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Sample records for calyx ethanol extract

  1. Effect of calyx capsule-ethanol extract Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on renal function of healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, N.; Darmawan, E.; Nurani, L. H.

    2017-11-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa contains flavonoid, triterpenoid, anthocyanin which function as immunostimulant. H. sabdariffa is considered safe for animal renal; nonetheless, there are known side effects of which need to be further investigated for human renal. This research aims to investigate the effect of calyx capsule-ethanol extract H. sabdariffa for renal function of healthy male and female for 30 days period by monitoring Scr and Clcr component in their blood samples. The method of this experimental research was by pre and post-treatment by involving 20 healthy volunteers who have met inclusion and exclusion criteria. The volunteers have completed the informed consent for this experiment. Furthermore, volunteers were divided into two groups (10 male and 10 female). Each group was given orally 500 mg of calyx capsule-ethanol extract H. sabdariffa per day for 30 days period. Blood tests were taken on day 0, day 30 after consuming the capsule and day 45 (15 days after the last day of capsule intake) in order to measure the Scr and Clcr concentration in the blood samples by using Jaffe dan Cockcroft-Gault method. The results of each sampling day were further analyzed statistically and compared using Repeated ANOVA dan Friedman test. The results suggest that there was a difference in the renal function on day 0, 30 and 45 samplings. However, there was no significant difference in Scr dan Clcr concentrations on female and male volunteers (p>0.05). Specifically, the type of gender affects Scr concentration (p0.05). In addition, age and Body Mass Index (BMI) does not affect Scr and Clcr concentrations (p>0.05). The side effects discovered through the monitoring increased in mixturition and bloatedness. Calyx capsule-ethanol extract H. sabdariffa does not affect on renal function of healthy volunteers.

  2. Antioxidant capacity of extracts from calyx fruits of roselle ( Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant capacity of extracts from calyx fruits of roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) ... L Yang, Y Gou, T Zhao, J Zhao, F Li, B Zhang, X Wu. Abstract. The antioxidant capacities of extracts of dried roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) calyx and fruit with distilled water ethanol (30, 60 and 95%) were determined by 2 ...

  3. Antioxidant capacity of extracts from calyx fruits of roselle (Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-16

    Feb 16, 2012 ... The antioxidant capacities of extracts of dried roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) calyx and fruit with distilled water ethanol (30, ... extract could be used as a good natural antioxidant with potent free radical scavenging activity. Key words: Antioxidant ..... promotion in mouse skin. Cancer Lett. 126: 199-207.

  4. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Orta-Flores, Z.; Nolasco-Hipólito, C.; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses were similar to SD15, with the exception of food consumption. In both SDC and SD5 groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents. PMID:19756159

  5. Antibacterial effects of roselle calyx extracts and protocatechuic acid in ground beef and apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Che-Yi; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2009-03-01

    The antibacterial effects of roselle calyx aqueous and ethanol extracts and protocatechuic acid against food spoilage bacteria Salmonella typhimurium DT104, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus were examined. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of roselle calyx aqueous and ethanol extracts and protocatechuic acid against these bacteria were in the range of 112-144, 72-96, and 24-44 microg/mL, respectively. Protocatechuic acid content in roselle calyx aqueous and ethanol extracts was 2.8 +/- 0.7 and 11.9 +/- 1.2 mg/g, respectively. Antibacterial activity of roselle calyx ethanol extract and protocatechuic acid was not affected by heat treatments from 25 degrees to 75 degrees C and 25 degrees to 100 degrees C, respectively. After 3 days storage at 25 degrees C, the addition of roselle calyx extracts and protocatechuic acid exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory effects against test bacteria in ground beef and apple juice, in which the roselle calyx ethanol extract showed greater antibacterial effects than the aqueous extract. These data suggest that roselle calyx ethanol extract and protocatechuic acid might be potent agents as food additives to prevent contamination from these bacteria.

  6. Production and Evaluation of Jam from Roselle Calyx Extract | Mordi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extract of Roselle calyx was processed into jam by washing the calyx, extraction by boiling in hot water, filtration, formulation using the filtrate, boiling, filling into glass bottles and pasteurization. The physicochemical properties and nutritional composition of the jam were analyzed. The resulting jam had pH 2.90 ...

  7. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2009-01-01

    , and . Only did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to . The opposite occurred in group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The responses were similar to , with the exception of food consumption. In both and groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents.

  8. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdarrifa calyx alleviates anemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdarrifa calyx alleviates anemia and organ damage in Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected rats. IA Umar, E Daikwo, NG Maryoms, A Gidado, LB Buratai, FS Saka, MA Ibrahim ...

  9. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract on stressed rabbit plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract has been shown to have antioxidant and lipid lowering effects in animal studies. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx on the lipid profile of rabbits subjected to stress. The rabbits were stressed by suspension for 2 minutes, twice ...

  10. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: The aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has a folk reputation as an antihypertensive agent. On account of its antioxidant properties and probably high K+ concentration, we hypothesized that HS may attenuate the development of salt-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 each) were ...

  11. Wound Healing Potential of Formulated Extract from Hibiscus Sabdariffa Calyx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Builders, P. F.; Kabele-Toge, B.; Builders, M.; Chindo, B. A.; Anwunobi, Patricia A.; Isimi, Yetunde C.

    2013-01-01

    Wound healing agents support the natural healing process, reduce trauma and likelihood of secondary infections and hasten wound closure. The wound healing activities of water in oil cream of the methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) was evaluated in rats with superficial skin excision wounds. Antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Echerichia coli were determined. The total flavonoid content, antioxidant properties and thin layer chromatographic fingerprints of the extract were also evaluated. The extract demonstrated antioxidant properties with a total flavonoid content of 12.30±0.09 mg/g. Six reproducible spots were obtained using methanol:water (95:5) as the mobile phase. The extract showed no antimicrobial activity on the selected microorganisms, which are known to infect and retard wound healing. Creams containing H. sabdariffa extract showed significant (Psabdariffa extract. This study, thus, provides evidence of the wound healing potentials of the formulated extract of the calyces of H. sabdariffa and synergism when co-formulated with gentamicin. PMID:23901160

  12. The Aqueous Calyx Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Lowers Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    using single pouch machine type (ART 400 Eureka,. Gmbh, Germany). Ethical Clearance. Before the commencement of the study, approval was obtained from ..... Obiefuna, P.C.M, Owolabi, O.A, Adegunloye, B. J,. Obiefuna, I.P and Sofola, O.A (1993).The petal extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa produces relaxation of isolated rat ...

  13. Protective role of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This may be due to accumulation of the toxicant inducing protein synthesis. Amino acid level decreased significantly when compared with the base-line control and group B. This may be due to the extract ability to reduce proteolysis. Malondialdehyde level in the test groups decreased significantly in a dose dependent ...

  14. Anthocyanin-rich extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx counteracts UVC-caused impairments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkol, Hatice Uce; Koyuncu, Ismail; Tuluce, Yasin; Dilsiz, Nihat; Soral, Sinan; Ozkol, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) was reported to cause oxidative stress. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) calyx is commonly used in traditional Asian and African medicines and possesses strong antioxidant capacity due to its anthocyanin (ANTH) content. This study researched the possible protective role of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract (HSCE) in UVC exposure of rats. Levels of serum enzymes, renal function tests, and some oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers of skin, lens, and retina tissues were monitored. Rats were exposed to UVC 4 h daily for 40 d and simultaneously received HSCE containing 2.5, 5, and 10 mg doses of ANTH in drinking water. Significant (p < 0.05) increases in the levels of serum aminotransferases, lactate dehydrogenase, urea, creatinine, and uric acid were noted after UVC exposure. In skin, lens, and retina tissues, total oxidant status, oxidative stress index, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation escalated markedly (p < 0.05) whereas total antioxidant status, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase decreased dramatically (p < 0.05) related to UVC. Co-administration of HSCE with each ANTH dose significantly (p < 0.05) reversed aforementioned parameters (except total oxidant status) almost in all tissues. The LD50 of HSCE in rats was determined to be above 5000 mg/kg. Our data revealed that HSCE has a remarkable potential to counteract UVC-caused impairments, probably through its antioxidant and free radical-defusing effects. Therefore, HSCE could be useful against some cutaneous and ocular diseases in which UV and oxidative stress have a role in the etiopathogenesis.

  15. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojiminiyi, F B O; Audu, Z; Etuk, E U; Ajagbonna, O P

    2012-12-18

    The aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has a folk reputation as an antihypertensive agent. On account of its antioxidant properties and probably high K+ concentration, we hypothesized that HS may attenuate the development of salt-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 each) were treated for 12 weeks as follows: control (normal diet + water), salt-loaded (8% salt diet + water), HS (normal diet + 6 mg/ml HS), salt+HS (8% salt diet + 6 mg/ml HS) and furosemide (normal diet+ 0.25mg/Kg furosemide). Their blood pressure and heart rates were measured and responses to noradrenalin and acetylcholine (0.01 mg/kg respectively) were estimated. The cationic concentration of 6 mg/ml HS was determined. The Na+ and K+ concentrations of 6 mg/ml HS were 3.6 and 840 mmol/l respectively. The mean arterial pressure (MAP±SEM; mmHg) of salt loaded rats (184.6±29.8) was significantly higher than control (113.2±3.0; P<0.05), HS (90.0±7.4; P<0.001) salt+HS (119.4±8.9; P<0.05) and furosemide (94.9±11.5; P<0.01). The MAP of salt+HS and control rats did not differ significantly and the effect of HS was comparable to furosemide. The pressor response to noradrenalin or vasodilator response to acetylcholine remained similar in all groups. These results suggest that HS attenuated the development of salt-induced hypertension and this attenuation may be associated with its high K+ content or high potassium: sodium ratio and not with altered pressor/depressor response to noradrenalin or acetylcholine. Also the effects of HS and furosemide on blood pressure are comparable.

  16. Suppressive effect of an aqueous extract of Diospyros kaki calyx on dust mite extract/2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ju-Hee; Jin, Meiling; Choi, Young-Ae; Jeong, Na-Hee; Park, Jeong-Sook; Shin, Tae-Yong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, affecting 10-20% of individuals worldwide. Therefore, the discovery of drugs for treating AD is an attractive subject and important to human health. Diospyros kaki and Diospyros kaki (D. kaki) folium exert beneficial effects on allergic inflammation. However, the effect of D. kaki calyx on AD remains elusive. The present study evaluated the effects of an aqueous extract of D. kaki calyx (AEDKC) on AD-like skin lesions using mouse and keratinocyte models. We used a mouse AD model by the repeated skin exposure of house dust mite extract [Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE)] and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. In addition, to determine the underlying mechanism of its operation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-activated keratinocytes (HaCaT) were used. Oral administration of AEDKC decreased AD-like skin lesions, as demonstrated by the reduced ear thickness, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), DFE-specific IgE, IgG2a, histamine level and inflammatory cell infiltration. AEDKC inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a chemokine via downregulation of nuclear factor-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 in HaCaT cells. On examination of the AD-related factors in vivo and in vitro, it was confirmed that AEDKC decreased AD-like skin lesions. Taken together, the results suggest that AEDKC is a potential drug candidate for the treatment of AD.

  17. Optimization of the extraction of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) dried calyxes' juice

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Takongmo NGouadjo; André Youmssi; Zangué S.C. Desobgo; Joseph Kayem

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the work consisted in modeling and optimizing the juice extraction physicochemical characteristics from Hibiscus sabdariffa L., in order to be able to put forward its qualities. This was done using response surface methodology (RSM). The models obtained at 60°C using Doehlert experimental design were of second order with interaction. The validation of those models used the coefficient of correlation R2 (0.998 and 0.994 respectively for turbidity and extract), the absolute ave...

  18. Protective role of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract against streptozotocin induced sperm damage in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Muhd Hanis Md; Budin, Siti Balkis; Osman, Mohamad; Mohamed, Jamaludin

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus contributes to male sexual dysfunction and infertility by modulating oxidative damage. To date, a number of studies have demonstrated antioxidant properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. This study was designed to investigate the effects of H. sabdariffa UKMR-2 variety on sperm functioning of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allotted into four groups, namely control group (C), H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) group, diabetes group (D) and diabetes plus HSE group (D+HSE). HSE (100 mg/ kg/body weight) was administered orally for 28 consecutive days. After 28-days of supplementation, the rats were sacrificed to obtain epididymal sperm. Administration of HSE significantly lowered the level of fasting blood glucose and increased plasma insulin level in D+HSE group as compared to D group (psabdariffa UKMR-2 variety has a potential protective role against diabetes-induced sperm damage. PMID:27847454

  19. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBPα and PPARγ. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis.

  20. Effects of ethanol extract of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis on activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper mainly studied the inhibitory effect of total ethanol extract of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis on proliferation of colon cancer HT29 cells. By reflux extraction method and with ethanol as extraction solvent, different extracts were obtained at different ethanol concentrations, different solid-liquid ratios, and at different ...

  1. Antihypercholesterolemic activity of ethanolic extract of Buchholzia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a condition characterised with high level of cholesterol in the blood. Objectives: The effect of ethanolic extract of Buchholzia coriacea (EEBC) on the lipid profile levels and extent of lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemic albino rats was investigated in this study. Methods: Thirty ...

  2. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, dispersed in a concentrated sugar solution had marked fungicidal effect against clinical dermatophytic fungal isolates; Microsporium gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Microsporium gypseum at an inoculum level of 4.8 x 103 cfu/ml and T. mentagrophytes at ...

  3. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  4. Determination of ulcer protecting effect of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanol extract of dietary vegetable, Gongronema latifolium, was evaluated for anti-ulcer activity. The extract was obtained from air-dried, pulverized leaves of the plant following its maceration in ethanol, filteration with Whatman No. 1 filter paper and drying at 110°C. Fractionation of the dry crude ethanol extract was ...

  5. Effect of ethanol extract of Selaginella doederleinii hieron on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper mainly studied the effect of ethanol extract of Selaginella doederleinii Hieron on the proliferation of two kinds of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines, CNE-1 and C666-1, and their mechanisms of action. Extract was obtained by heat reflux extraction with ethanol, and the effect of extract on the extracellular matrix ...

  6. Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Croton zambesicus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Croton zambesicus Muell. Arg. was evaluated using alloxan-induced (150mg/kg) hyperglycaemic rats. The activity of the ethanolic leaf extract was compared with that of a reference drug Chlorpropamide. The Blood Glucose Levels were measured using glucometer. The extract ...

  7. Bioactivities examination of Cinchona leaves ethanol extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artanti, Nina; Udin, Linar Z.; Hanafi, M.; Jamilah, Kurniasih, Ida Rahmi; Primahana, Gian; Anita, Yulia; Sundowo, Andini; Kandace, Yoice Sri

    2017-01-01

    Cinchona species especially the barks are commonly known for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. Although it is also reported for treatment of depurative, whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. In this paper we reported in vitro examination of other bioactivities (antidiabetes, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity) of 70% ethanol extract of Cinchona ledgeriana and C. succirubra leaves as well as qunine, quinidine, and cinchonine the major alkaloids found in Cinchona species. Antidiabetes was conducted using α-glucosidase inhibitory activity assay. Antioxidant was conducted using DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay. In vitro cytotoxic activity was concucted by microscopic observation on growth of breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The results showed that at concentration of 100 µg/ml, C. ledgeriana leaves ethanol extracts showed the best activity as antidiabetes (98% inhibitory of α-glucosidase activity) and antioxidant (92% DPPH free radical scavenging activity), whereas at the same concentration C. succirubra, quinine, quinidine and cinchonine showed very low activities of antidiabetes and antioxidant. Microscopic observation of in vitro cytotoxicity showed that C. ledgeriana also has excellent cytotoxicity to breast cancer cell line MCF-7 which better than quinine, quinidine and cinchonine, whereas C. succirubra showed low cytotoxicity. These results suggest that cinchona species have many potential as the source of drugs discovery and development other than just for malaria treatment. Therefore it is important to conduct further studies and to maintain the available Cinchona plantation in Indonesia.

  8. Evaluation of ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Lam) as seed protectant against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus zeamaismotsch . on stored cowpea and maize under tropical conditions.

  9. Fuel grade ethanol by solvent extraction: Final subcontract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedder, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes final results for ethanol recovery by solvent extraction and extractive distillation. At conclusion this work can be summarized as ethanol dehydration and recovery dilute fermentates is feasible using liquid/liquid extraction and extractive distillation. Compared to distillation, the economics are more attractive for less than 5 wt % ethanol. However, an economic bias in favor of SEED appears to exist even for 10 wt % feeds. It is of particular interest to consider the group extraction of ethanol and acetic acid followed by conversion to a mixture of ethanol and ethyl acetate. The latter species is a more valuable commodity and group extraction of inhibitory species is one feature of liquid/liquid extraction that is not easily accomodated using distillation. Upflow immobilized reactors offer the possibility of achieving high substrate conversion while also maintaining low metabolite concentrations. However, many questions remain to be answered with such a concept. 135 refs., 42 figs., 61 tabs.

  10. Safety and analgesic properties of ethanolic extracts of Toddalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    automatic, microprocessor-controlled photometer fromchem-labs, Nairobi. RESULTS: The effect of extract on serum biochemical parameters after 14 days treatment with the crude ethanolic extract of T. asiatica (L.) revealed significant difference in the ...

  11. Effects of the ethanolic stem bark extract of pterocarpus erinaceus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary phytochemical studies of the ethanolic extract revealed the presence of tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids flavonoids and steroids. The ethanolic stem bark extract of P.erinaceus (6.4mg/ml) relaxed the isolated pregnant rat uterus. Oxytocin induced contractions of the pregnant rat uterus was blocked ...

  12. Sedative and Anticonvulsant Activities of the Ethanol Root Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsant activities of the ethanol extract of the roots of the Flemingia chappar (ERFC) on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The ethanol extract of the roots of F. chappar in doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, p.o., was studied in mice for its sedative ...

  13. Evaluation of the Antinociceptive Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HPLC analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid, ellagic acid and Punicalagins A&B. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that ethanol pomegranate extract has an antinociceptive effect that may be related to the presence of identified phytochemicals. Key words: Pain, ethanolic extract of pomegranate, analgesia, ...

  14. Preliminary Study On The Effect Of Ethanol Extracts Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of ethanol extracts of Chrysophyllum albidum fruit parts (namely pericarp, mesocarp, seed coat and seed cotyledon) on isolated rat uterus was investigated. The ethanol extracts of pericarp, mesocarp and seed coat were found to have no effect on the rat uterus as well as oxytocin-induced uterine contraction.

  15. Ethanolic extracts of Sophora moorcroftiana seeds induce apoptosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic extracts of Sophora moorcroftiana seeds induce apoptosis of human stomach cancer cell line SGC-7901 in vitro. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... apoptosis activity of Sophora moorcroftiana seeds, the ethanolic extracts from the seeds was prepared and added into the culture of human stomach cancer cell ...

  16. Effect of ethanolic leave extract of phyllantus amarus on carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peters

    of ethanolic leaves extract of phyllantus amarus on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotocity in albino rats. Thirty six (36) rats were divided into 9 groups (n=4rats) ... cardenolides, steroids, tannins, carbohydrate and anthraquinones. Thus, ethanolic leaves extract of phyllantus amarus ameliorated the damage ...

  17. Antiulcerogenic Activity of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Croton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Croton zambesicus Muell. Arg. is often used in traditional medicine by Ibibios of Niger Delta region of Nigeria for the treatment of several diseases including gastrointestinal disorders especially ulcer. The antiulcer activity of the ethanolic extract of the crude leaf extract was investigated against indomethacin, ethanol and ...

  18. Toxicity effects of ethanol extract of Simarouba versicolor on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity effects of ethanol extract of Simarouba versicolor on reproductive parameters in female Wistar rats. ... The effects of ethanolic extract of the bark of S. versicolor (Sv-EtOH) on the reproductive system of rats were investigated; also the influence of estrogenic and/or antiestrogenic activity, estrous cycle, pregnancy, ...

  19. In vitro activity of Piper sarmentosum ethanol leaf extract against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-toxic concentrations of the ethanol extract for Vero cells were determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) cell proliferation. The presence of Toxoplasma gondii was observed by Giemsa staining. Results: The results showed that significant (p < 0.05) anti-toxoplasma activity of the ethanol extract, though lower than ...

  20. Wound healing and antiulcer activities of the ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the wound healing and antiulcer activities of the ethanol extract of Newbouldia laevis root bark in rats. Dried root bark of Newbouldia laevis was extracted by maceration in ethanol and concentrated in a rotary evaporator. Qualitative phytochemical analysis and lethality study ...

  1. Evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... reveals that crude ethanol extract significantly and dose-dependently reduced hyperglycaemia. The fractions of the ethanol extract equally reduced hyperglycaemia but the level of reduction was affected by the phytochemical content. This suggests that an intact pancreas is required for the hypoglycaemic.

  2. Study on the extraction of dioscin by the ultrasonicassisted ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method was compared with solvent extraction process for the effect on extraction yield of dioscin. It was shown that the technology of ultrasonic assisted ethanol extraction which can significantly increase the extraction yield and extraction efficiency of dioscin. The ultrasonic did not destroy D. zingiberensis cell structure, ...

  3. Determination of ulcer protecting effect of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chi

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... temperature and stored for use. The anti-ulcer activity of the ... Key words: Gongronema latifolium, ulcer, protection, indomethacin, acid/ethanol. .... toxicity or fatality for 24 h. Effect of crude ethanol extract on Indomethacin-induced ulcer. The method of Urishidani et al. (1979) was utilized. Gastric ulceration ...

  4. Acute toxicities of diethyl ether and ethanol extracted Nerium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was performed to determine the LC50 value of ethanol and diethyl ether extracted Nerium indicum leaf for the freshwater fish, Heteropneustes fossilis. The LC50 values, their upper and lower confidence limits and slope functions were calculated. The LC50 values for ethanol ...

  5. Evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism of anti-diabetic activity of Gongronema latifolium was evaluated. The ethanol extract of the leaves of G. latifolium were fractionated using solvents of increasing polarity, namely n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and ethanol. Phytochemical screening of the dried fractions were carried and then acute toxicity ...

  6. Hypoglycaemic and Haematinic properties of ethanol leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycaemic and Haematinic properties of ethanol leaf extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus in alloxan induced diabetic rats. CC Okonkwo, CV Agu, OU Njoku, U Abonyi, A Victor, EG Anaduaka, KV Iloabuchi, CE Odo ...

  7. Investigation of the Antiasthmatic Properties of Ethanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of the Antiasthmatic Properties of Ethanol Extract of Callophyllis japonica in Mice. WS Park, KS Lee, JH Chun, SH Urm, DS Lee, DY Lee, SG Park, SK Seo, SJ Heo, ZJ Qian, WK Jung, IW Choi ...

  8. Toxicological Studies on the Ethanol Extract of Acalypha torta (Muell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These herbal remedies, although natural, can cause some serious damaging effects on the vital organs of the body due to inadequacy in standardization and safety regulations. Ethanol extract of Acalypha torta was obtained after defatting dried ...

  9. Therapeutic potentials of ethanolic extract of leaves of Holarrhena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic potentials of ethanolic extract of leaves of Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don) Dur. And schinz (apocynaceae). Yao Patrick Hoekou, Tchadjobo Tchacondo, Simplice Damintoti Karou, Rakiswende Serge Yerbanga, Elom Achoribo, Ollo Da, Wouyo Atakpama, Komlan Batawila ...

  10. Effect of ethanol extract of Pyrenacantha staudtii leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of ethanol extract of Pyrenacantha staudtii leaves on carbontetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. ... total and conjugated bilirubin were also significantly lowered by the extract. These results show that the extract of Pyrenacantha staudtii leaves has protective effect against CCl4 induced liver toxicity and damage.

  11. Effect of ethanolic extract of Rosa canina on some serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect ethanolic extract of Rosa canina on some serum biochemical factors of diabetic male rats. Thirty two (32) male Wistar rats weighting 200 – 250 grams in 4 groups (control, diabetic control, diabetics + 250mg/kg/day extract, diabetics + 500 mg/kg/day extract) were used.

  12. The Anti-Sickling Properties of Ethanol Extracts of Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanol extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla and Moringa oleifera showed potential anti-sickling activity. The sickling inhibition and reversal activities of the extracts were significant (P<0.05) compared to their negative controls without the extracts at all. Moringa oleifera however showed greater anti-sickling activity of 93% ...

  13. Effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Pterocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the possible toxicological effects of the ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts of this plant on renal and heart functions in Wistar albino rats. Both extracts were ... These results suggest non-toxic effects of leaf extracts of P. mildbraedii on the kidney and heart in rats. Hence, the plant can be ...

  14. Antibacterial effects of Solanum tuberosum peel ethanol extract in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Amanpour Raana; Abbasi-Maleki Saeid; Neyriz-Naghadehi Moslem; Asadi-Samani Majid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Today, medicinal plants are being widely used due to being natural, available, and cheaper than synthetic drugs and having minimum side effects. Since there were reports about the antibacterial properties of Solanum tuberosum (SE), the aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of SE ethanol extract in vitro condition on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: Ethanol extract of SE peel was pre...

  15. Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic bark extract of Mitragyna diversifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebunnessa, Shaikh Bokhtear Uddin, M. Mahabub-Uz-Zaman, Rasheda Akter, Nazim Uddin Ahmed

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic bark extract of Mitragyna diversifolia showed significant (p<0.05 antidiarrheal activity on gastrointestinal motility with barium sulfate milk model and castor oil- induced diarrheal model in rats. These results revealed that the bark extract possess pharmacological activity against diarrhea and may possibly explain the use of the plant in traditional medicine.

  16. Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic bark extract of Mitragyna diversifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebunnessa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic bark extract of Mitragyna diversifolia showed significant (p<0.05 antidiarrheal activity on gastrointestinal motility with barium sulfate milk model and castor oil- induced diarrheal model in rats. These result obtained revealed that the bark extract possess pharmacological activity against diarrhea and may possibly explain the use of the plant in traditional medicine.

  17. Hypoglycaemic activity of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Holarrhena floribunda is a common plant that has traditionally been used in Africa to treat many diseases such as fever, dysentery, sterility and diabetes. This study was set out to evaluate the hypoglycaemic properties of ethanolic leaf extract of Holarrhena floribunda and various fractions of this extract in normal fasted and ...

  18. Antibacterial activities of the crude ethanol extracts of medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... and Pelargonium graveolens) against Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogenic strains. These plants are used more ... sed on pathogens, such as Listeria which is recognized as one of the leading causes of ... spices were extracted by ethanolic extraction by soaking 20 g of plant part in 100 mL of 90% ...

  19. Antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extract of Peperomia pellucida was investigated on Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using Agar-well diffusion method. Results showed that E. coli displayed the highest susceptibility in water extract (17.4mm–21.2mm) followed by P.

  20. Evaluation of ethanol extract of Artemisia maciverae aerial part for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A decoction of Artemisia maciverae Linn. (Asteraceae) aerial part is used for the treatment of malaria in some parts of Northern Nigeria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral acute toxicity and in vivo antiplasmodial effect of an ethanol extract of Artemisia maciverae aerial part. Oral acute toxicity of the extract was ...

  1. Evaluation of the purgative properties of the ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purgative properties of the ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis was investigated on isolated rat jejunum and the whole animal. The dose–response effect of the extract and the reference drugs - acetylcholine (ACh) and histamine - on rat jejunum was investigated in vitro. The in vivo experiment consisted of verifying ...

  2. Antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Coleus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... disturbances like inflammation, atherosclerosis, stroke, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, cancer, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, ... grinder and passed through a 40 mesh sieve. Preparation of extracts. The above powdered materials were successively extracted with ethanol by ...

  3. Antitrypanosomal Potentials of Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Punica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three doses (20mg/kg, 40mg/kg,80mg/kg) of ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Punica granatum were screened for trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma brucei bruce in Balb Strain Albino mice. Parasitaemia and disappearance of clinical signs were used as parameters to monitor the efficacy of the extracts using the ...

  4. Antimicrobial Potency of Hydro, acetone and Ethanolic extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical constituents of the dried powdered plant parts were extracted using aqueous and organic solvents (acetone and ethanol). The antimicrobial activity of the concentrated extracts was evaluated by determining the diameter of zone of inhibition against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and ...

  5. Effect of subchronic administration of ethanolic leaf extract of croton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biochemical effcts of ethanolic leaf extract of Croton zambesicus on serum alkaline phosphatase(SAP),aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ,alanine aminotransferase(ALT),serum total protein and albumin were studied.The levels of these enzymes and that of total protein and albumin in the extract treated rats were not ...

  6. Mechanism of antidiarrhoeal effect of ethanolic extract of Psidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanisms by which the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Psidium guajava exerts its antidiarrhoeal effect were investigated. Antimicrobial analyses of the extracts were carried out using standard cultures of Escherichia coli (ATCC 15597) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538). There was a concentration ...

  7. Antihyperglycemic effect of Bridelia ndellensis ethanol extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanol extract of B. ndellensis had no hypoglycemic effect in type 1 diabetic rats in fasting and postprandial glucose load conditions and, in type 2 diabetic rats in fasting condition. However, the extract, and its ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions significantly lowered blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic rats ...

  8. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mean liver and serum ...

  9. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chien Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL. Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing.

  10. Antinociceptive Activity of an Ethanol Extract of Justicia spicigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy; Castellanos, Luis Manuel Orozco; Martínez-Medina, Rosa María; Pérez-Urizar, José

    2016-06-01

    Preclinical Research The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and sedative activity of an ethanol extract of Justicia spicigera an evergreen used in Mexican traditional medicine for the relief of pain, wounds, fever and inflammation. At 200 mg/kg po, the maximum dose examined, the ethanol extract of J. spicigera (JSE) had analgesic activity in mice in the acetic acid writhing test, the second phase of the formalin test and the tail flick test that was similar in efficacy to the NSAID, naproxen (150 mg/kg po). JSE was inactive in the hot plate test and and the ketamine-induced sleeping time test; it had no sedative effects. These results show that the ethanol extract from the leaves of J. spicigera has antinociceptive effects in mice without inducing sedation. Drug Dev Res 77 : 180-186, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Efficient extraction of intracellular reduced glutathione from fermentation broth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Mei-Jin; Guo, Yuan-Xin; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Ying-Ping; Zhang, Si-Liang

    2009-01-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) from fermentation broth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was extracted with ethanol without disruption of the cells. The effects of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature and extraction time were assessed by using 2(3) full factorial designs (FFD). Preliminary studies showed that ethanol concentration had the most influence on GSH yield by ethanol extraction, based on the first order regression coefficients derived using MINITAB software, and an optimal ethanol concentration (25%, v/v) was obtained. However, compared to the conventional extraction technique (hot water extraction), there was no significant advantage in yield of GSH from yeast cells using ethanol extraction under these optimized conditions. But ethanol extraction has several advantages, such as lower energy consumption and lower protein concentration of extraction broth, which may reduce the complexity and cost of the purification process. Hence, ethanol extraction which does not disrupt yeast cells could be an inexpensive, simple and efficient alternative to conventional extraction techniques in the GSH industry.

  12. Hepatoprotective Effects of Ethanol Extract of Caesalpiniabonduc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Whatman No.1 filter paper.Dried ethanol .... phosphate buffer ( 0.4 M, pH 7.0) was mixed with vortex mixer. Then, 0.1ml of reduced glutathione (4mM),0.05ml of hydrogen peroxide (2.5 mM H2O2) and 0.1ml distilled water were added. The mixture was mixed together with a vortex mixer.0.25 mL of serum were added to the.

  13. Phytopharmacological evaluation of ethanol extract of Sida cordifolia L. roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Mohammad Abdul Motalib; Bellah, Sm Faysal; Rahman, Sarder Mohammad Raussel; Rahman, Ahmed Ayedur; Murshid, Gazi Mohammad Monjur; Emran, Talha Bin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the phytochemical screening (group determination) and selected pharmacological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic activity) of the plant Sida cordifolia Linn (S. cordifolia). Eighty percent concentrated ethanol extract of the roots was used. To identify the chemical constituents of plant extract standard procedures were followed. In phytochemical screening the crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups like reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, gums, alkaloids and glycosides. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Analgesic activity of the extract was tested using the model of acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Diclofenac sodium is used as reference standard drug for the analgesic activity test. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was carried out using disc diffusion method with five pathogenic bacteria comparison with kanamycin as a standard. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia indicated the presence of reducing sugar, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be 50 μg/mL which was not comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. The crude extract produced 44.30% inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight which is statistically significant (P>0.001). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of S. cordifolia showed no antimicrobial activity against five types of microorganisms. The experiment was conducted only with five species of bacteria as test species, which do not at all indicate the total inactivity against micro-organisms. The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine but further pharmacological studies are required. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Helicteres gardneriana Ethanol Extract on Acute Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Oliveira de Melo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory effect of an ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana (Nees Castiglioni was assayed in experimental models of pleurisy and microcirculation in situ. Treatment of animals with 500 mg/kg body weight reduced the exudate volume (35% reduction induced by intrapleural injection of carrageenan and the migration of polymorphonuclear cells into the inflamed pleural cavity of rats (40%. Additionally, rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and the number of leukocytes that migrated toward the perivascular space in response to the carrageenan injection were decreased by the extract (500 mg/kg. These data demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana and imply that inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial interactions is important in the extract's mechanism of action.

  15. The cardiotonic effect of the crude ethanolic extract of Nerium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cardiotonic effect of the crude ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander in the isolated guinea pig hearts. R O Adome, J W Gachihi, B Onegi, J Tamale, S O Apio. Abstract. Cardiovascular diseases are increasingly becoming one of the leading diseases causing morbidity and mortality in Uganda. Ethnographic evidence ...

  16. Antioxidant studies on the ethanolic extract of Commiphora spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation elucidated the presence of phytochemical constituents and in vitro free radicals scavenging activity for nitric oxide, total reducing power, superoxide, lipid peroxidation and DPPH in the ethanolic leaves extract of Commiphora species; Commiphora caudata (CC) and Commiphora var pubescens (CP).

  17. Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Newboulda Laevis on Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate anti-diabetic effect of the ethanol leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Alloxan (150 mg/kg) was administered to wistar albino rats via the intraperitoneal route. The diabetic rats were then placed in 5 groups, following stabilization of hyperglycemia.

  18. Effects Of Caffeine And Ethanolic Extract Of Kolanut On Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The study investigated the effects of caffeine and ethanolic extract of kolanut (EEK) on glucose uptake in the canine hindlimb at rest and during contraction. Thirty male anaesthetized Mongrel dogs (11 - 13kg) were divided into six groups (5dogs/group). Caffeine (6mg/kg), EEK (5mg/kg), or normal saline (control) ...

  19. Studies On The Identification Of Constituents In Ethanol Extract Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the paper is to isolate and identify the constituents in ethanol extract of Radix Glycyrrhizae, and to study their anticancer activity. Materials and Methods: Column chromatography, ODS column chromatography, preparative thin layer chromatography and NMR spectroscopy techniques were used to isolate ...

  20. Evaluation of ethanol extract of Artemisia maciverae aerial part for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    christy

    16(2) 77- 85, January – December, 2017. ISSN 1118 - 1028. Evaluation of ethanol extract of Artemisia maciverae aerial part for antiplasmodial activity in mice. Nwaeze AC1 ... has led researchers to source for new antimalarial drugs from different sources, including higher plants. ... probably due to progressive spread of.

  1. Effects of ethanol extract of Bersama engleriana leaves on oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pesticides are used to improve agricultural yields; meanwhile they have detrimental effects on human and animal reproduction. This study aimed at evaluating the protective effects of ethanol extract of Bersama engleriana leaves against cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress and reproductive toxicity. Fifty male guinea pigs ...

  2. Effect of ethanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum on sodium nitrite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of ethanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum on sodium nitrite‑induced cerebellar cortex toxicity in adult Wistar rats. ... Conclusion: The result showed that O. gratissimum in a controlled manner may be useful in the management of neurodegenerative conditions that involve free radical generation and reduction in brain ...

  3. Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Senna Fistula on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of chronic administration of ethanolic leave extract of Senna fistula on haematological values, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in experimental diabetic rats. Twenty-four albino rats weighing 120-150 g were divided into 4 experimental groups of six rats each; control, diabetic ...

  4. Protective effect of ethanol leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the ameliorative effect of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves in alloxan - induced diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into five groups of eight animals each. Group A (control) comprised normal healthy animals which were orally administered 1.0 ml of distilled water daily for 21 ...

  5. Synergistic effects of ethanolic plant extract mixtures against food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of mixtures of ethanol extracts from semi-desert plants [creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), tarbush (Flourensia cernua) and paddle cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica)] against Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus.

  6. Antitumor effect of the ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user6

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... cells via inducing apoptosis and suppressing telomerase activity. Life. Sci. 73: 2383-2394. Gao JY, Winston AM, Alberto SM, Olivia C (2011). The ethanol extract of. Scutellaria baicalensis and the active compounds induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including upregulation of p53 and Bax in human.

  7. Ethanol stem bark extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria ameliorates MPTP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The Parkinson's disease was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of MPTP. After 72h of induction, the young adult male rats were treated with oral administration of stem bark ethanol extract of the plant daily for 2 weeks. The blood chemistry, antioxidant markers and brain dopamine levels were ...

  8. Cytoarchitectural effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-five Wistar rats weighing 200 - 250 g were divided into five groups- the control, saline, cisplatin, pre-cisplatin and the post-cisplatin groups. Each comprised of seven rats per group and were fed with growers feed mash. They were used to investigate the effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis (N. laevis) ...

  9. Effect Of Ethanolic Extract From Elaeophorbia drupifera Leaves On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect Of Ethanolic Extract From Elaeophorbia drupifera Leaves On The Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle Of The Rabbi. ... The rabbit intestine was removed and separated into three segments (duodenum, jejunum and ileum). About 3-4cm of each segment was mounted in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution at 37 ...

  10. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF) a polyherbal tea consisting the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, Albizia chevalieri and bark of Salix alba were studied in mice and rats using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate method, formalin induced pain and ...

  11. Sedative and Anticonvulsant Activities of the Ethanol Root Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Moradabad-244 001, U.P., 2Department of. Pharmaceutical ... Purpose: To investigate the sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsant activities of the ethanol extract of the roots of the ... Flemingia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family ...

  12. Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Newboulda Laevis on Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: To investigate anti-diabetic effect of the ethanol leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv) in alloxan-induced diabetic ... The plant was identified by Mr S Nweke of the. Department of Pharmacogonosy, Faculty of. Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City. Botanical authentication of the plant was confirmed at the ...

  13. Effect of ethanol seed extract of Buccholzia coriacea (wonderful kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study suggests that ethanol extract of B. coriacea seeds have active ingredients that are capable of improving the lipid profile and thus, might be useful in the management of cardiovascular diseases caused by hyperlipidemia. Keywords: Buccholzia coriacea, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein, low density ...

  14. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of Bryonopsis laciniosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of the leaf, stem, seed and fruit of an Indian medicinal plant, Bryonopsis laciniosa, used traditionally as potent medication in healing several ailments such as adenopathy, ague, asthma, bronchitis, cholera, colic, consumption, convulsion, cough, fertility and phthisis, was tested against ...

  15. Ameliorative effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Momordica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mormodica charantia has been shown to possess antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anticancer effects while the kidneys have been shown to be the second largest repository of lead in lead poisoining. This study assessed the ameliorative effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Momordica charantia on lead nitrate induced kidney ...

  16. Original Paper Effects of ethanol extract of Bersama engleriana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pesticides are used to improve agricultural yields; meanwhile they have detrimental effects on human and animal reproduction. This study aimed at evaluating the protective effects of ethanol extract of Bersama engleriana leaves against cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress and reproductive toxicity. Fifty male guinea pigs ...

  17. Hepatoprotective and anticlastogenic effects of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatoprotective and anticlastogenic effects of ethanol extract of Irvingia gabonensis (IG) leaves in sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats. ... They were administered with 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight of IG with or without SA at ...

  18. Efficacy of ethanolic spore extract of Lycopodium clavatum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic extract of spores of Lycopodium clavatum L., reportedly has profound effect against liver disorders, but lacks adequate experimental validation. To test this claim, healthy inbred Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus, were divided into different groups: Gr.I mice were fed normal diet (negative control); Gr.II - fed normal ...

  19. Effects of Ethanol Extract of Curcuma Longa Rhizome on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human beings are constantly exposed to both emotional and physical stress throughout life and as a way of providing relief for such individuals, this study considered an alternative method of stress management with phytomedicine, hence, we investigated the effects of the ethanol extract of Curcuma longa rhizome in ...

  20. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of aqueous ethanol extract of Thesium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thesiumviride Hill (Santalaceae) is a sub-shrub hemiparasite that grows up to 45cm tall and widely distributed in Europe, Asia and Africa. It is used in treatment of ulcer and jaundice. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the aqueous ethanol extract of the whole plant by using standard phytochemical methods.

  1. Evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of ethanol extract and fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maesobotrya barteri is a medicinal plant that is used by the Ibibios of Southern Nigeria, to treat various ailments including malaria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of ethanol extract and fractions of M. barteri root in Plasmodium berghei berghei infected Swiss albino mice.

  2. Hepatoprotective and anticlastogenic effects of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Consumption of arsenic contaminated water has been associated with diverse health defects such as cancer and skin lesions. Some plants of medicinal value have been reported to show protective effects against toxins. In this study, the effects of ethanol extract of the leaves of Irvingia gabonensis (IG) against ...

  3. Haematopoietic effect of an ethanolic leaf extract of Ipomoea in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematological profile of healthy New Zea-land rabbits, phlebotomized rabbits, and phlebotomized rabbits treated with 0.23 ml/kg Fero-globin®, 100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg I. involucrata ethanolic leaf extract, or 0.23 ml normal saline were determined at 20-day intervals for 40 days using the Cell Dyn 1800 Automatic ...

  4. Antitrypanosomal Potentials of Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Punica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current treatment regimens based on chemotherapy for Human African Trypanosomiasis and Animal Trypanosomosis are limited, and are not ideal as ... Packed cell volume and Weight improved significantly (p<0.05) in the group which was admnistered 40 mg/kg ethanol extract when compared to the negative group.

  5. Histological effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Codiaeum variegatum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Codiaeum variegatum on the cerebrum of adult Wistar rats. ... Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy ... They were sacrificed on the 15th day of the experiment; cerebrum was harvested, processed, and stained using the hematoxylin and eosin histological technique.

  6. Effect of ethanol extract of Pyrenacantha staudtii leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr J. T. Ekanem

    The effect of ethanol extract of Pyrenacantha staudtii leaves on carbontetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in rats was studied. Sixteen male wistar rats of 100-170g body weight divided into four groups of four rats each, designated – group I, II, III and IV were used. Groups. II, III and IV were injected intraperitoneally ...

  7. Methanol Partition Fraction of Ethanol Extract of Discorea nipponica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the inhibitory effect of the methanol fraction of Dioscorea nipponica Makino ethanol extract (DNM) on melanogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Cultured mouse B16 melanoma cell and zebra fish were used to evaluate the melanogenesis inhibitory activity of DNM in vitro and in vivo, ...

  8. Effect of ethanolic extract of Carpolobia lutea G. Don (polygalaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Carpolobia lutea, commonly called cattle stick or poor man's candle, is used by traditional herbalists in eastern. Nigeria to treat 'madness'. It has a reported analgesic and anti-nociceptive effect. The effect of its ethanolic root extract on learning and memory was investigated. Thirty mice were divided into three ...

  9. Effect Of Sub Chronic Administration Of Ethanolic Leaf Extract Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic leaf extract of Croton zambesicus was administered to rats at doses of 100 – 400mg / kg for 21 days to investigate its effect on the haematological indices of rats. Haematological indices, namely packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin concentration (Hb) Red blood cell count (RBC), Mean cell Haemoglobin ...

  10. Antibacterial activities of the crude ethanol extracts of medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to verify the antibacterial effect of ethanol extracts of 13 plants (Artemisia Herba Alba, Lavandula officinalis L., Matricaria Chamomilla, Eugenia caryophylata , Cistus salvifolius, Mentha suaveolens subsp. Timija, Thymus serpyllum L., Lippia citriodora, Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, Rosa centifolia, ...

  11. Antinociceptive properties and acute toxicity of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antinociceptive effect of ethanol extract (Bl-EtOH) in mice was carried out using chemical (writhing and formalin) and thermal (hot plate) models of nociception. ... Naloxone (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) antagonized the antinociceptive action of Bl-EtOH (100 mg/kg), and this finding suggests involvement of opioid mechanism.

  12. Effect of ethanolic extract of Carpolobia lutea G. Don (polygalaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Carpolobia lutea, commonly called cattle stick or poor man's candle, is used by traditional herbalists in eastern Nigeria to treat 'madness'. It has a reported analgesic and anti-nociceptive effect. The effect of its ethanolic root extract on learning and memory was investigated. Thirty mice were divided into three ...

  13. Effect of Ethanol Extract of Indigofera tinctoria Linn (Fabaceae) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different doses of the ethanol extract of Indigofera tinctoria were administered orally 1 h before the injection of pilocarpine. The severity of status epilepticus was observed and recorded every 15 min for 90 min and thereafter every 30 min for another 90 min, using Racine scoring system. In-vivo lipid peroxidation of rat brain ...

  14. Preliminary study on the wound healing activity of ethanolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Powdered stem bark sample of V. paradoxa was screened for various classes of secondary metabolites using standard procedure. The wound healing activity of ethanol extract of the stem bark was evaluated using incision wound model in rats. Fifteen rats were divided into three groups of five rats ...

  15. Potential Anticonvulsant Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Cichorium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 1st group was kept as control, 2nd as standard (diazepam, 7.5 mg/kg); 3rd - 5th were treated with C. intybus ethanol extract (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg); and 6th - 8th treated with T. serotinum extract (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg). After 30 min of administration, the rats were exposed to a shock of 150 mA by a convulsiometer, ...

  16. Toxicological Evaluation of Ethanol Extract of Adenium obesum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The toxicity of ethanol extract of Adenium obesum stem bark as a tool for aquaculture pond management prior to the ... 8.20 mgL-1, 8.80 mgL-1 and 10.00 mgL-1 of the extract and a control in an acute static toxicity bioassay after performing a .... Standard method for the examination of water and waste water.

  17. Toxicological Evaluation of Ethanol Extract of Adenium obesum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxicity of ethanol extract of Adenium obesum stem bark as a tool for aquaculture pond management prior to the stocking of desired fish species was evaluated in Clarias gariepinus over a 96-h exposure. The fish were exposed to 6.25 mgL-1, 7.50 mgL-1, 8.20 mgL-1, 8.80 mgL-1 and 10.00 mgL-1 of the extract and a ...

  18. Antioxidant activity of alstonia Angustifolia ethanolic leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Nurhidayah Ab; Zakaria, Noorzafiza; Dzulkarnain, Syarifah Masyitah Habib; Azahar, Nazar Mohd Zabadi Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2017-10-01

    In current study, the ability of the ethanolic extract of Alstonia angustifolia in scavenging free radicals was assessed by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) radical scavenging assay. The results suggested that the ethanolic extract of A. angustifolia leaves has a notable antioxidant activity. In FRAP assay, it showed that the extract have higher total antioxidant activity with FRAP value is 1868.33 µM/g Fe (ii) dry mass ± 0.15 than the control, quercetin with FRAP value is 1336.9 µM/g Fe (II) dry mass ± 0.12 and ascorbic acid with FRAP value is 1720 µM/g Fe (II) dry mass ± 0.02. For DPPH assay, the IC50 value of the extract is 384.77 while the IC50 value of standards of ascorbic acid and quercetin are 18.07 µg/ml and 39.60 µg/ml, respectively. For H2O2 scavenging assay, the IC50 value for the extract was discovered to be 186.77 µg/ml compared to standard ascorbic acid 466.56 µg/ml. Thus, the study suggests that A. angustifolia ethanolic leaf extract has a good origin of natural antioxidants and might be beneficial in impeding the oxidative stress progression thus averting diseases that related to free radicals.

  19. Antibacterial effects of Solanum tuberosum peel ethanol extract in vitro

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    Amanpour Raana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, medicinal plants are being widely used due to being natural, available, and cheaper than synthetic drugs and having minimum side effects. Since there were reports about the antibacterial properties of Solanum tuberosum (SE, the aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of SE ethanol extract in vitro condition on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: Ethanol extract of SE peel was prepared by maceration method. Initially, antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of SE was qualitatively determined by disk diffusion test; then, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were qualitatively determined by micro-dilution method. Results: SE peel extract had antibacterial properties and its effect was more pronounced on gram-positive bacteria, especially S. aureus (0.62±0.00 mg/ml. The extract had antibacterial activity on gram-negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, too (8.33±2.88 mg/ml. Conclusion: SE peel extract has antibacterial activity and its effect on gram-positive bacteria was more pronounced than the investigated gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, it is suggested that SE peel constituent compounds be determined and to determine the exact mechanism of its antibacterial properties, and more comprehensive research be done to apply it, clinically.

