosquitoes. All six species of Cx. (Microculex found are recorded for the first time in the State of Santa Catarina, and all six species of Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia are recorded for the first time in bromeliads in this state.Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, no Estado de Santa Catarina, foram estudados. Foram examinadas mensalmente plantas de Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra e Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii de floresta atlântica pluvial ombrófila e A. lindenii e Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith de restinga, durante 12 meses. As coletas resultaram em 368 formas imaturas de mosquitos, sendo que nenhuma foi coletada em A. lindenii de mata ombrófila. Culex (Microculex spp. constituíram 79,8% do total

  6. Ants mediate the structure of phytotelm communities in an ant-garden bromeliad

    OpenAIRE

    Céréghino, Régis; Leroy, Céline; Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    The main theories explaining the biological diversity of rain forests often confer a limited understanding of the contribution of interspecific interactions to the observed patterns. We show how two-species mutualisms can affect much larger segments of the invertebrate community in tropical rain forests. Aechmea mertensii (Bromeliaceae) is both a phytotelm (plant-held water) and an ant-garden epiphyte. We studied the influence of its associated ant species (Pachycondyla goeldii and Camponotus...

  7. Role of ethylene and cytokinins in the initiation of lateral shoot growth in bromeliads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijck, R; De Proft, M; De Greef, J

    1988-03-01

    Aechmea victoriana var discolor L. B. Foster and Aechmea dactylina Bal. are commercially propagated in vitro through lateral shoot growth. A modified Murashige and Skoog medium is used which contains both BA and IAA. These growth substances were shown in the present study to synergistically stimulate the production of ethylene by the cultured plants. The stimulation of ethylene production is correlated with the outgrowth of the lateral buds. The rise in ethylene production was concluded to induce lateral shoot growth, because: (a) outgrowth of the shoots was blocked by preventing an increase in ethylene production, (b) 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the natural precursor of ethylene biosynthesis, substituted for IAA in the promotion of ethylene production and lateral bud outgrowth. Although ACC could substitute for IAA, it could not substitute for BA; therefore, cytokinins are concluded to be essential for lateral bud outgrowth in vitro in Aechmea. These results suggest that cytokinins and ethylene both play roles in natural lateral bud initiation and that the cytokinin function involves two stages of the process. PMID:16665997

  8. Germinação de Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Griseb. (Bromeliaceae) em diferentes substratos alternativos ao pó de xaxim = Germination of Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Griseb. (Bromeliaceae) in different substracts as alternatives to Dicksonia sellowiana Hook

    OpenAIRE

    Adilson Anacleto; Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle; Henrique Soares Koehler

    2008-01-01

    Avaliou-se a germinação das sementes de Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Griseb. (Bromeliaceae). As tentativas de produção desta espécie, a partir de sementes, têm ocorrido de forma empírica, utilizando-se substrato à base de pó de xaxim (Dicksonia sellowiana Hook.), que tem restrições de uso, por estar ameaçada de extinção. Foram testados cinco tipos alternativos de substratos de fácil acessibilidade: húmus de minhoca, areia, fibra de casca de coco, serapilheira e Plantmax®. O experimento foi realiza...

  9. Variações na morfoanatomia foliar de Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren) Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae) sob distintas condições ambientais Leaf morphoanatomy variation in Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren) Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae) under distinct environmental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Heinig Voltolini; Marisa Santos

    2011-01-01

    Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren) Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae-Bromelioideae) ocorre em restingas e Floresta Pluvial de Encosta Atlântica em Santa Catarina e Nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul, BR. Pode ser encontrada total ou parcialmente exposta à irradiação solar e em distintas formas de vida - terrícola, rupícola e epifítica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar morfoanatomicamente às características de folhas de A. lindenii var. lindenii em distintas condições ambientais. Foram coletadas, n...

  10. Aechmea rodriguesiana (L. B. Sm.) L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae) uma espécie endêmica da Amazônia brasileira Aechmea rodriguesiana (L. B. Sm.) L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae), an endemic species of the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Gardene Maria de Sousa; Maria das Graças Lapa Wanderley

    2007-01-01

    Aechmea subgênero Chevaliera (Gaudich. ex Beer) Baker está representado na Amazônia brasileira pelas espécies A. fernandae (E. Morren) Baker e A. rodriguesiana (L. B. Sm.) L. B. Sm., sendo a última restrita para esta região. A. rodriguesiana se caracteriza pelas flores dispostas em racemo de espigas, com brácteas florais ovais, margens inteiras, envolvendo o ovário e pelas pétalas alvas e cuculadas. O presente trabalho apresenta a complementação da descrição e ilustrações desta espécie. São a...

  11. Estrutura foliar de espécies de Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae) do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Leaf anatomy of Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae) of São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Lúcia Proença; Maria das Graças Sajo

    2004-01-01

    O estudo da estrutura foliar de Aechmea bromeliifolia (Rudge) Baker, A. distichantha Lem., A. ornata Baker, A. nudicaulis (L.) Griseb., A. pectinata Baker, A. coelestis (K. Koch) E. Morren, A. cylindrata Lindm. e A. gracilis Lindm. mostrou que, em todas as espécies, as folhas são hipoestomáticas e revestidas por células epidérmicas de paredes sinuosas e portadoras de corpos silicosos. Apresentam também hipoderme mecânica e aqüífera, escamas nas duas superfícies e canais de aeração, interrompi...

  12. Hydraulic involute cam actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Lonnie J.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-11-01

    Mechanical joints are provided in which the angle between a first coupled member and a second coupled member may be varied by mechanical actuators. In some embodiments the angle may be varied around a pivot axis in one plane and in some embodiments the angle may be varied around two pivot axes in two orthogonal planes. The joints typically utilize a cam assembly having two lobes with an involute surface. Actuators are configured to push against the lobes to vary the rotation angle between the first and second coupled member.

  13. Determinação de metais em água e folha de AECHMEA BLANCHETIANA (BAKER) L.B

    OpenAIRE

    Jaline R. Ribeiro; Sergio Siqueira; Cleber G. Novaes; João H. Santos Neto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the concentrations of calcium, iron, manganese, zinc, potassium and sodium in the water and leaves of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) L.B species collected between the cities of Ilhéus and Itacaré, Bahia, Brazil and verify if the metals found in the water can be absorbed by the leaves. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F AAS) and flame photometry were used for the determination of metals. pH measurements, dissolved oxygen and water temperature were a...

  14. CAD/CAM data management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, O. H.

    1984-01-01

    The role of data base management in CAD/CAM, particularly for geometric data is described. First, long term and short term objectives for CAD/CAM data management are identified. Second, the benefits of the data base management approach are explained. Third, some of the additional work needed in the data base area is discussed.

  15. Optimisation Methods for Cam Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia–Mari Popa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the criteria which represent the base of optimizing the cam mechanisms and also we perform the calculations for several types of mechanisms. We study the influence of the constructive parameters in case of the simple machines with rotation cam and follower (flat or curve of translation on the curvature radius and that of the transmission angle. As it follows, we present the optimization calculations of the cam and flat rotation follower mechanisms, as well as the calculations for optimizing the cam mechanisms by circular groove followers’ help. For an easier interpretation of the results, we have visualized the obtained cam in AutoCAD according to the script files generated by a calculation program.

  16. Aechmea rodriguesiana (L. B. Sm. L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae uma espécie endêmica da Amazônia brasileira Aechmea rodriguesiana (L. B. Sm. L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae, an endemic species of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardene Maria de Sousa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aechmea subgênero Chevaliera (Gaudich. ex Beer Baker está representado na Amazônia brasileira pelas espécies A. fernandae (E. Morren Baker e A. rodriguesiana (L. B. Sm. L. B. Sm., sendo a última restrita para esta região. A. rodriguesiana se caracteriza pelas flores dispostas em racemo de espigas, com brácteas florais ovais, margens inteiras, envolvendo o ovário e pelas pétalas alvas e cuculadas. O presente trabalho apresenta a complementação da descrição e ilustrações desta espécie. São apresentados dados de distribuição geográfica, hábitats e fenológicos.Aechmea subgenus Chevaliera (Gaudich. ex Beer Baker, is represented in the Brazilian Amazon by two species: A. fernandae (E. Morren Baker and A. rodriguesiana (L. B. Sm. L. B. Sm., the latter being restricted to this region. A. rodriguesiana is characterized by flowers arranged on racemes of spikes, oval floral bracts with entire margins that completely surround the ovary, and by cuculate white petals. The present work has as main goal to complement the description and illustration of this species, exclusive to the Brazilian Amazon, allowing its recognition and conservation. Data on geographical distribution, habitat, and phenology are presented.

  17. Macroinvertebrates inhabiting the tank leaf terrestrial and epiphyte bromeliads at Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharlene Roberta da Silva Torreias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the diversity of macroinvertebrates and also verify if the abundance and diversity of Diptera were influenced by the abiotic factors. The samples were collected from the epiphytic and terrestrial bromeliads G. brasiliensis (1 and 3m in wet and dry seasons at Reserva Adolpho Ducke analyzed total of 144 samples were analyzed from a total of 15,238 individuals collected. These conatined 14,097 insects and, among these, 8,258 were immature Diptera, represented by eight most abundant families: Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae and Culicidae. The relationship of Diptera diversity was influenced by the seasons and stratifications (p= 0.01; the abundance was influenced by the volume of water (p= 0.02 and the relationship between the season and volume of water in the terrestrial bromeliads was significant (p= 0.01. This study represented the first contribution to knowledge of community of macroinvertebrates associated to bromeliads G. brasiliensis in Central Amazon.

  18. Rad Pole Cam Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RadPoleCam was developed to provide Department Of Energy (DOE) first responders the capability to assess the radiological and visual condition of remote or inaccessible locations. Real time gamma isotopic identification is provided to the first responder in the form of audio feedback (i.e. spoken through head phones) from a gamma detector mounted on a collapsible pole that can extend from 1 to 9 meters (6 to 29 feet). Simultaneously, selectable direct and side looking visual images are provided from the 5cm (2in) diameter, waterproof probe tip. The lightweight, self contained, ruggedized, system will provide a rapidly deployable field system for visual and radiological search and assessment of confined spaces and extended reach locations

  19. Time to Talk about CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section CAM Time to Talk Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of ... helps to ensure your coordinated, safe care. NCCAM's Time to Talk program is just right for talking ...

  20. Hyper Suprime-Cam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Kamata, Yukiko; Doi, Yoshi; Hamana, Takashi; Karoji, Hiroshi; Furusawa, Hisanori; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Ishizuka, Yuki; Nariai, Kyoji; Tanaka, Yoko; Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Utsumi, Yousuke; Obuchi, Yoshiyuki; Okura, Yuki; Oguri, Masamune; Takata, Tadafumi; Tomono, Daigo; Kurakami, Tomio; Namikawa, Kazuhito; Usuda, Tomonori; Yamanoi, Hitomi; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Uekiyo, Hatsue; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Koike, Michitaro; Aihara, Hiro; Fujimori, Yuki; Mineo, Sogo; Miyatake, Hironao; Yasuda, Naoki; Nishizawa, Jun; Saito, Tomoki; Tanaka, Manobu; Uchida, Tomohisa; Katayama, Nobu; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Lupton, Robert; Loomis, Craig; Bickerton, Steve; Price, Paul; Gunn, Jim; Suzuki, Hisanori; Miyazaki, Yasuhito; Muramatsu, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Koei; Endo, Makoto; Ezaki, Yutaka; Itoh, Noboru; Miwa, Yoshinori; Yokota, Hideo; Matsuda, Toru; Ebinuma, Ryuichi; Takeshi, Kunio

    2012-09-01

    Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) is an 870 Mega pixel prime focus camera for the 8.2 m Subaru telescope. The wide field corrector delivers sharp image of 0.25 arc-sec FWHM in r-band over the entire 1.5 degree (in diameter) field of view. The collimation of the camera with respect to the optical axis of the primary mirror is realized by hexapod actuators whose mechanical accuracy is few microns. As a result, we expect to have seeing limited image most of the time. Expected median seeing is 0.67 arc-sec FWHM in i-band. The sensor is a p-ch fully depleted CCD of 200 micron thickness (2048 x 4096 15 μm square pixel) and we employ 116 of them to pave the 50 cm focal plane. Minimum interval between exposures is roughly 30 seconds including reading out arrays, transferring data to the control computer and saving them to the hard drive. HSC uniquely features the combination of large primary mirror, wide field of view, sharp image and high sensitivity especially in red. This enables accurate shape measurement of faint galaxies which is critical for planned weak lensing survey to probe the nature of dark energy. The system is being assembled now and will see the first light in August 2012.

  1. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Low Back Pain and CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section CAM Low Back Pain and CAM Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of ... from CAM treatment for conditions such as low back pain. Photo courtesy of Glenn Scimonelli "Oh, my aching ...

  2. Determinação de metais em água e folha de AECHMEA BLANCHETIANA (BAKER L.B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaline R. Ribeiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the concentrations of calcium, iron, manganese, zinc, potassium and sodium in the water and leaves of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker L.B species collected between the cities of Ilhéus and Itacaré, Bahia, Brazil and verify if the metals found in the water can be absorbed by the leaves. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F AAS and flame photometry were used for the determination of metals. pH measurements, dissolved oxygen and water temperature were also made. The results obtained were used in an exploratory analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA showed clearly the distinct formation of two clusters and the correlation analysis indicated that the leaves of A. blanchetiana seem to absorb iron, calcium, manganese and zinc from the water tank.

  3. Decomposition of plant-sourced carbon compounds by heterotrophic betaproteobacteria isolated from a tropical Costa Rican bromeliad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Jane; McHenry, Alexandra; Montelongo, Carin; Goffredi, Shana K

    2016-06-01

    Betaproteobacteria were the most common isolates from the water-filled tank of a Costa Rican bromeliad. Isolates included eight species from the orders Neisseriales and Burkholderiales, with close relatives recovered previously from tropical soils, wetlands, freshwater, or in association with plants. Compared to close relatives, the isolates displayed high temperature and comparatively low pH optima, reflecting the tropical, acidic nature of the bromeliad tank. Bromeliad-associated bacteria most closely related to Chromobacterium, Herbaspirillum, and Aquitalea were all isolated exclusively at pH 6, while Ralstonia, Cupriavidus, and three species of Burkholderia were isolated mostly at pH 4. Activity profiles for the isolates suggest pervasive capabilities for the breakdown of plant-sourced organics, including d-galacturonic acid, mannitol, d-xylose, and l-phenylalanine, also reflecting a niche dominated by decomposition of leaves from the overlying canopy, which become entrained in the tanks. Metabolic activity profiles were overlapping between the Burkholderiales, isolated at pH 4, and the Neisseriales, isolated at pH 6, suggesting that plant material decomposition, which is presumably the underlying process sustaining the tank community and possibly the plant itself, occurs in the tanks at both pH extremes. These results suggest that bromeliad-associated betaproteobacteria may play an important role in the cycling of carbon in this unusual aquatic habitat. PMID:26918550

  4. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Go Back Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Email Print + Share Crohn’s disease and ulcerative ... Energy Medicine, and Biologically-Based Practices. Mind-Body Medicine Mind-body medicine is a set of interventions ...

  5. The detection of EpCAM(+) and EpCAM(-) circulating tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Sanne; van Dalum, Guus; Lenferink, Aufried T. M.; Tibbe, Arjan G. J.; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.; Groen, Harry J. M.; van Rijn, Cees J. M.; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM(+) CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM(-) CTC discarded by CellSearch, after EpCAM based

  6. The Z CamPaign: Year Five

    CERN Document Server

    Simonsen, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Entering into the fifth year of the Z CamPaign, the author has developed a website summarizing our findings which will also act as a living catalog of bona fide Z Cam stars, suspected Z Cams and Z Cam impostors. In this paper we summarize the findings of the first four years of research, introduce the website and its contents to the public and discuss the way forward into year five and beyond.

  7. Relacionamento entre anfíbios anuros e bromélias da restinga de Regência, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Schineider José Alberto P.; Teixeira Rogério L.

    2001-01-01

    Some anuran amphibians use the bromeliads during the entire life cycle and others only as diurnal shelter. At the sandy coastal plain of Linhares, State of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, 676 bromeliads were examined, of which 303 of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) L. B. Smith., 1955, 287 of Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Griseb., 1864, and 86 of Vrisea procera (Mart. Ex Schult. f.) Wittm, 1891. The morphometric and physical-chemical analysis of different bromeliads evidenced variations among plan...

  8. Resources Alter the Structure and Increase Stochasticity in Bromeliad Microfauna Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Jana S.; Kratina, Pavel; Marino, Nicholas A. C.; MacDonald, A. Andrew M.; Srivastava, Diane S.

    2015-01-01

    Although stochastic and deterministic processes have been found to jointly shape structure of natural communities, the relative importance of both forces may vary across different environmental conditions and across levels of biological organization. We tested the effects of abiotic environmental conditions, altered trophic interactions and dispersal limitation on the structure of aquatic microfauna communities in Costa Rican tank bromeliads. Our approach combined natural gradients in environmental conditions with experimental manipulations of bottom-up interactions (resources), top-down interactions (predators) and dispersal at two spatial scales in the field. We found that resource addition strongly increased the abundance and reduced the richness of microfauna communities. Community composition shifted in a predictable way towards assemblages dominated by flagellates and ciliates but with lower abundance and richness of algae and amoebae. While all functional groups responded strongly and predictably to resource addition, similarity among communities at the species level decreased, suggesting a role of stochasticity in species-level assembly processes. Dispersal limitation did not affect the communities. Since our design excluded potential priority effects we can attribute the differences in community similarity to increased demographic stochasticity of resource-enriched communities related to erratic changes in population sizes of some species. In contrast to resources, predators and environmental conditions had negligible effects on community structure. Our results demonstrate that bromeliad microfauna communities are strongly controlled by bottom-up forces. They further suggest that the relative importance of stochasticity may change with productivity and with the organizational level at which communities are examined. PMID:25775464

  9. The detection of EpCAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, De Sanne; Dalum, Van Guus; Lenferink, Aufried T.M.; Tibbe, Arjan G.J.; Hiltermann, T.J.N.; Groen, Harry J.M.; Rijn, Van C.J.M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM+ CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM- CTC discarded by CellSear

  10. Changes in Carbohydrate and Nutrient Contents Throughout a Reproductive Cycle Indicate that Phosphorus is a Limiting Nutrient in the Epiphytic Bromeliad, Werauhia sanguinolenta

    OpenAIRE

    ZOTZ, GERHARD; Richter, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims This study examined the physiological basis of the cost of reproduction in the epiphytic bromeliad Werauhia sanguinolenta, growing in situ in a tropical lowland forest in Panama.

  11. CAMS: Computerized Accident Management Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has initiated a new research programme on computerised accident management support, the so-called CAMS project (CAMS = Computerized Accident Management Support). This work will investigate the possibilities for developing systems which provide more extensive support to the control room staff and technical support centre than the existing SPDS (Safety Parameter Display System) type of systems. The CAMS project will utilize available simulator codes and the capabilities of computerized tools to assist the plant staff during the various accident stages including: identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident, and planning accident mitigation strategies. This research programme aims at establishing a prototype system which can be used for experimental testing of the concept and serve as a tool for training and education in accident management. The CAMS prototype should provide support to the staff when the plant is in a normal state, in a disturbance sate, and in an accident state. Even though better support in an accident state is the main goal of the project, it is felt to be important that the staff is familiar with the use of the system during normal operation, when they utilize the system during transients

  12. Germinação de Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb. (Bromeliaceae em diferentes substratos alternativos ao pó de xaxim = Germination of Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb. (Bromeliaceae in different substracts as alternatives to Dicksonia sellowiana Hook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Anacleto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a germinação das sementes de Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb. (Bromeliaceae. As tentativas de produção desta espécie, a partir de sementes, têm ocorrido de forma empírica, utilizando-se substrato à base de pó de xaxim (Dicksonia sellowiana Hook., que tem restrições de uso, por estar ameaçada de extinção. Foram testados cinco tipos alternativos de substratos de fácil acessibilidade: húmus de minhoca, areia, fibra de casca de coco, serapilheira e Plantmax®. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e 50 sementes por unidade experimental, àtemperatura ambiente, em viveiro rústico, coberto com sombrite (70%. Leituras semanais foram efetuadas, durante 70 dias. A melhor performance, como substituto alternativo, foi a da serapilheira, que apresentou valores de germinação de 79,5% e sobrevivência de 97%,estatisticamente similares aos obtidos com xaxim (78%; 94,75%; Tukey, p For this study, the germination of Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb. (Bromeliaceae was evaluated. Production attempts from seeds for this species have taken place in an empirical form, using substratebased on xaxim (Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. powder, the use of which is currently restricted, as it is an endangered species. Five easily accessible alternative substratum were tested: worm humus, sand, coconut shell fiber, forest litter, and Plantmax®. The experiment wasconducted using a completely randomized design, with four replications and 50 seeds per experimental unit, at room temperature in a rustic nursery covered with 70% shade cloth. Weekly readings were performed during 70 days. The best alternative as a substitute toxaxim was forest litter, due to its germinability of 79.5% and survival rates of 97%, significantly similar to xaxim (78%; 94.75%; Tukey p < 0,05. Additionally, this product features positive characteristics such as high availability, low cost, and easy recycling.

  13. Estrutura foliar de espécies de Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Leaf anatomy of Aechmea Ruiz & Pav. (Bromeliaceae of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Lúcia Proença

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da estrutura foliar de Aechmea bromeliifolia (Rudge Baker, A. distichantha Lem., A. ornata Baker, A. nudicaulis (L. Griseb., A. pectinata Baker, A. coelestis (K. Koch E. Morren, A. cylindrata Lindm. e A. gracilis Lindm. mostrou que, em todas as espécies, as folhas são hipoestomáticas e revestidas por células epidérmicas de paredes sinuosas e portadoras de corpos silicosos. Apresentam também hipoderme mecânica e aqüífera, escamas nas duas superfícies e canais de aeração, interrompidos por diafragmas de células braciformes, no parênquima clorofiliano. A ocorrência restrita de algumas características permitiu elaborar uma chave de identificação para os representantes estudados. Tais características incluem a ocorrência de grupos de fibras extravasculares, de parênquima paliçádico adaxial, de extensão de bainha nos feixes vasculares de menor calibre, de obstrução nas câmaras subestomáticas, além de variação na espessura da hipoderme aqüífera e no número de células que formam o pedículo das escamas.The leaf anatomy of Aechmea bromeliifolia (Rudge Baker, A. distichantha Lem., A. ornata Baker, A. nudicaulis (L. Griseb., A. pectinata Baker, A. coelestis (K. Koch E. Morren, A. cylindrata Lindm. and A. gracilis Lindm. was studied. All the leaves are hypostomatic and they present: sinuous walls epidermal cells with silica bodies; aquiferous and mechanical hypodermis; scales on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces; and chlorenchyma with air canals filled with braciforms cells. The restricted occurence of some features allowed us to elaborate a identification key for the studied species. Such characteristics include the presence of extravascular fibrous groups; adaxial palisade parenchyma; smaller vascular bundles with conspicuous extensions of the bundle sheath; oclusion in the substomatic chambers; variation in the thickness of the aquiferous hypodermis, and in the number of stalks cells of the scales.

  14. Facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants: powerful tools for unravelling the functional elements of CAM photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2014-07-01

    Facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) describes the optional use of CAM photosynthesis, typically under conditions of drought stress, in plants that otherwise employ C3 or C4 photosynthesis. In its cleanest form, the upregulation of CAM is fully reversible upon removal of stress. Reversibility distinguishes facultative CAM from ontogenetically programmed unidirectional C3-to-CAM shifts inherent in constitutive CAM plants. Using mainly measurements of 24h CO2 exchange, defining features of facultative CAM are highlighted in five terrestrial species, Clusia pratensis, Calandrinia polyandra, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, Portulaca oleracea and Talinum triangulare. For these, we provide detailed chronologies of the shifts between photosynthetic modes and comment on their usefulness as experimental systems. Photosynthetic flexibility is also reviewed in an aquatic CAM plant, Isoetes howellii. Through comparisons of C3 and CAM states in facultative CAM species, many fundamental biochemical principles of the CAM pathway have been uncovered. Facultative CAM species will be of even greater relevance now that new sequencing technologies facilitate the mapping of genomes and tracking of the expression patterns of multiple genes. These technologies and facultative CAM systems, when joined, are expected to contribute in a major way towards our goal of understanding the essence of CAM. PMID:24642847

  15. Population dynamics of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia butzii in cloud forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Aceves, Tarin; Hernández-Apolinar, Mariana

    2016-02-01

    Epiphytes are a major component of tropical montane cloud forests. Over-exploitation and forest loss and degradation affect remnant populations. In this study, we analysed the population dynamics of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia butzii over a 2-y period in a tropical montane cloud forest fragment in southern Mexico. Matrix analysis revealed that the T. butzii population is likely to be stable at the study site. On average the λ value did not differ significantly from unity: λ (95% confidence interval) = 0.978 (0.936-1.001). λ was highly influenced by stasis, to a lesser extent by growth and only slightly by fecundity. Overall, adult plant stasis and phalanx growth habit played a fundamental role in population maintenance. T. butzii tolerance to xeric conditions may contribute to population stability in the studied region.

  16. Variações na morfoanatomia foliar de Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae sob distintas condições ambientais Leaf morphoanatomy variation in Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae under distinct environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Heinig Voltolini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae-Bromelioideae ocorre em restingas e Floresta Pluvial de Encosta Atlântica em Santa Catarina e Nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul, BR. Pode ser encontrada total ou parcialmente exposta à irradiação solar e em distintas formas de vida - terrícola, rupícola e epifítica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar morfoanatomicamente às características de folhas de A. lindenii var. lindenii em distintas condições ambientais. Foram coletadas, na Ilha de Santa Catarina (Florianópolis, SC, folhas de plantas terrícolas em restinga herbácea (alta irradiação solar, rupícolas de costões rochosos (alta irradiação solar, terrícolas e epifíticas de sub-bosques (baixa irradiação solar de restinga arbórea e rupícolas de sub-bosque (baixa irradiação solar de Floresta Pluvial de Encosta Atlântica. Foram mensurados comprimento, largura, área da lâmina e bainha foliar, densidade estomática, comprimento e largura das células-guarda, espessura total e das estruturas constituintes na lâmina foliar. As características anatômicas qualitativas são semelhantes nas distintas condições analisadas. A baixa irradiação solar determina maior expansão da área foliar, decorrente do alongamento da lâmina. Lâmina e bainha foliares têm maior largura sob alta irradiação. A densidade estomática foi maior em folhas de plantas sob alta irradiação solar. A espessura total da lâmina foliar foi menor em plantas terrícolas sob alta irradiação, porém não mostrou diferenças estatísticas significativas entre as outras condições.Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae-Bromelioideae occurs in restingas and hillside Atlantic rain forest in Santa Catarina and northeastern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It is found totally or partially exposed to solar radiation and in different life forms - terricolous, rupicolous and epiphytes. The aim of this work was to compare

  17. MICROPROPAGAÇÃO DE Aechmea setigera Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f.: UMA BROMÉLIA ENDÊMICA DA AMAZÔNIA OCIDENTAL

    OpenAIRE

    João Ricardo Avelino Leão; Janaína Medeiros Vasconcelos; Renata Teixeira Beltrão; Andrea Raposo; Paulo Cesar Poeta Fermino Junior

    2014-01-01

    As bromélias da Amazônia são em geral pouco conhecidas. Aechmea setigera é uma bromélia endêmica da Amazônia com potencial ornamental. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as respostas fisiológicas sob efeito de reguladores de crescimento nas etapas da micropropagação, bem como, estabelecer um protocolo como subsídio para a conservação. Plântulas germinadas e desenvolvidas in vitro foram inoculadas em meio de cultura MS líquidas estacionário acrescidas de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP) em diferentes...

  18. Chromosome numbers, meiotic behavior, and pollen viability of species of Vriesea and Aechmea genera (Bromeliaceae) native to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Dos Santos, Daniel G; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria H

    2004-06-01

    Chromosome number, meiotic behavior, and pollen viability were analyzed in 15 species of two genera, Vriesea and Aechmea, native to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This study is the first cytogenetic analysis of these taxa. The chromosome numbers are all n = 25, consistent with the proposed base number of x = 25 for Bromeliaceae. All examined taxa displayed regular bivalent pairing and chromosome segregation at meiosis. Observed meiotic abnormalities include univalents in metaphase I; missing or extra chromosomes and precocious division of centromeres in metaphase II; laggards in telophase I and anaphase II/telophase II. The high pollen viability (>88%) reflects a regular meiosis. PMID:21653435

  19. Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Young

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System and its application to emergency response involving chemical, biological or radiological contamination. The Idaho National Laboratory designed the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System to assist the National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction - Civil Support Teams during their mission of emergency response to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction. The lightweight, handheld camera transmits encrypted, real-time video from inside a contaminated area, or hot-zone, to a command post located a safe distance away. The system includes a small wireless video camera, a true-diversity receiver, viewing console, and an optional extension link that allows the command post to be placed up to five miles from danger. It can be fully deployed by one person in a standalone configuration in less than 10 minutes. The complete system is battery powered. Each rechargeable camera battery powers the camera for 3 hours with the receiver and video monitor battery lasting 22 hours on a single charge. The camera transmits encrypted, low frequency analog video signals to a true-diversity receiver with three antennas. This unique combination of encryption and transmission technologies delivers encrypted, interference-free images to the command post under conditions where other wireless systems fail. The lightweight camera is completely waterproof for quick and easy decontamination after use. The Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System is currently being used by several National Guard Teams, the US Army, and by fire fighters. The system has been proven to greatly enhance situational awareness during the crucial, initial phase of a hazardous response allowing commanders to make better, faster, safer decisions.

  20. CAD/CAM-prosessin kuvaus

    OpenAIRE

    Aho, Arto

    2014-01-01

    Työssä selvitettiin CAD/CAM-prosessin toiminta ja datan liikkuminen eri järjestelmien välillä. Teoriassa perehdyttiin tuotetietojen ja muutostenhallintaan sekä järjestelmien integrointiin. Siemens PLM -järjestelmästä esitellään valmistusprosessin suunnitteluun ja hallintaan tarkoitettuja sovelluksia. Työssä käsitellään muutoksenhallintaa järjestelmien välillä sekä nopeiden muutosten aikaansaamat hyödyt prosessissa ja integraation tuomat edut virheiden ja kustannusten vähentämisessä. Työssä...

  1. CAD/CAM-ohjelmiston valinta

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Sanna

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön toimeksianto tuli Helasteel Oy:ltä. Työn sisältö koostuu sopivan CAM-ohjelmiston etsimisestä Helasteelille sekä niiden perusteiden selvittämisestä, jotka vaikuttavat ohjelmiston valintaan. Kolmea eri ohjelmistotoimittajaa pyydettiin esittelemään tuotteitaan Helasteelille. Näistä ohjelmistoista valittiin sopivin yrityksen työstämät kappaleet ja tuotanto huomioon ottaen. Prosessin jälkeen päädyttiin Wincam-ohjelmistoon, joka vastasi parhaiten Helasteelin vaatimuksiin niin omina...

  2. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Donate Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) WHAT IS A THYROID NODULE? The term ... type of evaluation. WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  3. RESEARCH ON STRAIGHTENING TECHNOLOGY CAM SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Automatic straightening process is a nonlinear process, and affected by many factors.The straightening technology CAM system has been designed and built up to straighten shafts, which mainly consists of the straightening technology's database and the model of stroke-controlled precise straightening calculation model.The operational test of the CAM system has been passed.

  4. Impact of the cam and follower cooperation and of lubrication on the cam wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Folęga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper provides an analysis of the reasons for excessive wear of the cam/follower system components based on physical and mathematical models developed to describe the impact of selected material, technological and operational factors. Owing to the comparison between the calculation results obtained and the actual cam wear values, it was possible to asses the correctness of the wear models taken into consideration.Design/methodology/approach: The research in question included preparation of a mathematical cam wear model developed by way of dimensional analysis as well as finite element (FEM based structural models for a cam/follower system. The aforementioned FEM models were noted in a parametrical form using macro commands of the COSMOS/M system, and hence it was possible to analyse contact problems in various cam positions and change the selected analytical parameters (e.g. dimensions, material parameters.Findings: The main reasons for excessive cam wear include inferior quality of the cam and follower frictional couple lubrication as well as edge-type cooperation between the cam and the cam follower. At the same time, a significant impact on the wear is exerted by hardness of the cam and its follower.Research limitations/implications: Wear of cams and cam followers operating in timing gear systems of vehicle combustion engines takes place as an effect of friction occurring in presence of lubricant. During standard operation, components of the cam/follower system may be subject to an excessive or accelerated wear process. This study is an attempt to establish the reasons for this phenomenon to occur in order to control such cases.Originality/value: In order to counteract the phenomenon of accelerated wear of cams, one should consider increasing the required hardness of their working surfaces.

  5. Soil ants and bromeliad-nesting ants in an Atlantic Forest area, Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil: Species inventory and new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Steiner

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The myrmecofauna in an Atlantic Forest area was studied using various methods for soil ants and bromeliad-nesting ants. Monthly collections were performed between March 2002 and August 2004, using a Winkler extractor, pitfall traps and bromeliad individuals. One hundred and twenty-four species from nine subfamilies and 33 genera were found. The richest genera were Pheidole, Solenopsis, Crematogaster, Acromyrmex and Camponotus. More species were found in soil than in bromeliads, with 8% occurring in both habitats. Twelve species are new records for Santa Catarina State and 19 are new for the greater Florianópolis region. These results correlate with the use of new methodologies for the region, showing that the ant fauna of Santa Catarina Island still needs to be better studied.

  6. COMPARISON OF DIET AND USE OF BROMELIADS BETWEEN A BROMELICOLOUS AND A BROMELIGENOUS ANURAN AT AN INSELBERG IN THE SOUTHEASTERN OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PERTEL WESLEI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Anurans from an inselberg in southeastern Brazil were studied using a sample ofsixty tank of bromeliads Alcantharea sp. We found 153 tadpoles of S. arduous, 21adults of S. arduous, 30 adults of T. miliaris, and two adults of Scinax x-signatus,which were not considered in our analyses. Tadpoles of S. arduous were present in35% of the analyzed plants. Adults of S. arduous (bromeligeneous occurred in 25%of analyzed plants, while adults of T. miliaris (bromelicolous occurred in 30%.Apparently the presence of toe pads in S. arduous allow them to occupy the centerportion of bromeliads, while T. miliaris, which lack pads on their toes, were foundon the base of the plant axils. The number of anuran species and the abundance ofindividuals found were low. This may be a result of the high altitude of our studiedsite or a restriction imposed by the saxicolous environment, such as high temperaturesand low humidity during the day. Both species can be considered generalist feedersdue to their wide variety of ingested prey. Formicidae was their main prey but wasabsent segregation in the bromeliads. Blattodea was very common inside the bromeliadaxils and represented the most signifi cant prey by weight in both frog species. Weconclude that both anurans forage inside and outside of bromeliads. Trophic nichebreadth in S. arduous was larger than in T. miliaris. Even both species being commoninhabitants of the same environment, they demonstrated a marked spatial segregationin the bromeliads. Based on their diet, however, there may be disputes for territoryoutside of the bromeliads.

  7. CAM Photosynthesis in Submerged Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a CO2-concentrating mechanism selected in response to aridity in terrestrial habitats, and, in aquatic environments, to ambient limitations of carbon. Evidence is reviewed for its presence in five genera of aquatic vascular plants, including Isoe??tes, Sagittaria, Vallisneria, Crassula, and Littorella. Initially, aquatic CAM was considered by some to be an oxymoron, but some aquatic species have been studied in sufficient detail to say definitively that they possess CAM photosynthesis. CO2-concentrating mechanisms in photosynthetic organs require a barrier to leakage; e.g., terrestrial C4 plants have suberized bundle sheath cells and terrestrial CAM plants high stomatal resistance. In aquatic CAM plants the primary barrier to CO2 leakage is the extremely high diffusional resistance of water. This, coupled with the sink provided by extensive intercellular gas space, generates daytime CO2(Pi) comparable to terrestrial CAM plants. CAM contributes to the carbon budget by both net carbon gain and carbon recycling, and the magnitude of each is environmentally influenced. Aquatic CAM plants inhabit sites where photosynthesis is potentially limited by carbon. Many occupy moderately fertile shallow temporary pools that experience extreme diel fluctuations in carbon availability. CAM plants are able to take advantage of elevated nighttime CO2 levels in these habitats. This gives them a competitive advantage over non-CAM species that are carbon starved during the day and an advantage over species that expend energy in membrane transport of bicarbonate. Some aquatic CAM plants are distributed in highly infertile lakes, where extreme carbon limitation and light are important selective factors. Compilation of reports on diel changes in titratable acidity and malate show 69 out of 180 species have significant overnight accumulation, although evidence is presented discounting CAM in some. It is concluded that similar proportions of the aquatic

  8. From "forest malaria" to "bromeliad malaria": a case-study of scientific controversy and malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, P

    1994-08-01

    The article analyses the evolution of knowledge and rationale of control of a special case of malaria transmission based on Bromelia-Kerteszia complex. Since bromeliaceae function as a 'host of the carrier' and were previously associated with natural forests, the elucidation of bromeliad malaria historically elicited controversies concerning the imputation of Kertesziae as transmitters as well as over control strategies directed to bromelia eradication (manual removal, herbicides and deforestation), use of insecticides and chemoprophylaxis. Established authority, disciplinary traditions, conceptual premises and contemporary criteria for validating knowledge in the field partly explain the long time gap since Adolpho Lutz announced at the beginning of the century the existence of a new mosquito and breeding site as responsible for a 'forest malaria' epidemic occurring at a high altitude. The article brings attention to how economic, political and institutional determinants played an important role in redefining studies that led both in Trinidad and Brazil to the recognition of the importance of kerteszia transmission, including urban areas, and establishing new approaches to its study, most relevant of all the concurrence of broad ecological research. The article then describes the Brazilian campaign strategies which showed significant short-term results but had to wait four decades to achieve the goal of eradication due to the peculiar characteristics of this pathogenic complex. Finally, it brings attention to the importance of encompassing social values and discourses, in this case, environmental preservation, to understanding historical trends of malaria control programs. PMID:7898955

  9. In vitro propagation of Vriesea reitzii, a native epiphyte bromeliad from the Atlantic rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lírio Luiz Dal Vesco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The induction of nodular culture (NC and the subsequent development of microshoots of V. reitzii are considered an in vitro propagation model-system with high regenerative performance. Current research analyzed the determinant factors of the in vitro morphogenesis control of bromeliads. Seeds excised from mature capsules were grown on medium MS basic (MSB, liquid or gelled, supplemented or not with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 6-benzilaminopurine (BAP or thidiazuron (TDZ. The regeneration and elongation of microshoots were evaluated from NC sub-cultivated on MSB medium on liquid culture medium supplemented with different concentrations of indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA and gibberellic acid (GA3. Plant growth regulators (PGR supplemented into the medium MSB inhibited the germination of the seeds and induced NC in the second week of growth. The induced NC on MSB medium with NAA (4 µM and sub-cultivated on MSB medium with NAA (2 µM plus N6(2-isopentenyl adenine (2-iP (2 µM showed granular texture and high rate of proliferation. NC sub-culture in MSB medium with IAA (4 µM provided a higher average number of microshoots (1,478 shoots g-1 of NC. Shoots over 3.0 cm resulted in more than 95% ex vitro survival.

  10. Potential impact of harvesting on the population dynamics of two epiphytic bromeliads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Aceves, Tarin; Hernández-Apolinar, Mariana; Valverde, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Large numbers of epiphytes are extracted from cloud forests for ornamental use and illegal trade in Latin America. We examined the potential effects of different harvesting regimes on the population dynamics of the epiphytic bromeliads Tillandsia multicaulis and Tillandsia punctulata. The population dynamics of these species were studied over a 2-year period in a tropical montane cloud forest in Veracruz, Mexico. Prospective and retrospective analyses were used to identify which demographic processes and life-cycle stages make the largest relative contribution to variation in population growth rate (λ). The effect of simulated harvesting levels on population growth rates was analysed for both species. λ of both populations was highly influenced by survival (stasis), to a lesser extent by growth, and only slightly by fecundity. Vegetative growth played a central role in the population dynamics of these organisms. The λ value of the studied populations did not differ significantly from unity: T. multicaulis λ (95% confidence interval) = 0.982 (0.897-1.060) and T. punctulata λ = 0.967 (0.815-1.051), suggesting population stability. However, numerical simulation of different levels of extraction showed that λ would drop substantially even under very low (2%) harvesting levels. Matrix analysis revealed that T. multicaulis and T. punctulata populations are likely to decline and therefore commercial harvesting would be unsustainable. Based on these findings, management recommendations are outlined.

  11. Phenology, in vitro cultivation, and acclimatization of the endangered bromeliad species Nidularium minutum Mez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Kazue Kurita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the phenology of a species indicates the most favorable period to harvest mature seeds, which may be used for producing seedlings through effective methods as in vitro cultivation. This technique has been regarded as a strategy for the propagation of endangered species, such as the bromeliad species Nidularium minutum Mez. This article aimed at identifying the time of fructification and seed production of in situ specimens of N. minutum and establishing a protocol of in vitro cultivation through seeds. The species phenology was followed up for 12 months in plants at the Alto da Serra Biological Station, in Paranapiacaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The results showed that the best time to harvest seeds was from June to August 2008. The germination process occurred at all temperatures tested, being more effective at 26°C, with no need of mineral nutrients. The best conditions for growing plants occurred with the same temperature, with Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing half the macronutrient concentration. By means of this protocol, it is possible to preserve in vitro plants and optimize their production to be used in restocking programs.

  12. Cad/cam-tekniikan kannattavuus hammastekniikassa

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnunen, Vilho

    2012-01-01

    Hammaslaboratorioissa tehdään cad/cam-tekniikalla kiinteän protetiikan töitä. Opinnäytetyössäni tarkastelen, kuinka kannattavaa on valmistaa jyrsintekniikalla kiinteän protetiikan valmisteita. Selvitän millainen cad/cam-tekniikkaa käyttävä yritys pitää olla, jotta se on kannattava. Opinnäytetyöni aineiston keruun tein haastattelemalla cad/cam tekniikkaa ja perinteistä tekniikkaa käyttävien hammaslaboratorioiden omistajia. Haastattelun toteutin teemahaastatteluna. Kehitin laajuuskäsitteen,...