  20. Evaluation of antidepressant effect of ethanolic extract of Rosa damascena using forced swimming test

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    Karim Dolati

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: Although ethanolic extract did not have antidepressant effect, we cannot rule out this effect altogether. In our opinion, antidepressant effect is masked by CNS depression effect of ethanolic extract of R. damascena.

  1. Aqueous ethanolic extract of Cochlospermum planchonii rhizome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. ABU

    2012-07-03

    Jul 3, 2012 ... extract of Lophira lanceolata stem bark in male rats (Etuk and Muhammad, 2009). The researchers however, did not observe increases in sperm motility and abnormal morphology. They concluded that the plant had fertility enhancing effects. Similar observations suggestive of enhanced sperm motility ...

  2. Nutritional evaluation of ethanol-extracted lentil flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M A; Blázquez, I; Sierra, I; Medrano, M A; Frias, J; Vidal-Valverde, C; Hernández, A

    2001-04-01

    Lentil flours were extracted with 80% ethanol at 25 and 50 degrees C for 1, 2, or 3 h. The various nitrogen fractions, soluble carbohydrates, three amino acids (Lys, His, and Tyr), available lysine, protein digestibility, and vitamins B(1) and B(2) were analyzed to evaluate the effect of extraction. Extraction resulted in an increase in the total nitrogen content of the extracted flours, with extraction temperature affecting the nature of the nitrogen (protein or nonprotein) content. There was also a large reduction in the oligosaccharides of the raffinose family, although the effect of temperature was appreciable only in the case of stachyose. There was hardly any effect on the concentrations of the amino acids analyzed or on protein digestibility; however, a positive correlation between protein digestibility and the available lysine was recorded in the samples. The vitamin B(1) and B(2) contents underwent variable decreases depending on extraction temperature.

  3. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of some moss species

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    Karpiński Tomasz M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For centuries, mosses have been used in traditional medicine due to their antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from 12 moss species: Brachythecium albicans, Bryum argenteum, Ceratodon purpureus, Dicranum scoparium, Dryptodon pulvinatus, Orthotrichum anomalum, Oxyrrhynchium hians, Plagiomnium undulatum, Polytrichum juniperinum, P. piliferum, Schistidium crassipilum, and Syntrichia ruralis. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of extracts was investigated against three Gram(+ bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes and two Gram(- bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, using the agar disc-diffusion method. Results: The high activity against all investigated bacteria was determined for extracts of D. pulvinatus, P. undulatum, B. argenteum, S. crassipilum, O. anomalum (mean inhibition zone: 11.3-13.1 mm and to a lesser extent in the case of D. scoparium (8.3 mm. Extracts from P. juniperinum and P. piliferum showed activity only against Gram-positive bacteria, with an inhibition zone from 7.3 to 9.7 mm. Four species: B. albicans, C. purpureus, O. hians, and S. ruralis had not antibacterial properties. Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that mosses could be a significant source of antibacterial agents. For the first time, we presented antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts from S. crassipilum and O. anomalum.

  4. Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove

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    Mina Kamkar Asl

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1 Saline, (2-4 Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7 Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9 Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s.

  5. Extraction of stevia glycosides with CO2 + water, CO2 + ethanol, and CO2 + water + ethanol

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    A. Pasquel

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Stevia leaves are an important source of natural sugar substitute. There are some restrictions on the use of stevia extract because of its distinctive aftertaste. Some authors attribute this to soluble material other than the stevia glycosides, even though it is well known that stevia glycosides have to some extent a bitter taste. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop a process to obtain stevia extract of a better quality. The proposed process includes two steps: i Pretreatment of the leaves by SCFE; ii Extraction of the stevia glycosides by SCFE using CO2 as solvent and water and/or ethanol as cosolvent. The mean total yield for SCFE pretreatment was 3.0%. The yields for SCFE with cosolvent of stevia glycosides were below 0.50%, except at 120 bar, 16°C, and 9.5% (molar of water. Under this condition, total yield was 3.4%. The quality of the glycosidic fraction with respect to its capacity as sweetener was better for the SCFE extract as compared to extract obtained by the conventional process. The overall extraction curves were well described by the Lack extended model.

  6. Immunomodulatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; John, Jinu; Mehta, Pradeep; Vyas, Suresh Prasad; Shukla, Savita

    2009-09-07

    Caesalpinia bonducella FLEMING (Caesalpiniaceae) is a plant well known for its medicinal value in Indian Ayurveda. However, to prove its efficiency for the clinical utilization, more experimental data will be beneficial. The present study involved the investigation of immunomodulatory activities of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds. Neutrophil adhesion test, haemagglutinating antibody (HA) titre, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression were determined by in vivo experiments. The evaluation of immunomodulatory potential by oral administration of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (200-500 mg/kg) evoked a significant increase in percent neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibers as well as a dose-dependent increase in antibody titre values, and potentiated the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells. Also it prevented myelosuppression in cyclophosphamide drug treated rats and good response towards phagocytosis in carbon clearance assay. The results obtained in this study indicate that Caesalpinia bonducella possesses potential immunomodulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of autoimmune diseases.

  7. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L.

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    Nripendra Nath Biswas

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L. has potential antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities that support the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant.

  8. Anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica

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    Ette Okon Ettebong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica. Methods: Albino Wistar mice were separated into five groups with six animals in each group and thereafter pretreated with distilled water, various doses of the extract (200–600 mg/kg and standard drug diazepam (0.5 mg/kg. Thirty minutes later, pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg, aminophylline (280 mg/kg and isoniazid (250 mg/kg were used to induce convulsions by intraperitoneal administration. These mice were then placed in plexiglas cages and monitored for the occurrence of seizures over a thirty-minute time period. The latency of convulsions, duration of tonic convulsions and mortality protection were recorded. Data obtained were analyzed using GraphPad InStat 3.10. Results: The results showed that the extract exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions as compared to the control and these effects were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The extract also provided protection against the mortality which was similar to that produced by the standard drug diazepam. Conclusions: The significant increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions caused by the extract show anticonvulsant activity and corroborate with the claims of the traditional use of the plant as an anticonvulsant remedy.

  9. Study on the extraction of AP components in HTPB solid propellant by water/ethanol recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingqi; Du, Shiguo; Yan, Jun

    2017-10-01

    In order to improve the recovery of ammonium perchlorate (AP) components in scrapped HTPB solid propellants, the AP in HTPB solid propellants were extracted by water/ethanol mixed solvent system. The effects of extraction time, extraction temperature, volume ratio of water/ethanol, ratio of liquid to material, thickness of sample and extraction rate on AP extraction rate were discussed. The extraction results were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the best process parameter for extracting AP components from HTPB solid propellants: the extraction temperature was 70°C, the extraction time was 6h, the volume ratio of water/ethanol was 1:1, the ratio of liquid to material was 6:1(water/ethanol volume and sample mass ratio, ml/g) and the extraction frequency was 2 times. Under this condition, the recovery of AP was 90.5% and the purity of AP was 91.1%.

  10. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., roselle calyx, from ethnobotany to pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce María; Orta-Flores, Zaida; Hayward-Jones, Patricia Margaret; Nolasco-Hipólito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, M Guadalupe; Miranda-Medina, Anilú; Bujang, Kopli Bin

    2012-01-01

    Using MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases, a review of the literature from the pioneering study of 1991 until 2010 was performed on the effects on biological models of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. roselle calyx, its extracts mainly in polar solvents, or pure components found in extracts, as well as their possible relationship to these effects. Three relevant effects on lipid metabolism, antihypertensive activity, and apoptosis were observed. Our chronological review of the studies mentioned in the literature provides another opportunity to see how humans compile scientific knowledge of a chemical structure–physiological activity relationship starting from an ethnobotanical–ethnopharmagognosy contribution. The chemical components that are the main active principles in the physiological activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyx are anthocyanins and polyphenols (protocatechuic acid and quercetin). Advances have also been made in the elucidation of action mechanisms. Additionally, it has become clear that the lack of standardization in terms of chemical components of the material arising from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. used in testing on biological models imposes limits on the possibility of carrying out comparative analyses between studies. Fortunately, more recent studies are overcoming this obstacle by reporting component concentrations of assumed active principles; however, complete analysis of the extract, if this is to be considered as a therapeutic agent, is not commonly reported in the aforesaid studies. If one of the eventual scenarios for Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyx is as a therapeutic agent in communities with economic limitations, then studies of a pharmacological nature should guarantee the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of this material, which is widely accepted to be associated with chemical complexity, thus making this knowledge necessary. PMID:27186114

  11. Antinociceptive effect of ethanolic extract of Selaginella convoluta in mice

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    de Sá Pedro Guilherme S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selaginella convoluta (Arn. Spring (Selaginellaceae, commonly known as “jericó”, is a medicinal plant found in northeastern Brazil. S. convoluta is used in folk medicine as an antidepressant, aphrodisiac, diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and it is used to combat amenorrhea, coughing and bleeding. This study was performed to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract from S. convoluta in mice exposed to chemical and thermal models of nociception. Methods Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract was performed. The ethanolic extract from Selaginella convoluta (Sc-EtOH was examined for its intraperitoneal (i.p. antinociceptive activity at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin injection and hot plate tests were used to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of Sc-EtOH extract. The rota-rod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Results A preliminary analysis of Sc-EtOH revealed that it contained phenols, steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, mice treated with Sc-EtOH (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p. exhibited reduced writhing (58.46, 75.63 and 82.23%, respectively. Secondly, Sc-EtOH treatment (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p. decreased the paw licking time in mice during the first phase of the formalin test (by 44.90, 33.33 and 34.16%, respectively, as well as during the second phase of the test (by 86.44, 56.20 and 94.95%, respectively. Additionally, Sc-EtOH treatment at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg increased the latency time in the hot plate test after 60 and 90 minutes, respectively. In addition, Sc-EtOH did not impair motor coordination. Conclusion Overall, these results indicate that Sc-EtOH is effective as an analgesic agent in various pain models. The activity of Sc-EtOH is most likely mediated via the inhibition of peripheral mediators and central inhibitory mechanisms. This study supports

  12. Antifungal activity of Piper aduncum and Peperomia pellucida leaf ethanol extract against Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, Utami Sri; Ummah, Yunita Putri Irsadul; Khasanah, Henny Nurul

    2017-05-01

    This research was done to 1) examine the effect of Piper aduncum leaf ethanol extract at certain concentrations against Candida albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 2) examine the effect of Peperomia pellucida leaf ethanol extract at certain concentrations toward Candida albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; and 3) determine the most effective concentration of P. aduncum and P. pellucida leaves ethanol extract against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro. These plant extracts were prepared by the maceration technique using 95% ethanol, and then sterile filtered and evaporated to obtain the filtrate. The filtrate was diluted with sterile distilled water at certain concentrations, i.e.: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 405, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%. The antifungal effect of each leaf extract concentration was examined by the agar diffusion method on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar medium. The research results are: 1) the P.aduncum leaf ethanol extract at some concentrations has an effect against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 2) the P.pellucida leaf ethanol extract at some concentrations has an effect against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 3) the P. aduncum leaf ethanol extract at 80% is the most effective for C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; and 4) the P. pellucida leaf ethanol extract at 70% is the most effective for C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro.

  13. effects of the ethanolic stem bark extract of pterocarpus erinaceus poir

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Effects of the 70% ethanolic stem bark extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir were investigated in some isolated smooth muscles preparations of experimental animals. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the ethanolic extract revealed the presence of tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids flavonoids ...

  14. Antifertility effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asparagus africanus is claimed to have use in reproductive related health problems in some areas of Ethiopia. Objective: To study the potential antifertility effect of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves and roots of Asparagus africanus in rats. Methods: Water and ethanol extracts were given by ...

  15. Bioactive metabolite profiles and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts from Muntingia calabura L. leaves and stems

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    William Patrick Cruiz Buhian

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: M. calabura leaf and stem ethanol extracts are potential sources of antibacterial agents against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. This study reports for the first time the high degree of antifungal activity of M. calabura ethanolic extract, especially against C. albicans.

  16. Evaluation of the effect of ethanolic extract of Croton zambesicus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possible effect of Croton zambesicus administration on vital organs has been less investigated despite its extensive traditional use in tropical Africa. We therefore aim at elucidating the effect of ethanolic extract on the testes. The aqueous fraction of ethanolic leaf extract of C. zambesicus (5 and 10 mg/Kg body weight) ...

  17. In vivo Anti-plasmodial Activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Terminalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terminalia catappa (Tropical almond) is used traditionally in the management of fever, cough, wounds and various ulceration. Oral acute toxicity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Terminalia catappa was evaluated in mice using modified Lorke's method. The ethanolic leaf extract was evaluated for in vivo anti-plasmodial activity ...

  18. Hexane neem leaf extract more potent than ethanol extract against Aspergillus flavus

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    Jenny Hidayat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Aspergillus flavus is one of the causes of aspergillosis, with a high virulence and resistance to standard antifungals, resulting in a high mortality rate. Medicinal plants are increasingly used as they are relatively safer with minimal side effects. Previously we found that the ethanol extract of neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss leaves inhibits A. flavus growth in vitro. However, most chemical compounds with antifungal effect are nonpolar. The purpose of this research was to compare the antifungal effect of neem leaves extracted in a nonpolar solvent to that of leaves extracted in a polar solvent. METHODS An in vitro experimental research was conducted between October 2013 and January 2014. Neem leaves were extracted in ethanol or hexane at various concentrations. A macrodilution test with 48-hour incubation time was done in triplicate on 8 groups of samples. These comprised the neem leaf ethanol extract (NLEE at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/dL, neem leaf hexane extract (NLHE at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/dL, positive control, and negative control groups. Fungal growth was detected on Sabouroud dextrose agar. Statistical analysis used Chi square and Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS NLHE had a higher, but statistically non-significant, inhibitory effect on A. flavus than NLEE (p=0.996. At higher concentrations, the antifungal effect of NLHE is better than that of NLEE. CONCLUSION There is no significant difference in in-vitro inhibitory effectivity on A. flavus of neem leaves between extracts in polar and nonpolar solvents.

  19. HYPOTENSIVE AND CARDIOINHIBOTORY EFFECTS OF THE AQUEOUS AND ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF CELERY (APIUM GRAVEOLENS, APIACEAE

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    Dragana Pavlović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery (Apium graveolens L., Apiaceae investigated on the mean blood pressure of anaesthetized rabbits and contractility of isolated atria of the rats. In our experiments were used rabbits and Wistar albino rats. The effects of extracts (0.5-15 mg/kg on blood pressure were recorded directly from the carotid artery. Rat isolated atria was mounted in 10 ml tissue bath. An equilibrium period of 30 min was given before the application of the extracts (0.02-0.75 mg/ml. In anesthetized rabbit, intravenous administration of aqueous extracts induced least hypotensive effects (14.35±2.94%, while the ethanol extract caused the greatest fall in the blood pressure (45.79±10.86%. Hypotensive effects of the extracts were partially blocked by atropine (0.3 mg/kg, an unselective muscarinic receptor antagonist. In isolated rat atria both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of celery, exhibit a negative chronotropic and an inotropic action. Aqueous extract decreased rate of contractions for 12.88±2.74% and amplitude for 8.73±0.89%. Ethanol extract inhibited rate of the atria contractions for 34.26±5.69%, and amplitude for 25.40±3.61%. Pretreatment of the atria with atropine (1μM partially blocked inhibitory response of aqueous and ethanol extracts. Ethanol extract of celery exhibited significantly greater hypotensive and cardio-depressant activities then aqueous extract (p<0.05. These data suggest that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery caused the hypotensive, negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, which could partially be mediated possibly via stimulation of muscarinic receptors. Inhibitory effect of ethanol extract was significant comparing to aqueous extract of celery.

  20. Subcritical ethanol extraction of flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf and evaluation of antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yujie; Ding, Hui; Liu, Shejiang; Han, Xu; Gui, Jianzhou; Liu, Dan

    2017-03-01

    A large-scale process to extract flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf by subcritical ethanol was developed and HPLC-MS analysis was conducted to qualitatively identify the compounds in the extracts. To optimize the effects of process parameters on the yield of flavonoids, a Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was conducted in the present work. The results indicated that the highest extraction yield of flavonoids by subcritical ethanol extraction could reach 2.60% using 70% ethanol at 126.6°C for 2.05h extraction. Under the optimized conditions, flavonoids yield was substantially improved by 26.7% compared with the traditional ethanol reflux method while the extraction time was only 2h, and obvious energy saving was observed. FRAP and DPPH assays showed that the extracts had strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunomodulatory and antitumor activity of Aerva lanata ethanolic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siveen, K S; Kuttan, Girija

    2011-09-01

    Cancer is responsible for millions of deaths each year worldwide. Pharmacological intervention with plant-derived products alone or in combination to reverse, suppress, or prevent the cancer progression plays a key role in the fight against this terrible disease. Aerva lanata is an important medicinal plant widely used in traditional systems of medicine like ayurveda and siddha. Ethanolic extract of whole plant of A. lanata exhibited immunomodulatory and antitumor activity. Intraperitoneal administration of five doses of the extract (10 mg/kg body weight) was found to enhance the total WBC count (14,238 cells/mm(3)), bone marrow cellularity (22.33 × 10(6) cells/femur), and number of α-esterase-positive cells (1276 cells/4000 cells). Aerva treatment also showed enhanced proliferation of splenocytes, thymocytes, and bone marrow cells both in the presence and absence of specific mitogens in vitro and in vivo. The number of plaque-forming cells (PFC) in spleen (243.33 PFC/10(6) spleen cells) and circulating antibody titer were also increased (P < 0.001). The extract was 100% cytotoxic to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. It was also found to be cytotoxic toward L929 and HELA cells at higher concentrations, whereas the nontoxic concentrations produced a reduction in the rate of proliferation. Simultaneous administration of five doses of A. lanata extract could produce significant inhibition in DLA-induced solid tumor development in mice and increase the life span of mice-bearing EAC tumors by 53.47%.

  2. ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF CALYX, STEM BARK AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The root of the plant exhibited marked antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative organisms of Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aureginosa, Staphylococus sp., Streptococus faecalis and Corynebacterium spp while the red calyx is effective against gram negative ...

  3. Middle calyx access in complete supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahatkar, Siavash; Kazemnezhad, Ehsan; Moghaddam, Keivan Gholamjani; Kazemzadeh, Majid; Asadollahzade, Ahmad; Farzan, Alireza; Damavand, Reza Shahrokhi; Aval, Hamidreza Baghani; Esmaeili, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    Middle calyx access has been underused in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), especially in the supine position. We compared the safety and efficacy outcomes between middle calyx and lower calyx accesses in the complete supine PCNL in a non-randomized single-surgeon clinical study. Between February 2008 and October 2011, 170 patients underwent posterior subcostal single tract complete supine PCNL with one-shot dilation and middle calyx (n = 48) and lower calyx (n = 122) accesses. Stone location and surgeon decision determined target calyx for access. Inclusion criteria were pelvis stones, staghorn stones and multiple location stones. Exclusion criteria were renal anomalies, only upper calyx stones, only middle calyx stones and only lower calyx stones. Important parameters were compared between the two groups. A p value of 0.05) than lower calyx group (14.8%; 7.4%). No significant difference (p = 0.40) was seen between two groups using the modified Clavien classification of complications. Middle calyx can be an optimal access in PCNL with the complete supine position for many of upper urinary tract stones due to its superior outcomes.

  4. Nanoemulsion of ethanolic extracts of propolis and its antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauludin, R.; Primaviri, D. S.; Fidrianny, I.

    2015-09-01

    Propolis contains several antioxidant compounds which can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical and prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) provided the greatest antioxidant activity but has very small solubility in water thus was prepared in nanoemulsion (NE). EEP contains steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid, and saponin. EEP had the value of DPPH scavenging activity 61.14% and IC50 0.41629 ppm. The best NE formulation consisted of 26.25% Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% glycerin; 5% rice bran oil; and 3% EEP. NE was transparent, had particle size of 23.72 nm and polydispersity index of 0.338. Based on TEM morphology, NE was almost spherical and has particle size below 50 nm. NE propolis revealed to be physically stable after stability test within 63 days at 25°C and passed 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. NE propolis reduced around 58% of free radical DPPH similar to antioxidant activity of the original extracts. Antioxidant activity of NE propolis is relatively stable after stored for 6 weeks. NE propolis was proven to be safe by primary irritation test with the value of primary irritation index (OECD) was 0.

  5. Antitussive activity of ethanolic extract of Curcuma aromatica rhizomes on sulfur dioxide induced cough in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, G.D.; Kekuda, T.R Prashith; Sudarshan, S.J

    2008-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica (Zingiberaceae) was investigated for its antitussive effect on Sulfur dioxide induced cough model in mice. The extract exhibited significant antitussive activity in a dose dependant manner. The activity was compared with the prototype antitussive agent codeine phosphate. The ethanolic extract at the dose of lOOmg. 200mg and 400mg/kg body weight, po, showed 68%, 74% and 79% of inhibition of cough with respect to control group. PMID:22557276

  6. PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF WATER-ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MENTHA LONGIFOLIA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Grebennikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents data about qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolic compounds in water-ethanol extract of perspective clone of Mentha longifolia L. of NBE-NSC selection. Phenolic substances content in water-ethanol extract amounted to 3003.3 mg/100g. 13 components were determined in the extract. The extract contains caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid isomers, rosmarinic acid and glycosides of luteolin. Rosmarinic acid (50.2% prevails among phenolic substances of Mentha longifolia extract. The conclusion is that the use of this extract is possible to create products with high biological value

  7. Impact of ethanolic lamiaceae extracts on herpesvirus infectivity in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichling, Jürgen; Nolkemper, Silke; Stintzing, Florian C; Schnitzler, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Extracts of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs for antimicrobial and antiviral agents, since microorganisms might develop resistance to commonly used antimicrobial or antiviral agents. Ethanolic extracts from Lamiaceae plants prunella, peppermint, rosemary and thyme were phytochemically characterised. The inhibitory activity of four 20% ethanolic plant extracts and four 80% ethanolic extracts against herpes simplex virus (HSV) strains was tested in cell culture. Rosmarinic acid, a typical compound in Lamiaceae species, was identified in the extracts except for thyme 20% ethanolic extract. In addition, some other phenolic compounds such as apigenin- and luteolin-derivatives were identified in different amounts. All extracts exhibited high and concentration-dependent levels of antiviral activity against free acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 strains with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.05-0.82 microg/ml. Mechanistically, exposure of free virions as well as host cells to prunella and peppermint 80% ethanolic extracts at maximum non-cytotoxic concentrations prior to infection reduced plaque formation drastically. Thus, both extracts revealed a dual mode of action similar to aqueous lemon balm extracts. Since infectivity of acyclovir-susceptible and acyclovir-resistant HSV strains was significantly reduced with Lamiaceae extracts, the results obtained indicate that ethanolic plant extracts affected herpesvirus prior to and during adsorption and in a different way than acyclovir. Based on its dual mode of action, e.g. antiviral effect against free virions and blocking virus attachment to host cells, prunella and peppermint 80% ethanolic extracts are promising antiviral agents in recurrent herpes labialis for topical therapeutic applications. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Effects of Cymbidium Root Ethanol Extract on Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Joong Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cymbidium has known antibacterial and antiedema activity and has been used as an ingredient in cosmetics and fragrances. The effects of Cymbidium ethanol extract (CYM on allergic response and the underlying mechanisms of action have not been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CYM on allergic responses. Topical application of CYM was effective against immunoglobulin E (IgE/dinitrophenyl-conjugated bovine serum albumin- (DNP-BSA- induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and anaphylaxis in ICR mice. An allergic dermatitis-like mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CYM in vivo. Continuous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB not only induced dermatitis in ICR mice but also aggravated the skin lesioning. However, the application of CYM decreased skin lesion severity, scratching behavior, and IgE levels. In addition, CYM downregulated the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL- 4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α. Studies of signal transduction pathways showed that CYM suppressed the phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk, an upstream molecule. It also inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, phospholipase C- (PLC- γ, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MEKK. These results indicate that CYM may be effective in preventing and reducing allergic response and may have therapeutic potential as an antiallergic agent in disorders such as atopic dermatitis.

  9. Effects of Cymbidium Root Ethanol Extract on Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan-Joong; Cha, Hae-Sim; Lee, Myung-Hun; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Seo Ho; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Cymbidium has known antibacterial and antiedema activity and has been used as an ingredient in cosmetics and fragrances. The effects of Cymbidium ethanol extract (CYM) on allergic response and the underlying mechanisms of action have not been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CYM on allergic responses. Topical application of CYM was effective against immunoglobulin E (IgE)/dinitrophenyl-conjugated bovine serum albumin- (DNP-BSA-) induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and anaphylaxis in ICR mice. An allergic dermatitis-like mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CYM in vivo. Continuous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) not only induced dermatitis in ICR mice but also aggravated the skin lesioning. However, the application of CYM decreased skin lesion severity, scratching behavior, and IgE levels. In addition, CYM downregulated the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α. Studies of signal transduction pathways showed that CYM suppressed the phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), an upstream molecule. It also inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, phospholipase C- (PLC-) γ, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MEKK). These results indicate that CYM may be effective in preventing and reducing allergic response and may have therapeutic potential as an antiallergic agent in disorders such as atopic dermatitis.

  10. Evaluation of the Sporicidal Activity of Ethanol Extract of Arctium lappa Root against Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihe Karbasizade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacillus cereus is one of the most common causes of food spoilage, keratitis, endophthalmitis, and panophthalmitis. These bacteria produce spores which are resistant to chemical and physical agents. Nowadays, the sporicidal properties of plants have been considered as alternatives to chemical sporicidal agents. Materials and Methods: In this empirical-experimental study the effect of ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa root has been studied on Bacillus cereus spores. In this investigation, the suspensions of tested microorganisms were cultured in sporulating agar. Sporulation process was assessed by optical microscopy following the staining of spores. Then the produced spores were exposed to various concentrations (100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg/mL of ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa root and finally the remaining spores were counted. With increasing concentrations of ethanol extract, the number of spores declined. Results: Pearson correlation showed inverse relation between the spores count and concentration of ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa root (r=-0.765, p<0.001. The most effective extract concentration was 300 mg /mL. Conclusion: Ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa root, has sporicidal activity. Only, the sporicidal nature of ethanol extract has been evaluated by this study; therefore, the assessment of other extracts and essences is necessary.

  11. Clinical evaluation of ethanolic extract of curcumin (Curcuma longa on wound healing in Black Bengal goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Haris Miah

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Ethanol treated turmeric enhances wound healing process in goats. This result could help the veterinarian and the researchers to consider herbal product especially ethanolic extract of turmeric for the treatment and better healing of surgical wounds with minimal complications. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(2.000: 181-186

  12. Effects of Pithecellobium Jiringa Ethanol Extract against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injuries in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Hussain AL-Bayaty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Current anti-gastric ulcer agents have side effects, despite the progression and expansion of advances in treatment. This study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective mechanisms of Pithecellobium jiringa ethanol extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal ulcers in rats. For this purpose, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: Group 1 (normal control rats were orally administered with vehicle (carboxymethyl cellulose, Group 2 (ulcer control rats were also orally administered with vehicle. Group 3 (positive control rats were orally administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole, Groups 4 and 5 (experimental groups received ethanol extract of Pithecellobium jiringa ethanol extract at a concentration of 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. Sixty minutes later, vehicle was given orally to the normal control group, and absolute ethanol was given orally to the ulcer control, positive control and experimental groups to generate gastric mucosal injury. The rats were sacrificed an hour later. The effect of oral administration of plant extract on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury was studied grossly and histology. The level of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde—MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD and gastric wall mucus were measured from gastric mucosal homogenate. The ulcer control group exhibited severe gastric mucosal injury, and this finding was also confirmed by histology of gastric mucosa which showed severe damage to the gastric mucosa with edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer. Pre-treatment with plant extract significantly reduced the formation of ethanol-induced gastric lesions, and gastric wall mucus was significantly preserved. The study also indicated a significant increase in SOD activity in gastric mucosal homogenate, whereas a significant decrease in MDA was observed. Acute toxicity tests did not show any signs of toxicity and mortality up to 5 g/kg. The ulcer protective effect of this plant may

  13. Wheat germ oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol: Fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Parczewska-Plesnar, B.; Brzozowski, R.; Gwardiak, H.; Białecka-Florjańczyk, E.; Bujnowski, Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 with ethanol as entrainer was performed at a temperature of 40 oC under a pressure of 21 MPa. For comparison, a similar extraction without the entrainer was carried out. The extraction yield of wheat germ using supercritical CO2 with ethanol was slightly higher (10.7 wt%) than that of extraction without the entrainer (9.9 wt%). Fractions of SFE extracts were collected separately during the experiments and the composition of fatty ac...

  14. EVALUATION PHYTOCHEMISTRY, CYTOTOXIC ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL GROSS ETHANOL EXTRACT OF LEAVES Annona muricata L. (ANNONACEAE)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daiani Patrícia Silva Alfaia; Sheylla Susan Moreida da Silva de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ... population use as analgesics and against urinary infections. This research aimed to perform the phytochemical screening, analyze cytotoxic activity and antibacterial of the crude ethanol extract of leaves Annona muricata L...

  15. Effects of Danshen Ethanol Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Fexofenadine in Healthy Volunteers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qiu, Furong; Zeng, Jin; Liu, Songcan; He, Min; Zhu, Leilei; Ye, Yujie; Miao, Ping; Shen, Shujiao; Jiang, Jian

    2014-01-01

      [ProQuest: [...] denotes non US-ASCII text; see PDF] This study investigated the effect of multidose administration of danshen ethanol extract on fexofenadine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers...

  16. Acute toxicity study and effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Guiera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity study and effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Guiera senegalensis J. F. Gmel (combretaceae) on trypanosome Brucei brucei induced pathology in albino rats. ... were observed at histopathology in some extract treated groups compared to the infected untreated group, suggesting a dose dependent extract activity.

  17. Analysis of ethanol-soluble extractives in southern pine wood by low-field proton NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Thomas Elder; Nicole Labbe

    2007-01-01

    Low-field portion NMR was evaluated as a nondestructive and rapid technique for measuring ethanol-soluble extractives in southern pine wood. Matchstick-sized wood specimens were steeped in extractive-containing solutions to generate extractive-enriched samples for analysis. decay curves obtained by the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-gill (CPMG) pulse sequence were analyzed with...

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of biherbal ethanolic extract against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Anantha, Krishna Chaitanya D.; Siva, Reddy Challa; Manohar, Reddy A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim : The combined hepatoprotective effect of Bi-herbal ethanolic extract (BHEE) was evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver function tests and biochemical parameters were estimated using standard kits. Livers were quickly removed and fixed in 10% formalin and subjected to histopathological studies. Results : Ethanolic extract from the leaves of Aerva lanata and leaves of Achyranthes aspera at a dose level of 200 mg/kg, 400mg/kg body w...

  19. Toxicity of ethanolic extracts from Lippia origanoides and Gliricidia sepium to Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sivira, A; Sanabria, ME; Valera, N; C. Vásquez

    2011-01-01

    Botanical compounds with insecticidal and acaricidal activities have been used in pest management with different levels of success. Toxicity of ethanolic extracts obtained from wild oregano (Lippia origanoides) and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium) to Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) were evaluated. Mite population was collected from black bean plants growing in Urachiche Municipality, Yaracuy State, Venezuela. Ethanolic extracts of wild oregano and gliricidia leaves were evaluated at differ...

  20. Antiulcer activity of ethanol leaf extract of Cassia fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Sivanesan; Gobianand, Kuppannan

    2010-08-01

    The ethanol leaf extract (ELE) of Cassia fistula Linn. (Caesalpinaceae) was evaluated for antiulcer activity against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer. Ranitidine (30 mg/kg b.w.) and ELE at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg b.w. were administered orally in different groups of rats (n = 6), 1 h prior to pyloric ligation. Four hours after pyloric ligation, the gastric juice was collected for evaluation of various parameters. The antiulcer activity of ELE was evidenced by the significant attenuation of gastric volume, pH, free acidity, and total acidity in the gastric juice of pyloric-ligated rats in a dose-dependent manner, and this protective effect could be due to strengthening of the mucosal defense mechanism. ELE pre-treatment significantly attenuated the fall in status of sialic acid and fucose accompanied by an increase in hexose, hexosamine, total non-amino polysaccharide, total carbohydrate, and C:P ratio in the gastric juice of pylorus-ligated rats, and this effect could be due to protection of the mucosal barrier system. ELE pre-treatment significantly prevented the increase in LPO and SOD accompanied by a fall in CAT, in the gastric juice of pyloric-ligated rats. This protective ability of ELE against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer could be attributed to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Higher doses of ELE (750 mg/kg b.w.) produced maximum antiulcer activity comparable to ranitidine treatment. In essence, the antiulcer activity of ELE could be attributed to (i) a decrease in gastric acid secretion, (ii) protection of the mucosal barrier and restoration of mucosal secretions, (iii) inhibition of free radical generation or prevention of lipid peroxidation, and (iv) free radical scavenging or antioxidant properties.

  1. Antinociceptive and anti-ulcerogenic activities of the ethanolic extract of Annona muricata leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslida Abd Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extract of Annona muricata L., Annonaceae, leaf (AML was used to investigate its antinociceptive and anti-ulcerogenic activities and the involvement of the mechanism of ethanolic leaves extract of AML in various animal models. Antinociceptive activity of AML extract was done using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing in mice, formalin test in rats and hot plate test in mice. Furthermore, the anti-ulcerogenic effect of AML extract was studied in ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats, ethanol-induced gastric lesions in L-NAME-pre-treated rats as well as ethanol-induced gastric lesions in NEM-pre-treated rats test model to determine its mechanism. AML exhibited significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. It also significantly decreased the ulcerative lesion produced by ethanol in rats in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with N-ethymaleimide, a thiol blocker, including mucosal nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, reduced the anti-ulcerogenic effect of AML extract in the same ulcer model, suggesting that AML extract may have active substances such as tannins, flavanoids and triterpenes that increase the mucosal nonprotein sulfhydryl group content.

  2. Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents.

  3. Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Methods Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. Results At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. Conclusions It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents. PMID:25183127

  4. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata on paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran Aiyalu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichosanthes lobata (family cucurbitaceae is used to treat malarial fever and liver disorders. This study aims to investigate possible hepatoprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar male rats by oral administration, 2 g/kg body weight on 7th day after the administration of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata and silymarin (100 mg/kg. Ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata was administered orally at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days. Several serum markers, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, total protein was measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol (acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage. The study included histopathological examination of liver sections. Results Blood samples from rats treated with ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata (200 mg/kg body weight and 400 mg/kg body weight had significant reductions in serum markers in paracetamol administered animals, indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o. was used as a reference drug. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata exhibits protective effects against paracetamol‒induced hepatotoxicity.

  5. Ginger extract protects rat's kidneys against oxidative damage after chronic ethanol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirpoor, Aireza; Rezaei, Farzaneh; Fard, Amin Abdollahzade; Afshari, Ali Taghizadeh; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini; Rasmi, Yousef

    2016-12-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion is associated with pronounced detrimental effects on the renal system. In the current study, the protective effect of ginger extract on ethanol-induced damage was evaluated through determining 8-OHdG, cystatin C, glomerular filtration rate, and pathological changes such as cell proliferation and fibrosis in rats' kidneys. Male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and were treated as follows: (1) control, (2) ethanol and (3) ginger extract treated ethanolic (GETE) groups. After a six weeks period of treatment, the results revealed proliferation of glomerular and tubular cells, fibrosis in glomerular and peritubular and a significant rise in the level of 8-OHdG, cystatin C, plasma urea and creatinine. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed a significant decrease in the urine creatinine and creatinine clearance. In addition, significant amelioration of changes in the structure of kidneys, along with restoration of the biochemical alterations were found in the ginger extract treated ethanolic group, compared to the ethanol group. These findings indicate that ethanol induces kidneys abnormality by oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress, and that these effects can be alleviated using ginger as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. VOLATILE COMPOUNDS OF WATER-ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SATUREJA MONTANA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Paliy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied a composition and content of volatile compounds of Satureja montana L. extract. It was established that concentration of volatile compounds in water-ethanol extract of S. montana amounted to 325 mg/100g. The principal component of the extract is carvacrol. It was shown that the extract of Satureja montana represents high biological value

  7. Ethanol extracts of saw palmetto contain the indirectly acting sympathomimetic: tyramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Thiam; Simpson, Jamie S; Ventura, Sabatino

    2011-01-01

    To identify the bioactive components of saw palmetto ethanol extracts that affect contractility in the rat prostate gland. A commercially available saw palmetto ethanol extract was lyophilized then subjected to fractionation using silica gel column chromatography. Composition of fractions was assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). Contractile activity of these fractions was evaluated pharmacologically using isolated preparations of rat prostate gland and compared to the activity of crude ethanol extract. Saw palmetto ethanol extract caused contractions of the rat prostate gland which were consistent with indirectly acting sympathomimetic activity. Fractions resulting from chromatography produced contractions of isolated rat prostates that were similar in magnitude to the contractions produced by the crude extracts. Analysis of NMR and mass spectra revealed that this bioactivity was due to tyramine in the active fraction. Tyramine is present in saw palmetto ethanol extracts and causes indirect α(1)-adrenoceptor mediated contractions via the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic neurons. This has clinical implications, as tyramine interacts with MAO inhibitors to cause hypertensive crisis. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. In vitro antiplasmodial effect of ethanolic extracts of traditional medicinal plant Ocimum species against Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbaneson, Samuel Jacob; Sundaram, Ravikumar; Suganthi, Palavesam

    2012-02-01

    To identify the possible antiplasmodial compounds from leaf, stem, root and flower extracts of Ocimum canum (O. canum), Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) and Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum). The O. canum, O. sanctum and O. basilicum were collected from Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu and the extraction was carried out in ethanol. The filter sterilized extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 μg/mL) of leaf, stem, root and flower extracts of O. canum, O. sanctum and O. basilicum were tested for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). The potential extracts were also tested for their phytochemical constituents. The leaf extract of O. sanctum showed excellent antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) 35.58 μg/mL) followed by leaf extract of O. basilicum (IC(50) 43.81 μg/mL). The leaf extract of O. canum, root extracts of O. sanctum and O. basilicum, the stem and flower extracts of all the three tested Ocimum species showed IC(50) values between 50 and 100 μg/mL. Statistical analysis reveals that, significant antiplasmodial activity (P basilicum. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, triterpenoids, proteins, resins, steroids and tannins in the ethanolic extracts of tested plants. The ethanolic leaf extracts of O. sanctum possess lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quality and storage characteristics of yogurt containing Lacobacillus sakei ALI033 and cinnamon ethanol extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the quality and storage characteristics of yogurt containing antifungal-active lactic acid bacteria (ALH, Lacobacillus sakei ALI033 isolated from kimchi and cinnamon ethanol extract. The starter was used for culture inoculation (1.0 % commercial starter culture YF-L812 and ALH. Results The antifungal activity of cinnamon extracts was observed in treatments with either cinnamon ethanol extracts or cinnamon methanol extracts. Changes in fermented milk made with ALH and cinnamon extract during fermentation at 40 °C were as follows. The pH was 4.6 after only 6 h of fermentation. Titratable acidity values were maintained at 0.8 % in all treatment groups. Viable cell counts were maintained at 4 × 109 CFU/mL in all groups except for 1.00 % cinnamon treatment. Sensory evaluations of fermented milk sample made with ALH and 0.05 % cinnamon ethanol extract were the highest. Changes in fermented milk made with ALH and cinnamon ethanol extract during storage at 4 °C for 28 days were as follows. In fermented milk containing ALH and cinnamon ethanol extracts, the changes in pH and titratable acidity were moderate and smaller compared with those of the control. Viable cell counts were maintained within a proper range of 108 CFU/mL. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the overgrowth of fermentation strains or post acidification during storage can be effectively delayed, thereby maintaining the storage quality of yogurt products in a stable way, using cinnamon ethanol extract, which exhibits excellent antifungal and antibacterial activity, in combination with lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi.

  10. Quality and storage characteristics of yogurt containing Lacobacillus sakei ALI033 and cinnamon ethanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu Jin; Jin, Hee Yeon; Yang, Hee Sun; Lee, Sang Cheon; Huh, Chang Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the quality and storage characteristics of yogurt containing antifungal-active lactic acid bacteria (ALH, Lacobacillus sakei ALI033) isolated from kimchi and cinnamon ethanol extract. The starter was used for culture inoculation (1.0 % commercial starter culture YF-L812 and ALH). The antifungal activity of cinnamon extracts was observed in treatments with either cinnamon ethanol extracts or cinnamon methanol extracts. Changes in fermented milk made with ALH and cinnamon extract during fermentation at 40 °C were as follows. The pH was 4.6 after only 6 h of fermentation. Titratable acidity values were maintained at 0.8 % in all treatment groups. Viable cell counts were maintained at 4 × 10(9) CFU/mL in all groups except for 1.00 % cinnamon treatment. Sensory evaluations of fermented milk sample made with ALH and 0.05 % cinnamon ethanol extract were the highest. Changes in fermented milk made with ALH and cinnamon ethanol extract during storage at 4 °C for 28 days were as follows. In fermented milk containing ALH and cinnamon ethanol extracts, the changes in pH and titratable acidity were moderate and smaller compared with those of the control. Viable cell counts were maintained within a proper range of 10(8) CFU/mL. The results of this study suggest that the overgrowth of fermentation strains or post acidification during storage can be effectively delayed, thereby maintaining the storage quality of yogurt products in a stable way, using cinnamon ethanol extract, which exhibits excellent antifungal and antibacterial activity, in combination with lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of sida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The antimicrobial activity of the 90 % ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Sida acuta Burm. F. (Malvaceae) was investigated in other to verify its claimed ethno medicinal use in the treatment of microbial infections. Method: The antimicrobial activity of the extract was tested against standard strains and clinical ...

  12. Kava hepatotoxicity: comparison of aqueous, ethanolic, acetonic kava extracts and kava-herbs mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Genthner, Alexander; Wolff, Albrecht

    2009-06-25

    Ethanolic and acetonic kava extracts have previously been causally related to rare hepatotoxicity observed in patients from Germany and Switzerland, but causality assessment was not performed in cases of patients having taken the traditional aqueous kava extracts of South Pacific islands or kava-herbs mixtures. To study the possible hepatotoxicity of aqueous kava extracts of the South Pacific Islands. Causality of hepatotoxicity by aqueous kava extracts and kava-herbs mixtures was assessed, using the updated score of the quantitative CIOMS (Council for the International Organizations of Medical Sciences). Causality was established in five patients from New Caledonia, Australia, the United States and Germany for aqueous kava extracts and kava-herbs mixtures. A comparison with 9 patients from Germany and Switzerland with established causality of hepatotoxicity by ethanolic and acetonic kava extracts reveals that the clinical picture in all 14 patients is similar, independently whether aqueous, ethanolic and acetonic kava extracts or kava-herbs mixtures were used. Kava hepatotoxicity occurs also with traditional aqueous kava extracts of the South Pacific islands and thereby independently from ethanol or acetone as chemical solvents, suggesting that the toxicity is linked to the kava plant itself with a possibly low quality of the used kava cultivar or kava plant part rather than to chemical solvents.

  13. In vivo antimalarial activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Hyptis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo antimalarial activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Hyptis suaveolens poit on Plasmodium berghei in Mice. ... On day 7 the red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were evaluated. The extract demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition effect on the parasites with ...

  14. Effect of Carica papaya (paw-paw) seeds ethanolic extract on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activity of Carica papaya seeds extract on the pituitary, thyroid and parathyroid glands of rats were investigated. The ethanolic extract of C. papaya seeds (50 and 200 mg/kg) was administered orally daily to sexually mature male wistar rats for one and eight weeks. Histology of pituitary and thyroids were prepared.

  15. In vitro Activity of Ethanol, Cold Water and Hot Water Extracts of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An in vitro evaluation was performed to determine the efficacy of ethanol, cold water and hot water extracts of the stem bark of Canthium mannii (Rubiaceae) on un-embryonated and embryonated eggs of Ancylostoma caninum obtained from the faeces of naturally infected local dogs. The extracts were diluted in distilled ...

  16. Evaluation of the effects of the hydro-ethanolic root extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis of the plant extract showed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids and flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids and phenols. ... that the hydro-ethanolic root extract of Z. zanthoxyloides could be beneficial in hyperlipidemia and in cases of malignancies with abnormal cholesterol metabolism an effect ...

  17. Effects of crude ethanol extract of Tapinanthus globiferus a. Rich on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of crude ethanol extract of Tapinanthus globiferuson rat kidney. The toxic effects of the extract on rats kidney after 28 days of oral administration were evaluated on serum levels of urea, creatinine, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-) and bicarbonate ...

  18. Gastroprotective effects of the ethanolic extract of Enantia chlorantha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Enantia chlorantha, prophylaxis, ethanol, indomethacin, gastric ulcers. Rsum. L\\'corse de Enantia chloranthaa plusieur proprite mdicinales et a t utilis par les tradi-praticients du Nigeria pour le traitement de l\\'ulcer de la peau, gastrique et duodenal, et aussi commme un anti-malarial. Le but de cette tud est de ...

  19. HEMOSTATIC EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Piper betle, Linn LEAVES TO MALE MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadakata Sinulingga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage occurs in most of the dental care. Untreated hemorrhage could cause excessive blood loss, hypotension, and cyanosis. A Natural resource that reported has an hemostatic effect is ethanol extract of betel leaves (Piper betel, Linn.The aim of this study is to find the minimum concentration of ethanol extract of betel leaves which capable of shortening the bleeding time in mice. The experimental study used pretest-posttest with control group design was conducted on 35 mice that divided into 7 group which are negative control, positive control (feracrylum 1%, the ethanol extract of betel leaves 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. All mice were injected heparin intravenously. Mice’s tail was cut at diameter 3 mm and pretest bleeding time was counted. Mice’s tail was recut at diameter 4 mm, given treatment for 5 seconds and posttest bleeding time was counted. Results of paired t-test showed that reduction of bleeding time between pretest and posttest was significant (p<0,050. The enhancement of ethanol extract of betel leaves concentration leads to better hemostatic effect. Results of ANOVA test showed that comparison of posttest bleeding time among groups was significant (p<0,050. The minimum concentration of ethanol extract of betel leaves which capable of shortening the bleeding time in mice is 5%.

  20. Extraction of high-quality DNA from ethanol-preserved tropical plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Eduardo A; Rossi, Mônica L; Gerald, Lee T S; Figueira, Antonio

    2014-04-24

    Proper conservation of plant samples, especially during remote field collection, is essential to assure quality of extracted DNA. Tropical plant species contain considerable amounts of secondary compounds, such as polysaccharides, phenols, and latex, which affect DNA quality during extraction. The suitability of ethanol (96% v/v) as a preservative solution prior to DNA extraction was evaluated using leaves of Jatropha curcas and other tropical species. Total DNA extracted from leaf samples stored in liquid nitrogen or ethanol from J. curcas and other tropical species (Theobroma cacao, Coffea arabica, Ricinus communis, Saccharum spp., and Solanum lycopersicon) was similar in quality, with high-molecular-weight DNA visualized by gel electrophoresis. DNA quality was confirmed by digestion with EcoRI or HindIII and by amplification of the ribosomal gene internal transcribed spacer region. Leaf tissue of J. curcas was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy before and after exposure to ethanol. Our results indicate that leaf samples can be successfully preserved in ethanol for long periods (30 days) as a viable method for fixation and conservation of DNA from leaves. The success of this technique is likely due to reduction or inactivation of secondary metabolites that could contaminate or degrade genomic DNA. Tissue conservation in 96% ethanol represents an attractive low-cost alternative to commonly used methods for preservation of samples for DNA extraction. This technique yields DNA of equivalent quality to that obtained from fresh or frozen tissue.

  1. Inhibitory effect of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts on melanin synthesis via repression of tyrosinase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Chun-Hao; Yu, Chih-Wen; Chen, Hsiao Ling; Huang, Wei-Tung; Chang, Yun-Shiang; Hung, Shu-Hsien; Lee, Tai-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Melanin contributes to skin color, and tyrosinase is the enzyme that catalyzes the initial steps of melanin formation. Therefore, tyrosinase inhibitors may contribute to the control of skin hyperpigmentation. The inhibition of tyrosinase activity by Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts was previously reported. In this report, we test the hypothesis that Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira, an endemic plant to Taiwan, contains compounds that inhibit tyrosinase activity, similar to C. zeylanicum. The cytotoxicity of three sources of C. osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts was measured in B16-F10 cells using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. At concentrations greater than 21.25 μg/mL, the ethanol extracts were toxic to the cells; therefore, 21.25 μg/mL was selected to test the tyrosinase activities. At this concentration, all three ethanol extracts decreased the melanin content by 50% in IBMX-induced B16-F10 cells. In addition to the melanin content, greater than 20% of the tyrosinase activity was inhibited by these ethanol extracts. The RT-PCR results showed that tyrosinase and transcription factor MITF mRNAs expression were down-regulated. Consistent with the mRNA results, greater than 40% of the human tyrosinase promoter activity was inhibited based on the reporter assay. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts protect cells from UV exposure. C. osmophloeum Kanehira neutralized the IBMX-induced increase in melanin content in B16-F10 cells by inhibiting tyrosinase gene expression at the level of transcription. Moreover, the ethanol extracts also partially inhibited UV-induced cell damage and prevented cell death. Taken together, we conclude that C. osmophloeum Kanehira is a potential skin-whitening and protective agent. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In vivo antioxidant and antiulcer activity of Parkia speciosa ethanolic leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Al Batran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current study was carried out to examine the gastroprotective effects of Parkia speciosa against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury in rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sprague Dawley rats were separated into 7 groups. Groups 1-2 were orally challenged with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC; group 3 received 20 mg/kg omeprazole and groups 4-7 received 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of ethanolic leaf extract, respectively. After 1 h, CMC or absolute ethanol was given orally to groups 2-7. The rats were sacrificed after 1 h. Then, the injuries to the gastric mucosa were estimated through assessment of the gastric wall mucus, the gross appearance of ulcer areas, histology, immunohistochemistry and enzymatic assays. Group 2 exhibited significant mucosal injuries, with reduced gastric wall mucus and severe damage to the gastric mucosa, whereas reductions in mucosal injury were observed for groups 4-7. Groups 3-7 demonstrated a reversal in the decrease in Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining induced by ethanol. No symptoms of toxicity or death were observed during the acute toxicity tests. CONCLUSION: Treatment with the extract led to the upregulation of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70 and the downregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. Significant increases in the levels of the antioxidant defense enzymes glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD in the gastric mucosal homogenate were observed, whereas that of a lipid peroxidation marker (MDA was significantly decreased. Significance was defined as p<0.05 compared to the ulcer control group (Group 2.

  3. Moringa extracts used in sugarcane juice treatment and effects on ethanolic fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Rita, De Cassia Vieira Macri [UNESP; Gustavo, Henrique Gravatim Costa [UNESP; Nayara, Abrao Montijo [UNESP; Aline, Ferreira Silva [UNESP; Mutton,Márcia Justino Rossini

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugarcane juice treatment using Moringa oleifera leaf and seeds extracts on ethanolic fermentation. The experiment was arranged in a split plot statistical design, with four replications. Main treatments were three sedimentation agents (synthetic polyelectrolyte, moringa leaf and seed extracts) and control while the secondary treatments were two sugarcane varieties (RB867515 and CTC4). Extracted sugarcane juice was clarified by simple...

  4. Batch extraction modeling of jatropha oil using ethanol and n-hexane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, Alessandro Araujo; Martins, Marcio Aredes [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: aredes@ufv.br; Santos, Karine Tennis dos [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEQ/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carneiro, Angelica Cassia de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DFT/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia; Perez, Ronaldo [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DTA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos

    2008-07-01

    Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus.) has been considered as a promising alternative for rainfall regimes from 200 to over 1500 mm per annum. The seed and the oil have many applications, such as purgative, in the treatment of skin infections and rheumatism, in the control of insects, mollusks and fungi, for diesel engines lubricants, in soap and paint production, and mainly for biodiesel production. New technologies should be developed to accomplish the oil production in large scale, since the Brazilian Biodiesel Program stimulates the oilseeds productions. In large scale oil production, the oil is obtained using solvent extraction. The solvent widely used for oil extraction is the n-hexane mainly because of its low vaporization temperature and selectivity to the lipidic fraction. However, the use of n-hexane in small capacity plants makes the process expensive because of high operating losses. Alcohols were exhaustively studied at pilot and industrial scales extraction plants. Ethanol is an efficient and advantageous extraction solvent for oilseeds, being an attractive alternative to extraction grade n-hexane. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to model and to compare the extraction kinetics of jatropha oil by using ethanol and n-hexane. Extractions experiments were performed in a batch extractor at 45 deg C using a liquid-to-solvent ratio of 15:1 (mL solvent/g sample). Samples were taken every 15 min, and extraction time was to 2 h. The kinetics of oil extraction data were fitted to the models reported in literature. For n-hexane and ethanol extractions, the fractional residual oil at 120 minutes was 0.314 and 0.0538, respectively. The models reported in literature were suitable to describe the n-hexane extraction, especially the Duggal model. However, those models were not adequate the model the ethanol extraction (author)

  5. Simulation of ethanol extractive distillation with mixed glycols as separating agent

    OpenAIRE

    Gil,I. D.; L. C. García; G. Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Extractive distillation is an alternative for ethanol dehydration processes that has been shown to be more effective than azeotropic distillation and, in close proximity, to be very competitive against the process that uses adsorption with molecular sieves. Glycols have been shown to be the most effective solvents in extractive distillation, mainly ethylene glycol and glycerol. In this work, an extractive distillation column was simulated with the Aspen Plus software platform, using the RadFr...

  6. Anticonvulsant effects of Lippia citriodora (Verbenaceae leaves ethanolic extract in mice: Role of gabaergic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rashidian

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The results propose that L. citriodora leave ethanolic extract has anticonvulsant activity against convulsive disorders. It seems that this plant′s extract generates its antiseizure effect through GABAergic system potentiation. Further studies will be needed in order to investigate the exact mechanisms of it. Moreover, one may conclude that the present results are in accordance with the positive effect of L. citriodora extract to treat convulsion mentioned in old Iranian literature.

  7. Effect of Prosopis africana ethanolic leaf extracts on packed cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract of Prosopis africana was given to the rats in solution as daily water. Group A rats (cage A) received 0 ml of the extract per 100 ml of distilled water and served as control group. Group B rats (cage B) received 1 ml of extract in 100 ml of distilled water, group C rats (cage C) received 2 ml of extract in 100 ml of ...

  8. Hepatoprotective effect of leaves of aqueous ethanol extract of Cestrum nocturnum against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imran Qadir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective activities of Cestrum nocturnum (Queen of Night was evaluated against the paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in the mice. Aqueous ethanol (30:70 extract of plant was obtained by maceration. Results showed that aqueous ethanol extract of C. nocturnum (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg produced significant (p<0.05 hepatoprotective activities against paracetamol induced liver injury in Swiss albino mice. Histopathalogical studied of liver further supported the hepatoprotective effects of C. notrunum. Phyto-chemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and volatile oils. Most of the flavonoids have hepatoprotective activity. Therefore, the hepatoprotective activity of C. nocturnum may be due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic components. It was concluded from the present study that aqueous ethanol extract of leaves of C. nocturnum has hepatoprotective activity against the paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino mice.

  9. A study Antiurolithiatic Activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagannath N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the Antiurolithiatic Activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus in animal models.Materials and Methods: The study includes performing on healthy albino rats of either sex weighing 220 – 270gms and urolithiasis was induced by oral administration of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride water. The parameters studied are serum analysis for Urea, Creatinine, Calcium and Phosphorus, Body Weight of animals included in the study group and Histopathological Study of kidney for the presences crystals.  Results In our study the Ethanolic extract of Asparagus Racemosus with doses of 800mg/kg and 1600mg/kg per orally to rats showed significant reduction in serum urea, creatinine, calcium and phosphorus levels in urolithiatic rats when compared to the positive control rats (Group II. These results were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05.Conclusion: Ethanol Extract of Asparagus racemosus has a significant antiurolithiatic activity.

  10. NOVEL FUROCARBAZOLE A LKALOIDS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT FROM Zanthoxylum fagara (L. Sargent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Macías

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available From ethanol-soluble extract of the bark from Zanthoxylum fagara (L. Sargent. were isolated two novel furocarbazole alkaloids, 4-methoxy-10H-furo[3,2-a]carbazole ( and 10H-furo[3,2-a]carbazole ( , whose structures were elucidated on the basis of IR, MS and NMR (including 1D and 2D techniques. In addition, the antibacterial effect of the ethanol extract of bark was evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella boydii, Vibrio cholerae El Tor, and Vibrio cholerae clinical lysate; and Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, using the Agar-well diffusion method. In above-mentioned assay was found that the ethanol extract of bark exhibited inhibition against strains B. subtilis (17mm, V. cholerae El Tor (11mm, V. cholerae clinical lysate (10mm, and S. epidermidis (9mm.

  11. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Methanoilc and Ethanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous ethanoic and methanolic extracts of Citrus Sinensis Peel were investigated for antiinflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar rats, and compared to a positive control drug, Indomethacin. These extracts were given(IP) in a concentration of 20, and 70mg/kg with extract with a concentration ...

  12. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant and free radical scavenging ability of the extract was assessed against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The ability of the extract to reduce ferric ions to its ferrous form was also evaluated. The total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and saponin contents of the extract was ...

  13. Hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Aframomum melegueta on ethanol-induced toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwozo, Sarah O; Oyinloye, Babatunji E

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there have been remarkable developments in the prevention of diseases, especially with regards to the role of free radicals and antioxidants. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress appears to be one mechanism by which ethanol causes liver injury. The protective effect of aqueous plant extract of Aframomum melegueta on ethanol-induced toxicity was investigated in male Wistar rats. The rats were treated with 45 % ethanol (4.8 g/kg b.w.t.) for 16 days to induce alcoholic diseases in the liver. The activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and triglyceride were monitored and the histological changes in liver examined in order to evaluate the protective effects of the plant extract. Hepatic malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione, as well as superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase activities were determined for the antioxidant status. Chronic ethanol administration resulted in a statistically significant elevation of serum alanine aminotransferases and triglyceride levels, as well as a decrease in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase which was dramatically attenuated by the co-administration of the plant extract. Histological changes were related to these indices. Co-administration of the plant extract suppressed the elevation of lipid peroxidation, restored the reduced glutathion, and enhanced the superoxide dismutase activity. These results highlight the ability of Aframomum melegueta to ameliorate oxidative damage in the liver and the observed effects are associated with its antioxidant activities.

  14. Effects of marjoram volatile oil and grape seed extract on ethanol toxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; Saleh, Amal; Salama, Osama M

    2007-11-01

    Natural dietary antioxidants are extensively studied for their ability to protect cells from miscellaneous damages. Marjoram volatile oil (Origanum majorana L., Lamiaceae) and grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera L., Vitaceae) are potent antioxidants. Effects of administration of marjoram volatile oil or grape seed extract on oral administration of ethanol, simultaneously, daily for 10 weeks were studied through determining epididymal spermatozoal analysis, serum testosterone level, weight and histopathological examination of testis, liver and brain. Glutathione level and lipid peroxidation content as malondialdehyde in the testis, liver and brain were measured. The repeated intake of a great amount of ethanol (10 ml/kg body weight, 25% v/v) was followed by fertility disturbances with low sperm count, impaired sperm motility and decrease in serum testosterone level. Moreover, ethanol toxicity induced significant alterations in the histological structures of the testis, liver and brain. The results revealed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in the level of glutathione in the testis, liver and brain in the ethanol-treated group. However, co-administration of the extracts of protective plants resulted in minimizing the hazard effects of ethanol toxicity on male fertility, liver and brain tissues. It may be concluded that marjoram volatile oil and grape seed extract are useful herbal remedies, especially for controlling oxidative damages.

  15. Antifungal effects of the aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Echinophora platyloba and Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Z; Javadian, F; Khammari, D; Hassanshahian, M

    2016-03-01

    In traditional medicine, herbal products still remain the principal source of pharmaceutical agents. The present study aimed to investigate the antifungal effects of Echinophora platyloba and Rosmarinus officinalis extracts on C. albicans species. :The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of E. platyloba and R. officinalis, collected from the mountainous regions of Iran, were screened in terms of antimicrobial activity against C. albicans strains, using the agar well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the microtitration technique. Overall, the results showed that the leaf extracts of E. platyloba and R. officinalis had strong antimicrobial activities. Also, based on the findings, R. officinalis leaf extracts exhibited higher antimicrobial activity. The ethanolic leaf extracts of E. platyloba and R. officinalis showed good antimicrobial activity against C. albicans strains. However, the aqueous extracts did not show any major activities against the tested C. albicans strains. On the other hand, the ethanolic extracts exhibited major antimicrobial properties against C. albicans strains. The highest minimum inhibitory concentration was reported in E. platyloba leaf extracts. The present results indicated some advantages of E. platyloba and R. officinalis leaf extracts, which could be applied for the treatment of microbial infections.

  16. Identification and antioxidant activity test of bioactive compound produced from ethanol extract of temukunci (Boesenbergia rotunda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Sri; Handayani, Sri; Frindryani, Luthfi Fitri

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study are to identify and to analyze antioxidant activity of bioactive compounds in ethanol extract of temukunci (Boesenbergia rotunda) rhizome. This research method was carried out by maceration of 3 kg dryed powder of B. rotunda in ethanol. The extract was concentrated using a vacuum evaporator. White crystals obtained from ethanol extract further recrystallized to produce as much as 80 mg of pure compound. Identification of pure compound was obtained using UV-Vis, IR, and 1H-NMR. The antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts, pure compounds, and ascorbic acid (positive control) were obtained using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method. The UV-Vis spectra showed λmax 287.40 and 214.20 nm, the IR spectra showed absorption C=C aromatic group at 1571.66 cm-1, C=O carbonyl at 1639.37 cm-1 and CO at 1153.35 cm-1. 1H-NMR spectra showed a group monosubtituted benzene, benzene tetrasubstituted, proton of hydroxyl group, proton of methoxyl group, one proton oxyalkyl, and two protons alkyl. The spectroscopic data showed the compound is pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-metoxyiflavanone). The antioxidant activity (IC50) of the ethanol extracts from B. rotunda rhizome, pinostrobin, and ascorbic acid (positive control) were 92.6; 62.84; and 3.7 µg/mL repectively. The study showed that the ethanol extract of B. rotunda rhizome and bioactive compounds have high antioxidant activity, but their activity lower than ascorbic acid.

  17. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Tunisian garlic (Allium sativum essential oil and ethanol extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Zouari Chekki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to establish some nutritional properties of garlic cultivated in Tunisia and to evaluate the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activites of its essential oil and ethanol extract. Tunisian garlic (Allium sativum was characterized for moisture, ash and protein contents which were determined as 66%, 1.4% and 5.2% respectively. In addition, Fe (5.90 mg/kg, Cu (1.61 mg/kg, Mg (15 mg/kg and P (140 mg/kg were reported such as the major minerals in garlic. The fat profile of tunisian garlic was conducted, the main fatty acids identified were lauric acid (49.3% and linoleic acid (20.4%. Essential oil obtained from A. sativum was analysed by capillary GCMS. Diallyl disulfide (49.1% and diallyl trisulfide (30.38% were the main components of the five identified components. The phenolic content of The ethanol extract are analysed for its phenolic profiles, colorimetric analysis revealed that the total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins contents were respectively 43.63 mg GA/g, 13.18 mg quercetin/g and 24.24 mg of catechin/g. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, essential oil presented the highest antioxidant activity compared to its ethanolic extract. IC50 values observed for the essential oil and ethanol extract were 300 μg/ml and 600 µg/ml respectively. The essential oil and ethanol extract from raw garlic were tested for antimicrobial activity against seven microorganisms. The results showed that ethanol extract was active against all tested strains: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogene, Yersinia enterocolitica and Bacillus cereus.

  18. Curcuma aromatica Water Extract Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Gastritis via Enhancement of Antioxidant Status

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    Woo-Young Jeon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma aromatica is an herbal medicine and traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases in Asia. We investigated the effects of C. aromatica water extract (CAW in the stomach of rats with ethanol-induced gastritis. Gastritis was induced in rats by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol. The CAW groups were given 250 or 500 mg of extract/kg 2 h before administration of ethanol, respectively. To determine the antioxidant effects of CAW, we determined the level of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH, the activities of catalase, degree of inflammation, and mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced ethanol-induced inflammation and loss of epithelial cells and increased the mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced the increase in lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced gastritis (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp. and increased mucosal GSH content (500 mg/kg, p<0.01 and the activity of catalase (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp.. CAW increased the production of prostaglandin E2. These findings suggest that CAW protects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury by increasing antioxidant status. We suggest that CAW could be developed for the treatment of gastritis induced by alcohol.

  19. Assessment of bioactivities of ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae leaves

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    Md. Asadujjaman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess ethanolic extract of the leaves of Melia azedarach L. (Family-Meliaceae for its possible antioxidant, analgesic and antibacterial activities in association with performing phytochemical evaluation. Methods: A number of phytochemical tests of this extract were utilized to distinguish the existence of different sorts of compounds. Qualitative and quantitative antioxidant activities were assessed by TLC and DPPH scavenging assay respectively. Acetic acid induced writhing test in mice and disk diffusion assay of the leaves extract were carried out to demonstrate the analgesic and antibacterial activities respectively. Results: The phytochemical assessment revealed the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins and tannins like compounds. Ethanolic extract of the leaves demonstrated antioxidant, analgesic and antibacterial activities in vitro. Conclusion: Considering the study, this could justify the leaves extract ’s bioactivities but, to substantiate the activity of individual compound further investigation is necessary.

  20. Crude ethanolic extract from spent coffee grounds: Volatile and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Julio C; Arruda, Neusa P; Freitas, Suely P

    2017-11-01

    Espresso capsule consumption and spent coffee ground (SCG) generation have increased, and the present study was undertaken to evaluate the volatile profile (VP), the antioxidant activity (AA) and the sun protection factor (SPF) of the Crude ethanolic extract obtained from the SCG in capsules. The extract yield was superior to the ether yield because a higher unsaponifiable matter (U.M.) amount was recovered by ethanol. The obtained VP (70 compounds) was typical of roasted coffee oil. Furthermore, chemometric analysis using principal components (PCA) discriminated the extracts and grouped the replicates for each sample, which showed the repeatability of the extraction process. The AA ranged from 18.4 to 23.6 (mg extract mg DPPH-1) and the SPF from 2.27 to 2.76. The combination of the coffee VP, AA and SPF gave the espresso SCG's crude ethanolicextract, desirable properties that can be used in cosmetic and food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of Nannochloropsis oceanica on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, amyloidogenesis and memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yeon; Hwang, Chul Ju; Lee, Hee Pom; Kim, Hee Sik; Han, Sang-Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2017-07-11

    Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigated the suppressive possibility of ethanol extract of Nannochloropsis oceanica (N. oceanica) on memory deficiency along with the fundamental mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice model. Among several extracts of 32 marine microalgae, ethanol extract of N. oceanica showed the most significant inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) generation, NF-κB activity and β-secretase activity in cultured BV-2 cells, neuronal cells and Raw 264.7 cells. Ethanol extract of N. oceanica (50, 100 mg/kg) also ameliorated LPS (250 μg/kg)-induced memory impairment. We also found that ethanol extract of N. oceanica inhibited the LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2. Furthermore, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) level as well as glutathione (GSH) level was also decreased by treatment of ethanol extract of N.oceanica. The ethanol extract of N. oceanica also suppresses IκB degradation as well as p50 and p65 translocation into the nucleus in LPS-treated mice brain. Associated with the inhibitory effect on neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, ethanol extract of N. oceanica suppressed Aβ1-42 generation through down-regulation of APP and BACE1 expression in in vivo. These results suggest that ethanol extract of N. oceanica ameliorated memory impairment via anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-amyloidogenic mechanisms.

  2. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of South Indian medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaram Ravikumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the antiplasmodial potential of Catharanthus roseus L (C. roseus, Coccinea grandis (C. grandis, Thevetia peruviana (T. peruviana, Prosopis juliflora (P. juliflora, Acacia nilotica (A. nilotica, Azadirachta indica (A. indica (Abr. Juss and Morinda pubescens (M. pubescens. Methods: The C. roseus L, C. grandis, T. peruviana, P. juliflora, A. nilotica, A. indica (Abr. Juss and M. pubescens were collected from Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu, India and the extraction was carried out in ethanol. The filter sterilized extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 毺 g/mL were tested for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. The phytochemical constituents in the potential extracts were also detected. Results: Of the selected plants species, the bark extract of A. indica (Abr. Juss showed excellent antiplasmodial activity (IC50 29.77 毺 g/mL followed by leaf extract of A. indica (Abr. Juss (IC50 47.20 毺 g/mL and leaf extract of C. roseus L (IC50 49.63 毺 g/mL. The leaf, bark and flower extracts of P. juliflora showed IC50 values of more than 100 毺 g/mL. Statistical analysis reveals significant antiplasmodial activity (P<0.01 between the concentrations and time of exposure. Additionally, no chemical injury was found in the erythrocytes incubated with the ethanolic extract of all the tested plants. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, triterpenoids, proteins and tannins in the ethanolic extracts of the tested plants. Conclusions: The ethanolic bark extracts of A. indica (Abr. Juss possess lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs.

  3. Evaluation of immunomodulatory potential of ethanolic extract of Roscoea procera rhizomes in mice

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    Mahesh S Sahu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of present study was to evaluate immunomodulatory potential of ethanolic extract of Roscoea procera (Zingiberaceae rhizomes by using delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH and carbon clearance method in comparison to standard established immunosuppressant drug, cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg, i.p. in mice. Material and Methods : The extract was comprised to acute toxicity (OECD-423 guideline, DTH and carbon clearance method for their immunomodulatory potential. Ethanolic extract of Roscoea procera rhizomes administered orally at doses 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, p.o. to mice. Result and Conclusion : Result of our study revealed that, the foot pat thickness of ethanolic extract group (P<0.05 significantly enhanced the production of circulating antibody titre in response to Sheep red blood cells (SRBC and phagocytic functions of mononuclear macrophages and non-specific immunity. Result were also supported by serological and haematological tests data. Hence, the present investigation reveals that, ethanolic extract of Roscoea procera rhizomes possesses immunostimulant properties. Further studies to identify the active moieties and elucidation of the mechanism of action are recommended.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis Linn. against human pathogens

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    oorthy kannaiyan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antimicrobial effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis (S. chinensis Linn. against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Methods: The Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus (MTCC 96, Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis (MTCC 435, Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis (MTCC 121, Escherichia coli (E. coli (MTCC 443, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae (MTCC 432, Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis (MTCC 1429, Salmonella paratyphi A (S. paratyphi A (MTCC 735, Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium (MTCC 98, Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri (MTCC 1457 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa (MTCC 424, Candida albicans (C. albicans (MTCC 183 and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans (clinical isolate were originally obtained from Microbial Type Culture Collection Centre, Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India. Antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods against pathogens by using crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Results: Ethanolic extract of S. chinensis L. leaves showed significant antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (33.20 mm, C. albicans (30.40 mm and C. neoformans (18.20 mm mean values were documented. Aqueous extract of leaves showed significant inhibitory activity against C. neoformans (19.8 mm and S. epidermidis (17.80 mm were observed. Based on broth dilution method, the ethanolic extract of crude plant material showed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values against S. epidermidis, C. neoformans (256 毺 g/mL and C. albicans (512 毺 g/mL, whereas the aqueous extract of S. chinensis L. leaves showed significant inhibitory activity against S. epidermidis (512 毺 g/mL and C. neoformans (1024 毺 g/mL were observed. Conclusions: The present result revealed that ethanolic extract of S. chinensis L. possesses significant antifungal activity when compared as the antibacterial activities.

  5. Ethanolic Extract Of Pterocarpus eringeus Bark Impairs Platelet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of Pterocarpus erinaceus extract on platelets count functions in rats. Methods: 75 rats were fed with alcohol extracts of Pterocarpus erinaceus for two months. Platelets count, prothrombin time, Bleeding and Clotting time were determined in the rats by methods of Diacies and Lewis.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of Bryonopsis laciniosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extents of the growth inhibition of bacteria were measured for each extract and Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus cerues exhibited significant growth inhibition zone. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) exhibited by stem extract against the tested organisms ranged between 0.156 and 5 mg/ml ...

  7. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Acute toxicity test of the plant extract was carried out in rats of both sexes. The anticonceptive and abortifacient activity of the extract were investigated, including the Fertility Index or embryo score of control and treated animals. The estrogenic activity was determined using ovariectomized rats. Results:The results ...

  8. Antimicrobial Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Pistia Stratiotes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... material while Escherichia coli was the most resistant. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the plant extract ranged between 20% (w/v) and 50% (w/v). Thus extract of Pistia stratiotes could be useful as a source of antibiotics against some disease causing bacteria. KEY WORDS: Antibacterial, Inhibitory, Agar diffusion, ...

  9. Antinociceptive and antipyretic properties of ethanol extract of Oryza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2017-03-21

    Mar 21, 2017 ... The observation of the effect of the extract as compared to that of aspirin agrees with the fact that aspirin exerts its antipyretic effect by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus. In a related study it was reported that Dalbergia odorifera extract inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandin (Bonazzi et al., ...

  10. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Ethanolic Leaf Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory action of the leaf extract is mediated both centrally and peripherally. The analgesic or anti-inflammatory effect of the extract was not attenuated by opioid antagonist, naloxone, thus ruling out the involvement of opioid receptors in the central ...

  11. phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aluko B. T.

    ABSTRACT. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging ability of the extract was assessed against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The ability of the extract to reduce ferric ions to its ferrous form was also evaluated. The total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and saponin contents of the ...

  12. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of ethanolic extracts of guarana, boldo, rosemary and cinnamon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Bonilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this investigation, the ethanolic extracts of two less known plants, little reported in the literature (guarana and boldo leaves were studied in comparison with the ethanolic extracts of two well studied plants (cinnamon and rosemary, regarding their colour, GC-MS profile, phenolic content and their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The rosemary (59.20 ± 0.28 and guarana (56.63 ± 0.54 extracts showed the highest values for luminosity (L* and the UV-Vis absorption increased when L* decreased. GC-MS identified a limited number of compounds in the cinnamon and guarana extracts. The cinnamon extract showed the highest value for the total phenolic content (172 mg GA/g extract as compared to the other extracts. The highest antioxidant capacity was observed for the boldo leaves extract in the TEAC (6.66 ± 0.17 mM assay and for the rosemary extract in the DPPH (0.80 ± 0.14 mg/L test. In addition, all the extracts showed antimicrobial activity against the S. aureus strain, indicating that all the extracts studied could be used by food industries to develop new active food packaging materials.

  13. "Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of essential oil, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum micranthum Willd leaves".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamal-Herrera, Isabel O; Carrillo-Cocom, Leydi M; Escalante-Réndiz, Diana Y; Aráiz-Hernández, Diana; Azamar-Barrios, José A

    2018-02-08

    Ocimum micranthum Willd is a plant used in traditional medicine practiced in the region of the Yucatan peninsula. In particular, it is used for the treatment of cutaneous infections and wound healing, however there are currently no existing scientific studies that support these applications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and the in vitro proliferative activity (on healthy mammalian cell lines) of the essential oil and extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) of this plant. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oil and aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum micranthum leaves against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans was determined using the microdilution technique. The in vitro proliferative activity of human fibroblast (hFB) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells treated with these extracts was evaluated using the MTT test. The hFB cell line was also evaluated using Trypan Blue assay. Candida albicans was more susceptible to the ethanolic extract and the aqueous extract (MIC value of 5 μL/mL and 80 μL/mL respectively). In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the MIC of the aqueous and ethanolic extract was 125 μL/mL. The aqueous extract showed a significant (p essential oil and extracts of Ocimum micranthum leaves are sufficient to cause an antiproliferative effect on the hFB cell line but do not produce an antimicrobial effect against the microorganisms evaluated. More studies are necessary to improve understanding of the mechanism of action of the compounds implicated in the bioactivities shown by the crude extracts.

  14. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract.

  15. Trypanocidal activity of ethanolic extracts of Commiphora swynnertonii Burtt on Trypanosoma congolense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagagi, Yakob P; Silayo, Richard S; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2016-07-08

    African trypanosomosis is the disease caused by extracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma transmitted by tsetse flies. The current study has evaluated the trypanocidal activity of Commiphora swynnertonii extracts on Trypanosoma congolense. The effect of ethanolic stem bark and resinous extracts on motility of T. congolense was evaluated by in vitro study at concentrations of 2 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml. Then, trypanocidal activity was evaluated by drug incubation infectivity test using mice at concentrations of 0.4 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml. In both studies negative (without drug) and positive (diminazene diaceturate) controls were used. The in vitro study showed that, ethanolic stem bark extract of C. swynnertonii at concentration of 4 mg/ml caused complete cessation of motility for T. congolense in 30 min. However, resinous ethanolic extract had delayed effect on cessation of motility of T. congolense observed at 90 and 100 min post-incubation at concentrations of 4 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml respectively. The drug incubation infectivity test study depicted that ethanolic stem bark extract at concentration of 2 mg/ml significantly (p = 0.000) reduced the infectivity of T. congolense in mice. However, it did not vary significantly (P =0.897) with group treated with diminazene diaceturate incubated mixture. The current study has provided evidence that, ethanolic stem bark extract of C. swynnertonii possess trypanocidal activity against T. congolense. Based on these findings, further studies are recommended to determine its potential as a lead to trypanocidal drug discovery.

  16. Central nervous system activity of the ethanol leaf extract of Sida acuta in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibironke, G F; Umukoro, A S; Ajonijebu, D C

    2014-03-01

    The study investigated the pharmacological effects of ethanol extract of Sida acuta leaves on central nervous system activities in mice. Adult male mice (18 - 25g) were used for the study. The extract was administered orally in male mice and evaluated in the following tests: forced swimming, tail suspension, formalin-induced paw licking, acetic acid--induced mouse writhing and apomorphine-induced stereotypy. The results revealed a reduction in the frequency of abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid, decreased licking times in both phases of the formalin test, reduction in immobility times in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. However, the extract produced no effect on apomorphine-induced stereotyped behaviour. These results suggest that the ethanol extract of Sida acuta contains psychoactive substances with analgesic and antidepressant-like properties which may be beneficial in the management of pain.

  17. In vivo Wound Healing Activity of 70% Ethanol Leaf Extract of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Becium grandiflorum Lam. (Lamiaceae)is used as a traditional medicine against malaria, “Mich” and for treatment of spider bite that culminates in wound. The present study evaluated the potential wound healing activity of the crude extract of B. grandiflorum using rodent wound models. Hydroalcoholic (70% ethanol) leaf ...

  18. Effects of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola on glucose and lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Garcinia kola on glucose and lipid levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Ethanolic extract of G. kola was prepared and used for animal treatments. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight). Acute effects of G. kola on glucose ...

  19. Effects of ethanolic extract of garlic, roselle and ginger on quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-08-23

    Aug 23, 2014 ... antimicrobial properties (Agarwal, 1996). The objective of this study was therefore, to investigate the effect of ethanolic extracts of garlic, ginger and roselle on cost of production, sensory, physical, and keeping qualities of chicken patties. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Dried ginger, garlic and roselle were ...

  20. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Euphorbia hirta (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, In vitro anticancer effects of Euphorbia hirta were investigated. The objectives of this study are to find the presence of secondary metabolites by preliminary phytochemical investigation and FTIR analysis in the Euphorbia hirta. Ethanolic leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta was tested for its cytotoxicity against ...

  1. The effect of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty (30) adult wistar rats were used to study the possible effects of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on lipid profile. The rats were divided randomly into two groups, that is, normal diet group and high fat diet group. Each group was further subdivided into three sub groups (A1,B1,C1 for the normal diet group and ...

  2. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract and fractions of the seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude ethanol extract, aqueous and chloroform fractions of the seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) was investigated for antimicrobial activity. Agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration determinations were the methods employed for the study. Clinical bacterial and fungal isolates were used as ...

  3. Anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic effect of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the ethanol extract of coconut on egg albumin- induced inflammation in rat hind paw, hypotonicity induced haemolysis of human red blood cells and indomethacin – induced gastric ulcer in Wistar rats, was studied. Fifty adult rats of either sex of weight 120-200g were divided into ten experimental groups of five ...

  4. Long-term continuous administration of a hydro-ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of a 90-day continuous oral administration of a hydro-ethanolic whole plant extract of Synedrella nodiflora. (SNE) in male ... duced significant decrease in white blood cell and neutrophil counts and an increase in albumin, globulin, total bili- rubin, total ...... of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular dis- ease in men ...

  5. Effect of ethanolic extract of Senecio biafrae on puberty onset and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the course of the evaluation of its effect on puberty onset and some physiological parameters of fertility, different doses of its ethanolic extract were orally administered to immature female rats for 30 days. Body, ovarian, uterus weight; uterine, ovarian proteins or cholesterol level as well as data on puberty onset were ...

  6. Acute and subacute toxicity study of ethanolic extract of the stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... tilis and Salmonella typhii. Ethanolic extract of the stem bark was shown by Tijani et al. .... mainly the brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, intestine, stomach, spleen and testes were removed and weighed. ..... than AST because it is more sensitive to hepatic damage. (Herfindal and Gourley, 2000) and there is a ...

  7. Effects of the Ethanolic Extract of Bulbostylis coleotricha (Hochst.Exa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In all the groups, the effects of all treatments were checked on induced inflammation using cotton pellet granuloma and carrageenan induced paw oedema model. The results in the two models used showed that ethanolic extract of B. coleotricha significantly inhibited inflammation in the treated groups. In the cotton pellet ...

  8. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of ethanol extract of rheumatic tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-acute toxicity profile of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF), a polyherbal tea consisting of Salix alba, Eucalyptus globulus and Albizia chevalieri was investigated in wistar rats of both sexes. Wistar rats were orally administered three different doses of ethanol extract of RTF for 28 days after which the effect on body weight, ...

  9. Anti-trypanosomal activity of ethanolic bulb extract of Allium porrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-five male albino rats were divided into five groups and used for the study. Day 5 post-infection and establishment of parasitemia (1x106 trypanosomes/ml of blood), Group 1 was untreated while Groups 2-4 were treated with single intraperitoneal injection 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of A. porrum ...

  10. Evaluation of in vivo antimalarial activity of the ethanolic leaf extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Abstract. Malaria has remained a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical countries of the world due to the resistance posed by malaria parasites to most commonly affordable anti-malarials. The anti plasmodial activities of the ethanolic leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata and Cymbopogon citratus on ...

  11. Role of ethanol leaf extracts of Ficus glumosa on fasting blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Africa many plants and plant products are used traditionally for the managements of diabetes mellitus or its complication. But, science based evidence on some of this product safety need to be establish. We determine the effect of the Ethanol leaves extract of Ficus glumosa on fasting blood glucose level and liver ...

  12. Effect of Ethanol Root Extract of Equisetum arvense (L) on Urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Ethanol Root Extract of Equisetum arvense (L) on. Urinary Bladder Activity in Rats and Analysis of Principal. Plant Constituents. Haiying Zhang1, Ning Li1, Kun Li2,3 and Peng Li1*. 1Department ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,. International ...

  13. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Salvadora Persica L. and it's Chloroform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Salvadora Persica L. and it's Chloroform Fraction in Experimentally Induced Hyperlipidemia in Rats. ... Blood was collected by ocular puncture 2 and 4 h after olive oil treatment and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 20 min. Serum samples were further subjected to biochemical analysis. The study dose ...

  14. Anti-Nociceptive And Anti-Inflammatory Activities Of Ethanol Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nociceptive and antiinflammatory effects in mice and Wistar rats which were carried out using acetic acid-induced abdominal contractions in mice and formalin-induced hind paw edema in Wistar rats. Three doses of the ethanol extract (50, 100, ...

  15. Protective effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Bacopa floribunda (r.br ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacopa floribunda (R.Br.) Wettst (Scrophulariaceae) leaf is used in traditional African and Ayurvedic medicine as a brain tonic for promoting memory and psychological disorders. Hence this study was designed to investigate effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Bacopa floribunda (HeBF) on memory impairment and oxidative ...

  16. Anti-diabetic effect of ethanol leaf extract of Cissampelos owariensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, ethanol leaf extract of this plant was prepared, and phytochemical composition, acute toxicity, blood glucose lowering effect and improvement of body weight gain in alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg weight) induced diabetic rats were measured and compared with that of a patent drug glibenclamide.

  17. Effect of subchronic administration of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) ethanolic extract to hematological parameters in rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachri, M. S.; Yuliani, S.; Sari, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    Nutmeg is dried kernel of broadly ovoid seed of Myristica fragrans Houtt. It has been mentioned in ethnomedical literature as aphrodisiac, stomachic, carminative, tonic, and nervous stimulant. In order to establish the safety of nutmeg, the effect of the repeated administration of nutmeg is needed. The study was aimed to determine the toxic effect of subchronic administration of nutmeg ethanolic extract to hematological parameters in rat. A total of 28 male adult Wistar rats divided into 4 groups. Group I as control was given by 0.5% CMC-suspension, group II, III, and IV were given by 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw, respectively, of nutmeg ethanolic extract. The treatments were administered daily for 31 days. On day 31 bloods were taken from orbital sinus. The hematological parameter consisted of the numbers of erythrocyte and leukocyte as well as hemoglobin and total protein levels were measured. The data were statistically analyzed by one way Anova followed by LSD test. All of observed hematological parameters in rats showed that there were no significant difference between the nutmeg ethanolic extract treated groups and control group. The result indicated that the subchronic administration of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw of nutmeg ethanolic extract did not cause the change of hematological parameters in rat.

  18. Shampoo of kesum (Polygonum minus) leaves ethanol extract as an anti-dandruff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadiarti, Dini

    2017-03-01

    Formulation of shampoo has done as anti dandruff extracts from ethanol leaf kesum (Polygonum minus) the most effective way of inhibiting the growth of Pityrosporum ovale. The community of West Kalimantan utilizing kesum as medicine anti dandruff but there has been no clinical research against such activities. Kesum have been cleaned, dried and crushed, then extracted by using maceration method of ethanol 50%. Furthermore, kesum leaves were divided into four of shampoo formula by varying concentrations of kesum leaves ethanol extract 0% (negative control), 5 % (the fisrt formula), 10 % (the second formula), and 15 % (the third formula). In the next step, each formula shampoo anti dandruff will betested by setting up the media in the form of SDB (Sabouraud Dextrose Broth) and SDA (Sabouraud Dextrose Agar) as well as the microbiological tests include: culture Pityrosporum ovale, calculation of yeast Pityrosporum ovale, and test of inhibition and release of active substances. Shampoo formula of kesum leaves ethanol extract showed that is has antifungal activity towards of the fungi caused by dandruff. The best inhibitor activity has been obtained from the third formula with diameter of clear zone at 2,61 cm.

  19. Anti-convulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Moringa concanensis leaves in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Elizabeth Joy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To investigate the anti-convulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Moringa concanensis leaves on maximal electroshock-induced seizures (MES and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods : The ethanolic extract of Moringa concanensis leaves (200 mg/kg, i.p was studied for its anti-convulsant effect on MES and PTZ-induced seizures in Swiss albino mice. In MES seizures, suppression of tonic hind limb extension was noted. In PTZ seizures, abolition of the convulsions was noted. Results : The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Moringa concanensis (200 mg/kg, i.p significantly (P < 0.001 abolished the hind limb extension induced by MES. The same dose also significantly (P < 0.001 protected the animals from PTZ-induced tonic convulsions. Conclusion : The data suggests that the ethanolic extract of Moringa concanensis leaves may produce its anti-convulsant effects via multiple mechanisms since it abolished the hind limb extension induced by MES as well as abolished seizures produced by PTZ.

  20. Antianxiety effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Moringa oleifera in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar K. Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety disorder is one of the most common mental ailments exhibited by humans. It can cause considerable distress and debility. Anxiety is portrayed as a frame of mind concerned about future in association with preparation for possible, upcoming undesirable happenings. The present treatment for the disorder is having a lot of side-effects. An agent with good therapeutic effect and less side-effects is needed for the treatment of anxiety. Objectives: To investigate the anxiolytic activity of ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of leaves of Moringa oleifera (200 mg/kg, i.p was studied for its anxiolytic effect on Swiss albino mice by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM and Light Dark Arena (LDA test. Results: The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera (200 mg/kg, i.p demonstrated significant (P < 0.001 anxiolytic activity in EPM and LDA models of anxiety. Conclusion: The data suggests that the ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves may have produced its anxiolytic effects via multiple mechanisms.

  1. The In Vivo Analgesic Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this work is to determine the analgesic activities of Anacardium occidentale and Cymbopogon citratus, plants used in ethnomedicine. Crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. occidentale and C. citratus at the doses of 50 and 100mg/kg body weight were evaluated for analgesic activities in male and ...

  2. Evaluation of in vivo antimalarial activity of the ethanolic leaf extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries of the world due to the resistance posed by malaria parasites to most commonly affordable anti-malarials. The anti plasmodial activities of the ethanolic leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata and Cymbopogon citratus on chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei berghei in mice was evaluated. C. odorata and C.

  3. pain management in mice using the aqueous and ethanol extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-08-01

    Aug 1, 2003 ... Standard drugs: Acetyl salicylic acid was obtained from. Evans Lot No. SJ22401 and morphine HCl was manufactured by .... Protective effects of ethanol extract of some medicinal plants against acetic acid induced writhing as compared to those of the standard analgesics. Number of writhing. Name of plant/ ...

  4. Effect of ethanolic extract of leaf of azadirachta indica on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ethanolic extract of the leaf of Azadirachta indica on haematological indices of rats. Twenty four adult male rats (weighing between 100 and 120g) were randomly but equally divided into four groups of six rats per group. Rats in group I (control) were administered with ...

  5. Effect of the ethanol extract of Waltheria indica on parasitaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of Waltheria indica on parasitaemia as well as glucose level of Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected rats. The results showed that the ethanol extract of Waltheria indica dose and time dependently inhibited parasitaemia and extended the life span of the treated rats from 8.5 days ...

  6. Anti-diabetic effect of ethanol leaf extract of Combretum micranthum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was aimed to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of ethanol leaf extract of Combretum micranthum on blood glucose levels and oxidative stress biomarkers such as malondaldehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase on alloxan induced Diab tes in Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced ...

  7. Effect of Artemisia annua L. leaves essential oil and ethanol extract on behavioral assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio F. Perazzo

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua has been used as a traditional plant for the treatment of malaria and fever in China because of the presence of its active compound, artemisinin. The present study evaluated the central activity of the essential oil and the crude ethanol extract of A. annua L. in animals as a part of a psychopharmacological screening of this plant. The extract was prepared in ethanol (AEE and the essential oil (AEO obtained by hydrodistillation, both with fresh leaves. Induced immobility, the forced swimming test (FST and the open-field test (OFT are well-known animal models to study drug-induced depression. The administration of A. annua essential oil or crude ethanol extract increased the immobility time in the FST and decreased other activities (ambulation, exploration, rearing and grooming in the OFT in animals. Both AEO and AEE prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleep as well, but the essential oil had a marked effect. Observing these results, it is possible to suggest that A. annua crude ethanol extract and essential oil could act as depressors on the Central Nervous System (CNS.

  8. Co-administeration of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Moringa oleifera and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbs are often co-administered with orthodox drugs, raising the potential for herb-drug interactions. This study investigated the pharmacological interaction between ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera (MOE) leaves and metformin co administered to diabetic Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of 150 ...

  9. Haematopoietic properties of ethanolic leaf extract of ageratum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These later groups were gavaged with the extract of Ageratum conyzoides in concentrations of 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 500mg/kg respectively for 30days at a dose of 0.1ml/body weight. The control group was gavaged with 0.9% sodium chloride at a dose of 0.1m1/body weight as placebo. The extract at the doses ...

  10. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties.

  11. Antioxidant Studies on Ethanol Extracts from Two Selected Genera of Indian Lamiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Ramu, G.; Dhanabal, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is targeted to evaluate antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts from the leaves of Plectranthus mollis and Salvia officinalis belonging to family Lamiaceae using nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and lipid peroxidation methods. The results of the study indicate that the leaf extracts of both the plants possess in vitro antioxidant activity. The higher amount of flavanoids and phenolic compounds may correspond to th...

  12. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of ethanol extracts of mango leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M.R; Mannan, M.A; Kabir, M.H.B; Islam, A; K.J. Olival

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal properties of ethanol leave extract of Mangifera indica. For evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, acetic acid induced writhing response model and carrageenan induced paw edema model were used in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats, respectively. In both cases, leaves extract were administered and the obtained effects were compared with commercially availabl...

  13. Cocos nucifera Linn. (Palmae) husk fiber ethanolic extract: antioxidant capacity and electrochemical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Monika Bezerra dos Santos; Valentim, Iara Barros; de Vasconcelos, Camila Calado; Omena, Cristhiane Maria Bazílio; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques; da Costa, João Gomes; Freitas, Mikael de Lima; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Goulart, Marília Oliveira Fonseca

    2013-02-01

    The present study aims to determine the antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extracts of husk fiber of four coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) varieties (yellow dwarf, green dwarf, giant and hybrid) and to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of these extracts on a glassy carbon electrode and on a modified glassy carbon electrode. The highest values of total phenolic content were obtained for the hybrid (531 ± 24 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract) and yellow dwarf (501 ± 29 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract) varieties and the lowest was for the green dwarf variety with 58 ± 9 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract. The ability of the extracts to scavenge DPPH˙ radicals was in the order of giant > yellow dwarf > hybrid > green dwarf and the IC50 values varied from 8.6 to 55.9 μg mL(-1). All varieties showed reducing potential by the use of FRAP and CUPRAC methods, with the lowest performance obtained for the green dwarf variety. Additionally, through the use of mimetic biomembranes, ethanolic extracts of coconut husk were shown to protect lipids against oxidative damage independent of the variety. The main antioxidants identified in the extract of yellow dwarf variety by UPLC-MS were quercetin and catechin. Cyclic voltammetric studies of the ethanolic extracts on glassy carbon electrode confirmed the presence of easily oxidized compounds, and the high antioxidant capacity of the varieties. This capacity was expressed as mg quercetin equivalents g(-1) dry extract and ranged from 25.9 up to 53.5 mg QE g(-1). A poly-xanthurenic acid (poly-Xa)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) / glassy carbon modified electrode (poly-Xa/MWCNT/GCE) was used for this purpose. Our findings suggest that these extracts are potentially important antioxidant supplements for the everyday human diet, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, thereby aggregating value to the enormous amount of waste from the coconut industry, mostly used for burning purposes.

  14. Crude Ethanol Extract of Pithecellobium ellipticum as a Potential Lipid-Lowering Treatment for Hypercholesterolaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet P.-C. Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available If left untreated, hypercholesterolaemia can lead to atherosclerosis, given time. Plants from the Fabaceae family have shown the ability to significantly suppress atherosclerosis progression. We selected four extracts from Pithecellobium ellipticum, from the Fabaceae family, to be screened in a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase assay. The ethanol extract, at a concentration of 500 μg/mL, exhibited superior inhibition properties over the other extracts by demonstrating 80.9% inhibition, while 0.223 μg/mL of pravastatin (control showed 78.1% inhibition towards enzymatic activity. These findings led to the fractionation of the ethanol extract using ethyl acetate : methanol (95 : 5, gradually increasing polarity and produced seven fractions (1A to 7A. Fraction 7A at 150 μg/mL emerged as being the most promising bioactive fraction with 78.7% inhibition. FRAP, beta carotene, and DPPH assays supported the findings from the ethanol extract as it exhibited good overall antioxidant activity. The antioxidant properties have been said to reduce free radicals that are able to oxidize lipoproteins which are the cause of atherosclerosis. Phytochemical screenings revealed the presence of terpenoid, steroid, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds as the responsible group of compound(s, working individually or synergistically, within the extract to prevent binding of HMG-CoA to HMG-CoA reductase.

  15. Antiplasmodial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of ethanol extract of Vernonia amygdalina del. Leaf in Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoregie, Ehimwenma Sheena; Pal, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Vernonia amygdalina (V. amygdalina) leaf is locally employed in the Southern region of Nigeria in the treatment of malaria infection. This study evaluated the in vivo antiplasmodial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effect of ethanol extract of V. amygdalina leaf. The active principles of the dried leaf were extracted with ethanol. For quality validation, chemical finger-print of the extract was performed through high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The extract was assessed for antiplasmodial activity by the standard four-day suppressive test on Plasmodium berghei (ANKA) infected male Swiss mice (six weeks old) placed into five groups of six animals each. The absorption spectra from the HPTLC revealed several peaks suggesting presence of some bioactive compounds. Results from the in vivo study showed that the ethanol extract of the plant leaf was significantly active against P. berghei in a dose-dependent manner with the minimum and maximum activity observed in the mice treated orally with 100mg/kg (% inhibition of 23.7%) and 1000 mg/kg (% inhibition of 82.3 %) of the extract, respectively, on day four of the study. There was also a dose-dependent decrease (pimmunomodulatory effect, against P . berghei infection.