  13. CAM Stochastic Volatility Model for Option Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupled additive and multiplicative (CAM noises model is a stochastic volatility model for derivative pricing. Unlike the other stochastic volatility models in the literature, the CAM model uses two Brownian motions, one multiplicative and one additive, to model the volatility process. We provide empirical evidence that suggests a nontrivial relationship between the kurtosis and skewness of asset prices and that the CAM model is able to capture this relationship, whereas the traditional stochastic volatility models cannot. We introduce a control variate method and Monte Carlo estimators for some of the sensitivities (Greeks of the model. We also derive an approximation for the characteristic function of the model.

  14. Denitrifier communities in tank bromeliads and prospected N2O emissions from tank substrate upon increasing N-deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Marcel; Brandt, Franziska; Brenzinger, Kristof; Martinson, Guntars; Braker, Gesche

    2014-05-01

    It is well known that tropical rainforest soils with total emissions of 1.34 Tg N/yr from the tropics, play a significant role in the global N2O emissions scenarios. Significant contributions were reported particularly for tropical rainforest soils in South and Central America due to the large areas covered by rainforest in this region. In tropical rainforests of the Americas tank bromeliads constitute a prominent group of plants and were shown to significantly contribute to the production of the greenhouse gas methane from tropical forests. It is, however, essentially unknown whether and how bromeliads may contribute to the production of N2O, another important greenhouse gas. It is also unknown whether N2O emissions relate to atmospheric N-deposition and whether an increase in emissions is to be expected upon the prospected increase in N-deposition. We studied the propensity of tank substrate of the bromeliad Werauhia gladioliflora to emit N2O and how this potential is related to the underlying denitrifier communities. In tropical forests of Costa Rica Werauhia gladioliflora is very abundant with 9.85 specimen m-2. Incubation of the tank substrate with increasing amounts of fertilizer to reflect predicted N-deposition scenarios resulted in proportionally increasing net N2O production. Based on the abundance of Werauhia gladioliflora we estimated annual emissions of 395 µg N2O-N m-2 day-1 for N-deposition levels to date which is in the range of tropical soils. At a surplus of N 70% of N2O produced were not reduced leading to accumulation of N2O which agreed well with the finding that 95% of the denitrifiers detected lacked a gene encoding a N2O-reductase and are therefore unable to reduce N2O to dinitrogen. Generally, denitrifiers were highly abundant and ready to denitrify immediately after provision of a nitrogen source because carbon is non-limiting in tank substrate. Our results suggest that tank bromeliad substrate may be a significant source of N2O in

  15. A CAD/CAM interface for computer-aided design of cams

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Ashit R.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide a complete package for the design and three dimensional modeling display of cams. The software produced as a part of this work will operate as a module of CADAM to produce cam designs and enter the resulting cam as a CAD model and produce the graphical display of the cam. In addition to the introductory material, this thesis is divided into four sections. The section on the graphics packages used in this thesis includes a b...

  16. AFSC/FMA/CAMS Data Objects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CAMS system consists of a set of tables and packages that provide authentication services to all other North Pacific Groundfish and Halibut Observing Program...

  17. Model Documentation for the MiniCAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Smith, Steven J.; Kim, Son H.; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2003-07-17

    The MiniCAM, short for the Mini-Climate Assessment Model, is an integrated assessment model of moderate complexity focused on energy and agriculture sectors. The model produces emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) and other radiatively important substances such as sulfur dioxide. Through incorporation of the simple climate model MAGICC, the consequences of these emissions for climate change and sea-level rise can be examined. The MiniCAM is designed to be fast and flexible.

  18. Radiometric Calibration for AgCam

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Hildum; Lianbo Hu; Hojin Kim; Xiaodong Zhang; Changyong Dou; Doug Olsen

    2010-01-01

    The student-built Agricultural Camera (AgCam) now onboard the International Space Station observes the Earth surface through two linescan cameras with Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) arrays sensitive to visible and near-infrared wavelengths, respectively. The electro-optical components of the AgCam were characterized using precision calibration equipment; a method for modeling and applying these measurements was derived. Correction coefficients to minimize effects of optical vignetting, CCD non-u...

  19. CAM and stack air sampler design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 128 air samplers and CAMs presently in service to detect and document potential radioactive release from 'H' and 'F' area tank farm ventilation stacks are scheduled for replacement and/or upgrade by Projects S-5764, S-2081, S-3603, and S-4516. The seven CAMs scheduled to be upgraded by Project S-4516 during 1995 are expected to provide valuable experience for the three remaining projects. The attached document provides design guidance for the standardized High Level Waste air sampling system

  20. Statistical Shape Modeling of Cam Femoroacetabular Impingement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Michael D.; Dater, Manasi; Whitaker, Ross; Jurrus, Elizabeth R.; Peters, Christopher L.; Anderson, Andrew E.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, statistical shape modeling (SSM) was used to quantify three-dimensional (3D) variation and morphologic differences between femurs with and without cam femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). 3D surfaces were generated from CT scans of femurs from 41 controls and 30 cam FAI patients. SSM correspondence particles were optimally positioned on each surface using a gradient descent energy function. Mean shapes for control and patient groups were defined from the resulting particle configurations. Morphological differences between group mean shapes and between the control mean and individual patients were calculated. Principal component analysis was used to describe anatomical variation present in both groups. The first 6 modes (or principal components) captured statistically significant shape variations, which comprised 84% of cumulative variation among the femurs. Shape variation was greatest in femoral offset, greater trochanter height, and the head-neck junction. The mean cam femur shape protruded above the control mean by a maximum of 3.3 mm with sustained protrusions of 2.5-3.0 mm along the anterolateral head-neck junction and distally along the anterior neck, corresponding well with reported cam lesion locations and soft-tissue damage. This study provides initial evidence that SSM can describe variations in femoral morphology in both controls and cam FAI patients and may be useful for developing new measurements of pathological anatomy. SSM may also be applied to characterize cam FAI severity and provide templates to guide patient-specific surgical resection of bone.

  1. Chiropractic and CAM Utilization: A Descriptive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeker William C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To conduct a descriptive review of the scientific literature examining use rates of modalities and procedures used by CAM clinicians to manage chronic LBP and other conditions Data Sources A literature of PubMed and MANTIS was performed using the key terms Chiropractic; Low Back Pain; Utilization Rate; Use Rate; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; and Health Services in various combinations. Data Selection A total of 137 papers were selected, based upon including information about chiropractic utilization, CAM utilization and low back pain and other conditions. Data Synthesis Information was extracted from each paper addressing use of chiropractic and CAM, and is summarized in tabular form. Results Thematic analysis of the paper topics indicated that there were 5 functional areas covered by the literature: back pain papers, general chiropractic papers, insurance-related papers, general CAM-related papers; and worker's compensation papers. Conclusion Studies looking at chiropractic utilization demonstrate that the rates vary, but generally fall into a range from around 6% to 12% of the population, most of whom seek chiropractic care for low back pain and not for organic disease or visceral dysfunction. CAM is itself used by people suffering from a variety of conditions, though it is often used not as a primary intervention, but rather as an additional form of care. CAM and chiropractic often offer lower costs for comparable results compared to conventional medicine.

  2. Inflorescences of the Bromeliad Vriesea friburgensis as Nest Sites and Food Resources for Ants and Other Arthropods in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker S. Schmid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, the usage of bromeliad inflorescences as nesting sites for ants and other arthropods was studied. Frequencies of occurrence of nests were recorded from hollow stems of dried infructescences of the bromeliad Vriesea friburgensis on Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil. Three habitat types were studied: miconietum and two types of restinga, one with low (restinga-low and one with high vegetation cover (restinga-high. Additionally, flower visitation by ants was examined in restinga-low. Out of 619 infructescences, 33% contained nests. Ants were the most frequent occupants (82–96% of nests, followed by termites (3–18% and bees (0–0.6%. Species accumulation curves and diversity indices indicate that the diversity of stem-occupying ant species is highest in restinga-low (eight species observed, 18 predicted and lowest in restinga-high (four observed and predicted. Highest similarity of compositions of infructescence-inhabiting ant species was recorded between miconietum and restinga-high, lowest between restinga-low and restinga-high. Similarity between compositions of inflorescence-visiting and infructescence-inhabiting species in restinga-low was even higher (compared with the cases described in the previous sentence although 50% of the involved species were present in only one of the samples. Altogether, our results indicate that inflorescences are important resources for ants and other nest-building insects from flowering season to past-fruiting season.

  3. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ceretti-Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be re­tained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for im­mature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects.Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 munici­pal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically.Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens and Cx. (Microculex imitator (444. The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. 

  4. Characterization of SynCAM surface trafficking using a SynCAM derived ligand with high homophilic binding affinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to better probe SynCAM function in neurons, we produced a fusion protein between the extracellular domain of SynCAM1 and the constant fragment of human IgG (SynCAM-Fc). Whether in soluble form or immobilized on latex microspheres, the chimera bound specifically to the surface of hippocampal neurons and recruited endogenous SynCAM molecules. SynCAM-Fc was also used in combination with Quantum Dots to follow the mobility of transfected SynCAM receptors at the neuronal surface. Both immobile and highly mobile SynCAM were found. Thus, SynCAM-Fc behaves as a high affinity ligand that can be used to study the function of SynCAM at the neuronal membrane

  5. Starch distribution in anthers, microspores and pollen grains in Aechmea recurvata (Klotzsch.) L.B.Sm., Dyckia racinae L.B.Sm. and Tillandsia aeranthos (Loisel.) L.B.Sm. (Bromeliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    João Marcelo Santos de Oliveira; Merielem Saldanha Martins; Mariane Paludette Dorneles; Cesar Carvalho de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative description of the starch distribution in the anthers, microspores and pollen grains of Aechmea recurvata, Dyckia racinae and Tillandsia aeranthos. Flowers at different stages of development were processed according to plant microtechniques for observation by light microscope. Ten stages of embryological development were used as references for the comparative analysis of starch distribution and dynamics. The structural data showed a greater starch accumulatio...

  6. CAM practitioners in the Australian health workforce: an underutilized resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Sandra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CAM practitioners are a valuable but underutilizes resource in Australian health care. Despite increasing public support for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM little is known about the CAM workforce. Apart from the registered professions of chiropractic, osteopathy and Chinese medicine, accurate information about the number of CAM practitioners in the workforce has been difficult to obtain. It appears that many non-registered CAM practitioners, although highly qualified, are not working to their full capacity. Discussion Increasing public endorsement of CAM stands in contrast to the negative attitude toward the CAM workforce by some members of the medical and other health professions and by government policy makers. The marginalisation of the CAM workforce is evident in prejudicial attitudes held by some members of the medical and other health professions and its exclusion from government policy making. Inconsistent educational standards has meant that non-registered CAM practitioners, including highly qualified and competent ones, are frequently overlooked. Legitimising their contribution to the health workforce could alleviate workforce shortages and provide opportunities for redesigned job roles and new multidisciplinary teams. Priorities for better utilisation of the CAM workforce include establishing a guaranteed minimum education standard for more CAM occupation groups through national registration, providing interprofessional education that includes CAM practitioners, developing courses to upgrade CAM practitioners' professional skills in areas of indentified need, and increasing support for CAM research. Summary Marginalisation of the CAM workforce has disadvantaged those qualified and competent CAM practitioners who practise evidence-informed medicine on the basis of many years of university training. Legitimising and expanding the important contribution of CAM practitioners could alleviate projected health

  7. Patients’ views of CAM as spiritual practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This paper explores Danish cancer patients’ narratives on spiritual beliefs, practices and the relationship these practices may have to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design: Narrative inquiry was used to understand how spiritual beliefs and practices might be related...... to CAM. Thirty-two cancer patients, family, friends and alternative practitioners were followed up over a two year period by face to face interview, telephone and focus groups. Results: Although religious and spiritual issues were not manifestly expressed by many of the subjects, these issues were...... significantly elaborated upon in narratives by four female participants to warrant more detailed consideration and analysis. Conclusion: It is suggested that for some cancer patients CAM may function, not just as a treatment for cancer related symptoms and side effects, but also as a form of spiritual practice...

  8. Artificial intelligence and CAD/CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, K.

    1983-10-01

    In recent years CAD/CAM technology has improved industrial productivity. It is a significant step towards the design of the factory of the future. CAD/CAM in conjunction with artificial intelligence will become paramount. Workers in this field are attempting to produce systems of ever-increasing intelligence and independence for everyday use in factories, schools and elsewhere. A computer system which could understand natural language in both spoken and handwritten form and communicate in natural language would have considerable advantage in practical situations over one of the present generation of computers and computer programs. 2 references.

  9. CAD/CAM at the design stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masur, W.

    1989-01-01

    The introduction of CAD/CAM requires a thorough analysis of the manufacturing process in order to be able to single out those operations and partial complexes which are found suited for CAD/CAM use and are also expected to bring about the streamlining effects desired. Further it has to be analysed what partial jobs can be done by existing and planned hardware and software as well as by the skilled labour available or to be made available yet. The organization of the relations between program developer and program user and the required training measures has to be fixed in time and clearly by the managerial staff.

  10. Integrated design of cam mechanisms and servo-control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, in a cam mechanism, the cam is driven by an actuator at a constant speed. The motion characteristics of the follower are determined once the cam profile is designed. This paper presents a novel theory named "integrated design of cam mechanisms and servo-control systems" whose basic idea is varying the input speed trajectory of the cam by a microcomputer-controlled servomotor to improve kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the follower system. The philosophy of the theory is developing superior machines by taking advantage of the flexibility of servo-control systems to compensate for disadvantages of rigid cam mechanisms. The systematic design criteria of the cam-servo-integrated system are developed and an approach based on optimal-control theory is presented for to select suitable cam speed functions, hence the basis of the theory is formed.

  11. Parametric Modeling for Globoidal Cam Based and NC Machining

    OpenAIRE

    Haitao Liu; Zhibin Chang; Lei Zhang; Wei Jiang; Guangguo Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The design and machining of globoidal cam is difficult, because the shape of working surface is complex,and the curved surface of its space is undevelopable. Based on the above reasons,we proposed the parametric Modeling method for globoidal cam based. Through the secondary development, we realized the parameterized modeling of globoidal cam. Base on using of globular indexing cam NC milling machine existing in the lab,research the programming technology,analyses the defects of conventional p...

  12. DFM/CAPP/CAM System in a Concurrent Engineering Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the importance of DFM/CAPP/CAM system in Concurrent Engineering (CE) is discussed. Based on the analyses of the character of concurrent product design and manufacturing process design, the workflow of DFM/CAPP/CAM system in CE is given. DFM/CAPP/CAM theories, methods and functions are investigated in a delicate and all-round way, and are implemented in the developed DFM/CAPP/CAM system.

  13. Growth irradiance effects on photosynthesis and growth in two co-occurring shade-tolerant neotropical perennials of contrasting photosynthetic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, John B; Garcia, Milton; Virgo, Aurelio; Winter, Klaus

    2005-11-01

    Dieffenbachia longispatha (C3) and Aechmea magdalenae (Crassulacean acid metabolism, CAM) are syntopic, neotropical forest perennials in central Panama that are restricted to shaded habitats. This is of particular interest for A. magdalenae because, like other understory CAM bromeliad species, it appears functionally and structurally to be better suited to life in full sun. Growth irradiance (GI) effects on photosynthesis and growth in both species were explored in the context of sun/shade trade-off concepts largely derived from studies of C3 plants. Potted plants were grown outdoors in 1, 55, and 100% full sun for 5 mo under well-watered conditions. While both species grew faster in high compared to low light, maximum relative growth rates (RGR) in full sun were still extremely slow with A. magdalenae showing a RGR approximately half that of D. longispatha. Photosynthetic capacity increased with GI in D. longispatha but not in A. magdalenae. Aechmea magdalenae responded to GI with shifts in the activity of the different CAM phases. Both species were photoinhibited in full sun, but more so in A. magdalenae. Despite possessing many traits considered adaptive in high light, these results suggest that A. magdalenae is unlikely to attain sufficient growth rates to thrive in productive, high-light habitats. PMID:21646098

  14. CAD/CAM. High-Technology Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuleger, Robert

    This high technology training module is an advanced course on computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for grades 11 and 12. This unit, to be used with students in advanced drafting courses, introduces the concept of CAD/CAM. The content outline includes the following seven sections: (1) CAD/CAM software; (2) computer…

  15. Therapeutic Uses of the WebCam in Child Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebowski, Susan; Fremont, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors provide examples for the use of the WebCam as a therapeutic tool in child psychiatry, discussing cases to demonstrate the application of the WebCam, which is most often used in psychiatry training programs during resident supervision and for case presentations. Method: Six cases illustrate the use of the WebCam in individual…

  16. The factors that influence CAD/CAM/CAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAD/CAM/CAE usage has grown and expanded significantly due to its many applications relating to the productivity of an organization. It is important for an organization to have planning and strategy in using CAD/CAM/CAE to ensure sustained efficiency. This paper will discuss the factors that can influence the implementation and success of CAD/CAM/CAE. (Author)

  17. CAD-CAM data exchange pilot project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintz, J.; Williams, D.

    1986-03-01

    CAD-CAM data were exchanged between dissimilar CAD systems and the information was used to fabricate three parts. Problems were identified and solutions were proposed or implemented in the area of translation methods, data verification, CAD drawing conventions, and data handling. Additional software needed for productive data exchange has been identified.

  18. Patients’ views of CAM as spiritual practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    CAM. Thirty-two cancer patients, family, friends and alternative practitioners were followed up over a two year period by face to face interview, telephone and focus groups. Results: Although religious and spiritual issues were not manifestly expressed by many of the subjects, these issues were...

  19. Some Workplace Effects of CAD and CAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Karl-H.; Ulrich, Erhard

    1987-01-01

    Examines the impact of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) on employment, work organization, working conditions, job content, training, and industrial relations in several countries. Finds little evidence of negative employment effects since productivity gains are offset by various compensatory factors. (Author/CH)

  20. Variação morfológica e reprodutiva de Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae Morphological and reproductive variation of Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Lenzi

    2006-06-01

    luminosity and on an understory of a "restinga arbórea" (low luminosity, in Florianópolis, SC, where the results indicate that the luminosity can influence the bromeliad's phenotype, nectar production, phenology and reproductive success. The shade tolerant plants are bigger and present a flowering period of around 120 days, while the heliophytic plants are smaller and blossom throughout all year. The species presents ornithophilous floral attributes, being the volume (16,7 µL ± 4 and concentration (27,25% of the nectar produced by the flowers characteristic of a hummingbird pollinated flower. The frequent visitation of Amazilia fimbriata, Thalurania glaucopis and Thalurania sp. (Trochilidae confirms this suggestion; however bees and butterflies can also be considered potential pollinators, suggesting co-evolution of secondary floral syndromes. Based on the results of manual pollination tests and on the development of the polinic tubes, can be concluded that the species does not present self-incompatibility, forming fruits with fertile seeds, with a germination rate higher than 80%, both in cross-pollination as well as in selfing tests. The heliophytic population presented a high rate of parthenocarpy (52, 95% and showed to be a safe and efficient method to evaluate the fertilization of the flowers, being possible to relate the frequency and abundance of parthenocarpy to the absence or inefficiency of the pollinators. The fruits and seeds were dispersed by birds of the families Thraupidae and Pipridae and predated by larva of the butterfly Tecla sp. (Lycaenidae.

  1. Complementary and alternative medicine use of women with breast cancer : Self-help CAM attracts other women than guided CAM therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo-Fo-Wong, Deborah N. N.; Ranchor, Adelita V.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Henselmans, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine stability of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) of breast cancer patients, reasons for CAM use, and sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological predictors of CAM use. Methods: CAM use was assessed after adjuvant therapy and six months later. Following the CAM He

  2. A Simulation Study on the Importance of Size‐related Changes in Leaf Morphology and Physiology for Carbon Gain in an Epiphytic Bromeliad

    OpenAIRE

    Zotz, Gerhard; REICHLING, PETER; Valladares, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    This study addresses the question of how size‐related changes in leaf morphology and physiology influence light absorption and carbon gain of the epiphytic bromeliad Vriesea sanguinolenta. A geometrically based computer model, Y‐plant, was used for the three‐dimensional reconstruction of entire plants and for calculation of whole plant light interception and carbon gain. Plants of different sizes were reconstructed, and morphological and physiological attributes of young and old leaves, and s...

  3. Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J J

    2013-01-01

    Modern design methods of Automotive Cam Design require the computation of a range of parameters. This book provides a logical sequence of steps for the derivation of the relevant equations from first principles, for the more widely used cam mechanisms. Although originally derived for use in high performance engines, this work is equally applicable to the design of mass produced automotive and other internal combustion engines.   Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms provides the equations necessary for the design of cam lift curves with an associated smooth acceleration curve. The equations are derived for the kinematics and kinetics of all the mechanisms considered, together with those for cam curvature and oil entrainment velocity. This permits the cam shape, all loads, and contact stresses to be evaluated, and the relevant tribology to be assessed. The effects of asymmetry on the manufacture of cams for finger follower and offset translating curved followers is ...

  4. The detection of EpCAM+ and EpCAM- circulating tumor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wit, de, J.; Dalum, van, G.; Lenferink, Aufried T. M.; Arjan G. J. Tibbe; Hiltermann, T.J.N.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Rijn, van, Michela; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM+ CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM- CTC discarded by CellSearch, after EpCAM based enrichment. EpCAM- CTC were identified by filtration and fluorescent labelling. This approach was validated using different cell lines spiked into blood and evaluated on blood samples of 27 metastatic...

  5. Formal Management of CAD/CAM Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhase, Michael; Lemburg, Johannes; Schröder, Lutz; Schulz, Ewaryst

    Systematic engineering design processes have many aspects in common with software engineering, with CAD/CAM objects replacing program code as the implementation stage of the development. They are, however, currently considerably less formal. We propose to draw on the mentioned similarities and transfer methods from software engineering to engineering design in order to enhance in particular the reliability and reusability of engineering processes. We lay out a vision of a document-oriented design process that integrates CAD/CAM documents with requirement specifications; as a first step towards supporting such a process, we present a tool that interfaces a CAD system with program verification workflows, thus allowing for completely formalised development strands within a semi-formal methodology.

  6. CAD/CAM-assisted breast reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the clinic is growing slowly but steadily. The ability to build patient-specific models based on medical imaging data offers major potential. In this work we report on the feasibility of employing laser scanning with CAD/CAM techniques to aid in breast reconstruction. A patient was imaged with laser scanning, an economical and facile method for creating an accurate digital representation of the breasts and surrounding tissues. The obtained model was used to fabricate a customized mould that was employed as an intra-operative aid for the surgeon performing autologous tissue reconstruction of the breast removed due to cancer. Furthermore, a solid breast model was derived from the imaged data and digitally processed for the fabrication of customized scaffolds for breast tissue engineering. To this end, a novel generic algorithm for creating porosity within a solid model was developed, using a finite element model as intermediate.

  7. CAD/CAM-assisted breast reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchels, Ferry; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 60 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059 (Australia); Wiggenhauser, Paul Severin; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten [Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Warne, David; Barry, Mark [High Performance Computing and Research Support, Queensland University of Technology, Gardens Point Road, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Ong, Fook Rhu; Chong, Woon Shin, E-mail: Dietmar.Hutmacher@qut.edu.au, E-mail: jtschantz@lrz.tu-muenchen.de [Singapore Polytechnic, 500 Dover Road, 139651 Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-09-15

    The application of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the clinic is growing slowly but steadily. The ability to build patient-specific models based on medical imaging data offers major potential. In this work we report on the feasibility of employing laser scanning with CAD/CAM techniques to aid in breast reconstruction. A patient was imaged with laser scanning, an economical and facile method for creating an accurate digital representation of the breasts and surrounding tissues. The obtained model was used to fabricate a customized mould that was employed as an intra-operative aid for the surgeon performing autologous tissue reconstruction of the breast removed due to cancer. Furthermore, a solid breast model was derived from the imaged data and digitally processed for the fabrication of customized scaffolds for breast tissue engineering. To this end, a novel generic algorithm for creating porosity within a solid model was developed, using a finite element model as intermediate.

  8. CAD/CAM at Gullick Dobson Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Gullick Dobson introduced computer-aided design systems more than four years ago, and those have improved the standard of technical presentation for tendering as well as saving time and the repetitive mundane work involved in incorporating standard plants onto several drawings. Computer-aided manufacture has also helped to reduce costs and in future interactive CAD/CAM will be developed where total engineering will result in the best product.

  9. CAD/CAM: influencing the skilled trades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    CAD/CAM is influencing many of the skilled trades. Computers are permitting an increase in productivity with a resulting need for people with greater mental rather than motor skills. Computers are used for the control of a wide variety of manufacturing operations and the trend is accelerating rapidly. The net result is a smaller need for semi-skilled jobs but an increasing demand for skilled craftsmen.

  10. Deterministic mathematical morphology for CAD/CAM

    OpenAIRE

    Sarabia Pérez, Rubén; Jimeno Morenilla, Antonio; Molina Carmona, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a new geometric model based on the mathematical morphology paradigm, specialized to provide determinism to the classic morphological operations. The determinism is needed to model dynamic processes that require an order of application, as is the case for designing and manufacturing objects in CAD/CAM environments. Design/methodology/approach – The basic trajectory-based operation is the basis of the proposed morphological specialization. This ...

  11. The NectarCAM camera project

    CERN Document Server

    Glicenstein, J-F; Barrio, J-A; Blanch, O; Boix, J; Bolmont, J; Boutonnet, C; Cazaux, S; Chabanne, E; Champion, C; Chateau, F; Colonges, S; Corona, P; Couturier, S; Courty, B; Delagnes, E; Delgado, C; Ernenwein, J-P; Fegan, S; Ferreira, O; Fesquet, M; Fontaine, G; Fouque, N; Henault, F; Gascón, D; Herranz, D; Hermel, R; Hoffmann, D; Houles, J; Karkar, S; Khelifi, B; Knödlseder, J; Martinez, G; Lacombe, K; Lamanna, G; LeFlour, T; Lopez-Coto, R; Louis, F; Mathieu, A; Moulin, E; Nayman, P; Nunio, F; Olive, J-F; Panazol, J-L; Petrucci, P-O; Punch, M; Prast, J; Ramon, P; Riallot, M; Ribó, M; Rosier-Lees, S; Sanuy, A; Siero, J; Tavernet, J-P; Tejedor, L A; Toussenel, F; Vasileiadis, G; Voisin, V; Waegebert, V; Zurbach, C

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the next generation of Cherenkov telescopes, the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), NectarCAM is a camera designed for the medium size telescopes covering the central energy range of 100 GeV to 30 TeV. NectarCAM will be finely pixelated (~ 1800 pixels for a 8 degree field of view, FoV) in order to image atmospheric Cherenkov showers by measuring the charge deposited within a few nanoseconds time-window. It will have additional features like the capacity to record the full waveform with GHz sampling for every pixel and to measure event times with nanosecond accuracy. An array of a few tens of medium size telescopes, equipped with NectarCAMs, will achieve up to a factor of ten improvement in sensitivity over existing instruments in the energy range of 100 GeV to 10 TeV. The camera is made of roughly 250 independent read-out modules, each composed of seven photo-multipliers, with their associated high voltage base and control, a read-out board and a multi-service backplane board. The read-out b...

  12. Development of optimal cam contours; Entwicklung von optimalen Nockenkonturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse-Loescher, Hendrik; Haberland, Heiner [MAN-Diesel SE, Augsburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    A closed-loop method for the development of an optimal shape of an injection cam for a common rail injection system of a large-bore Diesel engine is presented. Due to the demanded fuel flow rate of the engine, a three-loop cam is necessary. The optimal shape of the cam results of a multitude of criteria, constaints and optimization aims. A stepwise resolution of 0.5 rotation angle of the cam shape is required due to manufacturing demands. One single cam shape consists of 120 rotation angles. Thus, the calculation of the optimal cam shape comprises 241 nodes. The method described aims to develop an optimal cam shape depending on all criteria and constaints. Due to the huge number of constraints as well as the complex calculations, the application of a particle swarm optimization (PSA) algorithm is proposed. An optimal cam shape complies to all demands required at each single node. Therefore, a loose lifting curve without any additional conditions applying, such as e.g. linear velocity profiles, is created. Following this procedure, all potentials are best exploited. Each node of the cam shape is basically independent of all other nodes within the chosen demands and constaints. The nodes are thus treated as independent parameters. The procedure described generates optimal cam shapes. (orig.)

  13. Substratos alternativos ao xaxim na produção de bromélia ornamental Alternative substrates to fern tree fiber in the production of ornamental bromeliad

    OpenAIRE

    Shoey Kanashiro; Keigo Minami; Teresa Jocys; Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias; Armando Reis Tavares

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar substratos alternativos para o cultivo da bromélia Aechmea fasciata (Lindley) Baker, para substituir com eficiência as misturas formuladas com o xaxim Dicksonia sellowiana (Presl.) Hook. Foram testados os substratos: casca de Pinus, casca de Eucalyptus, coxim, fibra de coco e xaxim, misturados com turfa e perlita, nas proporções 2:7:1, 5:4:1 e 8:1:1. O experimento foi realizado em condições de estufa com cobertura de polietileno, sombreada com tela a 70%....

  14. Development of the pipe machining CAD/CAM system; Kankako CAD/CAM system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taketomi, Y.; Teshima, H.; Suzuki, T.; Yoshida, A.

    1997-11-05

    The pipe machining CAD/CAM system was developed which can use previously prepared CAD input data for piping work diagrams. This system can automatically prepare diagrams and information necessary for machining, packaging, handling/lifting planning and assembly of pipes from previously inputted data. Output contents are as follows: parts machining diagram, piping work diagram, piping parts table, label, parts packaging/loading indication, transport program, assembly diagram (isometric diagram, plan). Since all data are transmitted to CAM system in automatic machining, these outputs are unnecessary. A reliable pipe machining system (automatic screwing/cutting machine) was prepared by improving recognized existing machines. The new mechanism (pipe automatic warehouse) which can certainly take out a desired pipe from randomly stacked pipes by an originally developed `rotation disk.` A precise measurement equipment was also developed by using a stopper arm and encoder. The CAD/CAM system achieved labor saving requiring only 1-2 operators. 3 figs.

  15. Parametric Modeling for Globoidal Cam Based and NC Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The design and machining of globoidal cam is difficult, because the shape of working surface is complex,and the curved surface of its space is undevelopable. Based on the above reasons,we proposed the parametric Modeling method for globoidal cam based. Through the secondary development, we realized the parameterized modeling of globoidal cam. Base on using of globular indexing cam NC milling machine existing in the lab,research the programming technology,analyses the defects of conventional programming method,raise improvement measures,control the programming error,modify the feeding speed,develop the special purpose programming software, creat globular indexing cam NC machining program automaticly ,improve the machining precision and efficiency of globular indexing cam.  

  16. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability. Further, requiring an alarm to actuate upon CAM failure is not necessary to maintain the availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability. However, if CAM failures were only detected by the 92-day functional tests required in the Authorization Basis (AB), CAM availability would be much less than that credited in the safety analysis. Therefore it is recommended that the current surveillance practice of daily simple system checks, 30-day source checks and 92-day functional tests be continued in order to maintain CAM availability

  17. Resin-composite Blocks for Dental CAD/CAM Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ruse, N.D.; Sadoun, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and ...

  18. Treatment Preferences for CAM in Children with Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Marcia Meldrum; Kim, Su C.; Jacob, Margaret C.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2006-01-01

    CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls) (mean age = 14.5 years ± 2.4; range = 8–18 years) presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examin...

  19. Compression Testing Using a CAM-Driven Electromagnetic Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Paulo; Rosa, Pedro; Silva, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new equipment for the compression testing of materials under high rates of loading. The equipment consists of an electromagnetic actuator, a fixed housing containing two flat compression platens, a translating cam and a follower. The electromagnetic actuator makes possible reaching high strain rates with a very precise control of the impact velocity and of the energy transmitted to the translating cam. The cam profile enables compression testing to be perfor...

  20. New Conception of Waving Machine CamEl Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílkovský, A.; Marek, O.; Jirásko, P.; Volanský, Z.

    New mechatronic conception of waving machine CamEl drive is realized by two electronic cams Yaskawa and planetary gears. The first servo motor is used to slay and shedding motion in position mode and the second servo motor is used in automatic weaving mode. Moment of inertia of kinematic chain was reduced that it was possible used a smaller servo motor of electronic cam Yaskawa.

  1. CAD/CAM of braided preforms for advanced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gui; Pastore, Christopher; Tsai, Yung Jia; Soebroto, Heru; Ko, Frank

    A CAD/CAM system for braiding to produce preforms for advanced textile structural composites is presented in this paper. The CAD and CAM systems are illustrated in detail. The CAD system identifies the fiber placement and orientation needed to fabricate a braided structure over a mandrel, for subsequent composite formation. The CAM system uses the design parameters generated by the CAD system to control the braiding machine. Experimental evidence demonstrating the success of combining these two technologies to form a unified CAD/CAM system for the manufacture of braided fabric preforms with complex structural shapes is presented.

  2. A study on copper and zinc effects in the growth of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) L.B. Smith seedlings cultivated in vitro. Application of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metals are components of the biosphere, occurring naturally in soil and plants, but as a result of human actions, their levels have been greatly increased, depending on the region. Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are essential for the growth and development of plants, however if in excess become toxic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of plants to absorb Cu and Zn and what effects they cause in seedlings cultivated in vitro. The results of this study may contribute primarily in agricultural and environmental research. The plant investigated was the Aechmea blanchetiana species of the Bromeliaceae family. It is a terrestrial or epiphytic species used as an ornamental plant. The cultivation of seedlings for this study and their exposure to different concentrations of Cu and Zn were performed at the Institute of Botany (IBt) of Sao Paulo. After seed germination, the seedlings were transferred for growth in a culture media containing different concentrations of Cu or Zn. After this period of in vitro cultivation, the seedlings were analyzed for morphometry, anatomy and by neutron activation analysis. Quality control of the results from neutron activation analysis was carried out by the analysis of certified reference materials. The data obtained showed good precision and accuracy for several elements determined. The highest concentrations of Cu used in the exposure were those that caused major structural changes in morphometric and anatomical parameters, however for the Zn no significant differences were verified for most parameters. The A. blanchetiana proved to be a bioaccumulator species of Zn, absorbing high levels of this element in the aerial parts and roots. (author)

  3. Konepajan siirtyminen CAD-CAM-ohjelmointiin

    OpenAIRE

    Moisanen, Sari

    2011-01-01

    Sandvik Mining and Construction Köping AB Haparanda aloitti konepajauudistusprojektin kesällä 2008. Uudistuksen tavoitteena oli kasvattaa konepajan tuotantokapasiteettia ja muuttaa tuotantotapa funktionaalisesta solumuotoiseksi. Uudistuksen myötä konepajalle hankittiin keväällä 2009 kolme uutta NC-sorvia ja tietokoneavusteiseen ohjelmointiin soveltuva WinCAM-ohjelmisto. Osa konepajan tuotantohenkilöstöstä koulutettiin käyttämään NC-ohjelmointia ja tekemään NC-ohjelmia Fanucin käyttöjärjestelm...

  4. Compartilhando protocolos: maquina CMM / CAD / CAM

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro Beck, Joao Carlos; Lima da Silva, Isaac Newton; Baroni, Alexandre; Mazin Dias, Gilver

    2007-01-01

    A meta desta contribuição é a descrição da metodologia utilizada para compartilhar um software comercial de CAD/CAM, orientado à indústria mecânica, com um equipamento industrial de controle de qualidade tridimensional (CMM). As etapas necessárias a esta integração são apresentadas, passo a passo, para facilitar o entendimento e a visualização progressiva de cada uma das fases de estudo e análise. Tomando-se como referência este compartilhamento, efetuouse, como aplicação do proce...

  5. CAD/CAM-assisted breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchels, Ferry; Wiggenhauser, Paul Severin; Warne, David; Barry, Mark; Ong, Fook Rhu; Chong, Woon Shin; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten

    2011-09-01

    The application of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the clinic is growing slowly but steadily. The ability to build patient-specific models based on medical imaging data offers major potential. In this work we report on the feasibility of employing laser scanning with CAD/CAM techniques to aid in breast reconstruction. A patient was imaged with laser scanning, an economical and facile method for creating an accurate digital representation of the breasts and surrounding tissues. The obtained model was used to fabricate a customized mould that was employed as an intra-operative aid for the surgeon performing autologous tissue reconstruction of the breast removed due to cancer. Furthermore, a solid breast model was derived from the imaged data and digitally processed for the fabrication of customized scaffolds for breast tissue engineering. To this end, a novel generic algorithm for creating porosity within a solid model was developed, using a finite element model as intermediate. PMID:21900731

  6. CAMS confirmation of previously reported meteor showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Holman, D.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    Leading up to the 2015 IAU General Assembly, the International Astronomical Union's Working List of Meteor Showers included 486 unconfirmed showers, showers that are not certain to exist. If confirmed, each shower would provide a record of past comet or asteroid activity. Now, we report that 41 of these are detected in the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteor shower survey. They manifest as meteoroids arriving at Earth from a similar direction and orbit, after removing the daily radiant drift due to Earth's motion around the Sun. These showers do exist and, therefore, can be moved to the IAU List of Established Meteor Showers. This adds to 31 previously confirmed showers from CAMS data. For each shower, finding charts are presented based on 230,000 meteors observed up to March of 2015, calculated by re-projecting the drift-corrected Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates into more familiar equatorial coordinates. Showers that are not detected, but should have, and duplicate showers that project to the same Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates, are recommended for removal from the Working List.

  7. De novo assembly and characterization of leaf and floral transcriptomes of the hybridizing bromeliad species (Pitcairnia spp.) adapted to Neotropical Inselbergs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Silva, C; Ferro, M; Bacci, M; Turchetto-Zolet, A C

    2016-07-01

    We present the leaf and floral transcriptomes of two hybridizing bromeliad species that differ in their major pollinator systems. Here we identified candidate genes responsible for pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation in these two species. We searched for candidate genes involved in floral traits, such as colour. Approximately 34 Gbp of cDNA sequence data were produced from both tissues and species, resulting in a total of 424 506 914 raw reads. The de novo-assembled transcriptomes consisted of a total of 263 955 contigs, further clustered into 110 977 unigenes. Over 58% of the unigenes were functionally annotated and assigned to one or more Gene Ontology terms. The transcriptomes revealed 144 unique transcripts that encode key enzymes in the flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis pathways. The domain/family annotation and phylogenetic analysis allowed us to infer, by homology, potential functions of the genes encoding MYB, HD-ZIP and bZIP-HY5 transcription factors, as well as WD40 protein, which may be involved in anthocyanin and flavonoid regulation in these species. These candidate genes are associated with natural regulation in flower colour in other plant species and will facilitate future studies aimed at elucidating the molecular basis of adaptive differentiation and the evolution of mechanisms of pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation in these two bromeliads. In addition, we identified a total of 49 439 microsatellite loci. These resources will assist future research into adaptation and speciation events in bromeliad species, thus providing a starting point for investigation of the molecular mechanisms of the traits responsible for their reproductive isolation. PMID:26849180

  8. CAD/CAM: Practical and Persuasive in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willms, Ed

    2007-01-01

    Chances are that many high school students would not know how to use drafting instruments, but some might want to gain competence in computer-assisted design (CAD) and possibly computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM). These students are often attracted to tech courses by the availability of CAD/CAM instructions, and many go on to impress employers…

  9. Application of CAM in online measurement of mechanical parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaokang, Gao

    2013-01-01

    Online Measurement of mechanical parameters by using CAM (Computer Aided Measurement) is a new advanced technique in the field of measurement. Taking special measurement software DASYLab as an example, this paper describes the basic principles and unique advantages of this technique. The application of CAM is explained through an example of measurements of temperature, flow rate and pressure.

  10. A new species of bromeliad-feeding Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae from Costa Rica: evidence from DNA barcodes, larval and adult morphology and insect diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garcia-Robledo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae includes 214 species distributed from the south of Mexico to Argentina. Cephaloleia beetles feed mostly on plants from the order Zingiberales. The interactions between Cephaloleia beetles and their Zingiberales host plants is proposed as one of the oldest and most conservative associations. Here we describe a new species of Cephaloleia (C. kuprewiczae sp. n. that feeds on two species of bromeliads (Pitcairnia arcuata and P. brittoniana, Bromeliaceae: Pitcairnioideae. Cephaloleia kuprewiczae was previously described as Cephaloleia histrionica. This study includes evidence from DNA barcodes (COI, larval and adult morphology and insect diets that separates C. kuprewiczae from C. histrionica as a new species.

  11. Cam Drive Step Mechanism of a Quadruped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bionic quadruped robots received considerable worldwide research attention. For a quadruped robot walking with steady paces on a flat terrain, using a cam drive control mechanism instead of servomotors provides theoretical and practical benefits as it reduces the system weight, cost, and control complexities; thus it may be more cost beneficial for some recreational or household applications. This study explores the robot step mechanism including the leg and cam drive control systems based on studying the bone structure and the kinematic step sequences of dog. The design requirements for the cam drive robot legs have been raised, and the mechanical principles of the leg operating mechanism as well as the control parameters have been analyzed. A cam drive control system was constructed using three cams to control each leg. Finally, a four-leg demo robot was manufactured for experiments and it showed stable walking patterns on a flat floor.

  12. Knowledge and training needs among Danish nurses about CAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Background: The increased use of CAM among the Danish population is well documented as are patient’s requests to discuss CAM with a healthcare professional. It is suggested that among different groups of healthcare professionals nurses are the most “open minded” about CAM. This makes it important...... to explore nurses’ knowledge about CAM and their needs for training. Methods: Similar to international investigations a Danish “CAM-knowledge” questionnaire was developed that included multiple choice, yes/no and 5 points scale answers. Validity was established through initial pilot testing. Contacts...... to a randomized sample of 2500 nurses were established through the Danish Nurses Foundation. The questionnaires were mailed by post with the possibility of anonymous return. The data material was analyzed using non-parametic methods. Results: The response rate was 67 % and 1458 completed...