  16. Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahekar, Satish E.; Kale, Ranjana S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Use of Manihot esculenta Crantz (MEC) plant has been mentioned in literature of Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute and many others. It is also known commonly as tapioca, continues to be a crop of food security for the millions of people, especially in the developing countries of the globe including India. Medicinal uses of this plant including diarrhea have been mentioned in literature, but scientific evidence is lacking. Objective: The objective was to study antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of MEC in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg were used in Wistar rats of either sex. Experimental models used were castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation and charcoal passage test. Loperamide and atropine sulfate were the standard drugs used in these models respectively. Results: MEC extracts decreased intestinal fluid volume in dose dependent manner no extract group was comparable with standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). MEC extracts also significantly inhibited gastrointestinal motility in dose dependent manner. MEC (100 mg/kg) and MEC (200 mg/kg) were comparable with standard drug atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg) in this aspect. <0.05 were considered to be significant. Conclusions: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves exhibited significant antidiarrheal activity by decreasing intestinal fluid accumulation and the gastrointestinal motility in Wistar rats. PMID:25878462

  17. Antiplasmodial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of ethanol extract of Vernonia amygdalina del. Leaf in Swiss mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehimwenma Omoregie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vernonia amygdalina (V.  amygdalina leaf is locally employed in the Southern region of Nigeria in the treatment of malari a infection. This study evaluated the in vivo antiplasmodial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effect of ethanol extract of V.  amygdalina leaf. Materials and Methods: The active principles of the dried leaf were extracted with ethanol. For quality validation, chemical finger-print of the extract was performed through high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. The extract was assessed for antiplasmodial activity by the standard four-day suppressive test on Plasmodium berghei (ANKA infected male Swiss mice (six weeks old placed into five groups of six animals each. Result: The absorption spectra from the HPTLC revealed several peaks suggesting presence of some bioactive compounds. Results from the in vivo study showed that the ethanol extract of the plant leaf was significantly active against P. berghei in a dose-dependent manner with the minimum and maximum activity observed in the mice treated orally with 100mg/kg (% inhibition of 23.7% and 1000 mg/kg (% inhibition of 82.3 % of the extract, respectively, on day four of the study. There was also a dose-dependent decrease (p

  18. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of Justicia neesii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Nimmakayala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agar well diffusion method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Justicia neesii extract. The maximum activity index (AI values are observed against Klebsiella pneumonia (1.208 and low AI value for Streptococcus faecalis (0.963 compared to other bacterial species. The maximum AI values are observed against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1.147 and low AI value for Fusarium axisporum (0.986 compared to other fungal species. The MIC and MBC/MFC values indicated the bacteriostatic/ fungistatic nature of the extract and also having good correlation with the zone of inhibition values. The total activity values indicated that J. neesii extract can show antimicrobial activity even at higher dilutions, except for Gram negative bacteria.

  19. Acacia catechu Ethanolic Seed Extract Triggers Apoptosis of SCC-25 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Thangavelu; Ezhilarasan, Devaraj; Nagaich, Upendra; Vijayaragavan, Rajagopal

    2017-10-01

    Acacia catechu Willd (Fabaceae), commonly known as catechu, cachou, and black cutch, has been studied for its hepatoprotective, antipyretic, antidiarrheal, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antinociceptive, antimicrobial, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities. We evaluated the cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of A. catechu seed (ACS) against SCC-25 human oral squamous carcinoma cell line. Cytotoxic effect of ACS extract was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, using concentrations of 0.1-1000 μg/mL for 24 h. A. catechu ethanol seed extract was treated SCC-25 cells with 25 and 50 μg/mL. At the end of treatment period, apoptotic marker gene expressions such as caspase 8, 9, Bcl-2, Bax, and cytochrome c were evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Morphological changes of ACS treated SCC-25 cells was evaluated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual staining. Nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation was evaluated by propidium iodide (PI) staining. A. catechu ethanol seed extract treatment caused cytotoxicity in SCC-25 cells with an IC50 value of 100 μg/mL. Apoptotic markers caspases 8 and 9, cytochrome c, Bax gene expressions were significantly increased upon ACS extract treatment indicate the apoptosis induction in SCC-25 cells. This treatment also caused significant downregulation of Bcl-2 gene expression. Staining with AO/EB and PI shows membrane blebbing, and nuclear membrane distortion further confirms the apoptosis induction by ACS treatment in SCC-25 cells. The ethanol seed extracts of A. catechu was found to be cytotoxic at lower concentrations and induced apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells. Acacia catechu ethanolic seed extract contains phytochemicals such as epicatechin, rutin, and quercetinAcacia catechu seed (ACS) extract significantly (P extract treatment to SCC-25 cells significantly modulated the gene

  20. The effects of (ethanolic, methanolic, and aqueous) extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Considering the increasing demand for applying medicinal plants in the medical treatment, this study aimed to investigatethe effect of cinnamon and thyme extracts alone and in comparison with clotrimazole ointment on the Candida albicans yeast in laboratory condition. Materials and Methods: ...

  1. Ethanolic extract of melgota (Macaranga postulata) for repellency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2006-11-27

    1993), Amin et al. (2000). The dried extracts were dissolved in distilled water to make solutions of different concentra- tions. For the experiment, we prepared solutions of three different concentrations as 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% (w/v).

  2. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Methanoilc and Ethanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    certain citrus peel extracts (Haiquing et al.,. 2004).Sweet orange oil is a byproduct of the juice industry produced by pressing the peel. It consist of about 90% d-limonene (Omodamiro et al., 2013). Citrus sinensis is widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antimicrobial effects, hence current research was ...

  3. Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Senna Fistula on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    leave extract of Senna fistula on haematological values, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in experimental diabetic rats. Twenty-four albino rats ... might improve the diabetic induced disturbances of some haematological parameters, reduces the plasma lipid imbalances .... Malaysia, alloxan monohydrate and all other.

  4. Anti-diarrhoeal potential of the ethanol extract of Gongronema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shada

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... 2% (v/v) hydrochloric acid, 1% (w/v) picric acid, methyl orange, activated ..... The extract remarkably decreased the intestinal fluid accumulation ... Delay of castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats: A new way to evaluate ... Int. J. Biochem. ... Phytochemical and anti-diarrhoeal studies of the stem bark of Ceiba.

  5. Phytochemicals and nutritional characteristics of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, terpernoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, reducing sugars and saponins found only for the plant bark. The result of proximate analysis showed that the leaf and bark of the extract contain respectively: moisture content (25.80% ...

  6. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Vernonia amygdalina L. in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the use of Vernonia amygdalina del. extract to control fungi associated with groundnut (Arachis hypogeae L) seeds. Aspergillus niger van Tiegh, A. flavus link ex fries, Cercospora arachidicola Hori, Phoma exigua desm., Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Fusarium oxysporium schl., ...

  7. Hepatoprotective and anticlastogenic effects of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Termination of the experiment and extraction of tissues. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation twenty four hours after the last treatment dose. 0.04% colchicine was administered at a dose of 10 ml/kg body weight to the animals 2 hours prior to the sacrifice. Blood samples were collected through retro-orbital bleeding ...

  8. The effect of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... received daily oral doses of 200mg, 400mg and 800mg per kg of body weight of the extract respectively for a period of three weeks. Estimation of red blood cells, packed cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, total white blood cells and differentials, serum total proteins, albumin, and globulin were carried out.

  9. Impact of 50% ethanolic extract of Calendula officinalis (flower) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral administration to male rats of 200mg kg-1 body weight of an extract of Calendula officinalis flowers every day for 60 days did not cause loss of body weight, but decreased significantly the weight of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced ...

  10. The efficacy of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Pistia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and 300 mg/kg as well as 0.3 mg/kg methotrexate, 0.46 mg/kg diclofenac and 1 mg/kg dexamethasone were administered to formalin-induced arthritic rats. The same doses of the extracts in comparison to 150 mg/kg acetaminophen were also administered to rats in which fever had been induced with lipopolysaccharides.

  11. Haematotoxicity of Ethanol Extract of Adenium obesum (Forssk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Forssk.) Roem. &. Schult stem bark in Wistar rats in relation to haematological parameters. Methods: This involved the administration of single dose of 300 mgkg-1, 2000 mgkg-1 and 5000 mgkg-1 of the extract by oral gavage separately to three ...

  12. Ethanol extracts of Newbouldia laevis stem and leaves modulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes is known to involve oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant enzymes. Many plants metabolites have been shown to possess antioxidant activities, improving the effects of oxidative stress complications in diabetic conditions. This study evaluated the effects of extracts from Newbouldia laevis leaves and stem on ...

  13. Haematotoxicity of ethanol extract of Adenium obesum (Forssk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forssk.) Roem. & Schult stem bark in Wistar rats in relation to haematological parameters. Methods: This involved the administration of single dose of 300 mgkg-1, 2000 mgkg-1 and 5000 mgkg-1 of the extract by oral gavage separately to three ...

  14. Comparative effects of ethanolic extracts of Ficus carica and Mucuna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. carica was found to be more effective than M. pruriens in elevating the red blood cell count, especially by the 14th day. The two extracts , however, significantly decreased the total white blood cell count, as well as the percentage neutrophils, when compared with the control group (p<0.05), but not significant between test ...

  15. Behavioural studies on the ethanol leaf extract of Grewia carpinifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The plant extract may improve muscular strength at tested doses and possess CNS depressant activity at 800 mg/ kg. Keywords: Grewia ..... skeletal muscle fibres has been reported to reduce loco- motor activity in animals23. ... Hypertrophy of an organ is an indication of toxicity of chemical or biological ...

  16. Comparative Study of Antibacterial Activities of Ethanol Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the antimicrobial activities of the bark and seed extracts of Garcinia kola and Carica papaya were tested using the Agar well diffusion method on eight bacterial strains - Staphylococcus aureus; Salmonella typhi B; Shigelladysenteria; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Serratiamarcescens; Pseudomonas ...

  17. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Ethanol Extracts of Cynara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Cynara scolymus is a medicinal plant frequently used in traditional medicine for stomach and liver diseases. ... The extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against the tested strains of Listeria innocua CMGB 218, Bacillus cereus CMGB 215 with MIC of 5 mg/ml but showed MIC of 15 mg/ml for the other strains.

  18. Ethanolic leaf extract of Langenaria breviflora (bitter gourd) inhibits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-01-30

    Jan 30, 2015 ... Methodology and result: Ulceration in the rat was induced by a single oral dose of indomethacin (60 mg/kg body weight). Ulcerated rats were orally administered with Lagenaria breviflora extract at 200 mg/kg body weight once daily for 21 .... Areas of mucosal damage were expressed as a percentage of the ...

  19. Evaluation of anticonvulsant properties of ethanol stem bark extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study is aimed at evaluating the claim of this medicinal plant part by herbalist for the treatment of epilepsy. A preliminary phytochemical screening was performed on the stem bark extract after which intraperitoneal LD50 was determined in mice. Anticonvulsant screening was carried out using Maximal ...

  20. Ginseng Extract G115 Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Depression in Mice by Increasing Brain BDNF Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerawan Boonlert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The decrease of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been reported in alcohol use disorder and major depression. The effective treatment of these comorbid diseases remains undiscovered. Nutraceutical products are therefore proposed as an alternative approach to overcome this challenge. Ginseng extract G115, the standardized extract of Panax ginseng, is a widely-used nutraceutical that is beneficial for various central nervous system disorders. This study aimed to determine the antidepressant effect of ginseng extract G115 in ethanol-treated mice models. Mice received either water, amitriptyline, or various doses of G115 (p.o. followed by water or ethanol (i.p. for 8 days. The antidepressant activity was evaluated using forced swimming test. BDNF levels were measured from hippocampal and prefrontal cortex tissues. The results demonstrated that the increase of immobility time in depressant mice induced by ethanol was reversed by both G115 and amitriptyline treatment. A significant increase of BDNF levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was observed in ethanol-treated mice receiving G115. Taken together, this study provides scientific information on the use of G115 as an antidepressant that could be further used as a dietary supplement in comorbid alcohol use and major depressive disorders.

  1. Pressurized Hot Ethanol Extraction of Carotenoids from Carrot By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotta Turner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are known for their antioxidant activity and health promoting effects. One of the richest sources of carotenoids are carrots. However, about 25% of the annual production is regarded as by-products due to strict market policies. The aim of this study was to extract carotenoids from those by-products. Conventional carotenoid extraction methods require the use of organic solvents, which are costly, environmentally hazardous, and require expensive disposal procedures. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE utilizes conventional solvents at elevated temperatures and pressure, and it requires less solvent and shorter extraction times. The extraction solvent of choice in this study was ethanol, which is a solvent generally recognized as safe (GRAS. The extraction procedure was optimized by varying the extraction time (2–10 min and the temperature (60–180 °C. β-Carotene was used as an indicator for carotenoids content in the carrots. The results showed that time and temperatures of extraction have significant effect on the yield of carotenoids. Increasing the flush volume during extraction did not improve the extractability of carotenoids, indicating that the extraction method was mainly desorption/diffusion controlled. Use of a dispersing agent that absorbs the moisture content was important for the efficiency of extraction. Analysing the content of β-carotene at the different length of extraction cycles showed that about 80% was recovered after around 20 min of extraction.

  2. Evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant and GC-MS analysis of ethanolic seed extract of Myristica dactyloides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavani, R.; Vijayalakshmi, R.; Venkat Kumar, S.; Rajeshkumar, S.

    2017-11-01

    In this present investigation we analysed the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ethanol extract of Myristica dactyloides. The antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract was evaluated by the agar well diffusion method against of E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus sp, and Staphylococcus aureus at different concentrations. The antibacterial activity showed the result in a dose-dependent manner. The free radical scavenging was evaluated against DPPH, hydroxyl, and nitric oxide radicals. In DPPH, hydroxyl and nitric oxide scavenging assay showed the IC 50 value of the extract was found to be 20 μg/ml, 48.25 and 30 μg/ml, respectively. The plant can be considered as promising antioxidant properties with high potential value for drug development for various diseases.

  3. Diuretic and antilithiasic activities of ethanolic extract from Piper amalago (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Antônio da Silva; da Silva Mota, Jonas; Barison, Andersson; Veber, Clebson Luiz; Negrão, Fábio Juliano; Kassuya, Candida Aparecida Leite; de Barros, Márcio Eduardo

    2014-03-15

    Piper amalago is used in Brazilian folk medicine as diuretic and for the treatment of urinary calculus disease, although no scientific data have been described to support these effects. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the diuretic effects and antilithiatic activity of the ethanolic extract of P. amalago (EEPam). Ethanolic extracts of P. amalago (125, 250 and 500mg/kg) were orally administered in male Wistar rats (n=5) and urinary excretion was measured at intervals of up to 24h after administration. The antilithiasic effect of EEPam on calcium oxalate urolithiasis crystallization was examined in a turbidimetric model. The oral administration of all doses of EEPam significantly increased urine output after 24h when compared to control group. Moreover, the application of EEPam, induced an inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate crystallization. According to results, P. amalago extracts showed diuretic and natriuretic activity and antilithiasic effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Antidiabetic Activity of Cocor Bebek Leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. Ethanolic Extract from Various Areas

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    Indah Dwiatmi Dewiyanti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Antidiabetic activity of Cocor Bebek leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. ethanolic extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor and south of Tangerang city has been studied. The study was conducted in vitro using α glucosidase inhibitor method. The results of the study showed that IC50 of the extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor, and Tangerang Selatan city is 40.94 ppm, 33.58 ppm and 16.12 ppm respectively. Meanwhile, IC50 of quersetin which has antidiabetic activity is 10.22 ppm. The results showed that Cocor Bebek leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. ethanolic extract had antidiabetic activity with IC50 less than 100 ppm. However, the activity is lesser than quercetin.

  5. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female rats

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    Uchendu Chukwuka Nwocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hymenocardia acida is traditionally used in African herbal medicine and has numerous therapeutic benefits. But little is known about its potentially negative effects on pregnant women. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifertility effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats were administered orally aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 19 days. The control group received distilled water. On day 20 of gestation, each rat was laparatomised and number of corpora lutea of pregnancy, number of live fetuses as well as the postcoitum fertility index, weights of the foetuses and placentae were determined. Results: Oral administration of the extract from days 1 to 19 of gestation showed reduction (p<0.05 in the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy and number of live fetuses. Weights of fetuses of extract treated female rats were also smaller (p<0.05 compared with the control. Anti-implantation activity of the treatment groups were 41.4%, 48.3% and 51.7% for groups II to IV respectively, whereas antifertility activity of the groups was found to be 40%, 60% and 60% in the same order. Conclusion: The results suggest that aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark could induce negative effects on reproductive functions in female albino rats

  6. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanolic extract of Bougainvillea xbuttiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Perez Gil, A L; Barbosa Navarro, L; Patipo Vera, M; Petricevich, V L

    2012-12-18

    Bougainvillea xbuttiana is widely distributed in Mexico and it is used as an analgesic in folk medicine. In the present study the in vivo antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the Bougainvillea xbuttiana ethanolic extract have been studied in mice. The phytochemical analysis was performed. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated through writhing and formalin test in mice. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined with the carrageenan-induced mice paw oedema model. IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ levels were determined by enzyme-like immunosorbent assay, whereas TNF and nitrite levels were detected by standard assay with L929 cells and colorimetric Griess reactive, respectively. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of the Bougainvillea xbuttiana has significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, by inhibition of nociception induced by acetic acid and paw oedema. This extract also induced a decrease in TNF levels and an increase of IL-6, IFN-γ and NO levels that we observed up to 2h. The highest levels of IL-10 were observed up to 4h. The ratios of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines in sera from mice injected with the ethanolic extract, may be manifesting an anti-inflammatory status. The present study provides convincing evidences that Bougainvillea xbuttiana extract possesses significant anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Danshen Ethanol Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Fexofenadine in Healthy Volunteers

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    Furong Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of multidose administration of danshen ethanol extract on fexofenadine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. A sequential, open-label, two-period pharmacokinetic interaction design was used. 12 healthy male volunteers received a single oral dose of fexofenadine (60 mg followed by danshen ethanol extract (1 g orally, three times a day for 10 days, after which they received 1 g of the danshen extract with fexofenadine (60 mg on the last day. The plasma concentrations of fexofenadine was measured by LC-MS/MS. After 10 days of the danshen extract administration, the mean AUC and Cmax⁡ of the fexofenadine was decreased by 37.2% and 27.4% compared with the control, respectively. The mean clearance of fexofenadine was increased by 104.9%. The in vitro study showed that tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone could induce MDR1 mRNA. This study showed that multidose administration of danshen ethanol extract could increase oral clearance of fexofenadine. The increased oral clearance of fexofenadine is attributable to induction of intestinal P-glycoprotein.

  8. Toxicity of ethanolic extracts from Lippia origanoides and Gliricidia sepium to Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acari: Tetranychidae).

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    Sivira, A; Sanabria, M E; Valera, N; Vásquez, C

    2011-01-01

    Botanical compounds with insecticidal and acaricidal activities have been used in pest management with different levels of success. Toxicity of ethanolic extracts obtained from wild oregano (Lippia origanoides) and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium) to Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) were evaluated. Mite population was collected from black bean plants growing in Urachiche Municipality, Yaracuy State, Venezuela. Ethanolic extracts of wild oregano and gliricidia leaves were evaluated at different concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 20%) using the leaf disk immersion technique. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins, essential oils and saponins was verified in the plant material used in our study. Tetranychus cinnabarinus oviposition decreased at a rate of 43.7% or 57% when 5% oregano or gliricidia extracts were used, respectively. Also, 10% oregano or gliricidia extracts caused 42.2% or 72.5% of mortality to T. cinnabarinus, respectively. Ethanolic extracts showed acaricidal effects on T. cinnabarinus, as evidenced by maximum mortality (96.6% and 100% caused by wild oregano and gliricidia, respectively) when used at a concentration of 20%. Our results showed that gliricidia and wild oregano are promising for the management of T. cinnabarinus, although their field efficacy remains to be evaluated.

  9. Potential osteogenic activity of ethanolic extract and oxoflavidin isolated from Pholidota articulata Lindley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Dixit, Manisha; Singh, Rohit; Agrawal, Manali; Mansoori, Mohd Nizam; Kureel, Jyoti; Singh, Divya; Narender, Tadigoppula; Arya, Kamal Ram

    2015-07-21

    Pholidota articulata Lindley (PA) locally known as Hadjojen (bone jointer) belongs to family Orchidaceae is used for healing fractures in folklore tradition of Kumaon region of Uttarakhand, Himalaya, India. Bone is a dynamic organ and is constantly being remodeled in order to facilitate growth and repair. This process requires the involvement of bone forming osteoblast and bone resorbing osteoclast cells, which function in generating and mineralizing bone, giving strength and rigidity to the skeletal system. Present study was aimed to determine the therapeutic potential of ethanolic extract of PA and its isolated compound oxoflavidin, by characterizing their fracture healing properties. Ovariectomized (Ovx) estrogen deficient adult female Balb/c mice were used for in vivo evaluation of osteogenic or bone healing potential of ethanolic extract of PA. Further, its isolated compounds were tested for their osteogenic efficacy using alkaline phosphatase assay and mineralization assay in vitro in mice calvarial osteoblasts. The ethanolic extract of PA exhibited significant restoration of trabecular micro-architecture in both femoral and tibial bones. Additionally, treatment with PA extract led to better bone quality and devoid of any uterine estrogenicity in ovariectomized estrogen deficient mice. One of the isolated compound, oxoflavidin enhanced ALP activity (a marker of osteoblast differentiation), mineral nodule formation and mRNA levels of osteogenic markers like BMP-2, Type 1 Collagen, RUNX-2 and osteocalcin. These results warrant that ethanolic extract of PA and it's pure compound oxoflavidin have fracture healing properties. The extract and oxoflavidin exhibit a strong threapeutical potential for the treatment and management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modulatory effects of ethanol extract of Spondias Mombin leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groups G and H served as the negative control groups and received 0.2 ml diluted propylene glycol (vehicle for the extract) and distilled water respectively. Group I received distilled water for 7 consecutive days and 2.5mg/kg NaAsO2 as a single oral dose on the 7th day. Heamatological (packed cell volume, red blood cell ...

  11. Effect of ethanolic leaves extract of phyllantus amarus on cisplatin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty six (36) rats were divided into 9 groups (n=4rats) labeled A to I with group A (water control) treated with 0.2ml of distil water, B(vehicle control) administered 0.2ml of olive oil, C and D were orally treated with 150 and 300mg/kgBW leave extract of P. amarus only dissolved in olive oil for 14day respectively, 0.7ml of ...

  12. Effects of ethanol extract of Moringa stenopetala leaves on guinea-pig and mouse smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Y

    1999-08-01

    The fresh leaf ethanol (LE) extract of Moringa stenopetala was tested in guinea-pig ileum and mouse duodenum and in uterus strips. There were significant dose and time dependent reductions of the acetylcholine (AC) response with initial stimulatory effects in both the guinea-pig ileum and the mouse duodenum preparations. Spontaneous rhythmic contractions were greatly reduced, suggesting an antispasmodic property of the crude LE extract. The LE extract showed some oxytocic activity on uterus strips of guinea-pigs and mice. The results are indicative of the traditional use of the leaves of Moringa stenopetala for stomach pain and to expel retained placentae by women. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Anxiolytic-like effect of ethanolic extract of Argemone mexicana and its alkaloids in Wistar rats

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    Aideé Itzel Arcos-Martínez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Argemone mexicana is a Papaveracea plant; some reports have shown their antibacterial, anti-cancer, sedative and probably anti-anxiety properties. From their aerial parts, flavonoids and alkaloids have been isolated, which are intrinsically related to some actions on the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anxiolytic-like effects of the plant, using its ethanolic extract and alkaloid-enriched extract obtained from fresh leaves. Material and Methods: Phytochemical screening was carried out together with evaluation of antioxidant capacity and the enrichment of alkaloids present in the extract. Subsequently, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of ethanolic extract and alkaloid-enriched extract (200 µg/kg were intraperitoneally administered to female Wistar rats, which were exposed to elevated plus maze (EPM test. Picrotoxin (1 mg/kg, a non-competitive gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA chloride channel antagonist, was used in experimental procedures to evaluate if this receptor is involved in the anxiolytic-like effects of A. mexicana. To discard motor effects associated with the treatments, the rats were evaluated by the locomotor activity test. Results: Only the ethanolic extract at 200 mg/kg and alkaloid-enriched extract (200 µg/kg produced anxiolytic-like effects similarly to diazepam 2 mg/kg on EPM test, without affecting locomotor activity. Meanwhile, the administration of picrotoxin blocked anti-anxiety effect of alkaloid-enriched extract of the plant. Conclusion: These results showed that A. mexicana is a potential anxiolytic agent and we suggest that this effect is mediated by the GABAA receptor. These effects are related to the presence of alkaloids.

  14. Screening for larvicidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected plants against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae

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    Michael Russelle Alvarez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen for larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (95% ethanol from Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii (M. koenigii, Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus, Jatropha curcas (J. curcas, Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti and Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for larvicidal activity by exposing the A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae (15 larvae per trial, triplicates for 48 h, counting the mortalities every 24 h. Additionally, phytochemical screening for flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, coumarins, indoles and steroids were performed on active extracts using spray tests. Results: Against A. aegypti, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (100% after 24 and 48 h, J. curcas ethanolic (84.44% after 24 h and 88.89% after 48 h and M. koenigii ethanolic (53.33% after 24 h and 71.11% after 48 h. On the other hand, against A. albopictus, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (93.33% after 24 h and 100% after 48 h, J. curcas ethanolic (77.78% after 24 h and 82.22% after 48 h and E. globulus ethanolic (64.44% after 24 h and 73.33% after 48 h. Phytochemical screening was also performed on the active extracts, revealing alkaloids, tannins, indoles and steroids. Conclusios: The results demonstrate the larvicidal activities of ethanolic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia hirta, Ixora coccinea, Gliricidia sepium, M. koenigii, E. globulus, J. curcas and C. frutescens against A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. These could be used as potential larvicidal agents for the control of these mosquitoes.

  15. Anticonvulsant Effects of Lippia citriodora (Verbenaceae) Leaves Ethanolic Extract in Mice: Role of GABAergic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Amir; Farhang, Forogh; Vahedi, Habib; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Ejtemai Mehr, Shahram; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Lippia citriodora Kunth is one of the Iranian traditional medicines for the treatment of convulsive disorders. The goal of this study is to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the plant's leave ethanolic extract against electro- and chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in mice. The anticonvulsant activity of the extract (200, 400, 800 mg/kg, per os, p.o.) was investigated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice. Diazepam (1 mg/kg) and phenytoin (25 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) were used as reference drugs. In addition, for investigating the role of GABAergic system, flumazenil (2 mg/kg, i.p.) was also injected before L. citriodora. The extract had not any toxicity and significantly decreased the duration and increased the latency of the seizures induced by PTZ (90 mg/kg). In the MES test, L. citriodora displayed statistically significant reduction in hind limb tonic extension duration in a nondose-dependent manner. Flumazenil reversed the anticonvulsant activity of the plant's extract in the PTZ model. The results propose that L. citriodora leave ethanolic extract has anticonvulsant activity against convulsive disorders. It seems that this plant's extract generates its antiseizure effect through GABAergic system potentiation. Further studies will be needed in order to investigate the exact mechanisms of it. Moreover, one may conclude that the present results are in accordance with the positive effect of L. citriodora extract to treat convulsion mentioned in old Iranian literature.

  16. In vitro photoprotective effects of Marcetia taxifolia ethanolic extract and its potential for sunscreen formulations

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    Sônia C.C. Costa

    Full Text Available AbstractThe species Marcetia taxifolia (A. St.-Hil. DC., Melastomataceae, which is endemic of the rupestrian fields of northeastern Brazil, contains a significant amount of flavonoids. In this work, the potential of the ethanolic extract of M. taxifolia as the active principle in a sunscreen photoprotection (UV-A and UV-B formulation was investigated. The Liquid Chromatography High Performance-Diode Array Detector quantification (quercetin, total flavonoid content, antioxidant activity through 2.2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazil method, photoprotective activity against UV-B and UV-A radiation in vitro (spectrophotometric method and potential for eye irritation using the methodology of the hen egg test-chorioallantoic membrane were performed in the extract. After that, the formulations were prepared using different concentrations of active ethanolic extract (5, 10, 20 and 30% and the evaluation of the sun protection factor was carried out using the same methodology used for the crude extract. The crude extract showed UV-A photoprotection and low eye irritation in the hen egg test-chorioallantoic membrane test. All formulations containing M. taxifolia extract had ≥ 6 sun protection factor. Its shows the possibility to use this extracts as a sunscreen in pharmaceutical preparations.

  17. Modelling Extraction of White Tea Polyphenols: The Influence of Temperature and Ethanol Concentration

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    Sara Peiró

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of the extraction of natural antioxidants from white tea has fostered intensive research. This study has investigated the effects of ethanol-water mixtures, temperature and time on the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant components from white tea. The response surface methodology was applied to identify the best extraction conditions. The best conditions to maximize the extraction of total polyphenols were: ethanol, 50%, for 47.5 min. Although the yield of polyphenols was optimal at 65 °C, the maximum antioxidant capacity was achieved with an extraction temperature of 90 °C. This study has identified the optimal conditions for the extraction of tea liquor with the best antioxidant properties. Epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin and epicatechin were extracted from white tea at concentrations up to 29.6 ± 10.6, 5.40 ± 2.09, 5.04 ± 0.20 and 2.48 ± 1.10 mg/100 g.

  18. Inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach L. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyani; Safithri, Mega; Puspita Sari, Yoana

    2016-01-01

    Development of α-glucosidase inhibitor derived from natural products is an opportunity for a more economic management of diabetes prevention. The objective of this study was to test the activity of α-glucosidase with or without potential inhibitor compounds. By in vitro method, α-glucosidase hydrolizes p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopiranoside to glucose and the yellow of p-nitrophenol which can be determined with spectrophotometry at 400 nm. The ability of ethanolic leaf extract of Melia azedarach L. as a-glucosidase inhibitor was compared with that of commercial acarbose (Glucobay®). Acarbose showed strong inhibitory activity against a-glucosidase with IC50 values of 2.154 µg/mL. The crude ethanolic leaf extract of M. azedarach, however, showed less inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3, 444.114 µg/mL. Total phenolics of M. azedarach leaves EtOH extract showed 17.94 µg GAE/mg extract and flavonoids total compound of 9.55 µg QE/mg extract. Based on the published wide range of IC50 values of extracts reported as a-glucosidase inhibitor which were between 10, 000 ppm-0.66 ppm, our result suggests that extract of M.azedarach leaves is potential candidate for development of anti-hyperglycemic formulation.

  19. Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract protects neurons from apoptosis and mitigates brain swelling in experimental cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, Selma; Khalil, Eltahir A; Khalid, Sami A; Alzohairy, Mohammad A; Mohieldein, Abdlmarouf; Aldebasi, Yousef H; Seke Etet, Paul Faustin; Farahna, Mohammed

    2013-08-29

    Cerebral malaria is a rapidly developing encephalopathy caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Drugs currently in use are associated with poor outcome in an increasing number of cases and new drugs are urgently needed. The potential of the medicinal plant Azadirachta indica (Neem) for the treatment of experimental cerebral malaria was evaluated in mice. Experimental cerebral malaria was induced in mice by infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Infected mice were administered with Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract at doses of 300, 500, or 1000 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) in experimental groups, or with the anti-malarial drugs chloroquine (12 mg/kg, i.p.) or artemether (1.6 mg/kg, i.p.), in the positive control groups. Treatment was initiated at the onset of signs of brain involvement and pursued for five days on a daily basis. Mice brains were dissected out and processed for the study of the effects of the extract on pyramidal cells' fate and on markers of neuroinflammation and apoptosis, in the medial temporal lobe. Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract mitigated neuroinflammation, decreased the severity of brain oedema, and protected pyramidal neurons from apoptosis, particularly at the highest dose used, comparable to chloroquine and artemether. The present findings suggest that Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract has protective effects on neuronal populations in the inflamed central nervous system, and justify at least in part its use in African and Asian folk medicine and practices.

  20. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of cinchona ledgeriana leaves ethanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundowo, Andini; Artanti, Nina; Hanafi, M.; Minarti, Primahana, Gian

    2017-11-01

    C ledgeriana is a medicinal plant that contains alkaloids, especially on the barks for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. The main alkaloids in this plant are cinchonine, cinchonidine, quinine and quinidine. Besides for antiamalarial this plant is also commonly used to treat whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. Compare to other medicinal plants, nowadays only very few studies were conducted in Cinchona species. Our current study aims to determine the content of phytochemical, total phenol and total flavonoids from C. ledgeriana leaves 70% ethanol extract. The extraction was performed by maceration method using 70% ethanol solvent and then fractionated into hexane, ethylacetate and butanol. Phytochemical screening was performed to determine the content of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and alumunium chloride colorimetric methods using gallic acid and quercetin as standards. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The results of phytochemical screening showed that the 70% ethanol extract of C. ledgeriana leaves contained alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. The total phenol and total flavonoids analysis showed that ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenol (40.23%) and total flavonoids (65.34%).

  1. Antioxidative activity of ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia measured by various methods

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    Liliana CEPOI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to determine the level of antioxidative activity of various ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia biomass, and also to demonstrate the possibility to select suitable methods for evaluation of these characteristics. The methods for determination of antioxidative activity were selected concerning their possible use for complex preparations: phosphomolybdenum method for evaluation of antioxidant capacity (PMRC, radical-scavenging activity by DPPH method (DPPH, antioxidant activity by the ABTS+ radical cation assay (ABTS, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (FCRC. We showed the presence of antioxidative substances in ethanol extractions from 2 species of cyanobacteria, and possibility to increase their activity varying ethanol concentration. It facilitates the extraction both water- and lipid-soluble components from biomass. Regarding used methods for antioxidative activity determination, we have used only those based on reaction of electrons return (which widely used nowadays in vitro. Obtained in different ways results demonstrate high reduction capacity of the extracts and possibility to select suitable analytical methods for each case.

  2. Phytochemical, organoleptic and ferric reducing properties of essential oil and ethanolic extract from Pistacia lentiscus (L.

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    Dalila Beghlal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the phytochemical composition and organoleptic properties of Pistacia lentiscus (L. (P. lentiscus from Algeria and to investigate the antioxidant activities of its essential oil and ethanolic extract. Methods: Aerial parts of P. lentiscus were collected at Hammam Melouane (Blida, 50 km from Algiers. Different solvent extractions were made for the preliminary screening of phytochemicals. Additionally, the physicochemical and organoleptic properties of the Algerian variety have been characterized. Moreover, P. lentiscus essential oil and ethanolic extract were studied for their antioxidant potential by ferric reducing power test. Results: Phytochemical screening of P. lentiscus revealed the presence of various biochemicals, including leuco-anthocyanins, condensed tannins, gallic tannins, saponoside, coumarins, and flavonoids, while others were absent (anthocyanins and alcaloids. Essential oil showed lower antioxidant potential compared to the ethanolic extract, reflecting the potential phenolic content responsible for this activity. Conclusions: The present study reveals the presence of various phytochemical classes in P. lentiscus, and the antioxidant experiment shows a good bioactivity of the aerial parts of the Algerian P. lentiscus. The literature review of the essential oil composition shows also important variations due to geographic and environmental conditions. This preliminary investigation will help explore the bioactive compounds of P. lentiscus, and will bring data for a better physicochemical and organoleptic classification of the Algerian variety.

  3. Acute and subacute toxicity evaluation of ethanolic extract from fruits of Schinus molle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Adriana; Minetti, Alejandra; Bras, Cristina; Zanetti, Noelia

    2007-09-25

    Ethanolic and hexanic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle showed ability to control several insect pests. Potential vertebrate toxicity associated with insecticidal plants requires investigation before institutional promotion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of ethanolic extracts from fruits of Schinus molle in rats. The plant extract was added to the diet at 2g/kg body weight/day during 1 day to evaluate acute toxicity and at 1g/kg body weight/day during 14 days to evaluate subacute toxicity. At the end of the exposure and after 7 days, behavioral and functional parameters in a functional observational battery and motor activity in an open field were assessed. Finally, histopathological examinations were conducted on several organs. In both exposures, an increase in the arousal level was observed in experimental groups. Also, the landing foot splay parameter increased in the experimental group after acute exposure. Only the subacute exposure produced a significant increase in the motor activity in the open field. All these changes disappeared after 7 days. None of the exposures affected the different organs evaluated. Our results suggest that ethanolic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle should be relatively safe to use as insecticide.

  4. Evaluation of gastric anti-ulcer activity in a hydro-ethanolic extract from Kielmeyera coriacea

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    Yara Cavalcante Fortes Goulart

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The antiulcer activity of a hydro-ethanolic extract prepared from the stems of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. (Guttiferae was evaluated in rats employing the ethanol-acid, acute stress and Indomethacin models to induce experimental gastric ulcers. Treatment with K coriacea hydro-ethanolic extract provided significant antiulcer protection in the ethanol-acid and Indomethacin models, but not in the acute stress model. These results suggested that the K coriacea hydro-ethanolic extract increased resistance to necrotizing agents, providing a direct, protective effect on the gastric mucosa.A atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato hidroetanólico de caule de Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. (Guttiferae foi avaliada em ratos por meio de três modelos experimentais: etanol-ácido, indometacina e estresse agudo. O índice ulcerativo observado após o tratamento com o extrato de Kielmeyera coriacea foi comparado com a droga de referência, cimetidina. O tratamento com o extrato mostrou significante atividade anti-ulcerogênica nos modelos de indução de lesões de mucosa gástrica produzidas por etanol-ácido e indometacina, mas não contra úlcera induzida pelo modelo de estresse agudo. Etanol-ácido e agentes antiinflamatórios, como a indometacina, são compostos que produzem úlcera de mucosa gástrica. Os resultados deste estudo sugerem uma atividade protetora de mucosa gástrica para o extrato de Kielmeyera coriacea

  5. Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

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    Poonam Lodhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and nonenzymatic markers (cholesterol and triglycerides, lipid peroxidation contents, malondialdehyde (MDA, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and decreased the activities of total proteins, albumin, and cellular antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD. The elevation and reduction in these biochemical enzymes caused the damage in hepatocytes histologically due to the high production of ROS, which retards the antioxidant defense capacity of cell. AQGTE was capable of recovering the level of these markers and the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. These results support the suggestion that AQGTE was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo against ethanol-induced toxicity.

  6. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  7. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Enciso, N. A.; Coy-barrera, E. D.; Patiño, O. J.; Cuca, L. E.; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

  8. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of ethanolic extract of plant Geniosporum prostratum (L. Benth. Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The plant Geniosporum prostratum (L. Benth. belongs to the family of "Lamiaceae," which is widely available in Tamil Nadu. Traditionally, plant extract is used to treat fever and common cold for children. The plant has not been yet studied pharmacologically for antipyretic activity. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antipyretic activity of alcoholic extract of the bark of plant G. prostratum (L. Benth. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 healthy white albino rats weighing 200 to 250 g were taken and divided into four groups of six animals each. The initial rectal temperature of each animal was recorded by digital thermometer and its hourly variation was noted for 4 hours. The pyrexia was induced by injecting a suspension of 12% of brewer′s yeast (at the dose 1 ml/100 g of animal weight in normal saline subcutaneously below the nape of neck. Ethanolic extract was given orally to groups II and III at the dose 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The results are presented as mean΁SEM. Statistical analysis of data was performed using Dunnett′s test to study the difference among the mean. Results: The difference in temperature between 0 hour and respective time interval was found out by statistical method. The potency of extract to bring down the temperature was compared with that of the control group. The present results showed that ethanolic extract of bark of G. prostratum plant possess a significant antipyretic effect in yeast-induced elevation of body temperature in experimental rats. It was revealed that the extract showed dose-dependent antipyretic activity. At a dose of 200 mg/kg, it showed significant antipyretic activity. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of G. prostratum (L. Benth. plant has significant antipyretic activity when compared with the standard drug. So, it can be recommended for further studies.

  9. Antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale (Roscoe ethanolic extract

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    Nikolić Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of ethanolic extract from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale were evaluated. In vitro antibacterial activity was investigated by microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC have been determined. The values were in the range from 0.0024 to > 20 mg/ml. The most sensitive bacteria were Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Anti-biofilm activity was tested by crystal violet assay. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were used as the test organisms. Ethanolic extract showed the best result on Proteus mirabilis biofilm where biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC50 was 19 mg/ml.

  10. Screening for larvicidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected plants against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Russelle Alvarez; Francisco Heralde III; Noel Quiming

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To screen for larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (95% ethanol) from Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii (M. koenigii), Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus), Jatropha curcas (J. curcas), Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (A...

  11. Capillary electrophoretic analysis of flavonoids in single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) ethanolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonaviciūte, A; Jakstas, V; Kornysova, O; Janulis, V; Maruska, A

    2006-04-21

    Flavonoids are an important group of natural compounds, which can prevent coronary heart disease and have antioxidant properties. Hawthorn is a well known and widely used medicinal plant due to its cardiotonic activity. Previous studies refer mostly to the HPLC analysis of the flavonoids: vitexin, quercetin, hyperoside, oligomeric procyanidins, which appear to be primarily responsible for the cardiac action of the plant. Aqueous ethanolic extracts of single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., f.: Rosaceae Juss.) leaves and sprouts were analyzed by means of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Influence of vegetation period on the extract qualitative composition and flavonoids quantities was evaluated. Sample preparation by extraction using different concentration of aqueous ethanol (40-96%, v/v) and the influence of extractant composition on the recovery of flavonoids are discussed in detail. The results obtained using CZE are compared to the results of spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis of the extracts. The effect of storage conditions of extracts (solar irradiation, temperature and duration) on degradation of flavonoids was investigated.

  12. Ethanol extract of Cymbopogon winterianus on mortality and number of eggs of Tetranychus urticae

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    Victor Bernardo Vicentini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts have been studied as a promising source of natural insecticides. This study assessed the effect of the ethanol extract of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella grass in comparison with an insecticide containing azadirachtin (ICA on mortality and number of eggs of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae in laboratory conditions. For the tests, the mites were sprayed with the aid of a Potter spray tower. To assess the mortality of females, LC50 value for extract of citronella grass and ICA was, respectively, 2.63 and 2.83%. With respect to the number of eggs, the greatest reduction was observed at a concentration of 5% for the evaluation period of 120h, both for the extract of citronella grass (86% and for ICA (81%. These results suggest the potential of the ethanol extract of citronella grass to control of T. urticae. However, experiments, under field conditions, involving other populations of T. urticae should be performed to verify the efficacy of this extract as an alternative to be used in pest management programs

  13. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch to an ethanol extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numa, S; Rodríguez, L; Rodríguez, D; Coy-Barrera, E

    2015-01-01

    One of the main pests of commercial rose crops in Colombia is the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. To manage this pest, synthetic chemicals have traditionally been used, some of which are well known to be potentially toxic to the environment and humans. Therefore, alternative strategies for pest management in greenhouse crops have been developed in recent years, including biological control with natural enemies such as parasitoids, predators and entomopathogenic microorganisms as well as chemical control using plant extracts. Such extracts have shown toxicity to insects, which has positioned them as a common alternative in programs of integrated pest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an unfractionated ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves on adult females of T. urticae under laboratory conditions. The extract was chemically characterized by recording its metabolic profile via liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, along with tentative metabolite identification. The immersion technique and direct application to rose leaves were used to evaluate the effects of seven doses (10-2,000 µg/mL) of the ethanol extract of C. aconitifolius leaves on T. urticae females under laboratory conditions. The mortality and oviposition of individuals were recorded at 24, 48 and 72 h. It was found that the C. aconitifolius leaf extract reduced fertility and increased mortality in a dose-dependent manner. The main metabolites identified included flavonoid- and sesquiterpene-type compounds, in addition to chromone- and xanthone-type compounds as minor constituents with potential acaricidal effects.

  14. POTENTIAL OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF FICUS BENGHALENSIS ON OPEN WOUNDS AND INFLAMMATION

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    Rita M. Charde

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with evaluation of antioxidant, wound healing and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa Linn rhizomes. The ethanolic extract prepared by maceration technique was subjected to screen for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging method and wound healing activity using incision, excision, histopathological and dead space wound model and the study was supported with evaluation of granuloma tissue to estimate hydroxyproline content and histopathological evaluation. The anti-inflammatory study was carried out by using carageenan induced rat paw odema method. The tested extract of different dilutions in range 200µg/ml to 1000 µg/ml shows activity in range of 9.34% to 18.55%. Significant increase in wound closure rate, skin breaking strength, granuloma breaking strength was observed. The hydroxyproline content was also increased with decrease in scar area. The initial healing action might be due to increased collagen deposition and better alignment, with the obtained results it can be concluded that Curcuma longa extract has significant wound healing activity and initial healing may be due to presence of some terpenoids and antimicrobial agents. The extract shows prominent anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of standard (Ibuprofen gel. The extract shows good anti-inflammatory activity on carageenan induced rat paw odema method.

  15. Antidiabetic Effect of Young and Old Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina: A Comparative Study

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    Du-Bois Asante

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The young leaves of Vernonia amygdalina are often utilized as vegetable and for medicinal purpose compared to the old leaves. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the antidiabetic effects between ethanolic leaf extracts of old and young V. amygdalina on streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rat for four weeks. Preliminary screening of both young and old ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of the same phytochemicals except flavonoids which was only present in the old V. amygdalina. Difference in antioxidant power between the young and old leaf extracts was statistically significant (p<0.05. Both leaf extracts produced a significant (p<0.05 antihyperglycaemic effect. Also results from treated rats revealed increasing effect in some haematological parameters. Similarly, the higher dose (300 mg/kg of both extracts significantly (p<0.05 reduced serum ALT, AST, and ALP levels as compared to the diabetic control rats. Results also showed significant (p<0.05 decrease in LDL-C and VLDL-C in the extract-treated rats with a corresponding increase in HDL-C, as compared to the diabetic control rats. Moreover histopathological analysis revealed ameliorative effect of pathological insults induced by the STZ in the pancreas, liver, and spleen, most significantly the regeneration of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in treated rats.

  16. Toxicity study of ethanolic extract of Chrysanthemum morifolium in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Gu, Liqiang; Chen, Zhongjian; Wang, Ruwei; Ye, Jianfeng; Jiang, Huidi

    2010-08-01

    Chrysanthemum morifolium extract (CME) has many pharmacological effects, and the effective components of CME are luteolin and apigenin which have been reported with cytotoxicity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of CME in Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats. In the acute toxicity study, a single oral dose of 15 g/kg body weight (bw) CME was administered to rats, then the rats were observed for 14 d. No treatment-related death was observed, and the maximal tolerance dose estimated was greater than 15 g/kg bw in rats. In the long-term toxicity study, the rats were administered daily by gavage at dose levels of 320, 640, and 1280 mg/kg bw/d for consecutive 26 wk followed by 4 wk recovery period. The results showed that no toxicological changes in body weight, food, and water consumption, hematologic examination, blood biochemical examination, organ weight, and microscopic histopathologic examination were found in any treatment group. Therefore, CME is considered to be safe in general in rats at the limited dose level.

  17. Role of ethanol leaf extracts of Ficus Glumosa on fasting blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group 6 served as the control group receiving normal saline (5ml/kg) alone via intra-peritoneal route (ip), Group 1 (positive control), 2, 3, 4 and 5 were treated with the following for 7 days. Normal saline 5ml/kg, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of Ficus glumosa ethanol leaves extract respectively via ip while Group V ...

  18. ANTI-OXIDANT PROPERTY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CATUNAREGAM SPINOSA THUNB

    OpenAIRE

    SHRIVASTAVA SURABHI; S LEELAVATHI

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress may be one of the factors which play a role in the development of chronic and degenerative diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and neuronal degeneration. Fruits, nuts, and vegetables have long been considered high in antioxidants. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels are affected by a wide array of factors, such as cultivar, growing conditions, harvesting, food processing and preparation, sampling, and analytical procedures. The ethanolic leaf extract of Catunaregam s...

  19. THERAPEUTIC POTENTIALS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF HOLARRHENA FLORIBUNDA (G. DON) DUR. AND SCHINZ (APOCYNACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekou, Yao Patrick; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Karou, Simplice Damintoti; Yerbanga, Rakiswende Serge; Achoribo, Elom; Da, Ollo; Atakpama, Wouyo; Batawila, Komlan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Holarrhena floribunda is a plant of wide usage in the Togolese folk medicine. A previous ethnobotanical survey on the latex plants of the Maritime region of the country revealed that this plant was included in several recipes curing malaria and microbial infections. Therefore, this study aimed to seek for the effectiveness of the ethanolic extract of the plant in the treatment of these diseases. Methods: The antimicrobial test was performed using the agar well-diffusion and the NC...

  20. Evaluation and optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaheed, Hossein; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Galip, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    In this research, ethanol production from carob pod extract (extract) using Zymomonas mobilis with medium optimized by Plackett-Burman (P-B) and response surface methodologies (RSM) was studied. Z. mobilis was recognized as useful for ethanol production from carob pod extract. The effects of initial concentrations of sugar, peptone, and yeast extract as well as agitation rate (rpm), pH, and culture time in nonhydrolyzed carob pod extract were investigated. Significantly affecting variables (P = 0.05) in the model obtained from RSM studies were: weights of bacterial inoculum, initial sugar, peptone, and yeast extract. Acid hydrolysis was useful to complete conversion of sugars to glucose and fructose. Nonhydrolyzed extract showed higher ethanol yield and residual sugar compared with hydrolyzed extract. Ethanol produced (g g(-1) initial sugar, as the response) was not significantly different (P = 0.05) when Z. mobilis performance was compared in hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed extract. The maximum ethanol of 0.34 ± 0.02 g g(-1) initial sugar was obtained at 30°C, initial pH 5.2, and 80 rpm, using concentrations (g per 50 mL culture media) of: inoculum bacterial dry weight, 0.017; initial sugar, 5.78; peptone, 0.43; yeast extract, 0.43; and culture time of 36 h.

  1. Identification of quercitin and rutin from propolis ethanolic extract (EEP of Timis county

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    CRISTINA RAMONA HEGHEDUS MINDRU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper were studied the possibilities of some flavonoides (quercetin and rutin identification from the propolis ethanolic extract (EEP, depending on the harvesting region from the west of Romania (Timis county, the obtained results were compared to those obtained for similar products in literature (Hungary, Czechia, China, Slovenia. Representative samples were collected from three different regions of Timis county (Lugoj 1, Lugoj 2 and Faget. The identification of quercitin and rutin from propolis ethanolic extracts (EEP was realized with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. For separation and quantification the ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP, I used the high performance liquid chromatography. Quantification was performed on the basis of the calibration curve obtained for pure quercitine. I used the HPLC Hewelett Packard apparatus Agilent 1100 type with UV detection, with the following characteristics: column: Nucleosil C18; 5µm dimension for stationary phase particles; column dimension: 150 x 4,6mm x mm; eluent acetonytrile:water = 1:1, eluent flow: 1 mL/min; wave length: 365 nm; temperature 30°C; injected volume: μL.

  2. Effect of Ethanol/Water Solvents on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Beijing Propolis Extracts

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    Chunli Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a natural substance known to be beneficial for human health and used as a folk medicine in many parts of the world. In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracted by different ethanol/water solvents were analyzed. Our results reveal that phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis extracts were significantly dependent on the concentration of ethanol/water solvents. Totally, 29 phenolic compounds were identified: 12 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acid esters. In particular, 75 wt.% ethanol/water solvent may be the best for the highest extraction yield and the strongest antioxidant properties. Caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, phenethyl caffeate, 5-methoxy pinobanksin, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, chrysin, and galangin were the characteristic compounds of Beijing propolis, and these compounds seem to verify that Beijing propolis may be poplar-type propolis. In addition, the presence of high level of pinobanksin-3-O-acetate in Chinese propolis may be a novel finding, representing one-third of all phenolics.

  3. Combination pulsed electric field with ethanol solvent for Nannochloropsis sp. extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafis, Ghazy Ammar; Mumpuni, Perwitasari Yekti; Indarto, Budiman, Arief

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, energy is one of human basic needs. As the human population increased, energy consumption also increased. This condition causes energy depletion. In case of the situation, alternative energy is needed to replace existing energy. Microalgae is chosen to become one of renewable energy resource, especially biodiesel, because it contains high amount of lipid instead of other feedstock which usually used. Fortunately, Indonesia has large area of water and high intensity of sunlight so microalgae cultivation becomes easier. Nannochloropsis sp., one of microalgae species, becomes the main focus because of its high lipid content. Many ways to break the cell wall of microalgae so the lipid content inside the microalgae will be released, for example conventional extraction, ultrasonic wave extraction, pressing, and electrical method. The most effective way for extraction is electrical method such as pulsed electric field method (PEF). The principal work of this method is by draining the electrical current into parallel plate. Parallel plate will generate the electrical field to break microalgae cell wall and the lipid will be released. The aim of this work is to evaluate two-stage procedure for extraction of useful components from microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. The first stage of this procedure includes pre-treatment of microalgae by ethanol solvent extraction and the second stage applies the PEF extraction using a binary mixture of water and ethanol solvent. Ethanol is chosen as solvent because it's safer to be used and easier to be handled than other solvent. Some variables that used to study the most effective operation conditions are frequency and duty cycle for microalgae. The optimum condition based on this research are at frequency 1 Hz and duty cycle 13%.

  4. Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium against Hyalomma anatolicum ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godara, R; Parveen, S; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Katoch, M; Khajuria, J K; Kaur, D; Ganai, A; Verma, P K; Khajuria, Varun; Singh, N K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of different concentrations of ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium in comparison to amitraz on adults, eggs and larvae of Hyalomma anatolicum using the adult immersion test (AIT), egg hatchability test and larval packet test (LPT), respectively. Four concentrations of the extract (2.5, 5, 10 and 20%) with three replications for each concentration were used in all the bioassays. In AIT, the mortality rates at 2.5, 5 and 10% were significantly different (p absinthium has acaricidal properties and could be useful in controlling H. anatolicum.

  5. Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

    2011-03-15

    This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration.

  6. Charysanthemum contact dermatitis: Clinical patterns and patch testing with ethanolic extracts

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    Tanwar R

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients with suspected chrysanthemum contact dermatitis and 20 age and sex matched controls were patch tested with ethanolic extracts of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Eighteen (45% patients demonstrated positive patch tests. Out of these 10 (56% patients gave a history of photoaggravation and 9 (50% of seasonal variation. Dermatitis involving hands and face only, widespread dermatitis and airborne contact dermatitis were the common clinical patterns seen. Patients with occupational exposure to chrysanthemums demonstrated the maximum positive reactions. All the 18 patients showed positive patch tests with the extracts of flowers, 17 with leaves, 16 with whole plant and only 4 with the stem.

  7. Effect of ethanolic extracts of Justicia neesii Ramam. against experimental models of pain and pyrexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Nimmakayala; Lakshmi, Duggirala Suguna; Goverdhan, Puchchakayala

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of ethanolic extracts of Justicia neesii Ramam. by different experimental models. The analgesic activity of plant extract was evaluated against thermal and chemical stimulus induced by Eddy's hot plate and acetic acid respectively in mice. Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia was used to evaluate the antipyretic activity in rats and TAB vaccine induced pyrexia was used to evaluate the antipyretic activity in rabbits. In the hot plate model 400 mg/kg p.o. dose of J. neesii has shown its maximal effect at 3 h. The results are significant (P < 0.05) and comparable to the values of standard drug pentazocine (30 mg/kg i.p.). In acetic acid induced writhing model 400 mg/kg p.o. of plant extracts have shown highly significant activity (P < 0.001) and better than standard drug indomethacin (10 mg/kg p.o.). The 400 mg/kg p.o. dose of plant extract has given significant results against both yeast induced pyrexia and TAB vaccine induced pyrexia (P< 0.01 and 0.05 respectively). These values are comparable to that of paracetamol 100 mg/kg p.o. standard dose. This study shows that the ethanol extract of J. neesii has significant analgesic and antipyretic activity.

  8. Anticonvulsant effect of the ethanol extract of Caesalpiniapulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves

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    Dinesh Kumar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves (CPEE was investigated for anticonvulsant effect against maximal electroshock (MES and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced seizures in rats and mice at dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p. respectively. Diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a standard anticonvulsant drug for comparison. CPEE was found to be safe up to the dose of 4000 mg/kg in mice, when administered intraperitoneally. The extract at 400 mg/kg dose produced significant (p<0.01 anticonvulsant effect w.r.t. control against PTZ-induced clonic seizures. In MES-induced seizure model, there were no significant alterations in the onset as well as duration of hind limb extension seizures as compared to control at a dose of 200 mg/kg when administered intraperitoneally. However, the extract (CPEE, 400 mg/kg i.p. significantly (p<0.01 delayed the onset as well as decreased the duration of hind limb extension seizures (HLES as compared to control. However, the extract, CPEE, percentage protection of the animals was increased at higher dose (200 mg/kg in both the models. The results of the study suggest that ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. leaves possess anticonvulsant effect.

  9. In vitro antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic Moringa leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Jackson Rafael Oliveira; Silva, Giselle Cristina; Costa, Renata Albuquerque; de Sousa Fontenelle, Joseí Res Lira; Vieira, Gustavo Hitzschky Fernandes; Filho, Antonio Adauto Fonteles; dos Fernandes Vieira, Regine Helena Silva

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic moringa leaf extracts (Moringa oleifera) on the growth of gram-positive and negative bacteria. Paper disks were soaked with 100, 200, 300 and 400 μL of extract at 20 g/180 mL and 10 g/190 mL. All extracts were tested against Escherichia coli (ATCC25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), Salmonella enteritidis (IH) and Aeromonas caviae. The susceptibility tests were performed using the modified disk diffusion method. The strains E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. enteritidis (IH) were resistant to all treatments. In general, disks with 400 μL extract were the most efficient against S. aureus, V. parahaemolyticus, E. faecalis and A. caviae. The study indicates a promising potential for aqueous and ethanolic Moringa leaf extracts as alternative treatment of infections caused by the tested strains. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antilisterial effects of ethanolic extracts of some edible Thai plants on refrigerated cooked pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriporn Stonsaovapak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a major foodborne pathogen responsible for the disease listeriosis.Effective methods for reducing L. monocytogenes in foods would reduce the likelihood of foodborneoutbreaks of listeriosis and decrease economic losses to the food industry. Crude ethanolic extracts from 50 edible Thai plants were screened for inhibitory effects on isolated strains and type strains of L.monocytogenes by the well assay technique. Ethanolic extracts of Micromelum minutum, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Piper retrofractum and Cucurbita moschata, which showed listerial growth inhibition,were applied to cooked pork to determine their antimicrobial activities against L. monocytogenes. Pork was cooked to an internal temperature of 85C, allowed to cool to 8C and then treated by surface application with the plant extracts. Low (102 cfu g-1 or high (105 cfu g-1 population of L.monocytogenes were applied and samples were stored at 4C for up to 7 days. M. minutum and A.heterophyllus extracts were most effective in inhibiting the growth of the pathogen. These results suggested that some edible Thai plant extracts might be useful as antimicrobials in cooked, ready-to-eatpork.

  11. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic activities of ethanol root extract of Strophanthus hispidus DC (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Oreagba, Ibrahim A; Murtala, Abdulahi A; Chijioke, Micah C

    2013-01-01

    Strophanthus hispidus DC (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant widely used in traditional African medicine in the treatment of rheumatic afflictions, ulcer, conjunctivitis, leprosy and skin diseases. This study sought to investigate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antiulcer properties of the ethanol root extract of S. hispidus. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin tests in mice. The carrageenan- and egg albumin-induced rat paw edema tests were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory actions, whereas the antiulcer activity was investigated using ethanol-, HCl- and pyloric ligation-induced gastric ulcer models in rats. S. hispidus [100-800 mg/kg orally (po)] produced significant (p<0.05) inhibition of writhing reflex with peak effect of 74.13% inhibition observed at 800 mg/kg. Similarly, S. hispidus significantly (p<0.05) attenuated formalin-induced early and late phase of nociception with peak effect of 61.84% and 89.43%, respectively, at 200 mg/kg. S. hispidus (25-800 mg/kg po) caused significant (p<0.05) inhibition of edema development in the carrageenan and egg albumin models with peak effect (93.40% and 90.10% inhibition of edema formation) observed at 50 mg/kg. With respect to antiulcer activity, S. hispidus (100-800 mg/kg) showed potent antiulcer activity with respective peak effects of 96% (ethanol-induced), 99% (HCl-induced) and 70.60% inhibition of ulcer. The findings in this study suggest that the ethanol root extract of S. hispidus possesses antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic activities. This justifies the use of the extract in folklore medicine for the treatment of ulcer and inflammatory disorders.

  12. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents

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    John Coccimiglio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol.

  13. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccimiglio, John; Alipour, Misagh; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Gottardo, Christine; Suntres, Zacharias

    2016-01-01

    Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s) or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol.

  14. Antioxidant and antiulcer potential of aqueous leaf extract of Kigelia africana against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Matheus M; Olaleye, Mary T; Ineu, Rafael P; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Barbosa, Nilda BV; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Ethnobotanical claims regarding Kigelia africana reported antiulcer properties as part of its medicinal application. In this work, aqueous leaf extract from K. africana was investigated for its phytochemical constituents and antiulcer potential against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. The participation of oxidative stress on ethanol-induced ulcer and the potential protective antioxidant activity of K. africana extracts were investigated by determining vitamin C and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) contents in the gastric mucosa of rats. The HPLC analysis showed the presence of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and also the flavonoids rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in the aqueous plant extract. Oral treatment with K. africana extract (1.75; 3.5; 7 and 14 mg/kg) one hour after ulcer induction with ethanol decreased in a dose dependent manner the ulcer index. Ethanol increased significantly stomachal TBARS levels and decreased vitamin C content when compared to the control animals. K. africana blunted the ethanol-induced oxidative stress and restored vitamin C content to the control levels. The present results indicate that the aqueous leaf extract from K. africana possesses antiulcer potential. The presence of flavonoids in plant extract suggests that its antiulcerogenic potential is associated with antioxidant activity. Of particular therapeutic potential, K. africana was effective against ethanol even after the induction of ulcer, indicating that it can have protective and curative effects against gastric lesion. PMID:26417263

  15. Hepatoprotective potential of Lavandula coronopifolia extracts against ethanol induced oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtsam S; Al-Oqail, Mai M; Hassan, Wafaa H B; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A

    2015-08-01

    The present investigations were carried out to study the protective potential of four extracts (namely petroleum ether extract (LCR), chloroform extract (LCM), ethyl acetate extract (LCE), and alcoholic extract (LCL)) of Lavandula coronopifolia on oxidative stress-mediated cell death induced by ethanol, a known hepatotoxin in human hapatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Cells were pretreated with LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts (10-50 μg/ml) of L. coronopifolia for 24 h and then ethanol was added and incubated further for 24 h. After the exposure, cell viability using (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and neutral red uptake assays and morphological changes in HepG2 cells were studied. Pretreatment with various extracts of L. coronpifolia was found to be significantly effective in countering the cytotoxic responses of ethanol. Antioxidant properties of these L. coronopifolia extracts against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and glutathione (GSH) levels induced by ethanol were investigated. Results show that pretreatment with these extracts for 24 h significantly inhibited ROS generation and LPO induced and increased the GSH levels reduced by ethanol. The data from the study suggests that LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts of L. coronopifolia showed hepatoprotective activity against ethanol-induced damage in HepG2 cells. However, a comparative study revealed that the LCE extract was found to be the most effective and LCL the least effective. The hepatoprotective effects observed in the study could be associated with the antioxidant properties of these extracts of L. coronopifolia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation

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    I. D. Gil

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

  17. Are Russian propolis ethanol extracts the future for the prevention of medical and biomedical implant contaminations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambi, Ashwin; Bryan, Julia; Borbon, Katherine; Centeno, Daniel; Liu, Tianchi; Chen, Tung Po; Cattabiani, Thomas; Traba, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Most studies reveal that the mechanism of action of propolis against bacteria is functional rather than structural and is attributed to a synergism between the compounds in the extracts. Propolis is said to inhibit bacterial adherence, division, inhibition of water-insoluble glucan formation, and protein synthesis. However, it has been shown that the mechanism of action of Russian propolis ethanol extracts is structural rather than functional and may be attributed to the metals found in propolis. If the metals found in propolis are removed, cell lysis still occurs and these modified extracts may be used in the prevention of medical and biomedical implant contaminations. The antibacterial activity of metal-free Russian propolis ethanol extracts (MFRPEE) on two biofilm forming bacteria: penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was evaluated using MTT and a Live/Dead staining technique. Toxicity studies were conducted on mouse osteoblast (MC-3T3) cells using the same viability assays. In the MTT assay, biofilms were incubated with MTT at 37°C for 30min. After washing, the purple formazan formed inside the bacterial cells was dissolved by SDS and then measured using a microplate reader by setting the detecting and reference wavelengths at 570nm and 630nm, respectively. Live and dead distributions of cells were studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Complete biofilm inactivation was observed when biofilms were treated for 40h with 2µg/ml of MFRPEE. Results indicate that the metals present in propolis possess antibacterial activity, but do not have an essential role in the antibacterial mechanism of action. Additionally, the same concentration of metals found in propolis samples, were toxic to tissue cells. Comparable to samples with metals, metal free samples caused damage to the cell membrane structures of both bacterial species, resulting in cell lysis. Results suggest that the structural mechanism of action of Russian propolis ethanol

  18. Antifertility properties of Centella asiatica ethanolic extract as a contraceptive agent: Preliminary study of sperm proteomic

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    Irfan Yunianto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antifertility properties of Centella asiatica L. ethanolic extract and identify the sperm proteomic changes in treated male rats. Methods: A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: control group (n=16 received distilled water and treatment group (n=16 which received 300 mg/kg of Centella asiatica L. extract for 42 d. After the treatment period, the number of implantation sites was recorded and the sperm proteomic changes were analysed by 2D gel electrophoresis. In addition, the expression of protein spots was quantified by MALDI-TOF analysis. Results: Centella asiatica L. extract resulted in low number of implantation sites in the treatment group (100.00±2.82 compared to the control group (183.00±2.14. The percentage of infertile male rats in the treatment group was higher (43.75% compared to the control group (18.75%. Proteomic analysis showed the expression of protein spots identified in the treatment group decreased with 234 spots compared to the control group with 282 spots. Conclusions: The results revealed that there was antifertility activity in the male rats with the administration of Centella asiatica L. ethanol extract and the identified proteins could provide understanding on the adverse effect of Centella asiatica in male reproductive system.

  19. Evaluation of the Wound-Healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf

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    B. Shivananda Nayak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia L. (noni is one of the most important traditional Polynesian medicinal plants. The primary indigenous use of this plant appears to be of the leaves, as a topical treatment for wound healing. The ethanol extract of noni leaves (150 mg kg−1 day−1 was used to evaluate the wound-healing activity on rats, using excision and dead space wound models. Animals were randomly divided into two groups of six for each model. Test group animals in each model were treated with the ethanol extract of noni orally by mixing in drinking water and the control group animals were maintained with plain drinking water. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, time until complete epithelialization, granulation tissue weight and hydoxyproline content. On day 11, the extract-treated animals exhibited 71% reduction in the wound area when compared with controls which exhibited 57%. The granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline content in the dead space wounds were also increased significantly in noni-treated animals compared with controls (P < 0.002. Enhanced wound contraction, decreased epithelialization time, increased hydroxyproline content and histological characteristics suggest that noni leaf extract may have therapeutic benefits in wound healing.

  20. Trametes versicolor ethanol extract, a promising candidate for health-promoting food supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjušević, Ljiljana; Pejin, Boris; Kaišarević, Sonja; Gorjanović, Stanislava; Pastor, Ferenc; Tešanović, Kristina; Karaman, Maja

    2017-08-18

    This study aimed to estimate antiradical, antioxidant (AO) and cytotoxic activities of the fungus Trametes versicolor ethanol fruiting body extract. The extract was found to effectively scavenge both O2(•-) and NO(•) (29.62 and 52.48 μg/mL, respectively). It also showed a good AO activity in the polarographic HPMC assay (950%/mL). p-Hydroxybenzoic acid may be one of the responsible compounds for the afore-mentioned activities. The same extract also exhibited a concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HepG2 tumour cell lines reaching IC50 values of 123.51 and 134.29 μg/mL, respectively with no cytotoxic activity against normal MRC-5 cells. Gentisic, syringic and protocatechuic acids may be among the bioactive principles for the observed cytotoxicity. Taken all together, T. versicolor ethanol extract can be considered as a promising candidate for development of health promoting food supplement.

  1. Studies on neuropharmacological profile of ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, Adewale G; Aderibigbe, Adegbuyi O; Ademowo, Olusegun G

    2013-10-07

    Moringa oleifera (family Moringaceae), commonly called Horseradish or tree of life, is traditionally used for the treatment of epilepsy and neurologic conditions. The objective of this study is to investigate the neurobehavioural and anticonvulsant properties of the ethanol extract from the leaves of Moringa oleifera. Neurobehavioural properties were evaluated using the open field, hole board, Y-maze, elevated plus maze (EPM) and pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis. Pentylenetetrazole (leptazol), picrotoxin and strychnine induced convulsion tests were used to investigate the anti-convulsive actions of Moringa oleifera. The result showed that the extract (250-2000mg/kg) caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in rearing, grooming, head dips and locomotion (P6.4g/kg. The findings from this study suggest that the ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaves possesses CNS depressant and anticonvulsant activities possibly mediated through the enhancement of central inhibitory mechanism involving release γ-amino butyric acid (GABA). The results partially justified the traditional use of the extract for the treatment of epilepsy. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Simulation of ethanol extractive distillation with mixed glycols as separating agent

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    I. D. Gil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Extractive distillation is an alternative for ethanol dehydration processes that has been shown to be more effective than azeotropic distillation and, in close proximity, to be very competitive against the process that uses adsorption with molecular sieves. Glycols have been shown to be the most effective solvents in extractive distillation, mainly ethylene glycol and glycerol. In this work, an extractive distillation column was simulated with the Aspen Plus software platform, using the RadFrac module for distillation columns, to investigate the effect on the separation of the ethylene glycol-glycerol mixture composition, the separating agent feed stages, the separating agent split stream feed, and the azeotropic feed temperature. The NRTL model was used to calculate the phase equilibrium of these strongly polar mixtures. A rigorous simulation of the extractive distillation column finally established was also performed, including a secondary recovery column for the mixture of solvents and a recycle loop, to simulate an industrially relevant situation. This simulation allowed establishing the complete parameters to dehydrate ethanol: the optimal stage for separating agent feed is stage 4; the most adequate composition for the glycols mixture is 60 mol% ethylene glycol and 40 mol% glycerol. Finally, energetically efficient operating conditions for each one of the columns were established through a preliminary pinch analysis.

  3. Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of Allium ampeloprasum ethanol extract in rats

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    M. Ghasemiyanpour*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: This study was designed to investigate the effect of ethanol extract of Allium ampeloprasum (Leek leaves on blood lipid profile in rats. Due to the side effects of chemical drugs and social tendency toward herbal medicines, it’s justified to propose new herbal remedies for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Methods: Thirty six adult male Wistar rats were used and divided into 6 groups. After induction of  hyperlipidemia, group I was fed with a normal diet, group II (control with high cholesterol diet (containing 5% cholesterol and 5% olive oil, group III was fed with high cholesterol diet and lovastatin (10 mg/kg, group IV with high cholesterol diet and leek extract (50 mg/kg, group V received high cholesterol diet and Allium ampeloprasum (leek extract 100 mg/kg and group VI was fed with high cholesterol diet and leek extract (250 mg/kg for 21 consecutive days through gavage. Serum cholesterol concentration, LDL, TG, HDL and ratios of CHO/HDL and LDL/HDL for each animal were analyzed by laboratory kits. Results: The regimen containing 50 mg/kg of extract resulted in a significant reduction in CHO levels (57.00 ± 2.25 mg/dL vs. 107.80 ± 3.54 mg/dL, LDL (22.00 ± 2.07 mg/dL vs. 35.80 ± 1.98 mg/dL and CHO/HDL (1.44 ± 0.07 mg/dL vs. 2.55 ± 0.06 mg/dL compared to the control group (p0.05. Conclusion: Theresults showed that ethanol extract of A. ampeloprasum could improve lipid profile comparable with lovastatin in rats. It was also conclude that 50 mg/kg dose of the extract showed the highest efficacy.

  4. Chenopodium ambrosioides L. essential oil and ethanol extract on control of canine Ancylostoma spp.

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    Jessica Nascimento Moraes Monteiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. has shown to be promising in the management of gastrointestinal nematodes. The objective of this study was to quantitate the yield and characterize the chemical composition of the essential oil of C. ambrosioides, as well as to evaluate the in vitro effect of the ethanolic extract and the essential oil in L3 of Ancylostoma spp. and the in vivo effect(s of the essential oil in dogs. The effects of the ethanol extract and essential oil on Ancylostoma spp. were evaluated in vitro by exposing larvae to the extract at concentrations ranging from 0.005 g mL-1 to 0.2 g mL-1 and to essential oil at concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 ?L mL-1. For the in vivo test, 26 healthy dogs, naturally infected by Ancylostoma spp., were divided into three groups: F1 - cookies were administered without active principle; F2 - herbal cookies containing 37.5 ?L g-1 essential oil of C. ambrosioides L.; F3 - cookies plus a commercial formulation containing febantel, pyrantel, praziquantel, and ivermectin. Complete blood counts and serum biochemistry for AST, ALT, AF, urea, creatinine, total protein, and albumin were performed. The yield of the essential oil was 0.3% m v-1, and its major components included ?-terpinene (1.24%, p-cymene (4.83%, and ascaridol Z (87% and E (5.04% isomers. The concentrations of C. ambrosioides L. ethanol extract used were ineffective against Ancylostoma spp. larvae. The essential oil at a concentration of 150 ?L mL-1 was effective against L3 larvae. In the in vivo study in dogs, the herbal cookies containing C. ambrosioides L essential oil reduced the number of eggs per gram of feces.

  5. [Agglutinating and immobilizing activity of an ethanol extract of Bursera fagaroides on human and other mammalian spermatozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huacuja, R L; Delgado, N M; Carranco, L A; Reyes, L R; Rosado, G A

    1990-01-01

    Human spermatozoa and those obtained from mouse epididymis incubated in ethanolic from mouse epididymis incubated in ethanolic extracts of the cortex of Bursera fagaroides became agglutinated and immobilized in 100% with 30% of viability decrease. This double effect occurred in 50% of pig'ssperm and 50% of rabbit sperm when the concentration was increased tenfold. The pattern of progressive motility was affected 80% of rat's spermatocytes without agglutination. The values remained the same when the extracts were partially purified with salts of Zn++ and Ba++ or by filtration in a sephadex g-10 column. Analysis with thin layer chromatography of both purified extracts produced 3 compounds in comparison with the ethanolic unpurified extract. The extract of the plant Bursera fagaroides contains 3 compounds, which apparently are glycosides with a potent activity upon agglutination -immobilization and a low effect upon spermatocytes viability, which might be used as contraceptives .

  6. Extraction of bioactive compounds from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) defatted seeds using water and ethanol under sub-critical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodoira, Romina; Velez, Alexis; Andreatta, Alfonsina E; Martínez, Marcela; Maestri, Damián

    2017-12-15

    Sesame seeds contain a vast array of lignans and phenolic compounds having important biological properties. An optimized method to obtain these seed components was designed by using water and ethanol at high pressure and temperature conditions. The maximum concentrations of lignans, total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols compounds were achieved at 220°C extraction temperature and 8MPa pressure, using 63.5% ethanol as co-solvent. Under these conditions, the obtained sesame extracts gave the best radical scavenging capacity. Kinetic studies showed a high extraction rate of phenolic compounds until the first 50min of extraction, and it was in parallel with the highest scavenging capacity. The comparison of our results with those obtained under conventional extraction conditions (normal pressure, ambient temperature) suggests that recovery of sesame bioactive compounds may be markedly enhanced using water/ethanol mixtures at sub-critical conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF SATUREJA HORTENSIS L. TOWARDS PATHOGENIC MICROBIAL STRAINS

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    Kotyuk L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the information on the component composition of ethereal oil of Satureja hortensis cultivated in Zhytomyr Polissya. In the ethereal oil of summer savory, 19 components were identified: carvacrol (89,07%, γ-terpinene (3,53%, α-thujone (1,7%, camphora (1,48%, terpinen-4 ol 4 (0,91%, β-bisabolen (0,56%, β-caryophyllene (0,45%, bitsiklogermakren (0,38% para-cymene (0,34%, 1,8-cineole (0,33%, trans-sabinengidrat (0.25%, 1-octen-3-ol (0.20%, spatulenol (0,18%, β-thujone (0,14%, eugenol (0,11%, geranylacetate (0,11%, humulene (0,09%, α-terpinene (0,09%, octanol-3 (0,07%. A high carvacrol content determines antimicrobial properties of summer savory. The antimicrobial activity of S. hortensis extract was studied in accordance with the common methodology of determining the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibacterial preparations. The aboveground part of plants harvested in the last ten-day period of August, in the flowering phase, was used in the experiments. The raw material was reduced to fragments of 1-1.5mm according to the requirements of pharmacopoeia. The extract of S. hortensis was obtained by the method of maceration in 40% ethyl alcohol at a ratio of 1:5 and the concentration of 200mg/ml. The availability of antimicrobial activity of extracted substances in the structure of the substances studied was determined by the way of comparison of their minimum inhibiting concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentrations (MBC/MFC with those in 40% ethyl alcohol. The paper investigates the biological activity of 40 % ethanol extract of Satureja hortensis herb grown under the conditions of Ukrainian Polissya as to golden staphylococcus (Staphylococcus aureus, coliform bacillus Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans which are pathogenic in reference to other organisms. It has been shown that S. hortensis extract was characterized by antimicrobial activity since extracted substances

  8. Evaluation of water and ethanol extracts of Schinus molle Linn. against immature Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Kidanemariam Girmay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate larvicidal and pupicidal activities of aqueous and ethanol extract of different parts of Schinus molle against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus in the laboratory. Methods: The mortality rate of third, fourth instar larvae and pupal stages were tested at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/L of plant extract using WHO standard protocol with modifications. The mortality rate was recorded continuously for 24, 48 and 72 h post exposure period and percentage mortality was calculated. Results: Maximum percentage mortality of third instar was 83.3% in ethanol extract of mature fruit at 100 mg/L after 24 h exposure period. After 48 h exposure period, 93.3% percentage mortality was recorded in ethanol extract of immature fruit at 100 mg/L. After 72 h exposure period, 100% mortality was recorded in water extract of leaf at 100 mg/L. In fourth instar larvae, maximum percentage mortality of 63.3% was recorded in water extract of mature fruit and ethanol extract of immature and mature fruit at 100 mg/L after 24 h exposure period. After 48 h exposure period 86.6% mortality was recorded in ethanol extract of mature fruit at 100 mg/L. After 72 h exposure period, 93.3% mortality was recorded in ethanol extract of mature fruit at 100 mg/L. In general immature Cx. quinquefasciatus, percentage mortality was increased with increase in exposure time and concentration of the plant extracts tested. Conclusions: From this laboratory study, Schinus molle plant parts were proved to have larvicidal and pupicidal activity against immature Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  9. Anticancer effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract on prostate cancer cell line (PC-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Suresh, P K; Vijayababu, M R; Arunkumar, A; Arunakaran, J

    2006-04-21

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most prevalent cancer and the leading cause of male cancer death. Azadirachta indica (neem tree) has been used successfully centuries to reduce tumors by herbalists throughout Southeast Asia. Here the present study indicated that an ethanolic extract of neem has been shown to cause cell death of prostate cancer cells (PC-3) by inducing apoptosis as evidenced by a dose-dependent increase in DNA fragmentation and a decrease in cell viability. Western blot studies indicated that treatment with neem extract showed decreased level of Bcl-2, which is anti-apoptotic protein and increased the level of Bax protein. So the neem extract could be potentially effective against prostate cancer treatment.

  10. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts derived from Australian fungi inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Karren D; Ulrich, Rahel; Grice, I Darren; Uddin, Shaikh J; Blake, Tony B; Wood, Kyle A; Steele, Jules; Iu, Fontaine; May, Tom W; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen Australian macrofungi were investigated for cytotoxic activity. Ethanol, cold and hot water extracts of each species were screened for cytotoxic activity against normal mouse fibroblast cells (NIH/3T3), healthy human epithelial kidney cells (HEK-293), four cancer cell lines, gastric adenocarcinoma cells (AGS), two mammary gland adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-231, MCF7) and colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) with a validated MTT assay. Most extracts derived from Omphalotus nidiformis, Cordyceps cranstounii and Cordyceps gunnii demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity toward a variety of cancer cell lines. In contrast only some extracts from Coprinus comatus, Cordyceps hawkesii, Hypholoma fasciculare, Lepista nuda, Leratiomyces ceres and Ophiocordyceps robertsii displayed significant cytotoxic activity, which was usually selective for only one or two cancer cell lines tested. The least cytotoxic species evaluated in this study were Agaricus bitorquis, Coprinopsis atrametaria, Psathyrella asperospora, Russula clelandii, Tricholoma sp. AU2 and Xerula mundroola.

  11. Extraction of chlorophyll from pandan leaves using ethanol and mass transfer study

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    Putra Meilana Dharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green pigments are used in many industrial branches including food, drinks, soap and cosmetics. Chlorophyll can substitute synthetic dyes which may affect health. Chlorophyll can be extracted from pandan leaves; the pandan crop grows in many tropical areas. The effects of temperature, 30–70°C and agitation speed, 100–400 rpm on chlorophyll extraction from pandan leaves, using ethanol and the evaluation of mass transfer coefficient, using dimensionless analysis were investigated. The optimal conditions of extraction was obtained at 60°C and 300 rpm; the chlorophyll concentration was 107.1 mg L-1. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient increased with the temperature and agitation speed. Determination of volumetric mass transfer coefficient and dimensionless correlations are useful for further process development or industrial applications.

  12. Turmeric Extract Rescues Ethanol-Induced Developmental Defect in the Zebrafish Model for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Connors, Craig T; Mohammed, Arooj S; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, Kathleen; Marrs, James A; Chism, Grady W

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure causes the most frequent preventable birth disorder, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The effect of turmeric extracts in rescuing an ethanol-induced developmental defect using zebrafish as a model was determined. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms underlying FASD. We hypothesize that antioxidant inducing properties of turmeric may alleviate ethanol-induced defects. Curcuminoid content of the turmeric powder extract (5 mg/mL turmeric in ethanol) was determined by UPLC and found to contain Curcumin (124.1 ± 0.2 μg/mL), Desmethoxycurcumin (43.4 ± 0.1 μg/mL), and Bisdemethoxycurcumin (36.6 ± 0.1 μg/mL). Zebrafish embryos were treated with 100 mM (0.6% v/v) ethanol during gastrulation through organogenesis (2 to 48 h postfertilization (hpf)) and supplemented with turmeric extract to obtain total curcuminoid concentrations of 0, 1.16, 1.72, or 2.32 μM. Turmeric supplementation showed significant rescue of the body length at 72 hpf compared to ethanol-treated embryos. The mechanism underlying the rescue remains to be determined. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Bark anatomy, chemical composition and ethanol-water extract composition of Anadenanthera peregrina and Anadenanthera colubrina.

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    Graciene S Mota

    Full Text Available The bark of Anadenanthera peregrina (L. Speg and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan were characterized in relation to anatomical and chemical features. The barks were similar and included a thin conducting phloem, a largely dilated and sclerified non-conducting phloem, and a rhyridome with periderms with thin phellem interspersed by cortical tissues. Only small differences between species were observed that cannot be used alone for taxonomic purposes. The summative chemical composition of A. peregrina and A. colubrina was respectively: 8.2% and 7.7% ash; 28.8% and 29.3% extractives; 2.4% and 2.6% suberin; and 18.9% lignin. The monosaccharide composition showed the predominance of glucose (on average 82% of total neutral sugars and of xylose (9%. The ethanol-water extracts of A. peregrina and A. colubrina barks included a high content of phenolics, respectively: total phenolics 583 and 682 mg GAE/g extract; 148 and 445 mg CE/g extract; tannins 587 and 98 mg CE/g extract. The antioxidant activity was 238 and 269 mg Trolox/g extract. The barks of the Anadenanthera species are a potential source of polar extractives that will represent an important valorization and therefore contribute to improve the overall economic potential and sustainability of A. peregrina and A. colubrina.

  14. Antioxidant activity, anti-proliferative activity, and amino acid profiles of ethanolic extracts of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthong, S; Boonsathorn, N; Chuchawankul, S

    2016-10-17

    Biological activities of various mushrooms have recently been discovered, particularly, immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. Herein, three edible mushrooms, Auricularia auricula-judae (AA), Pleurotus abalonus (PA) and Pleurotus sajor-caju (PS) extracted using Soxhlet ethanol extraction were evaluated for their antioxidative, anti-proliferative effects on leukemia cells. Using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay, phenolics and antioxidant activity were found in all sample mushrooms. Additionally, anti-proliferative activity of mushroom extracts against U937 leukemia cells was determined using a viability assay based on mitochondrial activity. PA (0.5 mg/mL) and AA (0.25-0.5 mg/mL) significantly reduced cell viability. Interestingly, PS caused a hormetic-like biphasic dose-response. Low doses (0-0.25 mg/L) of PS promoted cell proliferation up to 140% relative to control, whereas higher doses (0.50 mg/mL) inhibited cell proliferation. Against U937 cells, AA IC 50 was 0.28 ± 0.04 mg/mL, which was lower than PS or PA IC 50 (0.45 ± 0.01 and 0.49 ± 0.001 mg/mL, respectively). Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage conferred cytotoxicity. PS and PA were not toxic to U937 cells at any tested concentration; AA (0.50 mg/mL) showed high LDH levels and caused 50% cytotoxicity. Additionally, UPLC-HRMS data indicated several phytochemicals known to support functional activities as either antioxidant or anti-proliferative. Glutamic acid was uniquely found in ethanolic extracts of AA, and was considered an anti-cancer amino acid with potent anti-proliferative effects on U937 cells. Collectively, all mushroom extracts exhibited antioxidant effects, but their anti-proliferative effects were dose-dependent. Nevertheless, the AA extract, with highest potency, is a promising candidate for future applications.

  15. Antidiabetic properties of the ethanolic extract of Rhus coriaria fruits in rats

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    S Mohammadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  Background and the purpose of the study: Fruits of Rhus coriaria L. (Anacardiaceae are traditionally used as a table spice in Iran and are highly recommended for diabetic patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the antidiabetic properties of the ethanolic extract of Rhus coriaria fruits and also its mechanisms of action. Methods: The effects of ethanolic extract of Rhus coriaria fruits were measured on blood glucose, lipids and antioxidant enzymes by commercial kits. mRNA levels of insulin (INS and glucose transporter type-4 (GLUT-4 genes were investigated by RT-PCR (Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique. Moreover, its effects on intestinal α-glucosidases was measured using an in vitro method. Results and Conclusion: Following a single dose administration of the extract it was found that extract could significantly reduce postprandial blood glucose by 24% (at 5 hrs. In the long term experiment, on the day of 21, postprandial blood glucose (PBG was found to be significantly lower (by 26% compared to diabetic control group. The plant extract raised markedly serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL by 34% and also reduced low-density lipoprotein (HDL by 32%. Also it had noticeable antioxidant effects by elevating superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase(CAT activities by 46% and 77%, respectively. However it did not show a strong effect on glutathione peroxidase (GPX activity. The extract inhibited maltase and sucrase activities by 44% and 27%, respectively. However it made no changes in the transcript levels of INS and GLUT-4 genes. It can be concluded that constituents of Rhus coriaria fruits have effective components which can be utilized as useful herb for alleviation of diabetes complications.

  16. THERAPEUTIC POTENTIALS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OFHOLARRHENA FLORIBUNDA(G. DON) DUR. AND SCHINZ (APOCYNACEAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekou, Yao Patrick; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Karou, Simplice Damintoti; Yerbanga, Rakiswende Serge; Achoribo, Elom; Da, Ollo; Atakpama, Wouyo; Batawila, Komlan

    2017-01-01

    Holarrhena floribunda is a plant of wide usage in the Togolese folk medicine. A previous ethnobotanical survey on the latex plants of the Maritime region of the country revealed that this plant was included in several recipes curing malaria and microbial infections. Therefore, this study aimed to seek for the effectiveness of the ethanolic extract of the plant in the treatment of these diseases. The antimicrobial test was performed using the agar well-diffusion and the NCCLS broth microdilution methods, while the in vivo antimalarial activity was evaluated following the four-day suppressive test of Peters. The acute toxic effects of the extract were monitored after a single oral dose (5,000 mg/kg body weight) administration in NMRI mice. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of leaves of H. floribunda was active on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae with MICs ranging from 0.62 to 1.25 mg/mL. The extract also showed significant parasitaemia suppression in a dose-dependent manner. In the acute toxicity assay, the oral administration of the extract to the mice did not affect the relative weight of vital organs, and there were no signs of toxicity or death during the study period. The LD50 of the tested extract was found to be greater than 5,000 mg/kg, indicating its safety. This study demonstrates the antibacterial and antimalarial activities of leaves of H. floribunda and then, supports its medicinal use in the treatment of microbial infections.

  17. Roselle calyx (Zoborodo) as a substitute to organic indicator (methyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... samples as indicator shows that only the end points of the purple sample matched well with that obtained using conventional (methyl orange) indicator. The study recommends the use of the purple variety as substitute to standard indicator in volumetric analysis. Keywords: Roselle Calyx, Indicator, Volumetric, Gravimetric ...

  18. Utilization of Ocimum gratissimum and the calyx of Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This preliminary study was carried out to evaluate the utilization of Ocimum gratissimum and the calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf meal in starter diets by broiler chicks, for a total period of 42 days between May-June 2011. Eighty (80) broiler chicks brooded together for 7 days with a mean body weight of 97gm were randomly ...

  19. Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of Clausena heptaphylla

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    Fakruddin Md

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is wide spread interest in drugs derived from plants as green medicine is believed to be safe and dependable, compared with costly synthetic drugs that have adverse effects. Methods We have attempted to evaluate the antioxidant, In vitro thrombolytic, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects of Clausena heptaphylla (Rutaceae stem bark extract ethanol extract. Results Ethanolic stem bark extract of Clausena heptaphylla (CHET contains flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and steroids but it lacks tannins, anthraquinones and resins. Phenol content of the extract was 13.42 mg/g and flavonoid content was 68.9 mg/g. CHET exhibited significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 3.11 μg/ml. Reducing power of CHET was also moderately stronger. In the cytotoxicity assay, LC50 and Chi-square value of the ethanolic extract against brine shrimp nauplii were 144.1461 μg/ml and 0.8533 demonstrating potent cytotoxic effect of the extract. In vitro thrombolytic activity of CHET is significant with 45.38% clot lysis capability compared to that of Streptokinase (65.78%. In antibacterial screening, moderate zone of inhibition (6.5-9.0 mm in diameter was observed against gram-positive Bacillus subtilis ATCC 11774, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus polymyxa ATCC 842 and Bacillus megaterium ATCC 13578 and less promising zone of inhibition (3.0-4.5 mm in diameter against gram-negative Salmonella typhi ATCC 65154, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 13315 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Shigella sonnei ATCC 8992 did not show any sensitivity. The MIC values against these bacteria were ranged from 2,000 to 3,500 μg/ml. The extract showed significant zone of inhibition against Rhizopus oryzae DSM 2200, Aspergillus niger DSM 737 and Aspergillus ochraceus DSM 824 in antifungal assay. Conclusions Further advanced research is necessary to isolate and characterize the

  20. Anxiolytic-like activity of ethanol extract of Ganoderma Lucidum (Reishi in mice

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    Nasir Ali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is used for the treatment and prevention of many ailments including arthritis, hepatitis, hypercholesterolemia, bronchitis, gastric cancer and hypertension. In this study we have evaluated the potential anxiolytic-like activity of the mushroom in mice models of anxiety. Light/dark box and elevated plus maze test were used to evaluate the anxiolytic-like activity of ethanol extract of fruiting bodies and cracked spores of Ganoderma lucidum. The extract was given orally by gavage at the dose of 20 mg/kg, 75 mg/kg and 130 mg/kg body weight. Diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p. was used as the standard drug. The results reveal that Ganoderma lucidum demonstrated significant increase in the time spent in light cubicle when compared with the control group in light/dark box test and the results of elevated plus maze test reveal that Ganoderma lucidum, showed significant increase in the time spent in open arms and number of open arm entries when compared with the control group. Overall evidences propose that ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum has anxiolytic activity which is comparable to 1 mg/Kg diazepam.

  1. Synthesis of Anti-Acne Ointment of Ethanol Extract of White Plumeria Leaves (Plumeria Alba L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningsih, D. R.; Zusfahair; Kartika, D.; Lestari, I. T.

    2017-02-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory skin disease pilosebaceous follicle, where the oil- producing glands are clogged and contaminated by bacteria. Propionibacterium acne is one of the bacteria that contributes to the pathogenesis of acne. Acne treatment was done by reducing the population of bacteria using an antibacterial. One of the plants that have antibacterial activity is white plumeria. The ethanol extract of white plumeria leaves contains antibacterial secondary metabolites, which are alkaloids and saponins. The aim of this study is to formulate white plumeria leaves extract into the water leached ointment base. Characteristics of the ointment were determined by evaluating the stability of the ointment including organoleptic, adhesion test, dispersive power test, determination of pH, and the antibacterial activity test. The results showed that the ointment of ethanol extract of white plumeria leaves has some characteristics, semisolid form, white, has distinctive smell of ointment, homogeneous but not protective, has a pH of 4.57 - 6.10, dispersive power of 5.10 - 6.06 cm, the adhesiveness of 1.67 - 3 seconds, and optimum antibacterial activity at concentrations of 5 ppm providing inhibition zone of 24.00 mm.

  2. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of Annona muricata leaves

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    Chan Pit Foong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the leaves of Annona muricata L., Annonaceae, are used to treat headaches, fever, toothache, cough and asthma. The decoction of the leaves has parasiticide, antirheumatic and antineuralgic effects when used internally, while the cooked leaves, applied topically, fight rheumatism and abscesses. The aim of this study was to investigate acute and chronic anti-inflammatory potential of an ethanolic leaf extract of A. muricata (AML in animal models. The ethanolic extract of A. muricata leaf extract was prepared and administered orally to experimental animals used. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by xylene-induced ear edema in mice and Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA-induced arthritis in rats. The results demonstrated that AML is effective for both acute and chronic inflammation. It also significantly attenuated both TNF-α and IL-1β levels in CFA-induced arthritis model. Thus, these results have suggested that AML possesses both anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities. The findings also suggest that AML presents notable anti-arthritic activity that may be mediated by suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  3. Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic leaves extract of Desmodium triflorum in mice

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    Girish Gowda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to study an anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Desmodium triflorum (L. DC., Fabaceae, in mice. Animal models of epilepsy namely the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, isoniazid or isonicotinic hydrazide (INH and maximal electroshock induced convulsion (MES were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of the extracts. The biochemical estimation was done by measuring the lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH. In the PTZ induced convulsion, ethanolic extract of D. triflorum (EEDT 400 mg/kg significant delayed the onset of convulsion, reduced the duration of convulsion and reduced mortality. Similarly a dose of 800 mg/kg of EDDT significantly delayed the onset of convulsion, reduced the duration of convulsion and showed 33.33% protection in mice against INH induced convulsion. Further no mortality was found. Both the doses reduced hind limb tonic extension (HLTE phase of MES induced convulsion in mice. The pretreated EEDT showed significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increases the reduced glutathione level in mice brain tissue. The results revealed that D. triflorum possesses a significant dose dependent anticonvulsant activity.

  4. Effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves on learning and memory in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajitha; Shetty, Manjunath; Parida, Amrita; Adiga, Shalini; Kamath, Shobha; Sowjanya

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effects and benefits of Acacia auriculiformis on health are not well established. This study was planned to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves on learning and memory in rats. Materials and Methods: Learning and memory were evaluated using passive avoidance paradigm and rewarded alternation test (T-maze) after the oral administration of two doses (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis with rivastigmine as positive control. Forty eight rats were divided into 4 groups in each study model. Estimation of brain cholinesterase activity was done to substantiate the results of the above mentioned tests. Data was analyzed using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post-hoc test using GraphPad InStat software, version 3.06. Results: The extract produced a dose-dependent improvement in the memory score namely the step through latency in passive avoidance model (P < 0.001) and the percentage of correct responses in rewarded alternation test (P < 0.05). Dose-dependent inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity (P < 0.001) was also noted. Conclusion: The acetylcholinesterase inhibiting property of Acacia auriculiformis contributes to its memory enhancing potential. Further large scale studies are required to elucidate its benefits on cognitive function. This may offer a promising new option for the treatment of dementia and other cognitive deficits. PMID:25002806

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Edible and Ornamental Pomegranate Ethanolic Extracts against Schistosoma mansoni

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    Doaa A. Yones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the development of praziquantel (PZQ schistosomes resistant strains, the discovery of new antischistosomal agents is of high priority in research. This work reported the in vitro and in vivo effects of the edible and ornamental pomegranate extracts against Schistosoma mansoni. Leaves and stem bark ethanolic extracts of both dried pomegranates were prepared at 100, 300, and 500 μg/mL for in vitro and 600 and 800 mg/kg for in vivo. Adult worms Schistosoma mansoni in RPMI-1640 medium for in vitro and S. mansoni infected mice for in vivo tests were obtained from Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt. In vitro activity was manifested by significant coupled worms separation, reduction of motor activity, lethality, and ultrastructural tegumental alterations in adult worms. In vivo activity was manifested revealed by significant reduction of hepatic granulomas number and diameter, decreased number of bilharzial eggs in liver tissues, lowered liver inflammatory infiltration, decreased hepatic fibrosis, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression. Ethanolic stem bark extract of edible pomegranate exhibited highest antischistosomal activities both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, pomegranate showed a good potential to be used as a promising new candidate for the development of new schistosomicidal agents.