  13. Treatment Preferences for CAM in children with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jennie C I; Meldrum, Marcia; Kim, Su C; Jacob, Margaret C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2007-09-01

    CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls) (mean age = 14.5 years +/- 2.4; range = 8-18 years) presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between CAM treatment preferences and patient's sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their self-reported level of functioning. Over 60% of patients elected to try at least one CAM approach for pain. The most popular CAM therapies were biofeedback, yoga and hypnosis; the least popular were art therapy and energy healing, with craniosacral, acupuncture and massage being intermediate. Patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (80%) were the most likely to try CAM versus those with other pain diagnoses. In multivariate analyses, pain duration emerged as a significant predictor of CAM preferences. For mind-based approaches (i.e. hypnosis, biofeedback and art therapy), pain duration and limitations in family activities were both significant predictors. When given a choice of CAM therapies, this sample of children with chronic pain, irrespective of pain diagnosis, preferred non-invasive approaches that enhanced relaxation and increased somatic control. Longer duration of pain and greater impairment in functioning, particularly during family activities increased the likelihood that such patients agreed to engage in CAM treatments, especially those that were categorized as mind-based modalities. PMID:17965769

  14. Treatment Preferences for CAM in Children with Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. I. Tsao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls (mean age = 14.5 years ± 2.4; range = 8–18 years presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between CAM treatment preferences and patient's sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their self-reported level of functioning. Over 60% of patients elected to try at least one CAM approach for pain. The most popular CAM therapies were biofeedback, yoga and hypnosis; the least popular were art therapy and energy healing, with craniosacral, acupuncture and massage being intermediate. Patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (80% were the most likely to try CAM versus those with other pain diagnoses. In multivariate analyses, pain duration emerged as a significant predictor of CAM preferences. For mind-based approaches (i.e. hypnosis, biofeedback and art therapy, pain duration and limitations in family activities were both significant predictors. When given a choice of CAM therapies, this sample of children with chronic pain, irrespective of pain diagnosis, preferred non-invasive approaches that enhanced relaxation and increased somatic control. Longer duration of pain and greater impairment in functioning, particularly during family activities increased the likelihood that such patients agreed to engage in CAM treatments, especially those that were categorized as mind-based modalities.

  15. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM providers’ views of chronic low back pain patients’ expectations of CAM therapies: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schafer Lisa M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some researchers think that patients with higher expectations for CAM therapies experience better outcomes and that enthusiastic providers can enhance treatment outcomes. This is in contrast to evidence suggesting conventional medical providers often reorient patient expectations to better match what providers believe to be realistic. However, there is a paucity of research on CAM providers’ views of their patients’ expectations regarding CAM therapy and the role of these expectations in patient outcomes. Methods To better understand how CAM providers view and respond to their patients’ expectations of a particular therapy, we conducted 32 semi-structured, qualitative interviews with acupuncturists, chiropractors, massage therapists and yoga instructors identified through convenience sampling. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically using Atlas ti version 6.1. Results CAM providers reported that they attempt to ensure that their patients’ expectations are realistic. Providers indicated they manage their patients’ expectations in a number of domains— roles and responsibilities of providers and patients, treatment outcomes, timeframe for improvement, and treatment experience. Providers reported that patients’ expectations change over time and that they need to continually manage these expectations to enhance patient engagement and satisfaction with treatment. Conclusions Providers of four types of CAM therapies viewed patients’ expectations as an important component of their experiences with CAM therapy and indicated that they try to align patient expectations with reality. These findings suggest that CAM providers are similar in this respect to conventional medical providers.

  16. Immediate CAD/ CAM Custom Fabricated Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There will almost always be gaps between cylin-drical or screw shaped prefabricated implant surface and funnel-shaped tooth socket when an implant is placed immediately after tooth extraction. Hence expensive and difficult bone grafting is re-quired. A custom fabricated implant will be a pragmatic solution for this limitation.The hypothesis: First step following extraction of a tooth is data capture or scanning via a 3D scan method e.g. coordinate measuring machine or non-contact laser scanners such as triangulation range finder. Second step is reconstruction or modeling via editable CAD (computer-aided design model, allowing us to add retentive holes and correction of implant angle. Third step is fabrication via CAM (computer aided manufacturing followed by plasma cleaning process. Fourth step is insertion of the CAD/CAM custom fabricated one-stage implant in the fresh tooth socket. Optimal time for this step is 24-48 hours after extraction. The custom fabricated implant should not load 3-4 months. Usage of chlorhexidine mouth-rinse or chewing gum twice daily for 2 weeks and, in some cases oral antibiotic is recommended. Evaluation of the hypothesis: Contemporary dental implant system faced with several clinical and anatomical limitations such is low sinuses or nerve bundles. Complex and expensive surgical procedures such as nerve repositioning and sinus lift are frequently required. With custom fabricated implant we can overcome several of these limitations because insertion of custom fabricated implant will perform before alveolar bone recession.

  17. MICROPROPAGAÇÃO DE Aechmea setigera Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f.: UMA BROMÉLIA ENDÊMICA DA AMAZÔNIA OCIDENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Avelino Leão

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As bromélias da Amazônia são em geral pouco conhecidas. Aechmea setigera é uma bromélia endêmica da Amazônia com potencial ornamental. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as respostas fisiológicas sob efeito de reguladores de crescimento nas etapas da micropropagação, bem como, estabelecer um protocolo como subsídio para a conservação. Plântulas germinadas e desenvolvidas in vitro foram inoculadas em meio de cultura MS líquidas estacionário acrescidas de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP em diferentes concentrações (0; 2,2; 4,4; 8,8 e 17,6 μM. Para o enraizamento, microbrotos foram transferidos para meio de cultura MS com 0; 2,4; 4,9; 9,8µM de ácido indolacético (AIA e ácido indolbutírico (AIB. Após cinco subcultivos, o uso de 17,6 μM de BAP apresentou o maior número e o menor comprimento de brotações adventícias. Os teores de amido foram menores nos brotos induzidos com as menores concentrações de BAP. O uso de ácido indolbutírico nas concentrações de 4,9 e 9,8 μM promoveram o maior número de raízes adventícias regeneradas. Plantas jovens regeneradas foram aclimatizadas (99 % utilizando substrato comercial em ambiente com 50 % de sombreamento. A micropropagação de A. setigera é uma estratégia viável para a produção de mudas e a conservação da espécie. Palavras-chave: Bromeliaceae, propagação in vitro, teores de amido, Amazônia Ocidental. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n2p117-123

  18. Cam Profile Grinding CNC System Based on Open Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies some key technologies of CNC system for cam grinding. Themathematical motion model for cam grinding is established according to the harmony of re-ciprocating motion of the grinding wheel and the rotating motion of the woorkpiece. Themethod of using the linear servomotor to accomplish the grinding wheel tracking is devel-oped and the dynamic model of the system is analyzed. Then the cross-coupled biaxial errorcompensation model is proposed. Finally,the hardware and software of the control systemare designed based on open architecture. Some algorithms, such as spline fitting and inter-polation for cam contour, velocity control and feed control, are presented to improvegrinding precision.

  19. UVAJANJE PROGRAMSKIH ORODIJ CAD/CAM V PODJETJU

    OpenAIRE

    Gjerkeš, Srečko

    2010-01-01

    V diplomskem delu je prikazan postopek uvedbe CAD/CAM programskega orodja v podjetje. Cilj diplomskega dela je primerjava med ročnim programiranjem in programiranjem s pomočjo CAM sistema ter povečanje produktivnosti proizvodnje pri izdelavi serijskih izdelkov. Z uvedbo programskega orodja bi predvsem skrajšali obdelovalne čase izdelkov, ki se izdelujejo v različnih serijah. Diplomsko delo opisuje osnovne značilnosti CAD/CAM sistemov, podjetje Medicop d.o.o, programska orodja in njihovo p...

  20. SODOBNA RAČUNALNIŠKA TEHNOLOGIJA ZA CAD/CAM

    OpenAIRE

    Herženjak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Sodobna računalniška tehnologija CAD/CAM se čedalje pogosteje uporablja v naprednih podjetjih v tujini in tudi v Sloveniji. Pomembno je vedeti kakšna aparaturna oprema za CAD/CAM je danes na voljo, saj omogoča uspešno konstruiranje, modeliranje in simulacije. V prvem delu diplomske naloge sem zato preučil sodobno programsko in aparaturno opremo za CAD/CAM, ki je namenjena za konstruiranje, modeliranje in simulacije. Prav tako sem na kratko opisal najpomembnejše vidike dodajanih tehnologij, ki...

  1. CAD/CAM ceramic restorations in the operatory and laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasbinder, Dennis J

    2003-08-01

    Computer assisted design/computer assisted machining (CAD/CAM) technology has received considerable clinical and research interest from modern dental practices as a means of delivering all-ceramic restorations. The CEREC, System offers CAD/CAM dental technology designed for clinical use by dentists, as well as a separate system designed for dental laboratory technicians. The CEREC 3 system is indicated for dental operatory applications, and the CEREC inLab, system is indicated for dental laboratory applications. Although both systems rely on similar CAD/CAM technology, several significant differences exist in the processing techniques involved, restorative materials used, and types of restoration provided. PMID:14692164

  2. CAD/CAM approach to improving industry productivity gathers momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results and planning for the NASA/industry Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) program for improving productivity with CAD/CAM methods are outlined. The industrial group work is being mainly done by Boeing, and progress has been made in defining the designer work environment, developing requirements and a preliminary design for a future CAD/CAM system, and developing CAD/CAM technology. The work environment was defined by conducting a detailed study of a reference design process, and key software elements for a CAD/CAM system have been defined, specifically for interactive design or experiment control processes. Further work is proceeding on executive, data management, geometry and graphics, and general utility software, and dynamic aspects of the programs being developed are outlined

  3. Resin-composite Blocks for Dental CAD/CAM Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, N.D.; Sadoun, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and resin composites. While glass-ceramics/ceramics have overall superior mechanical and esthetic properties, resin-composite materials may offer significant advantages related to their machinability and intra-oral reparability. This review summarizes recent developments in resin-composite materials for CAD/CAM applications, focusing on both commercial and experimental materials. PMID:25344335

  4. IGES data exchange between dissimilar CAD-CAM systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theilen, D.F.

    1982-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Bendix Kansas City have successfully transferred geometrical model data by using a neutral graphics format, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). Data was exchanged between two dissimilar CAD-CAM systems without the need for special translators. The exchanged data was used to fabricate a mechanical part. Design information developed on a CAD-CAM system was translated to IGES with a commercial preprocessor at Sandia. A second vendor's postprocessor translated the design information from IGES to the CAD-CAM system at Bendix. The Bendix CAD-CAM system was used to generate the numerical control tape from the exchange data. The tape was used to fabricate the part. A production print from Sandia was used during final inspection to verify part accuracy. Project results indicated that both vendor-furnished translators correctly transferred the geometric model of points, lines and arcs.

  5. Selecting a CAD/CAM system for the first time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    A good percentage of manufacturing companies with gross sales exceeding $100 million already use some form of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM). More recently, however, a new, larger group with annual gross sales between $10 million and $100 million have entered the CAD/CAM marketplace. Interested because the technology has proven itself to be economical, beneficial, and relatively easy to implement without prior computer experience, these companies are actively investigating and applying CAD and CAD/CAM. Many are subcontractors to large companies with low design requirements. Others may design and/or manufacture a proprietary product line. Yet, while resembling one another, the needs of these companies vary widely. Applying the proper kind and level of CAD/CAM, therefore, requires a careful analysis of each user's needs.

  6. Surgical hip dislocation for treatment of cam femoroacetabular impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M Chaudhary

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Cam femoroacetabular Impingement causing pain and limitation of hip movements was treated by open osteochondroplasty after surgical hip dislocation. This reduced pain, improved hip motion and gave good to excellent results in the short term.

  7. Engine testing of ceramic cam-roller followers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalish, Y. (Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States))

    1992-04-01

    For several years, DDC has been developing monolithic ceramic heat engine components. One of the components, developed for an application in our state-of-the-art on-highway, heavy-duty diesel engine, the Series 60, is a silicon nitride cam-roller follower. Prior to starting this program, each valve train component in the Series 60 was considered for conversion to a ceramic material. Many advantages and disadvantages (benefits and risks) were considered. From this effort, one component was selected, the cam-roller follower. Using a system design approach, a ceramic cam-roller follower offered functional improvement at a reasonable cost. The purpose of the project was to inspect and test 100 domestically produced silicon nitride cam-roller followers built to the requirements of the DDC series 60 engine.

  8. Engine testing of ceramic cam-roller followers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalish, Y. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States)

    1992-04-01

    For several years, DDC has been developing monolithic ceramic heat engine components. One of the components, developed for an application in our state-of-the-art on-highway, heavy-duty diesel engine, the Series 60, is a silicon nitride cam-roller follower. Prior to starting this program, each valve train component in the Series 60 was considered for conversion to a ceramic material. Many advantages and disadvantages (benefits and risks) were considered. From this effort, one component was selected, the cam-roller follower. Using a system design approach, a ceramic cam-roller follower offered functional improvement at a reasonable cost. The purpose of the project was to inspect and test 100 domestically produced silicon nitride cam-roller followers built to the requirements of the DDC series 60 engine.

  9. Today's CAD/CAM: flexible digital technologies expanding workflow options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, Jonathan L

    2015-03-01

    CAD/CAM and digital scanning technologies have become essential components of dentistry. Digital impression scanning, restoration design, and manufacturing techniques yield greater treatment predictability, high-level esthetics, and functional accuracy using a variety of materials. PMID:25822749

  10. A study on copper and zinc effects in the growth of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) L.B. Smith seedlings cultivated in vitro. Application of neutron activation analysis; Estudo sobre os efeitos do cobre e zinco no crescimento da plantula de Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) L.B. Smith cultivada in vitro. Aplicacao da analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampieri, Maria Cristina Tessari

    2010-07-01

    Metals are components of the biosphere, occurring naturally in soil and plants, but as a result of human actions, their levels have been greatly increased, depending on the region. Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are essential for the growth and development of plants, however if in excess become toxic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of plants to absorb Cu and Zn and what effects they cause in seedlings cultivated in vitro. The results of this study may contribute primarily in agricultural and environmental research. The plant investigated was the Aechmea blanchetiana species of the Bromeliaceae family. It is a terrestrial or epiphytic species used as an ornamental plant. The cultivation of seedlings for this study and their exposure to different concentrations of Cu and Zn were performed at the Institute of Botany (IBt) of Sao Paulo. After seed germination, the seedlings were transferred for growth in a culture media containing different concentrations of Cu or Zn. After this period of in vitro cultivation, the seedlings were analyzed for morphometry, anatomy and by neutron activation analysis. Quality control of the results from neutron activation analysis was carried out by the analysis of certified reference materials. The data obtained showed good precision and accuracy for several elements determined. The highest concentrations of Cu used in the exposure were those that caused major structural changes in morphometric and anatomical parameters, however for the Zn no significant differences were verified for most parameters. The A. blanchetiana proved to be a bioaccumulator species of Zn, absorbing high levels of this element in the aerial parts and roots. (author)

  11. CAD-CAM Implants in Esthetic and Reconstructive Craniofacial Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Jörg; Hemprich, Alexander; Schulze, Fritz Peter; Berti, Guntram; Schmidt, Jens-Georg; Scholz, Eckhard; Wollny, Gerd; Hierl, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In the reconstruction of complex craniofacial malformations CAD-CAM procedures could help generating alloplastic implants to achieve almost optimal esthetic results. Complementary to the existing CAD-CAM techniques in the cranial vault region or modeling procedures in unilateral defects, these techniques are introduced to bilaterally affected skulls in esthetic reconstructive surgery. Surgery could thus become less invasive and results more predictable. A tool chain is shown to generate such ...

  12. Geometric Distortion Analysis Using CAD/CAM Based Manufacturing Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Werke, Mats; Hedlind, Mikael; Nicolescu, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Machining of components may cause geometric distortions and thereby quality issues and increased costs. This paper presents an engineering approach of CAD/CAM based manufacturing simulation in order to be in control of geometric distortions after machining. The method utilises STEP AP209 for communication of CAD/CAM simulation data. The method improves the ability to optimise process parameters, geometry, and material, in order to fulfil the design requirements. The method supports concurrent...

  13. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C.; Bowers, John E.; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Zhangyao; Miao, Chenyong; Lin, Zhicong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Hongye; Yim, Won C.; Priest, Henry D.; Zheng, Chunfang; Woodhouse, Margaret; Edger, Patrick P.; Guyot, Romain; Guo, Hao-Bo; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Guangyong; Singh, Ratnesh; Sharma, Anupma; Min, Xiangjia; Zheng, Yun; Lee, Hayan; Gurtowski, James; Sedlazeck, Fritz J.; Harkess, Alex; McKain, Michael R.; Liao, Zhenyang; Fang, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Weichang; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Chen, Li-Yu; Shirley, Neil; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Li-Yu; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Wright, Chris L.; Bulone, Vincent; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Heath, Katy; Zee, Francis; Moore, Paul H.; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Mockler, Todd; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Freeling, Michael; Sankoff, David; Paterson, Andrew H.; Zhu, Xinguang; Yang, Xiaohan; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Cushman, John C.; Paull, Robert E.; Yu, Qingyi

    2016-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit after banana in terms of international trade. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties ‘F153’ and ‘MD2’, and a wild pineapple relative A. bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole genome duplications than sequenced grass genomes and, therefore, provides an important reference for elucidating gene content and structure in the last common ancestor of extant members of the grass family (Poaceae). Pineapple has a conserved karyotype with seven pre rho duplication chromosomes that are ancestral to extant grass karyotypes. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues using beta-carbonic anhydrase (βCA) for initial capture of CO2. Promoter regions of all three βCA genes contain a CCA1 binding site that can bind circadian core oscillators. CAM pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements including the morning (CCACAC) and evening (AAAATATC) elements associated with regulation of circadian-clock genes, providing the first link between CAM and the circadian clock regulation. Gene-interaction network analysis revealed both activation and repression of regulatory elements that control key enzymes in CAM photosynthesis, indicating that CAM evolved by reconfiguration of pathways preexisting in C3 plants. Pineapple CAM photosynthesis is the result of regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting gene copies and not acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole genome or tandem gene duplication. PMID:26523774

  14. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies, and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability

  15. A systematic review of CAD/CAM fit restoration evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitelle, P; Mawussi, B; Tapie, L; Fromentin, O

    2014-11-01

    The evolution and development of CAD/CAM systems have led to the production of prosthetic reconstructions by going beyond the use of traditional techniques. Precision adjustment of prosthetic elements is considered essential to ensure sustainable restoration and dental preparation. The purpose of this article was to summarise the current literature on the fitting quality of fixed prostheses obtained by CAD/CAM technology. PMID:24952991

  16. CAD-CAM at Bendix Kansas city: the BICAM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, D.R.

    1983-04-01

    Bendix Kansas City Division (BEKC) has been involved in Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) technology since the late 1950's when the numerical control (N/C) analysts installed computers to aid in N/C tape preparation for numerically controlled machines. Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology was introduced in 1976, when a number of 2D turnkey drafting stations were procured for printed wiring board (PWB) drawing definition and maintenance. In June, 1980, CAD-CAM Operations was formed to incorporate an integrated CAD-CAM capability into Bendix operations. In March 1982, a ninth division was added to the existing eight divisions at Bendix. Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) is a small organization, reporting directly to the general manager, who has responsibility to coordinate the overall integration of computer aided systems at Bendix. As a long range plan, CIM has adopted a National Bureau of Standards (NBS) architecture titled Factory of the Future. Conceptually, the Bendix CAD-CAM system has a centrally located data base which can be accessed by both CAD and CAM tools, processes, and personnel thus forming an integrated Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) System. This is a key requirement of the Bendix CAD-CAM system that will be presented in more detail.

  17. Aquatic CAM photosynthesis: a brief history of its discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) photosynthesis was discovered while investigating an unrelated biochemical pathway concerned with anaerobic metabolism. George Bowes was a significant contributor to this project early in its infancy. Not only did he provide me with some valuable perspectives on peer review rejections, but by working with his gas exchange system I was able to take our initial observations of diel fluctuations in malic acid to the next level, showing this aquatic plant exhibited dark CO2 uptake. CAM is universal in all aquatic species of the worldwide Lycophyta genus Isoetes and non-existent in terrestrial Isoetes. Outside of this genus aquatic CAM has a limited occurrence in three other families, including the Crassulaceae. This discovery led to fascinating adventures in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes in search of Stylites, a terrestrial relative of Isoetes. Stylites is a plant that is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere and obtains all of its carbon from terrestrial sources and recycles carbon through CAM. Considering the Mesozoic origin of Isoetes in shallow pools, coupled with the fact that aquatic Isoetes universally possess CAM, suggests the earliest evolution of CAM photosynthesis was most likely not in terrestrial plants.

  18. Life Cycle, Morphology, Ontogenesis, and Phylogeny of Bromeliothrix metopoides nov. gen., nov. spec., a Peculiar Ciliate (Protista, Colpodea) from Tank Bromeliads (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissner, Wilhelm

    2010-11-15

    Bromeliothrix metopoides was discovered in tank bromeliads from Central and South America. Pure cultures could be established in various media stimulating growth of its food, i.e. bacteria and heterotrophic flagellates of the genus Polytomella. The new ciliate was investigated in the light- and scanning electron microscope, with various silver impregnation techniques, and with molecular methods, using the small-subunit rDNA. The morphology and its changes during the life cycle are documented by 167 figures and a detailed morphometry. Bromeliothrix metopoides is about 27-55 × 22-36 μm in size and has a complex life cycle with Metopus-shaped, bacteriophagous theronts and trophonts (microstomes) and obovate, flagellate-feeding macrostomes having a large, triangular oral apparatus. The thin-walled resting cysts of the theronts and trophonts are uniquely ellipsoidal, while the thick-walled cyst of the macrostome morph is globular. Reproduction occurs in freely motile condition either by binary fission or polytomy, producing a unique, motile "division chain" composed of four globular offspring, of which the central ones are connected by a curious, plug-like holdfast. Division is associated with a complete reorganization of the parental oral and somatic infraciliature. Stomatogenesis is merotelokinetal as in other members of the order Colpodida. The right polykinetid is generated by the rightmost postoral kinety, while the left polykinetid is produced by the two left postoral kineties and five left side kineties. The division in freely motile condition resembles the Exocolpodidae Foissner et al., 2002, to which Bromeliothrix is tentatively assigned, differing from Exocolpoda mainly by the formation of a macrostome morph and a division chain. Bromeliothrix has a ciliary and silverline pattern typical for members of the family Colpodidae. This matches the molecular classification which, however, hardly reflects the outstanding division and life cycle, suggesting some

  19. Bendix CAD-CAM site plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.L.

    1982-12-01

    The Bendix Site Plan for CAD-CAM encompasses the development and integration of interactive graphics systems, factory data management systems, robotics, direct numerical control, automated inspection, factory automation, and shared data bases to achieve significant plant-wide gains in productivity. This plan does not address all current or planned computerization projects within our facility. A summary of planning proposals and rationale is presented in the following paragraphs. Interactive Graphics System (IGS) capability presently consists of two Applicon CAD systems and the CD-2000 software program processing on a time-shared CYBER 174 computer and a dedicated CYBER 173. Proposed plans include phased procurment through FY85 of additional computers and sufficient graphics terminals to support projected needs in drafting, tool/gage design, N/C programming, and process engineering. Planned procurement of additional computer equipment in FY86 and FY87 will provide the capacity necessary for a comprehensive graphics data base management system, computer-aided process planning graphics, and special graphics requirements in facilities and test equipment design. The overall IGS plan, designated BICAM (Bendix Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing), will provide the capability and capacity to integrate manufacturing activities through a shared product data base and standardized data exchange format. Planned efforts in robotics will result in productive applications of low to medium technology robots beginning in FY82, and extending by FY85 to work cell capabilities utilizing higher technology robots with sensors such as vision and instrumented remote compliance devices. A number of robots are projected to be in service by 1990.

  20. Prevalence of Cam Morphology in Females with Femoroacetabular Impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Levy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cam and pincer are two common morphologies responsible for femoroacetabular impingement. Previous literature has reported that cam deformity is predominantly a male morphology, while being significantly less common in females. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cam morphology in female subjects diagnosed with symptomatic FAI. All females presenting to the senior author’s clinic diagnosed with symptomatic FAI between December 2006 and Cam and pincer are two common morphologies responsible for femoroacetabular impingement. Previous literature has reported that cam deformity is predominantly a male morphology, while being significantly less common in females. Cam morphology is commonly assessed with the alpha angle, measured on radiographs. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cam morphology utilizing the alpha angle in female subjects diagnosed with symptomatic FAI. All females presenting to the senior author’s clinic diagnosed with symptomatic FAI between December 2006 and January 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Alpha (α angles were measured on AP (anteroposterior and lateral (Dunn 90°, cross-table lateral, and/or frog-leg lateral plain radiographs by two blinded physicians, and the largest measured angle was used. Using Gosvig et al.’s classification, alpha angle was characterized as (pathologic > 57°, borderline (51-56°, subtle (46-50°, very subtle (43-45°, or normal (≤42°. Three hundred and ninety-one patients (438 hips were analyzed (age 36.2 ± 12.3 years. Among the hips included, 35.6% were normal, 14.6% pathologic, 15.1% borderline, 14.6% subtle, and 20.1% very subtle. There was no correlation between alpha angle and patient age (R = 0.17 or body mass index (BMI (R = 0.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for α-angle measurements was 0.84. Sixty-four percent of females in this cohort had an alpha angle > 42°. Subtle cam deformity plays a significant role in

  1. PRODUCT DATA MANAGEMENT DALAM KAITAN DENGAN CAD/CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Nugroho Yahya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The future industry is the one who can manage the information system. Today, communication technology and distributed system computerization already have the ability to implement system that able to exchange and share information between different users. Product Data Management (PDM is an up-to-date and excellent method on managing the exchange and share of information. PDM is able to integrate and manage data analyzing process and documentation of the related product component physically. By adjusting the CAD/CAM on certain condition, the PDM will function maximally by using the information based on STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product Data model. This article will explain the relationship between PDM system and CAD/CAM on industry. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sistem informasi merupakan ujung tombak sebuah perusahaan yang unggul di masa depan. Komputerisasi dengan sistem yang terdistribusi dan teknologi komunikasi saat ini memiliki kemampuan untuk mengimplementasikan sistem yang dapat menukar dan men-share informasi antar user yang berbeda. Teknologi yang mendapat cukup perhatian luas dalam hal pertukaran dan sharing informasi ini adalah Product Data Management (PDM. PDM dapat mengintegrasikan dan mengatur proses pengolahan data dan dokumen teknik yang berhubungan dengan komponen fisik produk yang bersangkutan. PDM akan berfungsi maksimal apabila kesesuaian dengan CAD/CAM diatur sedemikian rupa, dihubungkan dengan informasi berbasiskan STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product Data model. Artikel ini akan menjelaskan hubungan antara sistem PDM dengan CAD/CAM dalam industri. Kata kunci: PDM, Manajemen Data, CAD/CAM, STEP.

  2. Concerns of Hydrothermal Degradation in CAD/CAM Zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.-W.; Covel, N.S.; Guess, P.C.; Rekow, E.D.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia-based restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry; however, their susceptibility to hydrothermal degradation remains elusive. We hypothesized that CAD/CAM machining and subsequent surface treatments, i.e., grinding and/or grit-blasting, have marked effects on the hydrothermal degradation behavior of Y-TZP. CAD/CAM-machined Y-TZP plates (0.5 mm thick), both with and without subsequent grinding with various grit sizes or grit-blasting with airborne alumina particles, were subjected to accelerated aging tests in a steam autoclave. Results showed that the CAD/CAM-machined surfaces initially exhibited superior hydrothermal degradation resistance, but deteriorated at a faster rate upon prolonged autoclave treatment compared with ground and grit-blasted surfaces. The accelerated hydrothermal degradation of CAD/CAM surfaces is attributed to the CAD/CAM machining damage and the absence of surface compressive stresses in the fully sintered material. Clinical relevance for surface treatments of zirconia frameworks in terms of hydrothermal and structural stabilities is addressed. PMID:19966039

  3. Exploring adolescent complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) use in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Chris; Arthur, Heather; Noesgaard, Charlotte; Caldwell, Patricia; Vohra, Julie; Francoeur, Chera; Swinton, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach investigated adolescents' perceptions about complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) use. Adolescents, attending a clinic at the Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine, were interviewed after receiving ethics approval. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. The decision of adolescents to use CAM was based within the context of their world and how it shaped influencing factors. Factors that influenced adolescents' decision to use CAM were identified as certain personality traits, culture, media, social contacts and the ability of CAM providers to develop therapeutic relationships. The barriers and benefits of CAM use influenced evaluation of choices. The importance of barriers in limiting freedom of choice in health care decisions should be investigated by practitioners as they provide care to adolescents. Health care planning for integrative models of care requires determining the "right" blend of expertise by knowing interprofessional boundaries, determining mixed skill sets to provide the essential services and ensuring appropriate regulation that allows practitioners to use their full scope of practice. PMID:18202985

  4. CamBAfx: workflow design, implementation and application for neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinly Ooi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers and those who design them (designers. It provides a front-end (user interface optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platform application, CamBAfx's pipelines and functions can be bundled with the software or downloaded post-installation. The user interface contains all the workflow facilities expected by consumers. Using the Eclipse Extension Mechanism designers are encouraged to customize CamBAfx for their own pipelines. CamBAfx wraps a workflow facility around neuroinformatics software without modification. CamBAfx's design, licensing and Eclipse Branding Mechanism allow it to be used as the user interface for other software, facilitating exchange of innovative computational tools between originating labs.

  5. Early selection of elite clones of an ornamental bromeliad in vitro Seleção precoce in vitro de clones elite de uma bromélia ornamental

    OpenAIRE

    Candida Elisa Manfio; Sérgio Yoshimitsu Motoike; Cláudio Coelho de Paula; Magno Sávio Valente; Cristiane Gamarano Melo

    2010-01-01

    Orthophytum grossiorum is a typical bromeliad from Atlantic forestry threatened of extinction. The objectives of this research were to select O. grossiorum clones with ornamental values easy to propagate in vitro, and establish in vitro propagation protocols for these clones. The project was developed in three steps: germination and in vitro selection of seedlings responsive to BAP (6-benzylaminopurine), selection of clones with ornamental values, and establishment of protocol for in vitro pr...

  6. IGES data exchange between dissimilar CAD-CAM systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theilen, D.F.; Jones, J.F.

    1982-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNLL), and Bendix Kansas City have successfully transferred geometric model data by using a neutral graphics format, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). Data was exchanged between two dissimilar CAD-CAM systems without the need for special translators. The exchanged data was used to fabricate a mechanical part. Design information developed on a CAD-CAM system was translated to IGES with a commercial preprocessor at Sandia. A second vendor's postprocessor translated the design information from IGES to the CAD-CAM system at Bendix. The Bendix system was used to generate the numerical control tape from the exchanged data. The tape was used to fabricate the part. A production print from Sandia was used during final inspection to verify part accuracy. Project results indicated that both vendor-furnished translators correctly transferred the three-dimensional geometric model of points, lines, and arcs.

  7. GravityCam: Higher Resolution Visible Wide-Field Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Craig; Steele, Iain

    2016-01-01

    The limits to the angular resolution achievable with conventional ground-based telescopes are unchanged over 70 years. Atmospheric turbulence limits image quality to typically ~1 arcsec in practice. We have developed a new concept of ground-based imaging instrument called GravityCam capable of delivering significantly sharper images from the ground than is normally possible without adaptive optics. The acquisition of visible images at high speed without significant noise penalty has been made possible by advances in optical and near IR imaging technologies. Images are recorded at high speed and then aligned before combination and can yield a 3-5 fold improvement in image resolution. Very wide survey fields are possible with widefield telescope optics. We describe GravityCam and detail its application to accelerate greatly the rate of detection of Earth size planets by gravitational microlensing. GravityCam will also improve substantially the quality of weak shear studies of dark matter distribution in distant...

  8. Illness narratives in cancer: CAM and spiritual practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    be related to CAM. The analysis is based on empirical findings from a recent PhD project. During a two-year period first author followed 32 cancer patients, family, friends and alternative practitioners through interviews, telephone conversations, treatments and in focus groups. Results: As a general pattern......Objectives: In this paper,we investigate Danish cancer patients’ narratives on spiritual beliefs and practices and the relationship these practices may have to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design: Narrative inquiry is used to uncover how spiritual beliefs and practices may......, religious and spiritual issues were not extensively unfolded in participants’ illness narratives. However, these issues were significantly elaborated on in narratives by four female participants. Conclusion: We propose that for some cancer patients CAM may function, not only or primarily as a treatment...

  9. Xi-CAM v1.2.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-06

    Xi-CAM aims to provide a community driven platform for multimodal analysis in synchrotron science. The platform core provides a robust plugin infrastructure for extensibility, allowing continuing development to simply add further functionality. Current modules include tools for characterization with (GI)SAXS, Tomography, and XAS. This will continue to serve as a development base as algorithms for multimodal analysis develop. Seamless remote data access, visualization and analysis are key elements of Xi-CAM, and will become critical to synchrotron data infrastructure as expectations for future data volume and acquisition rates rise with continuously increasing throughputs. The highly interactive design elements of Xi-cam will similarly support a generation of users which depend on immediate data quality feedback during high-throughput or burst acquisition modes.

  10. CAM Modalities Can Stimulate Advances in Theoretical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Alex

    2005-03-01

    Most complementary medicine is distinguished by not being supported by underlying theory accepted by Western science. However, for those who accept their validity, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities offer clues to understanding physiology and medicine more deeply. Ayurveda and vibrational medicine are stimulating new approaches to biological regulation. The new biophysics can be integrated to yield a single consistent theory, which may well underly much of CAM-a true 'physics of physick'. The resulting theory seems to be a new, fundamental theory of health and etiology. It suggests that many CAM approaches to health care are scientifically in advance of those based on current Western biology. Such theories may well constitute the next steps in our scientific understanding of biology itself. If successfully developed, these ideas could result in a major paradigm shift in both biology and medicine, which will benefit all interested parties-consumers, health professionals, scientists, institutions and governments. PMID:15841271

  11. Concerns of Hydrothermal Degradation in CAD/CAM Zirconia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J.-W.; Covel, N.S.; Guess, P.C.; Rekow, E.D.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia-based restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry; however, their susceptibility to hydrothermal degradation remains elusive. We hypothesized that CAD/CAM machining and subsequent surface treatments, i.e., grinding and/or grit-blasting, have marked effects on the hydrothermal degradation behavior of Y-TZP. CAD/CAM-machined Y-TZP plates (0.5 mm thick), both with and without subsequent grinding with various grit sizes or grit-blasting with airborne alumina particles, were subj...

  12. Update on CAD/CAM activities at Sandia Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, D.A.

    1977-09-01

    Development of systems for Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) has been underway at Sandia Laboratories for several years. These include systems for circuit design and analysis, systems for design and fabrication of printed circuit boards and hybrid microcircuits, and systems for mechanical applications, such as mass properties calculations and stress analysis. CAD/CAM operations have proved successful for electronic applications. Current emphasis is on development of mechanical support software, and with putting into production a machine-aided design and definition system (MADDS) utilizing Applicon Graphics Systems (AGS). 14 figures. (RWR)

  13. CAD/CAM system based upon the IAPX 432

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criscione, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Intel Corporation has developed a 32 bit microprocessor which provides hardware support for object oriented applications, accommodates concurrent processing in a manner invisible to the user, and allows easy interfacing to peripherals. These features, along with numerous others that have never been offered before in a microprocessor, makes the IAPX 432 an attractive base for CAD/CAM. The author outlines one possible implementation of a CAD/CAM system with the 432 at its heart. The advantages offered by the 432 are weighed against its limitations. 5 references.

  14. CAD/CAM: improved design quality, increased productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, D. E.; England, J.

    1980-01-01

    Maintaining productivity levels while assuring the quality of engineering products grows increasingly more difficult and costly for industries such as the energy industry which are heavily committed to product design. The man/machine interface made possible through the development of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology can be applied to the design process as a tool for increased control to assure the quality of the final engineering product. The quality-control aspects of CAD/CAM technology are addressed in this presentation.

  15. CAD/CAM in the Brazilian aeronautical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampi, L. H.; Embraer, S. A.

    Features, applications and progress in the usage of CAD/CAM since 1980 by an aircraft manufacturer in Brazil are described. The system comprises 34 graphics work stations dedicated to structural design, lofting, electrical cable routing, finite element modeling and quality control. Standardized work methods have been devised to enhance productivity. Programs have been defined for finite element stress analysis and generating wiring diagrams. The computerized design capabilities have increased productivity for hole boring accuracy through work on digitized controllers. Psychological testing has been initiated to identify users who can adapt more easily to CAD/CAM utilization.

  16. Marginal Integrity of CAD/CAM Fixed Partial Dentures

    OpenAIRE

    Rosentritt, Martin; Behr, Michael; Kolbeck, Carola; Handel, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM) allows the milling of high strength zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPD), however bonding to an inert ZrO2 ceramic surface may effect the marginal integrity of the FPDs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of zirconia FPDs at the interfaces between zirconia, cement, and tooth. Methods 32 3-unit FPDs were fabricated of the CAD/CAM Y-TZP zirconia (Lava, 3M Espe, Germany) according to the manufactur...

  17. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

  18. CAM visual stimulation with conventional method of occlusion treatment in amblyopia: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Jafari

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Using of CAM visual stimulation along with conventional occlusion will further improve visual acuity and stereopsis in amblyopic children. These findings recommended the CAM visual stimulation as an accompanying and complementary method in amblyopia treatment.

  19. Crassulacean acid metabolism under severe light limitation: a matter of plasticity in the shadows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceusters, Johan; Borland, Anne M; Godts, Christof; Londers, Elsje; Croonenborghs, Sarah; Van Goethem, Davina; De Proft, Maurice P

    2011-01-01

    Despite the increased energetic costs of CAM compared with C(3) photosynthesis, it is hypothesized that the inherent photosynthetic plasticity of CAM allows successful acclimation to light-limiting conditions. The present work sought to determine if CAM presented any constraints to short and longer term acclimation to light limitation and to establish if and how metabolic and photosynthetic plasticity in the deployment of the four phases of CAM might facilitate acclimation to conditions of deep shade. Measurements of leaf gas exchange, organic acids, starch and soluble sugar (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) contents were made in the leaves of the constitutive CAM bromeliad Aechmea 'Maya' over a three month period under severe light limitation. A. 'Maya' was not particularly tolerant of severe light limitation in the short term. A complete absence of net CO(2) uptake and fluctuations in key metabolites (i.e. malate, starch or soluble sugars) indicated a dampened metabolism whilst cell death in the most photosynthetically active leaves was attributed to an over-acidification of the cytoplasm. However, in the longer term, plasticity in the use of the different phases of gas exchange and different storage carbohydrate pools, i.e. a switch from starch to sucrose as the major carbohydrate source, ensured a positive carbon balance for this CAM species under extremely low levels of irradiance. As such, co-ordinated plasticity in the use of C(3) and C(4) carboxylases and different carbohydrate pools together with an increase in the abundance of light-harvesting complexes, appear to underpin the adaptive radiation of the energetically costly CAM pathway within light-limiting environments such as wet cloud forests and shaded understoreys of tropical forests. PMID:20861137

  20. Single Roller-to-Cam Indexing Mechanisms Providing Two Maximized Dwells: Determination of Cam Pitch Profile for Optimal Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, K. S.

    2015-04-01

    The view point of present research paper is concentrated on a part of a systematic scientific investigation of the mechanical possibilities of generating non-uniform full-rotational output motion with intermittent motion as the most important special case. The paper develops a geometrical construction of the cam pitch profile for optimal designs for single roller-to-cam indexing mechanism providing either two unequal maximum extent dwells with equal indexing angles (and unequal indexing periods) or two equal maximized dwells with unequal indexing angles (and equal indexing periods). Placement of the two dwells in the same half of the motion cycle gives very small periods; very high accelerations; and poor radius of curvature in the transition portion. Hence this paper considers optimal motion diagrams for the case of two dwells placed in different halves of the motion cycle and using the principle of kinematic inversion with intuitive conviction very tactically determines the cam pitch profile.

  1. CAD-CAM experiences at Bendix Kansas City: the user perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentesana, C.

    1983-04-01

    The Bendix Kansas City Division manufactures a variety of precision mechanical, electrical and electronic components and assemblies for the Department of Energy. CAD-CAM has been in use at Bendix for about two years. Development of CAD-CAM is the responsibility of the CAD-CAM Operations group. This group works with users, in-house computer professionals and vendors to provide CAD-CAM products and services.

  2. Bromeliad ornamental species: conservation issues and challenges related to commercialization=Espécies ornamentais de bromélias: conservação e desafios relacionados a sua comercialização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromeliads grow almost exclusively in the New World tropics and subtropics, mainly in South America in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (ca. 1200 species. Within the last few decades, their beautiful shapes and colors, low maintenance and easy adaptability to small gardens have brought bromeliads into worldwide use as ornamental plants. While the ornamental bromeliad trade could make significant contributions to household economies in rural areas, the trade may represent a significant threat in some of the bromeliad biodiversity hotspot countries such as Brazil, Bolivia and Colombia. This paper presents an overview of production volumes, analysis of the Brazilian bromeliads trade chain – at the state, national and international levels – and recommendations to address development and conservation challenges.Bromélias crescem quase que exclusivamente nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais do Novo Mundo, ocorrendo principalmente na Floresta Atlântica brasileira na América do Sul. (ca. 1200 espécies. Nas últimas décadas, pelas suas belas formas e cores, baixa demanda de manutenção e fácil adaptabilidade a pequenos jardins, as bromélias tem sido mundialmente utilizadas como plantas ornamentais. O comércio de bromélias ornamentais pode promover significante acréscimo de renda em áreas rurais, mas por outro lado pode também significar uma ameaça à manutenção da diversidade destes recursos biológicos, especialmente em países como Brasil, Bolívia e Colômbia. Este trabalho apresenta uma caracterização geral dos volumes de produção e da cadeia brasileira de comercialização de bromélias - em nível estadual, nacional e internacional assim como recomendações para promover o desenvolvimento deste setor e superar desafios relacionados ao uso sustentável deste recurso.