  6. Antidepressant-Like Activity of Ethanol Extract of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi in Mice

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    Aslam Muhammad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum, known as “Lingzhi” in China, is one among greatly regarded fungi around the world. In old Chinese encyclopedias of medical “Shen Nong’s Ben Cao Jing” and “Ben Cao Gang Mu”, it is rated as extraordinarily precious fungus. In this study, antidepressant activity of ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum has been assessed. The extract was given orally by gavage at the dose of 20 mg/kg, 75 mg/kg, and 130 mg/kg body weight. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg p.o. was used as the standard drug. The results of our study show that Ganoderma lucidum significantly decreased immobility time in forced swim test and tail suspension test. Open field test was used to assess locomotor activity of the mice to exclude the false positive results. In open field test, Ganoderma lucidum didn’t affect the total movement and ambulatory movement at the same doses that significantly reduced immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test. Thus, it is concluded that ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum has antidepressant activity in mice.

  7. Amelioration of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity by the administration of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejitha, S; Prathibha, P; Indira, M

    2012-10-01

    Sida cordifolia Linn. (Malvaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of the inflammation of oral mucosa, asthmatic bronchitis, nasal congestion and rheumatism. We studied the hepatoprotective activity of 50 % ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia Linn. against alcohol intoxication. The duration of the experiment was 90 d. The substantially elevated levels of toxicity markers such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase due to the alcohol treatment were significantly lowered in the extract-treated groups. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content, which was lowered due to alcohol toxicity, was increased to a near-normal level in the co-administered group. Lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, total collagen and hydroxyproline, which were increased in the alcohol-treated group, were reduced in the co-administered group. The mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 2E1, NF-κB, TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 were found to be increased in the alcohol-treated rats, and their expressions were found to be decreased in the co-administered group. These observations were reinforced by histopathological analysis. Thus, the present study clearly indicates that 50 % ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia Linn. has a potent hepatoprotective action against alcohol-induced toxicity, which was mediated by lowering oxidative stress and by down-regulating the transcription factors.

  8. Anti-glucan effects of propolis ethanol extract on Lactobacillus acidophillus

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    Ira Widjiastuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In deep dentinal caries cases, bacteria mostly found are Lactobacillus acidophilus classified as gram positive bacteria and as facultative aerobes producing glucosyltransferase (GTF enzyme. GTF enzyme can alter sucrose into glucans. Glucan is sticky and insoluble in water. As a result, GTF enzyme can facilitate plaque formation and microorganism colonization on tooth surface. In addition, Lactobacillus acidophilus also can form acid leading to demineralization of organic and inorganic materials, resulting in dental caries. Multidrug-resistant phenomena, on the other hand, have led to the use of natural resources, one of which is propolis as an antimicrobial material and as a new anti-infective therapeutic strategy. Propolis is a resinous substances collected by worker bees (Apismellifera from barks and leaves of plants. Propolis has a complex chemical composition and biological properties, such as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor. Purpose: This research aimed to reveal anti-glucan effects of propolis ethanol extract generated from honey bee, Apis mellifera spp on Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria. Method: Before antiglucan test was conducted, glucan-formation test was performed on Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria using SDSpage. Meanwhile, anti-glucan adhesion test on Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria was carried by culturing the bacteria at 37ºC temperature in a jar with 10% CO2. Test tubes were placed at an angle of 30º for 18 hours to review the attachment of bacteria at the glass surfaces. After the incubation, the culture of bacteria was vibrated using a mixer vortex for a few minutes, and then cultured in solid MRS A media. Bacteria grown were measured by using colony counter. Result: The ethanol extract of propolis with a concentration of 1.56% was the lowest concentration inhibiting the attachment of glucan to Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria. Conclusion: The ethanol extract of

  9. STUDY PHYTOCHEMICAL ETHANOL EXTRACT FRACTIONS AND LEAVES OF PIPER ADUNCUM "MATICO"

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo A., J.; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina,Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos,Lima,Perú.; Bonilla R., P.; Instituto de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica,Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos,Lima,Perú.; tomás Ch., G.; Laboratorio de Productos Naturales-Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química,Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos,Lima,Perú.; Huamán M., J.; Laboratorio de Productos Naturales-Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Química e Ing. Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos,Lima,Perú.

    2014-01-01

    We worked with Piper aduncum L. "matico" Junin (Peru). The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of: saponins, tannins, quinones, flavonoids and alkaloids. For chromatographic analysis shows that there are more polar metabolites. The chemical markers and methanolic total ethanolic extract are flavonoids and alkaloids. The amount of total polyphenols was determined. Se trabajó con Piper aduncum L."matico" de Junín (Perú). El análisis fitoquímico determinó presencia de: saponinas, tanin...

  10. A New Triterpenoid Saponin and Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new acetylated triterpenoid saponin elucidated as hederagenin-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl (2→1-[3-O-acetyl-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-28-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosylester has been isolated from pericarps of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. The structure of the compound was determined by means of chemical and spectral analysis including advanced 2D NMR studies. The ethanolic extract from pericarps of the plant showed significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against various test organisms by Agar well diffusion method.

  11. Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, free-radical-scavenging, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Vanja M; Dobrić, Silva; Marković, Goran M; Dordević, Sofija M; Arsić, Ivana A; Menković, Nebojsa R; Stević, Tanja

    2008-09-10

    Hawthorn [Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Crataegus oxyacantha L.; sin. Crataegus laevigata (Poiret) DC., Rosaceae] leaves, flowers, and berries are used in traditional medicine in the treatment of chronic heart failure, high blood pressure, arrhythmia, and various digestive ailments, as well as geriatric and antiarteriosclerosis remedies. According to European Pharmacopoeia 6.0, hawthorn berries consist of the dried false fruits of these two species or their mixture. The present study was carried out to test free-radical-scavenging, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract. Phenolic compounds represented 3.54%, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Determination of total flavonoid aglycones content yielded 0.18%. The percentage of hyperoside, as the main flavonol component, was 0.14%. With respect to procyanidins content, the obtained value was 0.44%. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the extract was concentration-dependent, with EC50 value of 52.04 microg/mL (calculation based on the total phenolic compounds content in the extract). Oral administration of investigated extract caused dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in a model of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The obtained anti-inflammatory effect was 20.8, 23.0, and 36.3% for the extract doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to indomethacin, given in a dose producing 50% reduction of rat paw edema, the extract given in the highest tested dose (200 mg/kg) showed 72.4% of its activity. Gastroprotective activity of the extract was investigated using an ethanol-induced acute stress ulcer in rats with ranitidine as a reference drug. Hawthorn extract produced dose-dependent gastroprotective activity (3.8 +/- 2.1, 1.9 +/- 1.7, and 0.7 +/- 0.5 for doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively), with the efficacy comparable to that of the reference drug. Antimicrobial testing of the extract revealed its moderate bactericidal

  12. Evolution of the inflated calyx syndrome in Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jin-Yong; Saedler, Heinz

    2007-11-01

    Species that express the inflated calyx syndrome (ICS) are found in several genera of the Solanaceae. The MADS-box protein MPF2, together with the plant hormones cytokinin and gibberellin, has been shown to be responsible for this trait in Physalis floridana. We have used sequence data from 114 species belonging to 35 genera to construct a molecular phylogeny of Solanaceae. Apart from the 2 Witheringia species analyzed, species within a given genus cluster together on the resulting cladogram. Witheringia solanacea is embedded within the Physalinae, but Witheringia coccoloboides is placed basal to the Iochrominae. The ICS trait seems to be of multiple origins both within the Solanaceae and the Physaleae. Surprisingly, expression of MPF2-like genes in floral organs appears to be plesiomorphic in both the Physaleae and the Capsiceae. Some species in these tribes that show neither ICS nor calyx accrescence fail to express the MPF2-like gene in floral organs. Among those that do express this gene in the calyx are the species Capsicum baccatum, Lycianthes biflora, Tubocapsicum anomalum, W. solanacea, and Vassobia breviflora, all of which form small calyces that do not respond to externally applied hormones. The plesiomorphic nature of MPF2-like gene expression in the calyx of the Physaleae and Capsiceae raises the possibility that originally ICS also was actually a plesiomorphic character in these 2 groups. However, this trait might have undergone changes in a number of species due to secondary loss of components in ICS formation, like hormone response of calyx development. These findings are discussed in an evolutionary context of a molecular pathway leading to ICS.

  13. Augmentation of sebaceous lipogenesis by an ethanol extract of Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) in hamsters in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Mie; Sato, Takashi; Akimoto, Noriko; Kato, Yuya; Takahashi, Masao; Ito, Akira

    2009-08-01

    Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) is an edible and medicinal mushroom with versatile effects such as antitumor and immunomodulating actions. Here, we demonstrated that an ethanol extract of G. frondosa fruiting body (Maitake extract) augmented intracellular lipid droplet formation and the production of triacylglycerols (TG), a major component of sebum, along with the activation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase, a rate-limiting enzyme of TG synthesis in cultured hamster sebocytes. The topical treatment of Maitake extract on the skin of hamster auricles augmented sebum accumulation in sebaceous glands and ducts. However, in comparison with the Maitake extract, another ethanol extract prepared from Agaricus blazei Murill showed less activity in sebaceous lipogenesis in hamsters in vivo and in vitro. These results provide novel evidence that Maitake extract augments sebaceous lipogenesis in hamsters in vivo and in vitro. Thus, Maitake extract is likely to be a unique agent leading to the remission of dry skin.

  14. Antioxidant and Sunscreen Activities of Ethanol Extract of Strawberry Leaves (Fragaria x ananassa A.N. Duchesne

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    Widyastuti Widyastuti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry fruit extract contains polyphenols compounds, which have antioxidant activity and may inhibit cancer cell growth. In this study attempted to see activity from leaves of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa A.N. Duchesne does also have antioxidant activity and sunscreen. Antioxidant testing using the DPPH method with comparative of vitamin C. The result showed IC50 values of ethanol extract of the leaves of strawberries 363.551 ppm and for vitamin C 33.573 ppm . On testing the activity as a sunscreen using spectrophotometric method wherein the ethanol extract of the leaves of strawberries have SPF values above 15 at a concentration of 175 ppm , which amounted to 20.090 with erythema percentage of 5.496 and 5.074 percentage by pigmentation. It can be concluded from the ethanol extract of leaves of strawberry has antioxidant activity and sunscreen.

  15. Anti-hyperglycemic effect and glucose tolerance of guajava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf ethanol extract in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanis Musdja, Muhammad; Mahendra, Feizar; Musir, Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally guava (Psidium guajava L) leaf is used for treatment of various ailments like diarrhea, wounds, rheumatism, anti-allergy, ant-spasmodic, etc, as folk medicine. The aim of this research is to know the effect of hypoglycemia and glucose tolerance of ethanol extract of guava leaf against male white rat. The guajava leaf was obtained from Balitro Bogor. Preparation of guajava leaf extract was done by cold maceration extraction technique using ethanol 70%. Male albino rats were made into diabetics using the alloxan method. Rats were divided into 6 groups, as a comparative drug for anti-hyperglycemic used glibenclamid and as a comparative drug for glucose tolerance used acarbose. The result of blood glucometer test showed that ethanol extract 70% of guajava leaf had effect as anti-hyperglycemic and glucose tolerance with no significant difference with glibenclamid drug as anti-hyperglycemic and acarbose as glucose tolerance drug.

  16. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of some Vietnamese medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori

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    Ngan, Luong Thi My; Dung, Pham Phuong; Nhi, Nguyen Vang Thi Yen; Hoang, Nguyen van Minh; Hieu, Tran Trung

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common human infectious bacteria. The infection is highly associated with a number of the most important disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including gastritis, duodenitis, peptic ulceration, and gastric cancer. In addition, widespread use of antimicrobial agents has resulted in the development of antibiotic resistance. Metabolites of plants, particularly higher plants, have been suggested as alternative potential sources for antibacterial products due to their safe. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial activities of crude ethanolic extracts of seventeen Vietnamese medicinal plants toward one reference strain and three clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori using broth micro-dilution bioassay. The antibacterial activities of these extracts were also compared with those of seven antibiotics, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, azithromycin, tetracycline, and metronidazole. The extracts of Ampelopsis cantoniensis and Cleistocalyx operculatus showed highest antibacterial activity with MIC (MBC) values of 0.31 - 0.97 (2.5 - 5) mg/mL, followed by the extracts of Hedyotis diffusa and Ardisia silvestris with MIC (MBC) values of 1.04 - 1.94 (7.5 - 10) mg/mL. The remaining plant extracts exhibited moderate, low and very low or no active to the H. pylori strains. Further studies are needed to determine the active compounds from the extracts that showed high antibacterial activity against H. pylori.

  17. Phytochemical composition and biological activities of Artemisia quettensis Podlech ethanolic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri Farahani, Zahra; Mirzaie, Amir; Ashrafi, Fatemeh; Rahimpour Hesari, Maryam; Chitgar, Ali; Noorbazargan, Hassan; Rahimi, Arian

    2017-11-01

    The present study aim to investigate the phytochemical composition, antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of the ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Artemisia quettensis Podlech. The aerial part of A. quettensis Podlech extract was used for Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer activities. GC/MS analysis of extract from this plant showed 23 major components and the most dominant components were acetic acid, [4-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl) cyclohex-1-enyl] methyl ester (13.88%), trans-Phytol (10.06%) and 2,6-Dimethyl-2,6-octadiene-1,8-diol diacetate (6.8%). The extract had significant antibacterial and anticancer effects. The highest percentage of antioxidant activity was 78.46% at 2 mg/mL concentration of extract. Moreover, the highest antibacterial effects of extract were against to gram-positive bacteria and the IC 50 cell cytotoxicity value on HT29 cell line in 24 h, 48 h and 72 h were 31.54, 6.08 and 2.96 mg/mL, respectively. From this study, A. quettensis Podlech could be considered as a promising source for novel drug compounds.

  18. SCREENING OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM SOME KINDS OF RAW MATERIALS WITH QUINONEDERIVATIVES

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    Boyko N.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data on screening of antimicrobial properties of extracts from some kinds of raw materials (18 plants with hydroquinone, naphtoquinone or anthraquinone derivatives. Some technological parameters of extracts (density and concentration of extraneous substances have been determined. The most appropriate microbiological method of studying antimicrobial properties of extracts, diffusion method of “well”, has been applied; special mathematic method of comparison of antimicrobial properties of extracts vector analysis has been applied in order to study and to compare antimicrobial properties of extracts. Indexes of antimicrobial properties of extracts have been determined: a complex index of medicinal product antimicrobial activity for quantitative estimation of antimicrobial effect - A, and square of correlation coefficient - r², which demonstrates the spectrum of antimicrobial activity of the extracts (degree of similarity to the standard. The most active extracts have been selected; they have antimicrobial properties of medium strength: from the herb of chimaphila umbellata А=2.20; the fruits of rhamnus cathartica А=2.12; the root of rubia tinctorum А=2.11; the bark of frangula alnus А=2.05; the root of rumex confertus А=2.04; the leaf of pyrola rotundifolia А=2.00; and leaf of arctostaphylos uva-ursi А=2.08 (but extract from uva-ursi did not affected on 2 strains of microorganisms r²=0.64. Low levels of antimicrobial activity have been demonstrated by the extract obtained from the leaf of urtica dioica А=0.72, r²=0.34. The mean result of the complex index of antimicrobial activity for the most of extracts from plants containing quinonederivatives is A = 1.77 (on 70% vol. ethanol at a ratio of raw material : extracting agent – 1:7 wt. : vol. and may range from 0.68 to 2.85. The mean result of the correlation coefficient is r = 0.93 and may range from 0.59 to 0.99. The mean result of the concentration of

  19. Ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique preserved the antioxidant properties of tamarind (Tamarindus indica seed

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    Nushrat Yeasmen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of two extraction solvents (ethanol and acetone and two extraction techniques i.e., hot extraction at 400C and cold extraction at 260C were investigated on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica seed. The antioxidant activity of T. indica was determined by evaluating 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity, ferric reducing power assay (FRAP and ascorbic acid equivalent content (AAC. The tested sample showed appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (51.45-71.68 mg GAE/gm of dry extract, DPPH scavenging capacity (61.18-71.17%, IC50 values (98.30-248.60, reducing power (0.6377-0.7702 and total antioxidant capacity (22.75-43.80 AAE/gm at different solvents and techniques. Current study data shown higher extract yields, phenolic contents, scavenging activity, reducing power and antioxidant activity using ethanol solvent compared to the respective acetone solvent. In addition, higher extract yields and other properties were obtained by hot extraction at 400C compared to the cold extraction at 260C. Present study suggests that ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique could be better to preserve the antioxidant properties of tamarind seed. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 332-337

  20. Effects of ethanol and extract of cigarette smoke on the rabbit buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor-Caymaz, Canan; Bor, Serhat; Tobey, Nelia A; Abdulnour-Nakhoul, Solange; Orlando, Roy C

    2011-01-01

    The combination of smoking and drinking alcohol has a high association with diseases of squamous epithelium within the human oral cavity. Therefore, a study was done to assess the impact of these agents alone or in combination on the squamous epithelium using as model the buccal epithelium from rabbit oral cavity. Buccal epithelium was mounted in Ussing chambers to monitor electrical parameters during exposure to ethanol (5-40%) or to Ringer extract of cigarette smoke (EOCS) from one to six cigarettes dissolved in 10 ml Ringer either alone or with combination. Exposure to EOCS reduced in a dose dependent manner above 2 cigarettes/10 ml transmural electrical potential difference (PD), short-circuit current (I(sc)), increased transmural electrical resistance (R). Morphology showed from generalize tissue edema to patchy necrosis with the increasing concentrations. Ethanol alone raised PD, I(sc) and R at lower concentrations (5%) and lowered PD, I(sc) and R at higher concentrations (40%). The combination of 5% ethanol, EOCS-1cigarette/10 ml reduced PD, I(sc) by 58% and increased R by 29%. Unlike exposure to 5% EtOH and EOCS-1, 10% EtOH combined with EOCS-1 produces a harmful effect by dropping PD and I(sc). Both, simultaneous, and sequential, use of these agents enhanced their negative impact on these parameters. The enhancement of these effects are not due to solubulization of additional tobacco products by EtOH or by or by EtOH enhancing smoking noxious effect. Histopathologic damage needs higher concentrations of ethanol and EOCS combination and changes were more profound compared to the sum of the isolated effects of both agents. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF SATUREJA HORTENSIS L. TOWARDS PATHOGENIC MICROBIAL STRAINS

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    L. A. Kotyuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the information on the component composition of ethereal oil of Satureja hortensis cultivated in Zhytomyr Polissya. In the ethereal oil of summer savory, 19 components were identified: carvacrol (89,07%, γ-terpinene (3,53%, α-thujone (1,7%, camphora (1,48%, terpinen-4 ol 4 (0,91%, β-bisabolen (0,56%, β-caryophyllene (0,45%, bitsiklogermakren (0,38% para-cymene (0,34%, 1,8-cineole (0,33%, trans-sabinengidrat (0.25%, 1-octen-3-ol (0.20%, spatulenol (0,18%, β-thujone (0,14%, eugenol (0,11%, geranylacetate (0,11%, humulene (0,09%, α-terpinene (0,09%, octanol-3 (0,07%. A high carvacrol content determines antimicrobial properties of summer savory. The antimicrobial activity of S. hortensis extract was studied in accordance with the common methodology of determining the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibacterial preparations. The aboveground part of plants harvested in the last ten-day period of August, in the flowering phase, was used in the experiments. The raw material was reduced to fragments of 1-1.5mm according to the requirements of pharmacopoeia. The extract of S. hortensis was obtained by the method of maceration in 40% ethyl alcohol at a ratio of 1:5 and the concentration of 200mg/ml. The availability of antimicrobial activity of extracted substances in the structure of the substances studied was determined by the way of comparison of their minimum inhibiting concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentrations (MBC/MFC with those in 40% ethyl alcohol. The paper investigates the biological activity of 40 % ethanol extract of Satureja hortensis herb grown under the conditions of Ukrainian Polissya as to golden staphylococcus (Staphylococcus aureus, coliform bacillus Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans which are pathogenic in reference to other organisms. It has been shown that S. hortensis extract was characterized by antimicrobial activity since extracted substances

  2. Production of cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane bagasse by steam explosion: Effect of extractives content, acid catalysis and different fermentation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, P V; Pitarelo, A P; Ramos, L P

    2016-05-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol was carried out using samples of native (NCB) and ethanol-extracted (EECB) sugarcane bagasse. Autohydrolysis (AH) exhibited the best glucose recovery from both samples, compared to the use of both H3PO4 and H2SO4 catalysis at the same pretreatment time and temperature. All water-insoluble steam-exploded materials (SEB-WI) resulted in high glucose yields by enzymatic hydrolysis. SHF (separate hydrolysis and fermentation) gave ethanol yields higher than those obtained by SSF (simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation) and pSSF (pre-hydrolysis followed by SSF). For instance, AH gave 25, 18 and 16 g L(-1) of ethanol by SHF, SSF and pSSF, respectively. However, when the total processing time was taken into account, pSSF provided the best overall ethanol volumetric productivity of 0.58 g L(-1) h(-1). Also, the removal of ethanol-extractable materials from cane bagasse had no influence on the cellulosic ethanol production of SEB-WI, regardless of the fermentation strategy used for conversion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil.

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    Bruna Aparecida Souza Machado

    Full Text Available The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2 and ethanolic extraction (EtOH, in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown, collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS, Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH. However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection.

  4. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Silva, Rejane Pina Dantas; Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; Silva, Danielle Figuerêdo da; Brandão, Hugo Neves; Rocha, José Luiz Carneiro da; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo Andres; Padilha, Francine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection.

  5. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Silva, Rejane Pina Dantas; Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; da Silva, Danielle Figuerêdo; Brandão, Hugo Neves; da Rocha, José Luiz Carneiro; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo Andres; Padilha, Francine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection. PMID:26745799

  6. Antitumor Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Dendrobium formosum in T-Cell Lymphoma: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ritika; Koch, Biplob

    2014-01-01

    Dendrobium, a genus of orchid, was found to possess useful therapeutic activities like anticancer, hypoglycaemic, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activities. The study was aimed to evaluate the anticancer property of the ethanolic extract of Dendrobium formosum on Dalton's lymphoma. In vitro cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay, apoptosis was determined by fluorescence microscopy, and cell cycle progression was analysed using flow cytometry; in vivo antitumor activity was performed in Dalton's lymphoma bearing mice. The IC50 value of ethanolic extract was obtained at 350 μg/mL in Dalton's lymphoma cells. Fluorescence microscopy analysis showed significant increase in apoptotic cell death in dose- and time-dependent manner which was further confirmed through the resulting DNA fragmentation. Further, flow cytometry analysis showed that the ethanolic extract arrests the cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The in vivo anticancer activity study illustrates significant increase in the survival time of Dalton's lymphoma bearing mice on treatment with ethanolic extract when compared to control. These results substantiate the antitumor properties of ethanolic extract of Dendrobium formosum and suggest an alternative in treatment of cancer. Further studies are required regarding the isolation and characterization of bioactive components along with the analysis of molecular mechanism involved. PMID:24959588

  7. Antitumor Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Dendrobium formosum in T-Cell Lymphoma: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study

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    Ritika Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendrobium, a genus of orchid, was found to possess useful therapeutic activities like anticancer, hypoglycaemic, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activities. The study was aimed to evaluate the anticancer property of the ethanolic extract of Dendrobium formosum on Dalton’s lymphoma. In vitro cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay, apoptosis was determined by fluorescence microscopy, and cell cycle progression was analysed using flow cytometry; in vivo antitumor activity was performed in Dalton’s lymphoma bearing mice. The IC50 value of ethanolic extract was obtained at 350 μg/mL in Dalton’s lymphoma cells. Fluorescence microscopy analysis showed significant increase in apoptotic cell death in dose- and time-dependent manner which was further confirmed through the resulting DNA fragmentation. Further, flow cytometry analysis showed that the ethanolic extract arrests the cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The in vivo anticancer activity study illustrates significant increase in the survival time of Dalton’s lymphoma bearing mice on treatment with ethanolic extract when compared to control. These results substantiate the antitumor properties of ethanolic extract of Dendrobium formosum and suggest an alternative in treatment of cancer. Further studies are required regarding the isolation and characterization of bioactive components along with the analysis of molecular mechanism involved.

  8. Inhibitory effects of ethanolic, methanolic and hexanolic extracts of propolis on the activity and structure of tyrosinase

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    Nematollah Gheibi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of melanin, which plays a crucial role in determining mammal’s skin and hair color. In this experimental study, the inhibitory effect of different extracts of propolis were investigated on tyrosinase activity. Methods: Tyrosinase activity was measured in the presence of ethanolic, methanolic and hexanolic extracts of propolis by using thermal denaturation (Catecholase and cresolase reaction. Also the tyrosinase stability was examined in the presence of the extracts with the chemical (urea denaturation method. Data were analyzed with SPSS software using ANOVA and Tokey post hoc test. Results: Tm was 56.1 °C for tyrosinase in the absence of the extract and 47.4, 53.4 and 40.2 °C in the presence of ethanolic, methanolic and hexanolic extracts of propolis, respectively. Also ΔG 25 °C values were obtained 16.03 in the absence of the extracts and 13.5 (p<0.05, 15.3 and 13.3 (p<0.05 kJ/mol, respectively in the presence of ethanolic, methanolic and hexanolic extracts of propolis. In chemical denaturation, Cm was obtained 3.11 in the absence of the extracts and 15.8 (p<0.01, 11.9 (p<0.05, and 12.5(p<0.05 mM, respectively in the presence of ethanolic, methanolic and hexanolic extracts of propolis. Conclusion: Ethanolic, methanolic and hexanaloic extracts of propolis are appropriate inhibitors for the tyrosinase. These reduce the thermal and chemical tyrosinase stability.

  9. Comparison between ethanol and hexane for oil extraction from Quercus suber L. fruits

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    Abreu, José M.F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to (i evaluate the feasibility of replacing n-hexane with ethanol for the extraction of oil from Quercus suber fruits and (ii optimize, at lab scale, sample preparation and extraction time for both solvents used (n-hexane vs. anhydrous ethanol. For both solvents, the effect of the conditioning process on extraction yield was evaluated. Therefore, a full factorial design was used as a function of four variables: dehulling (with vs. without husks, and thermal treatment of the crushed material (40ºC vs. 75ºC, at different times (5 min vs. 120 min and pressures (10 kPa vs. 100 kPa. Higher oil yields were obtained with n-hexane when dehulled fruits were conditioned under atmospheric pressure. Better yields were obtained with n-hexane, when dehulled material was treated at 75ºC for 90 min. Ethanol was not adequate for oil extraction from Quercus fruits, since other materials rather than oil were also extracted.El objetivo de este estudio fue (i evaluar la posibilidad de reemplazar el n-hexano por el etanol para la extracción del aceite de los frutos de Quercus suber y (ii optimizar, a escala de laboratorio, la preparación de la muestra y el tiempo de extracción para ambos solventes (n-hexano vs. etanol anhidro. Para ambos solventes, se ha evaluado el efecto del proceso de acondicionamiento en el rendimiento de la extracción. Para ello, se ha empleado un diseño factorial completo como función de cuatro variables: descascarillado (con vs sin cascarilla, y tratamiento térmico del material triturado (40ºC vs. 75ºC, a diferentes tiempos (5 min vs. 120 min y presiones (10 kPa vs. 100 kPa. Los rendimientos más elevados de extracción de aceite se obtuvieron con n-hexano cuando los frutos descascarillados se acondicionaron a presión atmosférica. Cuando el material descascarillado fue tratado a 75ºC por 90 min, se obtuvieron mejores rendimientos con n-hexano. El etanol demostró no ser adecuado para la

  10. Immunosuppressive activity of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. in experimental immune inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

    2010-07-06

    Traditionally, the plant Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is used for the treatment of ascites and rheumatism, while the dried seeds of the plant are used as an 'anti-allergic' agent. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of ethanolic extract of seeds from Moringa oleifera Lam. in experimental immune inflammation. Circulatory and splenic leukocyte counts, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and humoral antibody responses were measured in mice using SRBC as the antigen. In addition, macrophage phagocytosis was measured by the carbon clearance test. The extract dose-dependently (50, 100 and 200mg/kg) inhibited spleen weight as well as circulatory leukocyte and splenocyte counts. The delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction was significantly inhibited (PMoringa oleifera have immunosuppressive activity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antifertility activity of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract in male rats

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    Ayodeji F Ajayi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complementary medicine has grown over time with more botanicals emerging and remaining integral parts of medicare. Such botanicals include Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. AIM: This study investigated the effect of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract on male reproductive system using rat model. Materials and Methods: Control and treated rats were maintained on control diet. Treated rats also received graded doses of the extract. RESULTS: When compared with the controls, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta treatment led to significant testosterone suppression associated with consequent significant rise in luteinizing hormone (LH and decrease in sperm count. Treatment with Cryptolepis sanguinolenta did not result in significant attenuation of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH levels and testicular morphometry. Sperm viability, motility, and morphology were also comparable in all groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that Cryptolepis sanguinolenta possesses anti-androgenic and anti-spermatogenic properties with potential anti-aphrodisiac activity.

  12. The Bioconversion of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract into Compound K by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ-014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hak Joo; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Dong Hee; Shin, Kwang-Soo

    2014-09-01

    A β-glucosidase producing yeast strain was isolated from Korean traditional rice wine. Based on the sequence of the YCL008c gene and analysis of the fatty acid composition, the isolate was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain HJ-014. S. cerevisiae HJ-014 produced ginsenoside Rd, F2, and compound K from the ethanol extract of red ginseng. The production was increased by shaking culture, where the bioconversion efficiency was increased 2-fold compared to standing culture. The production of ginsenoside F2 and compound K was time-dependent and thought to proceed by the transformation pathway of: red ginseng extract→Rd→F2→compound K. The optimum incubation time and concentration of red ginseng extract for the production of compound K was 96 hr and 4.5% (w/v), respectively.

  13. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Embelia Ribes on Dyslipidemia in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Raman; Pillai, K. K.

    2002-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been treated orally with herbal remedies based on folk medicine since ancient times. Embelia ribes burm (Myrsinaceae), known commonly as vidanga, was used in Ayurveda for its anthelmintic activity. Ayurveda describes vidanga as pungent, causes increase in digestive fire, and cures flatulence and colic. A single study reported the antihyperglycemic activity of decoction of E. ribes in glucose-induced hyperglycemic albino rabbits. In the present study, the lipid-lowering and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of E. ribes burm was investigated in streptozotocin (40 mg/kg, IV, single injection)-induced diabetes in rats. Twenty days of orally feeding the extract (200 mg/kg) to diabetic rats resulted in significant (P ribes in diabetic dyslipidemia. PMID:12458656

  14. Toxicological studies on the ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea seeds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, A O; Dehadrai, S; Jonathan, S

    1995-03-01

    The effect of the ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea Linn. (Leguminosae) seeds has been assessed on liver, kidney, spleen and adrenals of adult rats. Results revealed that its administration at a dose of 200 mg/kg caused significant alterations. Wet weight of the organs was reduced. Protein and glycogen contents in all the organs were decreased significantly, whereas, the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase was increased. Histology revealed remarkable disintegration necrosis and degeneration in the liver. Renal tubular cells showed degeneration and exfoliation. Adrenals showed hypertrophy in the region of zona glomerulosa. In the spleen the number of megakaryotic cells and lymphocytes was increased. Administration of the extract therefore not only damaged the liver but other vital organs too were also affected.

  15. Antimicrobial Effects Of The Ethanolic Extracts And Essential Oils Of Tanacetum Vulgare L From Romania

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    Mureşan Maria Lucia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antimicrobial action of the extracts and essential oil of wildgrowing Tanacetum vulgare L on: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacilus subtilis, using the diffusion disc method. The essential oils but also the ethanolic extracts tested exhibited moderate action on Staphilococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and low action on E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The moderate antimicrobial activity is related to the amount of some chemical components of the essential oil of T. vulgare flos. Thus, this paper presents also the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the essential oils of T. vulgare harvested from two different habitats. The essential oils obtained by steam-distillation were analysed by gas-cromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS.

  16. Characterization of Ethanol Extract from Katumpangan Air Herbs (Peperomia pellucida L. Kunth

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    Marissa Angelina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peperomia pellucida L. Kunth known as “Katumpangan Air” is a potential medicinal plants used traditionally for uric acid, rheumatic, headache, stomachache, antimicrobial. This study aims to establish  the non-specific  and specific parameters of ethanol extract from Katumpangan air (EKA. EKA was collected from three different growth places: South Tangerang (6.833%, Bogor (7.8% and Yogyakarta (13.125%. The results show that organoleptic extract characterization from three places were same: thick, blackish green brown, bitter and have a characteristic odor. The average content of water-soluble compounds was within range 7.39-13.29%, ethanol-soluble 15.33-16.68%, flavonoid total 3.807-4.244%. The range of moisture content was 12.25-16.34%, ash total 1.21-2.78%, acid insoluble ash 0.19-1.62%, drying shrinkage 21.62-24.98%, specific gravity 1.0010-1.0034 g/mL for the non-specific parameter. Microbial contamination testing results 0.61x103-1.13x103 coloni/g, the contaminant testing mold/yeast 0.1x102-1.7x102 coloni/g, while lead metal 0.15-0.18 mg/kg, cadmium 0-0.11 mg/kg and arsenic <0.005µg/kg.

  17. Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile Ethanolic Extract Modulates Cell Activities with Skin Health Applications

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    Laura Cornara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seagrasses are high plants sharing adaptive metabolic features with both terrestrial plants and marine algae, resulting in a phytocomplex possibly endowed with interesting biological properties. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro activities on skin cells of an ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile, family Potamogetonaceae, herein named Posidonia ethanolic extract (PEE. PEE showed high radical scavenging activity, high phenolic content, and resulted rich in chicoric acid, as determined through HPLC-MS analysis. The use of MTT assay on fibroblasts showed a PEE cytotoxicity threshold (IC05 of 50 µg/mL at 48 h, while a sub-toxic dose of 20 µg/mL induced a significant increase of fibroblast growth rate after 10 days. In addition, an ELISA assay revealed that PEE doses of 5 and 10 µg/mL induced collagen production in fibroblasts. PEE induced dose-dependent mushroom tyrosinase inhibition, up to about 45% inhibition at 1000 µg/mL, while 50% reduction of melanin was observed in melanoma cells exposed to 50 µg/mL PEE. Finally, PEE lipolytic activity was assessed by measuring glycerol release from adipocytes following triglyceride degradation. In conclusion, we have collected new data about the biological activities of the phytocomplex of P. oceanica seagrass on skin cells. Our findings indicate that PEE could be profitably used in the development of products for skin aging, undesired hyperpigmentation, and cellulite.

  18. The Lipid Lowering and Cardioprotective Effects of Vernonia calvoana Ethanol Extract in Acetaminophen-Treated Rats

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    Godwin Eneji Egbung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paracetamol overdose/abuse as a result of self-medication is a common occurrence amongst people living in low/middle income countries. The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic and cardioprotective potentials of Vernonia calvoana (VC ethanol extract in acetaminophen (paracetamol-treated rats. Methods: Thirty-five Wistar rats weighing 100–150 g were randomly assigned into five groups of seven rats each. Groups 2–5 received high doses of paracetamol to induce liver damage, while group 1 was used as normal control. Afterwards, they were allowed to receive varying doses of VC (group 3 and 4 or vitamin E (group 5, whilst groups 1 and 2 were left untreated. The treatment period lasted for twenty one days after which sera were harvested and assayed for serum lipid indices using standard methods. Results: Groups 3 to 5 treated animals indicated significant decrease (p < 0.001 in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, total cholesterol (TC and triacylglycerol (TG levels relative to the normal and acetaminophen-treated controls, the atherogenic index showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001 in all treated groups compared with normal and acetaminophen-treated controls. However, the VC- and vitamin E-treated groups showed significant (p < 0.001 increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C relative to the controls. Conclusions: Data from our study suggest that ethanol leaf extract of VC possesses probable hypolipidemic and cardioprotective effects.

  19. Antiulcerogenic action of ethanolic extract of the resin from Virola surinamensis Warb. (Myristicaceae).

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    Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Batista, Leonia Maria; de Almeida, Ana Beatriz Albino; de Pietro Magri, Luciana; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Vilegas, Wagner; Souza Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro

    2009-03-18

    Virola surinamensis (Myristicaceae), popularly known as "mucuíba", "ucuuba" or "ucuúba do igapó" is a large tree that grows abundantly in "Várzea" forest and on river banks in the Brazilian states of Amazonas and Tocantins. The resin obtained by cuts on the stem bark is a reputed folk remedy in its natural form for the treatment of ulcer, gastritis, inflammation and cancer. The present work evaluated the pharmacological activity of the resin obtained from bark of V. surinamensis as antiulcerogenic in experimental in vivo model in order to observe whether its traditional use is justified. The preventive action of ethanolic extract of V. surinamensis was evaluated in experimental in vivo models in rodents that simulated this disease in human gastric mucosa. Oral administration of acidified ethanol solution produced severe hemorrhagic lesions in glandular mucosa with ulcerative lesion of 50+/-11.5mm. In animals pretreated with V. surinamensis (500 mg/kg, p.o.) a significant inhibition of mucosal injury of 2.40+/-0.56 mm (95% inhibition) was detected. The V. surinamensis, at the same dose, also reduced significantly (presin was analyzed by TLC and spectrometric methods (NMR and ES-MS) and the main constituent of this extract was epicatechin. We suggest that the epicatechin present in V. surinamensis resin may be among active principles responsible for the antiulcer activity shown by the tested resin but their used suggest carefulness because toxicological symptoms mentioned by population.

  20. Pharmacological studies of ethanolic extracts of Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae in animal models

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    Vanda Lucia dos Santos

    Full Text Available The crude ethanol extract (EEOH of the bark of Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae a plant used in Brazil herbal traditional medicine, was tested for anti-inflammatory, antiulcer and antidiarrhoeal activities in animal models. No acute toxicological sign was observed in animals treated with the highest dose (5000 mg/kg, p.o. or 2000 mg/kg i.p. of EEOH. The extract doses of 250, 500 or 750 mg/kg revealed a significant inhibitory effect (P < 0,01 in carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema and exhibited ulcer-protective properties against ethanol-induced ulceration in rats. An anti-diarrhoeal activity (P < 0.01 was also observed in castor-oil-induced diarrhoeal in mice. The intestinal transit was significantly (P < 0.01 reduced, however the pretreatment did not reduce the weight of intestinal contents. These results support the popular applications of Maytenus rigida for the treatment of inflammation, ulcer and diarrhoea in Brazil herbal traditional medicine.

  1. Hepatoprotective effect of biherbal ethanolic extract against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in albino rats.

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    Anantha, Krishna Chaitanya D; Siva, Reddy Challa; Manohar, Reddy A

    2012-10-01

    The combined hepatoprotective effect of Bi-herbal ethanolic extract (BHEE) was evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Liver function tests and biochemical parameters were estimated using standard kits. Livers were quickly removed and fixed in 10% formalin and subjected to histopathological studies. Ethanolic extract from the leaves of Aerva lanata and leaves of Achyranthes aspera at a dose level of 200 mg/kg, 400mg/kg body weight was administered orally once for 3 days. Substantially elevated serum marker enzymes such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, due to paracetamol treatment were restored towards normal. Biochemical parameters like total protein, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea were also restored towards normal levels. In addition, BHEE significantly decreased the liver weight of paracetamol intoxicated rats. Silymarin at a dose level of 25 mg/kg used as a standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. The results of this study strongly indicate that BHEE has got a potent hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats.

  2. Hepatoprotective effect of biherbal ethanolic extract against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in albino rats

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    D Anantha Krishna Chaitanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The combined hepatoprotective effect of Bi-herbal ethanolic extract (BHEE was evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver function tests and biochemical parameters were estimated using standard kits. Livers were quickly removed and fixed in 10% formalin and subjected to histopathological studies. Results : Ethanolic extract from the leaves of Aerva lanata and leaves of Achyranthes aspera at a dose level of 200 mg/kg, 400mg/kg body weight was administered orally once for 3 days. Substantially elevated serum marker enzymes such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, due to paracetamol treatment were restored towards normal. Biochemical parameters like total protein, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea were also restored towards normal levels. In addition, BHEE significantly decreased the liver weight of paracetamol intoxicated rats. Silymarin at a dose level of 25 mg/kg used as a standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Conclusion : The results of this study strongly indicate that BHEE has got a potent hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of propolis in “Alheira”, a fermented meat sausage

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    Rocío Casquete

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP in the control of Listeria innocua PHLS 2030c (as a surrogate for Listeria monocytogenes during storage of Alheira at 4°C. Total phenolic content was evaluated to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of EEP against the growth of L. innocua by the agar dilution method. Alheiras were manufactured by incorporating EEP (0.28 mg/mL and pathogenic bacteria and storage during 62 days at 4°C. Growth of L. innocua was determined during storage. The behaviour of L. innocua in the food matrix was significantly affected (p < 0.01 by the addition of EEP. The ethanolic extract of propolis reduced the Listeria population to below the detection limit of the technique after 8 days of storage. These results suggest that incorporation of EEP in a food susceptible to Listeria contamination may be an interesting alternative to existing chemical preservatives and can extend the shelf life of these products.

  4. Wheat germ oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol: Fatty acid composition

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    Parczewska-Plesnar, B.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE using CO2 with ethanol as entrainer was performed at a temperature of 40 oC under a pressure of 21 MPa. For comparison, a similar extraction without the entrainer was carried out. The extraction yield of wheat germ using supercritical CO2 with ethanol was slightly higher (10.7 wt% than that of extraction without the entrainer (9.9 wt%. Fractions of SFE extracts were collected separately during the experiments and the composition of fatty acids in each fraction was analyzed. The SFE extracted oils were rich (63.4-71.3% in the most valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and their content in all collected fractions was approximately constant. Similar PUFA contents were found in the reference samples of oils extracted by n-hexane (66.2-67.0%, while the commercial cold-pressed oil contained significantly less PUFA (60.2%. These results show a higher nutritional value of the oil obtained by extraction with supercritical CO2 than cold pressed oil which is generally considered to be very valuable.En este trabajo, la extracción con fluidos supercríticos (SFE usando CO2 con etanol como agente de arrastre se realizó a 40 °C bajo una presión de 21 MPa. Se ha llevado a cabo la comparación con una extracción similar sin agente de arrastre. El rendimiento de la extracción de germen de trigo usando CO2 supercrítico con etanol fue ligeramente mayor (10,7% en peso que la de extracción sin agente de arrastre (9,9% en peso. Se recogieron por separado fracciones de extractos SFE durante los experimentos y se analizó la composición de ácidos grasos en cada fracción. Los aceites extraídos mediante SFE eran ricos en los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados más valiosos (63,4-71,3%, (PUFA y su contenido en todas las fracciones recogidas fue aproximadamente constante. Un contenido similar de PUFA fueron encontrados en muestras de referencia de los aceites extraídos con n-hexano (66,2-67,0%, mientras que el

  5. Protective effects of Lactuca sativa ethanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative damage in rats

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    Hefnawy Taha M. Hefnawy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia leaves against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in reproductive system of rats. Methods: Lettuce leaves were dried and extracted with ethanol (plant: solvent, 1:10, w/v. The extract was filtered and evaporated to yield dried lettuce extract. Animals were divided into seven groups and treated with CCl4 and different concentrations of lettuce extract. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected and centrifuged for serum separation. Body weights, testis size, histopathology of testis and liver, catalase (CAT activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, peroxidase (POD activity, reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, nitrite level, and serum hormones were determined. Results: Oxidative stress induced by CCl4 (2 mL/kg body weight in rat decreases the increase in body weight and relative testis weight. It also markedly increases the level of TBARS and nitrites along with corresponding decrease in reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in testis (i.e., CAT, POD, SOD and GSH-Px. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone was decreased while estradiol and prolactin were increased during CCl 4 treatment. Histopathology of CCl4-treated rats indicated the partial degeneration of germ and leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis. Supplementation of lettuce extract (100, 150, 200 mg/kg body weight orally once a week for 10 weeks results in decrease of TBARS and nitrite, while increase in antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px and GSH contents. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, prolactin, histology, body weight and relative testis weight was also concomitantly restored to near normal

  6. Protective effects of Lactuca sativa ethanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative damage in rats

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    Hefnawy, Hefnawy Taha M.; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) leaves against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in reproductive system of rats. Methods Lettuce leaves were dried and extracted with ethanol (plant: solvent, 1:10, w/v). The extract was filtered and evaporated to yield dried lettuce extract. Animals were divided into seven groups and treated with CCl4 and different concentrations of lettuce extract. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected and centrifuged for serum separation. Body weights, testis size, histopathology of testis and liver, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite level, and serum hormones were determined. Results Oxidative stress induced by CCl4 (2 mL/kg body weight) in rat decreases the increase in body weight and relative testis weight. It also markedly increases the level of TBARS and nitrites along with corresponding decrease in reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in testis (i.e., CAT, POD, SOD and GSH-Px). Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone was decreased while estradiol and prolactin were increased during CCl4 treatment. Histopathology of CCl4-treated rats indicated the partial degeneration of germ and leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis. Supplementation of lettuce extract (100, 150, 200 mg/kg body weight orally) once a week for 10 weeks results in decrease of TBARS and nitrite, while increase in antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px and GSH contents. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, prolactin, histology, body weight and relative testis weight was also concomitantly restored to near normal level by

  7. Evaluation of anti-Bothrops asper venom activity of ethanolic extract of Brownea rosademonte leaves

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    Salazar Marcos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant inhibition of the coagulant and hemorrhagic effects of Bothrops asper venom was demonstrated by ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Brownea rosademonte. In vitro experiments preincubating 5.5 mg of extract kg-1 b.m. for 30 min with a minimum hemorrhagic dose of venom (273.8 ± 16.1 μg of venom kg-1 b.m. lowered the hemorrhagic activity of the venom alone in CD-1 mice by 51.5 ± 2.6 %. Additionally, 1.7 mg extract L-1 plasma prolonged 5.1 times the plasma coagulation time. Fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of two compounds: ononitol (1 and quercetrin (2. The structure of compounds 1 and 2 was established by spectroscopic analyses, including APCI-HRMS and NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC and COSY. A quercetrin concentration of 0.11 μmol L-1 prolonged the plasma coagulation time 2.6 times demonstrating that this compound was one of the active constituents of the Brownea rosademonte extract.

  8. Antipsychotic activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora Cordifolia in amphetamine challenged mice model

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    Bindu nee Giri Jain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora cordifolia is reported to have CNS active principle and is used for the treatment of various neurological disorders. Hence, the effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia was investigated for its putative antipsychotic activity using amphetamine challenged mice model. Haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p. was administered acutely to mice as standard drug. Control animals received vehicle (10% DMSO. The in vivo receptor binding studies were carried out to correlate the antipsychotic activity of the extract with its capacity to bind to the DAD2 receptor. The results in SLA showed that the hydro alcoholic extract of the stems of Tinospora cordifolia at a dose level of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg showed no significant antipsychotic activity in amphetamine induced hyperactivity in mice when compared to standard. Extract alone treated group at a dos level of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg showed a decreased in locomotor activity when compared to the control. The plant extract increased the DAD2 receptor binding in a dose dependent manner in treated mice compared to the control group.

  9. Phytochemical evaluation of the ethanolic extracts of some Nigerian herbal plants

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    Enegide Chinedu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbs basically, are plants or plant parts employed due to their scent, medicinal properties or flavor. Herbal medicines have longed been used in the management and treatment of various ailments even before the arrival of modern medicine. Herbal medicines are still being used today, as it has even gained a new momentum in the field of medicine. Phytochemicals are responsible for eliciting definite physiological effects of various herbs in the body. In Nigeria, various plants are being used traditionally in the treatment of divers ailments. Some of these plants include Tapinanthus bangwensis, Tamarindus indica, Ocimum gratissimum, Allium sativum, Kigelia africana, Azadirachta indica, Solanum virginianum, Myrianthus serratus and Vernonia amygdalina. Though there have been claims of success in their traditional usage, it is however important to carry-out phytochemical assessment on them. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the phytochemical constituents of the ethanolic extract of these plants. Materials and Methods: The plant materials were extracted, and the plant extracts were screened for the presence of various phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, carbohydrate, saponins, tannins and anthraquinones using the standard methods. Result: The experimental result revealed the presence of the various bioactive phytochemicals in the different plant extracts investigated. These phytochemicals were however present in different proportions in the various plant extracts. Conclusion: The experimental result vindicates the usage of these plants traditionally for medicinal purposes.