  3. Criadouros de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 em bromélias nativas na Cidade de Vitória, ES Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 breeding sites in native bromeliads in Vitória City, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Benedito Malta Varejão

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Alguns insetos transmissores de doenças procriam exclusivamente nas proximidades das residências. O Aedes aegypti, responsável por epidemias de dengue em cidades brasileiras, representa sério risco também para a febre amarela. Com o insucesso da campanha de erradicação do inseto, justifica-se a busca de criadouros fora do alcance das medidas de controle atualmente adotadas. Na Cidade de Vitória, ES, investigou-se a ocorrência de criadouros de Aedes aegypti na água coletada em bromélias nativas, sobre as rochas. Paralelamente, avaliou-se a infestação predial nas áreas urbanas contíguas. Em quatro das cinco áreas investigadas foram encontradas larvas de culicídeos nas bromélias, sendo que em duas foi identificado Aedes aegypti. A presença dos criadouros em bromélias não guardou relação com a infestação predial nas áreas próximas. Torna-se necessário definir se os criadouros em bromélias constituem focos primários do Aedes aegypti, ou se representam uma conseqüência da elevada infestação urbana.Some insects that are vectors of human diseases have accompanied man in his migrations throughout the world and breed exclusively in the proximity of human dwellings. The mosquito Aedes aegypti has been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Brazil and its presence also constitutes a serious risk for future outbreaks of urban yellow fever. The failure of campaigns to eradicate this species justifies the search for alternative breeding sites, which may be beyond the reach of present control measures. In this study the occurrence of Aedes aegypti breeding sites in native bromeliads on rocky slopes was investigated in five areas of Vitória, capital of the Brazilian State of Espírito Santo, ES. Water contained in the bromeliads was collected with the aid of a suction apparatus to search for culicid larvae. The degree of infestation of buildings in adjacent urban areas was evaluated simultaneously. Culicid larvae were found in

  4. The detection of EpCAM+ and EpCAM– circulating tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de Sanne; Dalum, van Guus; Lenferink, Aufried; Tibbe, Arjan G.J.; Hilterman, T. Jeroen N.; Groen, Harry J.M.; Rijn, van Cees J.M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM+ CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM– CTC discarded by CellSearch, after EpCAM based enr

  5. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Germany - a focus group study of GPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joos, S.; Musselmann, B.; Miksch, A.; Rosemann, T.J.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners), some general practitioners (GPs) provide CAM in their practices. This paper aim

  6. The development of cam-type deformity in adolescent and young male soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Agricola (Rintje); J.H.J.M. Bessems (Gert); A.Z. Ginai (Abida); M.P. Heijboer (Rien); R.A. van der Heijden (Rianne); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); H.H. Weinans (Harrie); J.H. Waarsing (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cam impingement is a well-recognized cause of hip pain and might cause osteoarthritis of the hip. Clinically, cam impingement is mostly observed in young, active male patients, but only a few studies have focused on the manifestation of cam-type deformities during skeletal de

  7. CamOn: A Real-Time Autonomous Camera Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Jhala, Arnav Harish

    2009-01-01

    This demonstration presents CamOn, an autonomous cam- era control system for real-time 3D games. CamOn employs multiple Artificial Potential Fields (APFs), a robot motion planning technique, to control both the location and orienta- tion of the camera. Scene geometry from the 3D environment...

  8. Computer-aided engineering: the step beyond CAD/CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatfield, L.; Trost, S.R.; O' Brien, D.W.; Pomernacki, C.L.

    1981-11-06

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the need for increased engineering productivity, coupled with increasingly difficult engineering problems, presents a significant challenge. Advances in computer technology coupled with successful CAD/CAM experiences suggest that computer-aided engineering (CAE) will help meet this challenge. Requirements for a CAE system are developed, a CAE system plan is outlined, and some remaining problem areas are discussed.

  9. Making IGES work for CAD/CAM data exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, A.L.; Fletcher, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    This report outlines Sandia National Laboratories effort to integrate the CAE/CAD/CAM capabilities of three laboratories and six production plants in the DOE weapons complex with the Initial Graphics Exchange Specifications (IGES). The problems with IGES are addressed and solutions are explained. The implementation of the IGES concept is also outlined.

  10. Automated regression testing of CAD/CAM systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burd, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    A description of automated software quality assurance techniques is presented. These techniques detect regression in the ''unchanged'' functions of CAD/CAM software during new updates from a vendor. Interfaces for the test mechanisms, methods for automatic results analysis, test management requirements, and experience gained from a prototype automatic regression test system are included. 7 figs.

  11. Schools (Students) Exchanging CAD/CAM Files over the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Gary S.; Smallwood, James E.

    This document discusses how students and schools can benefit from exchanging computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) files over the Internet, explains how files are exchanged, and examines the problem of selected hardware/software incompatibility. Key terms associated with information search services are defined, and several…

  12. An Updated and Upgraded L1CAM Mutation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Yvonne J.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.

    2010-01-01

    The L1 syndrome is an X-linked recessive disease caused by mutations in the L1CAM gene. To date more than 200 different mutations have been reported, scattered over the entire gene, about 35% being missense mutations. Although it is tempting to consider these missense mutations as being disease-caus

  13. Potential worker risk as a function of CAM airflow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, J.J.

    1994-03-21

    The goal of the continuous air monitor (CAM) system at the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Plutonium Facility (PF-4) is to have a flow rate of 1 cubic feet per minute (cfm) drawn through the CAMs. However, design limitations in the house vacuum result in many CAMs having less than 1 cfm being drawn through them. Reduced flow rates through CAMs present a compromise in worker protection. Laboratory Health and Safety personnel and DOE officials established a flow rate of 0.5 cfm or less as operationally unacceptable. This report quantitatively estimated the difference in risk to workers from a reduced flow rate of 0.5 cfm relative to the risk inherent with a flow rate of 1 cfm. I calculated risk in terms of Committed Effective Dose Equivalent (CEDE) and used units of rem. Estimates for the increase in risk for 0.5 cfm compared to 1 cfm ranged from 0.32 rem to 3.3 rem. The difference in the minimum alarm concentration between 0.5 cfm and I cfm was also compared and was estimated to range from 0.4 rem to 4 rem.

  14. Strength influencing variables on CAD/CAM zirconia frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wang; M.N.M. Abou Shelib; A.J. Feilzer

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. Many studies in the dental literature look at the effect of different surface treatment methods on the flexure strength of zirconia where polished zirconia has been used as control. However, zirconia is subjected to different types of surface damage as a result of the CAD/CAM milling proced

  15. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 ...

  16. An approach towards fully integration of CAD and CAM technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tolouei-Rad

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An integrated CAD/CAM system for milling operations has been developed which helps designers tosolve machining problems at the design stage.Design/methodology/approach: A methodology has been employed which provides all necessary informationfor machining products automatically. Use of these system results in reduced machining leadtimes and costthrough designing machinable components; using available cutting tools; improving machining efficiency. Thesystem is menu driven with a user friendly interface.Findings: Different components for developing such a system have been identified and various problems thatarose in the development of this system have been dealt with The system developed leads to an adequate basisfor fully integration of CAD and CAM technologies in one system. It allows simultaneous generation of allinformation required to satisfy machining requirements of the design such as its machinability and availabilityof the required tooling resources.Research limitations/implications: Different components required for developing such systems have beenidentified and various problems that arose in the development of these systems have been dealt with, leadingto an adequate basis for complete integration of CAD and CAM technologies. Although much of the workdescribed here goes beyond the scope of published literature, however, it should be noted that the systemdeveloped couldn’t be considered as a complete solution to the CAD/CAM integration problem. Further workrequires including other manufacturing activities that are considered in concurrent engineering concept. In thisdirection, further integration of the system developed with systems such as MRP, MRP II and assembly sequenceplanning packages are highly desirable.Originality/value: CAD/CAM integration is regarded as a solution for bridging the gap between design andmanufacturing, one of the ultimate goals for concurrent engineering. Since the advent of CAD and CAMnumerous

  17. CAMS newly detected meteor showers and the sporadic background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    The Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteoroid orbit survey adds 60 newly identified showers to the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers (numbers 427, 445-446, 506-507, and part of 643-750). 28 of these are also detected in the independent SonotaCo survey. In total, 230 meteor showers and shower components are identified in CAMS data, 177 of which are detected in at least two independent surveys. From the power-law size frequency distribution of detected showers, we extrapolate that 36% of all CAMS-observed meteors originated from ∼700 showers above the N = 1 per 110,000 shower limit. 71% of mass falling to Earth from streams arrives on Jupiter-family type orbits. The transient Geminids account for another 15%. All meteoroids not assigned to streams form a sporadic background with highest detected numbers from the apex source, but with 98% of mass falling in from the antihelion source. Even at large ∼7-mm sizes, a Poynting-Robertson drag evolved population is detected, which implies that the Grün et al. collisional lifetimes at these sizes are underestimated by about a factor of 10. While these large grains survive collisions, many fade on a 104-y timescale, possibly because they disintegrate into smaller particles by processes other than collisions, leaving a more resilient population to evolve. The meteors assigned to the various showers are identified in the CAMS Meteoroid Orbit Database 2.0 submitted to the IAU Meteor Data Center, and can be accessed also at cams.seti.org" xlink:type="simple"

  18. Optimising the cam profile of an electronic unit pump for a heavy-duty diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a fuel system with a tangent cam or a constant-velocity cam, the peak injection pressure continues to rise as the injection duration increases, but overly high peak pressures induce mechanical loads and wear, limiting the maximum engine speed and injection quantity. To improve the performance of an EUP (Electronic Unit Pump) fuel system for heavy-duty diesel engines, this work proposes a new pump cam, namely the constant-pressure cam. It helps the EUP run at a higher speed and deliver larger fuel quantities while maintaining a constant peak injection pressure, which improves the power of the heavy-duty diesel engine. A model based on the EUP was built to determine the three constraints for optimising the constant-pressure cam: 1) the pump pressure should equal the nozzle pressure; 2) the cam speed should decrease with the increase in the injection duration; and 3) the cam acceleration gradient should be zero. An EUP system was tested with the tangent cam and the optimised cam under different conditions. The experimental results show that the EUP system with the optimised cam delivers more injection quantity and runs at higher engine speeds while maintaining the same peak pressure as the tangent cam. - Highlights: • We propose a constant-pressure cam to improve the power of heavy-duty diesel engine. • We deduce three constraints for the CP (constant-peak pressure) cam based on a model. • The EUP system with the new cam works well under higher engine speed. • The peak pressure of the constant-pressure cam fuel system maintains high

  19. Abnormal placental development and early embryonic lethality in EpCAM-null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nagao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: EpCAM (CD326 is encoded by the tacstd1 gene and expressed by a variety of normal and malignant epithelial cells and some leukocytes. Results of previous in vitro experiments suggested that EpCAM is an intercellular adhesion molecule. EpCAM has been extensively studied as a potential tumor marker and immunotherapy target, and more recent studies suggest that EpCAM expression may be characteristic of cancer stem cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain insights into EpCAM function in vivo, we generated EpCAM -/- mice utilizing an embryonic stem cell line with a tacstd1 allele that had been disrupted. Gene trapping resulted in a protein comprised of the N-terminus of EpCAM encoded by 2 exons of the tacstd1 gene fused in frame to betageo. EpCAM +/- mice were viable and fertile and exhibited no obvious abnormalities. Examination of EpCAM +/- embryos revealed that betageo was expressed in several epithelial structures including developing ears (otocysts, eyes, branchial arches, gut, apical ectodermal ridges, lungs, pancreas, hair follicles and others. All EpCAM -/- mice died in utero by E12.5, and were small, developmentally delayed, and displayed prominent placental abnormalities. In developing placentas, EpCAM was expressed throughout the labyrinthine layer and by spongiotrophoblasts as well. Placentas of EpCAM -/- embryos were compact, with thin labyrinthine layers lacking prominent vascularity. Parietal trophoblast giant cells were also dramatically reduced in EpCAM -/- placentas. CONCLUSION: EpCAM was required for differentiation or survival of parietal trophoblast giant cells, normal development of the placental labyrinth and establishment of a competent maternal-fetal circulation. The findings in EpCAM-reporter mice suggest involvement of this molecule in development of vital organs including the gut, kidneys, pancreas, lungs, eyes, and limbs.

  20. CAD/CAM-mathematical models and information processing. CAD/CAM-sugaku model to joho shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, F. (The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research center for advanced Science and Technology)

    1990-09-05

    Works concerning industrial product design and production design are comprehensive works and it is said that its technique has not been systematized and there are many aspects of relying on human creativity and experience in the past. On the other hand, technological theories are the works of analysis and have well been developed based upon scientific academic systems. In the field of designing, standardized design procedures, etc. have been enciphered and its computerized automation has been progressed, but in normal design works including new design to a certain extent, its design procedures cannot be made as mathematical models, consequently its automation is obliged to base on an information processing model. The models which can express comprehensively all technical information concerning products necessary for design and production of industrial products are called product models. In this article, product modelling is roughly explained and the features of numerical models in CAD/CAM (computer assisted automation of mechanical design and production) are discussed taking geometrical modelling as a subject for discussion. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Trend of CAD/CAM system in steel structure. Kenchiku tekkotsu CAD/CAM system no genjo to tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, K.; Tayama, K.

    1994-06-01

    The present situation and the future trend of the CAD/CAM system in steel structure were explained. In Japan, the CAD/CAM system in steel structure was introduced in 1983 for responding to the shortage of operators, shortening the construction period, and cost reduction. The systems introduced by fabricators can be classified into two types, i.e., the single functional type and the consistent type. Most of the single functional type system employs personal computers as for the hardware. Though it can be easily operated, there is a certain limit to functionality and treatment capacity. The consistent type system can provide many information such as fabrication drawing, full size template, and management document, though it is expensive and complicated. When the function of the system is heightened, the system becomes complicated. The future trend was considered. The combination of CAD/CAM, NC machine, and welding robot is indispensable for the rationalization. The completion of software for making the three-dimensional data is expected, for it will make it possible to fabricate the steel structure promptly and accurately. The network linkage of different CAD/CAM systems will be also promoted. In the future, it will be developed into the computer-aided integrated production system (CIM). 1 ref., 6 figs.

  2. A methodological framework for evaluating the evidence for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Robert; Johannesen, Helle

    2011-01-01

    In spite of lacking evidence for effects on cancer progression itself, an increasing number of cancer patients use various types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). There is disagreement between CAM practitioners, researchers and clinical oncologists, as to how evidence concerning...... effects of CAM can and should be produced, and how the existing evidence should be interpreted. This represents a considerable challenge for oncologists; both in terms of patient needs for an informed dialogue regarding CAM, and because some types of CAM may interact with standard treatments...

  3. ST Chamaeleontis and BP Coronae Australis: Two Southern Dwarf Novae Confirmed as Z Cam Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Simonsen, Mike; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Stubbings, Rod

    2014-01-01

    Z Camelopardalis (Z Cam) stars are a subset of dwarf novae distinguished by the occurrence of standstills, periods of relative constant brightness one to one and a half magnitudes fainter than maximum brightness. As part of an ongoing observing campaign, the Z CamPaign, the authors focused attention on several Z Cam suspects in the southern hemisphere. Two stars, BP Coronae Australis and ST Chamaeleontis were found to exhibit standstill behavior in 2013, thus confirming them as Z Cam type systems. This adds two more bona fide members to the 19 confirmed Z Cams, bringing the total to 21.

  4. The detection of EpCAM+ and EpCAM– circulating tumor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sanne de Wit; Guus van Dalum; Lenferink, Aufried T. M.; Arjan G. J. Tibbe; T. Jeroen N. Hiltermann; Groen, Harry J. M.; van Rijn, Cees J. M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM(+) CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM(-) CTC discarded by CellSearch, after EpCAM based enrichment. EpCAM(-) CTC were identified by filtration and fluorescent labelling. This approach was validated using different cell lines spiked into blood and evaluated on blood samples of 27 meta...

  5. Starch distribution in anthers, microspores and pollen grains in Aechmea recurvata (Klotzsch. L.B.Sm., Dyckia racinae L.B.Sm. and Tillandsia aeranthos (Loisel. L.B.Sm. (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Santos de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative description of the starch distribution in the anthers, microspores and pollen grains of Aechmea recurvata, Dyckia racinae and Tillandsia aeranthos. Flowers at different stages of development were processed according to plant microtechniques for observation by light microscope. Ten stages of embryological development were used as references for the comparative analysis of starch distribution and dynamics. The structural data showed a greater starch accumulation in the parietal layers and connective of D. racinae. It was observed that in the species studied, starch began to accumulate in microspore mother cell stage. The pollen grains in D. racinae and in T. aeranthos present two amylogenesis-amylolysis cycles, while A. recurvata presents only one. One amylogenesis-amylolysis cycle occurs in the parietal layers and/or connective tissue in all three species. The pollen grains in the three species are dispersed without starch and are characterized as the starchless type. Starch dynamics presents a close relation to the development of sporangia, microspores and pollen grains. It is believed that differences in the starch distribution and accumulation are related to the abiotic factors where the species are found.

  6. Shared origins of a key enzyme during the evolution of C4 and CAM metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Arakaki, Monica; Osborne, Colin P; Bräutigam, Andrea; Sage, Rowan F; Hibberd, Julian M; Kelly, Steven; Covshoff, Sarah; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Hancock, Lillian; Edwards, Erika J

    2014-07-01

    CAM and C4 photosynthesis are two key plant adaptations that have evolved independently multiple times, and are especially prevalent in particular groups of plants, including the Caryophyllales. We investigate the origin of photosynthetic PEPC, a key enzyme of both the CAM and C4 pathways. We combine phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding PEPC with analyses of RNA sequence data of Portulaca, the only plants known to perform both CAM and C4 photosynthesis. Three distinct gene lineages encoding PEPC exist in eudicots (namely ppc-1E1, ppc-1E2 and ppc-2), one of which (ppc-1E1) was recurrently recruited for use in both CAM and C4 photosynthesis within the Caryophyllales. This gene is present in multiple copies in the cacti and relatives, including Portulaca. The PEPC involved in the CAM and C4 cycles of Portulaca are encoded by closely related yet distinct genes. The CAM-specific gene is similar to genes from related CAM taxa, suggesting that CAM has evolved before C4 in these species. The similar origin of PEPC and other genes involved in the CAM and C4 cycles highlights the shared early steps of evolutionary trajectories towards CAM and C4, which probably diverged irreversibly only during the optimization of CAM and C4 phenotypes. PMID:24638902

  7. A qualitative study on the term CAM: is there a need to reinvent the wheel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaboury Isabelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As complementary and alternative medicine (CAM has developed extensively, uncertainty about the appropriateness of the terms CAM and other CAM-related terms has grown both in the research and practice communities. Various terms and definitions have been proposed over the last three decades, highlighting how little agreement exits in the field. Contextual use of current terms and their respective definitions needs to be discussed and addressed. Methods Relying upon the results of a large international Delphi survey on the adequacy of the term CAM, a focus group of 13 international experts in the field of CAM was held. A forum was also set up for 28 international experts to discuss and refine proposed definitions of both CAM and integrative healthcare (IHC terms. Audio recordings of the meeting and forum discussion threads were analyzed using interpretive description. Results Multiple terms to describe the therapies, products, and disciplines often referred to as CAM, were considered. Even though participants generally agreed there is a lack of optimal definitions for popular CAM-related umbrella terms and that all terms that have so far been introduced are to some extent problematic, CAM and IHC remained the most popular and accepted terms by far. The names of the specific disciplines were also deemed adequate in certain contexts. Focus group participants clarified the context in which those three terms are appropriate. Existing and emergent definitions of both CAM and integrative healthcare terms were discussed. Conclusions CAM and other related terms could be used more effectively, provided they are used in the proper context. It appears difficult for the time being to reach a consensus on the definition of the term CAM due to the uncertainty of the positioning of CAM in the contemporary healthcare systems. While umbrella terms such as CAM and IHC are useful in the context of research, policy making and education, relevant

  8. Light quality modulates metabolic synchronization over the diel phases of crassulacean acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceusters, Johan; Borland, Anne M; Taybi, Tahar; Frans, Mario; Godts, Christof; De Proft, Maurice P

    2014-07-01

    Temporal compartmentation of carboxylation processes is a defining feature of crassulacean acid metabolism and involves circadian control of key metabolic and transport steps that regulate the supply and demand for carbon over a 24h cycle. Recent insights on the molecular workings of the circadian clock and its connection with environmental inputs raise new questions on the importance of light quality and, by analogy, certain photoreceptors for synchronizing the metabolic components of CAM. The present work tested the hypothesis that optimal coupling of stomatal conductance, net CO2 uptake, and the reciprocal turnover of carbohydrates and organic acids over the diel CAM cycle requires both blue and red light input signals. Contrasting monochromatic wavelengths of blue, green, and red light (i.e. 475, 530, 630nm) with low fluence rates (10 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) were administered for 16 hours each diel cycle for a total treatment time of 48 hours to the obligate CAM bromeliad, Aechmea 'Maya'. Of the light treatments imposed, low-fluence blue light was a key determinant in regulating stomatal responses, organic acid mobilization from the vacuole, and daytime decarboxylation. However, the reciprocal relationship between starch and organic acid turnover that is typical for CAM was uncoupled under low-fluence blue light. Under low-fluence red or green light, the diel turnover of storage carbohydrates was orchestrated in line with the requirements of CAM, but a consistent delay in acid consumption at dawn compared with plants under white or low-fluence blue light was noted. Consistent with the acknowledged influences of both red and blue light as input signals for the circadian clock, the data stress the importance of both red and blue-light signalling pathways for synchronizing the metabolic and physiological components of CAM over the day/night cycle. PMID:24803500

  9. JunoCam: Science and Outreach Opportunities with Juno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C. J.; Orton, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    JunoCam is a visible imager on the Juno spacecraft en route to Jupiter. Although the primary role of the camera is for outreach, science objectives will be addressed too. JunoCam is a wide angle camera (58 deg field of view) with 4 color filters: red, green and blue (RGB) and methane at 889 nm. Juno's elliptical polar orbit will offer unique views of Jupiter's polar regions with a spatial scale of ~50 km/pixel. The polar vortex, polar cloud morphology, and winds will be investigated. RGB color mages of the aurora will be acquired. Stereo images and images taken with the methane filter will allow us to estimate cloudtop heights. Resolution exceeds that of Cassini about an hour from closest approach and at closest approach images will have a spatial scale of ~3 km/pixel. JunoCam is a push-frame imager on a rotating spacecraft. The use of time-delayed integration takes advantage of the spacecraft spin to build up signal. JunoCam will acquire limb-to-limb views of Jupiter during a spacecraft rotation, and has the possibility of acquiring images of the rings from in-between Jupiter and the inner edge of the rings. Galilean satellite views will be fairly distant but some images will be acquired. Small ring moons Metis and Adrastea will also be imaged. The theme of our outreach is "science in a fish bowl", with an invitation to the science community and the public to participate. Amateur astronomers will supply their ground-based images for planning, so that we can predict when prominent atmospheric features will be visible. With the aid of professional astronomers observing at infrared wavelengths, we'll predict when hot spots will be visible to JunoCam. Amateur image processing enthusiasts are prepared to create image products. Between the planning and products will be the decision-making on what images to take when and why. We invite our colleagues to propose science questions for JunoCam to address, and to be part of the participatory process of deciding how to use

  10. GlastCam: A Telemetry-Driven Spacecraft Visualization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Eric T.; Tsai, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Developed for the GLAST project, which is now the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, GlastCam software ingests telemetry from the Integrated Test and Operations System (ITOS) and generates four graphical displays of geometric properties in real time, allowing visual assessment of the attitude, configuration, position, and various cross-checks. Four windows are displayed: a "cam" window shows a 3D view of the satellite; a second window shows the standard position plot of the satellite on a Mercator map of the Earth; a third window displays star tracker fields of view, showing which stars are visible from the spacecraft in order to verify star tracking; and the fourth window depicts

  11. Compact Atomic Magnetometer for Global Navigation (NAV-CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Larsen, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Northrop Grumman Navigation Systems Division is developing an atom-based magnetometer technology that has the potential for providing a global position reference independent of GPS. The NAV-CAM sensor is a direct outgrowth of the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyro under development by the same technical team. It will be the only known magnetic field sensor capable of providing all 3 axes of magnetic vector direction and magnitude simultaneously with a whole-field scalar measurement, all within a single multi-axis sensing element measuring 4mm cube or smaller, essentially eliminating many of the problems encountered when using physically separate sensors or sensing elements. According to information presented by Ariyur et al. at the 2010 American Control Conference [1], the anticipated accuracy of 10 pico-Tesla (pT) and precision of <0.5 pT of the NAV-CAM sensor will enable magnetic determination of position with 20 meter accuracy and 1 meter resolution.

  12. CAM Modalities Can Stimulate Advances in Theoretical Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hankey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most complementary medicine is distinguished by not being supported by underlying theory accepted by Western science. However, for those who accept their validity, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM modalities offer clues to understanding physiology and medicine more deeply. Ayurveda and vibrational medicine are stimulating new approaches to biological regulation. The new biophysics can be integrated to yield a single consistent theory, which may well underly much of CAM—a true ‘physics of physick’. The resulting theory seems to be a new, fundamental theory of health and etiology. It suggests that many CAM approaches to health care are scientifically in advance of those based on current Western biology. Such theories may well constitute the next steps in our scientific understanding of biology itself. If successfully developed, these ideas could result in a major paradigm shift in both biology and medicine, which will benefit all interested parties—consumers, health professionals, scientists, institutions and governments.

  13. Tooth-colored CAD/CAM monolithic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, S

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic restoration (also known as a full contour restoration) is one that is manufactured from a single material for the fully anatomic replacement of lost tooth structure. Additional staining (followed by glaze firing if ceramic materials are used) may be performed to enhance the appearance of the restoration. For decades, monolithic restoration has been the standard for inlay and partial crown restorations manufactured by both pressing and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. A limited selection of monolithic materials is now available for dental crown and bridge restorations. The IDS (2015) provided an opportunity to learn about and evaluate current trends in this field. In addition to new developments, established materials are also mentioned in this article to complete the picture. In line with the strategic focus of the IJCD, the focus here is naturally on CAD/CAM materials. PMID:26110926

  14. Oclusión y Cad-Cam

    OpenAIRE

    Llombart Jaques, Daniel; Cadafalch Cabaní, Juan; Sabrià, J.; Cortada Colomer, Miquel

    1994-01-01

    Las restauraciones construidas con sistema CAD-CAM, a pesar de sus ventajas, tienen el inconveniente de no dejar una superficie oclusal con las características morfológicas adecuadas. Describimos un sistema, que uniendo al diseño electrónico previo un tallado, que sigue aproximadamente los pasos del tallado selectivo nos permite conseguir una oclusión correcta.

  15. Complete denture fabrication supported by CAD/CAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Timea; Gallus, Korbinian; Eichberger, Marlis; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-05-01

    The inclusion of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology into complete denture fabrication facilitates the procedures. The presented workflow for complete denture fabrication combines conventional and digitally supported treatment steps for improving dental care. With the presented technique, the registration of the occlusal plane, the determination of the ideal lip support, and the verification of the maxillomandibular relationship record are considered. PMID:26774323

  16. Simulation tools for CAD/CAM robot programming

    OpenAIRE

    Zapletal, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor’s thesis is focused on simulation, off-line programming and familiarization with KUKA robot. It informs about the composition, coordinate systems and the possibilities of movement of the industrial robot. It introduces methods of on-line and off-line programming and analysis of software for off-line programming aimed on CAD / CAM machining. It describes the creation of specific robot movements and explains the generated code for the implementation of created movements. The result is ...

  17. An approach towards fully integration of CAD and CAM technologies

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tolouei-Rad

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: An integrated CAD/CAM system for milling operations has been developed which helps designers tosolve machining problems at the design stage.Design/methodology/approach: A methodology has been employed which provides all necessary informationfor machining products automatically. Use of these system results in reduced machining leadtimes and costthrough designing machinable components; using available cutting tools; improving machining efficiency. Thesystem is menu driven with a user f...

  18. Potentials for the Modified Cam-Clay model

    OpenAIRE

    Zouain, Nestor; Pontes, Ivaldo; Vaunat, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Energy and dissipation pseudo-potentials are employed to derive constitutive relationships, in the context of thermodynamic concepts, for the widely used Modified Cam-Clay (MCC) model for soil mechanics. A variational formulation of the MCC evolution equations is proposed in this paper. Since plastic collapse of MCC soils cannot be embedded in the classical limit analysis theory, finding the critical amplification of the load that produces plastic collapse is formulated in...

  19. CamBAfx: workflow design, implementation and application for neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Cinly Ooi; Bullmore, Edward T; Alle-Meije Wink; Levent Sendur; Anna Barnes; Sophie Achard; John Aspden; Sanja Abbott; Shigang Yue; Manfred Kitzbichler; David Meunier; Voichita Maxim; Raymond Salvador; Julian Henty; Roger Tait

    2009-01-01

    CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers) and those who design them (designers). It provides a front-end (user interface) optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platf...

  20. CamBAfx: Workflow Design, Implementation and Application for Neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Cinly; Bullmore, Edward T; Wink, Alle-Meije; Sendur, Levent; Barnes, Anna; Achard, Sophie; Aspden, John; Abbott, Sanja; Yue, Shigang; Kitzbichler, Manfred; Meunier, David; Maxim, Voichita; Salvador, Raymond; Henty, Julian; Tait, Roger

    2009-01-01

    CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers) and those who design them (designers). It provides a front-end (user interface) optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platf...

  1. Development of a Feature Based CAM System for Rotational Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Yakup YILDIZ; İhsan KORKUT; ŞEKER, Ulvi

    2010-01-01

    Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) plays an  important role in the development of Computer Integrated Manufacturing systems (CIM) and provides a vital link  between Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM). Automatic extraction and recognition of part features directly from a CAD database also strengthen the link between CAD and CAPP. In this study, an automatic feature recognition and CNC code generation (AFR/ACCG) system  was developed for rotati...

  2. CAM Modalities Can Stimulate Advances in Theoretical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Hankey

    2005-01-01

    Most complementary medicine is distinguished by not being supported by underlying theory accepted by Western science. However, for those who accept their validity, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities offer clues to understanding physiology and medicine more deeply. Ayurveda and vibrational medicine are stimulating new approaches to biological regulation. The new biophysics can be integrated to yield a single consistent theory, which may well underly much of CAM—a true ‘...

  3. Application of CAD/CAM at VEB Lufttechnische Anlagen Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsch, B.; Aschenbrenner, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    This contribution presents the concept for the introduction of CAD/CAM systems to an enterprise of Kombinat ILKA Luft- und Kaeltetechnik. This concept is based on the use of a local computer network with a K 1630 microcomputer as the central computer and multi-terminals in the special departments. Special reference is made to the problems of the structured or modular software development and the work with centralised data files.

  4. Light and temperature requirements for germination of seeds of Aechmea nudicaulis (l. Griesebach and Streptocalyx floribundus (Martius ex Shultes f. Mez (Bromeliaceae Requerimentos de luz e temperatura para a germinação de sementes de Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griesebach e Streptocalyx floribundus (Martius ex Schultes F. Mez (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pinheiro

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of A. nudicaulis and S. floribundus were collected in a restinga located at Presidente Kennedy (ES, Brazil. This sandy community is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation interspersed by open areas with a sparse plant covering. In order to evaluate the capacity of A. nudicaulis and S. floribundus to recruit individuals from seeds in the distinct microclimates generated by this heterogeneous plant covering, experiments were conducted in laboratory to test the effects of light and temperature on the germination for both species. Seeds of A. nudicaulis were unable to germinate in darkness but they achieved high germinability (≥90% from 15 to 40°C under red light. Seeds of S. floribundus germinated in darkness only at 40ºC (22.5%, whereas the germinability was high (≥90% from 15 to 30ºC under light. For both species, the germination rate was highest at 25ºC. For these bromeliads, alternating temperature (20/30ºC promoted high germinability (≥92.5% only under red light. The seeds at 20/30°C in darkness were later transferred to light and a high germinability (>89% was achieved for both species. No seed germinated at alternating temperatures of 20/50ºC and they were dead after 720h of incubation. The seeds showed to be photoblastic and did not tolerate high temperatures. The results suggest that under natural conditions the germination of seeds of A. nudicaulis and S. floribundus is restricted to microclimates where light and moderate temperatures are present. The microsites generated by the plant covering seem to provide these requirements.Sementes de A. nudicaulis e S. floribundus foram coletadas em uma restinga em Presidente Kennedy (ES. Esta comunidade arenosa caracteriza-se pela presença de moitas de vegetação separadas por areia nua ou com rala cobertura vegetal. Para examinar a capacidade das sementes em germinar nas distintas situações microclimáticas presentes neste ambiente, foram conduzidos, em

  5. Human Face Detection and Recognition using Web-Cam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcharat Pattanasethanon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The illuminance insensitivity that reflects the angle of human facial aspects occurs once the distance between the object and the camera is too different such as animated images. This has been a problem for facial recognition system for decades. Approach: For this reason, our study represents a novel technique for facial recognition through the implementation of Successes Mean Quantization Transform and Spare Network of Winnow with the assistance of Eigenface computation. After having limited the frame of the input image or images from Web-Cam, the image is cropped into an oval or eclipse shape. Then the image is transformed into greyscale color and is normalized in order to reduce color complexities. We also focus on the special characteristics of human facial aspects such as nostril areas and oral areas. After every essential aspectsarescrutinized, the input image goes through the recognition system for facial identification. In some cases where the input image from the Web-Cam does not exist in the database, the user will be notified for the error handled. However, in cases where the image exists in the database, that image will be computed for similarity measurement using Euclidean Distance measure from the input image. Results and Conclusion: The result of our experiment reveals that the recognition process of 150 images in the database and 10 images from the Web-Cam provides 100% accuracy in terms of recognition. The runtime in this case is at 0.04 sec.

  6. CAMS as a tool for human factors research in spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Juergen

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of research studies that were carried out with a PC-based task environment called Cabin Air Management System (CAMS) simulating the operation of a spacecraft's life support system. As CAMS was a multiple task environment, it allowed the measurement of performance at different levels. Four task components of different priority were embedded in the task environment: diagnosis and repair of system faults, maintaining atmospheric parameters in a safe state, acknowledgement of system alarms (reaction time), and keeping a record of critical system resources (prospective memory). Furthermore, the task environment permitted the examination of different task management strategies and changes in crew member state (fatigue, anxiety, mental effort). A major goal of the research programme was to examine how crew members adapted to various forms of sub-optimal working conditions, such as isolation and confinement, sleep deprivation and noise. None of the studies provided evidence for decrements in primary task performance. However, the results showed a number of adaptive responses of crew members to adjust to the different sub-optimal working conditions. There was evidence for adjustments in information sampling strategies (usually reductions in sampling frequency) as a result of unfavourable working conditions. The results also showed selected decrements in secondary task performance. Prospective memory seemed to be somewhat more vulnerable to sub-optimal working conditions than performance on the reaction time task. Finally, suggestions are made for future research with the CAMS environment.

  7. Evaluating rare amino acid substitutions (RGC_CAMs in a yeast model clade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Polzin

    Full Text Available When inferring phylogenetic relationships, not all sites in a sequence alignment are equally informative. One recently proposed approach that takes advantage of this inequality relies on sites that contain amino acids whose replacement requires multiple substitutions. Identifying these so-called RGC_CAM substitutions (after Rare Genomic Changes as Conserved Amino acids-Multiple substitutions requires that, first, at any given site in the amino acid sequence alignment, there must be a minimum of two different amino acids; second, each amino acid must be present in at least two taxa; and third, the amino acids must require a minimum of two nucleotide substitutions to replace each other. Although theory suggests that RGC_CAM substitutions are expected to be rare and less likely to be homoplastic, the informativeness of RGC_CAM substitutions has not been extensively evaluated in biological data sets. We investigated the quality of RGC_CAM substitutions by examining their degree of homoplasy and internode certainty in nearly 2.7 million aligned amino acid sites from 5,261 proteins from five species belonging to the yeast Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade whose phylogeny is well-established. We identified 2,647 sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions, a number that contrasts sharply with the 100,887 sites containing RGC_non-CAM substitutions (i.e., changes between amino acids that require only a single nucleotide substitution. We found that RGC_CAM substitutions had significantly lower homoplasy than RGC_non-CAM ones; specifically RGC_CAM substitutions showed a per-site average homoplasy index of 0.100, whereas RGC_non-CAM substitutions had a homoplasy index of 0.215. Internode certainty values were also higher for sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions than for RGC_non-CAM ones. These results suggest that RGC_CAM substitutions possess a strong phylogenetic signal and are useful markers for phylogenetic inference despite their rarity.

  8. Overexpression of EpCAM in uterine serous papillary carcinoma: implications for EpCAM-specific immunotherapy with human monoclonal antibody adecatumumab (MT201).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sahwi, Karim; Bellone, Stefania; Cocco, Emiliano; Casagrande, Francesca; Bellone, Marta; Abu-Khalaf, Maysa; Buza, Natalia; Tavassoli, Fattaneh A; Hui, Pei; Rüttinger, Dominik; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Schwartz, Peter E; Rutherford, Thomas J; Pecorelli, Sergio; Santin, Alessandro D

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and the potential of MT201 (adecatumumab), a human monoclonal antibody against EpCAM, in uterine serous papillary carcinoma (USPC). EpCAM expression was evaluated by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in a total of 56 USPC fresh-frozen biopsies and paraffin-embedded tissues. EpCAM surface expression was also evaluated by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry in six USPC cell lines. Sensitivity to MT201 antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity was tested against a panel of primary USPC cell lines expressing different levels of EpCAM in standard 5-h (51)Cr release assays. EpCAM transcript was significantly overexpressed in fresh-frozen USPC when compared with normal endometrial cells (NEC). Median (minimum-maximum) copy number was 943.8 (31.5-1568.3) in tumor samples versus 12.9 (1.0-37.0) in NEC (P < 0.001). By immunohistochemistry, EpCAM expression was found in 96% (26 out of 27) of USPC samples with significantly higher expression compared with NECs (P < 0.001). High surface expression of EpCAM was found in 83% (five out of six) of the USPC cell lines tested by flow cytometry. EpCAM-positive cell lines were found highly sensitive to MT201-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in vitro, whereas primary USPC cell lines were resistant to natural killer cell-dependent cytotoxicity. Human plasma IgG did not significantly inhibit MT201-mediated cytotoxicity against USPC. EpCAM is highly expressed in uterine serous carcinoma at mRNA and protein levels, and primary USPC are highly sensitivity to MT201-mediated cytotoxicity. MT201 might represent a novel therapeutic strategy in patients harboring advanced/recurrent or metastatic USPC refractory to standard treatment modalities. PMID:20053761

  9. Life history and description of larva and pupa of Platyphileurus felscheanus Ohaus, 1910, a scarabaeid feeding on bromeliad tissues in Brazil, to be excluded from Phileurini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertoni, Fabiano F.; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Steiner, Josefina; Zillikens, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The third instar larvae and the pupae of Platyphileurus felscheanus Ohaus, 1910 (Phileurini), recently synonymized with Surutu jelineki Endrődi, 1975 (Cyclocephalini), are described and illustrated, and some life history information is given. The larvae were collected and reared in bromeliads in rain forests of Santa Catarina state in southern Brazil. The systematic position of this monotypic genus is reassessed at the tribe level by considering larval and adult morphological characters. Both character sets, being described and illustrated, suggest the placement of Platyphileurus in the tribe Oryctini. PMID:24715774

  10. ChemCam Passive Reflectance Spectroscopy at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Bell, J. F.; Cloutis, E.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D. L.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Gasnault, O.; Kinch, K. M.; Le Mouelic, S.; Rice, M. S.; Wiens, R. C.; DeFlores, L.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) portion of the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover uses 3 dispersive spectrometers to cover the ultraviolet (240-342 nm), visible (382-469 nm) and visible/near-infrared (474-906 nm) spectral regions at high spectral (spectra (acquired with the LIBS laser off) used to remove the background signal from the LIBS measurement. Similar 'passive' observations of the ChemCam calibration target holder can be made at similar times of day and at identical exposure times (to minimize variations from dark current). Because this target exhibits ~95% flat reflectance in the ~400-900 nm region, radiance spectra ratios (surface/calibration target) can be normalized to known calibration target lab spectra to produce relative reflectance spectra (400-900 nm) with an estimated accuracy of 10-20%. Initial results replicated the known spectral shape and overall reflectance values of the ChemCam calibration targets and green color chip on the Mastcam calibration target. Dust contamination was evident, although dust on the ChemCam calibration targets is minimized by their tilted placement on the rover deck. All ChemCam targets that were sunlit during LIBS acquisition (~80% of all measurements) provide 'dark' spectra for which relative reflectance spectra can be obtained. Owing to the dusty nature of the Gale landing sites, passive spectra observed to date exhibit spectral shapes indicative of ferric phases, similar to spectra of palagonitic soils. Most spectra are bracketed in reflectance by typical 'bright' and 'dark' spectra from the OMEGA and CRISM orbital spectrometers. Preliminary Mastcam reflectance spectra are similar, providing additional confidence regarding the first-order calibration of the ChemCam spectra. The spectral similarity to palagonitic soils is consistent with the results from the CheMin instrument for Rocknest sands. Changes in the 535 nm band depth are likely indicative of differences in

  11. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--the digital workflow from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapie, L; Lebon, N; Mawussi, B; Fron Chabouis, H; Duret, F; Attal, J-P

    2015-01-01

    As digital technology infiltrates every area of daily life, including the field of medicine, so it is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Apart from chairside practice, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental solutions can be considered a chain of digital devices and software for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use the technology often do not have the time or knowledge to understand it. A basic knowledge of the CAD/CAM digital workflow for dental restorations can help dentists to grasp the technology and purchase a CAM/CAM system that meets the needs of their office. This article provides a computer-science and mechanical-engineering approach to the CAD/CAM digital workflow to help dentists understand the technology. PMID:25911827

  12. Demand for CAM Practice at Hospitals in Japan: A Population Survey in Mie Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    Toshihiro Togo; Shigeru Urata; Kenta Sawazaki; Hinata Sakuraba; Torao Ishida; Kazuhito Yokoyama

    2011-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies have been provided at hospitals along with conventional medicine in industrialized nations. Previous studies conducted in Japan revealed high proportion of Japanese had experience of using CAM, but failed to discuss how it should be provided. The present study aims to clarify the demand for CAM practice at hospitals in Japan. A questionnaire consisting of 41 questions was mailed to 10 000 adults randomly selected from the electoral roll o...

  13. Demand for CAM Practice at Hospitals in Japan: A Population Survey in Mie Prefecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Togo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies have been provided at hospitals along with conventional medicine in industrialized nations. Previous studies conducted in Japan revealed high proportion of Japanese had experience of using CAM, but failed to discuss how it should be provided. The present study aims to clarify the demand for CAM practice at hospitals in Japan. A questionnaire consisting of 41 questions was mailed to 10 000 adults randomly selected from the electoral roll of Mie prefecture, Japan in January 2007. The questionnaire asked the subjects about demand for CAM practice at hospitals, types of CAM therapy to be provided and associated reasons. Sociodemographic characteristics, perceived health status, experience and purpose of CAM use, and information resource for CAM were also surveyed. Completed answers were collected from 2824 (28.6% respondents. Two thousand and nineteen (71.5% of the respondents demanded CAM practice at hospitals with the most likely reason of “patients can receive treatment under the guidance of a physicians”. The three most popular CAM therapies were Kampo, acupressure/massage/Shiatsu and acupuncture/moxibustion. The demand was positively associated with gender, ages of 40–59 years, annual household incomes of 5–7 million yen, occupation of specialist and technical workers and sales workers and poor health status. Higher demand was observed among those who used both CAM and conventional medical therapies for curative purposes. In conclusion, Japanese show a high demand for CAM practice, hoping to use CAM for curative purposes with monitoring by physicians at hospitals.

  14. A Space Cam Mechanism for Power Transmission of an Opposite-cylinder Piston Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Haoyue; Xu Xiaojun; Zhang Lei; Zhou Faliang

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of improving the engine’s power density, we put forward a new type of power transmission mechanism which is used for opposed-cylinder engine. The gas pressure acts on the cam through the piston and push rod, and the spindle rotation of external is driven by the cam. The design of spatial cam work surface is completed by using the enveloping theory of a family of space curves, the force between roller and cam is analyzed using dynamic analysis software. Under the condition of e...

  15. The use of CAM by women suffering from nausea and vomiting during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Michael

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP affects two-thirds of pregnant women to varying degrees and over the years many modalities have been used to try to alleviate this often debilitating condition. There is a paucity of information in the literature about the use or efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM for the treatment of this condition that affects so many women. Our primary objective was to examine the prevalence of CAM usage by women suffering from NVP. Our secondary objective was to ascertain if women had any supervision in the use of these treatments. Methods Women who called The Motherisk NVP helpline, were asked after the counseling session to complete a questionnaire, which included demographic data as well as information about their CAM use. Results Seventy women completed the questionnaire. 61% reported using CAM therapies, of which the three most popular were: ginger, vitamin B6 and acupressure. 21% of those who reported using CAM, had consulted CAM practitioners, 8% their physicians or pharmacists and 71% discussed the usage with family, friends and other allied health professionals. Women who did not use CAM stated they would probably use these modalities if there was more information about the safety in pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnant women with NVP are mirroring the trend in the general population of the use of CAM. They are also using CAM therapies with little supervision from practitioners experienced in the use of these modalities.

  16. ON DESIGN METHOD OF THE PRECISION CAM PROFILE WITH RANDOM PROCESSING ERRORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on probability and statistic, a design method of precision cam profile concerning the influence of random processing errors is advanced. Combining the design with the process, which can be used to predict that cam profiles will be successfully processed or not in the design stage, design of the cam can be done by balancing the economization and reliability. In addition, an fuzzy deduction method based on Bayers formula is advanced to estimate processing reasonable of the designed precision cam profile, and it take few samples.

  17. Hot-spot residues in the cytochrome P450cam-putidaredoxin binding interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Yoshitaka; Gupta, Ankur; Kloosterman, Alexander; Olijve, Caroline; Olmez, Betül; Hass, Mathias A S; Ubbink, Marcellus

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450cam (P450cam) is a heme-containing monooxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of D-camphor to produce 5-exo-hydroxycamphor. The catalytic cycle of P450cam requires two electrons, both of which are donated by putidaredoxin (Pdx), a ferredoxin containing a [2 Fe-2 S] cluster. Atomic-resolution structures of the Pdx-P450cam complex have recently been solved by X-ray crystallography and paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy. The binding interface showed the potential electron transfer pathways and interactions between Pdx Asp38 and P450cam Arg112, as well as hydrophobic contacts between the Pdx Trp106 and P450cam residues. Several polar residues not previously recognized as relevant for binding were found in the interface. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis, kinetic measurements, and NMR studies were employed to probe the energetic importance and role of the polar residues in the Pdx-P450cam interaction. A double mutant cycle (DMC) analysis of kinetic data shows that favorable interactions exist between Pdx Tyr33 and P450cam Asp125, as well as between Pdx Ser42 and P450cam His352. The results show that alanine substitutions of these residues and several others do not influence the rates of electron transfer. It is concluded that these polar interactions contribute to partner recognition rather than to electronic coupling of the redox centers. PMID:24302683

  18. Initiating a Reiki or CAM program in a healthcare organization--developing a business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) services, such as Reiki, continue to be offered to consumers in many hospitals and other health care organizations. There is growing interest among nurses, doctors, and other health care providers for the integration of CAM therapies into traditional settings. Health care organizations are responding to this need but may not know how to start CAM programs. Starting a Reiki program in a health care setting must be envisioned in a business model approach. This article introduces nurses and other health care providers to the basic concepts of business plan development and important steps to follow when starting a Reiki or CAM program. PMID:25314111

  19. Operability of the Ventilation Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock Analysis of Proposed Upgrade to the 241AW Farm Primary Exhauster CAM System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis (FSAR) assumes that a ventilation stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) interlock system detects high radiation in the exhaust stream and shuts off the associated ventilation system within 10 minutes of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter system failure (CHG, 2002). Previous analysis of the as-built CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster (stack 296-A-27) showed that this system potentially required significantly longer than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure and initiate shutdown of the ventilation system (Short, 2002). The purpose of this report is to determine the CAM interlock system response time for a proposed upgrade of the 296-A-27 CAM system. The approach to be used in this analysis is essentially the same as used in RPP-10799, Rev. 0 (Short, 2002), which is to conservatively estimate the time required by the proposed upgraded CAM sampling/monitoring system to detect a FSAR-defined HEPA filter failure and automatically shutdown the exhaust fan. For the HEPA filter failure over-temperature accident scenario in the FSAR, the upgraded CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster will require significantly less than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure, actuate the CAM Interlock, and shutdown the exhauster fan. Therefore, the analyzed system is adequate to meet the operability requirements specified in the FSAR and the Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements (CHG, 2001; CHG, 2002)

  20. ChemCam Passive Spectroscopy of the Martian Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnochie, T. H.; Smith, M. D.; Wolff, M. J.; Bender, S. C.; Johnson, J. R.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Barraclough, B. L.; Blaney, D. L.; DeFlores, L.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The design priority of the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) portion of the ChemCam instrument (Wiens et al. 2012, Space Sci, Rev. 170) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is its active mode, which acquires spectra of a laser induced plasma using three spectrometers. However these same spectrometers have excellent sensitivity to ambient light and so are also used independent of the laser in 'passive' mode to acquire spectra of the Martian surface (Johnson et al., 2013, LPSC #1372) and, as we will describe here, the Martian sky. Using ChemCam passive sky observations, we have successfully measured the column abundance of water vapor, molecular oxygen, and carbon dioxide gas, and with further analysis will likely be able to constrain the column abundance of ozone as well as aerosol and cloud particle properties. Although data analysis is ongoing, we currently estimate a 2 sigma precision of oxygen, and < +/- 4 % for carbon dioxide. The three ChemCam spectrometers span 240-342 nm, 382-469 nm, and 474-906 nm, respectively, with a resolution of 0.6 nm FWHM or better. Passive sky observations were obtained on sols 131, 230, and then at regular ~7 sol intervals starting on sol 278. The observation consists of acquiring spectra of light scattered by the atmosphere at two elevation angles so that the ratio of the two resulting radiance spectra yields (after removing the continuum) an extremely precise absorption spectrum with both the solar spectrum and instrument response uncertainties removed. To yield column abundances, the spectra are modeled with a discrete ordinates multiple scattering radiative transfer code that incorporates gas absorption via the correlated-k method.

  1. FEAT-REP : representing features in CAD/CAM

    OpenAIRE

    Klauck, Christoph; Bernardi, Ansgar; Legleitner, Ralf

    1991-01-01

    When CAD/CAM experts view a workpiece, they perceive it in terms of their own expertise. These terms, called features, which are build upon a syntax (geometry) and a semantic (e.g. skeletal plans in manufacturing or functional relations in design), provide an abstraction mechanism to facilitate the creation, manufacturing and analysis of workpieces. Our goal is to enable experts to represent their own feature-language via a feature-grammar in the computer to build feature-based systems e.g. C...

  2. CAD/CAM from the graphic-design perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, A.

    1982-11-01

    CAD/CAM systems have evolved elaborate human-computer interfaces in order to facilitate the creation of highly detailed and specialized schematic diagrams and texts. Although these systems have powerful capacities in terms of graphics editing, data manipulation, and data storage, insufficient attention has been given to making the online interface (together with supporting documentation) user-friendly, i.e., understandable, memorable, and appealing to the general user. Graphic-design considerations in particular have been routinely overlooked. Graphic design concerns typography, symbol design, color, spatial layout, and temporal sequencing. Graphic design can assist computer science by providing insight and expertise in designing effective communication between human being and machine.

  3. Status of the NectarCAM camera project

    OpenAIRE

    Barrio Uña, Juan Abel; Herranz, D.; Tejedor, L. A.

    2014-01-01

    NectarCAM is a camera designed for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) covering the central energy range 100 GeV to 30 TeV. It has a modular design based on the NECTAr chip, at the heart of which is a GHz sampling Switched Capacitor Array and 12-bit Analog to Digital converter. The camera will be equipped with 265 7-photomultiplier modules, covering a field of view of 7 to 8 degrees. Each module includes the photomultiplier bases, High Voltage supply, pre-amplif...

  4. Korištenje CAD/CAM tehnologije u praksi

    OpenAIRE

    Jolić, Robert; Kukec, Đuro; Pavlic, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    Ovaj rad opisuje korakeristike CNC tehnologije, njeno korištenje i prednosti korištenja u proizvodnji. Opisana je ideja, izrada 3D modela u CAD programskome alatu, zatim su u CAM programskome alatu definirani svi parametri glodanja i na kraju je sve glodano na stroju. Prikazano je koliko se brže ovom tehnologijom proizvod može koristiti i proizvoditi, u odnosu na način da se sve radi ručno. Sve je modelirano u programskome alatu SolidWorks, parametri glodanja su definirani u programskome alat...

  5. Creative WebCam Live最新摄像头

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Creative WebCam Live摄像头拥有高达1024×768的静态影像捕捉能力,进了步提供无与伦比的影像输出效果。另外.其更拥有灵活的固定方式,让你可以轻轻松松将它固定在PC,不同厚度的LCD屏幕甚至是Notebook上。不仅如此,

  6. CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, P.

    1984-01-01

    The history of CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault are presented. Emphasis is put on the targets of the now commercially available software CATIA. The links with scientific computations such as aerodynamics and structural analysis are presented. Comments are made on the principles followed within the company. The consequences of the approximative nature of scientific data are examined. Consequence of the new history function is mainly its protection against copy or alteration. Future plans at Dassault for scientific data appear to be in opposite directions compared to some general tendencies.

  7. Applying DER-CAM for IIT Microgrid Explansion Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Li, Zuyi [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Chen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-19

    The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is an economic and environmental model of customer DER adoption. This model has been in development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory since 2000. The objective of the model is to find optimal DER investments while minimizing total energy costs or carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, or achieving a weighted objective that simultaneously considers both criteria. The Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Microgrid project started in August 2008, and the majority of the project was completed in May 2013. IIT Microgrid, funded mostly by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy as well as State and philanthropic contributions, empowers the campus consumers with the objective of establishing a smart microgrid that is highly reliable, economically viable, environmentally friendly, fuel-efficient, and resilient in extreme circumstances with a self-healing capability. In this project, we apply DER-CAM to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid. First, the load data, environmental data, utility data, and technology data for the IIT Microgrid are gathered and organized to follow the DER-CAM input requirements. Then, DERCAM is applied to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid for different cases, where different objectives in DER-CAM and different utility conditions are tested. Case 1 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with fixed utility rates and 100% electric utility availability. Case 2 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with real-time utility rates and 4 emergency weeks when the IIT Microgrid does not have access to the electric utility grid and has to operate in island mode. In Case 3, the utility rates are restored to fixed values and 100% electric utility availability is assumed, but a weighted multi-objective (Obj: a × costs + b × CO2 emissions, where a and b are weights for cost minimization and CO2 emissions minimization) is utilized to

  8. A Prospective, Multicenter Study of Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) Utilization During Definitive Radiation for Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, William W. Backus Hospital, Norwich, Connecticut (United States); Ma Shuangge [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [University of Michigan, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Yang, Tzu-I Jonathan [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Higgins, Susan A. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Shoreline Medical Center, Guilford, Connecticut (United States); Weidhaas, Joanne B. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Lawrence and Memorial Hospital, New London, Connecticut (United States); Lloyd, Shane [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Peschel, Richard [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Lawrence and Memorial Hospital, New London, Connecticut (United States); Gaudreau, Bryant [Department of Radiation Therapy, William W. Backus Hospital, Norwich, Connecticut (United States); Rockwell, Sara [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in breast cancer patients is reported to be high, there are few data on CAM practices in breast patients specifically during radiation. This prospective, multi-institutional study was conducted to define CAM utilization in breast cancer during definitive radiation. Materials/Methods: A validated CAM instrument with a self-skin assessment was administered to 360 Stage 0-III breast cancer patients from 5 centers during the last week of radiation. All data were analyzed to detect significant differences between users/nonusers. Results: CAM usage was reported in 54% of the study cohort (n=194/360). Of CAM users, 71% reported activity-based CAM (eg, Reiki, meditation), 26% topical CAM, and 45% oral CAM. Only 16% received advice/counseling from naturopathic/homeopathic/medical professionals before initiating CAM. CAM use significantly correlated with higher education level (P<.001), inversely correlated with concomitant hormone/radiation therapy use (P=.010), with a trend toward greater use in younger patients (P=.066). On multivariate analysis, level of education (OR: 6.821, 95% CI: 2.307-20.168, P<.001) and hormones/radiation therapy (OR: 0.573, 95% CI: 0.347-0.949, P=.031) independently predicted for CAM use. Significantly lower skin toxicity scores were reported in CAM users vs nonusers, respectively (mild: 34% vs 25%, severe: 17% vs 29%, P=.017). Conclusion: This is the first prospective study to assess CAM practices in breast patients during radiation, with definition of these practices as the first step for future investigation of CAM/radiation interactions. These results should alert radiation oncologists that a large percentage of breast cancer patients use CAM during radiation without disclosure or consideration for potential interactions, and should encourage increased awareness, communication, and documentation of CAM practices in patients undergoing radiation treatment for breast

  9. Preparation and Preliminary Application of MAdCAM-1 Polyclonal Antibody in Dairy Cows with Subclinical Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Chen, Yuanyuan; Chang, Qiaocheng; Xia, Cheng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Hongyou

    2015-08-01

    MAdCAM-1 plays an important role in mediating immune response and inflammation. This study aimed to express and purify a fusion protein of MAdCAM-1 in prokaryotic cells and to prepare rat anti-bovine MAdCAM-1 polyclonal antibodies. Prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1-MAdCAM-1 and pET-28a-MAdCAM-1 were constructed, respectively. The above plasmids were transformed into BL21 Escherichia coli strain. These recombinant strains were induced by IPTG and identified by Western blot analysis and SDS-PAGE. Wistar rats were immunized with recombinant protein (pET-28a-MAdCAM-1) emulsified with Freund's adjuvant, and antibody titers were measured by indirect ELISA. Antibody titers reached the highest value (1:128,000) after the third immunization. Western blot showed that rat anti-bovine MAdCAM-1 polyclonal antibody can not only recognize recombinant MAdCAM-1 protein expressed in E. coli but also recognizes natural MAdCAM-1 protein extracted from bovine tissues. However, commercial anti-mouse MAdCAM-1 monoclonal antibodies did not recognize the recombinant MAdCAM-1 protein or natural protein, which indicated no cross-reactivity between bovine MAdCAM-1 and mouse MAdCAM-1. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis showed that MAdCAM-1 expression was limited in mammary lymphoid nodes of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. We speculate that MAdCAM-1 expression is inconsistent in different periods of the dairy cows. The successful preparation of rat anti-bovine MAdCAM-1 polyclonal antibody and its preliminary application in dairy cows provide the foundation for further study of the mechanism of anti-inflammation of MAdCAM-1 in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis. PMID:26301930

  10. A Prospective, Multicenter Study of Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) Utilization During Definitive Radiation for Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in breast cancer patients is reported to be high, there are few data on CAM practices in breast patients specifically during radiation. This prospective, multi-institutional study was conducted to define CAM utilization in breast cancer during definitive radiation. Materials/Methods: A validated CAM instrument with a self-skin assessment was administered to 360 Stage 0-III breast cancer patients from 5 centers during the last week of radiation. All data were analyzed to detect significant differences between users/nonusers. Results: CAM usage was reported in 54% of the study cohort (n=194/360). Of CAM users, 71% reported activity-based CAM (eg, Reiki, meditation), 26% topical CAM, and 45% oral CAM. Only 16% received advice/counseling from naturopathic/homeopathic/medical professionals before initiating CAM. CAM use significantly correlated with higher education level (P<.001), inversely correlated with concomitant hormone/radiation therapy use (P=.010), with a trend toward greater use in younger patients (P=.066). On multivariate analysis, level of education (OR: 6.821, 95% CI: 2.307-20.168, P<.001) and hormones/radiation therapy (OR: 0.573, 95% CI: 0.347-0.949, P=.031) independently predicted for CAM use. Significantly lower skin toxicity scores were reported in CAM users vs nonusers, respectively (mild: 34% vs 25%, severe: 17% vs 29%, P=.017). Conclusion: This is the first prospective study to assess CAM practices in breast patients during radiation, with definition of these practices as the first step for future investigation of CAM/radiation interactions. These results should alert radiation oncologists that a large percentage of breast cancer patients use CAM during radiation without disclosure or consideration for potential interactions, and should encourage increased awareness, communication, and documentation of CAM practices in patients undergoing radiation treatment for breast

  11. Importância das bromélias epífitas na ciclagem de nutrientes da Floresta Atlântica The importance of epiphytic bromeliads on the turnover of nutrients at the Atlantic Rain Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O material epifítico pode ser considerado como importante fonte de nutrientes para florestas localizadas em solos pobres. O presente trabalho foi realizado em um trecho de Floresta Atlântica com características primárias localizado no Pico do Papagaio, Ilha Grande, RJ. Pelo período de um ano, a serapilheira total e a produzida por bromélias epífitas foram coletadas por meio de diferentes coletores (16 de 0,25m² para serapilheira total e 10 de 25m² para a de bromélias. Alíquotas completas do material coletado foram usadas para determinação dos teores de N, P, K, Na, Ca e Mg em espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Ao longo de um ano, a produção de serapilheira oriunda de bromélias foi de 327,8 kg/ha, o que representou 3,1% da serapilheira total produzida no mesmo período (10.690,9kg/ha. A contribuição da serapilheira de bromélias apresentou distribuição espacial irregular em relação à da serapilheira total. Em relação ao fluxo destes nutrientes, as maiores participações foram Na (4,4kg/ha/ano; K (7,6kg/ha/ano e Mg (7,0kg/ha/ano, o que correspondeu, respectivamente, a 27,5, 18,7 e 13,9% dos aportes feitos pela serapilheira em geral. Esta participação ocorreu em função da concentração relativamente elevada destes nutrientes na serapilheira de bromélias.Epiphytic material can be considered an important source of nutrients for forests found on poor soils. This work was done in a tract of a primary Atlantic Forest with located in the Pico do Papagaio, Ilha Grande, RJ, Brazil. Over a year, the total litter and that produced by epiphytic bromeliads were collected by different ways (16 of 0.25m² for total litter and 10 of 25m² for that of bromeliads. Complete aliquots of matter collected were used to determine the composition of N, P, K, Na, Ca and Mg with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. During one year, litter production of bromeliads was of 327.8kg/ha, which represented 3.1% of total litter produced in

  12. Efeito da adubação foliar com KNO3 na aclimatização de bromélia cultivada in vitro Effect of foliar KNO3 fertilization in the acclimatization of bromeliads grown in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Reis Tavares; Patricia Giampaoli; Shoey Kanashiro; Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar; Edison Paulo Chu

    2008-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação foliar nitrogenada na aclimatização de bromélia cultivada in vitro, utilizaram-se mudas de Aechmea blanchetiana, que, após o processo de cultivo in vitro, foram transferidas para substrato constituído de areia e adubadas por pulverização de 3,0 mL, a cada 30 dias, com solução de KNO3 nas concentrações de 0,0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 g L-1. Foram avaliadas as variáveis comprimento da maior folha e raiz, número de folhas, fitomassa fresca e seca das p...

  13. CAD/CAM/HSM CAXAME of piston rods die%CAXAME-连杆模具的CAD/CAM/HSM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖

    2005-01-01

    针对传统连杆模具制造工艺的不足,提出CAD/CAM/HSM加工技术的完整解决方案.首先使用CAXAME2004的造型功能进行三维实体造型,然后用CAXAME2004的加工功能生成数控加工程序,最后在HSM一600型高速铣削加工中心上完成整个加工过程.

  14. Aplikace CAD/CAM softwaru EdgeCAM při obrábění

    OpenAIRE

    Trčka, Vojtěch

    2010-01-01

    Bakalářská práce obsahuje souhrn informací o CAD/CAM softwaru Edgecam, nastavení post procesoru pro použití na výrobní stroj ZPS VMC 1060 s řídicím systémem DynaPath Delta MU Control 50. Popis jednotlivých výrobních strategií, řezných nástrojů, experimentální ověření CNC kódu na výrobním zařízení.

  15. Radiation transport analysis with the aid of CAD/CAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of radiation exposure to sensitive parts in spacecraft involves complex shielding configurations and multi-directional exposures. Ray tracing is commonly used to determine shielding along different directions for transport calculations and dose conversions. Ray tracing requires geometric modeling of the spacecraft, structures, equipment and enclosures. Modeling by manual procedures is inefficient and slow. Combinatorial geometry codes are a substantial improvement over manual procedures but modeling a spacecraft and its contents can take many man months; and still involves many approximations. The increasing use of CAD/CAM in engineering and design results in the convenient accessibility of geometric modeling data. A CAD/CAM system, CADAM, was used to develop an ancillary program which provides one-dimensional ray trace information from CADAM models. The resultant ray trace information is used in subsequent transport analysis on a DEC computer. The result is a timesavings of man-months, by utilizing an existing data base and an increase in accuracy by using up-to-date geometrical information

  16. Characterization and performance of hyper Suprime-Cam CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Suzuki, Hisanori; Miyazaki, Yasuhito; Muramatsu, Masaharu

    2010-07-01

    Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) is a second-generation wide field imaging camera for Subaru telescope with 10 times wider field of view (FOV) compared with Suprime-Cam (SC) currently being used. HSC makes the survey speed considerably faster than SC, while maintaining the high image quality of SC. The 1.5 degrees in diameter FOV is covered with 116 of 2K × 4K fully depleted back-illuminated CCDs with 15 μm pixels developed by HAMAMATSU Photonics K. K. and National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The CCDs for HSC are designed to have higher quantum efficiency than those for SC in a wider range in the visible wavelengths, especially in the blue region. We at NAOJ have started acceptance inspection of the CCDs being delivered from HAMAMATSU. We used the X-ray source of 55Fe and the LED to measure charge transfer efficiency, readout noise, linearity, and full-well capacity of 33 CCDs. In addition, we measured the quantum efficiency of 7 CCDs. We confirmed all the CCDs have good performances and quality. In this paper, we report the results from the acceptance inspection and characterization of these CCDs.

  17. Rational redesign of the biodegradative enzyme cytochrome P450 cam:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytochromes P450, a superfamily of monooxygenase enzymes present in all kingdoms of living organisms, are very versatile with respect to substrate range and catalytic functionality. Many recalcitrant halogenated hydrocarbons, on DOE sites and throughout the nation, result in serious environmental impact. Cytochromes P450 have been shown to be catalytically capable of, at least partial, dehalogenation of some such compounds. Clearly, however, their active site stereochemistry and related functional components are not well suited for this role because the rates of dehalogenation are generally rather modest. The evolution of modified active site and access channel structures may proceed very slowly if multiple genetic changes are simultaneously required for enzyme adaptation. Since each mutational event is by itself a rare event, a basic premise of our research is that designing multiple changes into an enzyme may be more timely than waiting for them to occur biologically either via natural selection or under laboratory-controlled conditions. Starting with available high-resolution x-ray crystal structures, molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations have been used to probe the basic structure/function principles and conformational fluctuations of the biodegradative enzyme, cytochrome P450cam (camphor hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida) and active site mutants, to provide the fundamental understanding necessary for rational engineering of the enzyme for modified substrate specificity. In the present paper, we review our progress to data, in the area of molecular dynamics simulations and active site redesign of P450cam. 36 refs., 2 figs

  18. The ExoMars PanCam Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Andrew; Coates, Andrew; Muller, Jan-Peter; Jaumann, Ralf; Josset, Jean-Luc; Paar, Gerhard; Barnes, David

    2010-05-01

    The ExoMars mission has evolved into a joint European-US mission to deliver a trace gas orbiter and a pair of rovers to Mars in 2016 and 2018 respectively. The European rover will carry the Pasteur exobiology payload including the 1.56 kg Panoramic Camera. PanCam will provide multispectral stereo images with 34 deg horizontal field-of-view (580 microrad/pixel) Wide-Angle Cameras (WAC) and (83 microrad/pixel) colour monoscopic "zoom" images with 5 deg horizontal field-of-view High Resolution Camera (HRC). The stereo Wide Angle Cameras (WAC) are based on Beagle 2 Stereo Camera System heritage [1]. Integrated with the WACs and HRC into the PanCam optical bench (which helps the instrument meet its planetary protection requirements) is the PanCam interface unit (PIU); which provides image storage, a Spacewire interface to the rover and DC-DC power conversion. The Panoramic Camera instrument is designed to fulfil the digital terrain mapping requirements of the mission [2] as well as providing multispectral geological imaging, colour and stereo panoramic images and solar images for water vapour abundance and dust optical depth measurements. The High Resolution Camera (HRC) can be used for high resolution imaging of interesting targets detected in the WAC panoramas and of inaccessible locations on crater or valley walls. Additionally HRC will be used to observe retrieved subsurface samples before ingestion into the rest of the Pasteur payload. In short, PanCam provides the overview and context for the ExoMars experiment locations, required to enable the exobiology aims of the mission. In addition to these baseline capabilities further enhancements are possible to PanCam to enhance it's effectiveness for astrobiology and planetary exploration: 1. Rover Inspection Mirror (RIM) 2. Organics Detection by Fluorescence Excitation (ODFE) LEDs [3-6] 3. UVIS broadband UV Flux and Opacity Determination (UVFOD) photodiode This paper will discuss the scientific objectives and resource

  19. Bidirectional modulation of endogenous EpCAM expression to unravel its function in ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gun, B. T. F.; Huisman, C.; Stolzenburg, S.; Kazemier, H. G.; Ruiters, M. H. J.; Blancafort, P.; Rots, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is overexpressed on most carcinomas. Dependent on the tumour type, its overexpression is either associated with improved or worse patient survival. For ovarian cancer, however, the role of EpCAM remains unclear. Methods: Cell survival of ovar

  20. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. RESULTS The mean fracture strengths were as follows: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed a complete fracture of both the veneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. CONCLUSION The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain. PMID:23755332

  1. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) sensitive phosphorylation of calmodulin (CAM) in A431 cell membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A431, a transformed cell line, is known to contain a high concentration of EGF receptors (EGFR). Exogenous CAM, when combined with purified membrane from A431 is strongly phosphorylated in the presence of EGF. The EGF-dependent phosphorylation of CAM did not alter the normal profile of the A431 EGFR autophosphorylation, as demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. In addition to its EGF dependency, the presence of divalent cations is also critical for CAM phosphorylation. The presence of a divalent cation chelator, such as EGTA, caused a complete inhibition of CAM phosphorylation, which can be reversed with cations in the following order of effectiveness: Mg++ > Mn++ > Ca++. Divalent cations also break up CAM into four co-migrating bands as indicated by Coomassie Blue stained gels and the corresponding autoradiograms. Double antibody precipitation followed by phospho-amino acid analysis revealed that the EGF-sensitive CAM phosphorylation occurs exclusively on the serine residue. Using radioimmunoassay, purified A431 membrane was shown to contain a significant amount of endogenous CAM. The implications of the EGF-sensitive CAM phosphorylation are currently under investigation

  2. A new radiological index for assessing asphericity of the femoral head in cam impingement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, K K; Jacobsen, S; Palm, H; Sonne-Holm, S; Magnusson, E

    2007-01-01

    Femoroacetabular cam impingement is thought to be a cause of premature osteoarthritis of the hip. The presence of cam malformation was determined in 2803 standardised anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs from the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study by measuring the alpha (alpha) angle and the tria...

  3. A new radiological index for assessing asphericity of the femoral head in cam impingement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, K K; Jacobsen, S; Palm, H;

    2007-01-01

    Femoroacetabular cam impingement is thought to be a cause of premature osteoarthritis of the hip. The presence of cam malformation was determined in 2803 standardised anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs from the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study by measuring the alpha (alpha) angle and the...

  4. Cam deformity and hip degeneration are common after fixation of a slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Jakob; Gosvig, Kasper; Magnussen, Erland;

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose - Slipped capital femoral epiphysis is thought to result in cam deformity and femoroacetabular impingement. We examined: (1) cam-type deformity, (2) labral degeneration, chondrolabral damage, and osteoarthritic development, and (3) the clinical and patient-reported outcome...

  5. Some Aspects on Technological Design of a Cam Type Workpiece Using CATIA Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin-Octavian Miclosina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the geometrical models of cam and of semi-finished piece, obtained with CATIA software. Two cam technological routes are shown and the optimal route is chosen. From the technological route, rough milling operation is simulated with CATIA software. By using different milling parameters, various machining time values are obtained.

  6. Australia lacks stem succulents but is it depauperate in plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtum, Joseph Am; Hancock, Lillian P; Edwards, Erika J; Crisp, Michael D; Crayn, Darren M; Sage, Rowan; Winter, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    In the flora of Australia, the driest vegetated continent, crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), the most water-use efficient form of photosynthesis, is documented in only 0.6% of native species. Most are epiphytes and only seven terrestrial. However, much of Australia is unsurveyed, and carbon isotope signature, commonly used to assess photosynthetic pathway diversity, does not distinguish between plants with low-levels of CAM and C3 plants. We provide the first census of CAM for the Australian flora and suggest that the real frequency of CAM in the flora is double that currently known, with the number of terrestrial CAM species probably 10-fold greater. Still unresolved is the question why the large stem-succulent life - form is absent from the native Australian flora even though exotic large cacti have successfully invaded and established in Australia. PMID:27088716

  7. Spectroscopic observations of the RS CVn-type binary systems SV Cam and XY UMa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radial velocities of the primary components of the two RS CVn-type binary systems SV Cam and XY UMa are presented, for the first time for XY UMa. Neither secondary component could be detected. A change of 5.0±1.3km s-1 in the systemic velocity of SV Cam is found over 40 years which lends some support to the current model of SV Cam being a triple system. If the masses of the G3 V primary components of both systems are assumed to be one solar mass, then the secondaries are 0.7 (SV CAM) and 0.6 (XY UMa) solar masses; all four stars are main sequence objects with SV Cam being rather more evolved than XY UMa. (author)

  8. Optimal Design of a Cam Mechanism with Translating Flat-Face Follower using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Tsiafis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimum design of a cam mechanism is a time consuming task, due to the numerous alternatives considerations. In the present work, the problem of design parameters optimization of a cam mechanism with translating flat - face follower is investigated from a multi - objective point of view. The design parameters, just like the cam base circle radius, the follower face width and the follower offset can be determined considering as the optimization criteria minimization of the cam size, of the input torque and of the contact stress. During the optimization procedure, a number of constraints regarding the pressure angle, the contact stress, etcare taken into account. The optimization approach, based on genetic algorithm, is applied to find the optimal solutions with respect to the a fore - mentioned objective function and to Ensure the kinematic requirements. Finally, the dynamic behavior of the designed cam mechanism is investigated considering the frictional forces.

  9. Bilgisayar destekli diş hekimliği ve güncel CAD/CAM sistemleri

    OpenAIRE

    Gözde Çelik; Tuğrul Sarı; Aslıhan Üşümez

    2013-01-01

    CAD/CAM systems (computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing) has been used in dentistry since 1987. In the past 25 years, development of various high quality chairside and laboratory CAD/CAM systems has been continued with the progress of technology. This article describes currently used CAD/CAM systems.

    Keywords: Dental, CAD/CAM systems.

     

    ÖZET

  10. Neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) domains and intracellular signaling pathways involved in the inhibition of astrocyte proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Krushel, Leslie A.; Tai, Ming-Hong; Cunningham, Bruce A.; Edelman, Gerald M.; Crossin, Kathryn L.

    1998-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) inhibits astrocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and this effect is partially reversed by the glucocorticoid antagonist RU-486. The present studies have tested the hypothesis that N-CAM-mediated inhibition of astrocyte proliferation is caused by homophilic binding and involves the activation of glucocorticoid receptors. It was observed that all N-CAM Ig domains inhibited astrocyte proliferation in parallel with their ability to influence N-CAM b...

  11. Cam Deformity and Hip Degeneration Presents 10 to 17 Years After Fixation of a Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Jakob; Gosvig, Kasper; Magnussen, Erland;

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is hypothesized to result in cam deformity and femoroacetabular impingement. We examined: (1)cam-type deformity, (2) labral degeneration, chondrolabral damage, and osteoarthritic development, (3) the clinical and patient-reported ou......Background and purpose: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is hypothesized to result in cam deformity and femoroacetabular impingement. We examined: (1)cam-type deformity, (2) labral degeneration, chondrolabral damage, and osteoarthritic development, (3) the clinical and patient...

  12. A scoping review of research on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the mass media: Looking back, moving forward

    OpenAIRE

    Strudsholm Tina; Weeks Laura C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become more common in Western developed countries in recent years, as has media reporting on CAM and related issues. Correspondingly, media reports are a primary information source regarding decisions to use CAM. Research on CAM related media reports is becoming increasingly relevant and important; however, identifying key concepts to guide future research is problematic due to the dispersed nature of completed re...

  13. Aplikace CAD/CAM softwaru FeatureCAM při obrábění

    OpenAIRE

    Foltán, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Diplomová práce obsahuje vypracovaný postup výroby části kokily pro gravitační lití pístů s využitím softwaru FeatureCAM. Zabývá se výběrem vhodného strojního a nástrojového vybavení, určením řezných podmínek a řešením výběru optimálních strategií obrábění v softwaru FeatureCAM. Celý proces obrábění je ověřen grafickou simulací a je doplněn výkresovou dokumentací součásti.

  14. Effector Roles of Putidaredoxin on Cytochrome P450cam Conformational States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shu-Hao; Mahomed, Mavish; Lee, Young-Tae; Goodin, David B

    2016-08-17

    In this study, the effector role of Pdx (putidaredoxin) on cytochrome P450cam conformation is refined by attaching two different spin labels, MTSL or BSL (bifunctional spin-label) onto the F or G helices and using DEER (double electron-electron resonance) to measure the distance between labels. Recent EPR and crystallographic studies have observed that oxidized Pdx induces substrate-bound P450cam to change from the closed to the open state. However, this change was not observed by DEER in the reduced Pdx complex with carbon-monoxide-bound P450cam (Fe(2+)CO). In addition, recent NMR studies have failed to observe a change in P450cam conformation upon binding Pdx. Hence, resolving these issues is important for a full understanding the effector role of Pdx. Here we show that oxidized Pdx induces camphor-bound P450cam to shift from the closed to the open conformation when labeled on either the F or G helices with MTSL. BSL at these sites can either narrow the distance distribution widths dramatically or alter the extent of the conformational change. In addition, we report DEER spectra on a mixed oxidation state containing oxidized Pdx and ferrous CO-bound P450cam, showing that P450cam remains closed. This indicates that CO binding to the heme prevents P450cam from opening, overriding the influence exerted by Pdx binding. Finally, we report the open form P450cam crystal structure with substrate bound, which suggests that crystal packing effects may prevent conformational conversion. Using multiple labeling approaches, DEER provides a unique perspective to resolve how the conformation of P450cam depends on Pdx and ligand states. PMID:27452076

  15. CAM use in pediatric neurology: an exploration of concurrent use with conventional medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Galicia-Connolly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that up to 60% of children with neurologic conditions have tried complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of CAM among patients presenting to neurology clinics at two academic centers in Canada. METHODS: A survey instrument was developed to inquire about use of CAM products and therapies, including reasons for use, perceived helpfulness, and concurrent use with conventional medicine, and administered to patients or their parents/guardians at the Stollery Children's Hospital in Edmonton and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO in Ottawa. RESULTS: Overall CAM use at the Stollery was 78%, compared to 48% at CHEO. The most common CAM products used were multi-vitamins (84%, vitamin C (37%, homeopathic remedies (24%, and fish oil/omega 3 s (22%. The most common CAM practices used were massage (47%, chiropractic (37%, faith healing (18%, aromatherapy (16%, homeopathy (16%, and relaxation (16%. Many patients used CAM products at the same time as conventional medicine but just over half (57% discussed this concurrent use with their physician. CONCLUSION: CAM use is common in pediatric neurology patients and most respondents felt that it was helpful, with few or no harms associated. However, this use is often undisclosed, increasing possibility of interactions with conventional drugs. We urge clinicians to inquire about CAM use during routine history taking at every patient visit. Parents would clearly like more information about CAM from their specialty clinics; such information would be easier to share if more primary data were available about the safety and effectiveness of commonly used therapies.

  16. Prevalence and Predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use among Ivy League College Students: Implications for Student Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versnik Nowak, Amy L.; DeGise, Joe; Daugherty, Amanda; O'Keefe, Richard; Seward, Samuel, Jr.; Setty, Suma; Tang, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Determine prevalence and types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies used and test the significance of demographics and social cognitive constructs as predictors of CAM use in a college sample. Secondary purpose was to guide the integration of CAM therapies into college health services. Participants: Random,…

  17. Academic doctors' views of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM and its role within the NHS: an exploratory qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Alison

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in the UK population in recent years. Surveys of doctors' perspectives on CAM have identified a variety of views and potential information needs. While these are useful for describing the proportions of doctors who hold particular attitudes towards CAM, they are less helpful for understanding why. In addition, while the views of non-academic doctors have begun to be studied, the perspective and rationales of academic doctors remains under-researched. It seems important to investigate the views of those with a research-orientation, given the emphasis on the need for more scientific evidence in recent debates on CAM. Methods This exploratory study used qualitative methods to explore academic doctors' views of CAM and the rationales they provided for their views. A purposeful sampling strategy was used to identify doctors with a dual clinical and academic role in the Bristol area, with an anticipated variety of views on CAM. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine doctors. The data were analysed thematically, drawing on the Framework Approach. Results The doctors expressed a spectrum of views on CAM, falling into three broad groups: the 'enthusiasts', the 'sceptics' and the 'undecided'. Scepticism or uncertainty about the value of CAM was prominent, except among those practising a form of CAM. A variety of rationales underpinned their perspectives on CAM, a key recurring rationale being their perspective on the scientific evidence base. The main themes arising included: the role of doctors' professional experiences of conventional medicine and CAM in shaping their attitudes towards CAM, doctor-patient communication about CAM and patient disclosure, whether there is a need for training and education in CAM for doctors, a hierarchy of acceptability of CAM and the nature of evidence; and the role of CAM within the NHS. Conclusion

  18. Paper-Less CAD/CAM For Accelerator Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, R M; Alford, O; Bertolini, L R

    2001-01-12

    Computer-aided design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) have enabled advances in the design and manufacture of many accelerator components, though government procurement rules tend to inhibit its use. We developed and executed a method that provides adequate documentation for the procurement process, industrial vendor manufacturing processes, and laboratory installation activities. We detail our experiences in the design and manufacture of 60 separate and unique PEP-II Low Energy Ring Interaction Region vacuum chambers totaling {approx} 140m in length as an example of how we used this technique, reducing design effort and manufacturing risk while streamlining the production process. We provide ''lessons learned'' to better implement and execute the process in subsequent iterations. We present our study to determine the estimated savings in the design and production of the Spallation Neutron Source room temperature linac if this process were utilized.

  19. Intelligent gateway processors as integrators of CAD/CAM networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, V.E.; Garner, B.L.; Matthews, J.R.

    1985-07-01

    The integration of dissimilar CAD/CAM hardware and software on local and geographically distributed networks is the major problem faced by large organizations today. We begin by examining the existing system for storage, retrieval, control, and distribution of design information at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and describe a new prototype Engineering Information System (EIS). We then discuss the Department of Energy neutral Data Exchange Format (DOE/DEF) for the sharing of mechanical drawings among DOE installations. Finally, we describe the potential role of the Intelligent Gateway Processor (IGP) as a transaction controller for engineering resources among contractors of the Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC). IGP capabilities include a unique interpreter-driven user interface which permits the installation and modification of resources and the translation of dissimilar data formats, commands, and protocols, in a unified manner while running non-stop.

  20. Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing CAD/CAM Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domm, T.D.; Underwood, R.S.

    1999-04-26

    than a single computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system. The Inteznet was a technology that all companies were considering to either transport information more easily throughout the corporation or as a conduit for business, as the small firm was doing Successfully. Because PrdEngineer is the de facto CAD standard fbr the NWC, the Benchmark Team targeted companies using Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) software tools. Most of the companies used Pm'Engineer for design to some degree, but found the PTC CAM product, PdManufacture lacking as compared to alternate CAM solutions. All of the companies visited fOund the data exchange between CAD/CAM systems problematic. It was apparent that these companies were trying to consolidate their software tools to reduce translation but had not been able to do so because no single solution had all the needed capabilities. In regard to organizational slructure and human resoukes, two companies were found to be using product or program teams. These teams consisted of the technical staff capable of completing the entire task and were xmintained throughout the project. This same strategy was evident at another of the companies but with more mobility of members. For all eornpanies visited except the small ~ work structure breakdown and responsibility were essentially the same as Y-12's at this time. The functions of numerical control (NC), desi~ and process planning were separate and distinct. The team made numerous recommendations that are detailed in the report.