  10. Systemic and reproductive toxicity induced by Parkia platycephala ethanolic extract in female Wistar rats

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    Bethânia A. Costa

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Parkia platycephala Benth., Fabaceae, on systemic and reproductive parameters. In toxicity on the estrous cycle, four groups of not-pregnant Wistar rats received distilled water and the doses 250, 500 and 1000 mg.kg-1 of plant extract for thirty days, at the end of which they were examined as to the frequency of their phases. The systemic toxicity was assessed through the consumption of water and food and by measuring body mass. After the extract was administered, serum AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin (total, direct and indirect, urea and creatinine were dosed. The evaluation of the organs (brain, heart, hypophysis, adrenal glands, liver, spleen, uterus and ovaries in their macroscopic aspects, relative and absolute masses and histological structure showed that the plant extract induced a decrease of water and food consumption and of body mass. It caused an increase in the luteal phase and a decrease in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle and rose serum alkaline phosphatase levels.The data exhibit systemic and reproductive toxicity induced by plant extract in female Wistar rats.

  11. Mechanistic Study of Silver Nanoparticle's Synthesis by Dragon's Blood Resin Ethanol Extract and Antiradiation Activity.

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    Hasan, Murtaza; Iqbal, Javed; Awan, Umer; Saeed, Yasmeen; Ranran, Yuan; Liang, Yanli; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2015-02-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is best way to avoid exposure of hazardous materials as compared to chemical manufacturing process which is a severe threat not only to biodiversity but also to environment. In present study, we reported a novel method of finding antiradiation compounds by bioreducing mechanism of silver nanoparticles formation using 50% ethanol extract of Dragons blood, a famous Chinese herbal plant. Color change during silver nanoparticles synthesis was observed and it was confirmed by ultra violet (UV) visible spectroscopy at wave length at 430 nm after 30 min of reaction at 60 °C. Well dispersed round shaped silver nanoparticles with approximate size (4 nm to 50 nm) were measured by TEM and particle size analyser. Capping of biomolecules on Ag nanoparticles was characterized by FTIR spectra. HPLC analysis was carried out to find active compounds in the extract. Furthermore, antiradiation activity of this extract was tested by MTT assay in vitro after incubating the SH-SY5Y cells for 24 h at 37 °C. The results indicate that presence of active compounds in plant extract not only involves in bioreduction process but also shows response against radiation. The dual role of plant extract as green synthesis of nanoparticles and exhibit activity against radiation which gives a new way of fishing out active compounds from complex herbal plants.

  12. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

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    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Orekoya, Latifat Olubukola; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Methods Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Results The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Conclusions Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary. PMID:23569852

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Acalypha wilkesiana Leaves Growing in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

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    Gotep, J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves growing in Vom, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria was carried out to verify claims by the locals of its medicinal properties. We tested the extract for activity against Staphylococcus aureus (G+, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella aerogenes (G-. The extract exhibited activity against the organisms in varying degrees. In the agar diffusion test, Y. enterocolitica showed the highest zone of inhibition (18 mm at the highest concentration of extract tested (20 mg/mL while E. coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and K. aerogenes showed zones of inhibition of 17, 16, 15, 14 and 16 mm respectively. At extract concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, Y. enterocolitica and P. aeruginosa did not show any zones of inhibition while E.coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, and K. aerogenes showed zones of inhibition of 7, 6, 6 and 7 mm respectively. Below extract concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, there was no zone of inhibition observed with any organism. The MIC of the extract against the organisms was 5 mg/mL except on S. aureus where the MIC was 2.5 mg/mL. The MBC of the extract was 10 mg/mL against Y. enterocolitica, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and K. aerogenes, 5 mg/mL against E. coli and S. aureus. Preliminary phytochemical testing revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides while saponins, alkaloids and anthraquinones were not present. The result gives scientific backing to the use of the leaves by the local people in the treatment of conditions usually associated with the organisms tested.

  14. DETERMINATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM SOME KINDS OF RAW MATERIALS WITH TANNINS

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    Boyko NN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data about determination of antimicrobial activity of extracts from some kinds of raw materials (13 plants with tannins. It was determined some kinds of technological parameters of extracts (concentration of total solids and density. A simple to use valuation method of antimicrobial properties of extracts – well method has been suggested and applied; for quantitative estimation of antimicrobial activity of extracts and compare them with each other, special mathematic method (vector algebra theory has been applied. It was determined parameters of antimicrobial properties of extracts: a complex indicator of medication antimicrobial activity for quantitative estimation of antimicrobial effect - A, and correlation coefficient - r (degree of similarity to the standard, which demonstrate the spectrum of antimicrobial activity of medication. It has been selected the most promising extracts that have the medium antimicrobial activity, which obtained from the root of bergenia crassifolia А=1.89; the root of potentilla erecta А=1.92; the bark of corylus avellana А=1.76; the leaf of cotinus coggygria А=2.21. Low level of antimicrobial activity has been demonstrated by the extract obtained from the cone of alnus incana А=0.78, r=0.58. It is noted antimicrobial properties of the solutions of tannin and gallic acids 0.5% m / m in 70% vol. ethanol, that showed respectively moderate and low strength antimicrobial properties: А=1.65, r=0.99 and А=1.26, r=0.91. This potentially allows to predict the antimicrobial properties of extracts from plants containing derivatives of tannin and gallic acids on their concentration in them. It has been shown in general that raw materials that contain different kinds of tannins have possibility to use in complex phytochemical medications as antimicrobial component.

  15. Ethanol extract of Brazilian red propolis induces apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress.

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    Kamiya, Tetsuro; Nishihara, Hiroko; Hara, Hirokazu; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2012-11-07

    Propolis, a natural product collected from plants by honey bees, is commonly used in folk medicines. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is known to induce apoptosis through the induction of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Here, we investigated whether ethanol extracts of propolis and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) induce apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ER stress in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and human fibroblasts. Among several ethanol extracts of propolis and CAPE, Brazilian red propolis (BRP) significantly reduced MCF-7 cell viability through the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction, caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation but did not affect those of fibroblasts. Moreover, treatment with BRP significantly induced CHOP expression in MCF-7 cells compared to fibroblasts. Further, pretreatment with a chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid, suppressed BRP-triggered MCF-7 cell death. Overall, we revealed that an ethanol extract of BRP induces MCF-7 cell apoptosis through, at least in part, ER stress-related signaling.

  16. Gastroprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Leaf against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Nurhidayah Ab. Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5 mL/kg orally, positive control was administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug and 2 groups were received 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5 mL/kg was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2 g/kg and 5 g/kg.

  17. Ethanol-extracted Cameroonian propolis exerts estrogenic effects and alleviates hot flushes in ovariectomized Wistar rats.

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    Zingue, Stéphane; Nde, Chantal Beatrice Magne; Michel, Thomas; Ndinteh, Derek Tantoh; Tchatchou, Jules; Adamou, Moïse; Fernandez, Xavier; Fohouo, Fernand-Nestor Tchuenguem; Clyne, Colin; Njamen, Dieudonné

    2017-01-21

    Since the biological properties of propolis depend to the plants that can be found in a specific region, propolis from unexplored regions attracts the attention of scientists. Ethanolic extract of Cameroonian propolis (EEP) is used to treat various ailments including gynecological problems and amenorrhea. Since there were no scientific data to support the above claims, the present study was therefore undertaken to assess estrogenic properties of Cameroonian propolis. To achieve our goal, the ability of EEP to induce MCF-7 cells proliferation in E-screen assay as well as to activate estrogen receptors α (ERα) and β (ERβ) in cell-based reporter gene assays using human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T) transfected with ERs was tested. Further, a 3-day uterotrophic assay was performed and the ability of EEP to alleviate hot flushes in ovariectomized adult rats was evaluated. In vitro, EEP showed an antiestrogenic activity in both HEK293T ER-α and ER-β cells. In vivo, EEP induced a significant increase in a bell shape dose response manner of the uterine wet weight, the total protein levels in the uterus, the uterine and vaginal epithelium height and acini border cells of mammary gland with the presence of abundant eosinophil secretions. Moreover, EEP induced a significant decrease in the total number, average duration as well as frequency of hot flushes after 3 days of treatment in rat (equivalent to a month in woman). The dose of 150 mg/kg exhibited the most potent estrogenic effects among all the tested doses. The UPLC-HRMS analysis showed the presence of caffeic acid derivatives and trirtepernoids in EEP, which are well known endowed with estrogenic properties. These results suggest that Ethanolic extract of Cameroonian propolis has estrogen-like effects in vivo and may alleviate some menopausal problems such as vaginal dryness and hot flushes. Ethanol-extracted Cameroobian propolis exhibited in vitro and in vivo estrogen-like effects. This extract may contain

  18. Characterization of Ethanolic Extract of Streptomyces sp. as a Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitors Produced by Endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12

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    Lenni Fitri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 isolated from Zingiber cassumunar (Bangle is known to produce pancreatic lipase inhibitory compound. However, the characteristics of this active compound has not been reported yet. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of pancreatics inhibitory compound produced by Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 and to assess the role of endophytic actinobacteria in producing pancreatic lipase inhibitor using endophytic-free bangle tissue culture, wild bangle and compared with the activity of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 endophytes. Supernatant of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 was extracted using ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane solvents. Toxicity test was performed using larvae of shrimp Artemia salina. The results showed that the best solvent to obtain pancreatic lipase inhibitor compounds was ethanol. Phytochemical analysis showed that ethanolic extract of endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 contained flavonoids. IC50 value of ethanol extract was 180.83 µg/ml. The result of TLC showed that ethanolic extract of Streptomyces AEBg12 had a blue luminescence band indicated that there were either flavone, flavanones, flavonols or isoflavones. Inhibitory activity of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 was higher than wild bangle and bangle tissue culture. The information from this study can be be used as a basic data for further characterization of the active compound, which might be developed as an antiobesity agent through its pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity.

  19. Antidiarrheal Evaluation of Aqueous and Ethanolic Stem Bark Extracts of Khaya senegalensis A. Juss (Meliaceae in Albino Rats

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    Ishaku L. Elisha, Micah S. Makoshi, Sunday Makama*, Christiana J. Dawurung, Nkechi V. Offiah§, Jurbe G. Gotep, Olusola O. Oladipo and David Shamaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stem bark of Khaya senegalensis A. Juss (Meliaceae is used traditionally in the treatment of malaria, intestinal worms, diarrhea, dysentery and venereal diseases. Despite the claim as an effective antidiarrheal remedy in both humans and animals, there is scarcity of documented scientific information of specific in vivo antidiarrheal test using extracts of this plant. The number of wet feces and the distance travelled by activated charcoal meal in rats orally given 300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg doses of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the stem bark of K. senegalensis were evaluated in the castor oil induced diarrhea and gastrointestinal motility studies. The phytochemical constituents and acute toxicity test of the extracts were also tested using standard methods. Both extracts dose-dependently (P0.05 distance travelled by charcoal in the gastrointestinal motility test. The extracts were apparently safe at 2000 mg/kg body weight per os. Cardiac glycosides and flavonoids were present in both extracts, while tannins were present only in the ethanolic extract. The aqueous and ethanolic stem bark extracts of K. senegalensis inhibits diarrhea, at least in part, by a mechanism other than inhibition of gastrointestinal motility. The antidiarrheal activity of K. senegalensis may be attributed to the flavonoid and tannin constituents present in the extracts. The ability of K. senegalensis to significantly protect against castor oil induced diarrhea justifies its use in traditional management of human and animal diarrhea.

  20. Spasmolytic Activity of the Ethanol Extract of Sideritis raeseri spp. raeseri Boiss. & Heldr. on the Isolated Rat Ileum Contractions

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    Kitic, Dusanka; Radenkovic, Mirjana; Veljkovic, Slavimir; Jankovic, Teodora; Savikin, Katarina; Zdunic, Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sideritis raeseri spp. raeseri Boiss. & Heldr., known as “mountain tea,” has been widely used in the Mediterranean region as a spice and in folk medicine as a very popular decoction because of its anti-inflammatory, carminative, analgesic, antitussive, stomachic, and antimicrobial properties. The study was aimed to investigate the effects of an ethanol extract of S. raeseri on intestinal activity. Air-dried and powdered aerial parts were extracted with 96% ethanol. The rat ileum preparations were incubated in Tyrode's solution gassed (95% O2/5% CO2) at 37°C. The ethanol extract of S. raeseri (0.03–0.3 mg/mL) relaxed spontaneous contractions in isolated rat ileum, similar to that produced by papaverine. The plant extract in a concentration-dependent manner (0.015–0.15 mg/mL) significantly inhibited the contractile response to acetylcholine (Pbarium chloride. Plant extract (0.03–0.3 mg/mL) significantly shifted the histamine concentration–response curve to the right and down (Pbarium chloride (P<.01). The results show that the ethanol extract of S. raeseri can produce inhibition of the the spontaneous rat ileum contractions and contractions induced by different spasmogens. These data indicate that S. raeseri acts as a spasmolytic on intestinal smooth muscle, which justifies its use in gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:21480795

  1. Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.

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    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

    2012-12-01

    Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. © 2012 The Authors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

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    Craciunescu Oana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100 mg/L A. montana and 10–500 mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10 mg/L A. montana and 10–300 mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders.

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunescu, Oana; Constantin, Daniel; Gaspar, Alexandra; Toma, Liana; Utoiu, Elena; Moldovan, Lucia

    2012-09-09

    Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10-100 mg/L A. montana and 10-500 mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10 mg/L A. montana and 10-300 mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders.

  4. Effect of Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosa damascena on Guinea Pig Isolated Heart

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    Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sIn the present study, the effects of aqueous-ethanolic extract from Rosa damascena on heart rate and contractility were examined. Materials and Methods Isolated guinea-pig hearts were perfused through aorta in a Langendorff mode. Heart rate (HR and contractility were determined in the presence of four concentrations of the extract (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 1.0 mg % and isoprenaline (1, 10, 100 nM and 1 µM in comparison with baseline values in the presence and absence of propranolol (n= 10 for each group. ResultsBoth isoprenaline and the extract caused increase in heart rate and contractility (P< 0.05 to P< 0.001. The percent increased in HR due to the final concentration of isoprenaline in the absence of propranolol was significantly greater than that of the extract (P< 0.01. Propranolol caused significant reduction in both HR and contractility (P< 0.05 for both but this effect was significantly reversed by isoprenaline and the extract (P< 0.05 to P< 0.001. The percent increased in heart contractility due to the final concentration of the extract in the absence and presence of propranolol was significantly greater than that of isoprenaline (P< 0.05 for both cases. There was significant correlation between both HR and heart contractility with concentration of isoprenaline and the extract (P< 0.05 to P< 0.001. ConclusionIn conclusion this study showed a relatively potent inotropic and chornotropic effect for Rosa damascena on isolated guinea-pig heart.

  5. Role of Ethanolic Extract of Morus alba Leaves on Some Biochemical and Haematological Alterations in Irradiated Male Rats.

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    Mohamed, N E; Ashour, S E

    2018-02-02

    The present study aimed to evaluate the protective role of "Morus alba Linn. (Family: Moraceae) commonly known as mulberry" leaves extract against hazardous effects of gamma rays in male rats. Thirty six male albino rats were divided into six groups (6 rats/group); 1 - control group received 1 ml distilled water, 2- low dose of extract (100 mg/Kg) group treated daily with low oral dose of ethanolic extract of mulberry leaves (100 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.)) for 21 consecutive days, 3- high dose of extract (200 mg/Kg) group treated daily with high oral dose of ethanolic extract of mulberry leaves (200 mg/kg b.wt.) for the same period, 4- irradiated group rats were subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a shot dose of 7 Gy, 5- low dose of extract + irradiated group treated daily with low oral dose of ethanolic extract of mulberry leaves (100 mg/kg b. wt.) for 21 consecutive days then rats were exposed to gamma irradiation at a single dose of 7 Gy, 6- high dose of extract + irradiation group treated daily with high oral dose of ethanolic extract of mulberry leaves (200 mg/kg b. wt.) for 21 consecutive days then rats were exposed to gamma irradiation at a single dose of 7 Gy. Rats were sacrificed 1,7,15 days post gamma irradiation in all groups. Blood samples were taken at three intervals time in the six groups. The results showed that whole body irradiation of rats induced significant decrease (P extract, either low or high concentrations to rats prior to irradiation caused significant improvement in the studied parameters. Mulberry leaves extract prior to exposure to gamma irradiation has radio protector against hazardous effect of irradiation in male rats.

  6. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Capparis spinosa.

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    Mansour, Riadh Ben; Jilani, Imtinen Ben Haj; Bouaziz, Mohammed; Gargouri, Bochra; Elloumi, Nésrine; Attia, Hamadi; Ghrabi-Gammar, Zeineb; Lassoued, Saloua

    2016-01-01

    Caper plant (Capparis spinosa) extracts have been associated with diverse biological activities including anti-oxidant properties. In this work, we characterized the hydro-ethanolic extract obtained from C. spinosa leaves [hydroethanolic extract of C. spinosa (HECS)] by analyzing the content in anti-oxidant compounds such as polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Further, we evaluated HECS antioxidant activities in vitro using bleaching of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and ABTS test as well as by pretreatment of HeLa cells exposed to Fe(2+) or H2O2. Our findings indicate that HECS contains high amount of total phenolic compounds and high levels of flavonoids and anthocyanins. Furthermore, HECS exhibited antioxidant activity in both chemical and biological tests. Specially, pretreatment of HeLa cells with different concentrations of the extract conferred protection against lipid peroxidation and modulated activities of two antioxidant enzymes, SOD and catalase. These results revealed HECS antioxidant effects and suggest that C. spinosa leaves are a potential source of natural antioxidant molecules with possible applications in industry and medicine.

  7. [The Use of Synthetic Polymers (Superdisintegrants) in Technology Tablets Containing Ethanol Dry Extract from Asparagus officinalis].

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    Linka, Wojciech Andrzej; Wojtaszek, Ilona; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj; Kołodziejczyk, Michał Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Dry extracts are now frequently used in medicine as an alternative to synthetic drugs. In the case of tablet technology with dry plant extracts, the proper selection of disintegrants (superdisintegrants) is particularly important. Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the polymers constituting superdisintegrants (Vivasol®, Vivastar®, Polyplasdone XL) in uncoated tablet formulation of alcoholic extracted from Asparagus officinalis. Dry the ethanol extract of Asparagus officinalis, Vivasol®, Vivastar®, Vivapur®, Kollidon VA64, Polyplasdone XL, magnesium stearate. Direct compression. Paddle method was carried out to study pharmacopoeial parameters and pharmaceutical availability. The calculation of equivalency factors: similarity [f2] and the difference [f1]. Approximation results. Tablets brownish-green, with a smooth and uniform surface, without stains, chipping and damage. The determined average weight of the tablets compiled with the standards. The test friability and crushing strength revealed that the most mechanically strong tablets contained Vivasol, Vivastar, Polyplasdone XL. These tablets also have a longer disintegration and dissolution time compared with tablets containing only Vivasol. These differences are also confirmed by the calculated f2 and f1. The addition of a mixture of Polyplasdone XL and Vivastar to Vivasol significantly increases the mechanical strength of the tablets (crushing strength, resistance to crushing). The addition of a mixture of Polyplasdone XL and Vivastar to Vivasol paradoxically increases the disintegration time of tablets (11.1 min). Single superdisintegrant breaks up the tablet more effectively than a mixture of superdisintegrants.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts from algae against Penicillium expansum Link (Trichocomaceae, Ascomycota

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    Argus Cezar da Rocha Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium expansum is a cosmopolitan, highly aggressive pathogen that causes blue mold, a disease of great importance that leads to losses in quality and quantity of harvested fruits. The application of chemicals is traditionally used as a control method. However, algae bioprospecting has revealed many antifungal compounds that can be used to control pathogens. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ethanolic extracts from seven microalgae and five macroalgae against P. expansum. The antifungal potential was evaluated by analyzing germination percentage, the size of the germ tube, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, and the median effective concentration (EC50. The spectrophotometric profile was determined for extracts that showed an inhibitory effect. Among the investigated algae, the Chlorella sp. and H. pluvialis extracts, which had final concentrations of 18.8 and 125.95mg.mL-1, inhibited 100% and 91% germination, respectively. The EC50 was 2.93 and 61.20 mg.mL-1 for Chlorella sp. and H. pluvialis, respectively. Chlorella sp. showed absorption peaks in the range of chlorophyll-a and H. pluvialis presented a peak in the range of phenolic compounds. Although further studies are required to characterize the extracts, Chlorella sp. and H. pluvialis showed promising antifungal effects on the control of P. expansum.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts from algae against Penicillium expansum Link (Trichocomaceae, Ascomycota

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    Argus Cezar da Rocha Neto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n4p23 Penicillium expansum is a cosmopolitan, highly aggressive pathogen that causes blue mold, a disease of great importance that leads to losses in quality and quantity of harvested fruits. The application of chemicals is traditionally used as a control method. However, algae bioprospecting has revealed many antifungal compounds that can be used to control pathogens. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ethanolic extracts from seven microalgae and five macroalgae against P. expansum. The antifungal potential was evaluated by analyzing germination percentage, the size of the germ tube, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, and the median effective concentration (EC50. The spectrophotometric profile was determined for extracts that showed an inhibitory effect. Among the investigated algae, the Chlorella sp. and H. pluvialis extracts, which had final concentrations of 18.8 and 125.95mg.mL-1, inhibited 100% and 91% germination, respectively. The EC50 was 2.93 and 61.20 mg.mL-1 for Chlorella sp. and H. pluvialis, respectively. Chlorella sp. showed absorption peaks in the range of chlorophyll-a and H. pluvialis presented a peak in the range of phenolic compounds. Although further studies are required to characterize the extracts, Chlorella sp. and H. pluvialis showed promising antifungal effects on the control of P. expansum.

  10. Phytochemical characterization of bioactive compounds on methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts of Myrciaria sp.

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    Nathalia F. Naspolini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the native species of importance in Brazil, jabuticabeira (Myrciaria sp. is a native fruit tree from several Brazilian regions. Few studies report the chemical constituents of the leaves and its pharmacological and nutraceutical properties. The aim of this study was to identify the phenolic compounds of the methanolic (MeOH and ethanolic (EtOH leaf extracts of Myrciaria sp. Phytochemical profile of the extracts was carried-out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by radical scavenging capacity with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and total phenolics were determined with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. A total of nine different compounds were identified in the free and bound phenolics extractions: 2,4 dihydroxybenzoic, vanillin, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapinic, rutin, epicatechin, trans-caffeic and myricetin. The extracts demonstrated high radical scavenging capacity (MeOH: 1.83 and EtOH: 8.05 mg/mL and high phenolic content (MeOH: 1.15; and EtOH: 1.04 mg/g dry matter. The wide variability of compounds revealed and the amount of peaks not identified, gives us a background of a potential plant matrix for further investigations in order to develop a nutraceutical agent.

  11. Phytochemical characterization of bioactive compounds on methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts of Myrciaria sp.

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    Nathalia F. Naspolini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the native species of importance in Braz il, jabuticabeira ( Myrciaria sp. is a native fruit tree from several Brazilian regions. Few studies report the chemical constituents of the leaves and its pharmacological and nutraceutical properties. The aim of this study was to identify the phenolic com pounds of the methanolic (MeOH and ethanolic (EtOH leaf extracts of Myrciaria sp. Phytochemical profile of the extracts was carried - out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by radical scavengin g capacity with 2,2 - diphenyl - 1 - picryl - hydrazyl (DPPH and total phenolics were determined with Folin -Ciocalteau reagent. A total of nine different compounds were identified in the free and bound phenolics extractions: 2,4 dihydroxybenzoic, vanillin, p- coumaric, ferulic, sinapinic, rutin, epicatechin, trans- caffeic and myricetin. The extracts demonstrated high radical scavenging capacity (MeOH: 1.83 and EtOH: 8.05 mg/mL and high phenolic content (MeOH: 1.15; and EtOH: 1.04 mg/g dry matter. The wide variability of compounds revealed and the amount of peaks not identified, gives us a background of a potential plant matrix for further investigations in order to develop a nutraceutical agent.

  12. Acacia catechu ethanolic bark extract induces apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells

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    Thangavelu Lakshmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is in approximately 30% of all cancers in India. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Acacia catechu bark (ACB against human squamous cell carcinoma cell line-25 (SCC-25. Cytotoxic effect of ACB extract was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay. A. catechu extract was treated SCC-25 cells with 25 and 50 μg/mL for 24 h. Apoptosis markers such as caspases-8 and 9, bcl-2, bax, and cytochrome c (Cyt-c were done by RT-PCR. Morphological changes of ACB treated cells were evaluated using acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB dual staining. Nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation were evaluated using propidium iodide (PI staining. Further, cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. A. catechu treatment caused cytotoxicity in SCC-25 cells with an IC50 of 52.09 μg/mL. Apoptotic marker gene expressions were significantly increased on ACB treatment. Staining with AO/EB and PI shows membrane blebbing and nuclear membrane distortion, respectively, and it confirms the apoptosis induction in SCC-25 cells. These results suggest that ACB extract can be used as a modulating agent in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  13. EVALUATION PHYTOCHEMISTRY, CYTOTOXIC ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL GROSS ETHANOL EXTRACT OF LEAVES Annona muricata L. (ANNONACEAE

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    Daiani Patrícia Silva Alfaia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Annona muricata L. are widely used medicinally, against parasitic diseases, including helminths, dysentery, malaria and related symptoms. The Amapá population use as analgesics and against urinary infections. This research aimed to perform the phytochemical screening, analyze cytotoxic activity and antibacterial of the crude ethanol extract of leaves Annona muricata L. By the method described by Esteban et al. were detected classes: alkaloids, steroids and triterpenoids. Cytotoxicity was analyzed against the Artemia salina, by the method of Mayer with some adaptations, it was tested crude extract concentrations of leaves of 50µg/mL, 100µg/mL, 250µg/mL, 500µg/mL, 750µg/mL, 1000µg/mL, observed toxicity at concentrations from 250μg/mL extract. The antimicrobial analysis was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method with some adaptations, we used strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia. Were used three crude extract concentrations. The concentration of 25mg/mL and 50mg/mL showed zones of inhibition against the strain of E. coli. These results demonstrate the potential of this species to source of antibacterial compounds. Therefore, the results shown in this study partially justify its popular use. Keywords: Natural products; soursop; secondary metabolites.

  14. Keeping quality of beef sausage using ethanolic extract of gamma-irradiated pomegranate peel powder

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    Mohammed Ibrahim Ali Soliman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts from gamma-irradiated pomegranate (Punica granatum peel powder (PE at the dose levels of 0, 3, 6, and 9 kGy. The аntioxidant activity of the extracts was estimated using the radical scavenging activity against 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•, β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching system, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. Antibacterial activity of the extracts was assessed against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsilla penumoneae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhumurium. The results showed that PE treated with 6 kGy had a higher content of total phenolic compounds (TPC, total flavonoid compounds (TFC, and antioxidant activity. Hence, the PE of 6 kGy-irradiated peels were selected to be added to beef sausage. Different concentrations of 6 KGy-irradiated PE were applied to improve beef sausage hygienic quality and extend the shelf life during cold storage (4°C. The results indicated that when 12 mL of the extract were added to one kg of beef sausage, the shelf-life of the sausage was extended from 15 days to 50 days (at 4°C, compared with the control, without changes of the microbiological, chemical, and sensory attributes.

  15. Inhibition of Human Cervical Cancer Cell Growth by Ethanolic Extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Punarnava Root

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    Rakhi Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indian traditional medicine, Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnava roots have been widely used for the treatment of dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of spleen, abdominal pain and as an anti-stress agent. Pharmacological evaluation of the crude ethanolic extract of B. diffusa roots has been shown to possess antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties. The extract of B. diffusa was studied for anti-proliferative effects on the growth of HeLa cells and for its effect on cell cycle. Bio-assays of extracts from B. diffusa root showed that a methanol : chloroform fraction (BDF 5 had an antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells. After 48 h of exposure, this fraction at a concentration of 200 μg mL−1 significantly reduced cell proliferation with visible morphological changes in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis suggests that antiproliferative effect of BDF 5 could be due to inhibition of DNA synthesis in S-phase of cell cycle in HeLa cells, whereas no significant change in cell cycle was detected in control cells. The fraction BDF 5 caused cell death via apoptosis as evident from DNA fragmentation and caspase-9 activation. Thus the extract has potential to be evaluated in detail to assess the molecular mechanism-mediated anticancer activities of this plant.

  16. [Toxicity of the ethanol extract of Magonia pubescens on larvae Aedes aegypti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Walquíria; Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Cavasin; da Silva, Ionizete Garcia

    2003-01-01

    Crude ethanol extracted from Magonia pubescens trunks was utilized to prove its effect in the intestinal tract of Aedes aegypti 3rd instar larvae. Exposure times (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 13 hours) were tested to verify when the morphological alterations begin to occur, in the intestinal tract of the larvae. The toxic effect of the extract was mainly in the midgut, beginning at the anterior midgut and followed through to posterior midgut. The main alterations observed were partial or total cell destruction, high citoplasmatic vacuolization, increase of subperitrophic space, cell hypertrophy and the epithelium did not maintain its monolayer appearance. The alterations began after four hours of exposure to M. pubescens extract. Observations of tissue sections from larvae treated for different lengths of time revealed a wide variation in the degree of damage between exposure periods and midgut larvae region. The present study provides evidence regarding the mode of action of the M. pubescens extract and suggests its potential utilization as a larvicide to control Aedes aegypti mosquito.

  17. Protective Effects of Ethanolic Extracts from Artichoke, an Edible Herbal Medicine, against Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xuchong; Wei, Ruofan; Deng, Aihua; Lei, Tingping

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented pathological factors in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a healthy food and folk medicine with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of ethanolic extract from artichoke against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were treated with an ethanolic extract of artichoke (0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 g/kg body weight)...

  18. Chromatographic fingerprinting and free-radical scavenging activity of ethanol extracts of Muntingia calabura L. leaves and stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Patrick Cruiz Buhian

    2017-02-01

    Conclusions: M. calabura exhibited very high antioxidant activity in its leaves and stems ethanol extracts, both of which are used in traditional medicine. The TLC results demonstrated the presence of diverse secondary metabolites in the leaf and stem ethanol extracts, indicating that the antioxidant activity, including other bioactivities may be attributed to these phytochemical constituents. This paper has reported for the first time the TLC fingerprinting of M. calabura using visible light, UV 254 nm, UV 366 and post-derivatization with vanillin-spray to visualize separate spots on TLC plates.

  19. Anticancer activity of calyx of Diospyros kaki Thunb. through downregulation of cyclin D1 via inducing proteasomal degradation and transcriptional inhibition in human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Bin; Park, Gwang Hun; Song, Hun Min; Son, Ho-Jun; Um, Yurry; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2017-09-05

    Although it has been reported to contain high polyphenols, the pharmacological studies of the calyx of Diospyros kaki Thunb (DKC) have not been elucidated in detail. In this study, we elucidated anti-cancer activity and potential molecular mechanism of DKC against human colorectal cancer cells. Anti-cell proliferative effect of 70% ethanol extracts from the calyx of Diospyros kaki (DKC-E70) was evaluated by MTT assay. The effect of DKC-E70 on the expression of cyclin D1 in the protein and mRNA level was evaluated by Western blot and RT-PCR, respectively. DKC-E70 suppressed the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cell lines such as HCT116, SW480, LoVo and HT-29. Although DKC-E70 decreased cyclin D1 expression in protein and mRNA level, decreased level of cyclin D1 protein by DKC-E70 occurred at the earlier time than that of cyclin D1 mRNA, which indicates that DKC-E70-mediated downregulation of cyclin D1 protein may be a consequence of the induction of degradation and transcriptional inhibition of cyclin D1. In cyclin D1 degradation, we found that cyclin D1 downregulation by DKC-E70 was attenuated in presence of MG132. In addition, DKC-E70 phosphorylated threonine-286 (T286) of cyclin D1 and T286A abolished cyclin D1 downregulation by DKC-E70. We also observed that DKC-E70-mediated T286 phosphorylation and subsequent cyclin D1 degradation was blocked in presence of the inhibitors of ERK1/2, p38 or GSK3β. In cyclin D1 transcriptional inhibition, DKC-E70 inhibited the expression of β-catenin and TCF4, and β-catenin/TCF-dependent luciferase activity. Our results suggest that DKC-E70 may downregulate cyclin D1 as one of the potential anti-cancer targets through cyclin D1 degradation by T286 phosphorylation dependent on ERK1/2, p38 or GSK3β, and cyclin D1 transcriptional inhibition through Wnt signaling. From these findings, DKC-E70 has potential to be a candidate for the development of chemoprevention or therapeutic agents for human colorectal cancer.

  20. Effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Peganum harmala L seeds on lipids profile in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Hasanzadeh Tahery

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Atherosclerosis is the main factor of mortality in cardiovascular patients. Pathogenesis dependence of atherosclerosis on the increase of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c has been proved. Since using of existing chemical medicines for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases causes several side-effects, this has led to more tendency to using of herbs.   According to some traditional medicinal references, Harmala seeds can be used as lowering blood lipids agents. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Harmala seeds on blood lipid profiles.   Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 18 Wistar rats with the average weight of 300 g were used. The rats were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. two experimental and one control group. The experimental groups I and II were respectively gavaged 3cc liquid containing 100mg/kg body weight (bw of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Harmala seeds for 30 days and group III, as a negative control, received an equal volume of distilled water for the same period. At the end , after deep anesthesia of the subjects with ether, the amount of blood lipids such as triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, LDL, and HDL were measured using test kits and the amount of VLDL cholesterol, too, was mathematically calculated.   The obtained data was analyzed by means of SPSS software (v: 11.5, ANOVA and Tukey tests at the significant level P<0.05.   Results: The findings showed that mean levels of LDL cholesterol in groups I, II, and control was 36.8±4.3, 35.8±4.3 and 44.3±4.6, respectively. Comparatively, the difference between experimental group I and the control (P=0.025 and also between group II and the control (P=0.012 were statistically significant. The other tested blood lipids in the experimental groups and the control group did not show a significant difference.   Conclusion: It was found that consumption of

  1. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) by DPPH radical scavenging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsi; Sholichah, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    Basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) contains various compounds such as flavonoid, alkaloid, phenol and essential oil, so it needs to be fractionated to find out the flavonoid compound with the greatest potential as an antioxidant. This research was aimed to know the chemical compound, antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf. The basil leaf was extracted by maceration using ethanol 70 %. The crude extract was fractionated with ethyl acetate. The ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were screened of phytochemical content including identification of flavonoids, alkaloids and polyphenolics. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were tested qualitatively with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and phosphomolybdate. Its antioxidant activity was determined quantitatively using DPPH radical scavenging method. Phytochemical screening test showed that ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf contain flavonoids, polyphenolics, and alkaloids. The qualitative analysis of antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf showed an antioxidant activity. The IC50 value of ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate fraction and quercetin were 1,374.00±6.20 389.00±1.00 2.10±0.01μg/mL, respectively. The research showed that antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate fraction more potential than the ethanol extract of the basil leaf, but less than quercetin.

  2. The effect of temperature and extraction period of time on the chemicals content of emprit ginger ethanol extract (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaningrum, Diah; Endah, Een Sri; Pudjiraharti, Sri

    2017-01-01

    Research on extraction method of emprit ginger using ethanol with agitation of 100 rpm at different temperatures (ambient temperature, 40, and 50°C) and various extraction period of times (30, 60, and 90 minutes) was conducted. Analysis of chemicals content i.e. total phenolic and total flavonoid. The objective of this work was to study the effect of temperatures and extraction period of times on the chemicals content of its ethanol extract. Based on the results of the test, the highest content total flavonoid (5.17% w/w) was resulted at 40°C for 90 minutes, while the total phenolic content was not affected by either temperature or extraction period of times used. The content of total phenolic was around 2.39% to 2.65% w/w.

  3. Safety evaluations on ethanolic extract of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Sankhari, Jayanta M; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-01-01

    The present study has carried out safety evaluations on an ethanolic extract of red cabbage (RC) leaves in terms of acute and subchronic oral toxicity tests as per Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines in Swiss albino mice. Single-dose administration of RC extract (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, or 5000 mg/kg body weight) to Swiss albino mice did not manifest toxicity or any significant adverse behavioral alterations. Chronic administration of RC extract (1000, 2000, and 3000 mg/kg body weight) for 28 d also did not register any significant alterations in fluid intake, organ weights, plasma lipid profile, plasma creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, creatinine, electrolytes, and calcium levels, and the total blood count showed a nonsignificant change. However, significant reduction in body-weight gain, food intake, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin content along with higher alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and urea levels was observed in mice treated with 3000 mg/kg body weight for 28 d. Since there was no mortality up to a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight, 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) could not be determined, and hence, it can be assumed that, LD(50) of RC extract is >5000 mg/kg. No observable adverse effect level dose of the RC extract was found to be 2000 mg/kg body weight. Hence, consumption of RC extract for various medicinal purposes is safe. Practical Application: RC is a popularly consumed foodstuff that has been ubiquitously reported to exert medicinal properties. It is mandatory to understand the highest permissible consumption limit of any food supplement to avoid toxicity. This study establishes the safe dose of RC. These results can be of relevance for the scientific fraternity as well as laymen who consume this vegetable or its phytochemical preparation.

  4. Ethanol fermentation by the thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR5925, of extracted sap from old oil palm trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Murata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Palm sap extracted from old oil palm trunks was previously found to contain sugar and nutrients (amino acids and vitamins. Some palm saps contain a low content of sugar due to differences in species or in plant physiology. Here we condensed palm sap with a low content of sugar using flat membrane filtration, then fermented the condensed palm sap at high temperature using the thermotolerant, high ethanol-producing yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus. Ethanol production under non-optimum conditions was evaluated. Furthermore, the energy required to concentrate the palm sap, and the amount of energy that could be generated from the ethanol, was calculated. The condensation of sugar in sap from palm trunk required for economically viable ethanol production was evaluated.

  5. The Effect of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Teucrium polium on Candida Albicans and Two Species of Malassezia

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    Maryam Nadimi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teucrium polium L. is a medicinal plant, which due to its antimicrobial, antispasmodic and anti-tumor properties has been used in traditional medicine for over 2000 years. The aim of this research was to study the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Teucrium polium L. against three strains of Candida albicans (ATCC 62061, ATCC 1677, and NCPF 3153, Malassezia furfur and Malassezia globosa using pour plate method. Materials and Methods: Teucrium polium L. was collected from Broojen area during the spring. The plant was dried and powdered. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts were prepared from the fine powder. Different concentrations of extracts (1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/ml were made in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA and modified Leeming-Notman Agar (MLNA medium for Candida albicans, Malassezia furfur and Malassezia globosa. 1.5×106 cfu/ml of yeasts, were cultured on media and incubated at 37ºC and 32ºC respectively. Pour plate method was used to assess the antifungal activity of these extracts.Results: The inhibitory effect of ethanolic extract of Teucrium polium L. on the three strains of Candida albicans was depended on concentration level of extracts in media. Aqueous extract had inhibitory effect on Candida albicans (NCPF 3153 only, and with increasing of the extract concentration, the number of colonies was decreased, so that in concentration of 8 mg/ml, no growth was seen. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts had no inhibitory effect on Malassezia species. Conclusion: Teucrium polium L. extracts have considerable inhibitory effect on different strains of Candida albicans. Further investigations are needed to detect the effectiveness of this plant in treatment of Candida infections.

  6. Ultrasound assisted extraction of natural dye from jackfruit's wood (Artocarpus heterophyllus): The effect of ethanol concentration as a solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriana, Ike Dayi; Gala, Selfina; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2017-05-01

    Azo dye are synthetic organic dyes which has an azo group (- N = N -) as chromophore. Azo dye is resistand to decomposition process and harmfull for the environment and human being. Natural dye can be used as substitution of azo dye at textile industry. Natural dye are eco - friendly and can be applied for dyeing of fibrous material. Natural dye can be obtained from natural origin such as leaves, wood, or roots. The wood of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) can used as natural source of natural dye. Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) is a new method that can be used to extract natural dye from jackfruit's wood. The aim of this research are to study about influence of ethanol concentration as solvent and extraction kinetic. Jackfruit's wood dust from sawmill used for the experimentation were sifted by sieve 35 mesh. Ethanol 96% used as solvent of this experiment and varied the concentration in volume to volume ratio (v/v). Experiment were carried out from 20 to 50 minutes. The result of this experiment shows that ethanol concentration influenced yield of extraction from jackfruit's wood. Concentration of ethanol will be affected polarity of solvent. The Peleg model was used to describe about kinetic model of natural dye extraction. Value of k1 and k2 constant are 0.003835 and 0.04186 respectively.

  7. Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effect and Antioxidative Activities of Fermented and Ethanol Extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica

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    Yuh-Shuen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study to investigate the biological activities of fermented extracts of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae. Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica were prepared and the antioxidative activities of different concentrations of samples were evaluated using in vitro antioxidative assays. Tyrosinase inhibition was determined by using the dopachrome method with L-DOPA as substrate. The results demonstrated that inhibitory effects (ED50 values on mushroom tyrosinase of fermented Rhodiola rosea, fermented Lonicera japonica, ethanol extract of Lonicera japonica, and ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea were 0.78, 4.07, 6.93, and >10 mg/ml, respectively. The DPPH scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea (ED50 = 0.073 mg/ml and fermented Lonicera japonica (ED50 = 0.207 mg/ml were stronger than effects of their respective ethanol extracts. Furthermore, the scavenging effect increases with the presence of high content of total phenol. However, the superoxide scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea was less than effects of fermented Lonicera japonica. The results indicated that fermentation of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica can be considered as an effective biochemical process for application in food, drug, and cosmetics.

  8. Tyrosinase inhibitory effect and antioxidative activities of fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuh-Shuen; Liou, Hua-Chian; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the biological activities of fermented extracts of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae). Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica were prepared and the antioxidative activities of different concentrations of samples were evaluated using in vitro antioxidative assays. Tyrosinase inhibition was determined by using the dopachrome method with L-DOPA as substrate. The results demonstrated that inhibitory effects (ED50 values) on mushroom tyrosinase of fermented Rhodiola rosea, fermented Lonicera japonica, ethanol extract of Lonicera japonica, and ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea were 0.78, 4.07, 6.93, and >10 mg/ml, respectively. The DPPH scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea (ED50 = 0.073 mg/ml) and fermented Lonicera japonica (ED50 = 0.207 mg/ml) were stronger than effects of their respective ethanol extracts. Furthermore, the scavenging effect increases with the presence of high content of total phenol. However, the superoxide scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea was less than effects of fermented Lonicera japonica. The results indicated that fermentation of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica can be considered as an effective biochemical process for application in food, drug, and cosmetics.

  9. Hawthorn ethanolic extracts with triterpenoids and flavonoids exert hepatoprotective effects and suppress the hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Golmisheh, Ali; Malekinejad, Hassan; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Akbari, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The current study was aimed to determine the bioactive constituents and biological effects of the Crataegus monogyna ethanolic extracts from bark, leaves and berries on hypercholesterolemia. Materials and Methods: Oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and lupeol concentrations were quantified by HPLC. Total phenol content and radical scavenging activity of extracts were also measured. The hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective effects of the extracts were examined in hypercholesterolemic rats and compared with orlistat. Results: The highest phenol content, oleanolic acid, quercetin and lupeol levels and free radical scavenging potency were found in the bark extract, and the highest ursolic acid level was found in the berries extract. Orlistat and extracts significantly (PHawthorn’s extracts protected from hepatic thiol depletion and improved the lipid profile and hepatic damages. Conclusion: Data suggested that hawthorn’s extracts are able to protect from hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injuries. Moreover, the hypocholesterolemic effect of extracts was found comparable to orlistat. PMID:26361538

  10. Gastroprotective Effect of the Ethanolic Extract and Fractions obtained from Syngonanthus bisulcatus Rul.

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    Leônia Maria Batista

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Syngonanthus bisulcatus Rul., popularly known in Brazil as “sempre-vivas chapadeira”, is a plant of the family Eriocaulaceae, it is found in the states of Minas Gerais and Bahia. In this work, the ethanolic extract (EtOHE, flavonoid-rich (FRF, and flavonoid-deficient (FDF fractions obtained from scapes of S. bisulcatus were investigated for gastroprotection in both rats and mice. The activity was evaluated in models for induced gastric ulcer (absolute ethanol, stress, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and pylorus ligation. The participation of mucus and prostaglandin E 2 were also investigated. Sb-EtOHE (50, 100, and 250 mg/kg, p.o., Sb-FRF (100 mg/kg, p.o., and Sb-FDF (100 mg/kg, p.o. significantly reduced gastric injuries in all models. Sb- FRF altered gastric juice parameters after pylorus ligation. Sb-FRF and Sb-FDF (100 mg/kg each, p.o. significantly increased the amount of adherent mucus in the gastric mucosa. Sb-FRF maintained the mucosal levels of prostaglandin after the administration of indomethacin. The results indicate that Sb-EtOHE, Sb-FRF and Sb-FDF have significant gastroprotective activity. The observed gastroprotective effects of S.bisulcatus probably involve the participation of both mucus and prostaglandins, integral parts of the gastrointestinal mucosa’s cytoprotective mechanisms against aggressive factors.

  11. Protective role of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... Biochemical assays. Total tissue protein was estimated by Folin-Ciocalteau Lowry method, (Lowry et al., 1951), while amino acid assay was carried out using the Ninhydrin method of Magne and Larher (1992). Estimation of malondialdehyde level in tissues was measured by the method of Ohokawa et al.

  12. Antioxidant capacity of extracts from calyx fruits of roselle ( Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Featuring journals from 32 Countries: Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep. (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30) ...

  13. The Aqueous Calyx Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Lowers Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: The antihypertensive effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has been validated in animals and man. This study tested the hypothesis that its hypotensive effect may be sympathetically mediated. The cold pressor test (CPT) and handgrip exercise (HGE) were performed in 20 healthy subjects before and after the oral ...

  14. Gastroprotective activity of ethanolic root extract of Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloo, Damiki; Prasad, Satyendra K; Krishnamurthy, Sairam; Hemalatha, Siva

    2013-03-27

    Potentilla fulgens (Wall.) ex Hook. (Rosaceae) is a potent medicinal plant of the Western Himalayas, known under the name "Himalayan Cinquefoil or Bajradanti", and has been used traditionally to treat ailments including peptic ulcers, mouth ulcers, diarrhea, diabetes and cancer. The aim of the present study was to scientifically evaluate the gastric-ulcer protective effect of P. fulgens ethanolic root extract (EPF) on experimental rats. The gastroprotective activity of EPF was evaluated on four gastric-ulcer models such as pyloric ligation (PL), ethanol (EtOH), cold restrain stress (CRS) and aspirin (ASP)-induced gastric ulcers. The gastric acid obtained from 4h PL-induced gastric ulcer rats was determined for total volume content, pH and total acid-pepsin output. Total carbohydrates and protein ratio, expressed as index of mucin activity, and DNA content were estimated in the gastric juice and gastric mucosal tissue. The microvascular permeability, H(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, gastric mucus and histamine content were also determined. The levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione) and malondialdehyde in the stomach tissue (mucosal scrapings) were quantified. A histopathological study of the stomach was evaluated using eosin-haematoxylin stain. EPF (200-400mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant protection against acute gastric-ulcer induced by EtOH, PL and CRS (400mg/kg, p.o.), but was found to be ineffective against ASP-induced ulcerogens. The effect of EPF on gastric juice studies in 4h PL rats significantly produced an increased level in gastric pH, whereas the effect on gastric volume and acid-pepsin output was observed to decrease significantly. However, EPF was found to have no significant effect on the defensive factors, thus revealing its antisecretory property by inhibiting the aggressive factors. EPF, significantly decreased the histamine level, inhibited the H(+)K(+)-ATPase activity and prevented the microvascular injury caused

  15. Neurobehavioural activities of the ethanol leaf extract of calophyllum inophyllum in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibironke, G F; Ugege, O G

    2014-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the central nervous system activities of the ethanol leaf extract of Calophyllum inophyllum in rodents. The neurobehavioural tests used include the hole board, open field, elevated plus maze and the light/dark box tests. The animals were divided into the control (normal saline, 10 ml/kg) experimental (50-150 mg/kg) and the reference groups (indomethacin,10 mg/kg) after which they were subjected to the above tests. The results showed that in the hole board test, the 100 and 200 mg/kg doses resulted in a significant (p Calophyllum inophyllum contains some active principles which may be sedative/anxiogenic in nature.

  16. Extraction, isolation and purification of exopolysaccharide from lactic acid bacteria using ethanol precipitation method

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    Vivek K. Bajpai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria are classified ‘Generally Recognized As Safe’ (GRAS with most effective potential to divert significant amount of fermentable sugars towards the biosynthesis of functional exopolysaccharide. Exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria are receiving a renewed interest due to the claims of human health benefits, such as modulation of immune response system and more importantly in food and pharma industries as a texturizer, viscosifer, emulsifier and syneresis-lowering agent. Its purification methodology involves: a Extraction of cell-free supernatant from lactic acid bacteria; b Denature of protein using trichloroacetic acid; c Ethanol precipitation; d Dialysis; and e Freeze drying. However, depending on nature of research, compounds can be further purified using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, infrared spectrum (IR; and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral analyses.