  1. A CAD/CAM system for operating overburden conveyor bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pause, M.; Nadeborn, H.; Klus, R.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews introduction of computer systems for control of conveyor bridges for overburden removal in GDR brown coal surface mines. Three F 60 high capacity bridges at Welzow, Nochten and Jaenschwalde have been automated since 1978, achieving a 10% increase in annual production. A pilot project of complex automation of a F 45 brige at the Meuro mine was started to fully automate bridge movement according to continuous mine geometrical digital survey data. Hardware employed is the U 5000 control system with various peripheral equipment, the A 5120 office computer and the EC 1040 data processing unit. Automation of the Meuro bridge resulted in an annual economic benefit of 2.8 million Marks. A new, fourth F 60 bridge for which a CAD/CAM system based on the U 5000 and K 1520 computer systems is being developed will begin operation at the Reichwalde mine.

  2. Paper-Less CAD/CAM For Accelerator Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer-aided design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) have enabled advances in the design and manufacture of many accelerator components, though government procurement rules tend to inhibit its use. We developed and executed a method that provides adequate documentation for the procurement process, industrial vendor manufacturing processes, and laboratory installation activities. We detail our experiences in the design and manufacture of 60 separate and unique PEP-II Low Energy Ring Interaction Region vacuum chambers totaling ∼ 140m in length as an example of how we used this technique, reducing design effort and manufacturing risk while streamlining the production process. We provide ''lessons learned'' to better implement and execute the process in subsequent iterations. We present our study to determine the estimated savings in the design and production of the Spallation Neutron Source room temperature linac if this process were utilized

  3. Off-line programming: key to CAD/CAM (robots)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, T.

    1983-06-23

    Off-line programming is essential if robots are to be fully integrated into the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) process. It is also fundamental to the use of robots with touch and vision sensors, since the movements of such a robot depend on real-world data and cannot be taught in advance. Edinburgh (UK) University's Department of Artificial Intelligence is developing a high-level language called Rapt, for the programming of assembly robots. Rapt is described as an object-level language. Its statements refer to material objects and their physical relationships and motions. It uses higher level descriptions than those of commercially available robot languages such as unimation's val. The developments in off-line programming which are crucial to the successful integration of industrial robots into computer-aided design and manufacturing processes are discussed.

  4. Hyper Suprime-Cam: filter exchange unit and shutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Komiyama, Yutaka; Liaw, Eric J. Y.; Chiu, Chi-Fang; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Ho, Cheng-Lin; Lai, Tsang-Chih; Lee, Yao-Cheng; Jeng, Dun-Zen; Iwamura, Satoru; Kamata, Yukiko; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Utsumi, Yousuke

    2012-09-01

    We have developed a filter exchange unit (FEU) and a shutter of Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC). FEU consists of two parts; the alignment mechanism of the filter in the optical path and a jukebox of the filters. The alignment mechanism can guarantee 10 μm position stability with respect to the focal plane CCDs. On the exchange sequence, a motorized cart grabs and pushes the filter from the jukebox. Each jukebox has 3 slots and we have two identical jukeboxes. The operation is fully automated and the entire exchange sequence takes 16 minutes. Also, we developed the focal-plane shutter with 1,030 mm diameter envelope and 60 mm thickness while having 600 mm aperture. We report the detail of design and implementation of the shutter and FEU, and installation procedure of FEU.

  5. Chemical composition of umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Vilela Borges

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The umbu tree (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam is an important fruit tree the economy of the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil. With the objective of finding use for the seeds, physical and chemical characterizations of the seeds from 2 cultivars in 2 maturation stages were carried out and their fatty acid and mineral profiles determined. The results showed no differences between the seeds analyzed. The yield was about 10% and the dimensions as follows: length from 1.48 to 2.11 cm and width from 0.76 to 1.16 cm. The average lipid content was 55% of which 69% was unsaturated and the average protein content was 24%. The seeds were a good source of the following minerals: P, K, Mg, Fe and Cu. The overall results indicated that the oil or the seeds could be used for food stuffs if no toxic agents were found.

  6. Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing CAD/CAM Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    than a single computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system. The Inteznet was a technology that all companies were considering to either transport information more easily throughout the corporation or as a conduit for business, as the small firm was doing Successfully. Because PrdEngineer is the de facto CAD standard fbr the NWC, the Benchmark Team targeted companies using Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) software tools. Most of the companies used Pm'Engineer for design to some degree, but found the PTC CAM product, PdManufacture lacking as compared to alternate CAM solutions. All of the companies visited found the data exchange between CAD/CAM systems problematic. It was apparent that these companies were trying to consolidate their software tools to reduce translation but had not been able to do so because no single solution had all the needed capabilities. In regard to organizational structure and human resources, two companies were found to be using product or program teams. These teams consisted of the technical staff capable of completing the entire task and were xmintained throughout the project. This same strategy was evident at another of the companies but with more mobility of members. For all companies visited except the small work structure breakdown and responsibility were essentially the same as Y-12's at this time. The functions of numerical control (NC), desi and process planning were separate and distinct. The team made numerous recommendations that are detailed in the report

  7. Microhabitat selection and co-occurrence of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock (Araneae, Theraphosidae and Nothroctenus fuxico sp. nov. (Araneae, Ctenidae in tank bromeliads from Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidclay Calaça Dias

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Microhabitat selection and co-occurrence of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock (Theraphosidae and Nothroctenus fuxico sp. nov. (Ctenidae, in tank bromeliads were investigated. Thermal conditions, inside and outside the plants, were measured in order to verify if the temperature of the water that accumulates inside the plant affects the behavior of these species. Measurements of foliar parameters were taken in order to evaluate if and how plant structure affects spider abundance and microhabitat selection. Apparently, differences in plant structure do not affect either spider abundance or microhabitat selection. No microhabitat preference was observed and co-ocurrence of both species was a random event. In addition, notes on the distribution range of P. rufonigrum and the description of N. fuxico sp. nov. from State of Sergipe, Brazil are presented.Foram estudadas a seleção de microhabitat e co-ocorrência de Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock (Theraphosidae e Nothroctenus fuxico sp. nov. (Ctenidae em bromélias-tanque. A condição da temperatura dentro e fora das plantas foi medida para verificar se a temperatura da água acumulada dentro da bromélia afeta algum aspecto comportamental das aranhas que ali vivem. Medidas dos parâmetros foliares foram realizadas para avaliar se a estrutura das plantas chega a afetar a abundância ou a seleção de microhabitat dessas aranhas. Aparentemente, as diferenças na estrutura das duas espécies de bromélias estudadas não afetam nem a abundância, nem a seleção de microhabitat de P. rufonigrum e N. fuxico sp. nov. A preferência e co-ocorrência de ambas as espécies de aranhas parece ser um evento ao acaso. Adicionalmente, apresenta-se notas sobre os limites de distribuição de P. rufonigrum e descreve-se N. fuxico sp. nov. do Estado de Sergipe, Brasil.

  8. Marginal Integrity of CAD/CAM Fixed Partial Dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentritt, Martin; Behr, Michael; Kolbeck, Carola; Handel, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM) allows the milling of high strength zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPD), however bonding to an inert ZrO2 ceramic surface may effect the marginal integrity of the FPDs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of zirconia FPDs at the interfaces between zirconia, cement, and tooth. Methods 32 3-unit FPDs were fabricated of the CAD/CAM Y-TZP zirconia (Lava, 3M Espe, Germany) according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Resin cements with corresponding primer and bonding systems were used to lute the FPDs: Compolute/EBS multi (3M Espe, Germany), Panavia F/ED (Kuraray, Japan), Variolink 2/Syntac classic (Ivoclar-Vivadent, FL) and RelyX Unicem/without treatment (3M Espe, Germany). Aualloy FPDs (BioPontostar, Bego, Germany) were cemented with RelyX Unicem and Harvard (Harvard, Germany) as the control. Marginal adaptation was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy using replica specimen before and after artificial aging. After aging, microleakage tests were performed with fuchsine solution. The interfaces between cement-tooth and cement-FPD were examined. Results At the interfaces (cement-tooth and cement-FPD), the systems showed a 95% or higher perfect margin before and after aging. Only Variolink2/Syntac had a marginal adaptation, lower than a 70% perfect margin. Generally, the fuchsine penetration was below 20%, only BioPontstar/Harvard andLava/Variolink2 showed penetration results between 80% and 100%. Conclusion The success of the adhesive cementation of zirconia FPDs depends on the cement system. Under the conditions of this study, zirconia FPDs showed good to sufficient marginal integrity in combination with Panavia/ED, Compolute/EBS and RelyX Unicem. PMID:19212494

  9. Standardizing PhenoCam Image Processing and Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliman, T. E.; Richardson, A. D.; Klosterman, S.; Gray, J. M.; Hufkens, K.; Aubrecht, D.; Chen, M.; Friedl, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The PhenoCam Network (http://phenocam.unh.edu) contains an archive of imagery from digital webcams to be used for scientific studies of phenological processes of vegetation. The image archive continues to grow and currently has over 4.8 million images representing 850 site-years of data. Time series of broadband reflectance (e.g., red, green, blue, infrared bands) and derivative vegetation indices (e.g. green chromatic coordinate or GCC) are calculated for regions of interest (ROI) within each image series. These time series form the basis for subsequent analysis, such as spring and autumn transition date extraction (using curvature analysis techniques) and modeling the climate-phenology relationship. Processing is relatively straightforward but time consuming, with some sites having more than 100,000 images available. While the PhenoCam Network distributes the original image data, it is our goal to provide higher-level vegetation phenology products, generated in a standardized way, to encourage use of the data without the need to download and analyze individual images. We describe here the details of the standard image processing procedures, and also provide a description of the products that will be available for download. Products currently in development include an "all-image" file, which contains a statistical summary of the red, green and blue bands over the pixels in predefined ROI's for each image from a site. This product is used to generate 1-day and 3-day temporal aggregates with 90th percentile values of GCC for the specified time-periodwith standard image selection/filtering criteria applied. Sample software (in python, R, MATLAB) that can be used to read in and plot these products will also be described.

  10. The electronic counting arm movement test (eCAM test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodranghien, Florian; Martin, Claire; Ansay, Caroline; Camut, Stephane; Busegnies, Yves; Manto, Mario

    2015-06-01

    A novel transportable electronic platform aiming to characterize the performance of successive fast vertical visually guided pointing movements toward two fixed targets (eCAM test: electronic counting arm movement test) is described and one validation test is presented. This platform is based on an Arduino(®) micro-controller and a Processing(®) routine. It records both the pointing performance (number of clicks) and the elapsed time between two successive pointing movements. Using this novel platform, we studied the effects of functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied on the dominant upper limb in 15 healthy volunteers (mean age ± SD: 22.3 ± 4.3 years; 5 males/10 females). The following muscles were stimulated: flexor carpi radialis (FCR), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), biceps brachii (BB), and triceps brachii (TB). The intensities of the stimulation were 2 and 3 mA above the sensory threshold (ST). Movement times were lesser when performed against gravity and pointing performance improved with FES. We provide the first demonstration that low-intensity FES impacts on motor performances during successive vertical goal-directed pointing movements under visual guidance. The eCAM test is currently the sole electronic tool to assess quickly and easily the performances of successive vertical pointing movements. Future potential applications include, in particular, the follow-up of the effects of neurorehabilitation of neurological/neurosurgical disorders associated with hand-eye incoordination, the functional evaluation of upper limb prosthesis or orthosis, and the analysis of the effects of FES in central or peripheral nervous system disorders. PMID:25413688

  11. Design of Cylindrical Cam with Oscillating Follower Based on 3D Expansion of Planar Profile Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Junhua; LIN Zuan; WU Yijie

    2009-01-01

    Cylindrical cam with oscillating follower is widely applicable and used in many mechanical devices and machines. However, a common error exists in the methods of designing planar profile for oscillating follower cylinder cam. In this study, we propose a new hypothesis to solve this design problem with the inclusion of deviation angle. On the basis of this new concept, equations for planar profile expansion and methods of calculating pressure angle are deduced by applying 3D expansion formula of the follower's motion orbit. When the pressure angle is less than allowable value, the minimum base radius can be determined by using MATLAB software. Accordingly, the planar profile of oscillating follower cylinder cam is generated by CAD software. This new method is practical and can be easily adopted for the design of oscillating follower cylindrical cam with desirable accuracy. We applied the method in the design of cylindrical cam for paper feeding mechanism used in high-speed printers. We calculated the planar profile and used it to direct the NC machine for the manufacture of the groove of cylindrical cam. The improved cylindrical cam met all of the requirements of speed and accuracy demanded by high-speed printers. Therefore, our new method has been validated by practical application.

  12. Effect of degradative plasmid CAM-OCT on responses of Pseudomonas bacteria to UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of plasmid CAM-OCT on responses to UV irradiation was compared in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in Pseudomonas putida, and in Pseudomonas putida mutants carrying mutations in UV response genes. CAM-OCT substantially increased both survival and mutagenesis in the two species. P. aeruginosa strains without CAM-OCT exhibited much higher UV sensitivity than did P. putida strains. UV-induced mutagenesis of plasmid-free P. putida was easily detected in three different assays (two reversion assays and one forward mutation assay), whereas UV mutagenesis of P. aeruginosa without CAM-OCT was seen only in the forward mutation assay. These results suggest major differences in DNA repair between the two species and highlight the presence of error-prone repair functions on CAM-OCT. A number of P. putida mutants carrying chromosomal mutations affecting either survival or mutagenesis after UV irradiation were isolated, and the effect of CAM-OCT on these mutants was determined. All mutations producing a UV-sensitive phenotype in P. putida were fully suppressed by the plasmid, whereas the plasmid had a more variable effect on mutagenesis mutations, suppressing some and producing no suppression of others. On the basis of the results reported here and results obtained by others with plasmids carrying UV response genes, it appears that CAM-OCT may differ either in regulation or in the number and functions of UV response genes encoded

  13. Comparative evaluation of RetCam vs. gonioscopy images in congenital glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj V Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare clarity, exposure and quality of anterior chamber angle visualization in congenital glaucoma patients, using RetCam and indirect gonioscopy images. Design: Cross-sectional study Participants. Congenital glaucoma patients over age of 5 years. Materials and Methods: A prospective consecutive pilot study was done in congenital glaucoma patients who were older than 5 years. Methods used are indirect gonioscopy and RetCam imaging. Clarity of the image, extent of angle visible and details of angle structures seen were graded for both methods, on digitally recorded images, in each eye, by two masked observers. Outcome Measures: Image clarity, interobserver agreement. Results: 40 eyes of 25 congenital glaucoma patients were studied. RetCam image had excellent clarity in 77.5% of patients versus 47.5% by gonioscopy. The extent of angle seen was similar by both methods. Agreement between RetCam and gonioscopy images regarding details of angle structures was 72.50% by observer 1 and 65.00% by observer 2. Conclusions: There was good agreement between RetCam and indirect gonioscopy images in detecting angle structures of congenital glaucoma patients. However, RetCam provided greater clarity, with better quality, and higher magnification images. RetCam can be a useful alternative to gonioscopy in infants and small children without the need for general anesthesia.

  14. Modeling analysis of the benefits of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for sustainable agriculture in arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, M. S.; Vico, G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    In view of the pressing needs to sustainably manage water and soil resources, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, here we propose a new carbon assimilation model that couples a simple yet mechanistic description of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis to the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. The model captures the full coupling of the CAM photosynthetic pathway with fluctuations in environmental conditions (cycles of light availability and air humidity, changes in soil moisture as driven by plant transpiration and rainfall occurrence). As such, the model is capable of reproducing the different phases of CAM, including daytime stomatal closure and photosynthesis from malic acid, afternoon stomatal opening for direct carbon assimilation, and nighttime stomatal opening for CO2 uptake and malic acid synthesis. Thanks to its versatility, our model allows us to relate CAM productivity, for both obligate and facultative CAM plants, to various soil moisture conditions including hydroclimatic scenarios of rainfall frequency and intensity as well as different night-time conditions of temperature, wind speed, and humidity. Our analyses show the potential productive benefits of CAM cultivation in dryland environments as feedstock and possible biofuel source, in terms of sustainable water use and economic benefits. In particular, the model is used to explore conditions where CAM plant resiliency to water stress makes these plants a more sustainable alternative to C3 and C4 species for potential deficit irrigation.

  15. Functional analysis of the domains of the C elegans Ror receptor tyrosine kinase CAM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsung; Forrester, Wayne C

    2003-12-15

    cam-1 encodes a Caenorhabditis elegans orphan receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) of the Ror family that is required for cell migration and to orient cell polarity. Ror RTKs share a common domain structure. The predicted extracellular region contains immunoglobulin (Ig), cysteine-rich (CRD), and kringle (Kri) domains. Intracellularly are tyrosine kinase (Kin) and serine- and threonine (S/T)-rich domains. To investigate the functional requirement for CAM-1 domains in mediating cell migration, we engineered deletions that remove various domains and assessed the ability of these CAM-1 derivatives to rescue cam-1 mutant phenotypes. We find that the Ig, Kri, Kin, and S/T domains are dispensable for cell migration, but the CRD is required. Surprisingly, the entire intracellular region of CAM-1 is not required for proper cell migration. Most notably, a version of CAM-1 from which all domains besides the CRD and transmembrane domains have been deleted is able to rescue the migration of a single cell type, although not those of other cell types. Our results show that CAM-1 does not function exclusively as a canonical RTK and that it may function, at least in part, to regulate the distribution of a secreted ligand-possibly a Wnt protein. PMID:14651925

  16. COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM THERAPIES FOR MANAGEMENT OF PAIN RELATED TO ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda Roshni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a gynaecological disease with a complex etiology. It is associated with severe pelvic pain, sub fertility and reduced quality of life. Endometriosis has a multifactorial etiology and therefore its management is also multidimensional. The main targets of therapy are controlling of the pain symptoms and increasing fertility where it is desired. Hormonal and surgical therapies are the two major treatment modalities available currently. But they are not without their side effects. Therefore many women explore Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM forms of treatment for symptomatic relief from pain. These CAM therapies have been used as an adjuvant to conventional therapy or as an independent form of treatment. CAM therapies are purported to have lesser side effects as compared to conventional medical formulations. Ancient Chinese and Indian medicine system have laid the foundation of several of the prevalent Cam practices. The following CAM practices have been discussed in the article-Acupuncture, Herbal therapy, Meditation and Hypnotherapy, Yoga, Exercise, Dietary therapy Aromatherapy and Massage, Reiki, Magnet therapy and Chiropractice. Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT have been conducted for some of the CAM therapies in Endometriosis and Acupuncture and Herbal and Dietary therapies have been found to have some positive effect on the patients. The efficacy of CAM therapies still needs substantial evidence to be integrated into general healthcare practices.

  17. Role of L1CAM in the Regulation of the Canonical Wnt Pathway and Class I MAGE Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkurnikov, M Yu; Knyazev, E N; Wicklein, D; Schumacher, U; Samatov, T R; Tonevitskii, A G

    2016-04-01

    Molecule L1CAM is specific for nerve cells and tumors of various localizations. The expression of L1CAM is significantly higher in melanoma in comparison with benign nevi and correlates with the progress of melanoma and transition from radial to vertical growth. Monoclonal antibodies to L1CAM effectively and specifically attenuate melanoma growth, though stimulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. shRNA-mediated knock-down of L1CAM showed the involvement of L1CAM in regulation of activity of the canonical Wnt pathway and expression of genes of class I melanoma-associated antigens (MAGE). PMID:27165065

  18. Regulated intramembrane proteolysis and degradation of murine epithelial cell adhesion molecule mEpCAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Hachmeister

    Full Text Available Epithelial cell adhesion molecule EpCAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is highly and frequently expressed in carcinomas and (cancer-stem cells, and which plays an important role in the regulation of stem cell pluripotency. We show here that murine EpCAM (mEpCAM is subject to regulated intramembrane proteolysis in various cells including embryonic stem cells and teratocarcinomas. As shown with ectopically expressed EpCAM variants, cleavages occur at α-, β-, γ-, and ε-sites to generate soluble ectodomains, soluble Aβ-like-, and intracellular fragments termed mEpEX, mEp-β, and mEpICD, respectively. Proteolytic sites in the extracellular part of mEpCAM were mapped using mass spectrometry and represent cleavages at the α- and β-sites by metalloproteases and the b-secretase BACE1, respectively. Resulting C-terminal fragments (CTF are further processed to soluble Aβ-like fragments mEp-β and cytoplasmic mEpICD variants by the g-secretase complex. Noteworthy, cytoplasmic mEpICD fragments were subject to efficient degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. In addition the γ-secretase complex dependent cleavage of EpCAM CTF liberates different EpICDs with different stabilities towards proteasomal degradation. Generation of CTF and EpICD fragments and the degradation of hEpICD via the proteasome were similarly demonstrated for the human EpCAM ortholog. Additional EpCAM orthologs have been unequivocally identified in silico in 52 species. Sequence comparisons across species disclosed highest homology of BACE1 cleavage sites and in presenilin-dependent γ-cleavage sites, whereas strongest heterogeneity was observed in metalloprotease cleavage sites. In summary, EpCAM is a highly conserved protein present in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, and is subject to shedding, γ-secretase-dependent regulated intramembrane proteolysis, and proteasome-mediated degradation.

  19. Initial activation of EpCAM cleavage via cell-to-cell contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epithelial cell adhesion molecule EpCAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is frequently over-expressed in simple epithelia, progenitors, embryonic and tissue stem cells, carcinoma and cancer-initiating cells. Besides functioning as a homophilic adhesion protein, EpCAM is an oncogenic receptor that requires regulated intramembrane proteolysis for activation of its signal transduction capacity. Upon cleavage, the extracellular domain EpEX is released as a soluble ligand while the intracellular domain EpICD translocates into the cytoplasm and eventually into the nucleus in combination with four-and-a-half LIM domains protein 2 (FHL2) and β-catenin, and drives cell proliferation. EpCAM cleavage, induction of the target genes, and transmission of proliferation signals were investigated under varying density conditions using confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunoblotting, cell counting, and conditional cell systems. EpCAM cleavage, induction of the target genes, and transmission of proliferation signals were dependent on adequate cell-to-cell contact. If cell-to-cell contact was prohibited EpCAM did not provide growth advantages. If cells were allowed to undergo contact to each other, EpCAM transmitted proliferation signals based on signal transduction-related cleavage processes. Accordingly, the pre-cleaved version EpICD was not dependent on cell-to-cell contact in order to induce c-myc and cell proliferation, but necessitated nuclear translocation. For the case of contact-inhibited cells, although cleavage of EpCAM occurred, nuclear translocation of EpICD was reduced, as were EpCAM effects. Activation of EpCAM's cleavage and oncogenic capacity is dependent on cellular interaction (juxtacrine) to provide for initial signals of regulated intramembrane proteolysis, which then support signalling via soluble EpEX (paracrine)

  20. Strength of CAD/CAM-generated esthetic ceramic molar implant crowns

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, D; Bindl, A; Schmidlin, P R; Lüthy, H; Mörmann, W H

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: One-visit in-office CAD/CAM fabrication of esthetic ceramic crowns as a superstructure for posterior implants is quite new. The aim of the study was to evaluate the strength of esthetic ceramic CAD/CAM crowns with varied occlusal thickness and seated with adhesive and nonadhesive cements on titanium and zirconia abutments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Esthetic ceramic CAD/CAM-generated molar crowns (n = 15 per group) with occlusal thicknesses of 0.5 mm and 1.5 mm were seated on titanium (1...

  1. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Yang, Jae-Ho; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun; Yeo, In-Sung

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also ...

  2. Process Chain in Automotive Industry - Present Day Demands versus Long Term Open CAD/CAM Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Dankwort, C. Werner

    1997-01-01

    The automotive industry was a pioneer in using CAD/CAM technology. Now the car manufacturers development process is almost completely done with this technology. Substantial initiative for the standardisation of CAD/CAM technics comes from the automotive industry, as e.g. for neutral CAD data interfaces. The R&D departments of German car manufacturers have founded a working group ii with the aim to develop a common long term CAD/CAM strategy. One important result is the concept of a future CAx...

  3. Marginal and internal fit of nano-composite CAD/CAM restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Park, So-Hyun; Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Shin, Yoo-Jin; Cho, Byeong-Hoon; Baek, Seung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal and internal fit of nano-composite CAD-CAM restorations. Materials and Methods A full veneer crown and an mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) inlay cavity, which were prepared on extracted human molars, were used as templates of epoxy resin replicas. The prepared teeth were scanned and CAD-CAM restorations were milled using Lava Ultimate (LU) and experimental nano-composite CAD/CAM blocks (EB) under the same milling parameters. To assess...

  4. Coupling the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) with the Statistical Spectral Interpolation (SSI) System under ESMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    daSilva, Arlindo

    2004-01-01

    The first set of interoperability experiments illustrates the role ESMF can play in integrating the national Earth science resources. Using existing data assimilation technology from NCEP and the National Weather Service, the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) was able to ingest conventional and remotely sensed observations, a capability that could open the door to using CAM for weather as well as climate prediction. CAM, which includes land surface capabilities, was developed by NCAR, with key components from GSFC. In this talk we will describe the steps necessary for achieving the coupling of these two systems.

  5. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRIMPING DEVICE WITH MULTIPLE CAMS USING MSC ADAMS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Through the present paper, the author presents the results of the dynamic analysis with MSC ADAMS of the mechanism with a crimping device with 12 tightening cams, designed and used in the technological process of assembly of the indigenous electrical detonators. In this sense, the mechanism with multiple cams is considered a mechanical system and is treated as an assembly of rigid bodies connected by mechanical connections and elastic elements. For shaping and simulation of the mechanism with multiple cams using ADAMS program, the author got through the following stages: construction of the pattern, its testing and simulation, validation, finishing, parametrization, optimization of the pattern.

  6. L1CAM protein expression is associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weder Walter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM is potentially involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. EMT marker expression is of prognostic significance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The relevance of L1CAM for NSCLC is unclear. We investigated the protein expression of L1CAM in a cohort of NSCLC patients. L1CAM protein expression was correlated with clinico-pathological parameters including survival and markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Results L1CAM protein expression was found in 25% of squamous cell carcinomas and 24% of adenocarcinomas and correlated with blood vessel invasion and metastasis (p Conclusions A subset of NSCLCs with vessel tropism and increased metastasis aberrantly expresses L1CAM. L1CAM is a novel prognostic marker for NSCLCs that is upregulated by EMT induction and appears to be instrumental for enhanced cell invasion.

  7. A Space Cam Mechanism for Power Transmission of an Opposite-cylinder Piston Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Haoyue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of improving the engine’s power density, we put forward a new type of power transmission mechanism which is used for opposed-cylinder engine. The gas pressure acts on the cam through the piston and push rod, and the spindle rotation of external is driven by the cam. The design of spatial cam work surface is completed by using the enveloping theory of a family of space curves, the force between roller and cam is analyzed using dynamic analysis software. Under the condition of equal number, size and stroke of piston, the new one with larger power density is more compact in structure than the traditional power transmission mechanism, and the reaction force on either side of the main shaft and the acting force between pistons and cylinders are smaller than those in traditional one, which prolongs the service life of the pistons.

  8. CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Postnov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CAD/CAM/CAI application solutions for internal combustion engine pistons machining was analyzed. Low-volume technology of internal combustion engine pistons production was proposed. Fixture for CNC turning center was designed.

  9. Development of CAD/CAM System for Cross Section’s Changing Hole Electrical Discharge Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Tohru; Ishiguro, Eiki; Kita, Masahiko; Nakamoto, Keiichi; Takeuchi, Yoshimi

    This study deals with the development of a new CAD/CAM system for fabricating holes whose cross sections change variously. The cross sections of machined holes are generally constant. The limitations in the shapes of holes that can be machined make obstacles in the design stage of industrial products. A new device that utilizes electrical discharge machining has been developed that can create holes with various cross sections to solve this problem. However, it has been impossible to put the device into practical use since there has been no software that has enabled the designed shapes to be easily machined. Therefore, we aimed at developing a new CAD/CAM system for machining the beforehand designed holes with changing cross sections by using the device. As the first step in developing the CAD/CAM system, the post processor in the CAM system is formulated in this paper.

  10. Study on glass infiltrated alumina(GIA) ceramic for CAD/CAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mingzhe; LI Hong; WANG Wei; Zhao Yunfeng

    2001-01-01

    @@ With the rapid development of computer technique , Computer aided design(CAD) and computer aided manufacturing(CAM) or computer integrated manufacturing(CIM) has became an alternative to the conventional technique for producingdental restorations.

  11. Mathematical Modeling of the Numerical Control Cam Grinder Wheel Center Displacement and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaojun; LIU Zhaohui

    2006-01-01

    Considering grinding a cam with numerical control (NC) cam grinder, a mathematical model should be established with the unified parameter based on the original cam-lobe lift data to describe the movement of wheel and establish the relation between the wheel center coordinate, the measuring angle and workpiece's spindle rotation angle. By analyzing, the grinding wheel can be regarded as different followers. To the planar and roller followers, different mathematical models are established, but they can be unified in Eqs.(17) of this paper with the different value of the roller radius r1. And also the model is suit for the edged follower when assuming the roller radius r1=0. Experimental verification was done with TKM120 CNC/CBN grinder with NC sets' interpolation according to the model, which shows that high precision parts can be manufactured and this mathematical model can be practically applied for NC cam grinder.

  12. ROLLING CONDITION FOR ROLLERS ALONG CAMS IN COLD DOUBLE-SET MULTI-ROLLER TUBE ROLLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The necessary condition of pure rolling for the rollers moving along its individual cams are obtained by the analysis of the loading status of the rollers and it provides a theoretical basis for adjustment of rolling stand.

  13. Cam Femoroacetabular Impingement as a Possible Explanation of Recalcitrant Anterior Knee Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sanchis-Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a patient with chronic anterior knee pain (AKP recalcitrant to conservative treatment who returned to our office for severe hip pain secondary to Cam femoroacetabular impingement (Cam FAI at 10 months after the onset of knee pain. This case highlights the fact that the main problem is not in the patella but in the hip in some patients with AKP. We hypothesize that there is an external femoral rotation in order to avoid the impingement and therefore the hip pain in patients with Cam FAI. This functional femoral rotation could provoke a patellofemoral imbalance that may be, in theory, responsible for patellofemoral pain in this particular patient. In our case, Cam FAI resolution was related to the resolution of AKP.

  14. A Unique Opportunity for an Intercultural Discussion on CAM and Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marotta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The meeting of the APASL, Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver, was held in December 2004, in New Delhi, India. The meeting was held under the patronage of the APASL Committee and Board of Presidents of the National Liver Association and in conjunction with the annual conference of the Indian Association for the Study of Liver (INASL. The congress was designed to have a core meeting with three parallel sessions running throughout, dedicated research workshops and intensive breakfast sessions. This report concentrates on the two sessions devoted to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM and shows the latest research in CAM for liver disease and the concerns of doctors about integrating CAM with more traditional treatments. With researchers and practitioners gathering from all over the world, it was a unique opportunity for an intercultural discussion on CAM and liver disease.

  15. Commissioning and First Observations with Wide FastCam at the Telescopio Carlos S\\'anchez

    CERN Document Server

    Velasco, Sergio; Oscoz, Alejandro; López, Roberto L; Puga, Marta; Murga, Gaizka; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio; Pallé, Enric; Ricci, Davide; Ayuso, Ismael; Hernández-Sánchez, Mónica; Truant, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The FastCam instrument platform, jointly developed by the IAC and the UPCT, allows, in real-time, acquisition, selection and storage of images with a resolution that reaches the diffraction limit of medium-sized telescopes. FastCam incorporates a specially designed software package to analyse series of tens of thousands of images in parallel with the data acquisition at the telescope. Wide FastCam is a new instrument that, using the same software for data acquisition, does not look for lucky imaging but fast observations in a much larger field of view. Here we describe the commissioning process and first observations with Wide FastCam at the Telescopio Carlos S\\'anchez (TCS) in the Observatorio del Teide.

  16. Nonlinear System Modeling, Optimal Cam Design, and Advanced System Control for an Electromechanical Engine Valve Drive

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Yihui; Perreault, David J.; Keim, Thomas A.; Kassakian, John G.

    2011-01-01

    A cam-based shear force-actuated electromechanical valve drive system offering variable valve timing in internal combustion engines was previously proposed and demonstrated. To transform this concept into a competitive commercial product, several major challenges need to addressed, including the reduction of power consumption, transition time, and size. As shown in this paper, by using nonlinear system modeling, optimizing cam design, and exploring different control strategies, the power cons...

  17. Accuracy and safety of second-generation PillCam COLON capsule for colorectal polyp detection

    OpenAIRE

    Spada, Cristiano; De Vincentis, Fabio; Cesaro, Paola; Hassan, Cesare; Riccioni, Maria Elena; Minelli Grazioli, Leonardo; Bolivar, Santiago; Zurita, Andrade; Costamagna, Guido

    2012-01-01

    PillCam COLON capsule endoscopy (CCE) (Given Imaging Ltd, Yoqneam, Israel) is one of the most recent diagnostic, endoscopic technologies designed to explore the colon. CCE is a noninvasive, patient-friendly technique that is able to explore the colon without requiring sedation and air insufflation. The first generation of CCE was released onto the market in 2006 and although it generated great enthusiasm, it showed suboptimal accuracy. Recently, a second-generation system (PillCam COLON 2) (C...

  18. CAM, free speech, and the British legal system: overstepping the mark?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Lionel R

    2009-10-01

    The British Chiropractic Association recently won a libel case against the science writer and CAM 'skeptic' Dr Simon Singh for publishing an article in a British newspaper in which he accused them of promoting 'bogus' treatments. This has ignited a campaign in the UK to 'keep the libel laws out of science'. In this article, the tension between media freedom of expression and defamation law is examined, and possible ramifications for CAM in the UK explored. PMID:19848549

  19. Why do Norwegian nurses leave the public health service to practice CAM?

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Berit

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores a number of issues associated with the recent increase in nurses choosing to leave the Norwegian health care system in order to become independent practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The paper suggests that in Norway, nurses perceive medical hegemony continues to persist. Nurses perceive restrictions in their ability to develop their professional roles and status. CAM would appear to offer many nurses, the opportunity to develop their clinica...

  20. CAM within a field force of countervailing powers: The case of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joana; Gabe, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the position of the medical profession and the state towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners has changed since the late 1990s, taking Portugal as a case study. Using Light's concept of countervailing powers, we consider the alliances, interests, rhetoric and degrees of control between these three actors over time, focussing particularly on the extent to which CAM practitioners have acted as a countervailing force in their relationship with the medical profession and the state. It also brings to the fore the position of supra-state agencies concerning CAM regulation. A critical discourse analysis was conducted on data derived from a systematic search of information dating from the late 1990s up to 2015. Our analysis suggests that CAM has emerged as an active player and a countervailing power in that it has had significant influence on the process of state policy-making. The medical profession, in turn, has moved from rejecting to 'incorporating' CAM, while the state has acted as a 'broker', trying to accommodate the demands and preferences of both actors while simultaneously demonstrating its power and autonomy in shaping health policy. In sum, the history of countermoves of CAM, the medical profession and the state in recasting power relations regarding CAM regulation in Portugal has highlighted the explanatory value of Light's countervailing power theory and the need to move away from a professional dominance and corporatist approach, in which CAM has simply been seen as subjugated to the power of the medical profession and the state. PMID:26990177

  1. Rationale for the Use of CAD/CAM Technology in Implant Prosthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar; Lyons, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Despite the predictable longevity of implant prosthesis, there is an ongoing interest to continue to improve implant prosthodontic treatment and outcomes. One of the developments is the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to produce implant abutments and frameworks from metal or ceramic materials. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate the rationale of CAD/CAM utilization for implant prosthodontics. To date, CAD/CAM allows simplified production of precise and durable implant components. The precision of fit has been proven in several laboratory experiments and has been attributed to the design of implants. Milling also facilitates component fabrication from durable and aesthetic materials. With further development, it is expected that the CAD/CAM protocol will be further simplified. Although compelling clinical evidence supporting the superiority of CAD/CAM implant restorations is still lacking, it is envisioned that CAD/CAM may become the main stream for implant component fabrication. PMID:23690778

  2. Integration of CAM and CNC operation through code editing and manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IT technology for engineering design and manufacturing has gone through significant advancement for the last 30 years. It is widely acknowledged that IT would provide competitive advantage for engineering company in term of production cycle, productivity and efficiency. The recent development in this area is on the total system integration. While standard off-shelf CAD/CAM/CNC software and hardware packages would provide solution for system integration, more often than not users will stumble upon compatibility problems. Moreover, most of the integration deals with CAD and CAM systems. CNC integration has not been fully developed. Users always found problems in the integration of CAM and CNC machine due to the different level of technological development. CNC codes have not fundamentally progressed in the last 50 years, while CAD/CAM software packages have undergone massive evolution and improvement. This paper discusses a practical solution of CAM and CNC integration through code editing and manipulation within the CAM system in order to comply with the CNC machine requirements. (Author)

  3. Rationale for the Use of CAD/CAM Technology in Implant Prosthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Abduo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the predictable longevity of implant prosthesis, there is an ongoing interest to continue to improve implant prosthodontic treatment and outcomes. One of the developments is the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM to produce implant abutments and frameworks from metal or ceramic materials. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate the rationale of CAD/CAM utilization for implant prosthodontics. To date, CAD/CAM allows simplified production of precise and durable implant components. The precision of fit has been proven in several laboratory experiments and has been attributed to the design of implants. Milling also facilitates component fabrication from durable and aesthetic materials. With further development, it is expected that the CAD/CAM protocol will be further simplified. Although compelling clinical evidence supporting the superiority of CAD/CAM implant restorations is still lacking, it is envisioned that CAD/CAM may become the main stream for implant component fabrication.

  4. Complementing a Rural Pharmacy Course with CAM: Reflections from a Decade of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maree Simpson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Substantial complementary medicines (CAM use is reported worldwide. Australian consumers use CAM for health maintenance, minor self-limiting disease states, and also for chronic conditions. The increasing use of CAM has required pharmacists to become increasingly more knowledgeable about CAM and the ethics of CAM recommendation. When the first Australian non-metropolitan pharmacy program was started at Charles Sturt University, in 1997, it was decided to incorporate two innovative courses to assist rurally educated students to engage with health consumers who expect pharmacists to be able to assist them with CAM. This discussion traces and reflects on the development, implementation and current situation of the Complementary Medicines for Pharmacy course. Over time, this course has evolved from a final year elective with a focus on familiarization to a mandated course with a phytomedicine focus to an integrated topic in final year with a focus on evidence, quality of evidence and professional decision-making demonstrated in a reflective professional portfolio. Of potentially greater importance, however, has been the introduction of complementary medicines as a topic in every year of the course with the goal of facilitating effective professional engagement with health consumers.

  5. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--accuracy from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapie, Laurent; Lebon, Nicolas; Mawussi, Bernardin; Fron-Chabouis, Hélène; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    As is the case in the field of medicine, as well as in most areas of daily life, digital technology is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available not only for chairside practice but also for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental practice can be considered as the handling of devices and software processing for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use dental CAD/CAM systems often do not have enough information to understand the variations offered by such technology practice. Knowledge of the random and systematic errors in accuracy with CAD/CAM systems can help to achieve successful restorations with this technology, and help with the purchasing of a CAD/CAM system that meets the clinical needs of restoration. This article provides a mechanical engineering viewpoint of the accuracy of CAD/ CAM systems, to help dentists understand the impact of this technology on restoration accuracy. PMID:26734668

  6. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in an Italian cohort of pediatric headache patients: the tip of the iceberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Libera, D; Colombo, B; Pavan, G; Comi, G

    2014-05-01

    The use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) in paediatric populations is considerably increased, especially for pain and chronic conditions, as demonstrated by epidemiological surveys both in Europe and in the USA. In our study, CAM was used in 76 % patients of a cohort of 124 children affected by headache (age 4-16 years; 67 % female; 70 % migraine without aura, 12 % migraine with aura, 18 % tensive headache according to IHS criteria) consecutively recruited at a Pediatric Headache University Center. CAM was used as preventive treatment in 80 % cases. The main reasons for seeking CAM were: the wish of avoiding chronic use of drugs with their related side effects, the desire of an integrated approach, the reported inefficacy of conventional medicine, and a more suitable children disposition to CAM than to pharmacological compound. Female gender, younger age, migraine without aura, parents' higher educational status, maternal use of CAM and other associated chronic conditions, correlated with CAM use (p minerals supplements (40 %) with magnesium, 5-Hydroxytryptophan, vitamin B6 or B12, Multivitamin compounds; Homeopathy (47 %) with Silicea, Ignatia Amara, Pulsatilla, Aconitum, Nux Vomica, Calcarea phosphorica; physical treatment (45 %) such as Ayurvedic massage, shiatsu, osteopathy; yoga (33 %); acupuncture (11 %). CAM-often integrated with conventional care-was auto-prescribed in 30 % of the cases, suggested by non-physician in 22 %, by the General Practitioner in 24 % and by paediatrician in 24 %. Both general practitioners and neurologists were mostly unaware of their patients' CAM use. In conclusion, neurologists should inquire for CAM use and be prepared to learn about CAM therapies or to directly interact with CAM trained experts, in order to coordinate an integrative approach to health, as especially required in paediatric headache patients and their parents. Further studies are required to investigate safety and efficacy of CAM in pediatric headache

  7. CAD-CAM database management at Bendix Kansas City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    The Bendix Kansas City Division of Allied Corporation began integrating mechanical CAD-CAM capabilities into its operations in June 1980. The primary capabilities include a wireframe modeling application, a solid modeling application, and the Bendix Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (BICAM) System application, a set of software programs and procedures which provides user-friendly access to graphic applications and data, and user-friendly sharing of data between applications and users. BICAM also provides for enforcement of corporate/enterprise policies. Three access categories, private, local, and global, are realized through the implementation of data-management metaphors: the desk, reading rack, file cabinet, and library are for the storage, retrieval, and sharing of drawings and models. Access is provided through menu selections; searching for designs is done by a paging method or a search-by-attribute-value method. The sharing of designs between all users of Part Data is key. The BICAM System supports 375 unique users per quarter and manages over 7500 drawings and models. The BICAM System demonstrates the need for generalized models, a high-level system framework, prototyping, information-modeling methods, and an understanding of the entire enterprise. Future BICAM System implementations are planned to take advantage of this knowledge.

  8. Optical properties of manually and CAD/CAM-fabricated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güth, Jan-Frederik; Zuch, Timo; Zwinge, Sebastian; Engels, Jörg; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Edelhoff, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the light translucency and fluorescence 5 manually and 11 CAD/CAM polymer materials to a glass-ceramic material. Light-transmission was measured using a spectrophotometer. Overall light transmission (n=40) was calculated as the integration (tc (λ) dλ [10(-5)]) of all tc values for the wavelengths from 400 to 700 nm. One-Way-ANOVA, (Scheffe's post hoc) revealed following light transmission values: Artbloc Temp (33.1%; A), Polycon ae (33.6%; A), Cercon base PMMA (38.3%; B), Luxatemp Fluorescence (40.7%; C), Protemp 4 (41.6%; C), Structur 2 SC (43.1%; D), CAD Temp (45.0%; E), Paradigm MZ 100 (45.4%; E), New Outline (45.6%,E), Ambarino High-Class (45.9%; E, F), Fixtemp C&B (46.1%; E, F, G), Lava Ultimate (47.1%; F, G), Telio-CAD (47.3%; G), glass-ceramic Vita Mark II (50.8%; H), New Outline CAD (52.1%; H, I), QUATTRO DISC Eco PMMA (53.0%; I) and Zenotec PMMA (54.5%, J). Polymers from conventional and industrial polymerization show widely varying translucent and fluorescent properties when compared with glass-ceramics of the same color. PMID:24240888

  9. Novel Diagnosis of Lyme Disease: Potential for CAM Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristo Vojdani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease (LD is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere, producing a wide range of disabling effects on multiple human targets, including the skin, the nervous system, the joints and the heart. Insufficient clinical diagnostic methods, the necessity for prompt antibiotic treatment along with the pervasive nature of infection impel the development and establishment of new clinical diagnostic tools with increased accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The goal of this article is 4-fold: (i to detail LD infection and pathology, (ii to review prevalent diagnostic methods, emphasizing inherent problems, (iii to introduce the usage of in vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT in clinical diagnostics and (iv to underscore the relevance of a novel comprehensive LD diagnostic approach to practitioners of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM. Utilization of this analytical method will increase the accuracy of the diagnostic process and abridge the time to treatment, with antibiotics, herbal medicines and nutritional supplements, resulting in improved quality of care and disease prognosis.

  10. CanariCam/GTC observations of (99942) Apophis

    CERN Document Server

    Licandro, J; Alvarez, C; Alí-Lagoa, V; Delbò, M

    2015-01-01

    The potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) (99942) Apophis is one of the most remarkable near-Earth asteroids (NEA) in terms of impact hazard. A good determination of its surface thermal inertia is very important in order to evaluate the Yarkovsky effect on its orbital evolution. We present thermal infrared observations obtained on January 29, 2013, with CanariCam mid-infrared camera/spectrograph attached to the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma, Spain) using the Si2-8.7, Si6-12.5, and Q1-17.65 filters with the aim of deriving Apophis' diameter ($D$), geometric albedo ($p_V$), and thermal inertia ($\\Gamma$). We performed a detailed thermophysical model analysis of the GTC data combined with previously published thermal data obtained using Herschel Space Observatory PACS instrument at 70, 100, and 160 $\\mu$m.The thermophysical model fit of the data favors low surface roughness solutions (within a range of roughness slope angles $rms$ between 0.1 and 0.5), and constrains ...

  11. Epigenetic regulation of L1CAM in endometrial carcinoma: comparison to cancer–testis (CT-X) antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L1CAM was originally identified as an adhesion molecule involved in neural development. In many human carcinomas L1CAM is over-expressed and is associated with a bad prognosis. We previously reported that L1CAM was absent in the vast majority of endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (ECs) (type 1) but was strongly expressed in the more aggressive serous and clear-cell ECs (termed type 2). The differential regulation of L1CAM in ECs is not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that it can be regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. Here we investigated the role of DNA-methylation of the L1CAM promoter for expression. We also studied the relationship to cancer testis (CT-X) antigens that co-localize with L1CAM on chromosome Xq28, a region that is often activated in human tumors. We used EC cell lines and primary tumor tissues for our analysis. For expression analysis we employed RT-PCR and Western blotting. DNA-Methylation of the L1CAM promoter was determined after bisulfite conversation and DNA sequencing. Tumor tissues were examined by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. We demonstrate that the treatment of L1CAM low/negative expressing EC cell lines with 5′-Azacytidine (5-AzaC) or knock-down of DNMT1 (DNA methyltransferase 1) as well as the HDAC (histone deacetylase) inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) up-regulated L1CAM at the mRNA and protein level. The L1CAM gene has two promoter regions with two distinct CpG islands. We observed that the expression of L1CAM correlated with hypermethylation in promoter 1 and 5-AzaC treatment affected the DNA-methylation pattern in this region. The CT-X antigens NY-ESO-1, MAGE-A3 and MAGE-A4 were also strongly up-regulated by 5-AzaC or knock-down of DNMT1 but did not respond to treatment with TSA. Primary EC tumor tissues showed a variable methylation pattern of the L1CAM promoter. No striking differences in promoter methylation were observed between tumor areas with L1CAM expression and those without expression. L1CAM expression

  12. Porting of ship hull structure CAD/CAM system to distributed processing. Senkaku CAD/CAM system no bunsan shori eno iko ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, H.; Okazaki, M. (Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-09-04

    This paper introduces advantages of executing distributed processing in a ship hull structure CAD/CAM system, and summarizes its data base management system. A CAD/CAM system can cause a problem of aggravation in response speed in association with expanded application, attributable to a central processing system. To solve this problem, the CAD/CAM system was transplanted to an engineering workstation (EWS) and transferred to distributed processing by means of a network system. As a result, the processing speed in one EWS was improved to 2.6 times to 1.5 times as fast as in one super minicomputer. A ship hull structure CAD/CAM system comprising two data servers and 26 EWS has increased its processing amount to about 45 times. In this system, the communications between the data servers and clients have a close relation with the data base management. It is important for operation efficiency to reduce the number of communications to a minimum necessity for consideration of the response speed. Local buffering is adopted at SCON. 7 figs.

  13. Measuring and modelling ecosystem productivity: a PhenoCam-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufkens, K.; Keenan, T. F.; Flanagan, L. B.; Richardson, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Phenology controls feedbacks to the climate system through abiotic and biotic forces such as albedo or fluxes of water, energy and CO2. Understanding and modelling these vegetation-climate feedbacks is key to accurately predicting a future climate. For the past 6 years the PhenoCam network, a network of near-surface remote sensing cameras, has consistently monitored vegetation phenology in a wide range of ecoregions, climate zones, and plant functional types. Here we explore the tight coupling between canopy greenness and rates of photosynthesis using two studies. A first study highlights how PhenoCam data can be used to quantify the effect of a late spring frost event on ecosystem productivity, introducing a 7-14% loss in annual gross productivity across 8753 km2 in the northeastern United States. This case study emphasizes the use of the PhenoCam data in estimating productivity loss / the opportunity cost of ecosystem disturbance in areas not covered by ecosystem flux measurement equipment. In a more recent, second, study we developed a PhenoCam data-informed pulse-response model of grassland growth to explore potential responses of grasslands to future climate change across North America. Our findings projected widespread and consistent increase in grassland productivity (for the current range of grassland ecosystems of North American) over the coming century, despite a general increase in aridity projected across most of our study area. Once more PhenoCam data allowed us to inform our modelling efforts with data of a high temporal and spatial resolution. In conclusion, both studies illustrate direct applications of the ever growing PhenoCam network (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu/webcam/) in scaling the effects of ecosystem disturbances, predicting future ecosystem productivity and underscore the complementary nature of PhenoCam data with ecosystem exchange measurements.

  14. Design and research of cam linked ATC%凸轮联动ATC的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂应新

    2001-01-01

    Based on the analysis made on motions of linked cam action, design of cam curve and driving calculation are explained and the technical problems related to design of cam linked ATC are approached.%通过对凸轮联动的动作分析,对凸轮曲线的设计及驱动计算做了说明,探讨了凸轮联动ATC设计中的有关技术问题。

  15. Malattransport am Tonoplasten der halophytischen und C3 – CAM-intermediären Pflanze Mesembryanthemum crystallinum

    OpenAIRE

    Epimashko, Svetlana

    2004-01-01

    In photosynthetisch aktivem Blattgewebe der halophytischen und C3-CAM-intermediären Pflanze Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. konnten erstmals Vakuolen unterschiedlicher Charakteristika, vor allem bezüglich der Azidität (saure und neutrale Vakuolen), identifiziert werden. Der Vergleich der Anteile beider Vakuolentypen in Pflanzen, in denen der CAM-Photosynthesemodus durch Salz- oder Hochlichtstress induziert wurde, zeigte, dass die CAM-bedingte Malatakkumulation in sauren Vakuolen und die NaCl...

  16. Phenotype-dependent effects of EpCAM expression on growth and invasion of human breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) has been shown to be overexpressed in breast cancer and stem cells and has emerged as an attractive target for immunotherapy of breast cancer patients. This study analyzes the effects of EpCAM on breast cancer cell lines with epithelial or mesenchymal phenotype. For this purpose, shRNA-mediated knockdown of EpCAM gene expression was performed in EpCAMhigh breast cancer cell lines with epithelial phenotype (MCF-7, T47D and SkBR3). Moreover, EpCAMlow breast carcinoma cell lines with mesenchymal phenotype (MDA-MB-231, Hs578t) and inducible overexpression of EpCAM were used to study effects on proliferation, migration and in vivo growth. In comparison to non-specific silencing controls (n/s-crtl) knockdown of EpCAM (E#2) in EpCAMhigh cell lines resulted in reduced cell proliferation under serum-reduced culture conditions. Moreover, DNA synthesis under 3D culture conditions in collagen was significantly reduced. Xenografts of MCF-7 and T47D cells with knockdown of EpCAM formed smaller tumors that were less invasive. EpCAMlow cell lines with tetracycline-inducible overexpression of EpCAM showed no increased cell proliferation or migration under serum-reduced growth conditions. MDA-MB-231 xenografts with EpCAM overexpression showed reduced invasion into host tissue and more infiltrates of chicken granulocytes. The role of EpCAM in breast cancer strongly depends on the epithelial or mesenchymal phenotype of tumor cells. Cancer cells with epithelial phenotype need EpCAM as a growth- and invasion-promoting factor, whereas tumor cells with a mesenchymal phenotype are independent of EpCAM in invasion processes and tumor progression. These findings might have clinical implications for EpCAM-based targeting strategies in patients with invasive breast cancer

  17. The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in children: a telephone-based survey in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jung-Ha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and patterns of CAM use in Korean children via a telephone based survey. We also investigated parent satisfaction, a proxy for their child, with CAM therapy and determined the factors affecting satisfaction with CAM use. Methods This study used a landline telephone-based survey to examine a random sample representative of Korean children, aged 0 to 18 years. We assigned and surveyed 2,000 subjects according to age group, gender, and geographical distributions by proportionate quota and systematic sampling of children throughout Korea in 2010. A household of 1,184 with a 18.6% response rate was projected to yield 2,077 completed data. We performed statistical analyses using sampling weight. Results The prevalence of CAM use was 65.3% for the Korean children in our sample population. The most commonly used CAM category was natural products (89.3%. More than half of CAM user’s parents reported satisfaction with their therapies (52.7%, but only 29.1% among them had consulted a Western trained doctor regarding the CAM therapies used. Doctor visits were associated with lower satisfaction with CAM use but not with consultation rate with a doctor. Conclusions Our study suggests that CAM is widely used among children in Korea. Medical doctors should actively discuss the use of CAM therapies with their patients and provide information on the safety and efficacy of diverse CAM modalities to guide the choices of CAM users.

  18. Dental scanning in CAD/CAM technologies: laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda; Faur, Nicolae; Negru, Radu; Romînu, Mihai; Cozarov, Dalibor

    2008-02-01

    Scanning, also called digitizing, is the process of gathering the requisite data from an object. Many different technologies are used to collect three dimensional data. They range from mechanical and very slow, to radiation-based and highly-automated. Each technology has its advantages and disadvantages, and their applications and specifications overlap. The aims of this study are represented by establishing a viable method of digitally representing artifacts of dental casts, proposing a suitable scanner and post-processing software and obtaining 3D Models for the dental applications. The method is represented by the scanning procedure made by different scanners as the implicated materials. Scanners are the medium of data capture. 3D scanners aim to measure and record the relative distance between the object's surface and a known point in space. This geometric data is represented in the form of point cloud data. The contact and no contact scanners were presented. The results show that contact scanning procedures uses a touch probe to record the relative position of points on the objects' surface. This procedure is commonly used in Reverse engineering applications. Its merits are represented by efficiency for objects with low geometric surface detail. Disadvantages are represented by time consuming, this procedure being impractical for artifacts digitization. The non contact scanning procedure implies laser scanning (laser triangulation technology) and photogrammetry. As a conclusion it can be drawn that different types of dental structure needs different types of scanning procedures in order to obtain a competitive complex 3D virtual model that can be used in CAD/CAM technologies.

  19. Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing CAD/CAM Benchmark.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domm, T.C.; Underwood, R.S.

    1999-10-13

    The Benchmark Project was created from a desire to identify best practices and improve the overall efficiency and performance of the Y-12 Plant's systems and personnel supporting the manufacturing mission. The mission of the benchmark team was to search out industry leaders in manufacturing and evaluate their engineering practices and processes to determine direction and focus for Y-12 modernization efforts. The companies visited included several large established companies and a new, small, high-tech machining firm. As a result of this effort, changes are recommended that will enable Y-12 to become a more modern, responsive, cost-effective manufacturing facility capable of supporting the needs of the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) into the 21st century. The benchmark team identified key areas of interest, both focused and general. The focus areas included Human Resources, Information Management, Manufacturing Software Tools, and Standards/Policies and Practices. Areas of general interest included Infrastructure, Computer Platforms and Networking, and Organizational Structure. The results of this benchmark showed that all companies are moving in the direction of model-based engineering and manufacturing. There was evidence that many companies are trying to grasp how to manage current and legacy data. In terms of engineering design software tools, the companies contacted were somewhere between 3-D solid modeling and surfaced wire-frame models. The manufacturing computer tools were varied, with most companies using more than one software product to generate machining data and none currently performing model-based manufacturing (MBM) from a common model. The majority of companies were closer to identifying or using a single computer-aided design (CAD) system than a single computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system. The Internet was a technology that all companies were looking to either transport information more easily throughout the corporation or as a conduit for

  20. Astrocyte-Specific Disruption of SynCAM1 Signaling Results in ADHD-Like Behavioral Manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Sandau, Ursula S.; Alderman, Zefora; Ojeda, Sergio R.; Raber, Jacob; Corfas, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    SynCAM1 is an adhesion molecule involved in synaptic differentiation and organization. SynCAM1 is also expressed in astroglial cells where it mediates astrocyte-to astrocyte and glial-neuronal adhesive communication. In astrocytes, SynCAM1 is functionally linked to erbB4 receptors, which are involved in the control of both neuronal/glial development and mature neuronal and glial function. Here we report that mice carrying a dominant-negative form of SynCAM1 specifically targeted to astrocytes...

  1. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in Germany – A focus group study of GPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners, some general practitioners (GPs provide CAM in their practices. This paper aims to explore the attitudes of GPs about the role of CAM in Germany, in relation to the healthcare system, quality of care, medical education and research. Furthermore, experiences of GPs integrating CAM in their daily practice were explored. Methods Using a qualitative methodological approach 3 focus groups with a convenience sample of 17 GPs were conducted. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The majority of the participating GPs had integrated one or more CAM therapies into their every-day practice. Four key themes were identified based on the topics covered in the focus groups: the role of CAM within the German healthcare system, quality of care, education and research. Within the theme 'role of CAM within the healthcare system' there were five categories: integration of CAM, CAM in the Statutory Health Insurance, modernisation of the Statutory Health Insurance Act, individual healthcare services and 'Heilpraktiker'. Regarding quality of care there were two broad groups of GPs: those who thought patients would benefit from standardizing CAM and those who feared that quality control would interfere with the individual approach of CAM. The main issues identified relating to research and education were the need for the development of alternative research strategies and the low quality of existing CAM education respectively. Conclusion The majority of the participating GPs considered CAM as a reasonable complementary approach within primary care. The study increased our understanding of GPs attitudes about the role of CAM within the German healthcare system and the use of

  2. Engineering task plan for rotary mode core sampling exhausters CAM high radiation interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) system is primarily made up of the Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks (RMCST) and the RMCS Exhausters. During RMCS operations an Exhauster is connected to a tank riser and withdraws gases from the tank dome vapor space at approximately 200 Standard Cubic Feet per Minute (SCFM). The gases are passed through two High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters before passing out the exhaust stack to the atmosphere. A Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) monitors the exhaust gases in the exhaust stack for beta particle and gamma radiation. The CAM has a high radiation alarm output and a detector fail alarm output. The CAM alarms are currently connected to the data logger only. The CAM alarms require operator response per procedure LMHC 1998 but no automatic functions are initiated by the CAM alarms. Currently, there are three events that can cause an automatic shut down of the Exhauster. These are, Low Tank Pressure, Highnow Stack Flow and High HEPA Filter Differential Pressure (DP)

  3. Extensive photometry of the intermediate polar MU Cam: detection of a spin period change

    CERN Document Server

    Kozhevnikov, V P

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate polars with known rates of spin period changes are not numerous because such tasks require measurements performed for a long time. To measure a spin period change, MU Cam is a good candidate because it has a spin oscillation with a large amplitude enabling measurements with high precision. Fortunately, in the past the spin period of MU Cam was measured with high precision. To measure the spin period anew, in 2014-2015 we performed extensive photometric observations of MU Cam, spanning a total duration of 208 h within 46 nights. We found that the spin, sideband and orbital periods are equal to 1187.16245+/-0.00047 s, 1276.3424+/-0.0022 s and 4.71942+/-0.00016 h, respectively. Comparing the measured spin period with the spin period of MU Cam in the past, we detected the spin period change with dP/dt=-(2.17+/-0.10) X 10^(-10). This rate of the spin period change was not stable and varied in a time scale of years. During four nights in 2014 April-May MU Cam was fainter than usual by 0.8 mag, and the ...

  4. Treatment Expectations for CAM Interventions in Pediatric Chronic Pain Patients and their Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. I. Tsao

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient expectations regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM interventions have important implications for treatment adherence, attrition and clinical outcome. Little is known, however, about parent and child treatment expectations regarding CAM approaches for pediatric chronic pain problems. The present study examined ratings of the expected benefits of CAM (i.e. hypnosis, massage, acupuncture, yoga and relaxation and conventional medicine (i.e. medications, surgery interventions in 45 children (32 girls; mean age = 13.8 years ± 2.5 and parents (39 mothers presenting for treatment at a specialty clinic for chronic pediatric pain. Among children, medications and relaxation were expected to be significantly more helpful than the remaining approaches (P < 0.01. However, children expected the three lowest rated interventions, acupuncture, surgery and hypnosis, to be of equal benefit. Results among parents were similar to those found in children but there were fewer significant differences between ratings of the various interventions. Only surgery was expected by parents to be significantly less helpful than the other approaches (P < 0.01. When parent and child perceptions were compared, parents expected hypnosis, acupuncture and yoga, to be more beneficial than did children, whereas children expected surgery to be more helpful than did parents (P < 0.01. Overall, children expected the benefits of CAM to be fairly low with parents' expectations only somewhat more positive. The current findings suggest that educational efforts directed at enhancing treatment expectations regarding CAM, particularly among children with chronic pain, are warranted.

  5. Aedes albopictus em bromélias de ambiente antrópico no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Aedes albopictus in bromeliads of anthropic environment in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Gisela RA Monteiro

    2001-06-01

    associated Culicidae entomofauna found in this micro-habitat. METHODS: Collections of Culicidae larvae were carried out fortnightly in aquatic content of bromeliads during 1998 and 1999. Collections took place in urban and periurban areas of Ilhabela island and periurban area of Ilha Comprida island, Brazil. RESULTS: A total of 26,647 Culicidae larvae were collected at both study sites, 14,575 in the urban area and 10,987 in the periurban area of Ilhabela and the remaining 1,085 in the periurban area of Ilha Comprida. There was no statistical difference between the amount of larvae collected in urban and periurban areas of Ilhabela. Regarding the Ae. albopictus, there was found a higher frequency and amount of larvae in the urban area of Ilhabela, followed by the periurban area in the same site, whereas in the periurban area of Ilha Comprida, its presence was considered accidental, since it was reported only in the first three months. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that bromeliads, largely used in landscaping, may contribute to the spread of Ae. albopictus. The presence of this species in domesticated and domiciled bromeliads allows us to suggest that the Culicidae larva is part of the regional fauna and facilitate the contact between humans and etiological agents of the natural ecosystem.

  6. Design, Optimization and Development of Assemblies for Continuous Casting Facility using Techniques CAD, CAM and CAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Tufoi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents design methods, optimization and realization of mechanical for continuous casting plants using modern techniques: CAD,CAM and CAE. These current techniques refer to techniques CAD (Computer-Aided Design, CAE (Computer-Aided Engineering and CAM (Computer-Aided Manufacturing. Techniques mentioned above are areas of information technology aimed at helping engineering a variety of areas to be faster, more efficient and creative. A synthesis of the works published in the last 15 years shows that computer aided design and manufacturing are two areas which have developed simultaneously being treated in a common vision based on the natural links that exist between the activities of design and production or manufacturing. The paper will present a practical case application of techniques CAD, CAE and CAM.

  7. Developing a STEP-Compliant Multiagent on an Interoperable and Integrated CAD/CAM Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mokhtar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Practical implementation of a STEP-based architecture to provide a fully integrated and interoperable platform of data exchange has always been an intriguing issue. A variety of CAD/CAM environments are struggling to embed and support STEP standard and its protocols in order to seamlessly operate within global data exchange. However, apparent paucity of efficient and reliable structure for data communication, manipulation, and restoration has remarkably hindered the desired progress. In this paper, taking these shortcomings into account, a practical architecture is introduced and STEP-based agents are implemented and installed on the platform. Moreover, feature recognition, interaction, and machining precedence as crucial issues of CAD/CAM research have been considered in developing the interoperable platform. Seamless integration and interaction of CAD/CAM modules are provided in the proposed system. The prototype is finally verified and discussed through a case study.

  8. Cooling Tests of the NectarCAM camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Moulin, E; Durand, D; Feirreira, O; Fesquet, M; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J -F; Loiseau, D; Louis, F; Nunio, F; Rateau, S; consortia, CTA

    2015-01-01

    The NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the next-generation observatory for very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. The cameras are designed to operate in an open environment and their mechanics must provide protection for all their components under the conditions defined for the CTA observatory. In order to operate in a stable environment and ensure the best physics performance, each NectarCAM will be enclosed in a slightly overpressurized, nearly air-tight, camera body, to prevent dust and water from entering. The total power dissipation will be ~7.7 kW for a 1855-pixel camera. The largest fraction is dissipated by the readout electronics in the modules. We present the design and implementation of the cooling system together with the test bench results obtained on the NectarCAM thermal demonstrator.

  9. Morphing Mechanisms Part 1: Using Iterative Learning Control to Morph Cam Follower Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonglak Phetkong

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the concept of morphing mechanisms. Mechanisms are normally designed for specific operating conditions and once they are built one may wish to use them under different operating conditions. In some cases, a mechanism may be imperfectly fabricated and one would like to get the intended ideal performance. In these cases, instead of designing, fabricating and replacing the original mechanism, the behavior of the existing hardware can be morphed to make it function as if it was the redesigned or re-fabricated system. This concept is illustrated in both simulation and experiments for cam mechanisms. Iterative learning control is used on a cam designed and built using a 2-3 polynomial profile and it is made to function like a cam designed with a 3-4-5 polynomial. Eight cycles of learning are seen to be sufficient to effectively accomplish this morphing of the calm behavior.

  10. Soil diversity and hydration as observed by ChemCam at Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslin, P.-Y.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Schroder, S.; Cousin, A.; Berger, G.; Clegg, S.M.; Lasue, J.; Maurice, S.; Sautter, V.; Le Mouélic, S.; Wiens, R.C.; Fabre, C.; Goetz, W.; Bish, D.L.; Mangold, N.; Ehlmann, B.; Lanza, N.; Harri, A.-M.; Anderson, Ryan Bradley; Rampe, E.; McConnochie, T.H.; Pinet, P.; Blaney, D.; Leveille; Archer, D.; Barraclough, B.; Bender, S.; Blake, D.; Blank, J.G.; Bridges, N.; Clark, B. C.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dromart, G.; Dyar, M.D.; Fisk, M. R.; Gondet, B.; Grotzinger, J.; Herkenhoff, K.; Johnson, J.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Leshin, L.; Lewin, E.; Madsen, M.B.; Melikechi, N.; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Mischna, M.A.; Moores, J.E.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; Perez; Renno, N.; Sirven, J.B.; Tokar, R.; de la Torre, M.; d'Uston, L.; Vaniman, D.; Yingst, A.

    2013-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of widespread martian soils and is similar in composition to the martian dust. It possesses a ubiquitous hydrogen signature in ChemCam spectra, corresponding to the hydration of the amorphous phases found in the soil by the CheMin instrument. This hydration likely accounts for an important fraction of the global hydration of the surface seen by previous orbital measurements. ChemCam analyses did not reveal any significant exchange of water vapor between the regolith and the atmosphere. These observations provide constraints on the nature of the amorphous phases and their hydration.

  11. Seguiment de la diagnosi socioambiental del Camí de Cavalls : sector nord-est

    OpenAIRE

    Minguell Manero, Laia; Montero de Amezaga, Kattalin; Rossell Suma, Carolina; Ruiz Rosillo, Mª Belén

    2014-01-01

    El Camí de Cavalls és un element característic amb una importància històrica, cultural i recreativa considerable a Menorca. Aquesta illa va ser declarada Reserva de la Biosfera per l UNESCO l'any 1993; com a conseqüència, a l'any 2000 es va implantar el Pla Especial del Camí de Cavalls amb diversos objectius: definir les característiques del Camí i els seus instruments de gestió i aplicació; implantar mecanismes i normes que permetin l'ús públic que garanteixin la seva protecció i conservació...

  12. Design Alteration of Motor-Cycle Engine Cam for Pneumatic Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimil M. Shah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Power produced by pressurized gases/air has been used in many applications since decades. The power produced by that means is pollution free too. Hence substitution of petrol/diesel in engines with compressed air will be a step towards pollution free engine. The 4-stroke IC engine is to be converted into a 2-stroke pneumatic engine. Various design changes in camshaft design were carried out. The valve timing diagram was derived for the same. The cam profile of a double lobed cam as required in the valve timing diagram was designed in Pro-e software and was cut on a wire cut machine. The cam and camshaft were manufactured separately and then assembled.

  13. Design of a cam-form tool in precision reuse of a digital paper display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reuse fabrication module that uses micro electroremoving as a precision machining process with a new design of the cam-form tool to remove defective indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film from the optical PET surfaces of a digital paper display is presented. A small diameter of the cathode of the cam-form tool corresponds to a higher removal rate for the ITO nanostructure. A small edge radius of the anode and a small gap width between the cathode and the ITO surface takes less time for the same amount of ITO removal. A higher feed rate of the optical PET diaphragm combines with enough electric power to drive fast micro-electroremoving. The high rotational speed of the cam-form tool can improve the effect of dreg discharge and is advantageous to associate with the fast feed rate of the optical PET diaphragm.

  14. Application of CAD/CAE/CAM in forging process: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forging can be described as the process in which metal is plastically deformed with application of huge pressure. The process not only changes the shape but also improves the properties of the forged parts due to grain size refinement. Conventionally, the empirical trial and error method has been applied, but recently there are various tools are employed to improved product quality and economic of the process. For example, Computer Aided Design (CAD) is widely used in modeling of the process, while Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools have been utilized in analyzing the process. To physically demonstrate the process, Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) such as CNC machine has been exploited. In order to improve forging process efficiency, an integrated system that combines all advantages of CAD, CAM and CAE need to be developed. This paper presents an overview of computer aided simulation such as CAD, CAE and CAM application in forging process. (Author)

  15. Sulphation requirement for GlyCAM-1, an endothelial ligand for L-selectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Y; Lasky, L A; Rosen, S D

    1993-02-11

    L-selectin participates in the initial attachment of leukocytes to the vascular endothelium. On lymphocytes, it mediates binding to high endothelial venules of lymph nodes. As a selectin it functions as a calcium-dependent lectin recognizing carbohydrate-bearing ligands on endothelial cells. Two lymph node ligands for L-selectin have been identified as sulphated glycoproteins of M(r) approximately 50K and approximately 90K, called Sgp50 and Sgp90 (ref. 10). The recently cloned Sgp50 (ref. 12), now designated GlyCAM-1, is a high endothelial venule-associated, mucin-like glycoprotein containing predominantly O-linked carbohydrate chains. Sialylation of GlyCAM-1 is necessary for its ligand activity and a role for fucosylation is suspected. We have used chlorate as a metabolic inhibitor of sulphation, and report here that GlyCAM-1 has an additional requirement for sulphate. PMID:7679207

  16. CAM and cell fate targeting: molecular and energetic insights into cell growth and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Carlo

    2005-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine is switching from the analysis of single diseases at a time toward an integrated assessment of a diseased person. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) offers multiple holistic approaches, including osteopathy, homeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, herbal and energy medicine and meditation, all potentially impacting on major human diseases. It is now becoming evident that acupuncture can modify the expression of different endorphin genes and the expression of genes encoding for crucial transcription factors in cellular homeostasis. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields have been found to prime the commitment to a myocardial lineage in mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that magnetic energy may direct stem cell differentiation into specific cellular phenotypes without the aid of gene transfer technologies. This finding may pave the way to novel approaches in tissue engineering and regeneration. Different ginseng extracts have been shown to modulate growth and differentiation in pluripotent cells and to exert wound-healing and antitumor effects through opposing activities on the vascular system, prompting the hypothesis that ancient compounds may be the target for new logics in cell therapy. These observations and the subtle entanglement among different CAM systems suggest that CAM modalities may deeply affect both the signaling and transcriptional level of cellular homeostasis. Such a perception holds promises for a new era in CAM, prompting reproducible documentation of biological responses to CAM-related strategies and compounds. To this end, functional genomics and proteomics and the comprehension of the cell signaling networks may substantially contribute to the development of a molecular evidence-based CAM. PMID:16136206

  17. CAM and Cell Fate Targeting: Molecular and Energetic Insights into Cell Growth and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ventura

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based medicine is switching from the analysis of single diseases at a time toward an integrated assessment of a diseased person. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM offers multiple holistic approaches, including osteopathy, homeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, herbal and energy medicine and meditation, all potentially impacting on major human diseases. It is now becoming evident that acupuncture can modify the expression of different endorphin genes and the expression of genes encoding for crucial transcription factors in cellular homeostasis. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields have been found to prime the commitment to a myocardial lineage in mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that magnetic energy may direct stem cell differentiation into specific cellular phenotypes without the aid of gene transfer technologies. This finding may pave the way to novel approaches in tissue engineering and regeneration. Different ginseng extracts have been shown to modulate growth and differentiation in pluripotent cells and to exert wound-healing and antitumor effects through opposing activities on the vascular system, prompting the hypothesis that ancient compounds may be the target for new logics in cell therapy. These observations and the subtle entanglement among different CAM systems suggest that CAM modalities may deeply affect both the signaling and transcriptional level of cellular homeostasis. Such a perception holds promises for a new era in CAM, prompting reproducible documentation of biological responses to CAM-related strategies and compounds. To this end, functional genomics and proteomics and the comprehension of the cell signaling networks may substantially contribute to the development of a molecular evidence–based CAM.

  18. T1ρ MRI detects cartilage damage in asymptomatic individuals with a cam deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwander, Helen; Melkus, Gerd; Rakhra, Kawan S; Beaulé, Paul E

    2016-06-01

    Hips with a cam deformity are at risk for early cartilage degeneration, mainly in the anterolateral region of the joint. T1ρ MRI is a described technique for assessment of proteoglycan content in hyaline cartilage and subsequently early cartilage damage. In this study, 1.5 Tesla T1ρ MRI was performed on 20 asymptomatic hips with a cam deformity and compared to 16 healthy control hips. Cam deformity was defined as an alpha angle at 1:30 o'clock position over 60° and/or at 3:00 o'clock position over 50.5°. Hip cartilage was segmented and divided into four regions of interest (ROIs): anterolateral, anteromedial, posterolateral, and posteromedial quadrants. Mean T1ρ value of the entire weight bearing cartilage in hips with a cam deformity (34.0 ± 4.6 ms) was significantly higher compared to control hips (31.3 ± 3.2 ms, p = 0.050). This difference reached significance in the anterolateral (p = 0.042) and posteromedial quadrants (p = 0.041). No significant correlation between the alpha angle and T1ρ values was detected. The results indicate cartilage damage occurs in hips with a cam deformity before symptoms occur. A significant difference in T1ρ values was found in the anterolateral quadrant, the area of direct engagement of the deformity, and in the posteromedial quadrant. To conclude, T1ρ MRI can detect early chondral damage in asymptomatic hips with a cam deformity. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1004-1009, 2016. PMID:26573964

  19. Calibrating the ChemCam LIBS for Carbonate Minerals on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Ollila, Ann M.; Barefield, James E.; Lanza, Nina; Newsom, Horton E.

    2009-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover includes the first LIBS instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment using the LIDS technique in order to better understand the in situ signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Our initial results suggest that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between carbonate materials on Mars.

  20. Research on A Parallel CAM-based Hardware System for Parallel Information Detection and Its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Van Le, Duc

    2013-01-01

    Information Detection Hardware System plays an important role in search engines or matching systems such as text search, pattern match-ing, image matching, face detection and many others. The objective of this dissertation is to design an ultra-fast parallel information de-tector for search systems employing CAM and SHIFT circuits to en-hance search performance of the systems. This structure has not been proposed by other research works. CAM is designed basing on 2-port RAM blocks on FPGA. Th...

  1. Proposal for providing integrated CAD/CAM in the DOE/NWC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, R.A.; Elliott, R.L.; Jones, J.F.; Kelly, J.C.

    1982-08-01

    This is a proposal for providing integrated Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the Department of Energy/Nuclear Weapons Complex (DOE/NWC). This plan was developed under the premise that commitment to this CAD/CAM Integration Plan will lead to improved use of DOE/NWC's limited resources. The Integration Plan consists of the development of a Design with recommended action, followed by implementation and maintenance plans. This report proposes a methodology for the development of the design.

  2. Similarity measure for quality control of dental CAD/CAM-applications

    OpenAIRE

    Probst, F A; Litzenburger, A P; Richter, M. J.; Mehl, A C

    2012-01-01

    There is no measure for morphometric quality control of dental CAD/CAM-restorations as well as for evaluation of newly developed CAD/CAM-applications. The aim of this study was to (a) establish a 3D-measure for morphological comparisons, (b) to proof its metrical and subjective-visual validity and (c) to explore morphological features which have relevant impact on visual perception. 125 maxillary anterior teeth were chosen from a digital library of 3D data sets and compared by automatic super...

  3. Marginal fit of anterior 3-unit fixed partial zirconia restorations using different CAD/CAM systems

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Tae-Jin; Kwon, Taek-Ka; Yang, Jae-Ho; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun; Yeo, In-Sung

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Few studies have investigated the marginal accuracy of 3-unit zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPDs) fabricated by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal fit of zirconia FPDs made using two CAD/CAM systems with that of metal-ceramic FPDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS Artificial resin maxillary central and lateral incisors were prepared for 3-unit FPDs and fixed in yellow stone. This model was duplicated to ep...

  4. Bro-cam: Improving game experience with empathic feedback using posture tracking

    OpenAIRE

    TAN, Chiew Seng Sean; Schöning, Johannes; SCHNEIDER BARNES, Jan; Luyten, Kris; CONINX, Karin

    2013-01-01

    In todays videogames user feedback is often provided through raw sta-tistics and scoreboards. We envision that incorporating empathic feedback matching the player’s current mood will improve the overall gaming experience. In this paper we present Bro-cam, a novel system that provides empathic feedback to the player based on their body postures. Different body postures of the players are used as an indicator for their openness. From their level of openness, Bro-cam profiles the play-ers into d...

  5. 28th International Conference on CAD/CAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future

    CERN Document Server

    Syan, Chanan

    2016-01-01

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the 28th International Conference on CAD/CAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future. This book specially focuses on the positive changes made in the field of robotics, CAD/CAM and future outlook for emerging manufacturing units. Some of the important topics discussed in the conference are product development and sustainability, modeling and simulation, automation, robotics and handling systems, supply chain management and logistics, advanced manufacturing processes, human aspects in engineering activities, emerging scenarios in engineering education and training. The contents of this set of proceedings will prove useful to both researchers and practitioners.

  6. Comparative characterization of a novel cad-cam polymer-infiltrated-ceramic-network

    OpenAIRE

    Albero, Alberto; Pascual Moscardó, Agustín; Camps Alemany, Isabel; Grau Benitez, María

    2015-01-01

    Background The field of dental ceramics for CAD-CAM is enriched with a new innovative material composition having a porous three-dimensional structure of feldspathic ceramic infiltrated with acrylic resins.The aim of this study is to determine the mechanical properties of Polymer-Infiltrated-Ceramic-Network (PICN) and compare its performance with other ceramics and a nano-ceramic resin available for CAD-CAM systems. Material and Methods In this study a total of five different materials for CA...

  7. Design Alteration of Motor-Cycle Engine Cam for Pneumatic Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Jimil M. Shah; Akash B. Pandey; Ujjwell Y. Trivedi

    2013-01-01

    Power produced by pressurized gases/air has been used in many applications since decades. The power produced by that means is pollution free too. Hence substitution of petrol/diesel in engines with compressed air will be a step towards pollution free engine. The 4-stroke IC engine is to be converted into a 2-stroke pneumatic engine. Various design changes in camshaft design were carried out. The valve timing diagram was derived for the same. The cam profile of a double lobed cam as required i...

  8. Development and some applications of general purpose CAD/CAM/CAE system -IMAGE-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General purpose CAD/CAM/CAE system, named IMAGE (Interactive Modeling Aids for Graphics in Engineering), has been developed. This system is composed of several subsystems. Two modeling types are available, one is a wire frame model and the other is a surface model. CAD subsystems for drawings, piping and preliminary design, CAM subsystems for NC programming/nesting and CAE subsystems for FEM preprocessing are described. Three applications are described. The first application field is the boiler plant design, the second one the nuclear equipment engineering design and the third one the industrial machinery design. (author)

  9. Linear organization of the liver cell adhesion molecule L-CAM.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, B A; Leutzinger, Y; Gallin, W J; Sorkin, B C; Edelman, G M

    1984-01-01

    A linear model of the liver cell adhesion molecule L-CAM from embryonic chickens is proposed in terms of its orientation on the cell surface, the number, type, and distribution of carbohydrate moieties, and sites of phosphorylation. L-CAM is isolated from cell membranes as a glycoprotein of Mr = 124,000. A soluble fragment (Ft1) of Mr = 81,000 can be released from cells by digestion with trypsin in the presence of calcium. Radiochemical amino acid sequence analyses indicated that both polypep...

  10. Optimal piston motion for maximum net output work of Daniel cam engines with low heat rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The piston motion of low heat rejection compression ignition engines is optimized. • A realistic model taking into account the cooling system is developed. • The optimized cam is smaller for cylinders without thermal insulation. • The optimized cam size depends on ignition moment and cooling process intensity. - Abstract: Compression ignition engines based on classical tapper-crank systems cannot provide optimal piston motion. Cam engines are more appropriate for this purpose. In this paper the piston motion of a Daniel cam engine is optimized. Piston acceleration is taken as a control. The objective is to maximize the net output work during the compression and power strokes. A major research effort has been allocated in the last two decades for the development of low heat rejection engines. A thermally insulated cylinder is considered and a realistic model taking into account the cooling system is developed. The sinusoidal approximation of piston motion in the classical tapper-crank system overestimates the engine efficiency. The exact description of the piston motion in tapper-crank system is used here as a reference. The radiation process has negligible effects during the optimization. The approach with no constraint on piston acceleration is a reasonable approximation. The net output work is much larger (by 12–13%) for the optimized system than for the classical tapper-crank system, for similar thickness of cylinder walls and thermal insulation. Low heat rejection measures are not of significant importance for optimized cam engines. The optimized cam is smaller for a cylinder without thermal insulation than for an insulated cylinder (by up to 8%, depending on the local polar radius). The auto-ignition moment is not a parameter of significant importance for optimized cam engines. However, for given cylinder wall and insulation materials there is an optimum auto-ignition moment which maximizes the net output work. The optimum auto

  11. Calcium Sulfate Characterized by ChemCam/Curiosity at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachon, M.; Clegg, S. N.; Mangold, N.; Schroeder, S.; Kah, L. C.; Dromart, G.; Ollila, A.; Johnson, J. R.; Oehler, D. Z.; Bridges, J. C.; LeMouelic, S.; Forni, O.; Wiens, R. C.; Rapin, W.; Anderson, R. B.; Blaney, D. L.; Bell, J. F. , III; Clark, B.; Cousin, A.; Dyar, M. D.; Ehlmann, B.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Grotzinger, J.; Lasue, J.; Lewin, E.; Leveille, R.; McLennan, S.; Maurice, S.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Rice, M.; Squyres, S. W.; Stack, K.; Sumner, D. Y.; Vaniman, D.; Wellington, D.

    2014-01-01

    Onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, the ChemCam instrument consists of :(1) a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) for elemental analysis of the targets [1;2] and (2) a Remote Micro Imager (RMI), for the imaging context of laser analysis [3]. Within the Gale crater, Curiosity traveled from Bradbury Landing through the Rocknest region and into Yellowknife Bay (YB). In the latter, abundant light-toned fracture-fill material were seen [4;5]. ChemCam analysis demonstrate that those fracture fills consist of calcium sulfates [6].

  12. Latest systemization technology. CAD/CAM system for weding robot; Saishin no system ka gijutsu. Yosetsu robotto no CAD/CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanjo, Y. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Engineering Research Center

    1995-09-05

    The level of welding automotion has been developed from the automation of a single process to the automation of the production line combining plural processes, and further to the integrated system named Computer Integrated Management (CIM) including related processes such as the front process and the follow-up process. As far as the robot teaching method is concerned, instead of the on-line teaching, off-line teaching which produces NC data (robot program) by computers for controlling the robot is developed. However, basically it still needs the teaching of the operator. In this paper, the teachingless robot program automotive production system linking with CAD and corresponding to multi-robots was defined as CAD/CAM system. The status and technical problems of the CAD/CAM system of the welding system were described. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Three-dimensional CAE/CAD/CAM system, ANVIL-5000, and examples of application. Sanjigen CAE/CAD/CAM system ANVIL-5000 to tekiyo jirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, M.; Miyata, M. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    Several functions of the three-dimensional CAE/CAD/CAM system (ANVIL-5000) are outlined and some applications are also illustrated. The system is composed of four main functions, the CAD function for three-dimensional design/drafting, CAM function to generate NC data for 2-5 axis machining, OMNISOLIDS function to generate solid models, and OMNIFEM function to generate FEM meshes from solid models. The following new functions have been added to the system recently: (1) the dynamic rotation function to rotate solid models around every axis along with their shading, (2) the draft line function for drafting using draft lines erasable after completion of drawings, and (3) the multi-part access function to copy needed graphic forms from a reference drawing to a drawing under working. Its applications to the design and manufacturing are illustrated of IC lead frame dies in a semiconductor factory and molds in an AV appliance factory. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  14. The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) as a morphoregulatory molecule is a tool in surgical pathology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, M.J.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Litvinov, S.V.