  17. Chronic toxicologic study of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Jatropha gossypiifolia in rats

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    Saulo R. Mariz

    Full Text Available This work presents the observed changes in Wistar rats under long treatment (thirteen weeks with different oral doses of the ethanolic extract (EE from Jatropha gossypiifolia L., Euphorbiaceae. The most significant toxic signs indicated a reduction of the activity in the central nervous system and digestive disturbances. The histopathological analysis shows hepatotoxity and pulmonary damages. The lethality was 46.6% among males under the higher experimental dose (405 mg/kg and 13.3% both in females under the higher dose and among the animals treated with 135 mg/kg of the product. These data show the significant oral chronic toxicity of EE of J. gossypiifolia in rats.

  18. Phenolic derivatives from soy flour ethanol extract are potent in vitro quinone reductase (QR) inducing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Bradley W; Parkin, Kirk L

    2008-11-26

    The fractionation of soy flour directed by a cellular bioassay for induction of phase 2 detoxification enzymes was used to identify quinone reductase (QR) inducing agents. A phospholipid-depleted, 80% methanol-partitioned isolate from a crude ethanol extract of soy flour was resolved using normal phase medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC). Early eluting fractions were found to be the most potent QR inducing agents among the separated fractions. Fraction 2 was the most potent, doubling QR at QR inducers. Benzofuran-3-carbaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldeyde, 4-ethoxybenzoic acid, 4-ethoxycinnamic acid, benzofuran-2-carboxylic ethyl ester, and ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) were also identified as QR inducing constituents of this fraction. FAEE was the most potent of the identified constituents, doubling QR specific activity at 3.2 muM in the cellular bioassay.

  19. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Limonia elephantum leaves

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    K. Kamalakannan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Limonia elephantum (wood apple has been widely used in an Indian folk medicine system. In the present study, the acute toxicity studies were carried out to determine the safety of the compounds in liver diseases. The antioxidant and the hepatoprotective properties of the L. elephantum are evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. Liver superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, catalase levels and serum biochemical profile such as serum glutamate oxalate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and total protein were examined for the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of these treatments. The results of the present studies strongly indicate that the higher dose (400 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of L. elephantum proved against hepatoprotective effects and also the antioxidant properties.

  20. In vitro Effect of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Scrophularia striata on Some Respiratory and Urinary Bacterial Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Moori Bakhtiari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: History of medicinal plants in healing the pains goes back to five thousand years ago. In addition, strong antibacterial properties have been observed in many of these plants. In this research, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts and also homogenized form of scrophularia striata was examined on some respiratory and urogenital tract bacterial pathogens. Methods: At first, bacterial isolates susceptibility test was done by kerby-bauer disc diffusion method and positive control was determined for every isolate. Then, several dilutions (1000, 500, 250, 125, 62.5 mg/ml of aqueous, ethanolic and homogenized extracts were prepared in distilled water separately. Thirty microliter of each diluted extract was inoculated on sterile blank disc and minimum inhibitory concentration was examined for every studied bacteria by E-test. Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration of extracts was determined by macrodilution method. Results: Based on the results, smaller inhibitory zone than inhibitory zone of positive control was observed only with high concentration of aqueous extract in mannheimia haemolytica and with serial dilutions of ethanolic and homogenized extract in trueperella pyogenes, and with homogenized form in corynebacterium renale. No response was observed with other bacteria. Ethanolic extract showed bactericidal property with 62.5 mg/ml concentration and bacteriostatic property with 125 mg/ml concentration on mannheimia haemolytica which was similar to effect of this extract and homogenized form on trueperella pyogenes. Conclusion: According to the results of this study and common application of this plant in respiratory and urogenital tract infections treatment, study on the role of different bacteria in this infections or effect of this extract on immune system stimulation can be recommended

  1. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Orekoya, Latifat Olubukola; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (Pindica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

  2. Ethanolic periwinkle leaf extract reduces telomerase expression in T47D cancer cells

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    Endang Purwaningsih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cancer cells have a relatively high telomerase activity and a lower p53 protein expression than normal cells, so that cancer cells have the ability to continue to proliferate and do not undergo apoptosis. One of the cancer treatments is chemotherapy using bioactive ingredients from synthesis or isolation of natural materials. One of the plants that have potential as anticancer agent is periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L. The research objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic periwinkle leaf extract against p53 protein and telomerase expression in T47D cancer cells. METHODS An experimental study with controls was conducted involving T47D breast cancer cells. They were divided into 3 groups (control, ½ dose of IC50/26.849 µg/mL, and one dose of IC50/53.699 µg/mL at a cell density of 1 x 104 cells/well. Expression of p53 and telomerase was measured by the immunohistochemistry method. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by a multiple comparison test. RESULTS Periwinkle leaf extract significantly increased p53 protein expression (p<0.05 at both treatment doses, ½ IC50 and IC50, compared to the control group and it highly significantly reduced telomerase expression (p<0.01, in comparison with the control group at both treatment doses. CONCLUSION Periwinkle leaf extract has potential as an anti-breast cancer agent by increasing p53 protein expression and inhibiting telomerase expression.

  3. Phytochemical characterization and bioactivity of ethanolic extracts on eggs of citrus blackfly

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    Bruno Marcus Freire Vieira Lima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The main objectives of this study were to determine the content of secondary metabolites (carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and tannins of Argemone mexicana L., Ipomoea carnea Jacq. subsp. Fistulosa (Martius ex Choisy, Amorimia rigida (A.Juss. W. R. Anderson, Ricinus communis L. and Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & L. M. Perry using UV-VIS spectroscopy, and evaluating the bioactivity of the ethanolic extracts on citrus blackfly eggs (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915. Pera sweet orange leaves infested with citrus blackfly eggs were treated by immersion in 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, and 10%; each replicate consisted of 30 eggs. The experimental design was completely randomized, with seven treatments and four replications. Three immersions of leaves with eggs were performed, and the mortality was evaluated seven days after the procedure. Leaves were placed in Petri dishes and kept in incubators [25±1°C; relative humidity (RH 60±5% and 12 hours]. S. aromaticum peduncle presented high content of tannins and phenolic compounds, while R. communis leaves showed high content of phenolic compounds. The commercial product Bioneem© caused egg infeasibility greater than 85% at all concentrations. Treatments (10% that caused the greatest egg mortality were Bioneem© (94.74%, R. communis extract (81.58%, and the extract of S. aromaticum peduncle (80.57%.

  4. Ethanolic Extract Cytotoxic Effect of Zingiber Afficinale in Breast Cancer (MCF7 Cell Line

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    J Tavakkol Afshari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Biological activities of Zingiber afficieale plants have been reported as possessing anticancer, antibacterial, anti ulcer, antifungal, and insecticidal properties. However, its antitumor effects haven't been studied in cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effect of zingiber afficieale on breast cancer cell lines. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 2010 at Mashhad University of medical Sciences. Breast cancer cell line (MCF7 and normal connective tissue cell line (L929 were cultured in DMEM medium. Ethanolic extract of Zingiber afficinale was prepared and cell lines were treated with different concentration of extract (5000 to 78 µg. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay after 24, 48, and 72 hours. The collected data were statistically analyzed by SPSS software. Results: The effects of Zingiber afficinale on cell viability were observed after 48 hours on cell lines. Ginger doses in 2500 µg concentration inhibited 50% of cell growth (IC50 in cell lines after 48 hours. Conclusion: Our study revealed that fresh ginger extract has cytotoxic effects on tumor cells, but it doesn’t have any cytotoxic effect on normal cells. It seems that ginger could be considered as a promising chemotherapeutic agent in cancer treatment.

  5. Hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyagbemi, A A; Odetola, A A

    2010-02-15

    The study was designed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on paracetamol poisoning in rats. Twenty five male Wistar rats were used in this study. They were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats. Groups I and II received normal saline (0.9% physiological saline). Animal in groups III-V were administered Cnidoscolus aconitifolius at 100, 500 and 1,000 mg kg(-1), respectively for 7 days. All animal in groups II-V were given paracetamol at 3 g kg(-1) by gastric gavage on days 8 and 9. Animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on day 10 after an overnight fast. Paracetamol overdose caused significant (pparacetamol alone when compared with rats pre-treated with extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius. Pre-treatment with ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius led to significant (pparacetamol treated rats in dose-dependent manner. The extract also similarly caused significant (pparacetamol treated group. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated that Cnidoscolus aconitifolius can ameliorate paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Significant hepato-protective activity was observed in rats treated with the dose of 1000 mg kg(-1) b.wt.

  6. A comparative study on the effect of ethanol extract of wild Scrophularia deserti and streptomycin on Brucellla melitensis

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    Bahmani Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brucellosis or Malta fever is one of the most prevalent bacterial zoonosis which is transmitted to human being from animals. High fever, myalgia, and arthralgia of the large joints are the important symptoms. This study was aimed to evaluate the anti-brucellosis effect of ethanol extract of wild snapdragon on Brucella melitensis bacteria. Methods: This is an experimental in which after preparing the ethanol extract of wild Snapdragon (Scrophularia deserti, the anti-Brucellosis impressions of the extract on Brucella melitensis which is separated from goat’s abortive fetus were studied by serial dilution and disc diffusion method. Results: In disc diffusion test, the disc containing 60 μg/ml extract the inhibition zone was 9.7mm after 72, for streptomycin (20 μg/disc 13.3 mm and for streptomycin plus 60 μg/disc extract discs it was 21.5 mm, after 72 hours incubation at 37 centigrade. After analyzing the data; the MIC for serial dilution test was 52% (576 μg/ml for the first repetition and 50% (576 μg/ml for the third repetition of the extract with OD600=1.56. For standard medicine "streptomycin" with OD600=1.67 it was 52% (360 μg/ml. Conclusion: Ethanol extract of wild Scrophularia deserti is effective on Brucellla melitensis and its consumption might be useful in these patients.

  7. Anticonvulsant effect of ethanolic extract of Cyperus articulatus L. leaves on pentylenetetrazol induced seizure in mice

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    Oscar Herrera-Calderon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyperus articulatus (CA rhizomes have demonstrated different properties on nervous system. However, the leaves still have not studied to treat epilepsy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of CA ethanolic extract on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ induced seizures in mice as well as measuring its antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro. Mice were divided into five groups: (1 control (PTZ 80 mg/kg; i.p., (2 PTZ-Diazepam (1 mg/kg; i.p., (3–5 PTZ-CA 50, PTZ-CA 150 and PTZ-CA 300 (50, 150 and 300 mg/kg of CA extract, 30 min prior to each PTZ injection. The PTZ-CA 150 group showed lower seizure scores (P < 0.01, latency (P < 0.01, frequency (P < 0.01 and duration (P < 0.01 than control group. The antioxidant activity of CA extract scavenged DPPH radical showed IC 50 = 16.9 ± 0.1 μg/mL and TEAC = 2.28 ± 0.08, mmol trolox/g of extract, the content of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA and malondialdehyde (MDA were significantly high (P < 0.01 at dose of 150 mg/kg (82 ± 1.2 ng/g tissue; 1.0 ± 2.2 mol/g tissue, respectively. The present research demonstrated that CA extract possesses a potential effect to prevent PTZ induced seizures, antioxidant activity in addition to increase GABA levels.

  8. Investigation of Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic and Methanolic Extracts of Mentha pulegium L.

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    Hossein Motamedi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: With regard to the rapid emerging antibiotic resistance bacteria, plants as one of the most common natural sources of antimicrobial agents can be used as alternative for treatment of infectious diseases. This study was designed to investigate antibacterial activity of Mentha pulegium L. (Lamiaceae family. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the antibacterial effect of 4, 8, 16 and 24 mg/disc of alcoholic extracts were assessed using standard disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were also determined. Furthermore, the structural changes following to the exposure with these extracts were also investigated in test bacteria. Results: Both extracts of this plant showed considerable antibacterial activity against some Gram positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus and also Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis bacteria. All of the tested bacteria were resistant to nafcillin. The maximum effects was observed in the case of both ethanolic and methanolic extracts in all concentrations on P. mirabilis (25 mm and the lowest effect was on P. aeruginosa. MIC and MBC values of both extracts against S. aureus were equal (MIC=MBC=8 mg/mL and P. mirabilis were MIC=4 mg/mL and MBC=8 mg/mL. The SEM analysis revealed deformation and cell wall disruption of affected bacteria. Conclusion: Based on these results it can be suggested that M. pulegium L. is an effective antibacterial plant that can be used as a new source for antibiotic discovery against bacterial pathogens especially food poisoning pathogens such as S. aureus, B. cereus and also for treatment of P. mirabilis infection.

  9. The Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Vitex on Histomorphological Placenta in the Rat Model

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    A Louei Monfared

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: Vitexagnus-castus as an herbal medicine has been used for the treatment of female reproductive disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol extracts of Vitexagnus-castus on placental histomorphology in rat models. Methods: In the present experimental study, fourty pregnant rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=10. A control group received only distilled water and three experimental groups were treated with extract of Vitexagnus-castus at doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg at days of six to the seventeenth of intraperitoneally administration. On day of18 of gestation, after anesthesia with chloroform half the animals in each group were killed and histomorphological study was calculated. After delivery the resulting offspring of the other half of animals in each group was counted and survival rates at days 5, 15, 25 and 42 after birth were decreased. The results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Results: Treatment with 50 mg/kg VAC extract reduced the size and number of trophoblast giant cells, and significantly increased trophoblast cells glycogen. Treatment with 75 mg/kg extract induced massive hyperemia in the labyrinth interhemal membrane. In addition, in the all experimental groups the number of neonates was drastically decreased on days 5, 15, 25, and 42 after birth. Conclusion: Vitexagnus-castus extract alters the structure of the placenta and may be impaired its function. Cautious should be recommended for oral consumption or medicinal plants, especially in pregnant women.

  10. Isoprostan Urin Sebagai Biomarka Keracunan Etanol dan Upaya Detoksikasinya dengan Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Buah Manggis (URINE ISOPROSTANE AS TOXIC BIOMARKER OF ETHANOL AND DETOXICATION EFFORTS BY USING ETHANOL EXTRACT OF SKIN MANGOSTEEN)

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Made Suaniti; Manuntun Manurung

    2017-01-01

    Isoprostane as a marker of oxidative stress which is a toxic metabolite of fatty acids, can be formedafter experiencing lipid peroxidation duo to ethanol. The aim of this study was to analyze the isoprostaneas early detection biomarker in urine of Wistar rats after ethanol consumption in sub-acute, followed byadministration of ethanol extract of rind of mangosteen fruit (EERMF). ELISA was use in this study fordiagnostic method as it can analyze the content of biological fluids even in small a...

  11. Antibacterial Activityof Aqueous And Ethanolic Leaf Extracts Of Vernonia Amygdalina On Selected Species Of Gram Positive And Gram Negative Bacteria

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    AM Bukar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of ethanolic and Methanolic leaves extract of Vernonia amygdalina against five clinical isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Pseudomonas species, Salmonella species and Proteus species was determined using standard method of analysis. The results of the antibacterial activity of ethanol, methanol and aqueous extract of leaves of V. amygdalina have diameters ranging between 0.4 to 10mm. The plant extracts from the plants had profound activities against gram-positive than gram negative bacteria. From the above studies, it has clearly indicated that V. amygdalina extract may represent new sources of antibacterial drug, if the phytoactive components are purified and proper dosage are determined for administration. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 147-152 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9217

  12. Enhancing Shelf Life of Mackerel Fillet using Ethanolic Extract of Seaweed Padina sp. During Storage at Room Temperature

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    Amir Husni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the effect of Padina sp. ethanolic extract on shelf life of mackerel fillet during storage at room temperature. Mackerel fillet soaked up into Padina sp. extract solution at various concentration (0; 0.5; 1; 1.5; and 2 g/100 mL for 30 minutes and stored in styrofoam box at room temperature for 24 hours. The fillet observed every 6 hours. The observed parameters were pH, total plate count (TPC, total histamine forming bacteria, total histamine, and organoleptic tests. The results showed that the quality parameters of the fillet were significantly affected (p<0.05 by concentration of Padina sp. extract. Total histamine parameter showed that mackerel fillet was safe for consumption until 24 hours of storage time. The treatment of Padina sp. ethanolic extract made mackerel fillet consumable up to 6 hours. .

  13. Hepatoprotective Activity of the Ethanolic Extract of Ficus caricaLinn. LeavesinCarbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicityin Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb, Mohd; Alam Khan, Shah; Aeri, Vidhu; Ali, Babar

    2011-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of Ficus carica leaves was screened for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity in hepatotoxic Albino rats induced via carbon tetrachloride. The degree of protection was measured by estimating biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate Oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase ( SGPT),totalprotein (TP), totalalbumin (TA), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and the level of total serum bilirubin. The extract in addition reduced CCl4 induced lipid peroxidation in-vivo and in-vitro. The ethanolic extract (50 mg/kg, 100mg/kg,200mg/kg)exhibited significant hepatoprotection incarbontetra chloride in toxicated rats in a dose dependant manner. The hepatoprotective effects of the extract were comparable with the standard drug silymarin 10)mg/kg body weight, IP). PMID:24250358

  14. Effects of adlay bran and its ethanolic extract and residue on preneoplastic lesions of the colon in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sing-Chung; Chen, Chiao-Ming; Lin, Shu-Hui; Chiang, Wenchang; Shih, Chun-Kuang

    2011-02-01

    Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) is a cereal crop used in traditional Chinese medicine and as a nutritious food. Epidemiologists have suspected that the low cancer rates in southeastern China might be related to adlay. Previous studies have shown that adlay has anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory activity. This study investigated the effect of adlay bran and its fractions on chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Adlay bran and its ethanolic extract and residue significantly reduced the number of preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and modified their mucin composition. The inhibitory effect of adlay bran ethanolic extract on ACF showed a dose dependence. Adlay bran and its ethanolic extract suppressed small ACF (one, two or three crypts) and ACF in the distal colon, while the residue suppressed large ACF (four or more crypts). These findings suggest the possibility that adlay bran and its ethanolic extract and residue inhibit colonic preneoplastic lesions in an early stage. Adlay and its fractions may have the potential to be developed as chemopreventive cereal products. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The mechanism of action of Russian propolis ethanol extracts against two antibiotic-resistant biofilm-forming bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, J; Redden, P; Traba, C

    2016-02-01

    The interaction between antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic-sensitive Escherichia coli biofilm-forming bacteria and Russian propolis ethanol extracts was evaluated. In this study, bacterial cell death occurred when the cell membranes of bacteria interacted specifically with the antibacterial compounds found in propolis. In order to understand the Russian propolis ethanol extract mechanism of action, microscopy and bacterial lysis studies were conducted. Results uncovered from these experiments imply that the mechanism of action of Russian propolis ethanol extracts is structural rather than functional. The results obtained throughout this study demonstrate cell membrane damage, resulting in cell lysis and eventually bacterial death. Most strains of bacteria and subsequently biofilms, have evolved and have altered their chemical composition in an attempt to protect themselves from antibiotics. The resistant nature of bacteria stems from the chemical rather than the physical means of inactivation of antibiotics. The results uncovered in this work demonstrate the potential application of Russian propolis ethanol extracts as a very efficient and effective method for bacterial and biofilm inactivation. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Effect of ethanol extracts of three Chinese medicinal plants with laxative properties on ion transport of the rat intestinal epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jong-Chang; Tsai, Shuli; Chang, Weng-Cheng

    2004-02-01

    The effects of ethanol extracts of three Chinese medicinal plants Dahuang (Rheum palmatum L.), Badou (Croton tiglium L.), and Huomaren (Cannabis sativa L.), on ion transport of the rat intestinal epithelia were studied. Rat intestinal epithelia mounted in an Ussing chamber attached with voltage/current clamp were used for measuring changes of the short-circuit current across the epithelia. The intestinal epithelia were activated with current raised by serosal administration of forskolin 5 microM. Ethanol extracts of the three plants all augmented the current additively when each was added after forskolin. In subsequent experiments, ouabain and bumetanide were added prior to ethanol extracts of these medicinal plants to determine their effect on Na(+) and Cl(-) movement. The results suggest that ethanol extracts of the three medicinal plants may affect the Cl(-) movement more directly than Na(+) movement in the intestinal epithelial cells. The results provide evidence for the pharmacologic mechanism of the three Chinese medicinal plants on the intestinal tract.

  17. The effects of Ethanol Extract of Propolis (EEP on the experimentally induced Candida keratitis in rabbits

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    Ahangari AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Propolis (bee glue is a resinous substance obtained from bee hives living on various plant sources. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP on the experimentally induced Candidial keratitis in rabbits."n"nMethods: The alcoholic extract of propolis was prepared by 80% ethyl alcohol. After suppressing the immune system of 24 male rabbits, experimental Candida albicans keratitis was induced in the animals under local anesthesia and sterile conditions. The animals were later divided into four groups including the control or glycerin group and a nystatin and two 500 and 1000µg/ml EEP groups. Treatment continued for 21 days and after sacrificing the animals by humane methods, histopathological samples of the rabbits' eyes were prepared."n"nResults: Keratitis was developed in the eyes of all rabbits a week after the yeast inoculation. In the control group in which animals received glycerin, keratitis persisted until day 21. Clinical signs of keratitis disappeared in the Nystatin and 1000µg/ml EEP groups after 14 and 21 days, respectively. The clinical signs of keratitis partially ameliorated in the animals receiving 500µg/ml EEP. Histopathological examination revealed no differences between groups receiving nystatin or 1000µg/ml EEP."n"nConclusion: It is concluded that, ethanol extract of propolis could completely treat Candida albicans keratitis in 1000µg/ml concentrations. This extract can be used as a safe antifungal agent

  18. Larvicidal effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Senna alata on Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin, Ubulom Peace Mayen; Nyiutaha, Imandeh Godwin; Essien, Akpabio Eno; Nnamdi, Opara Kenneth; Sunday, Ekanem Mfon

    2013-05-01

    Senna alata is locally used in South Eastern Nigeria in the treatment of several infections which include ringworm and other parasitic skin diseases.The larvicidal activities of aqueous and ethanolic leaf and stem extracts of S. alata were evaluated in static bioassays, on fourth instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti, at extract concentrations of 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75% w/v, for 72 hours. Mortality of larvae exposed to the different extracts increased with increase in extract concentration and time of exposure. This study revealed a differential potency of the extracts used and a difference in susceptibility of larvae to the extracts as evident by the 72hLC₅₀ values obtained. The leaf extract proved to be more lethal to the larvae than the stem extract as judged by the 72hLC₅₀ values obtained both for the aqueous as well as the ethanolic extracts assayed. Phytochemical screening of the plant parts investigated revealed the presence of some plant metabolites, which have been reported in separate studies to be lethal to mosquito larvae. Results obtained from this study suggest that the leaf and stem extracts of S. alata possess a promising larvicidal potential which can be exploited in mosquito vector control.

  19. Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effect and Antioxidative Activities of Fermented and Ethanol Extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica

    OpenAIRE

    Yuh-Shuen Chen; Hua-Chian Liou; Chin-Feng Chan

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the biological activities of fermented extracts of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae). Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica were prepared and the antioxidative activities of different concentrations of samples were evaluated using in vitro antioxidative assays. Tyrosinase inhibition was determined by using the dopachrome method with L-DOPA as subs...

  20. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from Ziziphus oenoplia (L Mill on alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Pramod Mourya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to investigate hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Ziziphus oenoplia (L stem bark against Alloxan induce hyperglycemia in rats. Hyperglycemia was induced by an injection of alloxan monohydrate 150 mg/kg (i.p.. After 72 hr, the rats having Blood Glucose Level (BGL above 150 mg/dL were selected for the investigation. At two different doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w. of aqueous and ethanolic extracts were observed antidiabetic effect for 12 consecutive days. BGL was monitored after 1, 3, 6 and 12 days and compared with Metformin (250 mg/kg. Alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity of both extracts were also determined. Phytochemical study revealed the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids in ethanol extract and flavonoids, carbohydrates and proteins found in aqueous extract of Z. oenoplia bark. Oral administration of both extracts showed significant (P < 0.05 antihyperglycemic activity in dose dependent manner in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The diabetic rats had significant (P < 0.01 reduction in blood glucose; serum liver enzyme level (AST, ALT, and ALP and lipid profile were compared with normal rats. Significant effects of aqueous and alcoholic extract in alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity were observed in rats. The ethanolic and aqueous extract reveals the reduction in the blood glucose level, inhibition of alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase enzymes which support antidiabetic effect (reduce postprandial glucose levels of Z. oenoplia and this may be due to presence of flavonoids constituents.

  1. Development of rapid bioconversion with integrated recycle technology for ethanol production from extractive ammonia pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mingjie; Liu, Yanping; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-08-01

    High enzyme loading and low productivity are two major issues impeding low cost ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. This work applied rapid bioconversion with integrated recycle technology (RaBIT) and extractive ammonia (EA) pretreatment for conversion of corn stover (CS) to ethanol at high solids loading. Enzymes were recycled via recycling unhydrolyzed solids. Enzymatic hydrolysis with recycled enzymes and fermentation with recycled yeast cells were studied. Both enzymatic hydrolysis time and fermentation time were shortened to 24 h. Ethanol productivity was enhanced by two times and enzyme loading was reduced by 30%. Glucan and xylan conversions reached as high as 98% with an enzyme loading of as low as 8.4 mg protein per g glucan. The overall ethanol yield was 227 g ethanol/kg EA-CS (191 g ethanol/kg untreated CS). Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1713-1720. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Protective Effects of the Traditional Herbal Formula Oryeongsan Water Extract on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

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    Woo-Young Jeon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the protective effect and safety of Oryeongsan water extract (OSWE on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury and an acute toxicity study in rats. Acute gastric lesions were induced via intragastric oral administration of absolute ethanol at a dose of 5 mL/kg. OSWE (100 and 200 mg/kg was administered to rats 2 h prior to the oral administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of animal models was opened and gastric mucosal lesions were examined. Gastric mucosal injuries were evaluated by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In the acute toxicity study, no adverse effects of OSWE were observed at doses up to 2000 mg/kg/day. Administration of OSWE reduced the damage by conditioning the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury, which included hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cells. The level of MDA was reduced in OSWE-treated groups compared with the ethanol-induced group. Moreover, the level of GSH and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased in the OSWE-treated groups. Our findings suggest that OSWE has a protective effect on the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury via the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes.

  3. In vitro fermentation characteristics of ruminant diets using ethanol extract of brown propolis as a nutritional additive

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    Maria de Fátima Falcão Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The addition of levels of ethanol extract of brown propolis was evaluated by assessing diet degradation in rumen fluid and predicting cumulative in vitro gas production by nonlinear (dual pool logistic and exponential models. A total of 35 g of crude propolis were extracted in 65 mL of cereal alcohol (95% ethanol. In a completely randomized factorial design, the experimental diets combined four concentrations of extracted propolis diluted in cereal alcohol (0, 50, 70, and 100% of propolis extract and supplementation doses (4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 mL/kg dry matter, tested in triplicate. Diet (400 g/kg Tifton hay and 600 g/kg concentrate was incubated for 96 h carried out three times in three different weeks. There was significant interaction between extract concentration and dose on the dry matter (DM degradability. Dry matter degradability of diet decreased exponentially as a function of the increase in dose (y = 678.55×dose–0.271. Pure alcohol treatment showed a negative exponential effect, with degradability of 303.61 g/kg when administered at a dose of 20 mL/kg DM. Treatment 100% ethanol extract reached the greatest degradability, estimated at 18.93 mL/kg DM. The treatment with 70% extract showed 6.35 mL/kg DM and the 50% extract, 7.65 mL/kg DM of minimum degradability. The reduction potential of pure ethanol was –0.32 mL gas/mL. Estimates of maximum gas production by dual pool logistic and exponential models were 13.10 mL and 12.07 mL for 100% extract, respectively. The 100% extract produced the highest gas production estimates, above 30 mL gas/100 mg DM of fermented diet. The degradation and fermentation of ruminant diet can be improved using 13 mL/DM kg of ethanol extract of propolis.

  4. Free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extracts from herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil

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    Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from 23 different dried herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil were investigated for their free radical scavenging properties using the stable free radicals 2,2'-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+, and Trolox as reference (TEAC for both radicals. The kinetic curves for both radicals showed to follow the first order kinetics model and the decay rate constant (k obs was calculated. For all the samples, the two methods showed a good linear TEAC correlation, indicating that the average reactivity of the compounds present in the ethanolic extracts was similar. Sage and rosemary extracts showed the highest free radical scavenging capacities, while onion showed negligible activity and colorifico, one of the most consumed spices in Brazil, showed low ABTS•+ scavenging activity. Three distinct situations were found for the extracts concerning the DPPH• scavenging capacities: (1 extracts, like rosemary and laurel, that presented the same efficient concentrations (EC50 but differed in the TEAC values and velocities of action (k obs, (2 extracts, such as garlic and basil, that showed similar EC50 and TEAC values, but different k obs values and (3 extracts that reacted at the same velocities but completely differed in the free radical scavenging capacities, like black pepper, savory, nutmeg, rosemary and sage. Similar considerations could be done for the ABTS•+ results. For the first time the ABTS•+ scavenging activity for allspice, basil, cardamom, chives, colorifico, cumin, dill, laurel, marjoram, parsley and tarragon was reported.Extratos etanólicos de 23 ervas e condimentos desidratados comercializados no Brasil foram analisados quanto as suas propriedades antioxidantes utilizando os radicais 2,2'-difenil-β-picrilhidrazil (DPPH• e ácido 2,2'-azino-bis(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico (ABTS•+, Trolox foi usado como referência para ambos radicais

  5. Effects of Thymus vulgaris ethanolic extract on chronic toxoplasmosis in a mouse model.

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    Eraky, Maysa Ahmad; El-Fakahany, Amany Farouk; El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Abou-Ouf, Eman Abdel-Rahman; Yaseen, Doaa Ibrahim

    2016-07-01

    The current work was undertaken to investigate the potential effectiveness of Thymus vulgaris ethanolic extract (TVE) against Toxoplasma gondii infection in chronic experimental toxoplasmosis. To evaluate prophylactic effects, mice received 500 mg/kg TVE for 5 days before they were infected by an avirulent Me49 T. gondii strain. To investigate the therapeutic effects of the extract postinfection, daily treatment with TVE was initiated at 6 weeks postinfection and continued for 10 days. The following groups of animals were used as controls: uninfected/non-treated, infected/non-treated, and infected/treated with a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine. Brain cyst count and histopathological changes using H&E and Feulgen stains were used to evaluate the efficacy of TVE. The mean number of brain cysts was significantly decreased by 24 % in mice treated prophylactically with TVE. TVE also significantly reduced the mean number of brain cysts when administered to animals already chronically infected with T. gondii. The effect of TVE was comparable to that of treatment with a mixture of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine (46 and 51 % reduction, respectively). Moreover, considerable amelioration of the pathological lesions in the brain and retina was observed. The results demonstrate the potential efficacy of T. vulgaris as a new natural therapeutic and prophylactic agent for use in the treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis.

  6. Genotoxic potential of BM-21, an aqueous-ethanolic extract from Thalassia testudinum marine plant.

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    Yadira Ansoar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: BM-21 is a hydro-ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Thalassia testudinum marine plant, which is rich in polyphenols, and it has demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective and neuroprotective properties. Aims: To investigate the genotoxicity potential of BM-21. Methods: Salmonella typhimurium Hist. – strains were used in the pointmutation test and Escherichia coli cells were used in SOS response test. DNA primary damage was tested in hepatocytes of mice treated with oral dose of the extract (2000 mg/kg. Bone marrow micronucleus assay was used in mice to detect clastogenic damage while serum from the same animals was used to determine MDA levels in order to find out the influence of BM-21 on lipid peroxidation. Positive and negative controls were included in all experimental series. Results: BM-21 did not increase the frequency of reverse mutations in the Ames test, and it did not induce primary damage in E. coli. Comet assay showed that 2 000 mg/kg of BM-21 induced single strand breaks or alkali-labile sites in the hepatocytes from the treated mice. However, no increase in the micronucleus frequency was observed in mice polychromatic erythrocytes and significantly reduced MDA levels were detected. Conclusions: BM-21 was neither mutagenic nor induces DNA damage to prokaryotic cells. Although, it increased DNA strand breaks in vivo, this one was not translated into clastogenic damage to the whole organism. Results suggested that BM-21 was not mutagenic or genotoxic under our experimental conditions.

  7. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SERRATULA CORONATA L. (ASTERACEAE INTRODUCED IN ZHYTOMYR POLISSYA

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    I.V. Ivashchenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial properties of Serratula coronata L., introduced in Zhytomyr Polissya, were studied against test cultures of Escherichia coli (coliform bacillus UCM B-906 (ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus(golden staphylococcus UCM B-904 (ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (blue pus bacillus UCM B-900 (ATCC9027, Candida albicans UCM Y-(ATCC 885-653. Serratula coronata L. 40 % ethanol extract showed potent antimicrobial effect against gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. Compared with the solvent, MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration and MBC (minimal bactericidal concentration increased 32 and 8 times, respectively. The other microorganisms’ cultures demonstrated much lower sensitivity. The study revealed less significant effect of the extract against Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and it failed to display any bactericidal/fungicidal effect against gram-negative strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungus Candida albicans.The data obtained experimentally show that further study of Serratula coronata L. and its application as the basis for new pharmaceutical anti-staphylococcus preparations may be considered promising and having a great potential.

  8. Bioactivities of ethanol extract from the Antarctic freshwater microalga, Chloromonas sp.

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    Suh, Sung-Suk; Yang, Eun Jin; Lee, Sung Gu; Youn, Ui Joung; Han, Se Jong; Kim, Il-Chan; Kim, Sanghee

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is the principal cause of human death and occurs through highly complex processes that involve the multiple coordinated mechanisms of tumorigenesis. A number of studies have indicated that the microalgae extracts showed anticancer activity in a variety of human cancer cells and can provide a new insight in the development of novel anti-cancer therapy. Here, in order to investigate molecular mechanisms of anticancer activity in the Antarctic freshwater microalga, Chloromonas sp., we prepared ethanol extract of Chloromonas sp. (ETCH) and performed several in vitro assays using human normal keratinocyte (HaCaT) and different types of cancer cells including cervical, melanoma, and breast cancer cells (HeLa, A375 and Hs578T, respectively). We revealed that ETCH had the antioxidant capacity, and caused significant cell growth inhibition and apoptosis of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it showed no anti-proliferation to normal cells. In addition, ETCH had a significant inhibitory effect on cell invasion without the cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, ETCH-induced apoptosis was mediated by increase in pro-apoptotic proteins including cleaved caspase-3 and p53, and by decrease in anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2 in ETCH-treated cancer cells. Taken together, this work firstly explored the antioxidant and anticancer activities of an Antarctic freshwater microalga, and ETCH could be a potential therapeutic candidate in the treatment of human cancer.

  9. Gynura procumbens Ethanolic Extract Promotes Lymphocyte Activation and Regulatory T Cell Generation In Vitro

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    Dinia Rizqi Dwijayanti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within organism directed to protect against invaded pathogen. Cellular and humoral immune system mediated by immunocompetent cells such as CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD4+ CD25+ T cells, and B220 cells play important role for maintaining immunological surveillance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of G. procumbens leaves (EEGL on the profile of CD4+ T cells, CD4+ CD25+ T cells, and B220+ cells. Splenic cells were isolated from BALB/c mice and cultured in RPMI1640 medium in the presence of EEGL. After 4 days of incubation, cells were harvested, stained with antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometer. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA with α= 0.05 and Tukey test using SPSS 16.0 for windows. The results showed that the extract of G. procumbens could increase proliferation of CD4+ CD62L- T cell, CD4+ CD25+ T cells, and B220+ cells compared to the control. Here, we showed the biological effect of G. procumbens as medicinal herb with immunomodulatory activity and the dose of 0.1 μg/ml and 1.0 μg/ml could promote T cell activation compared to the highest dose of 10 μg/ml. Interestingly, the dose of 10 μg/ml rather promote than inhibit B cell proliferation.

  10. Functional proteomics reveals the protective effects of saffron ethanolic extract on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

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    Pan, Tai-Long; Wu, Tung-Ho; Wang, Pei-Wen; Leu, Yann-Lii; Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Huang, Chun-Hsun; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2013-08-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a common clinical problem and ROS may be a contributing factor on IR injury. The current study evaluates the potential protective effect of saffron ethanol extract (SEE) in a rat model upon hepatic IR injury. Caspases 3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) results showed increased cell death in the IR samples; reversely, minor apoptosis was detected in the SEE/IR group. Pretreatment with SEE significantly restored the content of antioxidant enzymes (SOD1 and catalase) and remarkably inhibited the intracellular ROS concentration in terms of reducing p47phox translocation. Proteome tools revealed that 20 proteins were significantly modulated in protein intensity between IR and SEE/IR groups. Particularly, SEE administration could attenuate the carbonylation level of several chaperone proteins. Network analysis suggested that saffron extract could alleviate IR-induced ER stress and protein ubiquitination, which finally lead to cell apoptosis. Taken together, SEE could reduce hepatic IR injury through modulating protein oxidation and our results might help to develop novel therapeutic strategies against ROS-caused diseases. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Identification of the phenolic compounds contributing to antibacterial activity in ethanol extracts of Brazilian red propolis.

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    Inui, Saori; Hatano, Ai; Yoshino, Megumi; Hosoya, Takahiro; Shimamura, Yuko; Masuda, Shuichi; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Tazawa, Shigemi; Araki, Yoko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the quantity and antibacterial activity of the individual phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis. Quantitative analysis of the 12 phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis was carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The main phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis were found to be (3S)-vestitol (1), (3S)-neovestitol (2) and (6aS,11aS)-medicarpin (4) with quantities of 72.9, 66.9 and 30.8 mg g of ethanol extracts(- 1), respectively. Moreover, the antibacterial activities of each compound against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentrations. In particular, compound 4 exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity among all the assayed compounds against selected bacteria, indicating that 4 is the most active compound in Brazilian red propolis extracts. Thus, Brazilian red propolis may be used as food additives and pharmaceuticals to protect against bacteria.

  12. Orofacial antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae).

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    Silva, Juliane C; Macedo, Larissa A R O; Souza, Grasielly R; Oliveira-Junior, Raimundo G; Lima-Saraiva, Sarah R G; Lavor, Érica M; Silva, Mariana G; Souza, Marilia T S; Bonjardim, Leonardo R; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Mendes, Rosemairy L; Almeida, Jackson R G S

    Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae) is a species popularly known in Brazil as "araticum" and "pinha da Caatinga". We have evaluated the antinociceptive effects of A. vepretorum in formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced orofacial nociception in mice. Male Swiss mice were pretreated with either saline (p.o.), A. vepretorum ethanol extract (Av-EtOH 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.), or morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), before formalin, capsaicin, or glutamate was injected into the right upper lip. Pre-treatment with Av-EtOH at all doses produced a reduction in face-rubbing behavior induced by formalin in both phases, and these pre-treatments also produced a significant antinociceptive effect in the capsaicin and glutamate tests. Pre-treatment with naloxone (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) did not reverse the antinociceptive activity of the extract at the dose of 100 mg/kg in the first phase of this test. Our results suggest that Av-EtOH might be useful in the treatment of orofacial pain.

  13. Influence of the Toothpaste with Brazilian Ethanol Extract Propolis on the Oral Cavity Health

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    Dariusz Skaba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis-based therapeutic agents represent this potential for the development of new drugs in dental care. The aim of a clinical-cohort study was to determine the influence of application of toothpaste enriched with Brazilian extract of propolis (EEP on health status of oral cavity. Laboratory analysis was conducted in order to assess the chemical composition of EEP including total phenolic compounds, the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation scavenging activity, and FRAP assay. Clinical research involved two groups of subjects comprising 32 adult patients, with assessment based on the preliminary evaluation of the state of their marginal periodontium. The investigation of oral health indices API, OHI, and SBI and microbiological examination of oral microflora were also carried out. Results obtained indicated time-dependent microbial action of EEP at 50 mg/L concentration, with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The total decrease of API, OHI, and SBI mean values was observed. Hygienic preparations with 3% content of Brazilian ethanol extract of green propolis (EEP efficiently support removal of dental plaque and improve the state of marginal periodontium.

  14. Prophylactic effects of Clausena excavata Burum. f. leaf extract in ethanol-induced gastric ulcers

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    Albaayit, Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas; Abba, Yusuf; Abdullah, Rasedee; Abdullah, Noorlidah

    2016-01-01

    Clausena excavata is a natural herb with both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It has been used for decades in folkloric practice for the amelioration of various ailments. In this study, the gastroprotective activity of methanolic extract of C. excavata leaves (MECE) was determined in the Sprague Dawley rat ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. Rats were pretreated with a single dose of vehicle (5% Tween 20), 20 mg/mL omeprazole, 400 and 200 mg/mL of MECE dissolved in 5% Tween 20. Ulcer was induced with 5 mL/kg of ethanol and stomach tissue was obtained after 1 hour. Histological examination was done on hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and immunochemically stained gastric mucosal tissues. Prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and lipid peroxidation levels of the gastric tissue homogenates were also determined. Significantly (Pulcer areas, less intense edema, and fewer leukocytes’ infiltration were observed in MECE- and omeprazole-treated than in untreated gastric mucosa with ulcer. The gastric pH, mucus production, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase contents increased, while the lipid peroxidation content decreased as a result of MECE treatment. Bcl-2-associated X protein was underexpressed, while heat shock protein 70 and transforming growth factor-beta protein were overexpressed in the ulcerated gastric mucosa tissues treated with omeprazole and MECE. Similarly, there was a reduction in the levels of tumor necrotic factor-alpha and interleukin-6, while the level of interleukin-10 was increased. This study showed that the gastroprotective effect of MECE is achieved through inhibition of gastric juice secretion and ulcer lesion development, stimulation of mucus secretion, elevation of gastric pH, reduction of reactive oxygen species production, inhibition of apoptosis in the gastric mucosa, and modulation of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27366052

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract derived from Phaseolus angularis beans.

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    Yu, Tao; Ahn, Hyo Min; Shen, Ting; Yoon, Keejung; Jang, Hyun-Jae; Lee, Yong Jin; Yang, Hyun Mo; Kim, Jae Hun; Kim, Changhyuk; Han, Moon Hi; Cha, Sang-Hun; Kim, Tae Wong; Kim, Sun Young; Lee, Jaehwi; Cho, Jae Youl

    2011-10-11

    Phaseolus angularis Wight (adzuki bean) is an ethnopharmacologically well-known folk medicine that is prescribed for infection, edema, and inflammation of the joints, appendix, kidney and bladder in Korea, China and Japan. The anti-inflammatory effect of this plant and its associated molecular mechanisms will be investigated. The immunomodulatory activity of Phaseolus angularis ethanol extract (Pa-EE) in toll like receptor (TLR)-activated macrophages induced by ligands such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Poly (I:C), and pam3CSK was investigated by assessing nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG)E(2) levels. To identify which transcription factors such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB and their signaling enzymes can be targeted to Pa-EE, biochemical approaches including reporter gene assays, immunoprecipitation, kinase assays, and immunoblot analyses were also employed. Finally, whether Pa-EE was orally available, ethanol (EtOH)/hydrochloric acid (HCl)-induced gastritis model in mice was used. Pa-EE dose-dependently suppressed the release of PGE(2) and NO in LPS-, Poly(I:C)-, and pam3CSK-activated macrophages. Pa-EE strongly down-regulated LPS-induced mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Interestingly, Pa-EE markedly inhibited NF-κB, activator protein (AP)-1, and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) activation; further, according to direct kinase assays and immunoblot analyses, Pa-EE blocked the activation of the upstream signaling molecules spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), p38, and transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1). Finally, orally administered Pa-EE clearly ameliorated EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Our results suggest that Pa-EE can be further developed as a promising anti-inflammatory remedy because it targets multiple inflammatory signaling enzymes and transcription factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of Zingiber officinale ethanol extract on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity of Toxocara canis eggs.

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    El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) ethanol extract on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity Toxocara canis (T. canis) eggs. It was carried out both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro experiment, unembryonated T. canis eggs were incubated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL Z. officinale extract at 25 °C for 6, 12, and 24 h to assess the effect of Z. officinale on their viability and for two weeks to assess the effect of Z. officinale on their embryogenesis. In vivo experiment was performed to assess the effect of Z. officinale on infectivity of T. canis eggs. Treated embryonated eggs by Z. officinale extract at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL for 24 h were inoculated into mice and their livers were examined for the presence of T. canis larvae on the 7th day after infection and for histopathological evaluation at 14th day post-infection. Z. officinale showed a significant ovicidal activity on T. canis eggs. The best effect was observed with 100 mg/mL concentration after 24 h with an efficacy of 98.2%. However, the treated eggs by 25, 50 mg/mL of Z. officinale extract after 24 h showed ovicidal activity by 59.22 and 82.5% respectively. Moreover, this extract effectively inhibited T. canis eggs embryogenesis by 99.64% and caused their degeneration at the concentration of 100 mg/mL after 2 weeks of treatment. However, the lower concentrations, 25 and 50 mg/mL inhibited embryogenesis by 51.19 and 78.57% respectively. The effect of Z. officinale on the infectivity T. canis eggs was proven by the reduction of larvae recovery in the livers by 35.9, 62.8 and 89.5% in mice groups inoculated by Z. officinale treated eggs at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively. Histopathologically, the liver tissues of mice infected with Z. officinale treated eggs at the concentration of 100 mg/mL appeared healthy with slight degenerative changes of hepatocytes, opposite to that recorded in the infected mice with

  17. Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L.

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    Fiuza, Tatiana S; Silva, Paulo C; De Paula, José R; Tresvenzol, Leonice M F; Sabóia-Morais, Simone M T

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products.

  18. Pretreatment with ethanol as an alternative to improve steviol glycosides extraction and purification from a new variety of stevia.

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    Formigoni, Maysa; Milani, Paula Gimenez; da Silva Avíncola, Alexandre; Dos Santos, Vanessa Jorge; Benossi, Livia; Dacome, Antônio Sergio; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; da Costa, Silvio Claudio

    2018-02-15

    Leaves of a new variety of Stevia rebaudiana with a high content of rebaudioside A were pretreated with ethanol. The ethanolic extract showed high antioxidant potential and 39 compounds were identified, by UPLC/HRMS, among them one not yet mentioned in the literature for stevia leaves. From the in natura leaves and pretreated leaves, the conditions of aqueous extraction of steviol glycosides were investigated using response surface methodology. The aqueous extracts obtained were purified by ion exchange chromatography techniques and membrane separation methods. The recuperation of steviol glycosides was 4.02g for pretreated leaves and 2.20g for in natura leaves. The level of purity was, respectively, 87% and 84.8%. The results obtained demonstrate that pretreatment increases the yield and purity level of stevia sweeteners by the use of environmentally friendly methodologies and the final product presented acceptable sensory characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hypotensive Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaves and Fruit in Dexamethasone-Induced Hypertensive Rat.

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    Wigati, Dyan; Anwar, Khoerul; Sudarsono; Nugroho, Agung Endro

    2017-01-01

    The effect of ethanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia leaves and fruit on blood pressure in dexamethasone-induced hypertension rat was evaluated. Total phenolic content of Morinda citrifolia leaves ethanolic extract (MCLEE) and Morinda citrifolia leaves ethanolic extract (MCFEE) was 1.789 ± 0.116 and 1.677 ± 0.051 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram sample, respectively. Rutin level in MCLEE was 0.92 ± 0.19%, and scopoletin level in MCFEE was 0.46 ± 0.05%. MCLEE, MCFEE, and its extract combination significantly decreased the blood pressure of hypertensive rats. The combination group showed highest hypotensive activity by lowering systolic blood pressure by 16.71 ± 3.95%, diastolic blood pressure by 21.49 ± 7.90%, and mean arterial blood pressure by 19.58% ± 6.35. All extract treatments have not been able to repair or inhibit renal damage caused by dexamethasone induction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Optimization of process parameters for supercritical fluid extraction of cholesterol from whole milk powder using ethanol as co-solvent.

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    Dey Paul, Indira; Jayakumar, Chitra; Niwas Mishra, Hari

    2016-12-01

    In spite of being highly nutritious, the consumption of milk is hindered because of its high cholesterol content, which is responsible for numerous cardiac diseases. Supercritical carbon dioxide using ethanol as co-solvent was employed to extract cholesterol from whole milk powder (WMP). This study was undertaken to optimize the process parameters of supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE), viz. extraction temperature, pressure and volume of ethanol. The cholesterol content of WMP was quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. The impact of the extraction conditions on the fat content (FC), solubility index (SI) and lightness (L*) of the SCFE-treated WMP were also investigated. The process parameters were optimized using response surface methodology. About 46% reduction in cholesterol was achieved at the optimized conditions of 48 °C, 17 MPa and 31 mL co-solvent; flow rate of expanded CO2 , static time and dynamic time of extraction were 6 L min-1 , 10 min and 80 min respectively. The treated WMP retained its FC, SI, and L* at moderate limits of 183.67 g kg-1 , 96.3% and 96.90, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility of ethanol-modified SCFE of cholesterol from WMP with negligible changes in its physicochemical properties. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.