    2003-01-01

    Cell adhesion receptors (CAMs) are actively involved in regulating various cell processes, including growth, differentiation, and cell death. Therefore, CAMs represent a large group of morphoregulating molecules, mediating cross-talk between cells and of cells with their environment. From this persp

  15. Criterios para Seleccionar Sistemas de Diseño y Manufactura Asistidos por Computadora (CAD/CAM Criteria for the Selection of Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing Systems (CAD/CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Martínez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo presentar en forma clara los principios fundamentales que se requieren para tener un criterio sobre las bondades e inconvenientes de los sistemas Diseño y Manufactura Asistidos por Computadora (CAD/CAM. La inquietud nació por algunos problemas presentados en la primera adquisición de un sistema de CAD/CAM. Se adaptó a una máquina de Control Numérico por Computadora (CNC las dos modalidades de CAM, el primero con el sistema de CAD integrado y la otra con interacción en AutoCAD. Del análisis se determinó la indiferencia de usar un software de CAD desarrollado por la misma compañía del CAM. El resultado de estos experimentos y observaciones proporciona una herramienta fundamental para seleccionar un sistema de CAD/CAM eficienteThe objective of this study was to present in clear form the fundamental principles required to obtain a criterion of the advantages and disadvantages of computer aided design and manufacturing systems (CAD/CAM. The idea for setting these selection criteria were obtained during the initial acquisition of a CAD/CAM system. A Numerical Control by Computer (CNC machine was adapted to two modalities of CAM, the first with an integrated CAD system and another with AutoCAD interaction. From the analysis it was determined that it was immaterial whether or not the use of CAD software was from the same company that produced the CAM software. The results of these experiments and observations provide a fundamental tool for selecting an efficient CAD/CAM system

  16. CAD/CAM tölvutækni í tannlækningum. Notkun og útbreiðsla CAD/CAM á Íslandi

    OpenAIRE

    Mateev, Alexander, 1990-

    2013-01-01

    Tilgangur: Ritgerðin er lokaverkefni til BS gráðu í tannsmíði við Heilbrigðisvísindasvið Háskóla Íslands, Tannlæknadeild vorið 2013. Leitað var svara við rannsóknarspurningunni: Hversu útbreidd og víðtæk er CAD/CAM tækni á Íslandi? Meginmarkmið þessarar ritgerðar var þríþætt; í fyrsta lagi að draga saman upplýsingar um CAD/CAM tölvutækni, í öðru lagi að komast að því hversu víðtæk og útbreidd notkunin er á Íslandi og í þriðja lagi að útbúa myndrænt efni um notkun á CAD/CAM tölvutækni. Aðfe...

  17. Use of selected complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments in veterans with cancer or chronic pain: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Liebschutz Jane M; McEachrane-Gross F; Berlowitz Dan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is emerging as an important form of care in the United States. We sought to measure the prevalence of selected CAM use among veterans attending oncology and chronic pain clinics and to describe the characteristics of CAM use in this population. Methods The self-administered, mail-in survey included questions on demographics, health beliefs, medical problems and 6 common CAM treatments (herbs, dietary supplements, chiropractic ca...

  18. N-Glycosylation at the SynCAM (Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule) Immunoglobulin Interface Modulates Synaptic Adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Fogel; Y Li; Q Wang; T Lam; Y Modis; T Biederer

    2011-12-31

    Select adhesion molecules connect pre- and postsynaptic membranes and organize developing synapses. The regulation of these trans-synaptic interactions is an important neurobiological question. We have previously shown that the synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SynCAMs) 1 and 2 engage in homo- and heterophilic interactions and bridge the synaptic cleft to induce presynaptic terminals. Here, we demonstrate that site-specific N-glycosylation impacts the structure and function of adhesive SynCAM interactions. Through crystallographic analysis of SynCAM 2, we identified within the adhesive interface of its Ig1 domain an N-glycan on residue Asn(60). Structural modeling of the corresponding SynCAM 1 Ig1 domain indicates that its glycosylation sites Asn(70)/Asn(104) flank the binding interface of this domain. Mass spectrometric and mutational studies confirm and characterize the modification of these three sites. These site-specific N-glycans affect SynCAM adhesion yet act in a differential manner. Although glycosylation of SynCAM 2 at Asn(60) reduces adhesion, N-glycans at Asn(70)/Asn(104) of SynCAM 1 increase its interactions. The modification of SynCAM 1 with sialic acids contributes to the glycan-dependent strengthening of its binding. Functionally, N-glycosylation promotes the trans-synaptic interactions of SynCAM 1 and is required for synapse induction. These results demonstrate that N-glycosylation of SynCAM proteins differentially affects their binding interface and implicate post-translational modification as a mechanism to regulate trans-synaptic adhesion.

  19. Types and sociodemographic correlates of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among people with epilepsy in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Asmi, Abdullah; Al Maniri, Abdullah; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Burke, David T; Al Asfoor, Fatema M H; Al Busaidi, Ibrahim; Al Breiki, Mohamed H A; Lahiri, Shaon; Braidy, Nady; Essa, Musthafa M; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2013-11-01

    Nonpharmacological treatment strategies that originate from sociocultural teachings and are beyond the scope of allopathic medicine are commonly used among people with epilepsy (PWE) in many parts of the world. The present study explored the types and sociodemographic correlates of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among PWE in Oman among attendees of a neurological unit at a tertiary care center. Data on the types of CAM were gathered from telephone interviews. The relevant demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants were obtained from electronic medical records. Of the total of 101 participants, 73.3% were CAM users. The majority of these participants have not disclosed their CAM use to their allopathic health-care providers. The most common types of CAM reported were those falling under the 'mind-body' type (incantations and fumigation) and biologically based (herbal concoctions) or a combination of them. Compared to non-CAM users, a significant and greater proportion of CAM users attributed the etiology of their illness to nonbiomedical factors such as 'evil eyes' (P=0.04). The multivariate logistic regression model indicated that the use of CAM was highly associated with age of unemployment (OR=2.04; 95% CI: 1.15, 6.39), having basic school education (OR=2.21; 95% CI: 0.83, 5.18), low family income (OR=1.52; 95% CI: 0.91, 2.11), and the presence of hypersalivation (OR=2.20; 95% CI: 1.01, 4.39). Further studies are needed to harmonize these two healing practices. On the whole, this study indicates that among attendees of tertiary care utilization, CAM is common among PWE in Oman. The most utilized type of CAM falls under the umbrella of mind-body practice. PMID:24011398

  20. A roadmap for research on crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to enhance sustainable food and bioenergy production in a hotter, drier world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C; Borland, Anne M; Edwards, Erika J; Wullschleger, Stan D; Tuskan, Gerald A; Owen, Nick A; Griffiths, Howard; Smith, J Andrew C; De Paoli, Henrique C; Weston, David J; Cottingham, Robert; Hartwell, James; Davis, Sarah C; Silvera, Katia; Ming, Ray; Schlauch, Karen; Abraham, Paul; Stewart, J Ryan; Guo, Hao-Bo; Albion, Rebecca; Ha, Jungmin; Lim, Sung Don; Wone, Bernard W M; Yim, Won Cheol; Garcia, Travis; Mayer, Jesse A; Petereit, Juli; Nair, Sujithkumar S; Casey, Erin; Hettich, Robert L; Ceusters, Johan; Ranjan, Priya; Palla, Kaitlin J; Yin, Hengfu; Reyes-García, Casandra; Andrade, José Luis; Freschi, Luciano; Beltrán, Juan D; Dever, Louisa V; Boxall, Susanna F; Waller, Jade; Davies, Jack; Bupphada, Phaitun; Kadu, Nirja; Winter, Klaus; Sage, Rowan F; Aguilar, Cristobal N; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jenkins, Jerry; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2015-08-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized mode of photosynthesis that features nocturnal CO2 uptake, facilitates increased water-use efficiency (WUE), and enables CAM plants to inhabit water-limited environments such as semi-arid deserts or seasonally dry forests. Human population growth and global climate change now present challenges for agricultural production systems to increase food, feed, forage, fiber, and fuel production. One approach to meet these challenges is to increase reliance on CAM crops, such as Agave and Opuntia, for biomass production on semi-arid, abandoned, marginal, or degraded agricultural lands. Major research efforts are now underway to assess the productivity of CAM crop species and to harness the WUE of CAM by engineering this pathway into existing food, feed, and bioenergy crops. An improved understanding of CAM has potential for high returns on research investment. To exploit the potential of CAM crops and CAM bioengineering, it will be necessary to elucidate the evolution, genomic features, and regulatory mechanisms of CAM. Field trials and predictive models will be required to assess the productivity of CAM crops, while new synthetic biology approaches need to be developed for CAM engineering. Infrastructure will be needed for CAM model systems, field trials, mutant collections, and data management. PMID:26153373

  1. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) following traumatic brain injury (TBI): Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Theresa D; Brenner, Lisa A; Walter, Kristen H; Bormann, Jill E; Johansson, Birgitta

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is highly prevalent and occurs in a variety of populations. Because of the complexity of its sequelae, treatment strategies pose a challenge. Given this complexity, TBI provides a unique target of opportunity for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. The present review describes and discusses current opportunitites and challenges associated with CAM research and clinical applications in civilian, veteran and military service populations. In addition to a brief overview of CAM, the translational capacity from basic to clinical research to clinical practice will be described. Finally, a systematic approach to developing an adoptable evidence base, with proof of effectiveness based on the literature will be discussed. Inherent in this discussion will be the methodological and ethical challenges associated with CAM research in those with TBI and associated comorbidities, specifically in terms of how these challenges relate to practice and policy issues, implementation and dissemination. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:Brain injury and recovery. PMID:26806403

  2. EpCAM (CD326) is differentially expressed in craniopharyngioma subtypes and Rathke's cleft cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimsen, Vivian; Hölsken, Annett; Buchfelder, Michael; Flitsch, Jörg; Fahlbusch, Rudolf; Stefanits, Harald; Losa, Marco; Jones, David T W; Buslei, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a type I glycoprotein located on the surface of epithelial cells. It is strongly expressed in many neoplasms and already used in the diagnosis and distinction of various tumour subtypes. Comparative studies about EpCAM expression in cystic sellar lesions are lacking. Therefore, we analysed its distribution pattern in adamantinomatous (aCP) and papillary (pCP) craniopharyngiomas (CP) and Rathke's Cleft Cysts (RCC) using immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling. Whereas the protein was not detectable in pCP (n = 10), all aCP (n = 64) showed distinct staining patterns. The vast majority of RCC (n = 10) also appeared positive, but these displayed notably lower labeling scores. Additionally, significantly higher mRNA levels were detectable in aCP (n = 19) when compared to pCP (n = 10) (p = 9.985(-8)). Furthermore, pediatric aCP cases, in general, exhibited stronger EpCAM staining levels compared to adult ones (p = 0.015). However, we were not able to verify this result on mRNA level. In summary, our findings demonstrate that EpCAM can be used as an additional distinction-marker for cystic lesions of the sellar region. Its unknown function in aCP and the presence of an approved monoclonal bispecific trifunctional antibody for cancer therapy are interesting starting points for further studies. PMID:27431859

  3. Thermography of semi-transparent materials by a FLIR ThermaCAM SC3000 infrared camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Tempel, L.

    2011-01-01

    An acceptance test for thermography of semi-transparent materials by a FLIR ThermaCAM SC3000 infrared camera with 8.0 µm low-wavelength-pass filter has been developed and performed on polycarbonate, PEN, quartz, Corning 1737 glass, G427 cone glas, G443 screen glass, Schott Zerodur, silicon and a bl

  4. Utilizing CAD/CAM to Measure Total Occlusal Convergence of Preclinical Dental Students' Crown Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Keith A; Crisp, H Alex; Vos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, faculty assessment of preclinical crown preparations occurs by visualizing preparation features. However, contemporary CAD/CAM tools have the ability to more precisely evaluate preparation features, which is beneficial for psychomotor development. Taper is one of the most challenging features to objectively assess. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to validate the software's ability to distinguish differences in taper, and second, to compare traditional faculty assessment with digital assessment of taper. In the study, 30 all-metal crown preparations were created on typodont teeth with varying degrees of axial reduction and placed into three groups based on amount of taper (minimum, moderate, or excessive). Each tooth was scanned with the D4D scanner, and the taper was analyzed using E4D Compare. A second experiment used 50 crown preparations of tooth #19, which were done as a formative exercise. A comparison faculty assessment with CAD/CAM assessments of taper was performed. The results showed that when the taper was varied, E4D Compare was able to distinguish those differences; the Tukey post-hoc test revealed a significant difference (p=0.001). The qualitative analysis comparing faculty grading to CAD/CAM grading demonstrated a trend for CAD/CAM to be more precise. These results suggest that E4D Compare is an effective means of quantitatively measuring the amount of total occlusal convergence or taper on a crown preparation and that digital assessment may be more precise than faculty visual grading. PMID:26729690

  5. Education & Training for CAD/CAM: Results of a National Probability Survey. Krannert Institute Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Ann

    A study was conducted of the training programs used by plants with Computer Automated Design/Computer Automated Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to help their employees adapt to automated manufacturing. The study sought to determine the relative priorities of manufacturing establishments for training certain workers in certain skills; the status of…

  6. Integrating conventional and CAD/CAM digital techniques for establishing canine protected articulation: A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kerdani, Tarek; Nimmo, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Canine protected articulation is widely accepted for patients requiring extensive oral rehabilitation. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restorations have been primarily designed in occlusion at the maximum intercuspal position. Designing a virtual articulator that is capable of accepting excursive occlusal records and duplicating the mandibular movements is a challenge for CAD/CAM technology. Modifying tooth shape using composite resin trial restorations to produce esthetic results and later scanning the modified teeth to create milled crowns is becoming a popular use of the CAD/CAM technology. This report describes a technique that combines conventional and CAD/CAM prosthodontic techniques for milling crowns for canine teeth that are designed to establish or improve canine protected articulation. This technique involves designing and fabricating interim restorations based on diagnostic waxing, scanning the designs intraorally, and storing them in software as pretreatment digital records. The scanned designs are then applied to the digital representation of the prepared teeth to fabricate the definitive restorations. PMID:26774319

  7. Expert systems and CAD/CAM technology in nuclear research and nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of expert systems for the peaceful uses of atomic energy, especially nuclear energetics, isotope technique and radiation technology, as well as the interrelation between expert systems used in nuclear research and engineering, and CAD/CAM technology are dealt with. (orig.)

  8. Implementation and operating experience with a centralized multi-disciplinary CAD CAM System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.S.; Steffani, J.P.

    1985-09-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has installed a centralized CAD CAM System to support Electronics, Mechanical, Mechanical Fabrication and Architectural Engineering and Design. The various phases of implementing this system are described, including problems of selection, system software support, maintenance, training, performance evaluation, and future expansion. Some emphasis will be given to the experience with the Electronics disciplines.

  9. THE FOURIER SERIES USED IN ANALYSE OF THE CAM MECHANISMS FOR THE SHOEMAKING MACHINES (PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOVAN-DRAGOMIR Alina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A computer assisted procedure for the cinematic analysis of the mechanism of a cam is essential in making a certain type of research operations. They mainly refer to the optimization of operations running on specific machinery, or to the re-design of the mechanism, in order to make the mechanism digital. This analysis seems even more important, when we consider the fact that most of the machines used in shoe industry nowadays use a cam mechanism. The paper is devided in two parts. In first part, it is elaborated a method of finding of a function G(x, belonging to a Fourier series, which approximates the numerical values {xi, yi}, with the biggest accuracy. Finding the function that approximates the most accurately the data set, for the position parameters of the follower S(ω, ( will lead to a complete kinematic and dynamic analysis of the cam mechanism. These values repeat with T = 2π period. In second part, the method is tasted using MatCAD work sessions which allow a numerical and graphical analysis of the mathematical relations involved, in order to test the reability of the method. The set of experimental data are resulted after measuring a cam mechanism of a machine used in shoemaking.

  10. Effects of Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) on the Metabolism and Transport of Anticancer Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooiman, K.D.

    2013-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM), such as herbs and dietary supplements, has become more popular among cancer patients. Cancer patients use these supplements for different reasons such as reduction of side effects and improvement of their quality of life. In general, the use

  11. The Cyborg Astrobiologist: Porting from a wearable computer to the Astrobiology Phone-cam

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolo, Alexandra; McGuire, Patrick C.; Camilleri, Kenneth P; Spiteri, Christopher; Borg, Jonathan C.; Farrugia, Philip J.; Ormo, Jens; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Diaz-Martinez, Enrique; Ritter, Helge; Haschke, Robert; Oesker, Markus; Ontrup, Joerg

    2007-01-01

    We have used a simple camera phone to significantly improve an `exploration system' for astrobiology and geology. This camera phone will make it much easier to develop and test computer-vision algorithms for future planetary exploration. We envision that the `Astrobiology Phone-cam' exploration system can be fruitfully used in other problem domains as well.

  12. Perapation of mica-based glassceramics for denta CAD/CAM system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong; RAN Junguo; GOU Li; ZHAO Yunfeng

    2001-01-01

    @@ Ceramic materials have received considerable application in biomedical and dental restoration because of their relative higher mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and good natural aesthetics. Development of machinable glass-ceramicsin dental CAD/CAM maching system have provided a new impetus for fabrication ofceramic restorations.

  13. Development of CAD/CAM software used in laser direct manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-shan; Yang, Xi-chen; Wang, Jian-jun; Jin, Xiao-shu

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a special CAD/CAM software for rapid manufacturing thin wall metal parts by laser cladding, which is based on the developing of AutoCAD. It mainly consists of solid modeling, layering and section data processing, NC code generation module, processing path simulating and data transferring module.

  14. Biotransformation of the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene by cytochrome P450cam and P450BM-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowden, Rebecca J; Yasmin, Samina; Rees, Nicholas H; Bell, Stephen G; Wong, Luet-Lok

    2005-01-01

    The sesquiterpenoids are a large class of naturally occurring compounds with biological functions and desirable properties. Oxidation of the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene by wild type and mutants of P450cam from Pseudomonas putida, and of P450BM-3 from Bacillus megaterium, have been investigated as a potential route to (+)-nootkatone, a fine fragrance. Wild type P450cam did not oxidise (+)-valencene but the mutants showed activities up to 9.8 nmol (nmol P450)(-1) min(-1), with (+)-trans-nootkatol and (+)-nootkatone constituting >85% of the products. Wild type P450BM-3 and mutants had higher activities (up to 43 min(-1)) than P450cam but were much less selective. Of the many products, cis- and trans-(+)-nootkatol, (+)-nootkatone, cis-(+)-valencene-1,10-epoxide, trans-(+)-nootkaton-9-ol, and (+)-nootkatone-13S,14-epoxide were isolated from whole-cell reactions and characterised. The selectivity patterns suggest that (+)-valencene has one binding orientation in P450cam but multiple orientations in P450BM-3. PMID:15602599

  15. Selective cell adhesion inhibitors: Barbituric acid based alpha4beta7--MAdCAM inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Geraldine C; Brewer, Matthias; Bennett, Robert; Kuhn, Cyrille; Bazin, Marc; Larosa, Greg; Skerker, Paul; Cochran, Nancy; Gallant, Debra; Baxter, Deborah; Picarella, Dominic; Jaffee, Bruce; Luly, Jay R; Briskin, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    A novel series of barbituric acid derivatives were identified as selective inhibitors of alpha4beta7 MAdCAM (mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1) interactions via a high throughput screening exercise. These inhibitors were optimized to submicromolar potencies in whole cell adhesion assays, retaining their selectivity over alpha4beta1 VCAM. PMID:18331794

  16. 21 CFR 872.3661 - Optical Impression Systems for CAD/CAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3661 Optical Impression Systems for CAD... (CAD/CAM) is a device used to record the topographical characteristics of teeth, dental impressions, or stone models by analog or digital methods for use in the computer-assisted design and manufacturing...

  17. The Cyborg Astrobiologist: porting from a wearable computer to the Astrobiology Phone-cam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Alexandra; McGuire, Patrick C.; Camilleri, Kenneth P.; Spiteri, Christopher; Borg, Jonathan C.; Farrugia, Philip J.; Ormö, Jens; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Rodriguez-Manfredi, José Antonio; Díaz-Martínez, Enrique; Ritter, Helge; Haschke, Robert; Oesker, Markus; Ontrup, Jörg

    2007-08-01

    We have used a simple camera phone to significantly improve an `exploration system' for astrobiology and geology. This camera phone will make it much easier to develop and test computer-vision algorithms for future planetary exploration. We envision that the `Astrobiology Phone-cam' exploration system can be fruitfully used in other problem domains as well.

  18. CAMS as a tool for identifying and predicting abnormal plant states using real-time simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMS (Computerised Accident Management Support) is a system that provides assistance to the staff in a nuclear power plant control room, in the technical support centre and in the national safety centre. Support is offered in identification of the current plant state, in assessment of the future development of the accident and in planning mitigation strategies. CAMS is a modular system, where several modules perform different tasks under the control and supervision of a central knowledge based system, which is responsible of the syncronisation and the flow of information through the activated modules. A CAMS prototype has been tested by the Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate during a safety exercise in Sweden in 1995, with satisfactory results. Future developments include automatic control of the Predictive Simulator by the State Identification, for the generation of possible mitigation strategies, and the development of an improved user interface which considers the integration of the system in an advanced control room. CAMS is a system developed as a joint research activity at the Halden Reactor Project in close cooperation with member organisations. The project, started in 1993, has now arrived to the second prototype version, which has been presented and demonstrated at several seminars and workshops around the world. (author)

  19. Development of Integrated ASR Model Forcing Data and Their Applications to Improve CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Minghua [Research Foundation of the State University of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this project, we have (1) improved the constrained variational analysis algorithm of ARM model forcing data, and (2) used the ARM forcing data to identify systematic biases in clouds and radiation in the CAM5 and design new physical parameterizations to improve it.

  20. An accelerated technique for a ceramic-pressed-to-metal restoration with CAD/CAM technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Hyoung

    2014-11-01

    The conventional fabrication of metal ceramic restorations depends on an experienced dental technician and requires a long processing time. However, complete-contour digital waxing and digital cutback with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology can overcome these disadvantages and provide a correct metal framework design and space for the ceramic material. PMID:24952883

  1. Territorial-like defensive behavior of floral resources by Heliconius ethilla narcaea Godart over H. sara apseudes (Hübner) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Frederico Duarte da Rocha; Marcelo Duarte

    2001-01-01

    The use of nectar and pollen of a bromeliad by two heliconiine butterflies, Heliconius ethilla narcaea Godart, 1819 and H. sara apseudes (Hübner, [1813]) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae), is herein reported. Observations were made during a pollination study of Aechmea gracilis Lindman (Bromeliaceae, Bromelioidea) in a second-growth forest of the village Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. Field observations showed that H. ethilla can be more aggress...

  2. From Artisanal to CAD-CAM Blocks: State of the Art of Indirect Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, A K; Dupont, N M; Oudkerk, J C; Dewael, T Y; Sadoun, M J

    2016-05-01

    Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites. Indeed, new polymerization modes used for CAD-CAM blocks-especially high temperature (HT) and, most of all, high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP)-are shown to significantly increase the degree of conversion in comparison with light-cured composites. Industrial processes also allow for the augmentation of the filler content and for the realization of more homogeneous structures with fewer flaws. In addition, due to their increased degree of conversion and their different monomer composition, some CAD-CAM blocks are more advantageous in terms of toxicity and monomer release. Finally, materials with a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) microstructure exhibit higher flexural strength and a more favorable elasticity modulus than materials with a dispersed filler microstructure. Consequently, some high-performance composite CAD-CAM blocks-particularly experimental PICNs-can now rival glass-ceramics, such as lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics, for use as bonded partial restorations and crowns on natural teeth and implants. Being able to be manufactured in very low thicknesses, they offer the possibility of developing innovative minimally invasive treatment strategies, such as "no prep" treatment of worn dentition. Current issues are related to the study of bonding and wear properties of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composites. There is also a crucial

  3. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS: rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waslick Bruce D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To present the design, methods, and rationale of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS, a recently completed federally-funded, multi-site, randomized placebo-controlled trial that examined the relative efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT, sertraline (SRT, and their combination (COMB against pill placebo (PBO for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and social phobia (SoP in children and adolescents. Methods Following a brief review of the acute outcomes of the CAMS trial, as well as the psychosocial and pharmacologic treatment literature for pediatric anxiety disorders, the design and methods of the CAMS trial are described. Results CAMS was a six-year, six-site, randomized controlled trial. Four hundred eighty-eight (N = 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of SAD, GAD, or SoP were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: CBT, SRT, COMB, or PBO. Assessments of anxiety symptoms, safety, and functional outcomes, as well as putative mediators and moderators of treatment response were completed in a multi-measure, multi-informant fashion. Manual-based therapies, trained clinicians and independent evaluators were used to ensure treatment and assessment fidelity. A multi-layered administrative structure with representation from all sites facilitated cross-site coordination of the entire trial, study protocols and quality assurance. Conclusions CAMS offers a model for clinical trials methods applicable to psychosocial and psychopharmacological comparative treatment trials by using state-of-the-art methods and rigorous cross-site quality controls. CAMS also provided a large-scale examination of the relative and combined efficacy and safety of the best evidenced-based psychosocial (CBT and pharmacologic (SSRI treatments to date for the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety disorders. Primary and secondary results

  4. Marginal and Internal Fit of CAD/CAM and Slip-Cast Made Zirconia Copings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi Ardekani, Kianoosh; Ahangari, Ahmad Hassan; Farahi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims CAD/CAM systems facilitate the use of zirconia substructure materials for all-ceramic copings. This in vitro study investigated the marginal and internal fit of zirconia copings made with CAD/CAM system and slip-casting method. Materials and methods Sixteen CAD/CAM made zirconia copings and 16 slip-cast made zirconia copings were fabri-cated and cemented with glass-ionomer cement to their respective master abutment models, and thickness of the cement layer was measured at specific measuring points with stereomicroscope. Results In the left wall, the mean axial internal gap was greater in group one than group two (62.49 vs. 48.14) (P =0.007), in the right wall the mean axial internal gap was greater in group one than group two (44.87 vs. 40.91) (P = 0.465). The oc-clusal internal gap was greater in group one than group two (118.81 vs. 102.11) (P =0.423). The mean marginal gap also was greater in group one than group two (46.67 vs. 44.29) (P = 0.863). The differences in marginal fit between these two methods were not statistically significant, except for left axial internal gap that was significantly greater in the CAD/CAM system than conventional slip-cast technique (P =0.007). Conclusion It was concluded that this CAD/CAM system can compete well with conventional systems for clinical fit, and can achieve good in vitro marginal fit. PMID:22991635

  5. Comparative characterization of a novel cad-cam polymer-infiltrated-ceramic-network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Agustín; Camps, Isabel; Grau-Benitez, María

    2015-01-01

    Background The field of dental ceramics for CAD-CAM is enriched with a new innovative material composition having a porous three-dimensional structure of feldspathic ceramic infiltrated with acrylic resins.The aim of this study is to determine the mechanical properties of Polymer-Infiltrated-Ceramic-Network (PICN) and compare its performance with other ceramics and a nano-ceramic resin available for CAD-CAM systems. Material and Methods In this study a total of five different materials for CAD-CAM were investigated. A polymer-infiltrated ceramic (Vita Enamic), a nano-ceramic resin (Lava Ultimate), a feldspathic ceramic (Mark II), a lithium disilicate ceramic (IPS-e max CAD) and finally a Leucite based ceramic (Empress - CAD). From CAD-CAM blocks, 120 bars (30 for each material cited above) were cut to measure the flexural strength with a three-point-bending test. Strain at failure, fracture stress and Weibull modulus was calculated. Vickers hardness of each material was also measured. Results IPS-EMAX presents mechanical properties significantly better from the other materials studied. Its strain at failure, flexural strength and hardness exhibited significantly higher values in comparison with the others. VITA ENAMIC and LAVA ULTIMATE stand out as the next most resistant materials. Conclusions The flexural strength, elastic modulus similar to a tooth as well as having less hardness than ceramics make PICN materials an option to consider as a restorative material. Key words:Ceramic infiltrated with resin, CAD-CAM, Weibull modulus, flexural strength, micro hardness. PMID:26535096

  6. Bilgisayar destekli diş hekimliği ve güncel CAD/CAM sistemleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Çelik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available

    CAD/CAM systems (computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing has been used in dentistry since 1987. In the past 25 years, development of various high quality chairside and laboratory CAD/CAM systems has been continued with the progress of technology. This article describes currently used CAD/CAM systems.

    Keywords: Dental, CAD/CAM systems.

     

    ÖZET

    CAD/CAM sistemleri (bilgisayar destekli tasarım/bilgisayar destekli üretim diş hekimliğinde 1987 yılından beri kullanılmaktadır. Son 25 yılda teknolojinin de ilerlemesiyle üstün özellikte çeşitli klinik ve laboratuvar CAD/CAM sistemleri geliştirilmeye devam etmektedir. Bu makalede günümüzde kullanılan CAD/CAM sistemleri anlatılmaktadır.

  7. Concurrent Complementary and Alternative Medicine CAM and Conventional Rehabilitation Therapy in the Management of Children with Developmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Yeon Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the concurrent use of conventional rehabilitations and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies for the long-term management of children with developmental disorders (DDs. Methods. The parents or caregivers of 533 children with DDs (age range, 1–19 years who visited the rehabilitation centers were surveyed using in depth face-to-face interviews. Results. Of the 533 patients enrolled, 520 completed the questionnaire (97% response rate. A total of 292 (56% children were receiving multiple therapies, more than two conventional rehabilitations and CAM, at the time of the interview. A total of 249 (48% children reported lifetime CAM use, 23% used CAM at the time of the interview, and 62% of the patients planned to use CAM therapy in the future. Conventional rehabilitation therapies used at the time of the interview included physical therapy (30%, speech therapy (28%, and occupational therapy (19%, and the CAM therapies included herbal medicine (5% and acupuncture or moxibustion (3%. The respondents indicated that in the future they planned to use acupuncture or moxibustion (57%, occupational therapy (18%, cognitive behavioral therapy (16%, speech therapy (10%, and physical therapy (8%. Conclusion. Concurrent management as conventional rehabilitations and CAM therapies is widely used by children with DDs.

  8. A focus Group Study of Medical Students’ Views of an Integrated Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM Curriculum: Students Teaching Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Lie, M.D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Student views of new curricula can shape training outcomes. This qualitative study elicited student opinions of CAM instruction to examine and distill best strategies.Methods: 49 second, third and fourth year students participated in focus groups using a predefined question route. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed.Results: Students successfully differentiated CAM curricula from other academic content and were supportive of a longitudinal integrated approach. They had positive disposition toward CAM use for themselves but this did not necessarily translate into patient recommendations. They agreed that goals of the CAM curriculum should center on awareness of patient use and evidence and information relevant to clinical practice. They advocated a case-based, hands-on, experiential strategy vs lectures. Students proposed greater institutional commitment to strengthen curricular effectiveness. The majority did not intend to practice CAM modalities but valued skills to assess them. Patient-centeredness was recognized. As training progressed, students exhibited a growing tendency to evaluate CAM efficacy, and therefore value, exclusively according to evidence.Conclusions: In-depth student input allowed examination of the effectiveness of a CAM curriculum,permitting improvement and assessment of program effectiveness.

  9. Differential effects of human L1CAM mutations on complementing guidance and synaptic defects in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirisha Kudumala

    Full Text Available A large number of different pathological L1CAM mutations have been identified that result in a broad spectrum of neurological and non-neurological phenotypes. While many of these mutations have been characterized for their effects on homophilic and heterophilic interactions, as well as expression levels in vitro, there are only few studies on their biological consequences in vivo. The single L1-type CAM gene in Drosophila, neuroglian (nrg, has distinct functions during axon guidance and synapse formation and the phenotypes of nrg mutants can be rescued by the expression of human L1CAM. We previously showed that the highly conserved intracellular FIGQY Ankyrin-binding motif is required for L1CAM-mediated synapse formation, but not for neurite outgrowth or axon guidance of the Drosophila giant fiber (GF neuron. Here, we use the GF as a model neuron to characterize the pathogenic L120V, Y1070C, C264Y, H210Q, E309K and R184Q extracellular L1CAM missense mutations and a L1CAM protein with a disrupted ezrin-moesin-radixin (ERM binding site to investigate the signaling requirements for neuronal development. We report that different L1CAM mutations have distinct effects on axon guidance and synapse formation. Furthermore, L1CAM homophilic binding and signaling via the ERM motif is essential for axon guidance in Drosophila. In addition, the human pathological H210Q, R184Q and Y1070C, but not the E309K and L120V L1CAM mutations affect outside-in signaling via the FIGQY Ankyrin binding domain which is required for synapse formation. Thus, the pathological phenotypes observed in humans are likely to be caused by the disruption of signaling required for both, guidance and synaptogenesis.

  10. Gamma Ray Imaging System (GRIS) GammaCam trademark. Final report, January 3, 1994 - May 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the activities undertaken during the development of the Gamma Ray Imaging System (GRIS) program now referred to as the GammaCam trademark. The purpose of this program is to develop a 2-dimensional imaging system for gamma-ray energy scenes that may be present in nuclear power plants. The report summarizes the overall accomplishments of the program and the most recent GammaCam measurements made at LANL and Estonia. The GammaCam is currently available for sale from AIL Systems as an off-the-shelf instrument

  11. The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in children: a telephone-based survey in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Jung-Ha; Nam Chung-Mo; Kim Moo-Young; Lee Duk-Chul

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and patterns of CAM use in Korean children via a telephone based survey. We also investigated parent satisfaction, a proxy for their child, with CAM therapy and determined the factors affecting satisfaction with CAM use. Methods This study used a landline telephone-based survey to examine a random sample representative of Korean children, aged 0 to 18 years. We assigned and surveyed 2,000 subjects according to age gr...

  12. Using CAD/CAM-systems for process optimization during laser beam cutting and surface treatment. CAD/CAM-gestuetzte Prozessauslegung beim Laserstrahlschneiden und -oberflaechenveredeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, W.; Trasser, F.J.; Wetzels, W. (Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Produktionstechnologie, IPT, Aachen (Germany))

    1991-02-01

    Using technological modules in modern CAD/CAM-systems provides an efficient use of the available know-how. On the one hand, companies can save their know-how, on the other hand they can improve manufacturing quality as well as increase the productivity. Especially laser beam cutting allows an automatic process control - orientated on geometry aspects. Similar results can be shown for laser surface treatment as well, although up to now reducing of the programming time is the main task of technological modules for this application, including special algorithms for CNC-controlled rotation/swiveling of powder-nozzles and adjustment of the powder flow rate.

  13. The SuperCam Remote-Sensing Instrument Suite for the Mars 2020 Rover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Clegg, S. M.; Rull, F.; Sharma, S. K.; Anderson, R. B.; Beyssac, O.; Bonal, L.; DeFlores, L. P.; Dromart, G.; Fischer, W. W.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Johnson, J. R.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Mangold, N.; McLennan, S. M.; Montmessin, F.

    2015-12-01

    The SuperCam remote-sensing instrument suite in development for the Mars 2020 rover represents a significant advance from its precursor, ChemCam, by adding Raman spectroscopy (to 12 m distance) and visible and near-infrared (VISIR) reflectance spectroscopy. For Raman spectroscopy the LIBS Nd:YAG laser is frequency-doubled to 532 nm (green Raman). A transmission spectrometer with an intensified CCD covers 150-4400 cm-1 spectral range at a resolution of 10 cm-1. The system is adjustably time-gated, removing much of the mineral fluorescence from the Raman spectra and also facilitating time-resolved fluorescence studies. The infrared range covers 1.3-2.6 microns in addition to the existing 400-840 nm range on ChemCam. Additional upgrades include doubling the LIBS resolution in the 535-860 nm range and adding color to the Remote Micro-Imager (RMI), which is the highest resolution remote imager on the rover. A large-scale effort is being applied to the on-board standards, being led by U. Valladolid in Spain, with targets contributed by many institutions. The number of geological targets will be increased from 8 (on ChemCam) to 22, planned to include end-member plagioclase feldspars, hi- and low-Ca pyroxene, olivines, several fine-grained basalts, hematite, jarosite, carbonates, apatite, and several synthetic targets doped with trace elements. Three Spectralon targets are planned for IR calibration and several color bands for the RMI. All but the Spectralon and color bands should be available for LIBS calibration, and many are also being designed for Raman and VISIR calibration. For LIBS this collection of standards will significantly improve the accuracy relative to ChemCam; other precision improvements are anticipated to come from correcting for variable plasma temperature. The presentation will illustrate how Mars datasets will be significantly improved via this multi-technique approach and will give a first look at prototype SuperCam spectra.

  14. Toward systems-level analysis of agricultural production from crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM): scaling from cell to commercial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sarah C; Ming, Ray; LeBauer, David S; Long, Stephen P

    2015-10-01

    Systems-level analyses have become prominent tools for assessing the yield, viability, economic consequences and environmental impacts of agricultural production. Such analyses are well-developed for many commodity crops that are used for food and biofuel, but have not been developed for agricultural production systems based on drought-tolerant plants that use crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). We review the components of systems-level evaluations, and identify the information available for completing such analyses for CAM cropping systems. Specific needs for developing systems-level evaluations of CAM agricultural production include: improvement of physiological models; assessment of product processing after leaving the farm gate; and application of newly available genetic tools to the optimization of CAM species for commercial production. PMID:26094655

  15. FlashCam: a fully-digital camera for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Pühlhofer, G; Bernhard, S; Capasso, M; Diebold, S; Eisenkolb, F; Florin, D; Föhr, C; Funk, S; Gadola, A; Garrecht, F; Hermann, G; Jung, I; Kalekin, O; Kalkuhl, C; Kasperek, J; Kihm, T; Lahmann, R; Manalaysay, A; Marszalek, A; Pfeifer, M; Rajda, P J; Reimer, O; Santangelo, A; Schanz, T; Schwab, T; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Tenzer, C; Vollhardt, A; Weitzel, Q; Werner, F; Wolf, D; Zietara, K

    2015-01-01

    The FlashCam group is currently preparing photomultiplier-tube based cameras proposed for the medium-sized telescopes (MST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The cameras are designed around the FlashCam readout concept which is the first fully-digital readout system for Cherenkov cameras, based on commercial FADCs and FPGAs as key components for the front-end electronics modules and a high performance camera server as back-end. This contribution describes the progress of the full-scale FlashCam camera prototype currently under construction, as well as performance results also obtained with earlier demonstrator setups. Plans towards the production and implementation of FlashCams on site are also briefly presented.

  16. Chipping fracture resistance of dental CAD/CAM restorative materials: Part 2. Phenomenological model and the effect of indenter type

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, G. D.; Giuseppetti, A. A.; Hoffman, K. H.

    2014-01-01

    The edge chipping resistances of six CAD/CAM dental restoration materials are analyzed and correlated to other mechanical properties. A new quadratic relationship that is based on a phenomenological model is presented.

  17. Recommended practices for spline usage in CAD/CAM systems: CADCAM-007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, S.K.

    1984-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been assigned Lead Lab responsibility for integrating CAD/CAM activities throughout the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) and automating exchange of product definition. Transfer of splines between CAD/CAM systems presents a special problem due to the use of different spline interpolation schemes in these systems. Automated exchange via IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification, ANSI Y14.26M-1981) shows promise but does not yet provide a usable data path for NWC spline needs. Data exchange today is primarily via hard copy drawings with manual data reentry and spline recomputation. In this environment, spline problems can be minimized by following the recommended practices set forth in this report.

  18. CAD/CAM fabricated single-unit all-ceramic post-core-crown restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilla Sekar Vinothkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report explains about an innovative treatment strategy for the management of damaged anterior teeth with reduced incisal clearance by means of a single-unit all-ceramic post-core-crown zirconia ceramic restoration fabricated by Computer-aided designing and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM technology. The reinforced zirconia ceramics allow fabrication of durable esthetic restorations in cases with high functional loading and the unification of the post, core, and crown in a single unit decreases the frequency of failure by creating a monobloc effect. In addition, the use of CAD/CAM technology for designing and fabricating ceramic restorations offers the option of expeditiously preparing these high-strength all-ceramic restorations.

  19. Technical engineering in mines on the basis of an integrated CAD/CAM/CAE system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritsko, G.J.; Vylegzhanin, V.N.; Vitovsky, E.J.; Potapov, V.P.; Zvikina, L.S. (Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Kemerevo (USSR))

    1990-01-01

    A concept of an integrated technical engineering system for the design, planning and managment phases is decribed. The system's structure includes international CAD/CAM/CAE system standards and is based on a mathematical hybrid model of a coal mining technology system, including safety of mining work regarding geomechanical aspects. Basic relations of mining parameters are discussed by means of models. The system operates on the basis of logic-linguistic programs, verbal and graphic analysis models for mining situation, organization of frame models to describe properties and structures of objects in the geological system, and developing technological algorithms. The technology decision structure of the CAD/CAM/CAE system is compatible with expert systems. (orig.).

  20. CAD/CAM method application for ear shell auto-manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarng, Soon Suck; Ting, Gao

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the engineering technique of the rapid hearing aid production with a rapid shell modelling (RSM) Computer Aided Design/Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). It will be worthwhile to describe how the virtual ear shell designed with RSM from an ear impression. And the virtual ear shell model is then used as the template to manufacture the actual ear shell by a Rapid Production (RP) machine. Some detailed description of the whole processing will be given in this thesis. The CAD/CAM method processing will enhance and provide outstanding, high-quality hearing aid shell production capabilities to customers. It reduces the time and the cost of designing products and facilitates direct and indirect manufacturing by creating actual parts directly from digital input. It determines that this technique has made a large impact on hearing aid processing and fitting.